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Sample records for peripherally aromatic poss

  1. POSS Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuo; Ishiguro, Fumiyasu; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2010-12-22

    We report the synthesis of a stable room-temperature ionic liquid consisting of an octacarboxy polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) anion and an imidazolium cation. The introduction of the POSS moiety enhances the thermal stability and reduces the melting temperature. From an evaluation of the thermodynamic parameters during the melting, it was found that the rigidity and cubic structure of POSS can contribute to the enhancement of these thermal properties.

  2. Inhibition of peripheral aromatization in baboons by an enzyme-activated aromatase inhibitor (MDL 18,962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longcope, C.; Femino, A.; Johnston, J.O.

    1988-01-01

    The peripheral aromatization ([rho]BM) of androstenedione (A) and testosterone (T) was measured before and after administration of the aromatase inhibitor 10-(2 propynyl)estr-4-ene-3,17-dione (MDL-18,962) to five mature female baboons, Papio annubis. The measurements were made by infusing [3H]androstenedione/[14C]estrone or [3H]testosterone/[14C]estradiol for 3.5 h and collecting blood samples during the infusions and all urine for 96 h from the start of the infusion. Blood samples were analyzed for radioactivity as infused and product steroids, and the data were used to calculate MCRs. An aliquot of the pooled urine was analyzed for the glucuronides of estrone and estradiol and used to calculate the [rho]BM. MDL-18,962 was administered as a pulse in polyethylene glycol-400 (1-5 ml) either iv or via gastric tube 30 min before administration of the radiolabeled steroids. Control studies were done with and without polyethylene glycol-400 administration. When MDL-18,962 was given iv at 4 mg/kg, the aromatization of A was decreased 91.8 +/- 0.9% from the control value of 1.23 +/- 0.13% to 0.11 +/- 0.01%. At the same dose, aromatization of T was decreased 82.0 +/- 7.1%, from a control value of 0.20 +/- 0.03% to 0.037 +/- 0.018%. When MDL-18,962 was given iv at doses of 0.4, 0.1, 0.04, and 0.01 mg/kg, the values for aromatization of A were 0.16 +/- 0.03%, 0.18 +/- 0.06%, 0.37 +/- 11%, and 0.65 +/- 0.09%, respectively. The administration of MDL-18,962 via gastric tube at 4 mg/kg as a pulse decreased the aromatization of A from 1.35 +/- 0.06% to 0.43 +/- 0.12%, an inhibition of 67.2 +/- 10.7%. When administered via gastric tube daily for 5 days at 4 mg/kg, the aromatization of A fell from 1.35 +/- 0.06% to 0.063 +/- 0.003%, an inhibition of 84.4 +/- 0.5%

  3. The Specific Refractive Index Increments for POSS Polymers in Solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Largo, Sheryl

    2004-01-01

    Partial contents: Hybrid Inorganic/Organic Polymers, Introduction to POSS, Anatomy of a POSS Nanostructure, POSS Polymer Incorporation, POSS Styrene Monomer Synthesis, POSS Styrene Copolymer Synthesis, 1HNMR...

  4. Association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA damage in human volunteers during fire extinction exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maria Helena Guerra; Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Clausen, Per Axel

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated a number of biomarkers, associated with systemic inflammation as well as genotoxicity, in 53 young and healthy subjects participating in a course to become firefighters, while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE). The exposure period consisted of a 3-day training...... course where the subjects participated in various live-fire training exercises. The subjects were instructed to extinguish fires of either wood or wood with electrical cords and mattresses. The personal exposure was measured as dermal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations and urinary...

  5. Cytochrome P450 1B1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood cells and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Chinese coke oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Tsugane, Shoichiro [Epidemiology and Biostatistics Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute East, 6-5-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, 277-8577 Chiba (Japan); Yamano, Yuko; Kagawa, Jun [Tokyo Womens' Medical University, 8-1 Kawadacho, Shinjuku-ku, 162-8666 Tokyo (Japan); Pan, Guowei; Zhang, Shujuan [Liaoning Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control, 42-1 Jixian Street, 110005 Shenyang (China); Hara, Kunio [Institute for Science of Labour, 2-8-14 Miyamae-ku, 216-8501 Kawasaki (Japan); Ichiba, Masayoshi; Zhang, Jiusong [Saga Medical School, 5-1 Nabeshima, Saga-shi, 849-8501 Saga (Japan); Liu, Tiefu; Li, Landi [Angang Public Health and Anti-epidemic Station Lishan District, 23 Shengoushi Yutian Street, 114034 Anshan (China); Takahashi, Ken [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, 807-8555 Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2002-09-16

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is induced through the Ah receptor and is involved in the activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To determine the validity of a quantitative analysis of CYP1B1 mRNA in peripheral human blood cells for the estimation of PAH exposure, a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method was used to measure the relative levels of CYP1B1 mRNA in 37 Chinese coke oven workers and 13 control workers. A large inter-individual difference in the levels was observed. The average level of the CYP1B1 mRNA in workers at the top work site, where the PAH exposure level from the coke ovens was highest, was significantly higher than in workers at the middle site (P<0.01) or the controls (P=0.02). A non-significant positive correlation was found between the CYP1B1 mRNA levels and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (R=0.22, P=0.13), and a significant correlation between these mRNA levels and urinary cotinine (R=0.33, P=0.02). It was interesting that a significant positive correlation between CYP1B1 mRNA and 1-hydroxypyrene was observed in subjects with the Leu/Leu type of CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism (R=0.33, P=0.02, n=38) and a non-significant correlation in subjects with the Leu/Val and Val/Val types (R=-0.36, P=0.25, n=12), although the number of subjects in this strata analysis was small. Our preliminary study suggests that PAH exposure in coke ovens and smoking maybe associated with CYP1B1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood cells although mRNA is generally unstable and could be expressed following exposure to other agents.

  6. Polybenzoxazine/Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Gamal Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The organic/inorganic hybrid materials from polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS, inorganic nanoparticles and polybenzoxazine (PBZ have received much interesting recently due to their excellent thermal and mechanical properties, flame retardance, low dielectric constant, well-defined inorganic framework at nanosized scale level, and higher performance relative to those of non-hybrid PBZs. This review describes the synthesis, dielectric constants, and thermal, rheological, and mechanical properties of covalently bonded mono- and multifunctionalized benzoxazine POSS hybrids, other functionalized benzoxazine POSS derivatives, and non-covalently (hydrogen bonded benzoxazine POSS composites.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reciprocally regulate IL-22 and IL-17 cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from both healthy and asthmatic subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coline Plé

    Full Text Available Pollution, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH, may contribute to increased prevalence of asthma. PAH can bind to the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR, a transcription factor involved in Th17/Th22 type polarization. These cells produce IL17A and IL-22, which allow neutrophil recruitment, airway smooth muscle proliferation and tissue repair and remodeling. Increased IL-17 and IL-22 productions have been associated with asthma. We hypothesized that PAH might affect, through their effects on AhR, IL-17 and IL-22 production in allergic asthmatics. Activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from 16 nonallergic nonasthmatic (NA and 16 intermittent allergic asthmatic (AA subjects were incubated with PAH, and IL-17 and IL-22 productions were assessed. At baseline, activated PBMCs from AA exhibited an increased IL-17/IL-22 profile compared with NA subjects. Diesel exhaust particle (DEP-PAH and Benzo[a]Pyrene (B[a]P stimulation further increased IL-22 but decreased IL-17A production in both groups. The PAH-induced IL-22 levels in asthmatic patients were significantly higher than in healthy subjects. Among PBMCs, PAH-induced IL-22 expression originated principally from single IL-22- but not from IL-17- expressing CD4 T cells. The Th17 transcription factors RORA and RORC were down regulated, whereas AhR target gene CYP1A1 was upregulated. IL-22 induction by DEP-PAH was mainly dependent upon AhR whereas IL-22 induction by B[a]P was dependent upon activation of PI3K and JNK. Altogether, these data suggest that DEP-PAH and B[a]P may contribute to increased IL22 production in both healthy and asthmatic subjects through mechanisms involving both AhR -dependent and -independent pathways.

  8. Effect of Lathyrus sativus and vitamin C on the status of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase and dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase-IV in the central and peripheral tissues and serum of guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.K.; Sarker, M.A.H.

    1992-05-01

    Studies on the effect of Lathyrus Sativus seeds (LLS) on aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and on dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase-IV (DAP-IV) were carried out in the central and peripheral tissues and serum of LSS-treated and LSS plus vitamin C-treated guinea pigs. The feeding of LSS for 35 days decreased the AADC activity significantly in the brain and peripheral tissues, but the activity was recovered to normal level in the most tissues when vitamin C was added with the LSS. DAP-IV activity decreased in the peripheral tissues when treated with LSS, but the vitamin C administration with LSS did not recover the enzyme activity. The DAP-IV activity did not decrease significantly in any of the brain tissues of the LSS-treated group. (author). 18 refs, 2 tabs

  9. Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) Styrene Macromers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haddad, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    .... Cyclohexyl, cyclopentyl and isobutyl substituted POSS-stryenes (at 30 weight % loadings) undergo free radical bulk polymerizations with styrene to produce polymers with an enhanced modulus above the glass transition temperature...

  10. THE EFFECT OF ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ON DNA ADDUCTION AND CYTOGENETIC DAMAGE IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES OF MICE AND RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were designed to investigate how the route of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mice and rats affects the induction of cytogenetic endpoints and DNA adduction. Both mice and rats were exposed to 100 mg/kg of benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A), benzo[b]fl...

  11. Aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roder, M.

    1985-01-01

    Papers dealing with radiolysis of aromatic hydrocarbons of different composition (from benzene to terphenyls and hydrocarbons with condensed rings) as well as their mixtures (with alkanes, alkenes, other aromatic hydrocarbons) are reviewed. High radiation stability of aromatic hydrocarbons in condensed phases associated with peculiarities of molecular structure of compounds is underlined. Mechanisms of radiolytic processes, vaues of product yields are considered

  12. Peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peripheral; Neuritis - peripheral; Nerve disease; Polyneuropathy; Chronic pain - peripheral neuropathy ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 107. Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  13. Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS)-Containing Polymer Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayandele, Ebunoluwa; Sarkar, Biswajit; Alexandridis, Paschalis

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid materials with superior structural and functional properties can be obtained by incorporating nanofillers into polymer matrices. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles have attracted much attention recently due to their nanometer size, the ease of which these particles can be incorporated into polymeric materials and the unique capability to reinforce polymers. We review here the state of POSS-containing polymer nanocomposites. We discuss the influence of the incorporation of POSS into polymer matrices via chemical cross-linking or physical blending on the structure of nanocomposites, as affected by surface functional groups, and the POSS concentration. PMID:28348318

  14. Determination of grafting conversion degree in PS/PS-graft-POSS/POSS hybrid nanocomposites obtained through reactive processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Otavio; Repenning, Gustavo B.; Mauler, Raquel S.; Oliveira, Ricardo V.B.; Canto, Leonardo B.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites of polystyrene (PS) and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) - PS/PS-graft-POSS/POSS - with different grafting degrees were prepared by reactive melt processing using dicumyl peroxide (DCP) as initiator in the presence or absence of styrene monomer as radical transfer agent. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) using triple-detector and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR 1 H) analyses were used together to determine the conversion degree of PS-graft-POSS as a function of the reactive processing conditions adopted. GPC was employed to evaluate the effects of grafting (PS-graft-POSS) and PS chains degradation (β scission) that occur simultaneously during processing on the variation of average molecular masses and distributions for each PS/POSS sample. PS/POSS systems processed with styrene showed higher weight average molecular weights (M w ) and lower polydispersity indexes (M w /M n ), as a result of higher grafting (PS-graft-POSS) conversion (28-40%) and lower PS chain degradation level, as compared to PS/POSS systems processed without styrene in which the degree of grafting conversion was around 25-28%. (author)

  15. Preparation and water desalination properties of POSS-polyamide nanocomposite reverse osmosis membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Jintang

    2015-01-01

    The application of nanotechnology to thin-film nanocomposites (TFN) is a new route to enhance membrane performance in water desalination. Here, the potential of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) as the nanofiller in polyamide (PA) reverse osmosis membranes was systematically investigated. Four POSS materials (P-8Phenyl, P-8NH3Cl, P-8NH2 and P-1NH2) were introduced into the selective layer by physical blending or chemical fixation during standard interfacial polymerization. Water flux and NaCl rejection were measured with 2000ppm NaCl solution under 15.5bar pressure, and SEM and TEM images of membrane selective layers were obtained. Membranes prepared without POSS showed water flux of 20.0±0.5L/m2·h and salt rejection of 98.0±0.2%. TFN membranes prepared with 0.4% (w/v) P-8Phenyl in the organic phase showed a 65% increase in water flux compared to the pristine PA membrane while maintaining high salt rejection. The selective layer of this membrane maintained the typical ridge-and-valley structure of aromatic PA. Results with P-8NH3Cl and P-8NH2 added to the organic phase were similar. TFN membranes prepared with monoamine P-1NH2 in the organic phase had poor water flux of 3.2L/m2·h, a smooth and more hydrophobic surface, and a much thicker (~400nm) selective layer. One of the four POSS compounds studied, P-8NH3Cl, is sufficiently soluble in water for incorporation into the selective layer via the aqueous phase. Membranes were prepared with P-8NH3Cl in the aqueous phase at varying reaction time, loading, and additive (triethylamine) concentration. With these parameters optimized, water flux increased to 35.4L/m2·h.

  16. Rheological Behavior of Entangled Polystyrene-Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) Copolymer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Jian; Mather, Patrick T; Haddad, Timothy S; Kim, Gyeong-Man

    2006-01-01

    ...: random copolymers of polystyrene (PS) and styryl-based polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS), R7(Si8O12)(C6H4CH=CH2), with R = isobutyl (iBu). A series of styrene-styryl POSS random copolymers with 0, 6, 15, 30, 50 wt...

  17. Effect of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) Substituents on the Rheological Behavior in Butyl Methacrylate/POSS Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-27

    was repeated twice, dissolving the product in chloroform and diethyl ether, respectively. The polymer was dried at 60 °C under vacuum overnight...the Tg of the i Bu remains the same. Table 1. Tg for Butyl Methacrylate-co- Propyl Methacryl POSS Polymers with Various POSS Substituents

  18. Chemical modification of hybrid nanostructures (POSS for application as lubricant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Luvison

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS are hybrid structures type RSiO15n, with n organic groups R. These molecules can be easily functionalized by simply changing the chemical constitution of the organic groups. In this work, chemical modification of POSS-NH2 was performed by amidation reaction with butyric acid at elevated temperature, 160°C. The formation of the amide group is evinced by the appearance of NH angular deformation band at 1540 cm-1 in the FTIR spectra. Approximately 40% of the amino groups reacted, according to titration results. The formation of the amide groups resulted in a shift of the glass transition temperature (Tg from -36.9°C to -25.6°C for the modified-POSS sample. Both POSS-NH2 and modified-POSS samples exhibited similar thermal degradation pattern. Analysis of the pairs distribution function (PDF has determined that the hybrid nanoparticles are separated by a periodic distance of approximately 1.32 nm. POSS-NH2 and modified-POSS exhibit newtonian behavior, which will range from 10-1 s-1 and 1000 s-1. The viscosity decreased with increasing temperature, a typical behavior of liquid lubricants.

  19. Polymer Nanocomposites Designed with Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (POSS) and Plastics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haddad, Timothy; Mabry, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    .... These applications include space-survivable coatings and fire-resistant materials. Due to their physical size, POSS incorporation in polymers generally serves to reduce chain mobility, thus affecting both thermal and mechanical properties...

  20. Aromatic graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, D. K., E-mail: gour.netai@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Material Science Engineering, National Institute of Technology Durgapur-713209, West Bengal (India); Sahoo, S., E-mail: sukadevsahoo@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Durgapur-713209, West Bengal (India)

    2016-04-13

    In recent years graphene attracts the scientific and engineering communities due to its outstanding electronic, thermal, mechanical and optical properties and many potential applications. Recently, Popov et al. [1] have studied the properties of graphene and proved that it is aromatic but without fragrance. In this paper, we present a theory to prepare graphene with fragrance. This can be used as scented pencils, perfumes, room and car fresheners, cosmetics and many other useful household substances.

  1. Aromatic graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, D. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years graphene attracts the scientific and engineering communities due to its outstanding electronic, thermal, mechanical and optical properties and many potential applications. Recently, Popov et al. [1] have studied the properties of graphene and proved that it is aromatic but without fragrance. In this paper, we present a theory to prepare graphene with fragrance. This can be used as scented pencils, perfumes, room and car fresheners, cosmetics and many other useful household substances.

  2. Coating of Carbon Fiber with Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS to Enhance Mechanical Properties and Durability of Carbon/Vinyl Ester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujib Khan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Our continuing quest to improve the performance of polymer composites under moist and saltwater environments has gained momentum in recent years with the reinforcement of inorganic nanoparticles into the polymer. The key to mitigate degradation of composites under such environments is to maintain the integrity of the fiber/matrix (F/M interface. In this study, the F/M interface of carbon/vinyl ester composites has been modified by coating the carbon fiber with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS. POSS is a nanostructured inorganic-organic hybrid particle with a cubic structure having silicon atoms at the core and linked to oxygen atoms. The advantage of using POSS is that the silicon atoms can be linked to a substituent that can be almost any chemical group known in organic chemistry. Cubic silica cores are ‘hard particles’ and are about 0.53 nm in diameter. The peripheral organic unit is a sphere of about 1–3 nm in diameter. Further, cubic structure of POSS remains intact during the polymerization process and therefore with appropriate functional groups, if installed on the fiber surface, would provide a stable and strong F/M interface. Two POSS systems with two different functional groups; namely, octaisobutyl and trisilanolphenyl have been investigated. A set of chemical and mechanical procedures has been developed to coat carbon fibers with POSS, and to fabricate layered composites with vinyl ester resin. Interlaminar shear and low velocity impact tests have indicated around 17–38% improvement in mechanical properties with respect to control samples made without the POSS coating. Saltwater and hygrothermal tests at various environmental conditions have revealed that coating with POSS reduces water absorption by 20–30% and retains the composite properties.

  3. Retention in STEM: Understanding the Effectiveness of Science Posse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsoe, Kimberly

    One of the major areas of debate in higher education is how to best support underrepresented racial minority students in their study of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math. In 2008, Brandeis University began a new program in conjunction with the Posse Foundation for students interested in studying science at the college-level. The research used a mixed methods design. A detailed quantitative analysis was conducted to understand how being part of Science Posse impacted the probability of doing well in initial science classes, influenced perceptions of the difficulty of studying science, and predicted the probability of majoring in STEM at Brandeis. The qualitative data was drawn from 89 student interviews, including 38 Science Posse Scholars, 24 students from backgrounds similar to the Scholars, and 25 students from well-resourced families. The qualitative analysis demonstrated how students had been exposed to the sciences prior to enrollment, how they navigated the sciences at Brandeis, and how they demonstrated resilience when science becomes challenging. This research study had four key findings. The first was in the quantitative analysis which demonstrated that Science Posse Scholars experience strong feelings of doubt about their academic abilities; based on previous research, this should have resulted in their not declaring majors in STEM disciplines. Instead, Science Posse Scholars were more likely to earn a B+ or above in their entry level science courses and declare a major in a STEM discipline, even when factors such as math and verbal SAT scores were included in the analysis. The second finding was in the qualitative analysis, which demonstrated that the cohort model in which Science Posse Scholars participate was instrumental to their success. The third finding was that students who attended academically less rigorous high schools could succeed in the sciences at a highly selective research institution such as Brandeis without academic remediation

  4. The Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Excess Peripheral H Atoms (H(sub n)-PAHs) and their Relation to the 3.4 and 6.9 Micrometer PAH Emission Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Bernstein, Max P.; Materese, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    A population of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and related materials are thought to be responsible for the family of infrared emission features that are seen towards a wide variety of astrophysical environments. A potentially important subclass of these materials are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons whose edges contain excess H atoms (H(sub n)-PAHs). While it has been suggested that this type of compound may be present in the interstellar population, it has been difficult to properly assess this possibility because of a lack of suitable infrared laboratory spectra to assist with analysis of the astronomical data. We present the 4000-500 cm(exp -1) (2.5-20 micrometers) infrared spectra of 23 H(sub n)-PAHs and related molecules isolated in argon matrices, under conditions suitable for use in the interpretation of astronomical data. The spectra of molecules with mixed aromatic and aliphatic domains show unique characteristics that distinguish them from their fully aromatic PAH equivalents. We discuss the changes to the spectra of these types of molecules as they transition from fully aromatic to fully aliphatic forms. The implications for the interpretation of astronomical spectra are discussed with specific emphasis on the 3.4 and 6.9 micrometer features. Laboratory data is compared with emission spectra from IRAS 21282+5050, an object with normal PAH emission features, in addition to IRAS 22272+5435 and IRAS 0496+3429, two protoplanetary nebulae with abnormally large 3.4 micrometer features. We show that 'normal' PAH emission objects contain relatively few H(sub n)-PAHs in their emitter populations, but less evolved protoplanetary nebulae may contain significant abundances of these molecules.

  5. Electrical and thermomechanical properties of epoxy-POSS nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boček, J.; Matějka, Libor; Mentlík, V.; Trnka, P.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2011), s. 861-872 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : POSS * epoxy nanocomposite * electrical/dielectrical properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.739, year: 2011

  6. A novel POSS-coated quantum dot for biological application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizvi SB

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarwat B Rizvi,1 Lara Yildirimer,1 Shirin Ghaderi,1 Bala Ramesh,1 Alexander M Seifalian,1,2 Mo Keshtgar1,21UCL Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, United Kingdom; 2Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust Hospital, London, United KingdomAbstract: Quantum dots (QDs are fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals that have the potential for major advancements in the field of nanomedicine through their unique photophysical properties. They can potentially be used as fluorescent probes for various biomedical imaging applications, including cancer localization, detection of micrometastasis, image guided surgery, and targeted drug delivery. Their main limitation is toxicity, which requires a biologically compatible surface coating to shield the toxic core from the surrounding environment. However, this leads to an increase in QD size that may lead to problems of excretion and systemic sequestration. We describe a one pot synthesis, characterization, and in vitro cytotoxicity of a novel polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS-coated CdTe-cored QD using mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA and D-cysteine as stabilizing agents. Characterization was performed using transmission electron microscopy Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and photoluminescence studies. POSS-coated QDs demonstrated high colloidal stability and enhanced photostability on high degrees of ultraviolet (UV excitation compared to QDs coated with MSA and D-cysteine alone (P value < 0.05. In vitro toxicity studies showed that both POSS and MSA-QDs were significantly less toxic than ionized salts of Cd+2 and Te-2. Confocal microscopy confirmed high brightness of POSS-QDs in cells at both 1 and 24 hours, indicating that these QDs are rapidly taken up by cells and remain photostable in a biological environment. We therefore conclude that a POSS coating confers biological compatibility, photostability, and colloidal

  7. Rheological Investigation of Entangled Hybrid Copolymers of Polystyrene (PS) With Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxane (POSS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Jian; Haddad, Timothy S; Mather, Patrick T

    2004-01-01

    ...) were investigated with variation of isobutyl (iBu)-POSS weight percentage. The incorporation of POSS-group significantly decreases the glass transition temperature and the rubbery plateau modulus...

  8. Peripheral reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.

    1978-01-01

    Peripheral collisions, that is, collisions involving a small amount of overlap of nuclear matter, are discussed including inclusive interactions, the magnitude of the peripheral cross section, fragmentation, a compilation of experiments and available data, limiting fragmentation, factorization, some models, fragment momentum distributions, and future research directions

  9. Structure-properties relationships of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS filled PS nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Schwab

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS additivated polystyrene (PS based nanocomposites were prepared by melt processing and the structure-properties relationships of the POSS-PS systems were compared to those of the neat PS. In order to investigate the effect of these structural parameters on the final properties of the polymer nanocomposites, five different kinds of POSS samples were used, in particular, POSS with different inorganic cage and with different organic pendent groups. The rheological investigation suggests clearly that the POSS acts as a plasticizer and that the processability of the PS was positively modified. The affinity between the POSS samples and the PS matrix was estimated by the calculated theoretical solubility parameters, considering the Hoy’s method and by morphology analysis. Minor difference between the solubility parameter of POSS and the matrix means better compatibility and no aggregation tendency. Furthermore, the POSS loading leads to a decrease of the rigidity, of the glass transition temperature and of the damping factor of the nanocomposite systems. The loading of different POSS molecules with open cage leads to a more pronounced effect on all the investigated properties that the loading of the POSS molecules with closed cage. Moreover, the melt properties are significantly influenced by the type of inorganic framework, by the type of the pendent organic groups and by the interaction between the POSS organic groups and the host matrix, while, the solid state properties appears to be influenced more by the kind of cage.

  10. PES/POSS Soluble Veils as Advanced Modifiers for Multifunctional Fiber Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Cicala

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Novel polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS-filled thermoplastic electrospun veils were used to tailor the properties of the interlaminar region of epoxy-based composites. The veils were designed to be soluble upon curing in the epoxy matrix, so that POSS could be released within the interlaminar region. Three different POSS contents, varying from 1 to 10 wt %, were tested while the percentage of coPolyethersulphone (coPES dissolved in the epoxy resin was kept to a fixed value of 10 wt %. Good quality veils could be obtained at up to 10 wt % of POSS addition, with the nanofibers’ diameters varying from 861 nm for the coPES to 428 nm upon POSS addition. The feasibility of the soluble veils to disperse POSS in the interlaminar region was proved, and the effect of POSS on phase morphology and viscoelastic properties studied. POSS was demonstrated to significantly affect the morphology and viscoelastic properties of epoxy composites, especially for the percentages 1% and 5%, which enabled the composites to avoid POSS segregates occurring. A dynamic mechanical analysis showed a significant improvement to the storage modulus, and a shift of more than 30 °C due to the POSS cages hindering the motion of the molecular chains and network junctions.

  11. Aromater i drikkevand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeland, B. A.; Hansen, A. B.

    DMU har den 10. Juni 1997 afholdt en præstationsprøvning: Aromater i drikkevand. Der deltog 21 laboratorier i præstationsprøvningen. Prøvningen omfattede 6 vandige prøver og 6 ampuller indeholdende 6 aromater. Laboratorierne spikede de tilsendte vandprøver med indholdet fra ampullerne...

  12. Determination of Mechanical and Surface Properties of Semicrystalline Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsequioxane (POSS) Nanocomposites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moody, Laura E; Marchant, Darrell; Grabow, Wade W; Lee, Andre Y; Mabry, Joseph M

    2005-01-01

    .... This study examines the ability of POSS to improve the mechanical and surface properties of three semicrystalline polymers, fluorinated ethylene-propylene (FEP), poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF...

  13. Sylvia Leser orientadora: um muito de possível

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliana de Barros Conde Rodrigues

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O “muito de possível” − epistemológico, ético, estético e político − implicado na relação com Sylvia Leser como orientadora é sugerido no texto por meio do relato de memórias da autora, bem como da transcrição de parte de sua tese de doutorado intitulada “No rastro dos ‘cavalos do diabo': memória e história para uma reinvenção de percursos do paradigma do grupalismo-institucionalismo no Brasil”, defendida em 2002, no Instituto de Psicologia da USP. Nesse intuito, foi utilizado um andamento de inspiração musical − atrever-se, conviver, escrever, ouvir e ler, prolongar −, capaz de se aproximar minimamente da oralidade, marca singular do vínculo de afeto-pensamento entre orientador e orientando.

  14. An anti-CD34 antibody-functionalized clinical-grade POSS-PCU nanocomposite polymer for cardiovascular stent coating applications: a preliminary assessment of endothelial progenitor cell capture and hemocompatibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Tan

    Full Text Available In situ endothelialization of cardiovascular implants has emerged in recent years as an attractive means of targeting the persistent problems of thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of immobilizing anti-CD34 antibodies onto a POSS-PCU nanocomposite polymer surface to sequester endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs from human blood, and to characterize the surface properties and hemocompatibility of this surface. Amine-functionalized fumed silica was used to covalently conjugate anti-CD34 to the polymer surface. Water contact angle, fluorescence microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used for surface characterization. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were seeded on modified and pristine POSS-PCU polymer films. After 7 days, adhered cells were immunostained for the expression of EPC and endothelial cell markers, and assessed for the formation of EPC colonies. Hemocompatibility was assessed by thromboelastography, and platelet activation and adhesion assays. The number of EPC colonies formed on anti-CD34-coated POSS-PCU surfaces was not significantly higher than that of POSS-PCU (5.0±1.0 vs. 1.7±0.6, p>0.05. However, antibody conjugation significantly improved hemocompatibility, as seen from the prolonged reaction and clotting times, decreased angle and maximum amplitude (p<0.05, as well as decreased platelet adhesion (76.8±7.8 vs. 8.4±0.7, p<0.05 and activation. Here, we demonstrate that POSS-PCU surface immobilized anti-CD34 antibodies selectively captured CD34+ cells from peripheral blood, although only a minority of these were EPCs. Nevertheless, antibody conjugation significantly improves the hemocompatibility of POSS-PCU, and should therefore continue to be explored in combination with other strategies to improve the specificity of EPC capture to promote in situ endothelialization.

  15. Rheological Behavior of Entangled Polystyrene-Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) Copolymer (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Jian; Mather, Patrick T; Haddad, Timothy S; Kim, Gyeong-Man

    2006-01-01

    ...: random copolymers of polystyrene (PS) and styryl-based polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS), R7(Si8O12)(C6H4CH=CH2), with R = isobutyl (iBu). A series of styrene-styryl POSS random copolymers with 0, 6, 15, 30, 50 wt...

  16. Novel elastomer dye-functionalised POSS nanocomposites: Enhanced colourimetric, thermomechanical and thermal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Shanks

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites consisting of poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene (SBS and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS were prepared using a solvent dispersion method. POSS molecules were functionalised with two dichlorotriazine reactive dyes (CI Reactive Blue 4, CI Reactive Red 2 prior to compounding. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed functionalisation.Scanning electron microscopy revealed an increase in filler aggregation with concentration, with preferential phase selectivity. Ultraviolet spectroscopy and colourimetry confirmed colour uniformity and suggested that colour intensity could be controlled. Functionalised POSS improved thermal stability by imparting restrictions on SBS chain motions. Tensile stress-strain analysis revealed an increase in modulus with filler concentration, while creep deformation decreased and permanent strain increased with POSS content. Storage modulus, loss modulus and glass transition temperature increased with filler content due to effective SBS-POSS interaction. Nanocomposite properties were influenced by the phase the filler was dispersed throughout and the structure of the dye chromophore.

  17. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF MMA/1-PROPYLMETHACRYLATE-POSS COPOLYMER WITH ATOM TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He-xin Zhang; Ho-young Lee; Young-jun Shin; Dong-ho Lee; Seok Kyun Noh

    2008-01-01

    The methyl methacrylate(MMA)/1-propylmethacrylate-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane(PM-POSS) copolymers were synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization with CuBr as catalyst.The unreacted PM-POSS monomer could be removed completely by washing the copolymerization product with n-hexane.The copolymers were characterized with 1H-NMR,X-ray diffraction,difierential scanning calorimetry,thermogravimetric analysis and gel permeatlon chromatography.With increasing PM-POSS feed ratio.the total conversion increased while the glass transition temperatures of copolymer decreased.The thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the thermal stability of copolymer improved slightly with PM-POSS addition.The molecular weight of copolymers increased with incorporation of PM-POSS.

  18. É possível psicanálise breve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodor S. Lowenkron

    Full Text Available A psicoterapia psicanalítica de tempo delimitado é aqui definida como um tratamento cujo prazo de duração é ajustado previamente entre o psicoterapeuta (ou analista e o sujeito que busca ajuda para dar conta de um sofrimento psíquico que se manifesta em uma área demarcável da vida do sujeito e cuja origem possa ser atribuída a um conflito inconsciente. A teoria psicanalítica fornece os modelos gerais que fundamentam o processo, e a cura se dá mediante a perlaboração dos conflitos inconscientes, com possíveis repercussões sobre o sujeito como um todo. Teoricamente, essa abordagem terapêutica fundamenta-se nas concepções de Freud, Ferenczi e das pesquisas realizadas na Clínica Tavistock, principalmente, através do experimento de Balint. Essa comunicação foi estimulada não só pelos resultados de pesquisas desenvolvidas pelo autor no campo da psicoterapia psicanalítica de tempo delimitado, mas também pela aprovação, por Resolução do Ministério da Saúde, da cobertura obrigatória pelos planos e seguros privados de saúde para a psicoterapia breve de crise com duração de até 12 sessões. Esse trabalho tem o objetivo de promover o debate em nosso meio sobre o valor da abordagem psicanalítica breve. Para tanto, além da apresentação de uma experiência clínica realizada com uma paciente durante cinco entrevistas psicoterápicas e mais duas entrevistas de follow-up, cerca de seis e 12 meses após o término do tratamento, discutem-se os fundamentos da ampliação do espaço psicanalítico tomando em consideração o posicionamento de Freud e as críticas teóricas e práticas, expostas por Birman, sobre o que pode ser denominado espaço psicanalítico. Nesse trabalho destaca-se ainda a importância de que, ao final da terapia, deve-se fazer uma avaliação dos resultados alcançados e, se o trabalho realizado não for considerado suficiente para a elaboração das tensões conflitivas que deram origem às manifesta

  19. Correlation between crystallization behaviour and interfacial interactions in plasticized PLA/POSS nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodal, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmet.kodal@kocaeli.edu.tr; Şirin, Hümeyra; Özkoç, Güralp, E-mail: guralp.ozkoc@kocaeli.edu.tr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kocaeli University, 41380, Kocaeli Turkey (Turkey)

    2016-03-09

    In this study, the correlation between crystallization behavior and surface chemistry of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) for plasticized poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/POSS nanocomposites was investigated. Four different kinds of POSS particles having different chemical structures were used. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, 8000 g/mol) was utilized as the plasticiser. The nanocomposites were melt-compounded in an Xplore Instruments 15 cc twin screw microcompounder at 180°C barrel temperature and 100 rpm screw speed. Non-isothermal crystallization behaviour of PLA/PEG/POSS nanocomposites were evaluated from common kinetic models such as Avrami and Avrami-Ozawa and Kissinger by using the thermal data obtained from differantial scanning calorimetry (DSC). A polarized optical microscope (POM) equipped with a hot-stage was used to examine the morphology during the crystal growth. In order to investigate the interfacial interactions between POSS particles and plasticized PLA, thermodynamic work of adhesion approach was adopted using the experimentally determined surface energies. A strong correlation was obtained between interfacial chemistry and the nucleation rate in plasticized PLA/POSS nanocomposites. It was found that the polar interactions were the dominating factor which determines the nucleation activity of the POSS particles.

  20. A study on resistance to ultraviolet radiation of POSS-TiO2/epoxy nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dequn; Qin, Wei; Wu, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a severe space environmental factor, which is harmful to the durability of the polymeric materials of the spacecraft. For this reason, a novel POSS-TiO2/EP nanocomposite was synthesized by incorporating the POSS-TiO2 organic-inorganic hybrid into the epoxy (EP) resin. The effects of UV radiation on EP resin and on POSS-TiO2/EP nanocomposites were investigated in a ground-based simulator that simulates space radiation conditions. Compared with EP resin, the value of bend strength for 5.0 wt% POSS-TiO2/EP varied in a small range before and after UV radiation. Meanwhile, a typical tough feature was observed from the SEM photo for POSS-TiO2/EP nanocomposite after UV exposure. This result indicated that the POSS-TiO2/EP exhibited the excellent properties of anti-space ultraviolet radiation. The thermo gravimetric (TG) results showed that the addition of POSS-TiO2 improved the thermal-stability of EP resin matrix. The synthesized nanocomposites in this work could be used in the satellites to enhance their adaptability to the space environment and extend their service life.

  1. Correlation between crystallization behaviour and interfacial interactions in plasticized PLA/POSS nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodal, Mehmet; Şirin, Hümeyra; Özkoç, Güralp

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the correlation between crystallization behavior and surface chemistry of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) for plasticized poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/POSS nanocomposites was investigated. Four different kinds of POSS particles having different chemical structures were used. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, 8000 g/mol) was utilized as the plasticiser. The nanocomposites were melt-compounded in an Xplore Instruments 15 cc twin screw microcompounder at 180°C barrel temperature and 100 rpm screw speed. Non-isothermal crystallization behaviour of PLA/PEG/POSS nanocomposites were evaluated from common kinetic models such as Avrami and Avrami-Ozawa and Kissinger by using the thermal data obtained from differantial scanning calorimetry (DSC). A polarized optical microscope (POM) equipped with a hot-stage was used to examine the morphology during the crystal growth. In order to investigate the interfacial interactions between POSS particles and plasticized PLA, thermodynamic work of adhesion approach was adopted using the experimentally determined surface energies. A strong correlation was obtained between interfacial chemistry and the nucleation rate in plasticized PLA/POSS nanocomposites. It was found that the polar interactions were the dominating factor which determines the nucleation activity of the POSS particles.

  2. Tadpole-Shaped POSS-Based Copolymers and the Aggregation Behavior at Air/Water Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aggregation behavior of three tadpole-shaped Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS based block copolymers using different blocks poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA and poly(trifluoroethyl methacrylate (PTFEMA with different block sequence and ratio (POSS-PTFEMA161-b-PMMA236, POSS-PMMA277-b-PTFEMA130, and POSS-PMMA466-b-PTFEMA172 was investigated on the air-water interface. The interfacial rheology of three block copolymers was studied by surface pressure isotherm, compression modulus measurements, and compression and expansion hysteresis analysis on the Langmuir trough. The block sequence and ratio play a great role in self-assembly behavior at the interface. Based on surface pressure isotherm analysis, a thin film with low elasticity was achieved for the POSS-PTFEMA161-b-PMMA236. Moreover, for the block copolymer with same segment sequence (POSS-PMMA2-b-PTFEMA, the thin film compression capability is increased with increasing the PMMA ratio. The morphology of the deposited LB thin film was illustrated by atomic force microscopy (AFM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. We observed that a thin film was composed by crater-shaped quasi-2D micelles for POSS-PTFEMA-b-PMMA, while it was proved that only flaky texture was observed for both POSS-PMMA277-b-PTFEMA130 and POSS-PMMA466-b-PTFEMA172. The thickness and area of flaky aggregates were greatly related to PMMA ratio. The different interface self-assembly structure evolution was proposed based on the interfacial rheology and thin film morphology studies.

  3. Self-Evident Truths: Why We Can Stop Worrying and Love the Posse Comitatus Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gentry, Chris R

    2008-01-01

    This paper asserts that U.S. Government policy prohibiting active participation of the Armed Forces in civilian law enforcement operations, codified in the Posse Comitatus Act of 1878, should remain intact...

  4. Preparation of flexible PLA/PEG-POSS nanocomposites by melt blending and radiation crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chang-Hee; Hwang, In-Tae; Jung, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jae-Hak

    2014-01-01

    In this study, poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (PEG-POSS) nanocomposites with or without triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) were investigated by melt blending and electron beam irradiation to enhance the flexibility of PLA. Based on the results of the crosslinking degree measurements, the PLA/PEG-POSS nanocomposites were crosslinked by electron beam irradiation in the presence of triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) and their crosslinking degree reached up to 80% based on the absorbed dose and their compositions. From the results of the FE-SEM and EDX Si-mapping, the crosslinked PLA/PEG-POSS nanocomposites were homogenous without a micro-phase separation or radiation-induced morphological change. Based on the results of the tensile test, the PLA/PEG-POSS nanocomposites containing 15 wt% PEG-POSS exhibited the highest flexibility, and their tensile strength showed a maximum value of 44.5 MPa after electron beam irradiation at an absorbed dose of 100 kGy in the presence of TAIC, which is comparable to non-biodegradable polypropylene. The results of the dynamic mechanical analysis revealed that the crosslinked PLA/PEG-POSS nanocomposites exhibited a higher thermal resistance above their melting temperature in comparison to that of the neat PLA, although their glass transition temperature was lower than that of the neat PLA. The enzymatic biodegradation test revealed that the PLA/PEG-POSS nanocomposites were biodegradable even though their biodegradability was deteriorated in comparison to that of the neat PLA. - Highlights: • PLA/PEG-POSS nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending. • The nanocomposites containing TAIC were crosslinked by electron beam irradiation. • The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were comparable to polypropylene. • The crosslinked nanocomposites can be biodegradable

  5. Light sensitive polymer obtained by dispersion of azo-functionalized POSS nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miniewicz, A., E-mail: andrzej.miniewicz@pwr.edu.pl [Advanced Materials Engineering and Modelling, Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Tomkowicz, M.; Karpinski, P.; Sznitko, L. [Advanced Materials Engineering and Modelling, Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Mossety-Leszczak, B. [Faculty of Chemistry, Rzeszow University of Technology, Al. Powstancow Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszow (Poland); Dutkiewicz, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Umultowska 89 B, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)

    2015-07-29

    Highlights: • Nanocomposite material PMMA containing azo-functionalized POSS has been prepared. • Surface topographies of prepared films are porous and dependent on azo-POSS content. • Photo-induced optical anisotropies both static and dynamic have been characterized. - Abstract: Hybrid inorganic–organic nanoparticles based on cubic siloxane cage (RSiO{sub 3/2}){sub 8}, known as polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS), have been functionalized by eight groups of azo-benzene mesogens and dispersed in poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA matrix. Presence of azo-benzene units adds an important light-driven functionality to the system due to their photoisomerization resulting in refractive index and/or absorption changes of the whole system. The polymer films containing various concentrations of azo-POSS nanoparticles show remarkable changes of surface morphology being either transparent (at low POSS concentration) or highly scattering (at high POSS concentration) for visible light. Surface structures were examined by optical microscopy as well as by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results of photoinduced alignment are discussed in the framework of light-induced modification of the aliphatic chains containing azo-benzene photoisomerizing moieties and self-organization process.

  6. Light sensitive polymer obtained by dispersion of azo-functionalized POSS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniewicz, A.; Tomkowicz, M.; Karpinski, P.; Sznitko, L.; Mossety-Leszczak, B.; Dutkiewicz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanocomposite material PMMA containing azo-functionalized POSS has been prepared. • Surface topographies of prepared films are porous and dependent on azo-POSS content. • Photo-induced optical anisotropies both static and dynamic have been characterized. - Abstract: Hybrid inorganic–organic nanoparticles based on cubic siloxane cage (RSiO 3/2 ) 8 , known as polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS), have been functionalized by eight groups of azo-benzene mesogens and dispersed in poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA matrix. Presence of azo-benzene units adds an important light-driven functionality to the system due to their photoisomerization resulting in refractive index and/or absorption changes of the whole system. The polymer films containing various concentrations of azo-POSS nanoparticles show remarkable changes of surface morphology being either transparent (at low POSS concentration) or highly scattering (at high POSS concentration) for visible light. Surface structures were examined by optical microscopy as well as by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results of photoinduced alignment are discussed in the framework of light-induced modification of the aliphatic chains containing azo-benzene photoisomerizing moieties and self-organization process

  7. Cylindrical micelles of a POSS amphiphilic dendrimer as nano-reactors for polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Jing-Ting; Yeh, Tso-Fan; Samuel, Ashok Zachariah; Huang, Yi-Fan; Sie, Jyun-Hao; Wu, Kuan-Yi; Peng, Chi-How; Hamaguchi, Hiro-O; Wang, Chien-Lung

    2018-02-15

    A low generation amphiphilic dendrimer, POSS-AD, which has a POSS core and eight amphiphilic arms, was synthesized and used as a nano-reactor to produce well-defined polymer nano-cylinders. Confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), Raman and NMR spectrometry, monodispersed cylindrical micelles that contain a hydrophilic cavity with a diameter of 2.09 nm and a length of 4.26 nm were produced via co-assembling POSS-AD with hydrophilic liquids, such as H 2 O and HEMA in hydrophobic solvents. Taking the HEMA/POSS-AD cylindrical micelles as nano-reactors, polymerization of HEMA within the micelles results in polymer nano-cylinders (POSS-ADNPs) with a diameter of 2.24 nm and a length of 5.02 nm. The study confirmed that despite the inability to maintain specific shape in solution, low generation dendrimers form well-defined nano-containers or nano-reactors, which relies on co-assembling with hydrophilic guest molecules. These nano-reactors are robust enough to maintain their shape during the polymerization of the guest molecules. Polymer nano-cylinders with dimensions less than 10 nm can thus be produced from the HEMA/POSS-AD micelles. Since the chemical structure of low-generation dendrimers and the contents of the co-assembled nano-reactors can be easily adjusted, the concept holds the potential for the further developments of low-generation amphiphilic dendrimers.

  8. Low dielectric and low surface free energy flexible linear aliphatic alkoxy core bridged bisphenol cyanate ester based POSS nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukaruppan eAlagar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to develop a new type of flexible linear aliphatic alkoxy core bridged bisphenol cyanate ester (AECE based POSS nanocomposites for low k applications. The POSS-AECE nanocomposites were developed by incorporating varying weight percentages (0, 5 and 10 wt % of octakis (dimethylsiloxypropylglycidylether silsesquioxane (OG-POSS into cyanate esters. Data from thermal and dielectric studies imply that the POSS reinforced nanocomposite exhibits higher thermal stability and low dielectric value of k=2.4 (10 wt% POSS-AECE4 compared than those of neat AECE. From the contact angle measurement, it is inferred that, the increase in the percentage incorporation of POSS in to AECE, the values of water contact angle was enhanced. Further, the value of surface free energy was lower when compared to that of neat AECE. The molecular level dispersion of POSS into AECE was ascertained from SEM and TEM analyses.

  9. Bioactivity and properties of a dental adhesive functionalized with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) and bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Marta; Hohlfeld, Lisa; Thanh, Loan Tao; Biehl, Ralf; Lühmann, Nicole; Mohn, Dirk; Wiegand, Annette

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of infiltrating a commercial adhesive with nanosized bioactive glass (BG-Bi) particles or methacryl-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) on material properties and bioactivity. An acetone-based dental adhesive (Solobond Plus adhesive, VOCO GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany) was infiltrated with nanosized bioactive glass particles (0.1 or 1wt%), or with monofunctional or multifunctional POSS particles (10 or 20wt%). Unfilled adhesive served as control. Dispersion and hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles were studied by dynamic light scattering. Set specimens were immersed for 28days in artificial saliva at 37°C, and surfaces were mapped for the formation of calcium phospate (Ca/P) precipitates (scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Viscosity (rheometry) and the structural characteristic of the networks were studied, such as degree of conversion (FTIR spectroscopy), sol fraction and water sorption. POSS particles showed a good dispersion of the particles for both types of particles being smaller than 3nm, while the bioactive glass particles had a strong tendency to agglomerate. All nanoparticles induced the formation of Ca/P precipitates. The viscosity of the adhesive was not or only slightly increased by POSS particle addition but strongly increased by the bioactive glass particles. The degree of conversion, water sorption and sol fraction showed a maintained or improved network structure and properties when filled with BG-Bi and multifunctional POSS, however, less polymerization was found when loading a monofunctional POSS. Multifunctional POSS may be incorporated into dental adhesives to provide a bioactive potential without changing material properties adversely. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydrogen bonding strength of diblock copolymers affects the self-assembled structures with octa-functionalized phenol POSS nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Syuan; Yu, Chia-Yu; Lin, Yung-Chih; Kuo, Shiao-Wei

    2016-02-28

    In this study, the influence of the functional groups by the diblock copolymers of poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP), poly(styrene-b-2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP), and poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) on their blends with octa-functionalized phenol polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (OP-POSS) nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated. The relative hydrogen bonding strengths in these blends follow the order PS-b-P4VP/OP-POSS > PS-b-P2VP/OP-POSS > PS-b-PMMA/OP-POSS based on the Kwei equation from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses. Small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopic analyses show that the morphologies of the self-assembly structures are strongly dependent on the hydrogen bonding strength at relatively higher OP-POSS content. The PS-b-P4VP/OP-POSS hybrid complex system with the strongest hydrogen bonds shows the order-order transition from lamellae to cylinders and finally to body-centered cubic spheres upon increasing OP-POSS content. However, PS-b-P2VP/OP-POSS and PS-b-PMMA/OP-POSS hybrid complex systems, having relatively weaker hydrogen bonds, transformed from lamellae to cylinder structures at lower OP-POSS content (50 wt%).

  11. Oxygen Plasma Modification of Poss-Coated Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, C. J.; Belcher, M. A.; Ghose, S.; Connell, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    The surface energy of a material depends on both surface composition and topographic features. In an effort to modify the surface topography of Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN film, organic solutions of a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, octakis(dimethylsilyloxy)silsesquioxane (POSS), were spray-coated onto the Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN surface. Prior to POSS application, the Kapton(Registered TradeMark) HN film was activated by exposure to radio frequency (RF)-generated oxygen plasma. After POSS deposition and solvent evaporation, the films were exposed to various durations of RF-generated oxygen plasma to create a topographically rich surface. The modified films were characterized using optical microscopy, attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). The physical properties of the modified films will be presented.

  12. UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ices: production of alcohols, quinones, and ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, M. P.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Gillette, J. S.; Clemett, S. J.; Zare, R. N.

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Peripheral carbon atoms were oxidized, producing aromatic alcohols, ketones, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account for the interstellar 3.4-micrometer emission feature. These classes of compounds are all present in carbonaceous meteorites. Hydrogen and deuterium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain the deuterium enrichments found in certain meteoritic molecules. This work has important implications for extraterrestrial organics in biogenesis.

  13. Aromatic chemical feedstocks from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, G

    1982-06-01

    Liquid byproducts of coal carbonization meet some 25% of the world demand for aromatic chemicals, currently at approx. 30 million t/a, in particular 15% of the demand for benzene and over 95% of the demand for condensed aromatics and heteroaromatics. Industrial processing of the aromatic byproducts of coal pressure gasification is carried out to only a minor extent. Other methods that may be employed in future to obtain carbochemical aromatic compounds are solvolysis and supercritical gas extraction, the catalytic liquid-phase hydrogenation and hydropyrolysis of coal, which also permit recovery of benzene and homologues, phenols, and condensed and partially hydrogenated aromatics, and the synthesis of aromatics using methanol as the key compound. As with the present means of obtaining aromatic chemicals from coal, the processes that may in the future be applied on an industrial scale to obtain pure aromatics will only be economically feasible if linked with the manufacture of other mass products and combined with the present production of carbochemical aromatics.

  14. Aromatic raw materials from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collin, G

    1982-06-01

    Liquid byproducts of coal carbonization meet some 25% of the world demand for aromatic chemicals, currently at approx. 30 million t/a, in particular 15% of the demand for benzene and over 95% of the demand for condensed aromatics and heteroaromatics. Industrial processing of the aromatic byproducts of coal pressure gasification is carried out to only a minor extent. Other methods that may be employed in future to obtain carbochemical aromatic compounds are solvolysis and supercritical gas extraction, the catalytic liquid-phase hydrogenation and hydropyrolysis of coal, which also permit recovery of benzene and homologues, phenols, and condensed and partially hydrogenated aromatics, and the synthesis of aromatics using methanol as the key compound. As with the present means of obtaining aromatic chemicals from coal, the processes that may in future be applied on an industrial scale to obtain pure aromatics will only be economically feasible if linked with the manufacture of other mass products and combined with the present production of carbochemical aromatics. (In German)

  15. Covalent functionalization of metal oxide and carbon nanostructures with polyoctasilsesquioxane (POSS) and their incorporation in polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomathi, A.; Gopalakrishnan, K.; Rao, C.N.R.

    2010-01-01

    Polyoctasilsesquioxane (POSS) has been employed to covalently functionalize nanostructures of TiO 2 , ZnO and Fe 2 O 3 as well as carbon nanotubes, nanodiamond and graphene to enable their dispersion in polar solvents. Covalent functionalization of these nanostructures with POSS has been established by electron microscopy, EDAX analysis and infrared spectroscopy. On heating the POSS-functionalized nanostructures, silica-coated nanostructures are obtained. POSS-functionalized nanoparticles of TiO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 and graphite were utilized to prepare polymer-nanostructure composites based on PVA and nylon-6,6.

  16. Characteristic of Hybrid Cellulose-Amino Functionalized POSS-Silica Nanocomposite and Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivalingam Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, cellulose has much attention as an emerging renewable nanomaterial which holds promising properties having unique piezoelectricity, insulating, and biodegradable nature for various applications. Also, the modified properties of cellulose by appropriate chemical modifications in various functional groups with outstanding properties or significantly improved physical, chemical, biological, and electronic properties will widen the way for it to be utilized in different usages. Therefore, in this paper, cellulose-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS based materials were considered an important class of high-performance hybrid nanocomposite materials. To functionalize the regenerated cellulose, amino functionalized POSS material was synthesized via sol-gel covalent crosslinking process in presence of amino coupling agent. In this reaction, tetraethoxsilane (TEOS and γ-aminopropyltriethoxy silane (γ-APTES as coupling agent for metal precursors were selected. The chemical structure of cellulose-amine functionalized bonding and covalent crosslinking hybrids was confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR spectral analysis. From the TEM results, well-dispersed hybrid cellulose-functionalized POSS-silica composites are observed. The resulting cellulose-POSS-silica hybrid nanocomposites materials provided significantly improved the optical transparency, and thermal and morphological properties to compare the cellulose-silica hybrid materials. Further, antimicrobial test against pathogenic bacteria was carried out.

  17. Self-assembly of POSS-containing block copolymers: fixing the hierarchical structure in networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Libor; Janata, Miroslav; Pleštil, Josef; Zhigunov, Alexander; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2014), s. 126-136 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/1459 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200500903 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : block copolymers * self-assembly * POSS Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.562, year: 2014

  18. Dielectric properties of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-based nanocomposites at 77k

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Ming-Jen; Gorzkowski, Edward; McAllister, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop dielectric nanocomposites for high energy density applications at liquid nitrogen temperature by utilizing a unique nano-material polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS). A POSS molecule is consisted of a silica cage core with 8 silicon and 12 oxygen atoms and organic functional groups attached to the corners of the cage. In this study, we utilize POSS for the fabrication of nanocomposites both as a silica nanoparticle filler to enhance the breakdown strength and as a surfactant for effective dispersion of high permittivity ceramic nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. The matrix materials selected for the study are polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The ceramic nanoparticles are barium strontium titanate (BST 50/50) and strontium titanate. The dielectric properties of the solution-cast nanocomposites films were correlated to the composition and processing conditions. We determined that the addition of POSS did not provide enhanced dielectric performance in PVDF- and PMMA-based materials at either room temperature or 77K. In addition, we found that the dielectric breakdown strength of PMMA is lower at 77K than at room temperature, contradicting literature data.

  19. Preparation and water desalination properties of POSS-polyamide nanocomposite reverse osmosis membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Jintang; Litwiller, Eric; Pinnau, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    osmosis membranes was systematically investigated. Four POSS materials (P-8Phenyl, P-8NH3Cl, P-8NH2 and P-1NH2) were introduced into the selective layer by physical blending or chemical fixation during standard interfacial polymerization. Water flux and Na

  20. Brandeis Science Posse: Talented Students Bring Diversity to the Field. Carnegie Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theroux, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The Science Posse program at Brandeis University aims to increase the recruitment and retention of students from disadvantaged and underrepresented backgrounds in STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) disciplines. A grant from Carnegie Corporation helped support the development of the program, which has brought 50 students from…

  1. HYDRO-ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE FEN SYSTEM LIEPER POSSE, EASTERN GERMANY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDIGGELEN, R; GROOTJANS, AP; KEMMERS, RH; KOOIJMAN, AM; SUCCOW, M; DEVRIES, NPJ; VANWIRDUM, G; Vries, N.P.J. de; Wirdum, G. van

    The Lieper Posse is a calcareous, ground water-fed fen system, situated in the end-moraine area of northeastern Germany. Nowadays the fen is partly drained and the vegetation adversely affected; hence regeneration measures are considered. Here we report a pilot survey of the actual vegetation cover

  2. Notes on the scholarly trajectory of Mª. Dolores Fernández-Posse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilman, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The scholarly trajectory of Mª Dolores Fernández- Posse involved an ongoing process of critical observation, reflection, and change that is quite rare in Archaeology. Her change from normativism to a historically informed functionalism is representative of the general evolution of Spanish archaeological studies over the course of the past thirty years. What is unusual about Fernández-Posse -and attests to her straightforward and unassuming intelligence- is that she herself changed her mind and voiced that change with clarity and humor.

    La trayectoria científica de Mª Dolores Fernández-Posse se caracterizó por un proceso continuo de observación crítica, reflexión y cambio, algo poco común en Arqueología. Su cambio del normativismo a un funcionalismo de orientación histórica es representativo de la evolución de los estudios arqueológicos en España a lo largo de los últimos treinta años. Lo realmente inusual de Fernández-Posse -y lo que atestigua su directa pero no pretenciosa inteligencia- es que ella misma cambió de ideas y publicitó ese cambio con claridad y humor.

  3. Rheological Behavior of Entangled Polystyrene-Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) Copolymer (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-24

    strong intermolecular interaction, such as hydrogen bonding, ion-ion interaction, and acid -base interaction, among others, the formation of physical cross...repeat units bearing a POSS branch). This is a very large packing length increase (71%). A similar increase (73%) is observed in polymethacrylates when the

  4. Incorporation and chemical effect of Sn-POSS cages in poly(ethyl methacrylate)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strachota, Adam; Rodzen, Krzysztof; Raus, Vladimír; Ribot, F.; Janata, Miroslav; Pavlova, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 68, July (2015), s. 366-378 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/11/2151; GA ČR GAP106/12/0844 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : POSS * stannoxane * organic–inorganic hybrid Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.485, year: 2015

  5. Tin-based "super-POSS" building blocks in epoxy nanocomposites with highly improved oxidation resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strachota, Adam; Rodzen, Krzysztof; Ribot, F.; Perchacz, Magdalena; Trchová, Miroslava; Steinhart, Miloš; Starovoytova, Larisa; Šlouf, Miroslav; Strachota, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 16 (2014), s. 3498-3515 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/11/2151 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanocomposite * POSS * stannoxane Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.562, year: 2014

  6. Propylthiouracil and peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Van Boekel

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy is a rare manifestation in hyperthyroidism. We describe the neurological manifestations of a 38 year old female with Graves' disease who developed peripheral neuropathy in the course of her treatment with propylthiouracil. After the drug was tapered off, the neurological signs disappeared. Therefore, we call attention for a possible toxic effect on peripheral nervous system caused by this drug.

  7. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing X. Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms.

  8. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset ... 10 percent disabling by VA's rating regulations. About peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition of the peripheral ...

  9. Catalytic aromatization of methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, James J; Hutchings, Graham

    2014-02-07

    Recent developments in natural gas production technology have led to lower prices for methane and renewed interest in converting methane to higher value products. Processes such as those based on syngas from methane reforming are being investigated. Another option is methane aromatization, which produces benzene and hydrogen: 6CH4(g) → C6H6(g) + 9H2(g) ΔG°(r) = +433 kJ mol(-1) ΔH°(r) = +531 kJ mol(-1). Thermodynamic calculations for this reaction show that benzene formation is insignificant below ∼600 °C, and that the formation of solid carbon [C(s)] is thermodynamically favored at temperatures above ∼300 °C. Benzene formation is insignificant at all temperatures up to 1000 °C when C(s) is included in the calculation of equilibrium composition. Interestingly, the thermodynamic limitation on benzene formation can be minimized by the addition of alkanes/alkenes to the methane feed. By far the most widely studied catalysts for this reaction are Mo/HZSM-5 and Mo/MCM-22. Benzene selectivities are generally between 60 and 80% at methane conversions of ∼10%, corresponding to net benzene yields of less than 10%. Major byproducts include lower molecular weight hydrocarbons and higher molecular weight substituted aromatics. However, carbon formation is inevitable, but the experimental findings show this can be kinetically limited by the use of H2 or oxidants in the feed, including CO2 or steam. A number of reactor configurations involving regeneration of the carbon-containing catalyst have been developed with the goal of minimizing the cost of regeneration of the catalyst once deactivated by carbon deposition. In this tutorial review we discuss the thermodynamics of this process, the catalysts used and the potential reactor configurations that can be applied.

  10. Anhydrous proton conducting composite membranes containing Nafion and triazole modified POSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, M.; Wang, Y.G.; Zhang, F.F.; Huang, C.; Xu, X.; Zhang, R.; Fan, D.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Development of membrane electrolytes having reasonable proton conductivity and mechanical strength under anhydrous conditions is of great importance for proton exchange membrane fuel cells operated at elevated temperature. With the introduction of triazole modified polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (Tz-POSS) into Nafion membrane, the formed composite electrolytes exhibit improved mechanical properties compared to pristine Nafion membrane due to the well distribution of Tz-POSS inside the membrane. The anhydrous proton conductivity of the formed composite membranes increases initially with the increase in temperature, reaching about 0.02 Scm −1 at 140 °C. With further increase in temperature to about 150 °C, the composite membrane reaches its glass transition point above which the proton conductivity decreases dramatically. The performance of assembled single cell from composite membrane is slightly dependent on humidification conditions at 95 °C, reaching 0.45 V at 600 mAcm −2 using hydrogen and oxygen as reaction gases

  11. Epoxy networks reinforced with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS). 1. Structure and morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Libor; Strachota, Adam; Pleštil, Josef; Whelan, P.; Steinhart, Miloš; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 25 (2004), s. 9449-9456 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050008 Grant - others:European Community's Human Potential Programme(XE) HPRN/CT-2002-00306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : POSS * epoxy network * structure of nanocomposites Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.898, year: 2004

  12. Quartz Crystal Microbalance Studies Of Dimethyl Methylphosphonate Sorption Into Trisilanolphenyl-Poss Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-06

    QUARTZ CRYSTAL MICROBALANCE STUDIES OF DIMETHYL METHYLPHOSPHONATE SORPTION INTO TRISILANOLPHENYL-POSS FILMS Joshua D. Kittle Thesis ...subsequent DIMP layers form a solid- like phase as a result of nucleated growth around the first layer. Bertilsson et al. studied the adsorption of...of QCMs in liquids,55, 56 opening the door to a variety of applications, including the study of electrodeposition of metals,57,65 electrochemical

  13. Self-assembled amphiphilic polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) grafted poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, Faheem A.; Barakat, Nasser A.M.; Kim, Byoung-Suhk; Aryal, Santosh; Khil, Myung-Seob; Kim, Hak-Yong

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, spherical nanoparticles (NPs) containing polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) as an inner hydrophobic core and poly(vinyl alcohol) PVA as a hydrophilic outer shell were prepared by dialysis approach. Preparation of amphiphilic POSS-grafted-PVA co-polymer was characterized by 1 H NMR and FT-IR. The results indicated urethane linkage between monoisocyanate group of POSS macromer and the hydroxyl groups of PVA. The dynamic light scattering (DLS) and electrophoretic light scattering (ELS) of the NPs revealed that they have an average hydrodynamic diameter and negative zeta (ζ)-potential of 215 nm and - 161 mV, respectively. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and bio-transmission electron microscope (BIO-TEM) have shown unagglomerated NPs within a diameter range of 60-90 nm. The prepared NPs were investigated to improve the control release of anticancer drug; paclitaxel as a model drug. Due to drug loading, the hydrodynamic diameter and negative zeta (ζ)-potential have changed to 325 nm and - 14 mV, respectively. In addition, in-vitro drug release experiments were conducted; the obtained results explicated continuous release for over 40 days. However, in case of using pure drug only, the drug completely released within 1 h.

  14. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)–poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hybrids as injectable biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstrand, Johanna; López, Alejandro; Engqvist, Håkan; Persson, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    One of the major issues with the currently available injectable biomaterials for hard tissue replacement is the mismatch between their mechanical properties and those of the surrounding bone. Hybrid bone cements that combine the benefits of tough polymeric and bioactive ceramic materials could become a good alternative. In this work, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) was copolymerized with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to form injectable in situ cross-linkable hybrid cements. The hybrids were characterized in terms of their mechanical, rheological, handling and in vitro bioactive properties. The results indicated that hybridization improves the mechanical and bioactive properties of POSS and PEG. The Young moduli of the hybrids were lower than those of commercial cements and more similar to those of cancellous bone. Furthermore, the strength of the hybrids was similar to that of commercial cements. Calcium deficient hydroxyapatite grew on the surface of the hybrids after 28 days in PBS, indicating bioactivity. The study showed that PEG–POSS-based hybrid materials are a promising alternative to commercial bone cements. (paper)

  15. Advances towards aromatic oligoamide foldamers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmgaard, Thomas; Plesner, Malene; Dissing, Mette Marie

    2014-01-01

    We have efficiently synthesized 36 arylopeptoid dimers with ortho-, meta-, and para-substituted aromatic backbones and tert-butyl or phenyl side chains. The dimers were synthesized by using a "submonomer method" on solid phase, by applying a simplified common set of reaction conditions. X......-ray crystallographic analysis of two of these dimers disclosed that the tert-butyl side chain invokes a cis amide conformation with a comparatively more closely packed structure of the surrounding aromatic backbone while the phenyl side chain results in a trans amide conformation with a more open, extended structure...... of the surrounding aromatic backbone. Investigation of the X-ray structures of two arylopeptoid dimers disclosed that the tert-butyl side chain invokes a cis amide conformation with a closely packed structure of the surrounding aromatic backbone while the phenyl side chain results in a trans amide conformation...

  16. Three-dimensional aromatic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Shinji; Iwanaga, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of aromatic units and linkers are reviewed from various aspects. To understand principles for the construction of such compounds, we generalize the roles of building units, the synthetic approaches, and the classification of networks. As fundamental compounds, cyclophanes with large aromatic units and aromatic macrocycles with linear acetylene linkers are highlighted in terms of transannular interactions between aromatic units, conformational preference, and resolution of chiral derivatives. Polycyclic cage compounds are constructed from building units by linkages via covalent bonds, metal-coordination bonds, or hydrogen bonds. Large cage networks often include a wide range of guest species in their cavity to afford novel inclusion compounds. Topological isomers consisting of two or more macrocycles are formed by cyclization of preorganized species. Some complicated topological networks are constructed by self-assembly of simple building units.

  17. On a novel method to synthesize POSS-based hybrids: An example of the preparation of TPU based system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Monticelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel method to prepare polymer/polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS hybrids by melt reactive blending is proposed in this paper, by the controlled polymer chain scission and reaction of chain ends with functional silsesquioxanes. Application to thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU is addressed, taking advantage of the polyurethane chain scission equilibrium reaction, leading to the formation of highly reactive isocyanate and hydroxyl chain ends. Despite the isocyanate chemistry has been widely studied for the preparation of polymer/POSS hybrids by in situ copolymerisation, the exploitation of similar chemical processes in an industrially viable and environmental friendly melt blending process is currently an open research field. In this work, the reaction in the molten state of dihydroxyl-functionalised POSS with the polyurethane chain is demonstrated to produce a TPU/POSS hybrids. The effect of POSS concentration on nanomorphology, thermal properties and surface properties is studied, showing significant changes compared to pristine TPU. In particular, an increase of glass transition temperature is observed in the presence of reactive POSS (ΔT up to about 10°C in the presence of 10 wt% loading. Furthermore, an increase of surface water wettability, evidenced by the decrease of water contact angle from 95° for pristine TPU to 70° in TPU containing 10"wt% of reactive POSS, is found.

  18. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  19. Atomic-Oxygen-Durable and Electrically-Conductive CNT-POSS-Polyimide Flexible Films for Space Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Nurit; Grossman, Eitan; Gouzman, Irina; Bolker, Asaf; Murray, Vanessa J; Marshall, Brooks C; Qian, Min; Minton, Timothy K; Hanein, Yael

    2015-06-10

    In low Earth orbit (LEO), hazards such as atomic oxygen (AO) or electrostatic discharge (ESD) degrade polymeric materials, specifically, the extensively used polyimide (PI) Kapton. We prepared PI-based nanocomposite films that show both AO durability and ESD protection by incorporating polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) and carbon nanotube (CNT) additives. The unique methods that are reported prevent CNT agglomeration and degradation of the CNT properties that are common in dispersion-based processes. The influence of the POSS content on the electrical, mechanical, and thermo-optical properties of the CNT-POSS-PI films was investigated and compared to those of control PI and CNT-PI films. CNT-POSS-PI films with 5 and 15 wt % POSS content exhibited sheet resistivities as low as 200 Ω/□, and these resistivities remained essentially unchanged after exposure to AO with a fluence of ∼2.3 × 10(20) O atoms cm(-2). CNT-POSS-PI films with 15 wt % POSS content exhibited an erosion yield of 4.8 × 10(-25) cm(3) O atom(-1) under 2.3 × 10(20) O atoms cm(-2) AO fluence, roughly one order of magnitude lower than that of pure PI films. The durability of the conductivity of the composite films was demonstrated by rolling film samples with a tight radius up to 300 times. The stability of the films to thermal cycling and ionizing radiation was also demonstrated. These properties make the prepared CNT-POSS-PI films with 15 wt % POSS content excellent candidates for applications where AO durability and electrical conductivity are required for flexible and thermally stable materials. Hence, they are suggested here for LEO applications such as the outer layers of spacecraft thermal blankets.

  20. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  1. Vasculitic peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Amini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary systemic vasculitis in pre-capillary arteries is associated with peripheral neuropathy. In some types of systematic vasculitis about 60 % of patients have peripheral nervous system (PNS involvement. In vasculitic peripheral neuropathies (VPN a necrotizing and inflammatory process leads to narrowing of vasa nervorum lumen and eventually the appearance of ischemic lesions in peripheral nerves. Some features might be suggestive of VPN, like: axonal nerve degeneration, wallerian-like degeneration, and diameter irregularity of nerve. Peripheral nervous system (PNS destruction during systemic vasculitides should be considered, due to its frequency and early occurrence in vasculitis progression. The first line treatment of non systematic VPNs is corticosteroid agents, but these drugs might worsen the VPNs or systemic vasculitis.

  2. Electrochromic coatings made of surface modified rutile and anatase pigments: Influence of trisilanol POSS dispersant on electrochromic effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihelčič, Mohor [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Francetič, Vojmir [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljani, Aškerčeva cesta 5, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pori, Pavli [Chemcolor Sevnica d.o.o., Dolenje Brezovo 35, 8290 Sevnica (Slovenia); Gradišar, Helena [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kovač, Janez [Jožef Stefan Institute., Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Orel, Boris, E-mail: boris.orel@ki.si [National Institute of Chemistry, Hajdrihova 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); CO-NOT, Hajdrihova 19, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Transparent pigmented coatings were deposited from titania dispersions. • Trisilanol POSS was used as dispersant. • Surface modification of pigment particles was established from TEM, TG and IR. • IR spectra studies revealed covalent and H-bond dispersant/pigment interactions. • Electrochromic properties of titanina pigment coatings were shown and discussed. - Abstract: Polyhedral oligomeric silsesqioxanes (POSS) compounds consisting of [RSiO{sub 3/2}]{sub n} groups organized in the form of various polyhedra (T{sub n}, n = 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, ….) have not often been used as pigment surface modifiers. Their interactions with pigments are not known in detail and coatings deposited from pigments modified by POSS dispersants are rare. Identification of interactions between a dispersant and the surface of pigments is important from the point of view of obtaining stable pigment dispersions enabling the deposition of optical coatings with high pigment loading, low haze and mechanical integrity. Thin TiO{sub 2} (anatase) pigment coatings (70–260 nm) were deposited from pigment dispersions prepared by milling metatitanic acid (mTiA) powder agglomerates with trisilanol heptaisobutyl silsesquioxane dispersant (trisilanol POSS) in butanol and hexane. The results of TEM, EDAX and TG measurements confirmed the influence of trisilanol POSS dispersant on the formation of a dispersion with a uniform distribution of mTiA and rutile (mTiR) nanoparticles with a size of about 30 ± 5.0 nm and 90 ± 5.0 nm, respectively, as determined from dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The mTiA/trisilanol POSS dispersions with added titanium tetraisopropoxide were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass (spin-coating) and indium tin oxide coated polymeric substrate (ITO PET) (coil-coating) and thermally treated at 150 °C. UV–vis spectra, AFM and SEM results showed that the pigment coatings exhibited low haze (up to 6

  3. Electrochromic coatings made of surface modified rutile and anatase pigments: Influence of trisilanol POSS dispersant on electrochromic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihelčič, Mohor; Francetič, Vojmir; Pori, Pavli; Gradišar, Helena; Kovač, Janez; Orel, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Transparent pigmented coatings were deposited from titania dispersions. • Trisilanol POSS was used as dispersant. • Surface modification of pigment particles was established from TEM, TG and IR. • IR spectra studies revealed covalent and H-bond dispersant/pigment interactions. • Electrochromic properties of titanina pigment coatings were shown and discussed. - Abstract: Polyhedral oligomeric silsesqioxanes (POSS) compounds consisting of [RSiO 3/2 ] n groups organized in the form of various polyhedra (T n , n = 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, ….) have not often been used as pigment surface modifiers. Their interactions with pigments are not known in detail and coatings deposited from pigments modified by POSS dispersants are rare. Identification of interactions between a dispersant and the surface of pigments is important from the point of view of obtaining stable pigment dispersions enabling the deposition of optical coatings with high pigment loading, low haze and mechanical integrity. Thin TiO 2 (anatase) pigment coatings (70–260 nm) were deposited from pigment dispersions prepared by milling metatitanic acid (mTiA) powder agglomerates with trisilanol heptaisobutyl silsesquioxane dispersant (trisilanol POSS) in butanol and hexane. The results of TEM, EDAX and TG measurements confirmed the influence of trisilanol POSS dispersant on the formation of a dispersion with a uniform distribution of mTiA and rutile (mTiR) nanoparticles with a size of about 30 ± 5.0 nm and 90 ± 5.0 nm, respectively, as determined from dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements. The mTiA/trisilanol POSS dispersions with added titanium tetraisopropoxide were deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass (spin-coating) and indium tin oxide coated polymeric substrate (ITO PET) (coil-coating) and thermally treated at 150 °C. UV–vis spectra, AFM and SEM results showed that the pigment coatings exhibited low haze (up to 6%), low surface

  4. Bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Arora

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic amines are an important group of industrial chemicals, which are widely used for manufacturing of dyes, pesticides, drugs, pigments, and other industrial products. These compounds have been considered highly toxic to human beings due to their carcinogenic nature. Three groups of aromatic amines have been recognized: monocyclic, polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic amines. Bacterial degradation of several monocyclic aromatic compounds has been studied in a variety of bacteria, which utilizes monocyclic aromatic amines as their sole source of carbon and energy. Several degradation pathways have been proposed and the related enzymes and genes have also been characterized. Many reviews have been reviewed toxicity of monocyclic aromatic amines; however, there is lack of review on biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. The aim of this review is to summarize bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines. This review will increase our current understanding of biochemical and molecular basis of bacterial degradation of monocyclic aromatic amines.

  5. Endohedral complexes of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) cages with transition metal dihydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiqiao; Corn, John; Hagelberg, Frank, E-mail: hagelber@etsu.edu

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: • Comparative studies of POSS cages with endohedral metal dihydrides. • Exothermic inclusion was found for the T{sub 10} cage with MH{sub 2}, M = Ti, Ru, Os, Pt. • Within this group of metal atoms, the only exothermic MH{sub 4}@T{sub m} unit is that with M = Os. • Enhanced hydrogen atom density, as compared to free MH{sub 4}, was found in the cage. • No exothermic solutions were identified for MH{sub 6}@T{sub 10}. - Abstract: Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) cages are investigated in terms of their potential to enclose small metal hydrides, with the objective of defining conditions that maximize the number of encapsulated hydrogen atoms. Systems of the form MH{sub 2n}@T{sub m}, where n = 1–3, m = 8, 10, and M comprises metal atom species of the groups IV, VI, VIII, X, and XII, are studied by methods of ab initio and density functional theory (DFT). The resulting composites are categorized with respect to their structural and energetic features. For MH{sub 2}@T{sub 8}, it is found in all cases considered that including MH{sub 2} into the POSS cage is an endothermic process. For MH{sub 2}@T{sub 10} and M = Ti, Ru, Os, Pt, inclusion of the MH{sub 2} guest into the cage turns out to be exothermic, and also leaves the cage intact. For MH{sub 4}@T{sub m}, this behavior is only observed for one system, OsH{sub 4}@T{sub 10}.

  6. Aromatic-Aromatic Interactions in Biological System: Structure Activity Relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, Appavu; Deepa, Mohan; Govindaraju, Munisamy

    2016-01-01

    While, intramolecular hydrogen bonds have attracted the greatest attention in studies of peptide conformations, the recognition that several other weakly polar interactions may be important determinants of folded structure has been growing. Burley and Petsko provided a comprehensive overview of the importance of weakly polar interactions, in shaping protein structures. The interactions between aromatic rings, which are spatially approximate, have attracted special attention. A survey of the proximal aromatic residue pairs in proteins, allowed Burley and Petsko to suggest that, “phenyl ring centroids are separated by a preferential distance of between 4.5 and 7 Å, and dihedral angles approximately 90° are most common”

  7. Aromatic-Aromatic Interactions in Biological System: Structure Activity Relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, Appavu; Deepa, Mohan [Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Sciences-Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Govindaraju, Munisamy [Bio-Spatial Technology Research Unit, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, School of Environmental Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-02-26

    While, intramolecular hydrogen bonds have attracted the greatest attention in studies of peptide conformations, the recognition that several other weakly polar interactions may be important determinants of folded structure has been growing. Burley and Petsko provided a comprehensive overview of the importance of weakly polar interactions, in shaping protein structures. The interactions between aromatic rings, which are spatially approximate, have attracted special attention. A survey of the proximal aromatic residue pairs in proteins, allowed Burley and Petsko to suggest that, “phenyl ring centroids are separated by a preferential distance of between 4.5 and 7 Å, and dihedral angles approximately 90° are most common”.

  8. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this page My Cart Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... Donating bone marrow Donor experiences videos Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...

  9. Peripheral Neuropathy: Symptoms and Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Utah Research News Make a Difference Symptoms of Peripheral Neuropathy Print This Page Peripheral Neuropathy symptoms usually start ... more slowly over many years. The symptoms of peripheral neuropathy often include: A sensation of wearing an invisible “ ...

  10. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-02-06

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chlorinated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method are disclosed. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis. 5 figs.

  11. Ana Cristina Cesar e Manoel de Barros - Confluências possíveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Floriani Petry

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os motivos do que aqui se ensaia são margeados pela vontade de correspondência, de confluências, de ferramentas de (releitura. Em outras palavras, suspeita-se que seja possível ler Manoel de Barros lendo Ana C. por detrás adiante e vice-versa. Não seria louco o suficiente para afirmar que há aproximações semânticas, semióticas ou o que quer que se queira. Não é esse o campo de batalha. As confluências se dão mais nos repertórios de leitura e nos procedimentos poéticos de ambos. Ou seja, as confluências residem na figura do leitor, em possíveis ferra-mentas de leitura que podemos armar a partir da poética dos dois. Não somente como contraponto – dizer que Manoel de Barros pensa o conceito de silêncio de uma maneira e Ana C. de outra – mas como suporte de leitura, como possibilidade de a-bertura de um projeto poético em ambos os poetas.

  12. Ana Cristina Cesar e Manoel de Barros - Confluências possíveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Floriani Petry

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784X.2010nesp3p154 Os motivos do que aqui se ensaia são margeados pela vontade de correspondência, de confluências, de ferramentas de (releitura. Em outras palavras, suspeita-se que seja possível ler Manoel de Barros lendo Ana C. por detrás adiante e vice-versa. Não seria louco o suficiente para afirmar que há aproximações semânticas, semióticas ou o que quer que se queira. Não é esse o campo de batalha. As confluências se dão mais nos repertórios de leitura e nos procedimentos poéticos de ambos. Ou seja, as confluências residem na figura do leitor, em possíveis ferra-mentas de leitura que podemos armar a partir da poética dos dois. Não somente como contraponto – dizer que Manoel de Barros pensa o conceito de silêncio de uma maneira e Ana C. de outra – mas como suporte de leitura, como possibilidade de a-bertura de um projeto poético em ambos os poetas.

  13. Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oval in shape. Diagnosis A doctor's evaluation Sometimes culture The diagnosis of peripheral ulcerative keratitis is suspected when the doctor sees the affected cornea in a person who also has a severe and/or long- ...

  14. Tumors of peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Michael; Lutz, Amelie M.

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation between malignant and benign tumors of peripheral nerves in the early stages is challenging; however, due to the unfavorable prognosis of malignant tumors early identification is required. To show the possibilities for detection, differential diagnosis and clinical management of peripheral nerve tumors by imaging appearance in magnetic resonance (MR) neurography. Review of current literature available in PubMed and MEDLINE, supplemented by the authors' own observations in clinical practice. Although not pathognomonic, several imaging features have been reported for a differentiation between distinct peripheral nerve tumors. The use of MR neurography enables detection and initial differential diagnosis in tumors of peripheral nerves. Furthermore, it plays an important role in clinical follow-up, targeted biopsy and surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  15. Fused aromatic thienopyrazines: structure, properties and function

    KAUST Repository

    Mondal, Rajib; Ko, Sangwon; Bao, Zhenan

    2010-01-01

    Recent development of a fused aromatic thieno[3.4-b]pyrazine system and their application in optoelectronic devices are reviewed. Introduction of a fused aromatic unit followed by side chain engineering, dramatically enhanced the charge carrier

  16. Promoting peripheral myelin repair

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ye; Notterpek, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nerves have a remarkable ability to regenerate and remyelinate. This regenerative capacity to a large extent is dependent on and supported by Schwann cells, the myelin-forming glial cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In a variety of paradigms, Schwann cells are critical in the removal of the degenerated tissue, which is followed by remyelination of newly-regenerated axons. This unique plasticity of Schwann cells has been the ...

  17. Converting lignin to aromatics: step by step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strassberger, Z.I.

    2014-01-01

    Lignin, the glue that holds trees together, is the most abundant natural resource of aromatics. In that respect, it is a far more advanced resource than crude oil. This is because lignin already contains the aromatic functional groups. Thus, catalytic conversion of lignin to high-value aromatics is

  18. Surface morphology and dewettability of self-organized thermosets involving epoxy and POSS-capped poly(ethylene oxide) telechelics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Zheng, Sixun

    2012-01-01

    A heptaphenyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-capped poly(ethylene oxide) (POSS-capped PEO) telechelics was synthesized via the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between 3-azidopropylheptaphenyl POSS and α,ω-dialkynyl-terminated poly(ethylene oxide). The organic–inorganic amphiphile was incorporated into epoxy to obtain the organic–inorganic nanocomposites. The morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). It was found that the epoxy thermosets containing POSS-capped PEO telechelics were microphase-separated. The formation of the nanophases in the thermosets followed a self-assembly mechanism. The static contact angle measurements show that the nanocomposites displayed a significant enhancement in surface hydrophobicity as well as reduction in surface free energy. The improvement in surface dewettability was ascribed to the enrichment of POSS cages at the surface of the nanocomposites and the formation of the specific surface morphology as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface atomic force microscopy (AFM). -- Highlights: ► POSS-capped PEO telechelics was synthesized via click chemistry approach. ► The organic–inorganic amphiphile can be self-assembled into the nanophases in epoxy. ► The hybrid nanocomposites were successfully prepared via a self-assembly approach. ► The nanocomposites displayed a significant enhancement in surface hydrophobicity.

  19. Design and Characterization of Liquidlike POSS-Based Hybrid Nanomaterials Synthesized via Ionic Bonding and Their Interactions with CO 2

    KAUST Repository

    Petit, Camille

    2013-10-01

    Liquidlike nanoparticle organic hybrid materials (NOHMs) were designed and synthesized by ionic grafting of polymer chains onto nanoscale silica units called polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS). The properties of these POSS-based NOHMs relevant to CO2 capture, in particular thermal stability, swelling, viscosity, as well as their interactions with CO 2, were investigated using thermogravimetric analyses, differential scanning calorimetry, and NMR and ATR FT-IR spectroscopies. The results indicate that POSS units significantly enhance the thermal stability of the hybrid materials, and their porous nature also contributes to the overall CO 2 capture capacity of NOHMs. The viscosity of the synthesized NOHMs was comparable to those reported for ionic liquids, and rapidly decreased as the temperature increased. The sorption of CO2 in POSS-based NOHMs also reduced their viscosities. The swelling behavior of POSS-based NOHMs was similar to that of previously studied nanoparticle-based NOHMs, and this generally resulted in less volume increase in NOHMs compared to their corresponding polymers for the same amount of CO2 loading. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. Hedgehog Buckyball: A High-Symmetry Complete Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report UV-MALDI-TOF MS evidence of a fullerene-like silsesquioxane, a high-symmetry polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS or SSO formulated as R60-Si60O90 or T60 (T = RSiO1.5. The T60 preparation can be performed using a normal hydrolytic condensation of [(3-methacryloxypropyl]trimethoxysilane (MPMS as an example. Theoretically, four 3sp3 hybrid orbitals (each containing an unpaired electron of a Si atom are generated before the bond formation. Then it bonds to another four atom electrons using the four generated hybrid orbitals which produced a stable configuration. This fullerene-like silsesquioxane should exhibit much more functionality, activity and selectivity and is easier to assemble than the double bonds in a fullerene.

  1. Incorporating the APS Catalog of the POSS I and Image Archive in ADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary purpose of this contract was to develop the software to both create and access an on-line database of images from digital scans of the Palomar Sky Survey. This required modifying our DBMS (called Star Base) to create an image database from the actual raw pixel data from the scans. The digitized images are processed into a set of coordinate-reference index and pixel files that are stored in run-length files, thus achieving an efficient lossless compression. For efficiency and ease of referencing, each digitized POSS I plate is then divided into 900 subplates. Our custom DBMS maps each query into the corresponding POSS plate(s) and subplate(s). All images from the appropriate subplates are retrieved from disk with byte-offsets taken from the index files. These are assembled on-the-fly into a GIF image file for browser display, and a FITS format image file for retrieval. The FITS images have a pixel size of 0.33 arcseconds. The FITS header contains astrometric and photometric information. This method keeps the disk requirements manageable while allowing for future improvements. When complete, the APS Image Database will contain over 130 Gb of data. A set of web pages query forms are available on-line, as well as an on-line tutorial and documentation. The database is distributed to the Internet by a high-speed SGI server and a high-bandwidth disk system. URL is http://aps.umn.edu/IDB/. The image database software is written in perl and C and has been compiled on SGI computers with MIX5.3. A copy of the written documentation is included and the software is on the accompanying exabyte tape.

  2. Enhanced PL and EL properties of Alq3/nano-TiO2 with the modification of 8-vinyl POSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Xie, Bing; Xia, Kai; Zhao, Chunmao; Li, Yingchun; Hu, Shengliang

    2018-04-01

    In this study, tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum/nano-titanium dioxide (Alq3/nano-TiO2) composites were synthesized using a simply in-situ process with 8-vinyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) as a modifier. The as-prepared Alq3/nano-TiO2 composites were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra. The effect of modification on luminescence properties for the samples was studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectra, electroluminescence (EL) spectra and time-resolved luminescence decay curves. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with the corresponded emitting layer structure were investigated. The results show that the amphiphilicity of the 8-vinyl POSS leads to well-dispersion state of the nano-TiO2 in the Alq3. Adding a proper weight percentage of 8-vinyl POSS is beneficial for the PL and EL properties enhancement of the composites. OLED using the Alq3/nano-TiO2 with 1 wt% 8-vinyl POSS emitting layer has the low turn-on voltage (4.7 V at 1 cd/m2), high maximum luminance (7463 cd/m2 at 8.75 V), and high luminous efficiency (1.13 cd/A at 100 mA/cm2). Adding 1 wt% 8-vinyl POSS in Alq3/nano-TiO2 can increase the EL intensity by a factor of 37.1 at 8 V. These values are better than those for OLEDs using the Alq3 emitting layer. The increase in luminance and current efficiency stability can be attributed to the energy transfer process between the Alq3 and the nano-TiO2, and the suppression of the self-quenching by caged 8-vinyl POSS molecules.

  3. Peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carzoglio, J.; Tancredi, N.; Capurro, S.; Ravecca, T.; Scarrone, P.

    2006-01-01

    A new case of peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) is reported. It is localized in the superior right gingival region, a less frequent site, and has the histopathological features previously reported. Immunochemical studies were performed, revealing a differential positive stain to cytokeratins in tumor cells deeply seated in the tumor mass, probably related to tumoral cell heterogeneity.Interestingly, in this particular case S-100 protein positive reactivity was also detected in arborescent cells intermingled with tumoral cells, resembling Langerhans cells. Even though referred in the literature in central Pindborg tumors, no references were found about their presence in peripheral tumors, like the one that is presented here

  4. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  5. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  6. The direct aromatization of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelin, G.; Oukaci, R.; Migone, R.A.; Kazi, A.M. [Altamira Instruments, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The thermal decomposition of methane shows significant potential as a process for the production of higher unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons when the extent of the reaction is limited. Thermodynamic calculations have shown that when the reaction is limited to the formation of C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} products, yields of aromatics can exceed 40% at temperatures of 1200{degrees}C. Preliminary experiments have shown that when the reaction is limited to the formation of C{sub 2} to C{sub 10} products, yields of aromatics can exceed 40% at temperatures of 1200{degrees}C. Preliminary experiments have shown that cooling the product and reacting gases as the reaction proceeds can significantly reduce or eliminate the formation of solid carbon and heavier (C{sub 10+}) materials. Much work remains to be done in optimizing the quenching process and this is one of the goals of this program. Means to lower the temperature of the reaction are being studied as this result in a more feasible commercial process due to savings realized in energy and material of construction costs. The use of free-radical generators and catalysts will be investigated as a means of lowering the reaction temperature thus allowing faster quenching. It is highly likely that such studies will lead to a successful direct methane to higher hydrocarbon process.

  7. Bicyclic Baird-type aromaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Won-Young; Kim, Taeyeon; Ghosh, Arindam; Zhang, Zhan; Ke, Xian-Sheng; Ali, Rashid; Lynch, Vincent M.; Jung, Jieun; Kim, Woojae; Lee, Sangsu; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Park, Jung Su; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Chandrashekar, Tavarekere K.; Kim, Dongho

    2017-12-01

    Classic formulations of aromaticity have long been associated with topologically planar conjugated macrocyclic systems. The theoretical possibility of so-called bicycloaromaticity was noted early on. However, it has yet to be demonstrated by experiment in a simple synthetic organic molecule. Conjugated organic systems are attractive for studying the effect of structure on electronic features. This is because, in principle, they can be modified readily through dedicated synthesis. As such, they can provide useful frameworks for testing by experiment with fundamental insights provided by theory. Here we detail the synthesis and characterization of two purely organic non-planar dithienothiophene-bridged [34]octaphyrins that permit access to two different aromatic forms as a function of the oxidation state. In their neutral forms, these congeneric systems contain competing 26 and 34 π-electronic circuits. When subject to two-electron oxidation, electronically mixed [4n+1]/[4n+1] triplet biradical species in the ground state are obtained that display global aromaticity in accord with Baird's rule.

  8. Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Excited-State Aromaticity: Capturing Electronic Structures and Conformations upon Aromaticity Reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Juwon; Sung, Young Mo; Hong, Yongseok; Kim, Dongho

    2018-03-06

    Aromaticity, the special energetic stability derived from cyclic [4 n + 2]π-conjugated electronic structures, has been the topic of intense interest in chemistry because it plays a critical role in rationalizing molecular stability, reactivity, and physical/chemical properties. Recently, the pioneering work by Colin Baird on aromaticity reversal, postulating that aromatic (antiaromatic) character in the ground state reverses to antiaromatic (aromatic) character in the lowest excited triplet state, has attracted much scientific attention. The completely reversed aromaticity in the excited state provides direct insight into understanding the photophysical/chemical properties of photoactive materials. In turn, the application of aromatic molecules to photoactive materials has led to numerous studies revealing this aromaticity reversal. However, most studies of excited-state aromaticity have been based on the theoretical point of view. The experimental evaluation of aromaticity in the excited state is still challenging and strenuous because the assessment of (anti)aromaticity with conventional magnetic, energetic, and geometric indices is difficult in the excited state, which practically restricts the extension and application of the concept of excited-state aromaticity. Time-resolved optical spectroscopies can provide a new and alternative avenue to evaluate excited-state aromaticity experimentally while observing changes in the molecular features in the excited states. Time-resolved optical spectroscopies take advantage of ultrafast laser pulses to achieve high time resolution, making them suitable for monitoring ultrafast changes in the excited states of molecular systems. This can provide valuable information for understanding the aromaticity reversal. This Account presents recent breakthroughs in the experimental assessment of excited-state aromaticity and the verification of aromaticity reversal with time-resolved optical spectroscopic measurements. To

  9. Noncomparative scaling of aromaticity through electron itinerancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Satadal; Goswami, Tamal; Misra, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    Aromaticity is a multidimensional concept and not a directly observable. These facts have always stood in the way of developing an appropriate theoretical framework for scaling of aromaticity. In the present work, a quantitative account of aromaticity is developed on the basis of cyclic delocalization of π-electrons, which is the phenomenon leading to unique features of aromatic molecules. The stabilization in molecular energy, caused by delocalization of π-electrons is obtained as a second order perturbation energy for archetypal aromatic systems. The final expression parameterizes the aromatic stabilization energy in terms of atom to atom charge transfer integral, onsite repulsion energy and the population of spin orbitals at each site in the delocalized π-electrons. An appropriate computational platform is framed to compute each and individual parameter in the derived equation. The numerical values of aromatic stabilization energies obtained for various aromatic molecules are found to be in close agreement with available theoretical and experimental reports. Thus the reliable estimate of aromaticity through the proposed formalism renders it as a useful tool for the direct assessment of aromaticity, which has been a long standing problem in chemistry

  10. Peripheral Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure High blood cholesterol Coronary heart disease Stroke Metabolic syndrome Screening and Prevention Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.) and its complications. Know your family history of health problems related to P.A. ...

  11. Promoting peripheral myelin repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye; Notterpek, Lucia

    2016-09-01

    Compared to the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nerves have a remarkable ability to regenerate and remyelinate. This regenerative capacity to a large extent is dependent on and supported by Schwann cells, the myelin-forming glial cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In a variety of paradigms, Schwann cells are critical in the removal of the degenerated tissue, which is followed by remyelination of newly-regenerated axons. This unique plasticity of Schwann cells has been the target of myelin repair strategies in acute injuries and chronic diseases, such as hereditary demyelinating neuropathies. In one approach, the endogenous regenerative capacity of Schwann cells is enhanced through interventions such as exercise, electrical stimulation or pharmacological means. Alternatively, Schwann cells derived from healthy nerves, or engineered from different tissue sources have been transplanted into the PNS to support remyelination. These transplant approaches can then be further enhanced by exercise and/or electrical stimulation, as well as by the inclusion of biomaterial engineered to support glial cell viability and neurite extension. Advances in our basic understanding of peripheral nerve biology, as well as biomaterial engineering, will further improve the functional repair of myelinated peripheral nerves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Caracterização viscosimétrica de nanocompósitos híbridos PS/POSS Viscometric characterization of PS/POSS hybrid nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Bianchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocompósitos híbridos de poliestireno (PS e poliedros oligoméricos silsesquioxanos (POSS com diferentes composições e graus de hibridização foram obtidos por processamento reativo no estado fundido utilizando-se peróxido de dicumila (DCP como iniciador, na presença ou não de estireno como agente de transferência de radical. Os materiais foram caracterizados viscosimetricamente por cromatografia de permeação em gel (GPC usando detecção tripla por espalhamento de luz, viscosimetria e índice de refração. As amostras PS/POSS processadas com estireno apresentaram maiores valores de massa molar ponderal média (Mw e menores valores de polidispersão (Mw/Mn, devido ao maior grau de conversão da reação de hibridização do PS-POSS (28-40% e do menor grau de degradação (cisão das cadeias do PS, quando comparadas com amostras PS/POSS processadas sem estireno nas quais o grau de conversão ficou em torno de 24-28%. Para os sistemas PS e PS/POSS em solução com THF, os parâmetros da equação de Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS, α ≅ 0,7 e log K ≅ -3,5 a -3,9 e os valores dos parâmetros de interação polímero-solvente, χij ≅ 0,49, não apresentaram diferenças significativas com relação aos tamanhos moleculares. Por outro lado, essas diferenças de tamanhos moleculares foram caracterizadas por uma função cumulativa da fração mássica de cadeias em função da distância média quadrática entre pontas de cadeia (0½.Polystyrene (PS and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS hybrid nanocomposites with different compositions were obtained by reactive melt processing using dicumyl peroxide (DCP as initiator in the presence or absence of styrene as radical transfer agent. The materials were characterized by viscosimetry by means of gel permeation chromatography (GPC using triple-detector: light scattering, viscometer and refractive index. PS/POSS samples processed with styrene showed higher weight average molecular

  13. On the key role of SiO2@POSS hybrid filler in tailoring networking and interfaces in rubber nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Redaelli, M.; D´Arienzo, M.; Brus, Jiří; Di Credico, B.; Geppi, M.; Giannini, L.; Matějka, Libor; Martini, F.; Panattoni, F.; Špírková, Milena; Šlouf, Miroslav; Scotti, R.; Morazzoni, F.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 65, February (2018), s. 429-439 ISSN 0142-9418 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) COST Action MP1202 HINT Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : rubber nanocomposites * hybrid materials * POSS Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  14. Multisensorialidade e sinestesia: poéticas possíveis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangella Leote

    Full Text Available Resumo Pretendo apresentar neste trabalho alguns aspectos da percepção quando esta envolve obras no uso de tecnologias emergentes, tanto para o fazer artístico, como na relação de fruição da obra. Para isto, trago conceitos de modos interativos, bem como multissensoriais, sinestésicos e pseudo sinestésicos. Observo uma problemática sobre a acepção da obra de arte, dentro desta situação poética, em especial quando ela compõe elementos lúdicos, assim como outros elementos de caráter de entretenimento. Encontro apoio para compreender esta problemática, que é de natureza transdisciplinar, em fundamentos de ordem multidisciplinar. Tento, neste discurso, apontar respostas objetivas, embora hipotéticas, uma vez que se referem a uma pesquisa em andamento. Para isto, abordo as relações entre estas figuras, sejam elas a obra, o artista e o interator. Elenco possíveis razões sistêmicas, semióticas e neurocientíficas para um tipo de aproximação entre estas partes que, desde já, coloco como imbricadas. Além disto, demonstro como certas poéticas podem encaminhar à Multisensorialidade sem envolver sinestesia.

  15. Substrate specific hydrolysis of aromatic and aromatic-aliphatic esters in orchid tissue cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mironowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We found that tissue cultures of higher plants were able, similarly as microorganisms, to transform low-molecular-weight chemical compounds. In tissue cultures of orchids (Cymbidium 'Saint Pierre' and Dendrobium phalaenopsis acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols were hydrolyzed, whereas methyl esters of aromatic and aromatic-aliphatic acids did not undergo this reaction. Acetates of racemic aromatic-aliphatic alcohols were hydrolyzed with distinct enantiospecificity.

  16. Peripheral orbit model

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, Yasuo

    1975-01-01

    Peripheral orbit model, in which an incoming hadron is assumed to revolve in a peripheral orbit around a target hadron, is discussed. The non-diffractive parts of two-body reaction amplitudes of hadrons are expressed in terms of the radius, width an absorptivity of the orbit. The radius of the orbit is about 1 fm and the width of the orbit is determined by the range of the interaction between the hadrons. The model reproduces all available experimental data on differential cross-sections and polarizations of $K^{-}p\\to K^{-}p$ and $\\bar K^{\\circ}n$ reactions for all angles successfully. This contribution is not included in the proceedings since it will appear in Progress of Theoretical Physics Vol. 51 (1974) No 2. Any person interested in the subject may apply for reprints to the author.

  17. Metabolism and genotoxicity of aromatic amines in aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezovich, J.P.; Krauter, P.W.; Lawton, M.P.; Harrison, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    Marine mussels (Mytilus edulis) and bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana) were used to investigate the comparative metabolism and genotoxicity of aromatic amines in vivo. These organisms were selected because they possess distinctly different metabolic capabilities: mussels lack an active mixed-function-oxidase enzyme system that is present in most other organisms, including amphibians. Using 14 C-labeled chemical probes (o- and p-toluidine, 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF)), mussels and tadpoles well dosed with individual compounds by direct immersion in aqueous solutions. The identities of metabolites were then determined by HPLC and GC/MS methods. Results indicate that the N-conjugating pathways used by mussels result primarily in the detoxification of aromatic amines by limiting the amount of primary amine available for activation. The tadpoles excreted a number of 2-AAF metabolites but did form DNA and protein adducts in the liver. Induction of micronuclei in the peripheral red blood cells was also demonstrated. The tadpole was shown to be a sensitive biological indicator of pollution in aquatic ecosystems

  18. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  19. Theoretical studies of the structures and local aromaticity of conjugated polycyclic hydrocarbons using three aromatic indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shogo; Kita, Yuki

    2013-07-01

    The structures and local aromaticity of some conjugated polycyclic hydrocarbons (from the butadienoid, acene, and phenylene series) are studied using ab initio MO and density functional methods. The aromaticities of the molecules are estimated using three indices: the nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS), the harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA), and the index of deviation from aromaticity (IDA). Assessment of the relationships between the structures and the aromatic indices shows that the IDA values correspond best to the characteristics of the conjugated polycyclic hydrocarbon structures.

  20. Realidades possíveis na sociedade global Possible realities in the global society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmar Altvater

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Em contraste com a multiplicação de estudos de caso empíricos e considerando a distinção entre o dado e o possível, o autor defende a busca de explicações para o atrativo que determinados paradigmas de políticas de desenvolvimento exercem em períodos históricos específicos. Isto é feito mediante uma combinação de enfoques teóricos econômicos, sociológicos e políticos, sem medo da "grande teoria". Aplica-se de maneira sistemática a idéia de coerência no exame dos ajustes entre conceitos políticos, estratégias de desenvolvimento e orientações econômicas relativamente à ordem monetária mundial e ao sistema hegemônico. A globalização é pensada no seu alcance e no seu limite, dados ambos pelos recursos finitos do planeta Terra.Against the mere multiplication of empirical case studies and considering the distintion between the actual and the possible the author defends the use of a mix of economic, sociological and political theoretical approaches in order to explain the attraction exercised by some development policy paradigms, without fear of "grand theory". The idea of coerence between political concepts, development strategies and economic orientations is systematically applied in the study of their adjustments regarding the international monetary order and the hegemonic system. Globalization is conceived in its scope and in its limit, both given by the finite resources of the planet Earth

  1. vQRS Based on Hybrids of CNT with PMMA-POSS and PS-POSS Copolymers to Reach the Sub-PPM Detection of Ammonia and Formaldehyde at Room Temperature Despite Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Sachan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposite-based quantum resistive vapour sensors (vQRS have been developed from the assembly of hybrid copolymers of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS and poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA or poly(styrene (PS with carbon nanotubes (CNT. The originality of the resulting conducting architecture is expected to be responsible for the ability of the transducer to detect sub-ppm concentrations of ammonia and formaldehyde at room temperature despite the presence of humidity. In particular, the boosting effect of POSS is evidenced in CNT-based nanocomposite vQRS. The additive fabrication by spraying layer-by-layer provides (sLbL is an effective method to control the reproducibility of the transducers’ chemo-resistive responses. In dry atmosphere, the two types of sensors showed a high sensitivity towards both hazardous gases, as they were able to detect 300 ppb of formaldehyde and 500 ppb of ammonia with a sufficiently good signal to noise ratio (SNR > 10. They also exhibited a quick response times less than 5 s for both vapours and, even in the presence of 100 ppm of water, they were able to detect small amounts of gases (1.5 ppm of NH3 and 9 ppm of CH2O. The results suggest promising applications of POSS-based vQRS for air quality or volatolome monitoring.

  2. Daspsone Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P A Sarojini

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24 year old lady being treated with 300 mg of dapsone daily for dermatitits herpetiformis, developed weakness and wasting of muscles of feet with claw hand deformity and t drop, 2 months tater. Neurological examination and nerve conduction studies conformed the presence of a peripheral motor neuropathy. Dapsone was discontinued and the patient was treated with cotrimatoxazole, gluten-free diet and supportive therapy. This satisfactorily controlled the dermatological lesion without adversely affecting the resolution of her neuropthy. Symptomatic improvement reported by the patient was confirmed by EMG and nerve conduction studies.

  3. Peripheral ossifying fibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameet Mani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF is an exophytic gingival mass of fibrous connective tissue covered with a surface epithelium associated with the formation of randomly dispersed foci of a mineralized product consisting of bone, cementum-like tissue, or dystrophic calcifications having a recurrent rate of nearly 20%. It is one of the most common reactive gingival lesions, which have often been called by the generic term "epulis." This case report describes the clinical and histopathological findings of POF, its differential diagnosis, and treatment.

  4. Systematic review of the use of the lymphocyte cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay to measure DNA damage induced by exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Švecová, Vlasta; Rössnerová, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 770, oct - dec (2016), s. 162-169 ISSN 1383-5742 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-13458S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : cytokinesis blocked micronuclei * peripheral blood lymphocytes * polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 5.500, year: 2016

  5. Processos judiciais em oftalmologia: análise de possíveis fatores desencadeantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar os possíveis fatores de desencadeamento de processos judiciais na área de oftalmologia. Método: Estudo retrospectivo de 70 casos de processos judiciais cíveis em oftalmologia. Foram avaliados em cada processo, a anamnese, o exame oftalmológico, os dados do paciente no momento do incidente, sexo, idade, diagnóstico inicial e diagnóstico da causa do processo, número de consultas antes e após o fato desencadeante, a realização de exames pré-operatórios mínimos de acordo com os protocolos da Cooperativa Estadual de Serviços Administrativos em Oftalmologia - COOESO, termo de consentimento informado, as folhas de descrição do procedimento, de enfermagem, de materiais e medicamentos do centro cirúrgico, do anestesista, da alta hospitalar e o valor da indenização. Resultados: Dos 70 casos analisados, com relação à acuidade visual final, 45 (64,3% apresentavam amaurose. Quanto às condições prévias ao tratamento, os diagnósticos foram: catarata 46 (65,7%, ametropias 12 (17,1%, trauma ocular 8 (11,4%, glaucoma 3 (4,3% e descolamento de retina 1 (1,4%. Com relação às principais complicações secundárias ao tratamento efetuado que deram motivação à lide, os diagnósticos foram: descolamento de retina 37 (52,8%, acuidade visual insatisfatória pós cirurgia de catarata 12 (17,1%, irregularidades corneanas após cirurgia refrativa 8 (11,4%, endoftalmites 4 (5,7%, desconforto com óculos prescritos 4 (5,7% e atrofia bulbar 4 (5,7%. O número de consultas antes do início do processo foi de até duas em 67,1% dos casos. Os processos decorrentes de cirurgia representaram 94,3% da amostra. Termo de consentimento informado não foi utilizado em 63% do total de casos cirúrgicos. Os valores de indenização pagos foram menores do que 50 mil reais em 72,7%. Conclusões: Foram fatores importantes relacionados aos processos judiciais oftalmológicos: amaurose, tratamento cirúrgico, descolamento de retina, n

  6. Considerações sobre possíveis irregularidades em produtos de origem animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Magioli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A comercialização de produtos de origem animal no Brasil, por força de legislação específica, deve ser precedida de prévias inspeções industrial e sanitária, exercidas pelo Serviço de Inspeção Federal, nos estabelecimentos produtores que realizam comércio interestadual ou internacional, pelos Serviços de Inspeção Estaduais, naqueles que realizam comércio intermunicipal, ou pelos Serviços de Inspeção Municipais, nos que realizam comércio local. Independentemente desta obrigatoriedade, cabe exclusivamente aos estabelecimentos produtores a responsabilidade pela qualidade e propriedade para consumo dos produtos por elas elaborados, ficando o poder público com a prerrogativa de chancelar os regulares e impedir que os irregulares possam chegar a mesa dos consumidores, punindo os infratores quando for o caso. A operação deflagrada pela Polícia Federal denominada de “carne fraca” teve como escopo a informação de que frigoríficos estariam comercializando carne bovina deteriorada ou de outra forma imprópria para o consumo, o que se constitui um processo criminoso com a participação dos agentes públicos responsáveis pela inspeção nestes estabelecimentos. O objetivo deste debate foi o de avaliar, ante as notícias veiculadas pelos meios de comunicação, as possíveis circunstâncias que motivaram o fato na interpretação do autor, fruto de seu conhecimento técnico como Médico Veterinário Doutor em Higiene Veterinária e Processamento Tecnológico de Produtos de Origem Animal, sem considerar informações oficiais às quais não teve acesso.

  7. Drug-induced peripheral neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilholm, Ole Jakob; Christensen, Alex Alban; Zedan, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy can be caused by medication, and various descriptions have been applied for this condition. In this MiniReview, the term 'drug-induced peripheral neuropathy' (DIPN) is used with the suggested definition: Damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system caused by a chemical...... substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention or diagnosis of a disease. Optic neuropathy is included in this definition. A distinction between DIPN and other aetiologies of peripheral neuropathy is often quite difficult and thus, the aim of this MiniReview is to discuss the major agents associated...

  8. Aromatic claw: A new fold with high aromatic content that evades structural prediction: Aromatic Claw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachleben, Joseph R. [Biomolecular NMR Core Facility, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Adhikari, Aashish N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Gawlak, Grzegorz [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Hoey, Robert J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Liu, Gaohua [Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG), Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, School of Arts and Sciences, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, and Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey; Joachimiak, Andrzej [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Biological Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne Illinois; Montelione, Gaetano T. [Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG), Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, School of Arts and Sciences, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, and Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway New Jersey; Sosnick, Tobin R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Koide, Shohei [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago Illinois; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology and the Perlmutter Cancer Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York New York

    2016-11-10

    We determined the NMR structure of a highly aromatic (13%) protein of unknown function, Aq1974 from Aquifex aeolicus (PDB ID: 5SYQ). The unusual sequence of this protein has a tryptophan content five times the normal (six tryptophan residues of 114 or 5.2% while the average tryptophan content is 1.0%) with the tryptophans occurring in a WXW motif. It has no detectable sequence homology with known protein structures. Although its NMR spectrum suggested that the protein was rich in β-sheet, upon resonance assignment and solution structure determination, the protein was found to be primarily α-helical with a small two-stranded β-sheet with a novel fold that we have termed an Aromatic Claw. As this fold was previously unknown and the sequence unique, we submitted the sequence to CASP10 as a target for blind structural prediction. At the end of the competition, the sequence was classified a hard template based model; the structural relationship between the template and the experimental structure was small and the predictions all failed to predict the structure. CSRosetta was found to predict the secondary structure and its packing; however, it was found that there was little correlation between CSRosetta score and the RMSD between the CSRosetta structure and the NMR determined one. This work demonstrates that even in relatively small proteins, we do not yet have the capacity to accurately predict the fold for all primary sequences. The experimental discovery of new folds helps guide the improvement of structural prediction methods.

  9. Hexacoordinate bonding and aromaticity in silicon phthalocyanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang

    2010-12-23

    Si-E bondings in hexacoordinate silicon phthalocyanine were analyzed using bond order (BO), energy partition, atoms in molecules (AIM), electron localization function (ELF), and localized orbital locator (LOL). Bond models were proposed to explain differences between hexacoordinate and tetracoordinate Si-E bondings. Aromaticity of silicon phthalocyanine was investigated using nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS), harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA), conceptual density functional theory (DFT), ring critical point (RCP) descriptors, and delocalization index (DI). Structure, energy, bonding, and aromaticity of tetracoordinate silicon phthalocyanine were studied and compared with hexacoordinate one.

  10. Peripheral degenerative joint diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilzio Antonio da Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, is the most commonrheumatic disorder mainly in a geriatric population. Manifestationsare pain, stiffness and functional loss in the affected joint.According to etiology it is classifi ed as primary (or idiopathicand secondary. Some risk factors for disease development aregenetics, race, age, sex, obesity, occupational activities andarticular biomechanics. Pathogenesis is the same for any cause orlocalization, being catabolic alterations, with synthesis, inhibitionand reparing intent of the cartilage matrix. Metalloproteinases andcytokines (IL-1,IL-6,TNF-α actions promote infl ammatory reactionand cartilage degradation. Pain, the most important symptom,does not correlate with radiologic fi ndings. Peripheral osteoarthritisoccurs predominantly in the knee, hip and hand. Diagnosis is basedon clinical features, laboratorial tests and radiological changes.Rheumatological associations’ guidelines for treatment includenon-pharmacologic (education, physiotherapy, assistive devices,and pharmacologic (analgesics, anti-infl ammatory drugs therapyand surgery. Arthroplasty seems to work better than medicines, butshould be used if other treatments have failed.

  11. Pulse shape discrimination in non-aromatic plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Martinez, H.; Pawelczak, Iwona; Glenn, Andrew M.; Leslie Carman, M.; Zaitseva, Natalia; Payne, Stephen

    2015-01-21

    Recently it has been demonstrated that plastic scintillators have the ability to distinguish neutrons from gamma rays by way of pulse shape discrimination (PSD). This discovery has lead to new materials and new capabilities. Here we report our work with the effects of aromatic, non-aromatic, and mixed aromatic/non-aromatic matrices have on the performance of PSD plastic scintillators.

  12. Microbial transformation of chlorinated aromatics in sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens, J.E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous contaminants like heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated benzenes (CBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated furans (PCDFs) are detected in the major rivers in the

  13. Volatilisation of aromatic hydrocarbons from soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, B.; Christensen, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in the laboratory from the surface of soils contaminated with coal tar Four soil samples from a former gasworks site were used for the experiments. The fluxes were quantified for 11 selected compounds, 4 mono- and 7 polycyclic...... aromatic hydrocarbons, for a period of up to 8 or 16 days. The concentrations of the selected compounds in the soils were between 0.2 and 3,100 mu g/g. The study included the experimental determination of the distribution coefficient of the aromatic hydrocarbons between the sorbed phase and the water under...... saturated conditions. The determined distribution coefficients showed that the aromatic hydrocarbons were more strongly sorbed to the total organic carbon including the coal tar pitch - by a factor of 8 to 25 - than expected for natural organic matter. The fluxes were also estimated using an analytical...

  14. International congress on aromatic and medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text : In Morocco, medicinal and aromatic plants occupy an important place in the traditional care system of a large number of local people. They are also economically strong potential, but unfortunately they are not valued enough. Indeed, Morocco by its privileged geographical position in the Mediterranean basin and its floristic diversity (with a total of over 4,200 species and subspecies of which over 500 are recognized as medicinal and aromatic plants), is a leading provider of traditional global market. In this context and given the back label of the natural global, group research and studies on Aromatic and Medicinal Plants (GREPAM), the Faculty of Semlalia and University Cadi Ayyad, organize: the International Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants CIPAM 2009. The organization of this conference is part of scientific research developed by the GREPAM. [fr

  15. Sodium Perborate Oxidation of an Aromatic Amine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juestis, Laurence

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment involving the oxidation of aromatic primary amines to the corresponding azo compound; suggests procedures for studying factors that influence the yield of such a reaction, including the choice of solvent and the oxidant-amine ratio. (MLH)

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation by laccase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Polycyclic aromatic ... production of paper, feeds, chemicals and fuels there is ... microbes with the production of lignin-modifying enzymes ... enable white rot fungi to degrade a variety of toxic.

  17. Odontogenic keratocyst: a peripheral variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, H; Vij, R; Gupta, V; Sengupta, S

    2011-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocyst, which is developmental in nature, is an intraosseous lesion though on rare occasions it may occur in an extraosseous location. The extraosseous variant is referred to as peripheral odontogenic keratocyst. Though, clinically, peripheral odontogenic keratocyst resembles the gingival cyst of adults, it has histologic features that are pathognomonic of odontogenic keratocyst. This article presents a case of this uncommon entity.

  18. GEOGRAFIAS E LUGARES DOCUMENTADOS/ÁRIOS: convergências possíveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Augusta da Silva Gomes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem o sentido de apontar as convergências entre as imagens de três filmes documentários e a geografia.  Os filmes serão pensados como, em sua escritura, são uma experiência de relações interpessoais nos locais filmados. A partir do Pensando de Milton Santos (1997 acerca dos espaços do mundo, que, segundo o autor, são feitos de materialidade e ação humana, formação de fixos e fluxos, pensa-se ser possível conceber o espaço do filme também como dinâmico, feito de um anteparo material essencial e de ações deliberadas ou não, que modificam esse espaço. O conceito de lugar, trabalhado principalmente pelas correntes críticas e fenomenológicas da geografia, será relacionado à forma como os filmes se produziram como relações interpessoais em unidades de espaços, os locais fílmicos, e como estes foram transformados, por essas mesmas relações, em lugares partilhados em cena. Palavras-chave: Geografia; Documentário; Lugar.   GEOGRAPHIES AND DOCUMENTED PLACES: Possible convergences   ABSTRACT This paper intent to point some convergences between the images of three documentaries films and geography. The films are conceived in how they are experiences of interpersonal relationships in the location shot. Following the ideias of Milton Santos (1997 about the spaces of the world, which according to the author, are made of materiality and human action, a fixed and flux system, it is possible to think the space of the film as well as dynamic, done a bulkhead essential material and deliberate actions or not, that modify that space. The concept of place, held mainly by the critical and phenomenological geography, will be related to how films are produced as interpersonal relationships in space units, the location shot, and how these locations were transformed by these same relations in places shared on the scene.   Keywords: Geography; Documentary; Place.   GEOGRAFÍAS E LUGARES DOCUMETALES: Convergencias

  19. PROTONATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider the contribution that singly protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; HPAH + s) might make to the Class A component of the 6.2 μm interstellar emission feature in light of the recent experimental measurements of protonated naphthalene and coronene. Our calculations on the small HPAH + s have a band near 6.2 μm, as found in experiment. While the larger HPAH + s still have emission near 6.2 μm, the much larger intensity of the band near 6.3 μm overwhelms the weaker band at 6.2 μm, so that the 6.2 μm band is barely visible. Since the large PAHs are more representative of those in the interstellar medium, our work suggests that large HPAH + s cannot be major contributors to the observed emission at 6.2 μm (i.e., Class A species). Saturating large PAH cations with hydrogen atoms retains the 6.2 μm Class A band position, but the rest of the spectrum is inconsistent with observed spectra.

  20. AN AROMATIC INVENTORY OF THE LOCAL VOLUME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marble, A. R.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Block, M.; Van Zee, L.; Dale, D. A.; Cohen, S. A.; Schuster, M. D.; Smith, J. D. T.; Gordon, K. D.; Wu, Y.; Lee, J. C.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Skillman, E. D.; Johnson, L. C.; Calzetti, D.; Lee, H.

    2010-01-01

    Using infrared photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we perform the first inventory of aromatic feature emission (also commonly referred to as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission) for a statistically complete sample of star-forming galaxies in the local volume. The photometric methodology involved is calibrated and demonstrated to recover the aromatic fraction of the Infrared Array Camera 8 μm flux with a standard deviation of 6% for a training set of 40 SINGS galaxies (ranging from stellar to dust dominated) with both suitable mid-infrared Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectra and equivalent photometry. A potential factor of 2 improvement could be realized with suitable 5.5 μm and 10 μm photometry, such as what may be provided in the future by the James Webb Space Telescope. The resulting technique is then applied to mid-infrared photometry for the 258 galaxies from the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) survey, a large sample dominated in number by low-luminosity dwarf galaxies for which obtaining comparable mid-infrared spectroscopy is not feasible. We find the total LVL luminosity due to five strong aromatic features in the 8 μm complex to be 2.47 x 10 10 L sun with a mean volume density of 8.8 x 10 6 L sun Mpc -3 . Twenty-four of the LVL galaxies, corresponding to a luminosity cut at M B = -18.22, account for 90% of the aromatic luminosity. Using oxygen abundances compiled from the literature for 129 of the 258 LVL galaxies, we find a correlation between metallicity and the aromatic-to-total infrared emission ratio but not the aromatic-to-total 8 μm dust emission ratio. A possible explanation is that metallicity plays a role in the abundance of aromatic molecules relative to the total dust content, but other factors, such as star formation and/or the local radiation field, affect the excitation of those molecules.

  1. Peripheral dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant S Kamat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentinogenic ghost cell tumors (DGCT are uncommon lesions mainly with rare peripheral types. This report presents a case of peripheral DGCT on the left side of the mandibular alveolar ridge of a heavy smoker, a 68-year-old man, with main presenting feature as a mild pain. Submandibular lymphadenopathy and radiological "saucerization" were evident. Differential diagnosis included fibroma, neurofibroma, peripheral ameloblastoma, peripheral odontogenic fibroma, and peripheral giant cell granuloma. Histologically, ameloblastoma-like epithelial elements were seen in association with grouped ghost cells. Proliferating polyhedral cells and stellate reticulum-like cells with various densities were spread over a wide range of the field. The lesion was curetted and after 2 years of follow up, it did not recur.

  2. Wind Speed Estimation and Parametrization of Wake Models for Downregulated Offshore Wind Farms within the scope of PossPOW Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göçmen Bozkurt, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    With increasing installed capacity, wind farms are requested to downregulate more frequently, especially in the offshore environment. Determination and verification of possible (or available) power of downregulated offshore wind farms are the aims of the PossPOW project (see PossPOW.dtu.dk). Two ...... period. The re-calibrated model has to be further parametrized to include dynamic effects such as wind direction variability and meandering also considering different averaging time scales before implemented in full scale wind farms....

  3. Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) Dianiline as a Replacement for Toxic Methylenedianiline in PMR-15: Chemistry and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    integrals in the 5.9-6.3ppm region, which correspond to the pair of protons on the double bond of the nadic anhydride endcap, were calibrated to 4. This was...Chapter 4. A piston was inserted into the mold cavity and the mold assembly was placed into a 1-ton heated press to cure. With minimal pressure applied...5824. Web. Wu, S. “Synthesis and Characterization of Semiaromatic Polyimides Containing POSS in Main Chain Derived from Double -Decker-Shaped

  4. Diálogos possíveis com Clarice Lispector": As entrevistas de uma escritora jornalista

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Vera Helena Saad

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho pretende analisar a linguagem erigida nas entrevistas realizadas por Clarice Lispector para as revistas Manchete e Fatos e Fotos/Gente, de modo a investigar possíveis oportunidades de ficção dentro dos textos jornalísticos, e, assim, avaliar a singularidade dessas entrevistas. Para tanto, estudamos conceitos teóricos do gênero entrevista e da linguagem jornalística. Também apontamos as principais diferenças entre o discurso jornalístico e literário antes de ana...

  5. Mundos Possíveis de Michel Vaillant: Altermundismo nas Histórias em Quadrinhos de Automobilismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Duarte Oliveira Venancio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo deseja observar como a história em quadrinhos sobre automobilismo, notadamente a do personagem Michel Vaillant, consegue engendrar, em sua narrativa, mundos possíveis que, mesmo com atributos ficcionais, se vinculam à referencialidade dos fatos ocorridos no esporte. Utilizando-se o arcabouço teórico de Umberto Eco e de David Lewis, o objetivo aqui é refletir acerca desse exercício de isomorfismo lingüístico, bem como desvelar as estratégias altermundistas utilizadas.

  6. Conocimiento sobre el maltrato al adulto mayor por un grupo de ancianos del Policlínico Bernardo Posse

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Muñoz, Lidiana; Cruz Sánchez, Leticia; Martínez Iglesias, Ivonne; González Carrodeguas, Kenia; Terry Pérez, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la violencia contra el adulto mayor es un fenómeno mundial que también afecta a los hogares cubanos. Las personas comentan, acerca del maltrato infantil y el maltrato femenino pero se olvidan del maltrato que sufren los ancianos en el vecindario, en las instalaciones de salud y en los hogares, en la actualidad. Objetivo: valorar el conocimiento que posee un grupo de adultos mayores, correspondientes a tres consultorios médicos del Policlínico Bernardo Posse, sobre la violencia a...

  7. Peripheral Auditory Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J; Hubbard, A; Neely, S; Tubis, A

    1986-01-01

    How weIl can we model experimental observations of the peripheral auditory system'? What theoretical predictions can we make that might be tested'? It was with these questions in mind that we organized the 1985 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, to bring together auditory researchers to compare models with experimental observations. Tbe workshop forum was inspired by the very successful 1983 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Delft [1]. Boston University was chosen as the site of our meeting because of the Boston area's role as a center for hearing research in this country. We made a special effort at this meeting to attract students from around the world, because without students this field will not progress. Financial support for the workshop was provided in part by grant BNS- 8412878 from the National Science Foundation. Modeling is a traditional strategy in science and plays an important role in the scientific method. Models are the bridge between theory and experiment. Tbey test the assumptions made in experim...

  8. Ultrafast preparation of a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-based ionic liquid hybrid monolith via photoinitiated polymerization, and its application to capillary electrochromatography of aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingyu; Lei, Xiaoyun; Deng, Lijun; Li, Minsheng; Yao, Sicong; Wu, Xiaoping

    2018-06-06

    An ionic liquid hybrid monolithic capillary column was prepared within 7 min via photoinitiated free-radical polymerization of an ionic liquid monomer (1-butyl-3-vinylimidazolium-bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide); VBIMNTF 2 ) and a methacryl substituted polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS-MA) acting as a cross-linker. The effects of composition of prepolymerization solution and initiation time on the porous structure and electroosmotic flow (EOF) of monolithic column were investigated. The hybrid monolith was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and FTIR. Owing to the introduction of a rigid nanosized POSS silica core and ionic liquids with multiple interaction sites, the monolithic column has a well-defined 3D skeleton morphology, good mechanical stability, and a stable anodic electroosmotic flow. The hybrid monolithic stationary phase was applied to the capillary electrochromatographic separation of various alkylbenzenes, phenols, anilines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The column efficiency is highest (98,000 plates/m) in case of alkylbenzenes. Mixed-mode retention mechanisms including hydrophobic interactions, π-π stacking, electrostatic interaction and electrophoretic mobility can be observed. This indicates the potential of this material in terms of efficient separation of analytes of different structural type. Graphical Abstract Preparation of a mixed-mode ionic liquid hybrid monolithic column via photoinitiated polymerization of methacryl substituted polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS-MA) and 1-butyl-3-vinylimidazolium-bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (VBIMNTF 2 ) ionic liquid for use in capillary electrochromatography.

  9. Structural and functional characterization of solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin: p-coumaric acid and related aromatic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kemin; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Landorf, Elizabeth; Mack, Jamey C; Zerbs, Sarah; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Collart, Frank R

    2013-10-01

    Lignin comprises 15-25% of plant biomass and represents a major environmental carbon source for utilization by soil microorganisms. Access to this energy resource requires the action of fungal and bacterial enzymes to break down the lignin polymer into a complex assortment of aromatic compounds that can be transported into the cells. To improve our understanding of the utilization of lignin by microorganisms, we characterized the molecular properties of solute binding proteins of ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins that interact with these compounds. A combination of functional screens and structural studies characterized the binding specificity of the solute binding proteins for aromatic compounds derived from lignin such as p-coumarate, 3-phenylpropionic acid and compounds with more complex ring substitutions. A ligand screen based on thermal stabilization identified several binding protein clusters that exhibit preferences based on the size or number of aromatic ring substituents. Multiple X-ray crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes for these clusters identified the molecular basis of the binding specificity for the lignin-derived aromatic compounds. The screens and structural data provide new functional assignments for these solute-binding proteins which can be used to infer their transport specificity. This knowledge of the functional roles and molecular binding specificity of these proteins will support the identification of the specific enzymes and regulatory proteins of peripheral pathways that funnel these compounds to central metabolic pathways and will improve the predictive power of sequence-based functional annotation methods for this family of proteins. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma T-Cell Lymphoma Transformed Mycosis Fungoides Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia Young Adult Lymphoma Overview Treatment Options Relapsed/Refractory Long-term ...

  11. Network node for peripheral sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobbitt, J.; Johnson, M.

    1977-01-01

    A module which enables several independent computer systems to share the peripherals (graphics display and line printer) of a PDP-11 computer is described. The module requires no software support in the PDP-11

  12. Ion beam irradiation effects on aromatic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukushima, Satoshi; Ueno, Keiji

    1995-01-01

    We studied the optical and thermal properties of aromatic polymer films which had been irradiated with 1 MeV H + , H 2 + and He + ions. The examined aromatic polymers were polyetherether ketone(PEEK), polyetherimide(PEI), polyether sulfon(PES), polysulfon(PSF), and polyphenylene sulfide(PPS). The optical densities at 300nm of PES and PSF greatly increased after the irradiation. The optical densities at 400nm of all the examined polymer lineally increased with the irradiation dose. The PEEK film which had been irradiated with 1 MeV H + was not deformed above melting point. This demonstrates that cross-linking occurs in PEEK films by ion beam irradiation. As for the effects, depending on the mass of the irradiated ions, it was found that the ions with a high mass induced larger effects on the aromatic polymers for the same absorption energy. (author)

  13. Global aromatics supply. Today and tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Aromatics are the essential building blocks for some of the largest petrochemical products in today's use. To the vast majority they are consumed to produce intermediates for polymer products and, hence, contribute to our modern lifestyle. Their growth rates are expected to be in line with GDP growth in future. This contrasts the significantly lower growth rates of the primary sources for aromatics - fuel processing and steam cracking of naphtha fractions. A supply gap can be expected to open up in future for which creative solutions will be required. (orig.)

  14. Production of aromatics from di- and polyoxygenates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Taylor; Blank, Brian; Jones, Casey; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy

    2017-07-04

    Methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing in high yield aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from a mixture of oxygenates comprising di- and polyoxygenates are disclosed. Also disclosed are methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing aromatic chemicals and liquid fuels from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like; and methods, catalysts, and reactor systems for producing the mixture of oxygenates from oxygenated hydrocarbons such as carbohydrates, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar degradation products, and the like. The disclosed catalysts for preparing the mixture of oxygenates comprise a Ni.sub.nSn.sub.m alloy and a crystalline alumina support.

  15. Transformations of Aromatic Compounds by Nitrosomonas europaea

    OpenAIRE

    Keener, William K.; Arp, Daniel J.

    1994-01-01

    Benzene and a variety of substituted benzenes inhibited ammonia oxidation by intact cells of Nitrosomonas europaea. In most cases, the inhibition was accompanied by transformation of the aromatic compound to a more oxidized product or products. All products detected were aromatic, and substituents were often oxidized but were not separated from the benzene ring. Most transformations were enhanced by (NH4)2SO4 (12.5 mM) and were prevented by C2H2, a mechanism-based inactivator of ammonia monoo...

  16. Silicone elastomers with aromatic voltage stabilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    of electron-trapping by aromatic compounds grafted to silicone backbones in a crosslinked PDMS is illustrated in Fig. 1. The electrical breakdown strength, the storage modulus and the loss modulus of the elastomer were investigated, as well as the excitation energy from the collision between electron carriers...... and benzene rings in PDMS-PPMS copolymer was measured by UV-vis spectroscopy. The developed elastomers were inherently soft with enhanced electrical breakdown strength due to delocalized pi-electrons of aromatic rings attached to the silicone backbone. The dielectric relative permittivity of PDMS...

  17. Engineering Aromatic-Aromatic Interactions To Nucleate Folding in Intrinsically Disordered Regions of Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Swati; Sarma, Siddhartha P

    2017-08-22

    Aromatic interactions are an important force in protein folding as they combine the stability of a hydrophobic interaction with the selectivity of a hydrogen bond. Much of our understanding of aromatic interactions comes from "bioinformatics" based analyses of protein structures and from the contribution of these interactions to stabilizing secondary structure motifs in model peptides. In this study, the structural consequences of aromatic interactions on protein folding have been explored in engineered mutants of the molten globule protein apo-cytochrome b 5 . Structural changes from disorder to order due to aromatic interactions in two variants of the protein, viz., WF-cytb5 and FF-cytb5, result in significant long-range secondary and tertiary structure. The results show that 54 and 52% of the residues in WF-cytb5 and FF-cytb5, respectively, occupy ordered regions versus 26% in apo-cytochrome b 5 . The interactions between the aromatic groups are offset-stacked and edge-to-face for the Trp-Phe and Phe-Phe mutants, respectively. Urea denaturation studies indicate that both mutants have a C m higher than that of apo-cytochrome b 5 and are more stable to chaotropic agents than apo-cytochrome b 5 . The introduction of these aromatic residues also results in "trimer" interactions with existing aromatic groups, reaffirming the selectivity of the aromatic interactions. These studies provide insights into the aromatic interactions that drive disorder-to-order transitions in intrinsically disordered regions of proteins and will aid in de novo protein design beyond small peptide scaffolds.

  18. Surface modification of a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU) nanocomposite polymer as a stent coating for enhanced capture of endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aaron; Farhatnia, Yasmin; Goh, Debbie; G, Natasha; de Mel, Achala; Lim, Jing; Teoh, Swee-Hin; Malkovskiy, Andrey V; Chawla, Reema; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Cousins, Brian G; Hamblin, Michael R; Alavijeh, Mohammad S; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2013-12-01

    An unmet need exists for the development of next-generation multifunctional nanocomposite materials for biomedical applications, particularly in the field of cardiovascular regenerative biology. Herein, we describe the preparation and characterization of a novel polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU) nanocomposite polymer with covalently attached anti-CD34 antibodies to enhance capture of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). This material may be used as a new coating for bare metal stents used after balloon angioplasty to improve re-endothelialization. Biophysical characterization techniques were used to assess POSS-PCU and its subsequent functionalization with anti-CD34 antibodies. Results indicated successful covalent attachment of anti-CD34 antibodies on the surface of POSS-PCU leading to an increased propensity for EPC capture, whilst maintaining in vitro biocompatibility and hemocompatibility. POSS-PCU has already been used in 3 first-in-man studies, as a bypass graft, lacrimal duct and a bioartificial trachea. We therefore postulate that its superior biocompatibility and unique biophysical properties would render it an ideal candidate for coating medical devices, with stents as a prime example. Taken together, anti-CD34 functionalized POSS-PCU could form the basis of a nano-inspired polymer platform for the next generation stent coatings.

  19. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.E.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1980-10-21

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes. No Drawings

  20. SEDIMENT-ASSOCIATED REACTIONS OF AROMATIC AMINES. 2. QSAR DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of aromatic amines in soils and sediments is dominated by irreversible binding through nucleophilic addition and oxidative radical coupling. Despite the common occurrence of the aromatic amine functional group in organic chemicals, the molecular properties useful for pr...

  1. Doping genético e possíveis metodologias de detecção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Valle DE Bairros

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O doping genético caracteriza-se pelo uso não terapêutico de células, genes e elementos gênicos, ou a modulação da expressão gênica com objetivo de aumentar o desempenho esportivo. Isto somente pode ser realizado através de manipulação gênica. Esta prática dopante caracteriza-se como virtualmente "indetectável", o que representa novos desafios analíticos para sua detecção. Esta revisão apresenta o doping genético e possíveis métodos de detecção para evitar futuras fraudes desportivas.

  2. Optimal Composite Material for Low Cost Fabrication of Large Composite Aerospace Structures using NASA Resins or POSS Nanoparticle Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontia, Mark A.; Gruber, Mark B.; Jensen, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    Thermoplastic laminates in situ consolidated via tape or tow placement require full mechanical properties. Realizing full properties requires resin crystallinity to be controlled - partial crystallinity leads to unacceptably low laminate compression properties. There are two approaches: utilize an amorphous matrix resin; or place material made from a semi-crystalline resin featuring kinetics faster than the process. In this paper, a matrix resin evaluation and trade study was completed with commercial and NASA amorphous polyimides on the one hand, and with PEKK mixed with POSS nanoparticles for accelerated crystallinity growth on the other. A new thermoplastic impregnated material, 6 mm wide (0.25-in) AS-4 carbon/LaRC(TradeMark)8515 dry polyimide tow, was fabricated. Since LaRC(TradeMark)8515 is fully amorphous, it attains full properties following in situ consolidation, with no post processing required to build crystallinity. The tow in situ processing was demonstrated via in situ thermoplastic filament winding it into rings.

  3. Possíveis fatores estressantes na unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal em hospital universitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Reis Jordão

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar possíveis fatores estressantes aos quais os recém-nascidos estão expostos na unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal. Métodos: Os níveis de ruídos contínuos foram verificados por meio do decibelímetro posicionado próximo ao ouvido do recém-nascido; a luminosidade foi verificada pelo luxímetro posicionado dentro das incubadoras diante dos olhos do recém-nascido; e a verificação da temperatura se deu por meio da visualização do display das incubadoras. As avaliações foram realizadas em três períodos do dia, tendo sido realizadas dez medições com intervalo de 1 minuto em cada turno para posteriores análises estatísticas. Resultados: Todos os turnos apresentaram ruídos acima dos níveis aceitáveis. Manhã (p < 0,001, tarde (p < 0,05 e noite (p < 0,001 apresentaram aumento significativo comparado ao controle. A luminosidade excedeu os padrões de normalidade significativamente (p < 0,01 no período da manhã. Quanto à temperatura, observamos que apenas uma das incubadoras encontrava-se dentro dos padrões de normalidade. Conclusão: A intensidade dos ruídos, da luminosidade e da temperatura não estavam de acordo com as normas regulatórias, podendo ser assim um possível fator estressante para o recém-nascido.

  4. Fused aromatic thienopyrazines: structure, properties and function

    KAUST Repository

    Mondal, Rajib

    2010-01-01

    Recent development of a fused aromatic thieno[3.4-b]pyrazine system and their application in optoelectronic devices are reviewed. Introduction of a fused aromatic unit followed by side chain engineering, dramatically enhanced the charge carrier mobility in thin film transistor devices and mobilities up to 0.2 cm2/Vs were achieved. The optoelectronic properties of these fused aromatic thienopyrazine polymers (Eg = 1.3 to 1.6 eV, HOMO = -4.9 to -5.2 V) were tuned by introduction of various fused aromatic rings within thienopyrazine. By balancing the fundamental properties of these polymers, both high charge carrier mobilities and moderate PCEs in solar cells were achieved. Further, effects of copolymerizing units are discussed. Low band gap semiconducting polymer (Eg ∼ 1 eV) with high field effect mobility (0.044 cm2/Vs) was obtained using cyclopentadithiophene as copolymerizing unit. Finally, a molecular design approach to enhance the absorption coefficients is discussed, which resulted in improved power conversion efficiency in bulk heterojunction solar cells. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Identifying specific interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulas, Giacomo; Malloci, Giuliano; Porceddu, Ignazio

    2005-01-01

    Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been thought to be ubiquitous for more than twenty years, yet no single species in this class has been identified in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) to date. The unprecedented sensitivity and resolution of present Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) and forthcoming Herschel observations in the far infrared spectral range will offer a unique way out of this embarrassing impasse

  6. Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic Potential of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (cPAHs) and Heavy Metal in Crude Oil from Gokana Area, Rivers State, Nigeria. ... Considerable caution should be applied in exploration, exposure and distribution of the crude oil through protected and well maintained pipelines to avoid the possible ...

  7. Remediation of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... The aim of this study was to determine ways of remediating soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with crude oil. The study involves the use of planted cowpeas, mushrooms, algae, dead vegetable and live earthworm, and fire-heating of the contaminated garden soil ...

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Levels in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations were measured by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) in two fish species, Sardinella maderensis (Flat sardinella) and Galeoides decadactylus (Lesser African threadfin or Shine-nose or Common threadfin) from Ghanaian coastal waters and ...

  9. Bioremediation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the effect of lead and chromium on the rate of bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated clay soil. Naphthalene was used as a target PAH. The soil was sterilized by heating at 120oC for one hour. 100g of the soil was contaminated with lead, chromium, nickel and mercury ...

  10. Discovering Chemical Aromaticity Using Fragrant Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Tanya L.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory organic chemistry is often perceived as inaccessible by students. This article describes a method used to link organic chemistry to everyday experience, asking students to explore whether fragrant molecules are also aromatic in the chemical sense. Students were engaged in this activity, excited about their results, and performed well…

  11. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples in Irbid, north Jordan. A Al-Gawadreh Sat, M.B. Gasim, A.R. Hassan, A Azid. Abstract. Air samples were collected at an urban site and a rural (BERQESH) site during February (2017) until March (2017) to determine concentrations of polycyclic ...

  12. Deuteration of benzen derivatives and condensed aromatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Masaru.

    1970-01-01

    A process for the deuteration of aromatic compounds (benzene derivatives having one or more cyano, halogeno, nitro or other electron attractive groups, and condensed ring aromatics) is provided. The process comprises reducing said aromatic compound with an alkali metal (preferably K, Rb or Cs) in a solvent (dimethoxyethane, tetrahydrofuran, etc.) to provide an electron-acceptor-donor complex, which is followed by introducing gaseous deuterium into the solution. The deuteration takes place selectively at the position of highest electron density in accordance with nature of the substituent, regardless of steric hindrance. The process is applicable to a wide variety of aromatics to give deuterated compounds in high yields. In one example, 5x10 -3 mole of anthracene (An) was reacted with 2g of metallic potassium in 80cc of dimethoxyethane in a N 2 atmosphere. Into the resulting solution of An=2K + was introduced D 2 gas (30 cmHg) at 25 0 C. After decomposition with air and washing with alcohol, the precipitate was recrystallized from benzene. Yield of recovered AN: more than 90%. Yield of deuteration: 100%. Position of deuteration: 9 and 10 (revealed by NMR and mass spectroscopy). (Kaichi, S.)

  13. Determination of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... collected from the most polluted part of Bangsai river at Saver industrial zone was analyzed for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, anthracene, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  14. Aromatization of propane over MFI-gallosilicates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayense, C.R.; vd Pol, A.J.H.P.; Hooff, van J.H.C.

    1991-01-01

    The results of propane aromatization over gallium containing HZSM-5 zeolites are described. Highly dispersed gallium in the zeolite (framework or extra-framework) was found to possess dehydrogenation activity, especially in the presence of strong Brønsted acid sites. The extra-framework gallium was

  15. Microbial platform for production of aromatic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Christine Alexandra Egaa; Olsen, Kresten Jon Kromphardt; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2017-01-01

    Polyketides form the basic building blocks of numerous natural products, which are in use in pharmaceuticals, food additives and other fine chemicals. Many of these polyketides possess very specific cyclic and aromatic conformations. The programmable platform we aim to create will be able...

  16. Synthesis and bioelectrochemical behavior of aromatic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Akhter, Zareen; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ahmed, Safeer; Bolte, Michael; McKee, Vickie

    2017-12-01

    Four aromatic amines 1-amino-4-phenoxybenzene (A 1 ), 4-(4-aminophenyloxy) biphenyl (A 2 ), 1-(4-aminophenoxy) naphthalene (A 3 ) and 2-(4-aminophenoxy) naphthalene (A 4 ) were synthesized and characterized by elemental, spectroscopic (FTIR, NMR), mass spectrometric and single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The compounds crystallized in monoclinic crystal system with space group P2 1 . Intermolecular hydrogen bonds were observed between the amine group and amine/ether acceptors of neighboring molecules. Electrochemical investigations were done using cyclic voltammetry (CV), square wave voltammetry (SWV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). CV studies showed that oxidation of aromatic amines takes place at about 0.9 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and the electron transfer (ET) process has irreversible nature. After first scan reactive intermediate were generated electrochemically and some other cathodic and anodic peaks also appeared in the succeeding scans. DPV study revealed that ET process is accompanied by one electron. DNA binding study of aromatic amines was performed by CV and UV-visible spectroscopy. These investigations revealed groove binding mode of interaction of aromatic amines with DNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Aromatic cytokinins in micropropagated potato plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baroja, F. E.; Aguirreolea, J.; Martínková, Hana; Hanuš, Jan; Strnad, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 3 (2002), s. 217-224 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 844.10; GA ČR GA301/02/0475 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Acclimatization * Aromatic cytokinins * Micropropagation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2002

  18. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  19. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantunali, D; Dursun, T; Yucel, D; Hasirci, N; Hasirci, V

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers) and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type) are being presented. PMID:25489251

  20. Peripheral Atherectomy: Applications and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittleider, Derek; Russell, Erich

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral atherectomy is a class of procedures that is rapidly increasing in volume. Multiple classes of devices exist, and newer variants are added to the market annually. The devices see wide application for de novo lesions, in-stent restenosis, and adjunctive therapy for drug-coated balloons. The body of evidence supporting atherectomy is less robust than for many other peripheral therapies. The frequency and severity of complications from atherectomy can be significant compared with angioplasty and stenting, and familiarity with preventative and bailout techniques is essential for the interventionalist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Atherectomy for peripheral arterial disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Louise Skovgaard; Høgh, Annette Langager; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2015-04-13

    Symptomatic peripheral arterial disease is managed according to national and international guidelines and the number of vascular reconstructions performed each year has increased over the past decade mainly due to an increasing frequency of endovascular procedures. Atherectomy as an alternative to the established treatment of symptomatic peripheral arterial disease has recently been analysed in a Cochrane review. In Denmark, atherectomy is not performed and so far the evidence is poor as the method is not an alternative to the established treatment in this country.

  2. Imaging of the peripheral retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Kernt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical progress of the recent years has revolutionized imaging in ophthalmology. Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO, digital angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT, and detection of fundus autofluorescence (FAF have fundamentally changed our understanding of numerous retinal and choroidal diseases. Besides the tremendous advances in macular diagnostics, there is more and more evidence that central pathologies are often directly linked to changes in the peripheral retina. This review provides a brief overview on current posterior segment imaging techniques with a special focus on the peripheral retina.

  3. Parsing of the free energy of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostjukov, Viktor V.; Khomytova, Nina M. [Department of Physics, Sevastopol National Technical University, Sevastopol 99053, Crimea (Ukraine); Hernandez Santiago, Adrian A.; Tavera, Anna-Maria Cervantes; Alvarado, Julieta Salas [Faculty of Chemical Sciences, Autonomous University of Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Evstigneev, Maxim P., E-mail: max_evstigneev@mail.ru [Department of Physics, Sevastopol National Technical University, Sevastopol 99053, Crimea (Ukraine)

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > A protocol for decomposition of the free energy of aromatic stacking is developed. > The factors stabilizing/destabilizing stacking of aromatic molecules are defined. > Hydrophobic contribution is found to be dominant. - Abstract: We report an analysis of the energetics of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions for 39 non-covalent reactions of self- and hetero-association of 12 aromatic molecules with different structures and charge states. A protocol for computation of the contributions to the total energy from various energetic terms has been developed and the results are consistent with experiment in 92% of all the systems studied. It is found that the contributions from hydrogen bonds and entropic factors are always unfavorable, whereas contributions from van-der-Waals, electrostatic and/or hydrophobic effects may lead to stabilizing or destabilizing factors depending on the system studied. The analysis carried out in this work provides an answer to the questions 'What forces stabilize/destabilize the stacking of aromatic molecules in aqueous-salt solution and what are their relative importance?'

  4. Parsing of the free energy of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostjukov, Viktor V.; Khomytova, Nina M.; Hernandez Santiago, Adrian A.; Tavera, Anna-Maria Cervantes; Alvarado, Julieta Salas; Evstigneev, Maxim P.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → A protocol for decomposition of the free energy of aromatic stacking is developed. → The factors stabilizing/destabilizing stacking of aromatic molecules are defined. → Hydrophobic contribution is found to be dominant. - Abstract: We report an analysis of the energetics of aromatic-aromatic stacking interactions for 39 non-covalent reactions of self- and hetero-association of 12 aromatic molecules with different structures and charge states. A protocol for computation of the contributions to the total energy from various energetic terms has been developed and the results are consistent with experiment in 92% of all the systems studied. It is found that the contributions from hydrogen bonds and entropic factors are always unfavorable, whereas contributions from van-der-Waals, electrostatic and/or hydrophobic effects may lead to stabilizing or destabilizing factors depending on the system studied. The analysis carried out in this work provides an answer to the questions 'What forces stabilize/destabilize the stacking of aromatic molecules in aqueous-salt solution and what are their relative importance?'

  5. Cyano-containing ionic liquids for the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from an aromatic/aliphatic mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Haan, de A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids can replace conventional solvents in aromatic/aliphatic extractions, if they have higher aromatic distribution coefficients and higher or similar aromatic/aliphatic selectivities. Also physical properties, such as density and viscosity, must be taken into account if a solvent is

  6. Prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/aromatics, BDNF and child development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, Frederica; Phillips, David H.; Wang, Ya; Roen, Emily; Herbstman, Julie; Rauh, Virginia; Wang, Shuang; Tang, Deliang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Within a New York City (NYC) birth cohort, we assessed the associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and other aromatic DNA adducts and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations in umbilical cord blood, and neurodevelopment at age 2 years and whether BDNF is a mediator of the associations between PAH/aromatic-DNA adducts and neurodevelopment. Methods: PAH/aromatic-DNA adduct concentrations in cord blood were measured in 505 children born to nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women residing in NYC, and a subset was assessed for neurodevelopment at 2 years using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Mental Development Index (MDI). A spectrum of PAH/aromatic-DNA adducts was measured using the 32 P-postlabeling assay; DNA adducts formed by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a representative PAH, were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)/fluorescence. BDNF mature protein in cord blood plasma was quantified by an ELISA. Multivariate regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders, was conducted. Results: PAH/aromatic-DNA adduct concentration measured by postlabeling was inversely associated with BDNF concentration (p=0.02) and with MDI scores at 2 years (p=0.04). BDNF level was positively associated with MDI scores (p=0.003). Restricting to subjects having all three measures (PAH/aromatic-DNA adducts by postlabeling, MDI, and BDNF), results were similar but attenuated (p=0.13, p=0.05, p=0.01, respectively). Associations between B[a]P-DNA adducts and BDNF and B[a]P-DNA adducts and MDI at age 2 years were not significant. At age 3 years, the positive association of BDNF with MDI was not observed. Conclusions: The results at age 2 suggest that prenatal exposure to a spectrum of PAH/aromatic pollutants may adversely affect early neurodevelopment, in part by reducing BDNF levels during the fetal period. However, the same relationship was not seen at age 3. - Highlights: • Cord blood Polycyclic Aromatic

  7. Prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/aromatics, BDNF and child development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Frederica, E-mail: fpp1@columbia.edu [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th St., New York, NY 10032 (United States); Columbia Center for Children' s Environmental Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th St., New York, NY 10032 (United States); Phillips, David H. [Analytical and Environmental Sciences Division, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, King' s College London, Franklin-Wilkins Building, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Wang, Ya [Columbia Center for Children' s Environmental Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th St., New York, NY 10032 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th St., New York, NY 10032 (United States); Roen, Emily; Herbstman, Julie [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th St., New York, NY 10032 (United States); Columbia Center for Children' s Environmental Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th St., New York, NY 10032 (United States); Rauh, Virginia [Columbia Center for Children' s Environmental Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th St., New York, NY 10032 (United States); The Heilbrunn Department of Population and Family Health, Columbia University, 60 Haven Avenue, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Wang, Shuang [Columbia Center for Children' s Environmental Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th St., New York, NY 10032 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th St., New York, NY 10032 (United States); Tang, Deliang [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th St., New York, NY 10032 (United States); Columbia Center for Children' s Environmental Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th St., New York, NY 10032 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Objectives: Within a New York City (NYC) birth cohort, we assessed the associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and other aromatic DNA adducts and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations in umbilical cord blood, and neurodevelopment at age 2 years and whether BDNF is a mediator of the associations between PAH/aromatic-DNA adducts and neurodevelopment. Methods: PAH/aromatic-DNA adduct concentrations in cord blood were measured in 505 children born to nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women residing in NYC, and a subset was assessed for neurodevelopment at 2 years using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Mental Development Index (MDI). A spectrum of PAH/aromatic-DNA adducts was measured using the {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay; DNA adducts formed by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a representative PAH, were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)/fluorescence. BDNF mature protein in cord blood plasma was quantified by an ELISA. Multivariate regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders, was conducted. Results: PAH/aromatic-DNA adduct concentration measured by postlabeling was inversely associated with BDNF concentration (p=0.02) and with MDI scores at 2 years (p=0.04). BDNF level was positively associated with MDI scores (p=0.003). Restricting to subjects having all three measures (PAH/aromatic-DNA adducts by postlabeling, MDI, and BDNF), results were similar but attenuated (p=0.13, p=0.05, p=0.01, respectively). Associations between B[a]P-DNA adducts and BDNF and B[a]P-DNA adducts and MDI at age 2 years were not significant. At age 3 years, the positive association of BDNF with MDI was not observed. Conclusions: The results at age 2 suggest that prenatal exposure to a spectrum of PAH/aromatic pollutants may adversely affect early neurodevelopment, in part by reducing BDNF levels during the fetal period. However, the same relationship was not seen at age 3. - Highlights: • Cord blood Polycyclic

  8. Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basić-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanović; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida

    2013-06-01

    Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients.

  9. MEGACARYOCYTES IN THE PERIPHERAL CIRCULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minot, George R.

    1922-01-01

    A megacaryocyte is seen commonly as an occasional cell in the peripheral blood of patients with myelogenous leucemia. Less commonly they appear in relatively large numbers. These giant cells also may occur in the blood under other conditions. Their presence is indicative of a bone marrow under intense strain. PMID:19868650

  10. [Ultrasound-guided peripheral catheterization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleras-Duran, Laia; Fuentes-Pumarola, Concepció

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral catheterization is a technique that can be difficult in some patients. Some studies have recently described the use of ultrasound to guide the venous catheterization. To describe the success rate, time required, complications of ultrasound-guided peripheral venous catheterization. and patients and professionals satisfaction The search was performed in databases (Medline-PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and Cuiden Plus) for studies published about ultrasound-guided peripheral venous catheterization performed on patients that provided results on the success of the technique, complications, time used, patient satisfaction and the type of professional who performed the technique. A total of 21 studies were included. Most of them get a higher success rate 80% in the catheterization ecoguide and time it is not higher than the traditional technique. The Technical complications analyzed were arterial puncture rates and lower nerve 10%. In all studies measuring and comparing patient satisfaction in the art ecoguide is greater. Various professional groups perform the technique. The use of ultrasound for peripheral pipes has a high success rate, complications are rare and the time used is similar to that of the traditional technique. The technique of inserting catheters through ultrasound may be learned by any professional group performing venipuncture. Finally, it gets underscores the high patient satisfaction with the use of this technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Bias in Peripheral Depression Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, André F; Köhler, Cristiano A; Brunoni, André R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To aid in the differentiation of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) from healthy controls, numerous peripheral biomarkers have been proposed. To date, no comprehensive evaluation of the existence of bias favoring the publication of significant results or inflating effect...

  12. What Is Peripheral Artery Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or bluish color to the skin A lower temperature in one leg compared to the other leg Poor nail growth on the toes and decreased hair growth on the legs Erectile dysfunction, especially among men who have diabetes Diagnosis Peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.) is diagnosed based ...

  13. Survey of benzene and aromatics in Canadian Gasoline - 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushingham, M.

    1996-01-01

    A comprehensive database of the benzene and aromatics levels of gasoline produced in or imported into Canada during 1994, was presented. Environment Canada conducted a survey that requested refineries and importers to report quarterly on benzene and aromatics levels in gasoline. Benzene, which has been declared toxic by the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, is found in gasoline and is formed during the combustion of the aromatic components of gasoline. It was shown that benzene and aromatics levels differ regionally and seasonally. There are also variations in benzene levels between batches of gasoline produced at any one refinery. This report listed the responses to the benzene/aromatics survey. It also described the analytical procedures used to measure benzene and aromatics levels in gasoline, and provided guidelines for reporting gasoline benzene and total aromatics data. 7 tabs., 21 figs

  14. Catalytic phosphonation of high performance polymers and POSS. Novel components for polymer blend and nanocomposite fuel cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, T.R.

    2006-10-15

    Aim of this thesis was the preparation and evaluation of phosphonated high performance (HP) polyelectrolytes and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) for polyelectrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) application. Brominated derivatives of the commercial high performance (HP) polymers poly(ethersulfone) (PES), poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK), poly(phenylsulfone) (PPSu), poly(sulfone) (PSU) and of octaphenyl-POSS of own production were phosphonated by Ni-catalysed Arbuzov reaction. Phosphonated PSU was cast into pure and blend films with sulfonated PEEK (s-PEEK) to investigate H+-conductivity, water uptake and film morphology. Blend films' properties were referenced to films containing unmodified blend partners. Solution-compounding of phosphonated octaphenyl-POSS and s-PEEK was used to produce novel nanocomposite films. An in-situ zirconisation method was assessed as convenient strategy for novel ionically crosslinked membranes of enhanced swelling resistance. Dibromo isocyanuric acid (DBI) and N-bromo succinimide (NBS) as brominating agents allowed polymer analogous preparation of the novel brominated PES and PEEK with precise reaction control. A random distribution of functional groups, i.e. polyelectrolytes' microstructural homogeneity was revealed as decisive factor concerning solubility of phosphonated PSU. Brominated phT8 was prepared with Br2 by a high temperature approach in tetrachloroethane (TCE). Brominated polymers were phosphonated by Ni-catalysis in non-coordinating high temperature solvents, such as diphenylether, benzophenone and diphenylsulfone without notable solvent influence. The lack of solvent - catalyst complexes and high reaction temperatures of 180-200 C led to halogen-free phosphonates with unprecedented high functionalities. Polymer analogous application of P(OSiMe3)3 offered a novel direct access to easily cleavable disilyl ester derivatives. These were obtained from PEEK and PSU in near quantitative yields at NiCl2-loads as

  15. Possíveis interações medicamentosas em pacientes polimedicados de Novo Hamburgo, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Tasso da SILVA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A expectativa de vida da população mundial tem aumentado e consequentemente, tem ocorrido aumento no nível de doenças crônico degenerativas e acréscimo no uso concomitantemente de medicamentos, caracterizando a polifarmácia, o que aumenta o risco de interações medicamentosas (IM. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar possíveis IM entre os medicamentos utilizados por um grupo de pacientes polimedicados de Novo Hamburgo, RS. Foi realizado um estudo transversal com voluntários de um projeto de pesquisa durante sua entrevista inicial. Foram avaliados dados sócio-demográficos, patologias, medicamentos utilizados e suas IM. As doenças de base foram classificadas de acordo com o código internacional de doenças (CID-10 e os medicamentos utilizados classificados conforme os padrões Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC. As IM foram identificadas e classificadas conforme literatura e pelo sistema Micromedex®. Participaram do estudo 67 pacientes (62±9 anos, maioria do sexo feminino,74,6%, sendo que 76,1% dos pacientes apresentaram probabilidade de desenvolverem algum tipo de IM. Ao todo foram identificadas 157 possíveis IM, sendo 3,0±2,2 interações por paciente. Destas, 69,4% foram consideradas moderadas, 19,8% graves e 10,8% leves. 51,6% das interações ocorrem por mecanismo farmacodinâmico, 31,9% farmacocinético e 16,5% apresentam ambos mecanismos. A IM mais prevalente foi entre ácido acetilsalicílico e hidroclorotiazida. A maioria das IM identificadas foi do tipo grave ou moderada, com riscos consideráveis à saúde do paciente. Assim, as IM identificadas podem comprometer a segurança do paciente, evidenciando a relevância deste tema e a necessidade de avaliar e monitorar a terapêutica medicamentosa.

  16. Reactivity of the tin homolog of POSS, butylstannoxane dodecamer, in oxygen-induced crosslinking reactions with an organic polymer matrix: study of long-time behavior

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodzen, Krzysztof; Strachota, Adam; Ribot, F.; Matějka, Libor; Kovářová, Jana; Trchová, Miroslava; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 118, August (2015), s. 147-166 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/11/2151 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : POSS * stannoxane * reactivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.120, year: 2015

  17. Effect of network mesh size on the thermo-mechanical properties of epoxy nanocomposites with the heavier homologue of POSS, the inorganic butylstannoxane cages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodzen, Krzysztof; Strachota, Adam; Ribot, F.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 57, August (2014), s. 169-181 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/11/2151 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanocomposite * POSS * stannoxane Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.005, year: 2014

  18. Polyhedral oligomeric butyl stannoxane cages (Sn-POSS) as oxidation-activated linear repairing units or crosslinking nano-building blocks, depending on structure of the polymer matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodzen, Krzysztof; Strachota, Adam; Raus, Vladimír; Pavlova, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 142, August (2017), s. 1-20 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05007S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : POSS * stannoxane * nanocomposite Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.386, year: 2016

  19. Radiation chemistry of aromatic dimer radical cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kazumasa; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    π-π Interactions of aromatic molecules are paid attention much in many fields, especially biology, chemistry, and applied physics, represented as protein, DNA, electron donor-accepter complexes, charge transfers, and self assembly molecules. Aromatic molecules including benzene rings are the simplest case to study the π-π interactions. To interpret the charge resonance (CR) structure in the dimer radical cations, spectroscopic and ESR methods have been carried out. The spectroscopic study on the dimer radical ion of molecules with two chromophores would be profitable to identify the electronic and configurational properties. In this article, dynamics of the dimer radical cation of benzenes, polystyrenes, and resist polymers is described on the basis of direct observation of CR band by the nanosecond pulse radiolysis and low temperature γ-radiolysis methods. (author)

  20. Side Chain Cyclized Aromatic Amino Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van der Poorten, Olivier; Knuhtsen, Astrid; Sejer Pedersen, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the conformation of flexible peptides is a proven strategy to increase potency, selectivity, and metabolic stability. The focus has mostly been on constraining the backbone dihedral angles; however, the correct orientation of the amino acid side chains (χ-space) that constitute...... the peptide pharmacophore is equally important. Control of χ-space utilizes conformationally constrained amino acids that favor, disfavor, or exclude the gauche (-), the gauche (+), or the trans conformation. In this review we focus on cyclic aromatic amino acids in which the side chain is connected...... to the peptide backbone to provide control of χ(1)- and χ(2)-space. The manifold applications for cyclized analogues of the aromatic amino acids Phe, Tyr, Trp, and His within peptide medicinal chemistry are showcased herein with examples of enzyme inhibitors and ligands for G protein-coupled receptors....

  1. Extremely long aromatics: diastereomerically pure [19]helicene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nejedlý, Jindřich; Rybáček, Jiří; Stará, Irena G.; Starý, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2016), s. 78-79 ISSN 2336-7202. [Mezioborové setkání mladých biologů, biochemiků a chemiků /16./. 10.05.2016-13.05.2016, Milovy] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-08294S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : long helicene * long aromatics * chiral molecules Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  2. Studies in Aromatic and Amine Nitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-20

    of Commerce, May 1978. 4. J. Hoggett , R. Moodie, F. Penton, and K. Schofield, Nitration and Aromatic Reactivity (Cambridge University Press, 1971). 5...Moodie, K. Schofield, and G. Tobin, J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Comm., 180 (1978); (b) J. Hoggett , R. Moodie, and K. Schofield, Chem. Comm. 605 (1969). 10. (a) S...Lawrence Livermore Laboratories (Received, 5th Februaty 1980; Com. 124.) 42 ’(a) J. Hoggett , R. B. Moodie, J. R. Penton, and K. Schofield, in ’Nitration

  3. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  4. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  5. Microbial transformation of chlorinated aromatics in sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Beurskens, J.E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous contaminants like heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated benzenes (CBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated furans (PCDFs) are detected in the major rivers in the Netherlands. These contaminants have relatively low aqueous solubilities and bind substantially to the suspended solids in river water. Due to decreasing stream velocities in the downstream stretches of a...

  6. Activity relationships for aromatic crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Mark James

    1998-01-01

    This thesis involves an investigation of aromatic crown ethers and a study of their binding constants for alkali metals. The study was motivated by the current needs of the semiconductor industry to improve the scavenging of mobile ions from fabricated circuits. A number of aromatic crown ethers have been sulphonated in an attempt to improve their water solubility and cation binding activity. These materials have been extensively studied and their binding activity determined. In collaboration with a molecular modelling study, the effect of ionisable sulphonate groups on the macrocycles' behaviour has been investigated. The broader issue of the effect of substituents in aromatic crown ethers has also been studied with the preparation of a wide range of substituted crown ethers. The cation binding activity of these materials has been found to bear a simple relationship to the electron withdrawing nature of the aromatic substituents. This relationship can be accurately monitored using electronic charge densities from molecular modelling and this rational has been applied to the study of proton ionisable and lariating crown ethers. The incorporation of crown ethers into polyamic acid and polyimide frameworks has also been investigated, where the resulting materials have been found to exhibit unusual cation binding and uptake properties. These results imply that the combination of the crown ethers' macrocycle and adjacent carboxylic acid residues, from the polyamic acids, are conducive to effective cationic binding. NMR measurements, in conjunction with molecular modelling, have been used to explore the geometry changes encountered as the crown ether goes from it's uncomplexed to its complexed state. The energy requirement for these geometry changes has subsequently been used to examine the cation selectivity of these materials. The electronic charge changes associated with the complexation have also been investigated and correlated with the theoretical results. (author)

  7. Transformations of aromatic hydrocarbons over zeolites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voláková, Martina; Žilková, Naděžda; Čejka, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 34, 5-7 (2008), s. 439-454 ISSN 0922-6168 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0197; GA AV ČR 1QS400400560; GA AV ČR KJB4040402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : aromatic hydrocarbons * zeolites * alkylation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.514, year: 2008

  8. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000234.htm Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge To use the sharing ... peripheral artery). You may have also had a stent placed. To perform the procedure: Your doctor inserted ...

  9. Hypothyroidism: Can It Cause Peripheral Neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism: Can it cause peripheral neuropathy? Can hypothyroidism cause peripheral neuropathy and, if so, how is it treated? Answers from Todd B. Nippoldt, M.D. Hypothyroidism — a condition in which your ...

  10. Aromatics Oxidation and Soot Formation in Flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J. B.; Richter, H.

    2005-03-29

    This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and the growth process to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of increasing size, soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The overall objective of the experimental aromatics oxidation work is to extend the set of available data by measuring concentration profiles for decomposition intermediates such as phenyl, cyclopentadienyl, phenoxy or indenyl radicals which could not be measured with molecular-beam mass spectrometry to permit further refinement and testing of benzene oxidation mechanisms. The focus includes PAH radicals which are thought to play a major role in the soot formation process while their concentrations are in many cases too low to permit measurement with conventional mass spectrometry. The radical species measurements are used in critical testing and improvement of a kinetic model describing benzene oxidation and PAH growth. Thermodynamic property data of selected species are determined computationally, for instance using density functional theory (DFT). Potential energy surfaces are explored in order to identify additional reaction pathways. The ultimate goal is to understand the conversion of high molecular weight compounds to nascent soot particles, to assess the roles of planar and curved PAH and relationships between soot and fullerenes formation. The specific aims are to characterize both the high molecular weight compounds involved in the nucleation of soot particles and the structure of soot including internal nanoscale features indicative of contributions of planar and/or curved PAH to particle inception.

  11. Strong CH/O interactions between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and water: Influence of aromatic system size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veljković, Dušan Ž

    2018-03-01

    Energies of CH/O interactions between water molecule and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with a different number of aromatic rings were calculated using ab initio calculations at MP2/cc-PVTZ level. Results show that an additional aromatic ring in structure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons significantly strengthens CH/O interactions. Calculated interaction energies in optimized structures of the most stable tetracene/water complex is -2.27 kcal/mol, anthracene/water is -2.13 kcal/mol and naphthalene/water is -1.97 kcal/mol. These interactions are stronger than CH/O contacts in benzene/water complex (-1.44 kcal/mol) while CH/O contacts in tetracene/water complex are even stronger than CH/O contacts in pyridine/water complexes (-2.21 kcal/mol). Electrostatic potential maps for different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were calculated and used to explain trends in the energies of interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fouling behaviors of polybenzimidazole (PBI)-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hollow fiber membranes for engineering osmosis processes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Sicong; Fu, Xiuzhu; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated the individual effects of reverse salt flux and permeate flux on fouling behaviors of as-spun and annealed polybenzimidazole (PBI)-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hollow fiber membranes under forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) processes. Two types of membrane fouling had been studied; namely, inorganic fouling (CaSO4·2H2O gypsum scaling) during FO operations and organic fouling (sodium alginate fouling) during PRO operations. It is found that gypsum scaling on the membrane surface may be inhibited and even eliminated with an increase in reverse MgCl2 flux due to competitive formations of MgSO4° and CaSO4·2H2O. In contrast, the increase of reverse NaCl flux exhibits a slight enhancement on alginate fouling in both FO and PRO processes. Comparing to the reverse salt flux, the permeate flux always plays a dominant role in fouling. Therefore, lesser fouling has been observed on the membrane surface under the pressurized PRO process than FO process because the reduced initial flux mitigates the fouling phenomena more significantly than the enhancement caused by an increase in reverse NaCl flux. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Feyerabend, Interculturalismo e Etnobiologia: algumas possíveis articulações no ensino de biologia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales de Astrogildo e Tréz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n3p129 A formação do educador em biologia é marcada por uma abordagem cientificista, que legitima o conhecimento sobre biologia a partir da ciência ocidental em detrimento de outros conhecimentos sobre a vida. Partindo da questão sobre a vida que se privilegia na abordagem educativa tradicional da biologia, o artigo procura articular as implicações das etnociências, particularmente da etnobiologia, com a discussão sobre inter/multiculturalismo e o pensamento de Paul Feyerabend. As contribuições dos estudos e discussões provenientes deste substrato teórico são de extrema relevância para esta questão. A partir delas se pode pensar que uma outra biologia é não somente possível, mas necessária, numa aposta de defesa da legitimidade do espaço do etnoconhecimento no ensino de biologia. O elenco de um ou outro etnoconhecimento, respeitado em seu contexto, como contraponto ao unicismo da visão científica, pode ser suficiente para ampliar o horizonte de possibilidades que delimitam os saberes em relação à vida.

  14. The gendered embodiment of shame: Intersections of acquaintance rape, trauma and self-blame in Pompidou posse by Sarah Lotz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Murray

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a feminist literary analysis of the gendered embodiment of shame in Pompidou posse by Sarah Lotz. In this novel, Lotz depicts female characters who are sexually assaulted by acquaintances and the resultant shame and trauma reside in their bodies. I will demonstrate that the embodied shame of these characters is distinctly gendered and that this shapes their attempts to cope with the aftermath of the sexual assaults. A close reading of the text reveals that the characters are exposed to overwhelming social messages of female culpability in a larger context that is rife with misogyny. As a result, they anticipate blame to such an extent that they blame themselves and internalise this blame as shame. By focusing on the bodies of the survivors, Lotz demonstrates the embodiment of shame, but she also suggests a corporeal challenge to silencing. The bodies of these characters speak loudly, albeit sometimes in the halting language of trauma, and they function to alert them to danger, to help them excavate memories that are made inaccessible and to testify to traumatic sexual assault.

  15. Fouling behaviors of polybenzimidazole (PBI)-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hollow fiber membranes for engineering osmosis processes

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Sicong

    2014-02-01

    This paper investigated the individual effects of reverse salt flux and permeate flux on fouling behaviors of as-spun and annealed polybenzimidazole (PBI)-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hollow fiber membranes under forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) processes. Two types of membrane fouling had been studied; namely, inorganic fouling (CaSO4·2H2O gypsum scaling) during FO operations and organic fouling (sodium alginate fouling) during PRO operations. It is found that gypsum scaling on the membrane surface may be inhibited and even eliminated with an increase in reverse MgCl2 flux due to competitive formations of MgSO4° and CaSO4·2H2O. In contrast, the increase of reverse NaCl flux exhibits a slight enhancement on alginate fouling in both FO and PRO processes. Comparing to the reverse salt flux, the permeate flux always plays a dominant role in fouling. Therefore, lesser fouling has been observed on the membrane surface under the pressurized PRO process than FO process because the reduced initial flux mitigates the fouling phenomena more significantly than the enhancement caused by an increase in reverse NaCl flux. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Coaching Peripheral Vision Training for Soccer Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…

  17. Peripheral Neuropathy – Clinical and Electrophysiological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae; Prasad, Kalpana; Lloyd, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a primer on the pathophysiology and clinical evaluation of peripheral neuropathy for the radiologist. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) has utility in the diagnosis of many focal peripheral nerve lesions. When combined with history, examination, electrophysiology, and laboratory data, future advancements in high-field MRN may play an increasingly important role in the evaluation of patients with peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24210312

  18. Monitoring sweep in peripheral waterflood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouser, B.J.; Al-Askar, Y.A.; Hassoun, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the techniques used and the results obtained in monitoring the water advance in a peripheral waterflood of a carbonate reservoir. The peripheral pattern used in the subject reservoir gives a water advanced similar to that obtained in a water drive reservoir. However, monitoring this particular reservoir is complicated by the use of a low salinity brine for flooding and the areal shape of the reservoir. The use of pulsed neutron capture logging in conjunction with production logging has been effective in differentiating between oil and water in porous zones in existing producers. The use of the two logs has been successful despite the problems normally encountered when logging open hole completions in a reservoir being flooded with a low salinity brine. Results have been confirmed and enhanced by open hole logs of new wells being drilled in the water invaded areas

  19. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslantunali D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available D Arslantunali,1–3,* T Dursun,1,2,* D Yucel,1,4,5 N Hasirci,1,2,6 V Hasirci,1,2,7 1BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Biotechnology, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Bioengineering, Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey; 4Faculty of Engineering, Department of Medical Engineering, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 5School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 7Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type are being presented. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials

  20. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    LM, de Crombrugghe B. Some recent advances in the chemistry and biology of trans- forming growth factor-beta. J Cell Biol 1987;105:1039e45. 12. Hao Y...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In current war trauma, 20-30% of all extremity injuries and >80% of penetrating injuries being associated with peripheral nerve...through both axonal advance and in revascularization of the graft following placement. We are confident that this technology may allow us to

  1. Communication, Consumption and Peripheral Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÍZIA VILLAÇA

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses central/peripheral dynamics and its new semantics in the big scenario of globalization. The processes of hybridization between the local and the global spaces are discussed focusing the strategies of inclusion and exclusion through some examples from media and cultural industry. The methodology helps to reflect about the theme using elements of epistemology communication, consumer society and cultural studies.

  2. Peripheral facial palsy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Yılmaz, Tuba Sevim; Akıncı, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Metabolism and Biomarkers of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Molecular Epidemiology Studies: Lessons Learned from Aromatic Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are structurally related classes of carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high-temperature cooking of meats. Both classes of procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-hydroxylation of the exocyclic amine group, to produce a common proposed intermediate, the arylnitrenium ion, which is the critical metabolite implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. However, the biochemistry and chemical properties of these compounds are distinct and different biomarkers of aromatic amines and HAAs have been developed for human biomonitoring studies. Hemoglobin adducts have been extensively used as biomarkers to monitor occupational and environmental exposures to a number of aromatic amines; however, HAAs do not form hemoglobin adducts at appreciable levels and other biomarkers have been sought. A number of epidemiologic studies that have investigated dietary consumption of well-done meat in relation to various tumor sites reported a positive association between cancer risk and well-done meat consumption, although some studies have shown no associations between well-done meat and cancer risk. A major limiting factor in most epidemiological studies is the uncertainty in quantitative estimates of chronic exposure to HAAs and, thus, the association of HAAs formed in cooked meat and cancer risk has been difficult to establish. There is a critical need to establish long-term biomarkers of HAAs that can be implemented in molecular epidemioIogy studies. In this review article, we highlight and contrast the biochemistry of several prototypical carcinogenic aromatic amines and HAAs to which humans are chronically exposed. The biochemical properties and the impact of polymorphisms of the major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes on the biological effects of these chemicals are examined. Lastly, the analytical approaches that have been successfully employed to biomonitor aromatic amines and HAAs, and

  4. Recent Advances in Microbial Production of Aromatic Chemicals and Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Shuhei; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-08-01

    Along with the development of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology tools, various microbes are being used to produce aromatic chemicals. In microbes, aromatics are mainly produced via a common important precursor, chorismate, in the shikimate pathway. Natural or non-natural aromatics have been produced by engineering metabolic pathways involving chorismate. In the past decade, novel approaches have appeared to produce various aromatics or to increase their productivity, whereas previously, the targets were mainly aromatic amino acids and the strategy was deregulating feedback inhibition. In this review, we summarize recent studies of microbial production of aromatics based on metabolic engineering approaches. In addition, future perspectives and challenges in this research area are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A method of refining aromatic hydrocarbons from coal chemical production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieborak, K.; Koprowski, A.; Ratajczak, W.

    1979-10-01

    A method is disclosed for refining aromatic hydrocarbons of coal chemical production by contact of liquid aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures with a strongly acid macroporous sulfocationite in the H-form at atmospheric pressure and high temperature. The method is distinguished in that the aromatic hydrocarbons and their mixtures, from which alkali compounds have already been removed, are supplied for refinement with the sulfocationite with simultaneous addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons, followed by separation of pure hydrocarbons by rectification. Styrene or alpha-methylstyrene is used as the olefin derivatives of the aromatic hydrocarbons. The method is performed in several stages with addition of olefin derivatives of aromatic hydrocarbons at each stage.

  6. Peripheral doses from pediatric IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Eric E.; Maserang, Beth; Wood, Roy; Mansur, David

    2006-01-01

    Peripheral dose (PD) data exist for conventional fields (≥10 cm) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery to standard adult-sized phantoms. Pediatric peripheral dose reports are limited to conventional therapy and are model based. Our goal was to ascertain whether data acquired from full phantom studies and/or pediatric models, with IMRT treatment times, could predict Organ at Risk (OAR) dose for pediatric IMRT. As monitor units (MUs) are greater for IMRT, it is expected IMRT PD will be higher; potentially compounded by decreased patient size (absorption). Baseline slab phantom peripheral dose measurements were conducted for very small field sizes (from 2 to 10 cm). Data were collected at distances ranging from 5 to 72 cm away from the field edges. Collimation was either with the collimating jaws or the multileaf collimator (MLC) oriented either perpendicular or along the peripheral dose measurement plane. For the clinical tests, five patients with intracranial or base of skull lesions were chosen. IMRT and conventional three-dimensional (3D) plans for the same patient/target/dose (180 cGy), were optimized without limitation to the number of fields or wedge use. Six MV, 120-leaf MLC Varian axial beams were used. A phantom mimicking a 3-year-old was configured per Center for Disease Control data. Micro (0.125 cc) and cylindrical (0.6 cc) ionization chambers were appropriated for the thyroid, breast, ovaries, and testes. The PD was recorded by electrometers set to the 10 -10 scale. Each system set was uniquely calibrated. For the slab phantom studies, close peripheral points were found to have a higher dose for low energy and larger field size and when MLC was not deployed. For points more distant from the field edge, the PD was higher for high-energy beams. MLC orientation was found to be inconsequential for the small fields tested. The thyroid dose was lower for IMRT delivery than that predicted for conventional (ratio of IMRT/cnventional ranged from

  7. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...... surgical techniques and better outcome after peripheral nerve injury. Decision making in peripheral nerve surgery continues to be a complex challenge, where the mechanism of injury, repeated clinical evaluation, neuroradiological and neurophysiological examination, and detailed knowledge of the peripheral...... nervous system response to injury are prerequisite to obtain the best possible outcome. Surgery continues to be the primary treatment modality for peripheral nerve tumors and advances in adjuvant oncological treatment has improved outcome after malignant peripheral nerve tumors. The present chapter...

  8. Cation Radical Accelerated Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution via Organic Photoredox Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Nicholas E S; Nicewicz, David A

    2017-11-15

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution (S N Ar) is a direct method for arene functionalization; however, it can be hampered by low reactivity of arene substrates and their availability. Herein we describe a cation radical-accelerated nucleophilic aromatic substitution using methoxy- and benzyloxy-groups as nucleofuges. In particular, lignin-derived aromatics containing guaiacol and veratrole motifs were competent substrates for functionalization. We also demonstrate an example of site-selective substitutive oxygenation with trifluoroethanol to afford the desired trifluoromethylaryl ether.

  9. Spectrofluorimetric study of the aromatic carbohydrates of Noriisk petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseeva, T.A.; Lekveishvili, E.G.; Melikadze, L.D.; Teplitskaia, T.A.; Tevdorashvili, M.N.

    1979-01-01

    Investigation was made of the specimens of aromatic hydrocarbons which were produced by photochemical decomposition of the products of photocondensation with maleicanhydride of narrow aromatic fractions separated by a system of methods from a high temperature part of Noriisk petroleum. Use was made of a standard spectrofluorimeter of low resolution. A series of aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, benzofluorene, phenantrene, chrizene, pyrene, tetraphene, and 3,4-benzophenantrene were installed in the machine.

  10. Hepatic abscess versus peripheral cholangiocarcinoma: Sonographic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hwan Hoon; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kang, Chang Ho; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Hee [Kunkuk University College of Medicine, Chung-Ju Hospital, Chung-Ju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    To find out the sonographic findings that are useful to differentiate hepatic abscess from peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Twenty-two hepatic abscesses and 22 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas which had been confirmed histologically were included in this study. Objective points were echo characteristics of the lesion, internal septation, presence of peripheral low echoic rim, demarcation from normal liver(well or poorly defined), posterior enhancement, multiplicity, dilatation of bile duct(obstructive or non-obstructive), intrahepatic duct stone, pleural effusion, and intra-abdominal fluid collection. Echo characteristics of the lesion were classified in-to four types. Type I; Predominantly echogenic with hypoechoic portion, type II; Echogenic without hypoechoic portion, type III; Predominantly hypoechoic with echogenic portion, type IV; Hypoechoic without echogenic portion. 1)Nine abscesses and 2 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type I(p=0.037), 2)One abscess and 18 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type II(p=0.001), 3)Seven abscesses and none of peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type III(p=0.001), 4)Five abscesses and 2 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type IV(p=0.410). Only 7 abscesses showed internal septations(p=0.013). One abscess and 9 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas showed peripheral hypoechoic halos(p=0.012). Only 9 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas showed obstructive bile duct dilatation (p=0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between abscess and peripheral cholangiocarcinoma on other objective points. Predominantly echogenic with hypoechoic portion, predominantly hypoechoic with echogenic portion, and internal septation are the features suggestive of hepatic abscess, and echogenic without hypoechoic portion, peripheral hypoechoic halo, obstructive bile duct dilatation are suggestive of peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Therefore these sonographic findings are helpful to differentiate hepatic abscess from peripheral

  11. Separation of aromatics by vapor permeation through solvent swollen membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, A.; Adachi, K.; Feng, Y. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-12-20

    A vapor permeation process for aromatics separation from a hydrocarbon mixture was studied by means of the simultaneous permeation of dimethylsulfoxide vapor as an agent for membrane swelling and preferential permeation of aromatics. The separation performance of the process was demonstrated by a polyvinylalcohol membrane for mixed vapors of benzene/cyclohexane, xylene/octane and a model gasoline. The aromatic vapors preferentially permeated from these mixed vapor feeds. The separation factor was over 10. The separation mechanism of the process mainly depends on the relative salability of the vapors between aromatics and other hydrocarbons in dimethylsulfoxide. 14 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Possível reação do mercado brasileiro aos investimentos em P&D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Vallelado González

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A importância dos ativos intangíveis é crescente no cenário econômico atual, o que faz com que muitas pesquisas sejam dedicadas a eles. Nesse contexto está a avaliação da capacidade de criação de valor de tais ativos, com destaque para Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (P&D. Já há muitas pesquisas sobre esse tema nos Estados Unidos, sendo escassa, no entanto, em mercados em desenvolvimento. Este trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar uma pesquisa sobre possível efeito econômico de investimentos em P&D nas empresas brasileiras. Para tanto se fez uma revisão bibliográfica sobre a questão em nível mundial e procedeu-se a uma pesquisa empírica nas empresas brasileiras listadas na Bovespa. Apesar dos baixos níveis de investimentos em P&D encontrados, verificou-se sinal de uma sensibilidade positiva do mercado brasileiro com relação aos gastos das empresas em P&D, o que pode ser um indicativo de que esse mercado considera estes como investimentos capazes de gerar benefícios futuros. Adicionalmente se aponta a necessidade de utilização de outros modelos, bem como também a consideração de outros fatores para amadurecer a questão que tem sido motivo de extensa pesquisa em outros mercados.

  13. Aromatic plant production on metal contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D.; Craker, Lyle E.; Xing Baoshan; Nielsen, Niels E.; Wilcox, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Field and container experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of growing aromatic crops in metal contaminated areas and the effect of metals on herbage and oil productivity. The field experiments were conducted in the vicinities of the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (Zn-Cu smelter) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria using coriander, sage, dill, basil, hyssop, lemon balm, and chamomile grown at various distances from the smelter. Herbage essential oil yields of basil, chamomile, dill, and sage were reduced when they were grown closer to the smelter. Metal removal from the site with the harvestable plant parts was as high as 180 g ha -1 for Cd, 660 g ha -1 for Pb, 180 g ha -1 for Cu, 350 g ha -1 for Mn, and 205 g ha -1 for Zn. Sequential extraction of soil demonstrated that metal fractionation was affected by the distance to the smelter. With decreasing distance to the smelter, the transfer factor (TF) for Cu and Zn decreased but increased for Cd, while the bioavailability factor (BF) for Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn decreased. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of contaminated soil verified that most of the Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were in the form of small (< 1 μm) particles, although there were larger particles (1-5 μm) with high concentrations of individual metals. This study demonstrated that high concentrations of heavy metals in soil or growth medium did not result in metal transfer into the essential oil. Of the tested metals, only Cu at high concentrations may reduce oil content. Our results demonstrated that aromatic crops may not have significant phytoremediation potential, but growth of these crops in metal contaminated agricultural soils is a feasible alternative. Aromatic crops can provide economic return and metal-free final product, the essential oil

  14. Aromatic plant production on metal contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D. [Mississippi State, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and North Mississippi Research and Extension Center, 5421 Highway 145 South, Verona, MS 38879 (United States)], E-mail: vj40@pss.msstate.edu; Craker, Lyle E.; Xing Baoshan [Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, 12 Stockbridge Hall, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Nielsen, Niels E. [Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility Lab, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK1871, Copenhagen (Denmark); Wilcox, Andrew [Harper Adams University College, Newport, Shropshire, TF10 8NB (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-01

    Field and container experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of growing aromatic crops in metal contaminated areas and the effect of metals on herbage and oil productivity. The field experiments were conducted in the vicinities of the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (Zn-Cu smelter) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria using coriander, sage, dill, basil, hyssop, lemon balm, and chamomile grown at various distances from the smelter. Herbage essential oil yields of basil, chamomile, dill, and sage were reduced when they were grown closer to the smelter. Metal removal from the site with the harvestable plant parts was as high as 180 g ha{sup -1} for Cd, 660 g ha{sup -1} for Pb, 180 g ha{sup -1} for Cu, 350 g ha{sup -1} for Mn, and 205 g ha{sup -1} for Zn. Sequential extraction of soil demonstrated that metal fractionation was affected by the distance to the smelter. With decreasing distance to the smelter, the transfer factor (TF) for Cu and Zn decreased but increased for Cd, while the bioavailability factor (BF) for Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn decreased. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of contaminated soil verified that most of the Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were in the form of small (< 1 {mu}m) particles, although there were larger particles (1-5 {mu}m) with high concentrations of individual metals. This study demonstrated that high concentrations of heavy metals in soil or growth medium did not result in metal transfer into the essential oil. Of the tested metals, only Cu at high concentrations may reduce oil content. Our results demonstrated that aromatic crops may not have significant phytoremediation potential, but growth of these crops in metal contaminated agricultural soils is a feasible alternative. Aromatic crops can provide economic return and metal-free final product, the essential oil.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Shantanu

    2005-06-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important com- ponent of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). They are being used as probes for understanding of process and conditions of different astrophysical environments. The understanding of their IR spectra and its variations with PAH size and ionization state is useful in characterizing the ISM. Spectral features of model graphene sheets and also that of smaller PAH molecules are reported. The variation of intensity with charge state of the molecule shows that cations give a better correlation with observations. The relationship between changes in charge distribution with intensity changes upon ionization has been probed.

  16. Microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkering, F.; Breure, A.M.; Andel, J.G. van

    1992-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are hazardous compounds originating from oil, tar, creosote, or from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Application of biotechnological techniques for remediation of polluted soils from PAH demonstrated that the high molecular compounds are degraded very slowly, and that the residual concentration of PAH often is too high to permit application of the treated soil. Investigations were started to establish process parameters for optimal biodegradation of PAH. The aim is to achieve a relation between the physical properties of PAH and the biodegradation kinetics in different matrices, in order to identify applicability of biotechnological cleanup methods for waste streams and polluted soil. (orig.) [de

  17. Aromatics oxidation and soot formation in flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.B.; Pope, C.J.; Shandross, R.A.; Yadav, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project is concerned with the kinetics and mechanisms of aromatics oxidation and soot and fullerenes formation in flames. The scope includes detailed measurements of profiles of stable and radical species concentrations in low-pressure one-dimensional premixed flames. Intermediate species identifications and mole fractions, fluxes, and net reaction rates calculated from the measured profiles are used to test postulated reaction mechanisms. Particular objectives are to identify and to determine or confirm rate constants for the main benzene oxidation reactions in flames, and to characterize fullerenes and their formation mechanisms and kinetics.

  18. Aromatic metabolism of filamentous fungi in relation to the presence of aromatic compounds in plant biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkelä, Miia R; Marinović, Mila; Nousiainen, Paula; Liwanag, April J M; Benoit, Isabelle; Sipilä, Jussi; Hatakka, Annele; de Vries, Ronald P; Hildén, Kristiina S

    2015-01-01

    The biological conversion of plant lignocellulose plays an essential role not only in carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems but also is an important part of the production of second generation biofuels and biochemicals. The presence of the recalcitrant aromatic polymer lignin is one of the major

  19. Peripheral Mechanisms of Ischemic Myalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Queme

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal pain due to ischemia is present in a variety of clinical conditions including peripheral vascular disease (PVD, sickle cell disease (SCD, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS, and even fibromyalgia (FM. The clinical features associated with deep tissue ischemia are unique because although the subjective description of pain is common to other forms of myalgia, patients with ischemic muscle pain often respond poorly to conventional analgesic therapies. Moreover, these patients also display increased cardiovascular responses to muscle contraction, which often leads to exercise intolerance or exacerbation of underlying cardiovascular conditions. This suggests that the mechanisms of myalgia development and the role of altered cardiovascular function under conditions of ischemia may be distinct compared to other injuries/diseases of the muscles. It is widely accepted that group III and IV muscle afferents play an important role in the development of pain due to ischemia. These same muscle afferents also form the sensory component of the exercise pressor reflex (EPR, which is the increase in heart rate and blood pressure (BP experienced after muscle contraction. Studies suggest that afferent sensitization after ischemia depends on interactions between purinergic (P2X and P2Y receptors, transient receptor potential (TRP channels, and acid sensing ion channels (ASICs in individual populations of peripheral sensory neurons. Specific alterations in primary afferent function through these receptor mechanisms correlate with increased pain related behaviors and altered EPRs. Recent evidence suggests that factors within the muscles during ischemic conditions including upregulation of growth factors and cytokines, and microvascular changes may be linked to the overexpression of these different receptor molecules in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG that in turn modulate pain and sympathetic reflexes. In this review article, we will discuss the

  20. Isotopic diagnosis of peripheral thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornu, Pierre; Scalet, Michel

    1975-01-01

    Radio-isotope diagnosis of peripheral venous thrombosis, using tracer doses of iodine-labelled fibrinogen, provides an important contribution to the solution of the worrying problem of pulmonary embolism due to latent phlebitis. This elegant and precise technique permits early diagnosis of venous thrombosis of the lower limbs at a subclinical stage. It has permitted determination of the frequency, both after surgery and after myocardial infarction, and above all, it provides an objective criterion for assessment of the efficacy of prophylactic measures proposed [fr

  1. Polygonal current models for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and graphene sheets of various shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelloni, Stefano; Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2018-01-05

    Assuming that graphene is an "infinite alternant" polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon resulting from tessellation of a surface by only six-membered carbon rings, planar fragments of various size and shape (hexagon, triangle, rectangle, and rhombus) have been considered to investigate their response to a magnetic field applied perpendicularly. Allowing for simple polygonal current models, the diatropicity of a series of polycyclic textures has been reliably determined by comparing quantitative indicators, the π-electron contribution to I B , the magnetic field-induced current susceptibility of the peripheral circuit, to ξ∥ and to σ∥(CM)=-NICS∥(CM), respectively the out-of-plane components of the magnetizability tensor and of the magnetic shielding tensor at the center of mass. Extended numerical tests and the analysis based on the polygonal model demonstrate that (i) ξ∥ and σ∥(CM) yield inadequate and sometimes erroneous measures of diatropicity, as they are heavily flawed by spurious geometrical factors, (ii) I B values computed by simple polygonal models are valid quantitative indicators of aromaticity on the magnetic criterion, preferable to others presently available, whenever current susceptibility cannot be calculated ab initio as a flux integral, (iii) the hexagonal shape is the most effective to maximize the strength of π-electron currents over the molecular perimeter, (iv) the edge current strength of triangular and rhombic graphene fragments is usually much smaller than that of hexagonal ones, (v) doping by boron and nitrogen nuclei can regulate and even inhibit peripheral ring currents, (vi) only for very large rectangular fragments can substantial current strengths be expected. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Synthesis of POSS-based ionic conductors with low glass transition temperatures for efficient solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2014-07-09

    Replacing liquid-state electrolytes with solid-state electrolytes has been proven to be an effective way to improve the durability of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). We report herein the synthesis of amorphous ionic conductors based on polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) with low glass transition temperatures for solid-state DSSCs. As the ionic conductor is amorphous and in the elastomeric state at the operating temperature of DSSCs, good pore filling in the TiO2 film and good interfacial contact between the solid-state electrolyte and the TiO2 film can be guaranteed. When the POSS-based ionic conductor containing an allyl group is doped with only iodine as the solid-state electrolyte without any other additives, power conversion efficiency of 6.29% has been achieved with good long-term stability under one-sun soaking for 1000 h.

  3. Musica (popular) e tecnologie di networking:pratiche e strategie degli artisti indipendenti Un case study:Il campo delle Posse degli anni '90

    OpenAIRE

    Di Florio, Grazia Rita

    2014-01-01

    Questa tesi di dottorato pone l'attenzione sulle trasformazioni indotte dalla tecnologia digitale e più di recente dalla diffusione delle tecnologie di rete nel settore della musica indipendente.Il lavoro si focalizza sul caso di studio delle Posse italiane, un movimento musicale esploso negli anni '90 nell'ambito del movimento studentesco della Pantera ad opera di gruppi reggae e hip hop fortemente influenzati dalle culture afro-americana e giamaicana. Attraverso i concetti di campo,habitus ...

  4. Zirconacyclopentadiene-annulated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiel, Gavin R.; Ziegler, Micah S.; Tilley, T. Don

    2017-01-01

    Syntheses of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and graphene nanostructures demand methods that are capable of selectively and efficiently fusing large numbers of aromatic rings, yet such methods remain scarce. Herein, we report a new approach that is based on the quantitative intramolecular reductive cyclization of an oligo(diyne) with a low-valent zirconocene reagent, which gives a PAH with one or more annulated zirconacyclopentadienes (ZrPAHs). The efficiency of this process is demonstrated by a high-yielding fivefold intramolecular coupling to form a helical ZrPAH with 16 fused rings (from a precursor with no fused rings). Several other PAH topologies are also reported. Protodemetalation of the ZrPAHs allowed full characterization (including by X-ray crystallography) of PAHs containing one or more appended dienes with the ortho-quinodimethane (o-QDM) structure, which are usually too reactive for isolation and are potentially valuable for the fusion of additional rings by Diels-Alder reactions. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Zirconacyclopentadiene-annulated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel, Gavin R.; Ziegler, Micah S.; Tilley, T. Don [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-04-18

    Syntheses of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and graphene nanostructures demand methods that are capable of selectively and efficiently fusing large numbers of aromatic rings, yet such methods remain scarce. Herein, we report a new approach that is based on the quantitative intramolecular reductive cyclization of an oligo(diyne) with a low-valent zirconocene reagent, which gives a PAH with one or more annulated zirconacyclopentadienes (ZrPAHs). The efficiency of this process is demonstrated by a high-yielding fivefold intramolecular coupling to form a helical ZrPAH with 16 fused rings (from a precursor with no fused rings). Several other PAH topologies are also reported. Protodemetalation of the ZrPAHs allowed full characterization (including by X-ray crystallography) of PAHs containing one or more appended dienes with the ortho-quinodimethane (o-QDM) structure, which are usually too reactive for isolation and are potentially valuable for the fusion of additional rings by Diels-Alder reactions. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Combinations of Aromatic and Aliphatic Radiolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVerne, Jay A; Dowling-Medley, Jennifer

    2015-10-08

    The production of H(2) in the radiolysis of benzene, methylbenzene (toluene), ethylbenzene, butylbenzene, and hexylbenzene with γ-rays, 2-10 MeV protons, 5-20 MeV helium ions, and 10-30 MeV carbon ions is used as a probe of the overall radiation sensitivity and to determine the relative contributions of aromatic and aliphatic entities in mixed hydrocarbons. The addition of an aliphatic side chain with progressively from one to six carbon lengths to benzene increases the H(2) yield with γ-rays, but the yield seems to reach a plateau far below that found from a simple aliphatic such as cyclohexane. There is a large increase in H(2) with LET (linear energy transfer) for all of the substituted benzenes, which indicates that the main process for H(2) formation is a second-order process and dominated by the aromatic entity. The addition of a small amount of benzene to cyclohexane can lower the H(2) yield from the value expected from a simple mixture law. A 50:50% volume mixture of benzene-cyclohexane has essentially the same H(2) yield as cyclohexylbenzene at a wide variation in LET, suggesting that intermolecular energy transfer is as efficient as intramolecular energy transfer.

  7. Photo-crosslinkable cyanoacrylate bioadhesive: shrinkage kinetics, dynamic mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of adhesives containing TMPTMA and POSS nanostructures as crosslinking agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasaban, S; Atai, M; Imani, M; Zandi, M; Shokrgozar, M-A

    2011-11-01

    The study investigates the photo-polymerization shrinkage behavior, dynamic mechanical properties, and biocompatibility of cyanoacrylate bioadhesives containing POSS nanostructures and TMPTMA as crosslinking agents. Adhesives containing 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (2-OCA) and different percentages of POSS nanostructures and TMPTMA as crosslinking agents were prepared. The 1-phenyl-1, 2-propanedione (PPD) was incorporated as photo-initiator into the adhesive in 1.5, 3, and 4 wt %. The shrinkage strain of the specimens was measured using bonded-disk technique. Shrinkage strain, shrinkage strain rate, maximum and time at maximum shrinkage strain rate were measured and compared. Mechanical properties of the adhesives were also studied using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Biocompatibility of the adhesives was examined by MTT method. The results showed that shrinkage strain increased with increasing the initiator concentration up to 3 wt % in POSS-containing and 1.5 wt % in TMPTMA-containing specimens and plateaued out at higher concentrations. By increasing the crosslinking agent, shrinkage strain, and shrinkage strain rate increased and the time at maximum shrinkage strain rate decreased. The study indicates that the incorporation of crosslinking agents into the cyanoacrylate adhesives resulted in improved mechanical properties. Preliminary MTT studies also revealed better biocompatibility profile for the adhesives containing crosslinking agents comparing to the neat specimens. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Transdermal optogenetic peripheral nerve stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimon, Benjamin E.; Zorzos, Anthony N.; Bendell, Rhys; Harding, Alexander; Fahmi, Mina; Srinivasan, Shriya; Calvaresi, Peter; Herr, Hugh M.

    2017-06-01

    Objective: A fundamental limitation in both the scientific utility and clinical translation of peripheral nerve optogenetic technologies is the optical inaccessibility of the target nerve due to the significant scattering and absorption of light in biological tissues. To date, illuminating deep nerve targets has required implantable optical sources, including fiber-optic and LED-based systems, both of which have significant drawbacks. Approach: Here we report an alternative approach involving transdermal illumination. Utilizing an intramuscular injection of ultra-high concentration AAV6-hSyn-ChR2-EYFP in rats. Main results: We demonstrate transdermal stimulation of motor nerves at 4.4 mm and 1.9 mm depth with an incident laser power of 160 mW and 10 mW, respectively. Furthermore, we employ this technique to accurately control ankle position by modulating laser power or position on the skin surface. Significance: These results have the potential to enable future scientific optogenetic studies of pathologies implicated in the peripheral nervous system for awake, freely-moving animals, as well as a basis for future clinical studies.

  9. Diagnostic approach to peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra Usha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy refers to disorders of the peripheral nervous system. They have numerous causes and diverse presentations; hence, a systematic and logical approach is needed for cost-effective diagnosis, especially of treatable neuropathies. A detailed history of symptoms, family and occupational history should be obtained. General and systemic examinations provide valuable clues. Neurological examinations investigating sensory, motor and autonomic signs help to define the topography and nature of neuropathy. Large fiber neuropathy manifests with the loss of joint position and vibration sense and sensory ataxia, whereas small fiber neuropathy manifests with the impairment of pain, temperature and autonomic functions. Electrodiagnostic (EDx tests include sensory, motor nerve conduction, F response, H reflex and needle electromyography (EMG. EDx helps in documenting the extent of sensory motor deficits, categorizing demyelinating (prolonged terminal latency, slowing of nerve conduction velocity, dispersion and conduction block and axonal (marginal slowing of nerve conduction and small compound muscle or sensory action potential and dennervation on EMG. Uniform demyelinating features are suggestive of hereditary demyelination, whereas difference between nerves and segments of the same nerve favor acquired demyelination. Finally, neuropathy is classified into mononeuropathy commonly due to entrapment or trauma; mononeuropathy multiplex commonly due to leprosy and vasculitis; and polyneuropathy due to systemic, metabolic or toxic etiology. Laboratory investigations are carried out as indicated and specialized tests such as biochemical, immunological, genetic studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination and nerve biopsy are carried out in selected patients. Approximately 20% patients with neuropathy remain undiagnosed but the prognosis is not bad in them.

  10. A Review of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Review of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metal Contamination of Fish from Fish Farms. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals contribute to pollutants in aquaculture facilities and thus need to be further investigated.

  11. Application of aromatization catalyst in synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a typical chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process for synthesizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs), it was found that the aromatization catalysts could promote effectively the formation of CNT. The essence of this phenomenon was attributed to the fact that the aromatization catalyst can accelerate the ...

  12. Metal Triflates for the Production of Aromatics from Lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deuss, Peter J.; Lahive, Ciaran W.; Lancefield, Christopher S.; Westwood, Nicholas J.; Kamer, Paul C. J.; Barta, Katalin; de Vries, Johannes G.

    2016-01-01

    The depolymerization of lignin into valuable aromatic chemicals is one of the key goals towards establishing economically viable biorefineries. In this contribution we present a simple approach for converting lignin to aromatic monomers in high yields under mild reaction conditions. The methodology

  13. Extraction of aromatics from naphtha with ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was the development of a separation technology for the selective recovery and purification of aromatic compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) from liquid ethylene cracker feeds. Most ethylene cracker feeds contain 10 ¿ 25% of aromatic components,

  14. Irradiated aromatic polysulphones of increased flow resistance and molecular weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staniland, P.A.; Jarrett, W.G.

    1976-01-01

    Aromatic polymers of increased resistance to flow and molecular weight are obtained by irradiation using β-rays or γ-rays at temperatures up to 400 0 C of an aromatic polymer whose molecular chains comprise benzenoid groups and bivalent linking groups, and where irradiation is γ-rays by heating subsequent to irradiation at 200 to 400 0 C

  15. High atmosphere–ocean exchange of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    González-Gaya, Belén

    2016-05-16

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and other semivolatile aromatic-like compounds, are an important and ubiquitous fraction of organic matter in the environment. The occurrence of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons is due to anthropogenic sources such as incomplete combustion of fossil fuels or oil spills, and other biogenic sources. However, their global transport, fate and relevance for the carbon cycle have been poorly assessed, especially in terms of fluxes. Here we report a global assessment of the occurrence and atmosphere-ocean fluxes of 64 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons analysed in paired atmospheric and seawater samples from the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The global atmospheric input of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the global ocean is estimated at 0.09 Tg per month, four times greater than the input from the Deepwater Horizon spill. Moreover, the environmental concentrations of total semivolatile aromatic-like compounds were 10 2 -10 3 times higher than those of the targeted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, with a relevant contribution of an aromatic unresolved complex mixture. These concentrations drive a large global deposition of carbon, estimated at 400 Tg C yr -1, around 15% of the oceanic CO2 uptake. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

  16. Anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds: a genetic and genomic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Manuel; Zamarro, María Teresa; Blázquez, Blas; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Juárez, Javier F; Valderrama, J Andrés; Barragán, María J L; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2009-03-01

    Aromatic compounds belong to one of the most widely distributed classes of organic compounds in nature, and a significant number of xenobiotics belong to this family of compounds. Since many habitats containing large amounts of aromatic compounds are often anoxic, the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by microorganisms becomes crucial in biogeochemical cycles and in the sustainable development of the biosphere. The mineralization of aromatic compounds by facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria can be coupled to anaerobic respiration with a variety of electron acceptors as well as to fermentation and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Since the redox potential of the electron-accepting system dictates the degradative strategy, there is wide biochemical diversity among anaerobic aromatic degraders. However, the genetic determinants of all these processes and the mechanisms involved in their regulation are much less studied. This review focuses on the recent findings that standard molecular biology approaches together with new high-throughput technologies (e.g., genome sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics) have provided regarding the genetics, regulation, ecophysiology, and evolution of anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways. These studies revealed that the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds is more diverse and widespread than previously thought, and the complex metabolic and stress programs associated with the use of aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions are starting to be unraveled. Anaerobic biotransformation processes based on unprecedented enzymes and pathways with novel metabolic capabilities, as well as the design of novel regulatory circuits and catabolic networks of great biotechnological potential in synthetic biology, are now feasible to approach.

  17. A Simple Alternative Method for the Synthesis of Aromatic Dialdehydes

    OpenAIRE

    KOZ, Gamze; ASTLEY, Demet; ASTLEY, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Aromatic dialdehydes were synthesized from 5-t-butylsalicylaldehyde and o-vanilline in good yields using paraformaldehyde, hydrobromic acid and catalytic amounts of sulfuric acid in one step which was previously unavailable with present methods. Key Words: aromatic dialdehydes, bromomethylation, 5-t-butylsalicylaldehyde, o-vanilline. 

  18. A Simple Alternative Method for the Synthesis of Aromatic Dialdehydes

    OpenAIRE

    KOZ, Gamze; ASTLEY, Demet; ASTLEY, Stephen Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Aromatic dialdehydes were synthesized from 5-t-butylsalicylaldehyde and o-vanilline in good yields using paraformaldehyde, hydrobromic acid and catalytic amounts of sulfuric acid in one step which was previously unavailable with present methods. Key Words: aromatic dialdehydes, bromomethylation, 5-t-butylsalicylaldehyde, o-vanilline. 

  19. HIGH-RESOLUTION IR ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN THE 3 μ m REGION: ROLE OF PERIPHERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Buma, Wybren Jan [University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Huang, Xinchuan [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Lee, Timothy J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California 94035-1000 (United States); Oomens, Jos, E-mail: w.j.buma@uva.nl [Radboud University, Toernooiveld 7, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2016-11-01

    In this work we report on high-resolution IR absorption studies that provide a detailed view on how the peripheral structure of irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affects the shape and position of their 3 μ m absorption band. For this purpose, we present mass-selected, high-resolution absorption spectra of cold and isolated phenanthrene, pyrene, benz[a]antracene, chrysene, triphenylene, and perylene molecules in the 2950–3150 cm{sup −1} range. The experimental spectra are compared with standard harmonic calculations and anharmonic calculations using a modified version of the SPECTRO program that incorporates a Fermi resonance treatment utilizing intensity redistribution. We show that the 3 μ m region is dominated by the effects of anharmonicity, resulting in many more bands than would have been expected in a purely harmonic approximation. Importantly, we find that anharmonic spectra as calculated by SPECTRO are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Together with previously reported high-resolution spectra of linear acenes, the present spectra provide us with an extensive data set of spectra of PAHs with a varying number of aromatic rings, with geometries that range from open to highly condensed structures, and featuring CH groups in all possible edge configurations. We discuss the astrophysical implications of the comparison of these spectra on the interpretation of the appearance of the aromatic infrared 3 μ m band, and on features such as the two-component emission character of this band and the 3 μ m emission plateau.

  20. High-Resolution IR Absorption Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the 3-micrometers Region: Role of Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseva, Elena; Petrignani, Annemieke; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron J.; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this work we report on high-resolution IR absorption studies that provide a detailed view on how the peripheral structure of irregular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) affects the shape and position of their 3-micrometers absorption band. To this purpose we present mass-selected, high-resolution absorption spectra of cold and isolated phenanthrene, pyrene, benz[a]antracene, chrysene, triphenylene, and perylene molecules in the 2950-3150 per cm range. The experimental spectra are compared with standard harmonic calculations, and anharmonic calculations using a modified version of the SPECTRO program that incorporates a Fermi resonance treatment utilizing intensity redistribution. We show that the 3-micrometers region is dominated by the effects of anharmonicity, resulting in many more bands than would have been expected in a purely harmonic approximation. Importantly, we find that anharmonic spectra as calculated by SPECTRO are in good agreement with the experimental spectra. Together with previously reported high-resolution spectra of linear acenes, the present spectra provide us with an extensive dataset of spectra of PAHs with a varying number of aromatic rings, with geometries that range from open to highly-condensed structures, and featuring CH groups in all possible edge configurations. We discuss the astrophysical implications of the comparison of these spectra on the interpretation of the appearance of the aromatic infrared 3-micrometers band, and on features such as the two-component emission character of this band and the 3-micrometers emission plateau.

  1. Proximate Composition, Mineral Content and Fatty Acids Analyses of Aromatic and Non-Aromatic Indian Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Verma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness on nutritive value and health benefits of rice is of vital importance in order to increase the consumption of rice in daily diet of the human beings. In this study, a total of six aromatic and two non-aromatic rice accessions grown in India were analysed for their nutritional quality attributes including proximate composition, mineral contents and fatty acids. Data with three replications were used to measure Pearson's simple correlation co-efficient in order to establish the relationship among various nutritional quality attributes. The result on proximate composition showed that Govind Bhog had the highest moisture (13.57% and fat (0.92% content, which signifies its tasty attribute. Badshah Bhog exhibited the highest fibre content (0.85%, carbohydrate content (82.70% and food energy (365.23 kCal per 100 g. Among the minerals, the higher Ca (98.75 mg/kg, Zn (17.00 mg/kg and Fe (31.50 mg/kg were in Gopal Bhog, whereas the highest Na (68.85 mg/kg was in Badshah Bhog, the highest K (500.00 mg/kg was in Swetganga, Khushboo and Sarbati. The highest contents of unsaturated fatty acids viz. oleic acid (49.14%, linoleic acid (46.99% and linolenic acid (1.27% were found in Sarbati, whereas the highest content of saturated fatty acids viz. myristic acid (4.60% and palmitic acid (31.91% were found in Govind Bhog and stearic acid (6.47% in Todal. The identified aromatic rice accessions Gopal Bhog, Govind Bhog and Badshah Bhog and non-aromatic rice accession Sarbati were found nutritionally superior among all eight tested accessions. The nutritional quality oriented attributes in this study were competent with recognized prominent aromatic and non-aromatic rice accessions as an index of their nutritional worth and recommend to farmers and consumers which may be graded as export quality rice with good unique nutritional values in international market.

  2. Intraoperative Ultrasound for Peripheral Nerve Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsey, Matthew; Wilson, Thomas J; Henning, Phillip Troy; Yang, Lynda J-S

    2017-10-01

    Offering real-time, high-resolution images via intraoperative ultrasound is advantageous for a variety of peripheral nerve applications. To highlight the advantages of ultrasound, its extraoperative uses are reviewed. The current intraoperative uses, including nerve localization, real-time evaluation of peripheral nerve tumors, and implantation of leads for peripheral nerve stimulation, are reviewed. Although intraoperative peripheral nerve localization has been performed previously using guide wires and surgical dyes, the authors' approach using ultrasound-guided instrument clamps helps guide surgical dissection to the target nerve, which could lead to more timely operations and shorter incisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Peripheral Vestibular System Disease in Vestibular Schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Hansen, Søren; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2015-01-01

    density of the peripheral vestibular nerve branches, and atrophy of the neuroepithelium of the vestibular end organs. In cases with small tumors, peripheral disease occurred only in the tissue structures innervated by the specific nerve from which the tumor originated. CONCLUSION: Vestibular schwannomas...... are associated with distinctive disease of the peripheral vestibular tissue structures, suggesting anterograde degeneration and that dizziness in these patients may be caused by deficient peripheral vestibular nerve fibers, neurons, and end organs. In smaller tumors, a highly localized disease occurs, which...

  4. Peripheral refractive correction and automated perimetric profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, J M; Wood, J M; Crews, S J

    1988-06-01

    The effect of peripheral refractive error correction on the automated perimetric sensitivity profile was investigated on a sample of 10 clinically normal, experienced observers. Peripheral refractive error was determined at eccentricities of 0 degree, 20 degrees and 40 degrees along the temporal meridian of the right eye using the Canon Autoref R-1, an infra-red automated refractor, under the parametric conditions of the Octopus automated perimeter. Perimetric sensitivity was then undertaken at these eccentricities (stimulus sizes 0 and III) with and without the appropriate peripheral refractive correction using the Octopus 201 automated perimeter. Within the measurement limits of the experimental procedures employed, perimetric sensitivity was not influenced by peripheral refractive correction.

  5. Peripheral visual performance enhancement by neurofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenya; Wan, Feng; Lou, Chin Ian; Vai, Mang I; Rosa, Agostinho

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral visual performance is an important ability for everyone, and a positive inter-individual correlation is found between the peripheral visual performance and the alpha amplitude during the performance test. This study investigated the effect of alpha neurofeedback training on the peripheral visual performance. A neurofeedback group of 13 subjects finished 20 sessions of alpha enhancement feedback within 20 days. The peripheral visual performance was assessed by a new dynamic peripheral visual test on the first and last training day. The results revealed that the neurofeedback group showed significant enhancement of the peripheral visual performance as well as the relative alpha amplitude during the peripheral visual test. It was not the case in the non-neurofeedback control group, which performed the tests within the same time frame as the neurofeedback group but without any training sessions. These findings suggest that alpha neurofeedback training was effective in improving peripheral visual performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show evidence for performance improvement in peripheral vision via alpha neurofeedback training.

  6. Peripheral iridotomy for pigmentary glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelessi, Manuele; Lindsley, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Background Glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell death resulting in damage to the optic nerve head and the retinal nerve fiber layer. Pigment dispersion syndrome is characterized by a structural disturbance in the iris pigment epithelium (the densely pigmented posterior surface of the iris) that leads to dispersion of the pigment and its deposition on various structures within the eye. Pigmentary glaucoma is a specific form of open-angle glaucoma found in patients with pigment dispersion syndrome. Topcial medical therapy is usually the first-line treatment; however, peripheral laser iridotomy has been proposed as an alternate treatment. Peripheral laser iridotomy involves creating an opening in the iris tissue to allow drainage of fluid from the posterior chamber to the anterior chamber and vice versa. Equalizing the pressure within the eye may help to alleviate the friction that leads to pigment dispersion and prevent visual field deterioration. However, the effectiveness of peripheral laser iridotomy in reducing the development or progression of pigmentary glaucoma is unknown. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of peripheral laser iridotomy compared with other interventions, including medication, trabeculoplasty, and trabeculectomy, or no treatment, for pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Search methods We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE and clinical trials websites such as (mRCT) and ClinicalTrials.gov. We last searched the electronic databases on 2 November 2015. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that had compared peripheral laser iridotomy versus no treatment or other treatments for pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures for systematic reviews. Two review authors independently screened articles for eligibility

  7. Pro-aromatic and anti-aromatic π-conjugated molecules: an irresistible wish to be diradicals

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Zebing

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Aromaticity is an important concept to understand the stability and physical properties of π-conjugated molecules. Recent studies on pro-aromatic and anti-aromatic molecules revealed their irresistible tendency to become diradicals in the ground state. Diradical character thus becomes another very important concept and it is fundamentally correlated to the physical (optical, electronic and magnetic) properties and chemical reactivity of most of the organic optoelectronic materials. Molecules with distinctive diradical character show unique properties which are very different from those of traditional closed-shell π-conjugated systems, and thus they have many potential applications in organic electronics, spintronics, non-linear optics and energy storage. This critical review first introduces the fundamental electronic structure of Kekulé diradicals within the concepts of anti-aromaticity and pro-aromaticity in the context of Hückel aromaticity and diradical character. Then recent research studies on various stable/persistent diradicaloids based on pro-aromatic and anti-aromatic compounds are summarized and discussed with regard to their synthetic chemistry, physical properties, structure-property relationships and potential material applications. A summary and personal perspective is given at the end.

  8. Atherectomy for peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Graeme K; Radwan, Rami; Hayes, Paul D; Twine, Christopher P

    2014-03-17

    Symptomatic peripheral arterial disease may be treated by a number of options including exercise therapy, angioplasty, stenting and bypass surgery. Atherectomy is an alternative technique where atheroma is excised by a rotating cutting blade. The objective of this review was to analyse randomised controlled trials comparing atherectomy against any established treatment for peripheral arterial disease in order to evaluate the effectiveness of atherectomy. The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched November 2013) and CENTRAL (2013, Issue 10). Trials databases were searched for details of ongoing or unpublished studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing atherectomy and other established treatments were selected for inclusion. All participants had symptomatic peripheral arterial disease with either claudication or critical limb ischaemia and evidence of lower limb arterial disease. Two review authors (GA and CT) screened studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the quality of the trials. Any disagreements were resolved through discussion. Four trials were included with a total of 220 participants (118 treated with atherectomy, 102 treated with balloon angioplasty) and 259 treated vessels (129 treated with atherectomy, 130 treated with balloon angioplasty). All studies compared atherectomy with angioplasty. No study was properly powered or assessors blinded to the procedures and there was a high risk of selection, attrition, detection and reporting biases.The estimated risk of success was similar between the treatment modalities although the confidence interval (CI) was compatible with small benefits of either treatment for the initial procedural success rate (Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.91, P = 0.82), patency at six months (Mantel-Haenszel RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.66, P = 0.79) and patency at 12 months (Mantel-Haenszel RR 1.17, 95% CI 0

  9. Contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Yousef W; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2012-01-01

    MRI contrast agent is injected intravenously and T1-weighted images are acquired in the subsequent arterial first-pass phase. In order to achieve high quality MR angiograms without interfering venous contamination or artifacts, a number of factors need to be taken into account. This includes magnetic......-state MRA. Gadolinium(Gd)-based contrast agents are used for CE-MRA of the peripheral arteries. Extracellular Gd agents have a pharmacokinetic profile similar to iodinated contrast media. Accordingly, these agents are employed for first-pass MRA. Blood-pool Gd-based agents are characterized by prolonged...... intravascular stay, due to macromolecular structure or protein binding. These agents can be used for first-pass, as well as steady-state MRA. Some Gd-based contrast agents with low thermodynamic stability have been linked to development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with severe renal...

  10. Taxane-Induced Peripheral Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser Velasco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxane-derived agents are chemotherapy drugs widely employed in cancer treatment. Among them, paclitaxel and docetaxel are most commonly administered, but newer formulations are being investigated. Taxane antineoplastic activity is mainly based on the ability of the drugs to promote microtubule assembly, leading to mitotic arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. Peripheral neurotoxicity is the major non-hematological adverse effect of taxane, often manifested as painful neuropathy experienced during treatment, and it is sometimes irreversible. Unfortunately, taxane-induced neurotoxicity is an uncertainty prior to the initiation of treatment. The present review aims to dissect current knowledge on real incidence, underlying pathophysiology, clinical features and predisposing factors related with the development of taxane-induced neuropathy.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in yogurt samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Chiara; Girelli, Anna Maria; Tarola, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations and distributions of major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Italian supermarkets using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection. The method was validated by determination of recovery percentages, precision (repeatability) and sensitivity (limits of detection) with yogurt samples fortified at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/kg concentration levels. The recovery of 13 PAHs, with the exception of naphthalene and acenaphthene, ranged from 61% to 130% and from 60% to 97% at all the levels for yogurts with low (0.1%) and high (3.9%) fat content, respectively. The method is repeatable with relative standard deviation values yogurts with low and high fats were compared.

  12. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.S.; Shahnaz; Tabassum, S.; Ogunwande, I.A.; Pervez, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  13. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M S; Shahnaz,; Tabassum, S; Ogunwande, I A; Pervez, M K [University of Karachi (Pakistan). HEJ Research Inst. of Chemistry, International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences

    2010-08-15

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  14. Photochemically induced oscillations of aromatic pentazadienes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, T; Hahn, C; Wokaun, A [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Aromatic pentazadienes are used to enhance the laser induced ablation of standard polymers with low absorption in the UV. Therefore the photochemistry of substituted 1,5-diaryl-3-alkyl-1,4-pentazadiene monomers was studied with a pulsed excimer laser as irradiation source. The net photochemical reaction proceeds in an overall one-step pathway A{yields}B. Quantum yields for the laser decomposition were determined to be up to 10%. An oscillating behaviour of the absorption was found during the dark period following the irradiation. The temperature dependence of this dark reaction has been studied. An attempt to model this behaviour in terms of a non-linear coupling between heat released, heat transfer, and reaction kinetics will be described. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  15. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Aromatic-Aromatic Interaction in Isolated Capped Dipeptides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gloaguen, E.; Valdés, H.; Pagliarulo, F.; Pollet, R.; Tardivel, B.; Hobza, Pavel; Piuzzi, F.; Mons, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 9 (2010), s. 2973-2982 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : aromatic residues interactions * Ac-Phe-Phe-NH2 dipeptides * Ac-Phe-D-Phe-NH2 dipeptides * correlated ab initio calculations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.732, year: 2010

  16. Peripheral Developing Odontoma or Peripheral Ameloblastic Fibroodontoma: A Rare Challenging Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saede Atarbashi Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral odontogenic lesions are considered to be rare within the classification of odontogenic tumors. They share the same microscopic characteristics of their central counterparts. Here, we report an ulcerated mass of the maxillary gingiva that on histopathological examination was diagnosed as peripheral developing odontoma or peripheral ameloblastic fibroodontoma. The diagnosis of this tumor is challenging and may lead to unnecessary treatment.

  17. Environmental Remediation: Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah

    2012-11-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous persistent semi-volatile organic compounds. They are contaminants that are resistant to degradation and can remain in the environment for long periods due to their high degree of conjugation, and aromaticity. PAHs are present in industrial effluents as products of incomplete combustion processes of organic compounds. Petroleum, coal and shale oil contain extremely complex mixtures of these PAHs, and their transport and refining process can also result in the release of PAHs. It is therefore prudent that such effluents are treated before discharge into the environment. In this project, different approaches to the treatment of PAHs have been investigated. Hydrous pyrolysis has been explored as a potential technique for degrading PAHs in water using anthracene as a model compound. The experiments were performed under different conditions of temperature, substrate, redox systems and durations. The conditions include oxidising systems comprising pure water, hydrogen peroxide and Nafion-SiO2 solid catalyst in water; and reducing systems of formic acid and formic acid / Nafion-SiO2 / Pd-C catalysts to assess a range of reactivities. Products observed in GCMS analysis of the extract from the water phase include anthrone, anthraquinone, xanthone and multiple hydro-anthracene derivatives (Paper I). In addition a modified version of the Nafion-SiO2 solid catalyst in water oxidising system was tested; and reducing systems of formic acid and formic acid / Nafion-SiO2 / Pd-C catalysts were adopted for the conversion of a mixture of anthracene, fluorene and fluoranthene. The rate of conversion in the mixture was high as compared to that of only anthracene (Paper II). Also the use of LECA (Lightweight expanded clay aggregates) as an adsorbent (Paper III) for PAHs (phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene) removal from water has been.(Author)

  18. The future role of aromatics in refining and petrochemistry. Proceedings of the DGMK-Conference (Authors' manuscripts)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emig, G.; Rupp, M.; Weitkamp, J. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    Topic of this conference has been the furure role of aromatics in the refinign industry. The articles deal with the following topics: Refining; legal aspects in the aromatics market; transportation fuels; dearomatization; catalytic reforming and aromatics; separation processes for aromatics; oxidation and ammoxidation of aromatics; electrophilic substitution of aromatics; hydrogenation of benzene; zeolites. (orig./sr)

  19. Imaging of the peripheral vascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, S.A.; Pond, G.D.; Pinsky, S.; Moss, G.S.; Srikantaswamy, S.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1984-01-01

    This book is limited neither to the peripheral vascular system nor to diagnostic imaging techniques. Its 18 chapters cover nonimaging blood-flow techniques (Doppler ultrasound, plethysmography) as well as noninvasive and invasive imaging techniques (ultrasound, computed tomography, radionuclide digital-subtraction angiography, and contrast angiography). These are applied not only to the peripheral vascular system but also to the aorta and vena cava

  20. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness. PMID:25999883

  1. Possíveis interfaces entre TDAH e epilepsia Possible interfaces between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Soares Loutfi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar na literatura elementos para explicar uma possível associação entre o transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH e a epilepsia e orientar quanto ao manejo clínico dos pacientes que compartilham esses transtornos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se revisão da literatura dos últimos 10 anos nas bases de dados MedLine e Lilacs com a combinação dos descritores "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder", "ADHD" e "epilepsy". RESULTADOS: Sintomas de TDAH são frequentes em síndromes epilépticas idiopáticas. Vários fatores podem contribuir para a coexistência desses transtornos: 1 possibilidade de uma mesma propensão genética; 2 participação dos neurotransmissores noradrenalina e dopamina no TDAH e na modulação da excitabilidade neuronal; 3 anormalidades estruturais do cérebro evidenciadas em epilépticos portadores de TDAH; 4 influência dos efeitos crônicos das crises e das descargas epileptiformes interictais sob a atenção; 5 efeitos adversos das drogas antiepilépticas sob a cognição. CONCLUSÕES: As evidências atuais apontam que crises epilépticas e TDAH podem apresentar bases neurobiológicas comuns. Estudos que avaliam disfunções nas vias de sinalização das catecolaminas cerebrais e o papel das descargas epileptiformes interictais na geração dos sintomas são fundamentais na investigação desses mecanismos. Drogas psicoestimulantes são seguras e eficazes para o tratamento do TDAH na maioria dos portadores de epilepsia.OBJECTIVE: To investigate in the literature elements that explain the association between the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and epilepsy and to provide clinical guidelines for the management of patients that share these disorders. METHODS:Review of literature of the last 10 years in MedLine and Lilacs databases. The keywords used were "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder", "ADHD" and "epilepsy. RESULTS: Symptoms of ADHD are more frequent in idiopathic

  2. Extended O-Doped Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassen, Daphné; Demitri, Nicola; Bonifazi, Davide

    2016-05-10

    The synthesis of O-doped benzorylenes, in which peripheral carbon atoms have been replaced by oxygen atoms, has been achieved for the first time. This includes key high-yielding ring-closure steps which, through intramolecular C-O bond formation, allow stepwise planarization of oligonaphthalenes. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction showed that the tetraoxa derivative forms remarkable face-to-face π-π stacks in the solid state, a favorable solid-state arrangement for organic electronics. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Extended O‐Doped Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassen, Daphné; Demitri, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis of O‐doped benzorylenes, in which peripheral carbon atoms have been replaced by oxygen atoms, has been achieved for the first time. This includes key high‐yielding ring‐closure steps which, through intramolecular C−O bond formation, allow stepwise planarization of oligonaphthalenes. Single‐crystal X‐ray diffraction showed that the tetraoxa derivative forms remarkable face‐to‐face π–π stacks in the solid state, a favorable solid‐state arrangement for organic electronics. PMID:27062492

  4. How non-conventional feedstocks will affect aromatics technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, E. [Clariant Produkte (Deutschland) GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    The abundance of non-conventional feedstocks such as coal and shale gas has begun to affect the availability of traditional base chemicals such as propylene and BTX aromatics. Although this trend is primarily fueled by the fast growing shale gas economy in the US and the abundance of coal in China, it will cause the global supply and demand situation to equilibrate across the regions. Lower demand for gasoline and consequently less aromatics rich reformate from refineries will further tighten the aromatics markets that are expected to grow at healthy rates, however. Refiners can benefit from this trend by abandoning their traditional fuel-oriented business model and becoming producers of petrochemical intermediates, with special focus on paraxylene (PX). Cheap gas from coal (via gasification) or shale reserves is an advantaged feedstock that offers a great platform to make aromatics in a cost-competitive manner, especially in regions where naphtha is in short supply. Gas condensates (LPG and naphtha) are good feedstocks for paraffin aromatization, and methanol from coal or (shale) gas can be directly converted to BTX aromatics (MTA) or alkylated with benzene or toluene to make paraxylene. Most of today's technologies for the production and upgrading of BTX aromatics and their derivatives make use of the unique properties of zeolites. (orig.)

  5. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments of Placentia Bay, Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiceniuk, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the potential for contamination of recent sediments with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons due to tanker and refinery activity in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, an area without large local anthropogenic sources of aromatics. Sediment samples were taken from the vicinity of the Come By Chance refinery, Woody Island, Wild Cove, and Port Royal Arm, all in the north end of the bay. The samples were extracted by two methods, dichloromethane extraction of dried sediment for determination of total aromatic hydrocarbon content and hexane extraction of wet sediment for estimation of the bioavailability of hydrocarbons and determination of more volatile compounds. Class analysis of aromatic hydrocarbons was conducted on a NH 2 column with detection at 255 nm. Total concentrations of di-tricyclic aromatics were highest at the Woody Island site (0.6 μg/g). The sediments from the Come By Chance site, Wild Cove, and Port Royal Arm sediments contained 0.3, 0.1, and 0.2 μg/g respectively. The hexane extracts from Come By Chance were lowest in di-tricyclic aromatics (0.007 μg/g), with the other sites being equal in concentration (0.01 μg/g). It is evident from the study that aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in Placentia Bay are elevated in some parts of the bay in the absence of local combustion sources, and that the most likely source is petroleum. 12 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Peripherally applied opioids for postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B N; Henneberg, S W; Schmiegelow, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids applied peripherally at the site of surgery may produce postoperative analgesia with few side effects. We performed this systematic review to evaluate the analgesic effect of peripherally applied opioids for acute postoperative pain. METHODS: We searched PubMed (1966 to June...... 2013), Embase (1980 to June 2013), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 6). Randomized controlled trials investigating the postoperative analgesic effect of peripherally applied opioids vs. systemic opioids or placebo, measured by pain intensity...... difference -5 mm, 95% CI: -7 to -3) for peripherally applied opioids vs. placebo and statistically significant increased time to first analgesic (mean difference 153 min, 95% CI: 41-265). When preoperative inflammation was reported (five studies), peripherally applied opioids significantly improved...

  7. Biomimetic modified clinical-grade POSS-PCU nanocomposite polymer for bypass graft applications: a preliminary assessment of endothelial cell adhesion and haemocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solouk, Atefeh; Cousins, Brian G; Mirahmadi, Fereshteh; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Nadoushan, Mohammad Reza Jalali; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2015-01-01

    To date, there are no small internal diameter (nanocomposite polymers, which contain binding sites and ligands for cell surface receptors similar to extracellular matrix (ECM) will positively influence the attachment and proliferation of ECs. Since, the surface of POSS-PCU is inert and not directly suitable for immobilisation of biomolecules, plasma graft polymerisation is a suitable method to modify the surface properties ready for immobilisation and biofunctionalisation. POSS-PCU was activated by plasma treatment in air/O2 to from hydroperoxides (-OH, -OOH), and then carboxylated via plasma polymerisation of a 30% acrylic acid solution (Poly-AA) using a two-step plasma treatment (TSPT) process. Collagen type I, a major component of ECM, was covalently immobilised to mimic the ECM structures to ECs (5mg/ml) using a two-step chemical reaction using EDC chemistry. Successful immobilisation of poly-AA and collagen on to the nanocomposites was confirmed using Toluidine Blue staining and the Bradford assay. Un-treated POSS-PCU served as a simple control. The impact of collagen grafting on the physical, mechanical and biological properties of POSS-PCU was evaluated via contact angle (θ) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), ECs adhesion and proliferation followed by platelet adhesion and haemolysis ratio (HR) tests. Poly-AA content on each of the plasma treated nanocomposite films increased on Low, Med and High samples due to more carboxylic acid (-COOH) groups at the surface forming amide (-NH2) bonds. The amount of -COOH groups on each of the Low, Med and High nanocomposites correlated with Poly-AA grafting density at 14.7±0.9, 18.9±0.9, and 34.2±2.4 μg/cm(2). Immobilisation of collagen type I on to nanocomposite surface was also found to increase significantly on the Low, Med and High samples from 22±4, 150±15, and 219±17 μg/cm(2), respectively. The level of ECs and their

  8. Irmandade afetada pela atrofia muscular peroneal de Charcot-Marie-Tooth com possível variante do fenômeno da antecipação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaldo Gonçalves

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se a peculiaridade genética da atrofia peroneal de Charcot-Marie-Tooth, é feita a descrição clínica de família com três irmãos afetados, com idade de aparecimento progressivamente antecipada, refletindo possível variante do fenômeno da antecipação, condição inusitada na literatura, não só para esta doença, mas também, de modo geral, em Genética Humana.

  9. Biomimetic modified clinical-grade POSS-PCU nanocomposite polymer for bypass graft applications: A preliminary assessment of endothelial cell adhesion and haemocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solouk, Atefeh; Cousins, Brian G.; Mirahmadi, Fereshteh; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Nadoushan, Mohammad Reza Jalali; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Seifalian, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: To date, there are no small internal diameter (< 5 mm) vascular grafts that are FDA approved for clinical use due to high failure rates from thrombosis and unwanted cell proliferation. The ideal conditions to enhance bioengineered grafts would be the blood contacting lumen of the bypass graft fully covered by endothelial cells (ECs). As a strategy towards this aim, we hypothesized that by immobilising biomolecules on the surface of the polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-poly(carbonate-urea)urethane (POSS-PCU) nanocomposite polymers, which contain binding sites and ligands for cell surface receptors similar to extracellular matrix (ECM) will positively influence the attachment and proliferation of ECs. Since, the surface of POSS-PCU is inert and not directly suitable for immobilisation of biomolecules, plasma graft polymerisation is a suitable method to modify the surface properties ready for immobilisation and biofunctionalisation. Methods: POSS-PCU was activated by plasma treatment in air/O 2 to from hydroperoxides (–OH, –OOH), and then carboxylated via plasma polymerisation of a 30% acrylic acid solution (Poly-AA) using a two-step plasma treatment (TSPT) process. Collagen type I, a major component of ECM, was covalently immobilised to mimic the ECM structures to ECs (5 mg/ml) using a two-step chemical reaction using EDC chemistry. Successful immobilisation of poly-AA and collagen on to the nanocomposites was confirmed using Toluidine Blue staining and the Bradford assay. Un-treated POSS-PCU served as a simple control. The impact of collagen grafting on the physical, mechanical and biological properties of POSS-PCU was evaluated via contact angle (θ) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), ECs adhesion and proliferation followed by platelet adhesion and haemolysis ratio (HR) tests. Results: Poly-AA content on each of the plasma treated nanocomposite films

  10. Os conflitos tributários internacionais e sua possível solução pela via arbitral

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Dix Carneiro

    2012-01-01

    O fenômeno da globalização teve o condão de aproximar os diversos povos, cada um com seus interesses e culturas próprios. A existência de um consenso internacional na definição de princípios a serem seguidos quando das relações externas não consegue impedir, contudo, o surgimento de possíveis conflitos e divergências, tendo em vista a pluralidade cultural das diversas nações mundiais, fato que induziu a sociedade internacional a desenvolver meios que pudessem dirimir pacificamente as contrové...

  11. Um dos budismos possíveis – Uma interpretação laica de alguns de seus conceitos básicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Vulibrun

    2010-04-01

    desprovidos, dentro do possível, das nuances próprias de cada cultura onde ele se instalou. Para tanto, nas suas interpretações são destacadas as raízes sânscritas de cada um desses conceitos, conduzindo a uma interpretação “laica” desse pensamento. São destacadas também algumas oposições, tais como instante-momento, renascimento- reencarnação, processoobjeto, identidade-continuidade, bem como “estar sendo” versus “ser”.

  12. Biomimetic modified clinical-grade POSS-PCU nanocomposite polymer for bypass graft applications: A preliminary assessment of endothelial cell adhesion and haemocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solouk, Atefeh [Biomedical Engineering Faculty, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Cousins, Brian G., E-mail: brian.cousins@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London (United Kingdom); Mirahmadi, Fereshteh [Biomedical Engineering Faculty, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzadeh, Hamid [Polymer Engineering Faculty, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nadoushan, Mohammad Reza Jalali [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Shahed University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali [National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seifalian, Alexander M. [Centre for Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine, Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Background: To date, there are no small internal diameter (< 5 mm) vascular grafts that are FDA approved for clinical use due to high failure rates from thrombosis and unwanted cell proliferation. The ideal conditions to enhance bioengineered grafts would be the blood contacting lumen of the bypass graft fully covered by endothelial cells (ECs). As a strategy towards this aim, we hypothesized that by immobilising biomolecules on the surface of the polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-poly(carbonate-urea)urethane (POSS-PCU) nanocomposite polymers, which contain binding sites and ligands for cell surface receptors similar to extracellular matrix (ECM) will positively influence the attachment and proliferation of ECs. Since, the surface of POSS-PCU is inert and not directly suitable for immobilisation of biomolecules, plasma graft polymerisation is a suitable method to modify the surface properties ready for immobilisation and biofunctionalisation. Methods: POSS-PCU was activated by plasma treatment in air/O{sub 2} to from hydroperoxides (–OH, –OOH), and then carboxylated via plasma polymerisation of a 30% acrylic acid solution (Poly-AA) using a two-step plasma treatment (TSPT) process. Collagen type I, a major component of ECM, was covalently immobilised to mimic the ECM structures to ECs (5 mg/ml) using a two-step chemical reaction using EDC chemistry. Successful immobilisation of poly-AA and collagen on to the nanocomposites was confirmed using Toluidine Blue staining and the Bradford assay. Un-treated POSS-PCU served as a simple control. The impact of collagen grafting on the physical, mechanical and biological properties of POSS-PCU was evaluated via contact angle (θ) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), ECs adhesion and proliferation followed by platelet adhesion and haemolysis ratio (HR) tests. Results: Poly-AA content on each of the plasma treated nanocomposite films

  13. A história da atividade musical na Igreja Presbiteriana Unida de São Paulo: uma fisionomia possível

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Samuel Moraes [UNESP

    2000-01-01

    Meu objetivo básico foi escrever uma história possível da atividade musical de uma comunidade: a Igreja Presbiteriana Unida de São Paulo. Sob o ponto de vista dos estudos com as linguagens, a História tem seus procedimentos equivalentes ao de uma Narrativa. Em um primeiro momento fui buscar os autores que estudaram as estruturas narrativas, entre eles Svetan Todorov e Roland Barthes. Minha busca não era a de estudar o pensamento estruturalista propriamente dito que, para a maioria dos autores...

  14. Formação de professores de espanhol para crianças no Brasil: alguns caminhos possíveis

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández,Gretel Eres; Rinaldi,Simone

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho procura delinear a atual situação do ensino de espanhol como língua estrangeira para crianças brasileiras. Partimos das questões legais que envolvem a aprendizagem e o ensino a crianças nos primeiros anos do Ensino Fundamental e que apresentam uma lacuna na qual é possível incluir o ensino de língua estrangeira antes do proposto nas referidas leis. Apoiamo-nos, também, nas teorias de desenvolvimento propostas por Piaget (1967) e Vygotsky (1993) que descrevem as etapas pelas quai...

  15. Ionic mechanisms in peripheral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransén, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain constitutes an important and growing problem in society with large unmet needs with respect to treatment and clear implications for quality of life. Computational modeling is used to complement experimental studies to elucidate mechanisms involved in pain states. Models representing the peripheral nerve ending often address questions related to sensitization or reduction in pain detection threshold. In models of the axon or the cell body of the unmyelinated C-fiber, a large body of work concerns the role of particular sodium channels and mutations of these. Furthermore, in central structures: spinal cord or higher structures, sensitization often refers not only to enhanced synaptic efficacy but also to elevated intrinsic neuronal excitability. One of the recent developments in computational neuroscience is the emergence of computational neuropharmacology. In this area, computational modeling is used to study mechanisms of pathology with the objective of finding the means of restoring healthy function. This research has received increased attention from the pharmaceutical industry as ion channels have gained increased interest as drug targets. Computational modeling has several advantages, notably the ability to provide mechanistic links between molecular and cellular levels on the one hand and functions at the systems level on the other hand. These characteristics make computational modeling an additional tool to be used in the process of selecting pharmaceutical targets. Furthermore, large-scale simulations can provide a framework to systematically study the effects of several interacting disease parameters or effects from combinations of drugs. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Lilia, E.; Cristalli, A.

    1986-01-01

    Gaseous 0-terphenyl, 1-phenylnaphthalene, and 9-phenylanthracene were submitted to gamma rays. The yields of cyclization products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, show that at least one twentieth of the intermediates formed undergo intramolecular reaction. (author)

  17. Aromatic Plants as a Source of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Florou-Paneri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic plants, also known as herbs and spices, have been used since antiquity as folk medicine and as preservatives in foods. The best known aromatic plants, such as oregano, rosemary, sage, anise, basil, etc., originate from the Mediterranean area. They contain many biologically active compounds, mainly polyphenolics, which have been found to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. Currently, the demand for these plants and their derivatives has increased because they are natural, eco-friendly and generally recognized as safe products. Therefore, aromatic plants and their extracts have the potential to become new generation substances for human and animal nutrition and health. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the literature surrounding the in vivo and in vitro use of aromatic plants.

  18. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rural agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 5 (15), pp. 1415-1421, 3 August 2006 ... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of chemicals that are formed during ... site for refinery process wastes, which has been operated since 1958 ...

  19. Extraction of Aromatics from Heavy Naphtha Using Different Solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI-Bassuoni, A.A.; Esmael, K.K.

    2004-01-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are very important to the petrochemical industry. Among these are benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX), which are basic raw materials for the production of a number of important petrochemicals. There are many processes used to separate aromatic from non aromatic such as fractionation, azeotropic distillation and liquid I liquid extraction, etc. Liquid - liquid extraction is unique, efficiently used for heat sensitive, close boiling components and for separation of components not possible by other unit operations and it could be done at ambient temperature makes it more energy efficient. The choice of solvent depends on the properties and boiling range of the feedstock. Through the years, a lot of selective solvents has been proposed and selected for the physical separation of aromatics in liquid liquid extraction. Among the selection criteria are the stability,. chemical compatibility, availability, environmental hazards and price of the solvent. But the basic solvent properties that make it efficient are selectivity and capacity

  20. Critical point measurement of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Eugene D.; Popov, Alexander P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Critical properties of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured. • These hydrocarbons decompose at near-critical temperatures. • Pulse-heating method with short residence times was used. - Abstract: The critical temperatures and the critical pressures of five polycyclic aromatic compounds, namely, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene have been measured. All the compounds studied decompose at near-critical temperatures. A pulse-heating technique applicable to measuring the critical properties of thermally unstable compounds has been used. The times from the beginning of a heating pulse to the moment of reaching the critical temperature were from (0.06 to 0.85) ms. The short residence times provide little degradation of the substances in the course of the experiments. The experimental critical parameters of the polycyclic aromatic compounds have been compared with those estimated by five predictive methods. The acentric factors of polycyclic aromatic compounds studied have been calculated

  1. Peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma of maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Ajmera, Neha; Singh, Amit

    2010-07-01

    Peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma is a reactive gingival overgrowth occurring frequently in anterior maxilla. It is a slow-growing benign tumor which may lead to pathologic migration and other periodontal problems, so it should be excised as soon as possible. The recurrence rate of peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma is reported to be 8% to 20%, so a close postoperative follow-up is required. Herein, we are reporting a similar case of peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma in the maxillary anterior region.

  2. CT characteristics of peripheral organizing pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Oh; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Kyung Soo; Choi, Hyung Sik; Jun, Young Hwan; Park, Yong Koo

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostic dilemma of persistent mass-forming parenchymal opacity in the lung periphery occurs occasionally in the realm of diagnostic radiology. Until recently, literature on the role of computed tomography in peripheral organizing pneumonia, which is difficult to differentiate from malignancy, has little been published. We experienced one case of pathologically proven organizing pneumonia diagnosed preoperatively by chest CT. When it comes to solitary peripheral mass density in the lung, we think that CT can be proved useful in the diagnosis of benign organizing pneumonia by showing regular and smoothly corrugate margin, peripheral contrast enhancement with inner low density, and air-trapping by intervening normal lung parenchyma.

  3. Peripheral facial nerve dysfunction: CT evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disbro, M.A.; Harnsberger, H.R.; Osborn, A.G.

    1985-06-01

    Peripheral facial nerve dysfunction may have a clinically apparent or occult cause. The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of 36 patients with peripheral facial nerve dysfunction to obtain information on the location of the suspected lesion and the number, sequence, and type of radiographic evaluations performed. Inadequate clinical evaluations before computed tomography (CT) was done and unnecessary CT examinations were also noted. They have suggested a practical clinical and radiographic scheme to evaluate progressive peripheral facial dysfunction with no apparent cause. If this scheme is applied, unnecessary radiologic tests and delays in diagnosis and treatment may be avoided.

  4. Porphyrins Fused with Unactivated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Diev, Vyacheslav V.; Schlenker, Cody W.; Hanson, Kenneth; Zhong, Qiwen; Zimmerman, Jeramy D.; Forrest, Stephen R.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic study of the preparation of porphyrins with extended conjugation by meso,β-fusion with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is reported. The meso-positions of 5,15-unsubstituted porphyrins were readily functionalized with PAHs. Ring fusion using standard Scholl reaction conditions (FeCl 3, dichloromethane) occurs for perylene-substituted porphyrins to give a porphyrin β,meso annulated with perylene rings (0.7:1 ratio of syn and anti isomers). The naphthalene, pyrene, and coronene derivatives do not react under Scholl conditions but are fused using thermal cyclodehydrogenation at high temperatures, giving mixtures of syn and anti isomers of the meso,β-fused porphyrins. For pyrenyl-substituted porphyrins, a thermal method gives synthetically acceptable yields (>30%). Absorption spectra of the fused porphyrins undergo a progressive bathochromic shift in a series of naphthyl (λ max = 730 nm), coronenyl (λ max = 780 nm), pyrenyl (λ max = 815 nm), and perylenyl (λ max = 900 nm) annulated porphyrins. Despite being conjugated with unsubstituted fused PAHs, the β,meso-fused porphyrins are more soluble and processable than the parent nonfused precursors. Pyrenyl-fused porphyrins exhibit strong fluorescence in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region, with a progressive improvement in luminescent efficiency (up to 13% with λ max = 829 nm) with increasing degree of fusion. Fused pyrenyl-porphyrins have been used as broadband absorption donor materials in photovoltaic cells, leading to devices that show comparatively high photovoltaic efficiencies. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. Photoacoustic spectroscopic studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Zahid H.; Kumar, Pardeep; Garg, R. K.

    1999-02-01

    Because of their involvement in environmental pollutants, in carcinogenic activity, plastics, pharmaceuticals, synthesis of some laser dyes and presence in interstellar space etc., Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important. As their structure and properties can be varied systematically, they form a beautiful class of molecules for experimental and quantum chemical investigations. These molecules are being studied for last several years by using conventional spectroscopy. In recent years, Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy has emerged as a new non-destructive technique with unique capability and sensitivity. The PA effect is the process of generation of acoustic waves in a sample resulting from the absorption of photons. This technique not only reveals non- radiative transitions but also provides information about forbidden singlet-triplet transitions which are not observed normally by the conventional spectroscopy. The present paper deals with the spectroscopic studies of some PAH molecules by PA spectroscopy in the region 250 - 400 nm. The CNDO/S-CI method is used to calculate the electronic transitions with the optimized geometries. A good agreement is found between the experimental and calculated results.

  6. Porphyrins Fused with Unactivated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Diev, Vyacheslav V.

    2012-01-06

    A systematic study of the preparation of porphyrins with extended conjugation by meso,β-fusion with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is reported. The meso-positions of 5,15-unsubstituted porphyrins were readily functionalized with PAHs. Ring fusion using standard Scholl reaction conditions (FeCl 3, dichloromethane) occurs for perylene-substituted porphyrins to give a porphyrin β,meso annulated with perylene rings (0.7:1 ratio of syn and anti isomers). The naphthalene, pyrene, and coronene derivatives do not react under Scholl conditions but are fused using thermal cyclodehydrogenation at high temperatures, giving mixtures of syn and anti isomers of the meso,β-fused porphyrins. For pyrenyl-substituted porphyrins, a thermal method gives synthetically acceptable yields (>30%). Absorption spectra of the fused porphyrins undergo a progressive bathochromic shift in a series of naphthyl (λ max = 730 nm), coronenyl (λ max = 780 nm), pyrenyl (λ max = 815 nm), and perylenyl (λ max = 900 nm) annulated porphyrins. Despite being conjugated with unsubstituted fused PAHs, the β,meso-fused porphyrins are more soluble and processable than the parent nonfused precursors. Pyrenyl-fused porphyrins exhibit strong fluorescence in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region, with a progressive improvement in luminescent efficiency (up to 13% with λ max = 829 nm) with increasing degree of fusion. Fused pyrenyl-porphyrins have been used as broadband absorption donor materials in photovoltaic cells, leading to devices that show comparatively high photovoltaic efficiencies. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. A new strategy for aromatic ring alkylation in cylindrocyclophane biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hitomi; Schultz, Erica E; Balskus, Emily P

    2017-08-01

    Alkylation of aromatic rings with alkyl halides is an important transformation in organic synthesis, yet an enzymatic equivalent is unknown. Here, we report that cylindrocyclophane biosynthesis in Cylindrospermum licheniforme ATCC 29412 involves chlorination of an unactivated carbon center by a novel halogenase, followed by a previously uncharacterized enzymatic dimerization reaction featuring sequential, stereospecific alkylations of resorcinol aromatic rings. Discovery of the enzymatic machinery underlying this unique biosynthetic carbon-carbon bond formation has implications for biocatalysis and metabolic engineering.

  8. Analogs of solid nanoparticles as precursors of aromatic hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadallah, K. A. K.; Mutschke, H.; Jäger, C.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Aromatic =CH and C=C vibrational bands have been observed within shocked interstellar regions, indicating the presence of aromatic emission carriers such as PAHs, which may have been created from adjacent molecular cloud material by interaction with a shock front. Aims: We investigate the evolution of the aromatic =CH and C=C vibrational modes at 3.3 and 6.2 μm wavelength in heated HAC materials, PAHs and mixed PAHs and HACs, respectively, aiming at an explanation of the evolution of carbonaceous dust grains in the shocked regions. Methods: Materials used in these analogs (HAC and PAH materials) were prepared by the laser ablation and the laser pyrolysis methods, respectively. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in high-resolution mode was used as an analytical technique to characterize the aromatic layers in HACs. Spectroscopic analysis was prformed in the mid-IR range. Results: A remarkable destruction of aliphatic structures in HACs has been observed with the thermal processing, while aromatic structures become dominating by increasing the diameters of the graphene layers. The aromatic bands at 3.3 and 6.2 μm, observed in the laboratory spectra of PAHs and of the combination of the PAHs and HAC materials, are also clearly observed in the spectrum of the heated HACs. These bands agree with those of aromatic bands observed in astronomical observations. Conclusions: Aromatization of HACs could be a pre-stage in the decomposition process of hydrocarbons that form PAH-clusters in such hot interstellar medium.

  9. Aromatic VOCs global influence in the ozone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Perez, David; Pozzer, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are a subgroup of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) of special interest in the atmosphere of urban and semi-urban areas. Aromatics form a high fraction of VOCs, are highly reactive and upon oxidation they are an important source of ozone. These group of VOCs are released to the atmosphere by processes related to biomass burning and fossil fuel consumption, while they are removed from the atmosphere primarily by OH reaction and by dry deposition. In addition, a branch of aromatics (ortho-nitrophenols) produce HONO upon photolysis, which is responsible of certain amount of the OH recycling. Despite their importance in the atmosphere in anthropogenic polluted areas, the influence of aromatics in the ozone production remains largely unknown. This is of particular relevance, being ozone a pollutant with severe side effects on air quality, health and climate. In this work the atmospheric impacts at global scale of the most emitted aromatic VOCs in the gas phase (benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, styrene, phenol, benzaldehyde and trimethylbenzenes) are analysed and assessed. Specifically, the impact on ozone due to aromatic oxidation is estimated, as this is of great interest in large urban areas and can be helpful for developing air pollution control strategies. Further targets are the quantification of the NOx loss and the OH recycling due to aromatic oxidation. In order to investigate these processes, two simulations were performed with the numerical chemistry and climate simulation ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. The simulations compare two cases, one with ozone concentrations when aromatics are present or the second one when they are missing. Finally, model simulated ozone is compared against a global set of observations in order to better constrain the model accuracy.

  10. Silicone elastomers with covalently incorporated aromatic voltage stabilisers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    to the incorporationof an aromatic voltage stabiliser, were prepared by cross-linking synthesised polydimethylsiloxane–polyphenylmethylsiloxane (PDMS–PPMS) copolymers. PPMS possesses voltage stabilisation capabilitiesbut is immiscible in PDMS, and thus the copolymerisation of the two components was necessary...... forhomogeneity. Concentrations of the voltage stabiliser were varied by changing the molecular weights ofthe PPMS in the copolymer. The developed elastomers were inherently soft with enhanced electricalbreakdown strengths, due to delocalisedp-electrons of the aromatic constituent. An optimumconcentration...

  11. Bio-Based Aromatic Epoxy Monomers for Thermoset Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Ng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of polymers from renewable resources is a burning issue that is actively investigated. Polyepoxide networks constitute a major class of thermosetting polymers and are extensively used as coatings, electronic materials, adhesives. Owing to their outstanding mechanical and electrical properties, chemical resistance, adhesion, and minimal shrinkage after curing, they are used in structural applications as well. Most of these thermosets are industrially manufactured from bisphenol A (BPA, a substance that was initially synthesized as a chemical estrogen. The awareness on BPA toxicity combined with the limited availability and volatile cost of fossil resources and the non-recyclability of thermosets implies necessary changes in the field of epoxy networks. Thus, substitution of BPA has witnessed an increasing number of studies both from the academic and industrial sides. This review proposes to give an overview of the reported aromatic multifunctional epoxide building blocks synthesized from biomass or from molecules that could be obtained from transformed biomass. After a reminder of the main glycidylation routes and mechanisms and the recent knowledge on BPA toxicity and legal issues, this review will provide a brief description of the main natural sources of aromatic molecules. The different epoxy prepolymers will then be organized from simple, mono-aromatic di-epoxy, to mono-aromatic poly-epoxy, to di-aromatic di-epoxy compounds, and finally to derivatives possessing numerous aromatic rings and epoxy groups.

  12. Protonation sites of aromatic compounds in (+) atmospheric pressure photoionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Ahmed, Arif [Dept. of Chemistry, Kyungpoo k National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Reaction enthalpy of hydrogen transfer reactions of aromatic compounds has been observed to be greatly affected by the exact location of the protonation site. Therefore, to clearly identify the protonation location, each candidate protonation site for 43 aromatic compounds were theoretically determined and their location was compared with that determined based on experimental MS data. Only the basic nitrogen atom is favorable as a protonation site for pyridine-type aromatic compounds, whereas carbon atoms are preferable for the protonation of pyrrole-type compounds. The most favorable protonation sites for aniline or methylated aniline-type aromatic compounds are either the nitrogen atom in the amine group or the carbon atom at the para-position to the amine group. Like pyrrole-type compounds, aromatic compounds with amine groups also favor protonation at the carbon atom instead of at the nitrogen atom. In addition, hydrocarbons having an anthracene structural motif without heteroatoms produced higher or equal percentages of protonated ions compared to that achieved with molecular ions. The results of this study can be used to improve the analyses of aromatic compounds.

  13. The formation of aromatics and PAH's in laminar flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, N M; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    1999-01-01

    The formation of aromatics and PAH's is an important problem in combustion. These compounds are believed to contribute to the formation of soot whose emission from diesel engines is regulated widely throughout the industrial world. Additionally, the United States Environmental Protection Agency regulates the emission of many aromatics and PAH species from stationary industrial burners, under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The above emission regulations have created much interest in understanding how these species are formed in combustion systems. Much previous work has been done on aromatics and PAH's. The work is too extensive to review here, but is reviewed in Reference 1. A few recent developments are highlighted here. McEnally, Pfefferle and coworkers have studied aromatic, PAH and soot formation in a variety of non-premixed flames with hydrocarbon additives[2-4]. They found additives that contain a C5 ring increase the concentration of aromatics and soot[4]. Howard and coworkers have studied the formation of aromatic and PAH's in low pressure, premixed, laminar hydrocarbon flames. They found the cyclopentadienyl radical to be a key species in naphthalene formation in a fuel-rich, benzene/Ar/O2 flame[5

  14. Aromatization of n-octane over Pd/C catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Mengchen; Natelson, Robert H.; Campos, Andrew A.; Kolar, Praveen; Roberts, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase aromatization of n-octane was investigated using Pd/C catalyst. The objectives were to: (1) determine the effects of temperature (400-600 °C), weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) (0.8-∞), and hydrogen to hydrocarbon molar ratio (MR) (0-6) on conversion, selectivity, and yield (2) compare the activity of Pd/C with Pt/C and Pt/KL catalysts and (3) test the suitability of Pd/C for aromatization of different alkanes including n-hexane, n-heptane, and n-octane. Pd/C exhibited the best aromatization performance, including 54.4% conversion and 31.5% aromatics yield at 500 °C, WHSV = 2 h-1, and a MR of 2. The Pd/C catalyst had higher selectivity towards the preferred aromatics including ethylbenzene and xylenes, whereas Pt/KL had higher selectivity towards benzene and toluene. The results were somewhat consistent with adsorbed n-octane cyclization proceeding mainly through the six-membered ring closure mechanism. In addition, Pd/C was also capable of catalyzing aromatization of n-hexane and n-heptane. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phenyl hepta cyclopentyl – polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (ph,hcp-POSS/Polystyrene (PS nanocomposites: the influence of substituents in the phenyl group on the thermal stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Blanco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Some new Polystyrene (PS nanocomposites were prepared by using two Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (POSSs, namely RR’7(SiO1.58 (where R = 4-methoxyphenyl or 2,4-difluorophenyl and R’ = cyclopentyl, as fillers, and their degradation was studied to investigate the effect of the electron-donor or electron-withdrawing character of the phenyl group substituents on thermal stability. Nanocomposites were synthesized by in situ polymerization of styrene in the presence of various concentrations of POSS. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectra indicated that the POSS content in the obtained nanocomposites was higher than that in reactant mixtures. Inherent viscosity (ηinh and glass transition temperature (Tg determinations indicated that the average molar mass of polymer in 4-methoxynanocomposites was the same than neat PS, while it was much lower in 2,4-difluoro derivatives. Degradations were carried out in both flowing nitrogen and static air atmospheres, in the scanning mode, at various heating rates, and temperature at 5% mass loss (T5% and the activation energy (Ea of degradation of various nanocomposites were determined. The values obtained for 4-methoxyderivatives were higher than unfilled PS thus indicating higher thermal stability. Conversely, the values found for 2,4-difluoro derivatives were lower, in some cases even than those of neat PS. The results were discussed and interpreted.

  16. Possível intermediação do sistema imune na polineuropatia periférica plúmbica: relato de caso Possible role of the immune system in lead neuropathy: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Dias-Tosta

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de paciente de 25 anos com ferimento por arma de fogo na articulação coxo-femural esquerda que desenvolveu, entre outros sinais de intoxicação plúmbica, polineuropatia periférica axonal predominantemente motora. Tratado inicialmente com corticosteróides em doses imunossupressoras obteve melhora, mas apresentava recidiva a cada tentativa de retirada da medicação. Demonstrados laboratorialmente níveis séricos tóxicos de chumbo, foi submetido à quelação com EDTA e à retirada cirúrgica do projétil, com boa recuperação da polineuropatia, sem necessidade ulterior de corticosteróides. Enfatiza-se: 1 o possível papel do sistema imune na fisiopatogenia da intoxicação por chumbo, podendo ser um dos motivos das diferentes apresentações clínicas das neuropatias plúmbicas na infância e no adulto; 2 a importância da retirada do material plúmbeo quando alojado em articulações.This is a case report of a twenty-five years old man who developed, due to lead intoxication, a severe axonal peripheral predominantly motor neuropathy, after a shotgun injury. The projectile was retained in the right hip. Before this diagnosis had been done he was treated with corticosteroids in immunosuppressive doses and showed an improvement, but he had worsened at each attempt to interrupt the drug. Because he had also other signs of lead intoxication, such as abdominal cramps, severe anemia and seizures it was search for the blood levels of lead that was 101.2 }μg/dl. The patient was treated with calcium disodium edetate and surgical removal of lead fragments. After that he had a good outcome with no need of corticosteroids. It is emphasized the possible relevance of the immune system on the mechanism of plumbic intoxication and the importance of the withdrawal of the lead material retained in joints.

  17. EDITORIAL MODERN TECHNOLOGY IN PERIPHERAL HEALTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-06-01

    Jun 1, 2004 ... new technology to peripheral health care systems in developing countries. ... and maintenance of medical equipment in Africa, citing information ... operating laboratory equipment, and for emergency lighting for operating ...

  18. Haemopoietic progenitor cells in human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, F.E.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation reported is to purify haemopoietic progenitor cells from human peripheral blood using density gradient centrifugation in order to isolate a progenitor cell fraction without immunocompetent cells. The purification technique of peripheral blood flow colony forming unit culture (CFU-c) by means of density gradient centrifugation and a combined depletion of various rosettes is described. The results of several 'in vitro' characteristics of purified CFU-c suspensions and of the plasma clot diffusion chamber culture technique are presented. Irradiation studies revealed that for both human bone marrow and peripheral blood the CFU-c were less radioresistant than clusters. Elimination of monocytes (and granulocytes) from the test suspensions induced an alteration in radiosensitivity pararmeters. The results obtained with the different techniques are described by analysing peripheral progenitor cell activity in myeloproliferative disorders. (Auth.)

  19. Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Harvest

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Harvest. Mobilization protocol. G-CSF 10 mcg/Kg / day for 5 days. Pheresis. Cobe Spectra; Haemonetics mcs+. Enumeration. CD34 counts; Cfu-GM assays.

  20. Side Effects: Nerve Problems (Peripheral Neuropathy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve problems, such as peripheral neuropathy, can be caused by cancer treatment. Learn about signs and symptoms of nerve changes. Find out how to prevent or manage nerve problems during cancer treatment.

  1. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007393.htm Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries To use the sharing features ... inside the arteries and block blood flow. A stent is a small, metal mesh tube that keeps ...

  2. Peripheral myelin protein 22 alters membrane architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorf, Kathleen F.; Marinko, Justin T.; Hampton, Cheri M.; Ke, Zunlong; Hadziselimovic, Arina; Schlebach, Jonathan P.; Law, Cheryl L.; Li, Jun; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Sanders, Charles R.; Ohi, Melanie D.

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is highly expressed in myelinating Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system. PMP22 genetic alterations cause the most common forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD), which is characterized by severe dysmyelination in the peripheral nerves. However, the functions of PMP22 in Schwann cell membranes remain unclear. We demonstrate that reconstitution of purified PMP22 into lipid vesicles results in the formation of compressed and cylindrically wrapped protein-lipid vesicles that share common organizational traits with compact myelin of peripheral nerves in vivo. The formation of these myelin-like assemblies depends on the lipid-to-PMP22 ratio, as well as on the PMP22 extracellular loops. Formation of the myelin-like assemblies is disrupted by a CMTD-causing mutation. This study provides both a biochemical assay for PMP22 function and evidence that PMP22 directly contributes to membrane organization in compact myelin. PMID:28695207

  3. Peripheral Arterial Disease Can Be a Killer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Peripheral Arterial Disease Can Be a Killer Past Issues / ... Color changes in skin, paleness, or blueness Lower temperature in one leg compared to the other leg ...

  4. Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Finsterer, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell?s palsy). Three quarters of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the presence of typical symptoms and signs, blood chemical investigations, cerebro-spinal-fluid-investigations, X-ray of the...

  5. Atherectomy in Peripheral Artery Disease: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Tariq M; Afari, Maxwell E; Garcia, Lawrence A

    2017-04-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a clinical manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The physiological force and shear stress from angioplasty and stenting have made PAD treatment challenging. Atherectomy devices have continued to emerge as a major therapy in the management of peripheral vascular disease. This article presents a review of the current literature for the atherectomy devices used in PAD.

  6. Passive Scalar Evolution in Peripheral Region

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedev, V. V.; Turitsyn, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    We consider evolution of a passive scalar (concentration of pollutants or temperature) in a chaotic (turbulent) flow. A universal asymptotic behavior of the passive scalar decay (homogenization) related to peripheral regions (near walls) is established. The passive scalar moments and its pair correlation function in the peripheral region are analyzed. A special case investigated in our paper is the passive scalar decay along a pipe.

  7. Peripheral Circulatory Features during High-Frequency Jet Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kontorovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of a study of peripheral circulatory features during high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV. The main specific features of peripheral circulation and oxygen transport during HFJV are formulated on the basis of a study of cardiac output (impedance cardiography, peripheral vascular resistance, peripheral vascular blood filling (photoplethysmogram analysis, adaptive peripheral blood flow reactions (spectral analysis of peripheral vascular pulsation. HFJV gives rise to the peculiar pattern of peripheral hemodynamics and tissue gas exchange, which is characterized by higher oxygen uptake without a decrease in mixed venous blood saturation, with normal extraction coefficient and preserved low peripheral vascular resistance. During HFJV, unlike traditional ventilation, the main peripheral hemodynamic feature is the increased capillary bed blood volume caused by the blood flow involvement of reserve capillaries under control of volume (parasympathetic regulation of adaptive peripheral hemodynamic reactions. Key words: high-frequency jet ventilation, oxygen transport, peripheral hemodynamics.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulates emitted by motorcycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Chau Thuy; Kameda, Takayuki; Toriba, Akira; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2013-01-01

    We determined eleven PAHs and four NPAHs in particulates and regulated pollutants (CO, CO 2 , HC, NO x , PM) exhausted from motorcycles to figure out the characteristics of motorcycle exhausts. Fluoranthene and pyrene accounted for more than 50% of the total detected PAHs. Among four detected NPAHs, 6-nitrochrysene and 7-nitrobenz[a]anthracene were the predominant NPAHs and were highly correlated relationship with their parent PAHs (R = 0.93 and 0.97, respectively). The PM and HC emissions tended to be close to the PAH emissions. NO x and NPAHs were negatively correlated. Despite their small engine size, motorcycles emitted much more PM and PAHs, showed stronger PAH-related carcinogenicity and indirect-acting mutagenicity, but weaker NPAH-related direct-acting mutagenic potency than automobiles. This is the first study to analyze both PAHs and NPAHs emitted by motorcycles, which could provide useful information to design the emission regulations and standards for motorcycles such as PM. -- Highlights: ► We characterized PAHs and NPAHs distribution in motorcycle exhausts. ► NPAHs concentrations were about three orders of magnitude lower than those of PAHs. ► We found larger amounts of PM and PAHs in exhaust of motorcycles than of automobiles. ► Motorcycles showed stronger PAH-related toxicity than automobiles. ► Motorcycles showed weaker NPAH-related direct-acting mutagenicity than automobiles. -- Control polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in particulates emitted by motorcycles due to their toxic potency

  9. Determination of aromatic and PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) content of oily wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysyj, I.; Russell, E.C.

    1978-08-01

    An analytical scheme was developed for determining the total organic content and hydrocarbon concentration from a one-liter portion of a wastewater sample, and determining the volatile, suspended, and water-soluble fractions from a second, two-liter portion. Analyses of untreated and treated bilge wastewater from the U.S. Army Fort Eustis, Va., facility showed 10-300 ppm suspended organics and 10-300 ppm dissolved organics in the untreated bilge, and no suspended matter, but 700-2000 ppm dissolved organics, in the treated bilge wastewaters. Of the dissolved organics in untreated and treated wastewater, 70 and 10%, respectively, were extracted with chloroform; the organics in the treated water were probably biologically derived from petroleum degradation. Gas chromatographic/mass spectroscopic and high-pressure liquid chromatographic analyses of the chloroform extracts showed about equal parts of phenolic compounds and aromatic hydrocarbons, small amounts of heterocyclics, and traces of polycyclic aromatics in the untreated wastewater, and mainly phenolics in the treated water.

  10. Arginine-aromatic interactions and their effects on arginine-induced solubilization of aromatic solutes and suppression of protein aggregation

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, Dhawal; Li, Jianguo; Shaikh, Abdul Rajjak; Rajagopalan, Raj

    2011-01-01

    We examine the interaction of aromatic residues of proteins with arginine, an additive commonly used to suppress protein aggregation, using experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. An aromatic-rich peptide, FFYTP (a segment of insulin), and lysozyme and insulin are used as model systems. Mass spectrometry shows that arginine increases the solubility of FFYTP by binding to the peptide, with the simulations revealing the predominant association of arginine to be with the aromatic residues. The calculations further show a positive preferential interaction coefficient, Γ XP, contrary to conventional thinking that positive Γ XP's indicate aggregation rather than suppression of aggregation. Simulations with lysozyme and insulin also show arginine's preference for aromatic residues, in addition to acidic residues. We use these observations and earlier results reported by us and others to discuss the possible implications of arginine's interactions with aromatic residues on the solubilization of aromatic moieties and proteins. Our results also highlight the fact that explanations based purely on Γ XP, which measures average affinity of an additive to a protein, could obscure or misinterpret the underlying molecular mechanisms behind additive-induced suppression of protein aggregation. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  11. Arginine-aromatic interactions and their effects on arginine-induced solubilization of aromatic solutes and suppression of protein aggregation

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, Dhawal

    2011-09-21

    We examine the interaction of aromatic residues of proteins with arginine, an additive commonly used to suppress protein aggregation, using experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. An aromatic-rich peptide, FFYTP (a segment of insulin), and lysozyme and insulin are used as model systems. Mass spectrometry shows that arginine increases the solubility of FFYTP by binding to the peptide, with the simulations revealing the predominant association of arginine to be with the aromatic residues. The calculations further show a positive preferential interaction coefficient, Γ XP, contrary to conventional thinking that positive Γ XP\\'s indicate aggregation rather than suppression of aggregation. Simulations with lysozyme and insulin also show arginine\\'s preference for aromatic residues, in addition to acidic residues. We use these observations and earlier results reported by us and others to discuss the possible implications of arginine\\'s interactions with aromatic residues on the solubilization of aromatic moieties and proteins. Our results also highlight the fact that explanations based purely on Γ XP, which measures average affinity of an additive to a protein, could obscure or misinterpret the underlying molecular mechanisms behind additive-induced suppression of protein aggregation. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  12. Alkyne Benzannulation Reactions for the Synthesis of Novel Aromatic Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Samuel J; Lehnherr, Dan; Arslan, Hasan; J Uribe-Romo, Fernando; Dichtel, William R

    2017-11-21

    Aromatic compounds and polymers are integrated into organic field effect transistors, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, and redox-flow batteries. These compounds and materials feature increasingly complex designs, and substituents influence energy levels, bandgaps, solution conformation, and crystal packing, all of which impact performance. However, many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of interest are difficult to prepare because their substitution patterns lie outside the scope of current synthetic methods, as strategies for functionalizing benzene are often unselective when applied to naphthalene or larger systems. For example, cross-coupling and nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions rely on prefunctionalized arenes, and even directed metalation methods most often modify positions near Lewis basic sites. Similarly, electrophilic aromatic substitutions access single regioisomers under substrate control. Cycloadditions provide a convergent route to densely functionalized aromatic compounds that compliment the above methods. After surveying cycloaddition reactions that might be used to modify the conjugated backbone of poly(phenylene ethynylene)s, we discovered that the Asao-Yamamoto benzannulation reaction is notably efficient. Although this reaction had been reported a decade earlier, its scope and usefulness for synthesizing complex aromatic systems had been under-recognized. This benzannulation reaction combines substituted 2-(phenylethynyl)benzaldehydes and substituted alkynes to form 2,3-substituted naphthalenes. The reaction tolerates a variety of sterically congested alkynes, making it well-suited for accessing poly- and oligo(ortho-arylene)s and contorted hexabenzocoronenes. In many cases in which asymmetric benzaldehyde and alkyne cycloaddition partners are used, the reaction is regiospecific based on the electronic character of the alkyne substrate. Recognizing these desirable features, we broadened the substrate scope to include silyl

  13. Mini-review: Far peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    The region of far peripheral vision, beyond 60 degrees of visual angle, is important to the evaluation of peripheral dark shadows (negative dysphotopsia) seen by some intraocular lens (IOL) patients. Theoretical calculations show that the limited diameter of an IOL affects ray paths at large angles, leading to a dimming of the main image for small pupils, and to peripheral illumination by light bypassing the IOL for larger pupils. These effects are rarely bothersome, and cataract surgery is highly successful, but there is a need to improve the characterization of far peripheral vision, for both pseudophakic and phakic eyes. Perimetry is the main quantitative test, but the purpose is to evaluate pathologies rather than characterize vision (and object and image regions are no longer uniquely related in the pseudophakic eye). The maximum visual angle is approximately 105 0 , but there is limited information about variations with age, race, or refractive error (in case there is an unexpected link with the development of myopia), or about how clear cornea, iris location, and the limiting retina are related. Also, the detection of peripheral motion is widely recognized to be important, yet rarely evaluated. Overall, people rarely complain specifically about this visual region, but with "normal" vision including an IOL for >5% of people, and increasing interest in virtual reality and augmented reality, there are new reasons to characterize peripheral vision more completely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Casandra J; Watson, James C

    2015-02-01

    Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy impairs quality of life and can be difficult to treat. To discuss current treatment recommendations for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Literature review. Systematic review of the literature discussing treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Existing treatment guidelines were studied and compared. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy occurs in about one in six people with diabetes. This condition impairs quality of life and increases healthcare costs. Treatment recommendations exist, but individual patient therapy can require a trial-and-error approach. Many treatment options have adjuvant benefits or side effects which should be considered prior to initiating therapy. Often, a combination of treatment modalities with various mechanisms of action is required for adequate pain control. Adequate medication titration and a reasonable trial period should be allowed. The treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy can be challenging, but effective management can improve patient's quality of life. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy impairs quality of life and can be difficult to treat. Many treatment options have adjuvant benefits or side effects which should be considered prior to initiating therapy. Often, a combination of treatment modalities with various mechanisms of action is required for adequate pain control. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  15. Novel Cholinesterase Inhibitors Based on O-Aromatic N,N-Disubstituted Carbamates and Thiocarbamates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Krátký

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the presence of carbamoyl moiety, twenty salicylanilide N,N-disubstituted (thiocarbamates were investigated using Ellman’s method for their ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE. O-Aromatic (thiocarbamates exhibited weak to moderate inhibition of both cholinesterases with IC50 values within the range of 1.60 to 311.0 µM. IC50 values for BChE were mostly lower than those obtained for AChE; four derivatives showed distinct selectivity for BChE. All of the (thiocarbamates produced a stronger inhibition of AChE than rivastigmine, and five of them inhibited BChE more effectively than both established drugs rivastigmine and galantamine. In general, 5-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-[4-(trifluoromethyl-phenyl]benzamide, 2-hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamide as well as N-methyl-N-phenyl carbamate derivatives led to the more potent inhibition. O-{4-Chloro-2-[(4-chlorophenylcarbamoyl]phenyl} dimethylcarbamothioate was identified as the most effective AChE inhibitor (IC50 = 38.98 µM, while 2-(phenylcarbamoylphenyl diphenylcarbamate produced the lowest IC50 value for BChE (1.60 µM. Results from molecular docking studies suggest that carbamate compounds, especially N,N-diphenyl substituted representatives with considerable portion of aromatic moieties may work as non-covalent inhibitors displaying many interactions at peripheral anionic sites of both enzymes. Mild cytotoxicity for HepG2 cells and consequent satisfactory calculated selectivity indexes qualify several derivatives for further optimization.

  16. Vascular access in neonatology: peripherally inserted central catheter and peripheral venous catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Lienemann

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to present aspects of peripherally inserted central catheter and peripheral venous catheter, highlighting important points in choosing the type of access. For the passage of peripherally inserted central catheter is previously performing specific course necessary, while the primary indication occurs when it is necessary to access the patient's stay for a long period of time. Whereas peripheral venipuncture is the most appropriate in cases of needing an IV line quickly and safely, for the administration of fluids, blood collection, blood transfusion and other.

  17. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachon Q, Jorge; Garcia L, Hector; Bustos L, Martha; Bravo A, Humberto; Sosa E, Rodolfo

    2004-01-01

    Rainfall polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations were determined in particulate matter with a <10 mm aerodynamic diameter (PM10) in three industrial municipalities of the metropolitan zone of Bogota City (MZBC). The 12 samples of greatest concentration of PM10 collected between 2001 and 2002 at the stations of atmospheric monitoring of Cundinamarca secretary of health (SSC), in the municipalities of Soacha, Sibate and Cajica, were analyzed. The results were correlated with emissions in the area, by means of emission factors and environmental agencies information. The particulate matter results for the analyzed period show concentrations that exceed the air quality standard of the US environmental protection agency EPA on several occasions at the Soacha municipality, whereas the air quality in the Sibate and Cajica municipalities did not show that to be the case. Despite the reduced number of samples and sampling sites, we believe that the reported profiles can be considered a valid estimation of the average air quality of the MZBC. The identified PAH species were: phenanthrene(Phe), anthracene(Ant), fluoranthene(Fla), pyrene(Pyr), benzo(a)anthracene (Baa), chrysene(chr), benzo(ghi)perylene(BgP) and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene(Ind). It was not possible to quantify naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthy-lene(Acy), acenaphthene(Ace), nor fluorene(Flu), being light and volatile hydrocarbons with greater presence in the gaseous phase of the air. The correlation of PAH with source emissions shows mobile sources to be the main origin. The intervals of concentration of both individual PAH and the total species were similar to the ones usually found in other industrial zones of the world. PAHs correlations allowed pinpointing common emission sources between Soacha and Sibate municipalities

  18. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10% and 30% moisture content on a wet basis) in a forced-draft fan stove, and (iv) wood in a natural-draft rocket cookstove. LPG combustion had the highest thermal efficiency (~57%) and the lowest PAH emissions per unit fuel energy, resulting in the lowest PAH emissions per useful energy delivered (MJd). The average benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) emission factor for LPG was 0.842 µg/MJd; the emission rate was 0.043 µg/min. The highest PAH emissions were from wood burning in the natural-draft stove (209-700 µg B[a]P/MJd). PAH emissions from kerosene were significantly lower than those from the wood burning in the natural-draft cookstove, but higher than those from LPG. It is expected that in rural regions where LPG and kerosene are unavailable or unaffordable, the forced-draft fan stove may be an alternative because its emission factor (5.17-8.07 µg B[a]P/MJd) and emission rate (0.52-0.57 µg/min) are similar to kerosene (5.36 µg B[a]P/MJd and 0.45 µg/min). Compared with wood combustion emissions, LPG stoves emit less total PAH emissions and less fractions of high molecular weight PAHs. Relatively large variations in PAH emissions from LPG call for additional future tests to identify the major

  19. Effects of estradiol on worm burden and peripheral leukocytes in Parastrongylus malaysiensis-infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ahmad, R A; Badrul-Munir, M Z

    1994-01-01

    Gonadectomized male laboratory rats were given 0.06 mg/kg estradiol benzoate daily for 14 days before being inoculated with 50 third-stage larvae of Parastrongylus malaysiensis. Hormone treatment was continued until the rats were killed. The numbers of larvae in the brain and of adult worms in the pulmonary area of the rats were determined every 7 days after the inoculation. It was found that the rats treated daily with estradiol benzoate had significantly and consistently higher numbers of larvae and adult worms as compared with the controls. The number of total leukocytes increased significantly after the rats were infected. The results show that estradiol-treated rats become susceptible to P. malaysiensis infection, which may indicate that the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone observed in earlier studies may partly be caused by estradiol that was peripherally aromatized from testosterone.

  20. Case report of a patient with peripheral facial nerve palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Rysová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Title of bachelor's thesis: Case report of a patient with peripheral facial nerve palsy Summary: Teoretical part of bachelor's thesis contains theoretical foundation of peripheral facial nerve palsy. Practical part of bachelor's thesis contains physiotherapeutic case report of patient with peripheral facial nerve palsy. Key words: peripheral facial nerve palsy, casuistry, rehabilitation

  1. Global simulation of aromatic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Perez, David; Taraborrelli, Domenico; Pozzer, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Among the large number of chemical compounds in the atmosphere, the organic group plays a key role in the tropospheric chemistry. Specifically the subgroup called aromatics is of great interest. Aromatics are the predominant trace gases in urban areas due to high emissions, primarily by vehicle exhausts and fuel evaporation. They are also present in areas where biofuel is used (i.e residential wood burning). Emissions of aromatic compounds are a substantial fraction of the total emissions of the volatile organic compounds (VOC). Impact of aromatics on human health is very important, as they do not only contribute to the ozone formation in the urban environment, but they are also highly toxic themselves, especially in the case of benzene which is able to trigger a range of illness under long exposure, and of nitro-phenols which cause detrimental for humans and vegetation even at very low concentrations. The aim of this work is to assess the atmospheric impacts of aromatic compounds on the global scale. The main goals are: lifetime and budget estimation, mixing ratios distribution, net effect on ozone production and OH loss for the most emitted aromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, styrene and trimethylbenzenes). For this purpose, we use the numerical chemistry and climate simulation ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model to build the global atmospheric budget for the most emitted and predominant aromatic compounds in the atmosphere. A set of emissions was prepared in order to include biomass burning, vegetation and anthropogenic sources of aromatics into the model. A chemical mechanism based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) was developed to describe the chemical oxidation in the gas phase of these aromatic compounds. MCM have been reduced in terms of number of chemical equation and species in order to make it affordable in a 3D model. Additionally other features have been added, for instance the production of HONO via ortho

  2. Degradation of aromatic compounds in plants grown under aseptic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mithaishvili, T.; Ugrekhelidze, D.; Tsereteli, B.; Sadunishvili, T.; Kvesitadze, G. [Durmishidze Inst. of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Academy of Sciences of Georgia, Tbilisi (Georgia); Scalla, R. [Lab. des Xenobiotiques, INRA, Toulouse (France)

    2005-02-01

    The aim of the work is to investigate the ability of higher plants to absorb and detoxify environmental pollutants - aromatic compounds via aromatic ring cleavage. Transformation of {sup 14}C specifically labelled benzene derivatives, [1-6-{sup 14}C]-nitrobenzene, [1-6-{sup 14}C]-aniline, [1-{sup 14}C]- and [7-{sup 14}C]-benzoic acid, in axenic seedlings of maize (Zea mays L.), kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.) and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) were studied. After penetration in plants, the above xenobiotics are transformed by oxidative or reductive reactions, conjugation with cell endogenous compounds, and binding to biopolymers. The initial stage of oxidative degradation consists in hydroxylation reactions. The aromatic ring can then be cleaved and degraded into organic acids of the Krebs cycle. Ring cleavage is accompanied by {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolution. Aromatic ring cleavage in plants has thus been demonstrated for different xenobiotics carrying different substitutions on their benzene ring. Conjugation with low molecular peptides is the main pathway of aromatic xenobiotics detoxification. Peptide conjugates are formed both by the initial xenobiotics (except nitrobenzene) and by intermediate transformation products. The chemical nature of the radioactive fragment and the amino acid composition of peptides participating in conjugation were identified. (orig.)

  3. The mutagenic potential of high flash aromatic naphtha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, C A; Edwards, D A; McKee, R H; Swanson, M; Wong, Z A; Schmitt, S; Beatty, P

    1989-06-01

    Catalytic reforming is a refining process that converts naphthenes to aromatics by dehydrogenation to make higher octane gasoline blending components. A portion of this wide boiling range hydrocarbon stream can be separated by distillation and used for other purposes. One such application is a mixture of predominantly 9-carbon aromatic molecules (C9 aromatics, primarily isomers of ethyltoluene and trimethylbenzene), which is removed and used as a solvent--high-flash aromatic naphtha. A program was initiated to assess the toxicological properties of high-flash aromatic naphtha since there may be human exposure through inhalation or external body contact. The current study was conducted partly to assess the potential for mutagenic activity and also to assist in an assessment of carcinogenic potential. The specific tests utilized included the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity assay, the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) forward mutation assay in CHO cells, in vitro chromosome aberration and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) assays in CHO cells, and an in vivo chromosome aberration assay in rat bone marrow.

  4. Oxidative decomposition of aromatic hydrocarbons by electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Do-Hung; Stuchinskaya, Tatiana; Won, Yang-Soo; Park, Wan-Sik; Lim, Jae-Kyong

    2003-05-01

    Decomposition of aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under electron beam irradiation was studied in order to examine the kinetics of the process, to characterize the reaction product distribution and to develop a process of waste gas control technology. Toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m-, p-xylenes and chlorobenzene were used as target materials. The experiments were carried out at doses ranging from 0.5 to 10 kGy, using a flow reactor utilized under electron beam irradiation. Maximum degrees of decomposition carried out at 10 kGy in air environment were 55-65% for “non-chlorinated” aromatic VOC and 85% for chlorobenzene. It was found that a combination of aromatic pollutants with chlorobenzene would considerably increase the degradation value up to nearly 50% compared to the same compounds in the absence of chlorine groups. Based on our experimental observation, the degradation mechanism of the aromatic compounds combined with chloro-compound suggests that a chlorine radical, formed from EB irradiation, induces a chain reaction, resulting in an accelerating oxidative destruction of aromatic VOCs.

  5. Global atmospheric budget of simple monocyclic aromatic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cabrera-Perez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The global atmospheric budget and distribution of monocyclic aromatic compounds is estimated, using an atmospheric chemistry general circulation model. Simulation results are evaluated with an ensemble of surface and aircraft observations with the goal of understanding emission, production and removal of these compounds.Anthropogenic emissions provided by the RCP database represent the largest source of aromatics in the model (≃ 23 TgC year−1 and biomass burning from the GFAS inventory the second largest (≃ 5 TgC year−1. The simulated chemical production of aromatics accounts for  ≃ 5 TgC year−1. The atmospheric burden of aromatics sums up to 0.3 TgC. The main removal process of aromatics is photochemical decomposition (≃ 27 TgC  year−1, while wet and dry deposition are responsible for a removal of  ≃ 4 TgC year−1.Simulated mixing ratios at the surface and elsewhere in the troposphere show good spatial and temporal agreement with the observations for benzene, although the model generally underestimates mixing ratios. Toluene is generally well reproduced by the model at the surface, but mixing ratios in the free troposphere are underestimated. Finally, larger discrepancies are found for xylenes: surface mixing ratios are not only overestimated but also a low temporal correlation is found with respect to in situ observations.

  6. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, C.; Mattioda, A. L.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Allamandola, L. J.; Bauschlicher, C. W. Jr; Ricca, A.; Peeters, E.

    2011-01-01

    The far-IR characteristics of astrophysically relevant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) averaging in size around 100 carbon atoms have been studied using the theoretical spectra in the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. These spectra were calculated using density functional theory. Selections of PAH species are made, grouped together by common characteristics or trends, such as size, shape, charge, and composition, and their far-IR spectra compared. The out-of-plane modes involving the entire molecule are explored in detail, astronomical relevance is assessed, and an observing strategy is discussed. It is shown that PAHs produce richer far-IR spectra with increasing size. PAHs also produce richer far-IR spectra with increasing number of irregularities. However, series of irregular-shaped PAHs with the same compact core have common 'Jumping-Jack' modes that 'pile up' at specific frequencies in their average spectrum. For the PAHs studied here, around 100 carbon atoms in size, this band falls near 50 μm. PAH charge and nitrogen inclusion affect band intensities but have little effect on far-IR band positions. Detailed analysis of the two-dimensional, out-of-plane bending 'drumhead' modes in the coronene and pyrene 'families' and the one-dimensional, out-of-plane bending 'bar' modes in the acene 'family' show that these molecular vibrations can be treated as classical vibrating sheets and bars of graphene, respectively. The analysis also shows that the peak position of these modes is very sensitive to the area of the emitting PAH and does not depend on the particular geometry. Thus, these longest wavelength PAH bands could provide a unique handle on the size of the largest species in the interstellar PAH family. However, these bands are weak. Observing highly excited regions showing the mid-IR bands in which the emission from classical dust peaks at short wavelengths offers the best chance of detecting PAH emission in the far-IR. For these regions

  7. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Far-infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, C.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Ricca, A.; Mattioda, A. L.; Peeters, E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2011-03-01

    The far-IR characteristics of astrophysically relevant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) averaging in size around 100 carbon atoms have been studied using the theoretical spectra in the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. These spectra were calculated using density functional theory. Selections of PAH species are made, grouped together by common characteristics or trends, such as size, shape, charge, and composition, and their far-IR spectra compared. The out-of-plane modes involving the entire molecule are explored in detail, astronomical relevance is assessed, and an observing strategy is discussed. It is shown that PAHs produce richer far-IR spectra with increasing size. PAHs also produce richer far-IR spectra with increasing number of irregularities. However, series of irregular-shaped PAHs with the same compact core have common "Jumping-Jack" modes that "pile up" at specific frequencies in their average spectrum. For the PAHs studied here, around 100 carbon atoms in size, this band falls near 50 μm. PAH charge and nitrogen inclusion affect band intensities but have little effect on far-IR band positions. Detailed analysis of the two-dimensional, out-of-plane bending "drumhead" modes in the coronene and pyrene "families" and the one-dimensional, out-of-plane bending "bar" modes in the acene "family" show that these molecular vibrations can be treated as classical vibrating sheets and bars of graphene, respectively. The analysis also shows that the peak position of these modes is very sensitive to the area of the emitting PAH and does not depend on the particular geometry. Thus, these longest wavelength PAH bands could provide a unique handle on the size of the largest species in the interstellar PAH family. However, these bands are weak. Observing highly excited regions showing the mid-IR bands in which the emission from classical dust peaks at short wavelengths offers the best chance of detecting PAH emission in the far-IR. For these regions

  8. Peripheral biomarkers revisited: integrative profiling of peripheral samples for psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi-Takagi, Akiko; Vawter, Marquis P; Iwamoto, Kazuya

    2014-06-15

    Peripheral samples, such as blood and skin, have been used for decades in psychiatric research as surrogates for central nervous system samples. Although the validity of the data obtained from peripheral samples has been questioned and other state-of-the-art techniques, such as human brain imaging, genomics, and induced pluripotent stem cells, seem to reduce the value of peripheral cells, accumulating evidence has suggested that revisiting peripheral samples is worthwhile. Here, we re-evaluate the utility of peripheral samples and argue that establishing an understanding of the common signaling and biological processes in the brain and peripheral samples is required for the validity of such models. First, we present an overview of the available types of peripheral cells and describe their advantages and disadvantages. We then briefly summarize the main achievements of omics studies, including epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome analyses, as well as the main findings of functional cellular assays, the results of which imply that alterations in neurotransmission, metabolism, the cell cycle, and the immune system may be partially responsible for the pathophysiology of major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Finally, we discuss the future utility of peripheral samples for the development of biomarkers and tailor-made therapies, such as multimodal assays that are used as a battery of disease and trait pathways and that might be potent and complimentary tools for use in psychiatric research. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  9. O Plano de Metas e seus possíveis efeitos no trabalho docente na rede estadual de ensino do Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Lucia da Costa Nepomuceno

    2014-01-01

    O tema desta pesquisa é o Plano de Metas e seus possíveis efeitos no trabalho docente, com domínio de interesse no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. O estudo também procura apresentar um breve e recente histórico das políticas de educação do Estado, no que tange ao período de transição do Programa Nova Escola para a implantação do Plano de Metas, procurando contextualizar o momento da implantação do Plano. Como desdobramento deste tema, buscase de um lado, analisar as características, estraté...

  10. Escassez de órgãos e clonagem terapêutica: uma conexão possível?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Freire de Sá

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata de dois assuntos polêmicos. O primeiro é a escassez de órgãos, problema em escala global que urge por soluções. O segundo é a clonagem terapêutica, técnica com perspectivas promissoras para a medicina regenerativa. É possível estabelecer uma conexão entre esses temas? Pode a clonagem terapêutica representar uma solução para o problema da escassez de órgãos? Para responder a essas perguntas deve-se passar por barreiras jurídicas e éticas. A travessia dessas barreiras será, portanto, o caminho percorrido ao longo deste artigo.

  11. Peripheral dose outside applicators in electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, James C L; Grigorov, Grigor N

    2006-01-01

    The peripheral dose outside the applicators in electron beams was studied using a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator. To measure the peripheral dose profiles and point doses for the applicator, a solid water phantom was used with calibrated Kodak TL films. Peak dose spot was observed in the 4 MeV beam outside the applicator. The peripheral dose peak was very small in the 6 MeV beam and was ignorable at higher energies. Using the 10 x 10 cm 2 cutout and applicator, the dose peak for the 4 MeV beam was about 12 cm away from the field central beam axis (CAX) and the peripheral dose profiles did not change with depths measured at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 cm. The peripheral doses and profiles were further measured by varying the angle of obliquity, cutout and applicator size for the 4 MeV beam. The local peak dose was increased with about 3% per degree angle of obliquity, and was about 1% of the prescribed dose (angle of obliquity equals zero) at 1 cm depth in the phantom using the 10 x 10 cm 2 cutout and applicator. The peak dose position was also shifted 7 mm towards the CAX when the angle of obliquity was increased from 0 to 15 deg. (note)

  12. Hydrological modeling of the Ribeirão das Posses – An assessment based on the Agricultural Ecosystem Services (AgES watershed model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Porta Nova da Cruz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Southeastern Brazil has recently experienced drought conditions that have impacted watershed conservation and the management of water quality and quantity for agricultural and urban demands. The Ribeirão das Posses watershed is being monitored as a headwater of the Jaguarí River, which is one of the contributing rivers of the Cantareira Reservoir Complex in the state of São Paulo. The landscape has changed over the last century from native forests to more homogeneous vegetation for pastures, crops and some forest plantations of eucalyptus, which have cumulative impacts on water yield and quality. Currently, the Projeto Conservador das Águas (Water Conservationist Project has planted small areas with native species vegetation in order to recover degraded areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantity of water in the Ribeirão das Posses Basin by both measurements and by simulating hydrological responses. The Agricultural Ecosystem Services (AgES watershed model was applied to simulate water movement and storage among land areas. The simulation period was from 2009 to 2014, because the daily streamflow and meteorological data were available for model calibration and testing. We discuss data input requirements, model calibration to fit measured streamflow, and sensitivity to spatially variable rainfall inputs. The calibrated model may be used to estimate streamflow during periods of missing data, and in the future to estimate impacts of land use changes on stream water quantity and quality. Such information can be used in programs of payments for ecosystem services.

  13. Intra-molecular selectivity of muonium towards chlorinated aromatic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, K.; Stadlbauer, J.M.; Laing, M.E.; Klugkist, J.; Chong, D.P.; Porter, G.B.; Walker, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Muon resonance studies show that muonium atoms (Mu) in ethanol add selectively to certain C-sites of aromatic compounds containing -Cl and -OH substituents. The sites chosen seem to be those carrying the lowest electron density. This helps to characterize Mu as a nucleophile in addition reactions and, in this respect, Mu differs from ordinary H-atoms. The study shows no apparent inter-molecular selectivity between a pair of aromatic solutes in an equimolar mixture, but strong intra-molecular selectivity in an ether composed of those two aromatic rings. This difference between intra- and inter-molecular selectivity is interpreted as kinetic in origin - arising from the 'caging effect' of the solvent and peculiar to reactions close to the diffusion-controlled limit. (orig.)

  14. MRI features of tuberculosis of peripheral joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawlani, V.; Chandra, T.; Mishra, R.N.; Aggarwal, A.; Jain, U.K.; Gujral, R.B. E-mail: gujralrb@sgpgi.ac.in

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this article is to present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of peripheral tubercular arthritis. The clinical presentation of peripheral tubercular arthritis is variable and simulates other chronic inflammatory arthritic disorders. MRI is a highly sensitive technique which demonstrates fine anatomical details and identifies the early changes of arthritis, which are not visible on radiographs. The MRI features of tubercular arthritis include synovitis, effusion, central and peripheral erosions, active and chronic pannus, abscess, bone chips and hypo-intense synovium. These imaging features in an appropriate clinical setting may help in the diagnosis of tubercular arthritis. Early diagnosis and treatment can effectively eliminate the long-term morbidity of joints affected by tuberculosis.

  15. MRI features of tuberculosis of peripheral joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawlani, V.; Chandra, T.; Mishra, R.N.; Aggarwal, A.; Jain, U.K.; Gujral, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of peripheral tubercular arthritis. The clinical presentation of peripheral tubercular arthritis is variable and simulates other chronic inflammatory arthritic disorders. MRI is a highly sensitive technique which demonstrates fine anatomical details and identifies the early changes of arthritis, which are not visible on radiographs. The MRI features of tubercular arthritis include synovitis, effusion, central and peripheral erosions, active and chronic pannus, abscess, bone chips and hypo-intense synovium. These imaging features in an appropriate clinical setting may help in the diagnosis of tubercular arthritis. Early diagnosis and treatment can effectively eliminate the long-term morbidity of joints affected by tuberculosis

  16. Intraoperative digital angiography: Peripheral vascular applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, K.; Reifsteck, J.E.; Binet, E.F.; Fleisher, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Intraoperative digital angiography is the procedure of choice for the peripheral vascular surgeon who wishes to evaluate his results before terminating anesthesia. Two operating suites at the John L. McClellan Memorial Veterans Hospital are equipped with permanent ceiling-mounted Philips C-arm fluoroscopes and share an ADAC 4100 digital angiographic system. In the last 18 months, 40 peripheral vascular intraoperative digital angiographic procedures have been performed, in all but two cases using direct arterial puncture. In 65% of cases, the intraoperative study showed no significant abnormality. In 12.5%, minor abnormalities not requiring reoperation were seen. In 22.5% of cases, the intraoperative digital angiogram revealed a significant abnormality requiring immediate operative revision. None of the patients who underwent reoperation experienced postoperative sequelae. Intraoperative digital angiography is useful in identifying complications of peripheral vascular operations

  17. Comprehensive management of presbycusis: central and peripheral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Kourosh; Lin, Frank R; Coelho, Daniel H; Sataloff, Robert T; Gates, George A

    2013-04-01

    The prevailing otolaryngologic approach to treatment of age-related hearing loss (ARHL), presbycusis, emphasizes compensation of peripheral functional deficits (ie, hearing aids and cochlear implants). This approach does not address adequately the needs of the geriatric population, 1 in 5 of whom is expected to consist of the "old old" in the coming decades. Aging affects both the peripheral and central auditory systems, and disorders of executive function become more prevalent with advancing age. Growing evidence supports an association between age-related hearing loss and cognitive decline. Thus, to facilitate optimal functional capacity in our geriatric patients, a more comprehensive management strategy of ARHL is needed. Diagnostic evaluation should go beyond standard audiometric testing and include measures of central auditory function, including dichotic tasks and speech-in-noise testing. Treatment should include not only appropriate means of peripheral compensation but also auditory rehabilitative training and counseling.

  18. [Peripheral retinal degenerations--treatment recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussen, A M; Kirchhof, B

    2004-10-01

    This report reviews the clinical appearance of degenerative diseases of the peripheral retina in relationship to the risk of developing a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. We present recommendations for preventive treatment in eyes at increased risk of developing retinal detachment. Retinal degenerations are common lesions involving the peripheral retina but most of them are clinically insignificant. Lattice degeneration, degenerative retinoschisis, cystic retinal tufts, and very rarely zonular traction tufts can result in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Therefore, these lesions have been considered for prophylactic treatment; however, adequate studies have not been performed to date. Most of the peripheral retinal degenerations may not require treatment except in rare, high-risk situations. According to current knowledge there is no higher incidence of secondary pucker or other side effects after laser coagulation. Therefore, generous laser indication is recommended if risk factors apply.

  19. Vitamin B supplementation for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, Bhavani; Low, Lian Leng

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with significant neurological pathology, especially peripheral neuropathy. This review aims to examine the existing evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin B12 supplementation for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A search of PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all relevant randomised controlled trials was conducted in December 2014. Any type of therapy using vitamin B12 or its coenzyme forms was assessed for efficacy and safety in diabetics with peripheral neuropathy. Changes in vibration perception thresholds, neuropathic symptoms and nerve conduction velocities, as well as the adverse effects of vitamin B12 therapy, were assessed. Four studies comprising 363 patients met the inclusion criteria. This review found no evidence that the use of oral vitamin B12 supplements is associated with improvement in the clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Furthermore, the majority of studies reported no improvement in the electrophysiological markers of nerve conduction. Copyright © Singapore Medical Association.

  20. Contrast media and pain during peripheral arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, B.; Clauss, W.

    1982-01-01

    Some contrast media (CM) were for inducing pain and heat by an intraindividual comparison in 60 patients with occlusive peripheral arterial disease. A dolorimeter and calorimeter (graduated scales) were employed to register and differentiate the subjective sensations experienced by the patient, while objective reactions (peripheral motoric reactions, circulatory parameters) were recorded by the trialist at the same time. Ioxaglate, an ionic dimer, was distinctly superior to Ioglicinate, an ionic CM. However, the differences were less marked in the comparison with a Ioglicinate-Lidocaine-mixture. Emphasis is given to the fact osmolality is the most important parameter in the development of pain. Potential points at which the intraarterially administered local anaesthetic could attack are discussed. The clinical conclusions include consideration of the cost-effectivity ratios of the tested CM's and a discussion of whether or not modern stanards still justify general anaesthesia for peripheral angiography. (orig.)

  1. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC–MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties

  2. Aromatics saturation, opening and cleavage technology for middle distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oballa, M.C.; Simanzhenkov, V.; Kim, G. [NOVA Chemicals Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    In order to address environmental concerns, there is a need to develop technologies to reformulate or adjust the quality of transportation fuels. The purpose is to reduce the concentration of the compounds which negatively affect the air that people breathe. One of those targeted is the aromatics content of diesel, because high aromatics content results in low cetane number of diesel, as well as higher emission of particulate matter. Less conventional sources of hydrocarbon feedstock such as oil from oil sands and/or shale oil are being exploited in Alberta. These feeds contain multiple fused aromatic ring compounds. NOVA Chemicals would like to use these potentially abundant liquids as feed, but they must first be transformed into a more user friendly state. This paper discussed the development of a process technology that could saturate the aromatic rings, open up the saturated rings and cleave them to get smaller paraffinic molecules. The products then comprised of lower paraffins are suitable as feed to steam crackers for the production of ethylene and propylene, higher paraffins suitable for blending into gasoline and mono aromatic ring compounds which may be further treated through alkylation of benzene to ethylbenzene and dealkylation to styrene. The paper discussed the process steps and highlighted the catalysts. Research results were also shown. It was concluded that the critical technology gaps, as well as solutions, which would enable overcoming the challenges related to handling of aromatic bitumen feedstock, entail the development of two different catalysts, which are on two different technology platforms. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Kampus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Omar, O. [Malaysian Agriculture Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Persiaran MARDI-UPM, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC–MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  4. Classification of Malaysia aromatic rice using multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, A. H.; Adom, A. H.; Shakaff, A. Y. Md; Masnan, M. J.; Zakaria, A.; Rahim, N. A.; Omar, O.

    2015-05-01

    Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) is considered as the best quality premium rice. The varieties are preferred by consumers because of its preference criteria such as shape, colour, distinctive aroma and flavour. The price of aromatic rice is higher than ordinary rice due to its special needed growth condition for instance specific climate and soil. Presently, the aromatic rice quality is identified by using its key elements and isotopic variables. The rice can also be classified via Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) or human sensory panels. However, the uses of human sensory panels have significant drawbacks such as lengthy training time, and prone to fatigue as the number of sample increased and inconsistent. The GC-MS analysis techniques on the other hand, require detailed procedures, lengthy analysis and quite costly. This paper presents the application of in-house developed Electronic Nose (e-nose) to classify new aromatic rice varieties. The e-nose is used to classify the variety of aromatic rice based on the samples odour. The samples were taken from the variety of rice. The instrument utilizes multivariate statistical data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and K-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) to classify the unknown rice samples. The Leave-One-Out (LOO) validation approach is applied to evaluate the ability of KNN to perform recognition and classification of the unspecified samples. The visual observation of the PCA and LDA plots of the rice proves that the instrument was able to separate the samples into different clusters accordingly. The results of LDA and KNN with low misclassification error support the above findings and we may conclude that the e-nose is successfully applied to the classification of the aromatic rice varieties.

  5. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Prem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the fourth leading cause of death world-wide and a further increase in the prevalence as well as mortality of the disease is predicted for coming decades. There is now an increased appreciation for the need to build awareness regarding COPD and to help the thousands of people who suffer from this disease and die prematurely from COPD or its associated complication(s. Peripheral neuropathy in COPD has received scanty attention despite the fact that very often clinicians come across COPD patients having clinical features suggestive of peripheral neuropathy. Electrophysiological tests like nerve conduction studies are required to distinguish between axonal and demyelinating type of disorder that cannot be analyzed by clinical examination alone. However, various studies addressing peripheral neuropathy in COPD carried out so far have included patients with COPD having markedly varying baseline characteristics like severe hypoxemia, elderly patients, those with long duration of illness, etc. that are not uniform across the studies and make it difficult to interpret the results to a consistent conclusion. Almost one-third of COPD patients have clinical evidence of peripheral neuropathy and two-thirds have electrophysiological abnormalities. Some patients with no clinical indication of peripheral neuropathy do have electrophysiological deficit suggestive of peripheral neuropathy. The more frequent presentation consists of a polyneuropathy that is subclinical or with predominantly sensory signs, and the neurophysiological and pathological features of predominantly axonal neuropathy. The presumed etiopathogenic factors are multiple: chronic hypoxia, tobacco smoke, alcoholism, malnutrition and adverse effects of certain drugs.

  6. Biodegradation Rates of Aromatic Contaminants in Biofilm Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arcangeli, Jean-Pierre; Arvin, Erik

    1995-01-01

    This study has shown that microorganisms can adapt to degrade mixtures of aromatic pollutants at relatively high rates in the μg/l concentration range. The biodegradation rates of the following compounds were investigated in biofilm systems: aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol, methylphenols......-reducing conditions, toluene was easily biodegraded. The xylenes and ethylbenzene were degraded cometabolically if toluene was used as a primary carbon source; their removal was influenced by competitive inhibition with toluene. These interaction phenomena are discussed in this paper and a kinetic model taking...

  7. Ionic Liquids as Benign Solvents for the Extraction of Aromatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Md. Anwar; Lee, Jeesun; Kim, Dai Hyun; Nguyen, Dinh Quan; Cheong, Minserk; Kim, Hoon Sik

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been extensively investigated as promising alternatives to conventional organic solvents such as sulfolane and N,N-dimethylformamide for the selective extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons from the C 6 -C 10 hydrocarbon mixtures produced from the cracking processes of naphtha and light oils. The most important advantage of ILs over conventional organic solvents is that they are immiscible with aliphatic hydrocarbons, and thus the back extraction of ILs from the raffinate phases and top hydrocarbon-rich layers is not necessary. In this paper, a brief review on the state of the art in the utilization of ILs for aromatics separation is presented

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples of meat smokehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Olsen, I L; Poulsen, O M

    1992-01-01

    In a screening programme nine Danish meat smokehouses were randomly selected for measurements on concentration of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). A total of 23 stationary air samples were collected during the entire working period of the kiln either above the kiln doors or approx......In a screening programme nine Danish meat smokehouses were randomly selected for measurements on concentration of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). A total of 23 stationary air samples were collected during the entire working period of the kiln either above the kiln doors...

  9. Recent Studies on the Aromaticity and Antiaromaticity of Planar Cyclooctatetraene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Iyoda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooctatetraene (COT, the first 4nπ-electron system to be studied, adopts an inherently nonplanar tub-shaped geometry of D2d symmetry with alternating single and double bonds, and hence behaves as a nonaromatic polyene rather than an antiaromatic compound. Recently, however, considerable 8π-antiaromatic paratropicity has been shown to be generated in planar COT rings even with the bond alternated D4h structure. In this review, we highlight recent theoretical and experimental studies on the antiaromaticity of hypothetical and actual planar COT. In addition, theoretically predicted triplet aromaticity and stacked aromaticity of planar COT are also briefly described.

  10. Unleaded gasoline with reduction in benzene and aromatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.

    2003-01-01

    The trend today is towards making gasoline more environment and human friendly or in other words making gasoline a really clean fuel. This paper covers the ill effects of benzene and aromatics and the driving force behind their reduction in gasoline worldwide. It addresses health concerns specifically, and the theme is unleaded gasoline without simultaneously addressing reduction in benzene and aromatics is more harmful. The paper cites worldwide case studies, and also the World Bank (WB), Government of Pakistan (GoP), and United Nations (UN) efforts in this area in Pakistan. (author)

  11. Manufacture of aromatic hydrocarbons from coal hydrogenation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.S. Maloletnev; M.A. Gyul' malieva [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-08-15

    The manufacture of aromatic hydrocarbons from coal distillates was experimentally studied. A flow chart for the production of benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes was designed, which comprised the hydrogen treatment of the total wide-cut (or preliminarily dephenolized) fraction with FBP 425{sup o}C; fractional distillation of the hydrotreated products into IBP-60, 60-180, 180-300, and 300-425{sup o}C fractions; the hydro-cracking of middle fractions for increasing the yield of gasoline fractions whenever necessary; the catalytic reform of the fractions with bp up to 180{sup o}C; and the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons.

  12. Classic Peripheral Signs of Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yooyoung Chong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old female patient with visual disturbances was referred for further evaluation of a heart murmur. Fundoscopy revealed a Roth spot in both eyes. A physical examination showed peripheral signs of infective endocarditis, including Osler nodes, Janeway lesions, and splinter hemorrhages. Our preoperative diagnosis was subacute bacterial endocarditis with severe aortic regurgitation. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement and was treated with intravenous antibiotics for 6 weeks postoperatively. The patient made a remarkable recovery and was discharged without complications. We report this case of subacute endocarditis with all 4 classic peripheral signs in a patient who presented with visual disturbance.

  13. Classic Peripheral Signs of Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yooyoung; Han, Sung Joon; Rhee, Youn Ju; Kang, Shin Kwang; Yu, Jae Hyeon; Na, Myung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old female patient with visual disturbances was referred for further evaluation of a heart murmur. Fundoscopy revealed a Roth spot in both eyes. A physical examination showed peripheral signs of infective endocarditis, including Osler nodes, Janeway lesions, and splinter hemorrhages. Our preoperative diagnosis was subacute bacterial endocarditis with severe aortic regurgitation. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement and was treated with intravenous antibiotics for 6 weeks postoperatively. The patient made a remarkable recovery and was discharged without complications. We report this case of subacute endocarditis with all 4 classic peripheral signs in a patient who presented with visual disturbance. PMID:27734006

  14. Peripheral phlebitis: a point-prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Georgita T; Barrett, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine the factors influencing peripheral phlebitis in the adult medical-surgical population. The authors would then be able to use those data to determine whether a change in practice was warranted. Data collection and analysis of 188 intravenous sites revealed that females with higher doses of medications in intravenous sites of longer dwell times and suboptimal nutrition were at greater risk of developing peripheral phlebitis. The point prevalence was greater than the recommended 5%, which led the authors to review their facility's patient care and documentation practices.

  15. Laser peripheral iridoplasty for angle-closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai Siene; Ang, Ghee Soon; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

    2012-02-15

    Angle-closure glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Treatment is aimed at opening the anterior chamber angle and lowering the IOP with medical and/or surgical treatment (e.g. trabeculectomy, lens extraction). Laser iridotomy works by eliminating pupillary block and widens the anterior chamber angle in the majority of patients. When laser iridotomy fails to open the anterior chamber angle, laser iridoplasty may be recommended as one of the options in current standard treatment for angle-closure. Laser peripheral iridoplasty works by shrinking and pulling the peripheral iris tissue away from the trabecular meshwork. Laser peripheral iridoplasty can be used for crisis of acute angle-closure and also in non-acute situations.   To assess the effectiveness of laser peripheral iridoplasty in the treatment of narrow angles (i.e. primary angle-closure suspect), primary angle-closure (PAC) or primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in non-acute situations when compared with any other intervention. In this review, angle-closure will refer to patients with narrow angles (PACs), PAC and PACG. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12), MEDLINE (January 1950 to January 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 5 January 2012. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this review. Patients with narrow angles, PAC or PACG were eligible. We excluded studies that included only patients with acute presentations

  16. [Degenerative lesions of the peripheral retina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conart, J-B; Baron, D; Berrod, J-P

    2014-01-01

    Degenerative lesions of the peripheral retina are present from teenage years onwards and increase with age. These abnormabilities are frequent, some of them being benign while others predispose to retinal tears and detachment. In the latter case, the lesions are rhegmatogenous and may justify prophylactic treatment by laser photocoagulation. We distinguish congenital lesions of the peripheral retina and intraretinal, chorioretinal and vitreoretinal degenerations. The holes and tears observed in 2% of the population consist of round atrophic holes, "horseshoe" tears, oral dialyses and giant tears. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiation injury to peripheral and cranial nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, W.L.; Kinsella, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the results of laboratory and clinical investigations regarding the radiosensitivity of peripheral nerve are presented. Before outlining this research the authors briefly review peripheral neuroanatomy and physiology and then discuss variables associated with injury. It is important to remember that radiation injury is multifactorial in nature, and that the relative importance of individual factors is not well understood. Reports up through the middle of this century were fraught with rudimentary dosimetry, primitive investigative methods, and arbitrary endpoints that resulted in widely conflicting conclusions that continue to date

  18. Possíveis interações medicamentosas entre os antihipertensivos e antidiabéticos em participantes do Grupo HIPERDIA de Parobé, RS (Uma análise teórica)

    OpenAIRE

    Deise Margarete Duarte do Amaral; Magda Susana Perassolo

    2012-01-01

    Devido à alta incidência simultânea de hipertensão arterial sistêmica e diabetes mellitus, é comum encontrar pacientes que usam anti-hipertensivos e antidiabéticos simultaneamente. Desta forma, tornase importante identificar as possíveis interações medicamentosas no tratamento da hipertensão arterial e do diabetes e realizar manejo farmacoterapêutico adequado para evitar efeitos adversos graves ou até a morte. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar possíveis i...

  19. Adsorption of polar, nonpolar, and substituted aromatics to colloidal graphene oxide nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Fang; Haftka, Joris J H; Sinnige, Theo L.; Hermens, Joop L M; Chen, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We conducted batch adsorption experiments to understand the adsorptive properties of colloidal graphene oxide nanoparticles (GONPs) for a range of environmentally relevant aromatics and substituted aromatics, including model nonpolar compounds (pyrene, phenanthrene, naphthalene, and

  20. Physicochemical Mechanisms of Synergistic Biological Action of Combinations of Aromatic Heterocyclic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Evstigneev, Maxim P.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of synergistic biological effects observed in the simultaneous use of aromatic heterocyclic compounds in combination are reviewed, and the specific biological role of heteroassociation of aromatic molecules is discussed.

  1. Economical feasibility of zeolite membranes for industrial scale separations of aromatic hydrocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; de Haan, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    Naphtha cracker feedstocks contain 10–25 wt% aromatic hydrocarbons, which are not converted into the desired products ethylene and propylene. The conventional processes for the separation of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons are extraction, extractive distillation and azeotropic distillation.

  2. Applications of electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC): Separations of aromatic amino acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Li [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1998-03-27

    The research in this thesis explores the separation capabilities of a new technique termed electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). The thesis begins with a general introduction section which provides a literature review of this technique as well as a brief background discussion of the two research projects in each of the next two chapters. The two papers which follow investigate the application of EMLC to the separation of a mixture of aromatic amino acids and of a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The last section presents general conclusions and summarizes the thesis. References are compiled in the reference section of each chapter. The two papers have been removed for separate processing.

  3. Continuous Flow Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution with Dimethylamine Generated in Situ by Decomposition of DMF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Trine P; Larsen, Anders Foller; Ritzén, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A safe, practical, and scalable continuous flow protocol for the in situ generation of dimethylamine from DMF followed by nucleophilic aromatic substitution of a broad range of aromatic and heteroaromatic halides is reported.......A safe, practical, and scalable continuous flow protocol for the in situ generation of dimethylamine from DMF followed by nucleophilic aromatic substitution of a broad range of aromatic and heteroaromatic halides is reported....

  4. Magnetoneurographic evaluation of peripheral nerve regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.D.L. Kuypers (Paul)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWhen a peripheral nerve is reconstructed after it has been damaged. it is important to assess, in an early stage, whether the nerve is regenerating across the lesion. However, at present for this purpose an adequate method is not available. In this study short term changes in the

  5. Peripheral Protein Unfolding Drives Membrane Bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaw, Hew Ming Helen; Raghunath, Gokul; Dyer, R Brian

    2018-06-20

    Dynamic modulation of lipid membrane curvature can be achieved by a number of peripheral protein binding mechanisms such as hy-drophobic insertion of amphipathic helices and membrane scaffolding. Recently, an alternative mechanism was proposed in which crowding of peripherally bound proteins induces membrane curvature through steric pressure generated by lateral collisions. This effect was enhanced using intrinsically disordered proteins that possess high hydrodynamic radii, prompting us to explore whether membrane bending can be triggered by the folding-unfolding transition of surface-bound proteins. We utilized histidine-tagged human serum albumin bound to Ni-NTA-DGS containing liposomes as our model system to test this hypothesis. We found that reduction of the disulfide bonds in the protein resulted in unfolding of HSA, which subsequently led to membrane tubule formation. The frequency of tubule formation was found to be significantly higher when the proteins were unfolded while being localized to a phase-separated domain as opposed to randomly distributed in fluid phase liposomes, indicating that the steric pressure generated from protein unfolding is directly responsible for membrane deformation. Our results are critical for the design of peripheral membrane protein-immobilization strategies and open new avenues for exploring mechanisms of membrane bending driven by conformational changes of peripheral membrane proteins.

  6. Creating social presence through peripheral awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruyter, de B.E.R.; Huijnen, C.A.G.J.; Markopoulos, P.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Stephanidis, C.; Jacko, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental assessment of affective user benefits that may result from peripheral awareness of a remote friend or group of friends during a shared viewing of a televised event. The experiment suggests that awareness supported through a visual display enhances the level of

  7. Habitual Physical Activity, Peripheral Neuropathy, Foot Deformities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Habitual physical activity index (3.2 ± 0.83) was highest in work-related activities; 69 (26.1 %) patients presented with peripheral neuropathy and 52 (19. 7%) had the lowest limb function. Pes planus was the most prevalent foot deformity (20.1%). Significant differences existed in physical activity indices across ...

  8. Non malignant peripheral lymphadenopathy in Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis should be suspected and ruled out in patients who present with PL, particularly in rural areas with no access to histopathology services. Keywords: Peripheral lymphadenopathy, Tuberculosis, Toxoplasmosis, Lymphadenitis. Résumé La lymphadenopathie périphérique persistante (PL) qui n'est pas associée ...

  9. Facilitating Cluster Evolution in Peripheral Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard; Störring, Dagmara

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility and dilemmas in stimulating high-tech clusters in peripheral regions. In recent years innovation and cluster policy to a large extend has been focused upon stimulating collective learning processes and building social capital. This has in turn accentuated a ne...

  10. Peripheral cold acclimatization in Antarctic scuba divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgman, S A

    1991-08-01

    Peripheral acclimatization to cold in scuba divers stationed at the British Antarctic Survey's Signy Station was investigated during a year in Antarctica. Five divers and five non-diver controls underwent monthly laboratory tests of index finger immersion in cold water for 30 min. Index finger pulp temperature and time of onset of cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) were measured. Pain was recorded with verbal and numerical psychophysical subjective pain ratings. Average finger temperatures and median finger pain from 6-30 min of immersion, maximum finger temperatures during the first CIVD cycle, and finger temperatures at the onset of CIVD were calculated. Comparison of the variables recorded from divers and non-divers were performed with analysis of variance. No significant differences were found among the variables recorded from divers and non-divers. From a review of the literature, divers have responses typical of non-cold-adapted Caucasians. There is, therefore, no evidence that Signy divers peripherally acclimatized to cold. We suggest that these findings occur because either the whole body cooling which divers undergo inhibits peripheral acclimatization or because of insufficiently frequent or severe cold exposure while diving. Further basic studies on the duration, frequency and severity of cold exposure necessary to induce peripheral cold acclimatization are required before this question can be satisfactorily answered.

  11. Peripheral blood flow control in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, Jannik

    1991-01-01

    Long term diabetes has a profound effect on the peripheral circulation. This has been demonstrated to be due to the presence of angiopathy and autonomic neuropathy, affecting autoregulation and distensibility of the vessels as well as local and central reflex regulation of the vascular resistance...

  12. PERIPHERAL BLOOD FILM - A REVIEW FEATURE ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be abreast with its clinical utility and proper application of the reports in the management of patients. Keywords: Peripheral blood smear, Preparation, Examination, Interpretation, Reporting, Blood cells morphology. FEATURE ARTICLES. Ann Ibd. Pg. Med 2014. Vol.12, No.2 71-79. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine.

  13. The Development of Peripheral Vision in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guez, Jean R.

    This study investigated the extent of infant peripheral vision, specifically the extent of infants' constricted field, or tunnel vision. Thirteen infants, 2 to 5 months old, were tested using a psychophysical procedure to obtain contrast sensitivity thresholds at four retinal loci (-40, -15, +15, +40 deg.). Infants were placed in an infant bed in…

  14. Habitual physical activity, peripheral neuropathy, foot deformities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    joint or leg pain), lack of equipment, and exercise partner(s).20. Yet, many of these ... peripheral neuropathy and lower limb functions among a group of Nigerian .... scale for inpatients of an orthopaedic rehabilitation ward found that interclass ...

  15. Effects of selected multipurpose, medicinal and aromatic plants on in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of selected multipurpose, medicinal and aromatic plants on the in vitro methane production and microbial diversity. The plants include multi-purpose trees; Pterocarpus santallinoides, Leucaena leucocephala, Albizia lebbek, Albizia saman, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, ...

  16. Organic superalkalis with closed-shell structure and aromaticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar

    2018-06-01

    Benzene (C6H6) and polycyclic hydrocarbons such as naphthalene (C10H8), anthracene (C14H10) and coronene (C24H12) are well known aromatic organic compounds. We study the substitution of Li replacing all H-atoms in these hydrocarbons using density functional method. The vertical ionisation energy of such lithiated species, i.e. C6Li6, C10Li8, C14Li10 and C24Li12 ranges 4.24-4.50 eV, which is lower than the ionisation energy (IE) of Li atom. Thus, these species may behave as superalkalis due to their lower IE than alkali metal. However, these lithiated species possess planar and closed-shell structure, unlike typical superalkalis. Furthermore, all Li-substituted species are aromatic although their degree of aromaticity is reduced as compared to corresponding hydrocarbon analogues. We have further explored the structure of C6Li6 as star-like, unlike its inorganic analogue B3N3Li6, which appears as fan-like structure. We have also demonstrated that the interaction of C6Li6 with a superhalogen (such as BF4) is similar to that of a typical superalkali (such as OLi3). This may further suggest that the proposed lithiated species may form a new class of closed-shell organic superalkalis with aromaticity.

  17. The reaction of astatine with aromatic diazonium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, G.W.M.; Diemer, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    Astatine reacts prefrentially with that type of aromatic diazonium salt that decomposes via a radical reaction channel (homolytic breakage of the C-N bond). The dediazonation with p-aminobenzoic acid and p-toluidine as model compounds was investigated through estatin produced in the 209 Bi(α,2n) 211 At reaction. (author)

  18. Palladium-catalysed electrophilic aromatic C-H fluorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kumiko; Li, Jiakun; Garber, Jeffrey A. O.; Rolfes, Julian D.; Boursalian, Gregory B.; Borghs, Jannik C.; Genicot, Christophe; Jacq, Jérôme; van Gastel, Maurice; Neese, Frank; Ritter, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    Aryl fluorides are widely used in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries, and recent advances have enabled their synthesis through the conversion of various functional groups. However, there is a lack of general methods for direct aromatic carbon-hydrogen (C-H) fluorination. Conventional methods require the use of either strong fluorinating reagents, which are often unselective and difficult to handle, such as elemental fluorine, or less reactive reagents that attack only the most activated arenes, which reduces the substrate scope. A method for the direct fluorination of aromatic C-H bonds could facilitate access to fluorinated derivatives of functional molecules that would otherwise be difficult to produce. For example, drug candidates with improved properties, such as increased metabolic stability or better blood-brain-barrier penetration, may become available. Here we describe an approach to catalysis and the resulting development of an undirected, palladium-catalysed method for aromatic C-H fluorination using mild electrophilic fluorinating reagents. The reaction involves a mode of catalysis that is unusual in aromatic C-H functionalization because no organometallic intermediate is formed; instead, a reactive transition-metal-fluoride electrophile is generated catalytically for the fluorination of arenes that do not otherwise react with mild fluorinating reagents. The scope and functional-group tolerance of this reaction could provide access to functional fluorinated molecules in pharmaceutical and agrochemical development that would otherwise not be readily accessible.

  19. Source determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... transported into an aquatic environment by a number of pathways including fossil fuel distribution, storm water runoff and sewage effluent. Fossil ... formed during the incomplete combustion of coal, oil, gas wood and garbage (Neff, ..... Health impacts of polynuclear aromatic hydrocar- bons. Environmental ...

  20. Adsorption of aromatic hydrocarbons and ozone at environmental aqueous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vácha, Robert; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Rezác, Jan; Hobza, Pavel; Jungwirth, Pavel; Valsaraj, Kalliat; Bahr, Stephan; Kempter, Volker

    2008-06-05

    Adsorption of environmentally important aromatic molecules on a water surface is studied by means of classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy. Both techniques show strong activity and orientational preference of these molecules at the surface. Benzene and naphthalene, which bind weakly to water surface with a significant contribution of dispersion interactions, prefer to lie flat on water but retain a large degree of orientational flexibility. Pyridine is more rigid at the surface. It is tilted with the nitrogen end having strong hydrogen bonding interactions with water molecules. The degree of adsorption and orientation of aromatic molecules on aqueous droplets has atmospheric implications for heterogeneous ozonolysis, for which the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics mechanism is discussed. At higher coverages of aromatic molecules the incoming ozone almost does not come into contact with the underlying aqueous phase. This may rationalize the experimental insensitivity of the ozonolysis on the chemical nature of the substrate on which the aromatic molecules adsorb.

  1. Degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by two strains of Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwinyi, Obinna C; Ajayi, Oluseyi O; Amund, Olukayode O

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to isolate competent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons degraders that can utilize polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons of former industrial sites at McDoel Switchyard in Bloomington, Indiana. Using conventional enrichment method based on soil slurry, we isolated, screened and purified two bacterial species strains PB1 and PB2. Applying the ribotyping technique using the 16S rRNA gene analysis, the strains were assigned to the genus Pseudomonas (Pseudomonas plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2). Both isolates showed promising metabolic capacity on pyrene sprayed MS agar plates during the preliminary investigations. Using time course studies in the liquid cultures at calculated concentrations 123, 64, 97 and 94ppm for naphthalene, chrysene, fluroanthene and pyrene, P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 showed partial utilization of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Naphthalene was degraded between 26% and 40%, chrysene 14% and 16%, fluroanthene 5% and 7%; pyrene 8% and 13% by P. plecoglossicida strain PB1 and Pseudomonas sp. PB2 respectively. Based on their growth profile, we developed a model R(2)=1 to predict the degradation rate of slow polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon-degraders where all the necessary parameters are constant. From this investigation, we confirm that the former industrial site soil microbial communities may be explored for the biorestoration of the industrial site. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  2. Enhancement of aromatic and saturated hydrocarbon by modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three sediment samples collected from the Qua Iboe River System and eighteen different column packing ratios of silica gel and alumina were used in this investigation. The variation of the composition of the stationary phase (silica gel and alumina, SA) gave different yields of aromatic and saturated hydrocarbons. In all the ...

  3. Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Characterization of Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikilili, P. V.; Chirwa, E. M. N.

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was studied. Naphthalene was used as a model compound to represent these compounds. Low initial concentrations of naphthalene in a range of 30-60 mg/L were completely degraded after incubation for 15 hrs by consortia from a landfill soil while consortia from minewater took more that 29 hrs to reach complete degradation.

  4. AGRONOMIC OPTIMIZATION FOR PHYTOREMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation is a low-cost method of using plants to degrade, volatilize or sequester organic and metal pollutants that has been used in efforts to remediate sites contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) refinery wastes. Non-native plant species aggressivel...

  5. Aromatic organosulfates in atmospheric aerosols: synthesis, characterization, and abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, Sean; Kundu, Shuvashish; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Cui, Tianqu; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Kristensen, Kasper; Glasius, Marianne; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney J; Surratt, Jason D; Stone1, Elizabeth A

    2014-09-01

    Aromatic organosulfates are identified and quantified in fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) from Lahore, Pakistan, Godavari, Nepal, and Pasadena, California. To support detection and quantification, authentic standards of phenyl sulfate, benzyl sulfate, 3-and 4-methylphenyl sulfate and 2-, 3-, and 4-methylbenzyl sulfate were synthesized. Authentic standards and aerosol samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to negative electrospray ionization (ESI) quadrupole time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometry. Benzyl sulfate was present in all three locations at concentrations ranging from 4 - 90 pg m -3 . Phenyl sulfate, methylphenyl sulfates and methylbenzyl sulfates were observed intermittently with abundances of 4 pg m -3 , 2-31 pg m -3 , 109 pg m -3 , respectively. Characteristic fragment ions of aromatic organosulfates include the sulfite radical ( • SO 3 - , m/z 80) and the sulfate radical ( • SO 4 - , m/z 96). Instrumental response factors of phenyl and benzyl sulfates varied by a factor of 4.3, indicating that structurally-similar organosulfates may have significantly different instrumental responses and highlighting the need to develop authentic standards for absolute quantitation organosulfates. In an effort to better understand the sources of aromatic organosulfates to the atmosphere, chamber experiments with the precursor toluene were conducted under conditions that form biogenic organosulfates. Aromatic organosulfates were not detected in the chamber samples, suggesting that they form through different pathways, have different precursors (e.g. naphthalene or methylnaphthalene), or are emitted from primary sources.

  6. High atmosphere–ocean exchange of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Gonzá lez-Gaya, Belé n; Ferná ndez-Pinos, Marí a-Carmen; Morales, Laura; Mé janelle, Laurence; Abad, Esteban; Piñ a, Benjamin; Duarte, Carlos M.; Jimé nez, Begoñ a; Dachs, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    hydrocarbons to the global ocean is estimated at 0.09 Tg per month, four times greater than the input from the Deepwater Horizon spill. Moreover, the environmental concentrations of total semivolatile aromatic-like compounds were 10 2 -10 3 times higher than

  7. Radioluminescence of aromatic molecule solutions in atactic and isotactic polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisovskaya, I.A.; Alfimov, M.V.; Milinchuk, V.K.; Skvortsov, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    The generation of excited states of naphthalene-d 8 and carbazole molecules in polystyrene (PS) under X-ray illumination was investigated using luminescence method. A comparison of the concentration dependences of radioluminescence of the aromatic additives to solid PS and to toluene as well as the pattern of concentration versus photoluminescence of naphthalene-d 8 in PS demonstrates that unlike toluene there is no singlet-triplet conversion in PS owing to the formation of excimers. It is shown that the excited ststes of the aromatic additives in PS are populated under radiolysis via an energy transfer from singlet to triplet molecules of the matrix. Under the radiolysis the excited states of PS molecules may generate upon charge recombination. A comparison of radio luminescence spectra of the corresponding aromatic additives in two isomeric PS structures (atacting and isotactic) shows different processes with charge participation. The difference detected in the radioluminescence spectra of aromatic additives in the atactic and isotactic PS explained by the greater number of defects in atactic PS competing with the polymer molecule ion for charge capture

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils around Guanting Reservoir, Beijing, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiao, W.T.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Li, J.; Han, Jingyi; Wang, G.; Hu, W.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( 16PAHs) were measured by gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) in 56 topsoil samples around Guanting Reservior (GTR), which is an important water source for Beijing. Low to medium levels of PAH contamination

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Danish barbecued meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Meinert, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Barbecuing is known to result in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). A validated method that employed pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) on Silica and analytical determination by GC-MS was applied...

  10. Environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affect androgen receptor activation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hnida, Christina; Larsen, John Christian

    2000-01-01

    Nine structurally different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were tested for their ability to either agonize or antagonize the human androgen receptor (hAR) in a sensitive reporter gene assay based on CHO cells transiently cotransfected with a hAR vector and an MMTV-LUC vector. Benz...

  11. A neurotoxicity assessment of high flash aromatic naphtha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, J F; McKee, R H; Cagen, S Z; Schmitt, S L; Beatty, P W; Swanson, M S; Schreiner, C A; Ulrich, C E; Cockrell, B Y

    1993-01-01

    Catalytic reforming is a refining process that converts naphthenes to aromatics by dehydrogenation to make higher octane gasoline blending components. A portion of this wide-boiling range hydrocarbon stream can be separated by distillation and used for other purposes. One such application is a mixture of predominantly 9-carbon aromatic molecules (C9 Aromatics, primarily isomers of ethyltoluene and trimethylbenzene), which is removed and used as a solvent also known as High Flash Aromatic Naphtha (HFAN). A program was initiated to assess the toxicological properties of HFAN since there may be human exposure, especially in the workplace. The current study was conducted to assess the potential for neurotoxicity in the rat. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats of approximately 300 grams body weight, in groups of twenty, were exposed by inhalation to HFAN for 90 days at concentrations of 0, 100, 500, and 1500 ppm. During this period the animals were tested monthly for motor activity and in a functional observation battery. After three months of exposure, for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, 10 animals/group/sex were sacrificed and selected nervous system tissue was examined histopathologically. No signs of neurotoxicity were seen in any of the evaluated parameters, nor was there evidence of pathologic changes in any of the examined tissues.

  12. Metal Triflates for the Production of Aromatics from Lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuss, Peter J; Lahive, Ciaran W; Lancefield, Christopher S; Westwood, Nicholas J; Kamer, Paul C J; Barta, Katalin; de Vries, Johannes G

    2016-10-20

    The depolymerization of lignin into valuable aromatic chemicals is one of the key goals towards establishing economically viable biorefineries. In this contribution we present a simple approach for converting lignin to aromatic monomers in high yields under mild reaction conditions. The methodology relies on the use of catalytic amounts of easy-to-handle metal triflates (M(OTf) x ). Initially, we evaluated the reactivity of a broad range of metal triflates using simple lignin model compounds. More advanced lignin model compounds were also used to study the reactivity of different lignin linkages. The product aromatic monomers were either phenolic C2-acetals obtained by stabilization of the aldehyde cleavage products by reaction with ethylene glycol or methyl aromatics obtained by catalytic decarbonylation. Notably, when the method was ultimately tested on lignin, especially Fe(OTf) 3 proved very effective and the phenolic C2-acetal products were obtained in an excellent, 19.3±3.2 wt % yield. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Effect of Smoking on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Manage. Vol. 22 (2) 293 - 297. February 2018. Full-text Available Online at ... aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in raw and smoked samples of catfish (Clarias ... inferred that the smoking process generally increased the mean total PAH levels in the fish .... with 5 g of anhydrous sodium sulphate in a laboratory.

  14. Ionic liquid performance in pilot plant contactors for aromatics extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onink, S.A.F.

    2011-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were an investigation into the applicability, in this case extraction capacity and equipment performance, of room temperature ionic liquids as solvent in the extraction of aromatics from aliphatics and a comparison of three types of contactors (a rotating disc

  15. Ionic liquids as alternative solvents for aromatics extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansmeier, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was the development of an extraction process for the removal of multiple aromatics from several petrochemical streams by means of an ionic liquid. Due to environmental legislation, the demand of ‘clean’ fuels is increasing and most likely will increase even more towards

  16. Determination of levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil samples contaminated with spent motor engine oil collected from Abakaliki auto-mechanic site were analyzed to determine the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) components which are often targets in environmental check. Identification and quantification of the PAH components was accomplished ...

  17. Polycyclic’ Aromatic Hydrocarbon Induced Intracellular Signaling and Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Alexander M.

    The aryl hydrocarbon (dioxin) receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor possessing high affinity to potent environmental pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related halogenated hydrocarbons (e.g. dioxins). Numerous research attribute toxicity of these compounds to the receptor...

  18. Phenological characters and genetic divergence in aromatic rices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Phenological properties of a plant are measured in time duration between ... The time interval between sowing and flowering in rice (Oryza sativa L.) ... locally adapted genotypes of aromatic rices have evolved because of natural ... classification of genotypes based on suitable scale is quite imperative to ...

  19. Iodine, a Mild Reagent for the Aromatization of Terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Victoriano; Prieto, Consuelo; Silva, Lucia; Rodilla, Jesús M L; Quílez del Moral, José F; Barrero, Alejandro F

    2016-04-22

    Efficient procedures based on the use of iodine for the aromatization of a series of terpenoids possessing diene and homoallylic or allylic alcohol functionalities are described. Different examples are reported as a proof-of-concept study. Furthermore, iodine also proved to mediate the dehydrogenation of testosterone.

  20. Medicinal and aromatic crops: Production, Phytochemistry, and Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the later part of the 20th century the United States experienced a remarkable surge in public interest towards medicinal and aromatic crops and this trend continues. This consumer interest helped create a significant demand for plants with culinary and medicinal applications as the public discove...

  1. Mycotoxicogenic fungal inhibition by innovative cheese cover with aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Armando; Librán, Celia M; Berruga, M Isabel; Zalacain, Amaya; Carmona, Manuel

    2013-03-30

    The use of aromatic plants and their extracts with antimicrobial properties may be compromised in the case of cheese, as some type of fungal starter is needed during its production. Penicillium verrucosum is considered a common cheese spoiler. The aim of this study was to evaluate the innovative use of certain aromatic plants as natural cheese covers in order to prevent mycotoxicogenic fungal growth (P. verrucosum). A collection of 12 essential oils (EOs) was obtained from various aromatic plants by solvent-free microwave extraction technology, and volatile characterisation of the EOs was carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The most effective EOs against P. verrucosum were obtained from Anethum graveolens, Hyssopus officinalis and Chamaemelum nobile, yielding 50% inhibition of fungal growth at concentration values lower than 0.02 µL mL⁻¹. All EOs showed high volatile heterogeneity, with α-phellandrene, pinocamphone, isopinocamphone, α-pinene, camphene, 1,8-cineole, carvacrol and trans-anethole being found to be statistically significant in the antifungal model. The use of these aromatic plants as natural covers on cheese can satisfactorily inhibit the growth of some mycotoxicogenic fungal spoilers. Among the volatile compounds present, α- and β-phellandrene were confirmed as the most relevant in the inhibition. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a tracer of star formation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E; Spoon, HWW; Tielens, AGGM

    2004-01-01

    Infrared (IR) emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 mum are generally attributed to IR fluorescence from ( mainly) far-ultraviolet (FUV) pumped large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. As such, these features trace the FUV stellar flux and are thus a measure of star

  3. Effect of smoking on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of smoking on proximate composition, energy values and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in raw and smoked samples of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Crude protein was higher in the tilapia sample for both raw and smoked samples.

  4. A study of the microbiology and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the drill cuttings from three different oil and gas wells located at Ologbo Community at Edo State with respect to their microbiology and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compositional profile and sources. Isolation and enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi was carried out using ...

  5. Interactions of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons with thyroid hormone metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuur, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the possible interactions of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and/or their metabolites with thyroid hormone metabolism. This chapter summarizes firstly the effects of thyroid hormone on the induction of biotransformation enzymes by PHAHs. Secondly, the results on

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in occupational vs. urban environmental air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branisteanu, R.; Aiking, H.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the balance between occupational and environmental exposure to suspended particulate matter (SPM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), comparison measurements were performed in a coal-fired power plant and the urban atmosphere from the town nearby. Methods: The

  7. Substituted Phthalic Anhydrides from Biobased Furanics : A New Approach to Renewable Aromatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiyagarajan, Shanmugam; Genuino, Homer C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371571685; Sliwa, Michal; van der Waal, Jan C.; de Jong, Ed; van Haveren, Jacco; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33799529X; van Es, Daan S.

    2015-01-01

    A novel route for the production of renewable aromatic chemicals, particularly substituted phthalic acid anhydrides, is presented. The classical two-step approach to furanics-derived aromatics via Diels-Alder (DA) aromatization has been modified into a three-step procedure to address the general

  8. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, V.; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, A.; Hellén, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol, which affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa), which is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (> 10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and pyrometallurgical industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anticyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for 1 year. Samples were collected twice a week for 2 h during daytime and 2 h during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the monthly median (mean) total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 (0.011) and 3.1 (3.2) ppb. Benzene levels did not exceed the local air quality standard limit, i.e. annual mean of 1.6 ppb. Toluene was the most abundant compound, with an annual median (mean) concentration of 0.63 (0.89) ppb. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found, and no distinct seasonal patterns were

  9. Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Curved Surfaces: Buckyballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sygula, Andrzej [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The discovery of a new allotropic form of elemental carbon – the fullerenes – and subsequently other novel forms of elemental carbon with pyramidalized surfaces, most notably single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, introduced a novel structural motif to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with nonplanar surfaces. Our research program supported by BES DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15514 has dealt with the synthesis, structural studies, and chemistry of the novel curved-surface PAHs with carbon frameworks structurally related to fullerenes. They are referred to as “buckybowls”. We prepared several new buckybowls and, even more importantly, developed the efficient, gram-scale synthetic methodologies for the preparation of small buckybowls, most notably corannulene (C20H10) and its derivatives. In addition, the employment of the corannulene-based synthons previously developed in our laboratory led to a number of highly nonplanar molecular architectures with two or more corannulene subunits with a potential for the applications as novel materials in separation sciences, nanoelectronics, photovoltaics and catalysis. In collaboration with Professor Angelici (Iowa State) we prepared and characterized several transition metal complexes of corannulene, providing the first structural characterization of η6 metal complexes of buckybowls by a single crystal X-ray diffraction. In addition to the definitive structural characterization of the complexes we demonstrated that the (η6-C6Me6)Ru2+ unit in some relatively stable complexes activate the corannulene ligand to react with proper nucleophiles suggesting that such complexex may be used in catalysis. (Section C). We have explored the efficiency of the dispersion-based interactions of curved-surface conjugated carbon networks by high-level computational models. We showed that the curvature of such networks does not reduce the van der Waals attractions as compared to the planar systems of similar size. We than

  10. Distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Osaka Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Shizuho; Uno, Seiichi; Ito, Kazuki; Koyama, Jiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2014-08-30

    Contaminations in sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs were investigated at 44 sites in Osaka Bay, Japan. Concentrations of total PAHs and alkylated PAHs were in the range 6.40-7800 ng/g dry weights and 13.7-1700 ng/g dry weights, respectively. The PAH concentrations tended to be higher along the shoreline in the vicinities of big ports, industrialized areas, and densely populated regions such as the cities of Osaka and Kobe. The major sources appeared to be pyrogenic or both pyrogenic and petrogenic at most of the sites. PAH concentrations were remarkably high at a site near Kobe, where the concentrations of dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene exceeded the effects-range-medium concentration and eight PAHs were above the corresponding effects-range-low concentrations. Those PAHs may have been derived from the great fire associated with the large earthquake in 1995. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long term clinical outcome of peripheral nerve stimulation in patients with chronic peripheral neuropathic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calenbergh, F. Van; Gybels, J.; Laere, K. Van

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic neuropathic pain after injury to a peripheral nerve is known to be resistant to treatment. Peripheral nerve stimulation is one of the possible treatment options, which is, however, not performed frequently. In recent years we have witnessed a renewed interest for PNS. The aim...... of the present study was to evaluate the long-term clinical efficacy of PNS in a group of patients with peripheral neuropathic pain treated with PNS since the 1980s. METHODS: Of an original series of 11 patients, 5 patients could be invited for clinical examination, detailed assessment of clinical pain and QST...... functioning) also showed positive effects. Quantitative Sensory Testing results did not show significant differences in cold pain and heat pain thresholds between the "ON" and "OFF" conditions. CONCLUSION: In selected patients with peripheral neuropathic pain PNS remains effective even after more than 20...

  12. Modelling charge transport of discotic liquid-crystalline triindoles: the role of peripheral substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Riccardo; Camilo, Ana Claudia Santos; Filho, Demetrio A da Silva; Navarrete, Juan T López; Gómez-Lor, Berta; Delgado, M Carmen Ruiz; Linares, Mathieu

    2017-09-13

    We have performed a multiscale approach to study the influence of peripheral substitution in the semiconducting properties of discotic liquid-crystalline triindoles. Charge carrier mobility as high as 1.4 cm 2 V -1 s -1 was experimentally reported for triindoles substituted with alkynyl chains on the periphery (Gómez-Lor et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2011, 50, 7399-7402). In this work, our goal is to get a deeper understanding of both the molecular electronic structure and microscopic factors affecting the charge transport properties in triindoles as a function of the spacer group connecting the central cores with the external alkyl chains (i.e., alkyne or phenyl spacers groups). To this end, we first perform Quantum Mechanical (QM) calculations to assess how the peripheral substitution affects the electronic structure and the internal reorganization energy. Secondly, boxes of stacked molecules were built and relaxed through molecular dynamics to obtain realistic structures. Conformational analysis and calculations of transfer integrals for closed neighbours were performed. Our results show that the insertion of ethynyl spacers between the central aromatic core and the flexible peripheral chains results in lower reorganization energies and enhanced intermolecular order within the stacks with a preferred cofacial 60° staggered conformation, which would result in high charge-carrier mobilities in good agreement with the experimental data. This work allows a deeper understanding of charge carrier mobility in columnar phases, linking the structural order at the molecular level to the property of interest, i.e. the charge carrier mobility. We hope that this understanding will improve the design of systems at the supramolecular level aiming at obtaining a more defined conducting channel, higher mobility and smaller fluctuations within the column.

  13. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as Plausible Prebiotic Membrane Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Joost; Deamer, David W.; Kros, Alexander; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2012-08-01

    Aromatic molecules delivered to the young Earth during the heavy bombardment phase in the early history of our solar system were likely to be among the most abundant and stable organic compounds available. The Aromatic World hypothesis suggests that aromatic molecules might function as container elements, energy transduction elements and templating genetic components for early life forms. To investigate the possible role of aromatic molecules as container elements, we incorporated different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the membranes of fatty acid vesicles. The goal was to determine whether PAH could function as a stabilizing agent, similar to the role that cholesterol plays in membranes today. We studied vesicle size distribution, critical vesicle concentration and permeability of the bilayers using C6-C10 fatty acids mixed with amphiphilic PAH derivatives such as 1-hydroxypyrene, 9-anthracene carboxylic acid and 1,4 chrysene quinone. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) spectroscopy was used to measure the size distribution of vesicles and incorporation of PAH species was established by phase-contrast and epifluorescence microscopy. We employed conductimetric titration to determine the minimal concentration at which fatty acids could form stable vesicles in the presence of PAHs. We found that oxidized PAH derivatives can be incorporated into decanoic acid (DA) vesicle bilayers in mole ratios up to 1:10 (PAH:DA). Vesicle size distribution and critical vesicle concentration were largely unaffected by PAH incorporation, but 1-hydroxypyrene and 9-anthracene carboxylic acid lowered the permeability of fatty acid bilayers to small solutes up to 4-fold. These data represent the first indication of a cholesterol-like stabilizing effect of oxidized PAH derivatives in a simulated prebiotic membrane.

  14. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING DEVELOPMENT OF FOOD AROMATIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н.Ye. Dubova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The specific understanding of food philosophy according to the facts of development of cooking technologies and growth rate of food range is given. As it has been proven by historical stages of production of flavorings, aroma is one of the important organoleptic ingredients for food developers. A review of food production based on development of nanotechnologies, as well as promising and cautioning publications on nanotechnologies in the food sector is presented. On the basis of the literary analysis, the future impact of nanotechnologies on the evolution of the aromatization process of food products is predicted. It has been determined that the peculiarity of the development mentioned above lies in the use of plant enzymes and / or flavor precursors in the nanoscale range. The example of enzymatic breakdown of polyunsaturated fatty acids of plant cell membranes as one of the ways of creating fresh flavor of many fruits, namely C6-C9 aldehydes and alcohols, is considered. It is noted that green fresh aromatic ingredients are needed to improve the organoleptic profile of foods from heat-treated vegetables, melons and gourds. The following factors affecting the development of food aromatization are defined: the decreased differentiation of principles of healthy nutrition and fast food, repetition of natural processes of aroma formation, application of wild green leafy vegetables, and evolution of medical nutrition. The information on food aromatization by packing with autonomous mixing and their approximate assortment is given. The innovations in food aromatization are aimed at quality nutrition, time saving, recreation and entertainment, meeting specific needs (vegetarian dishes, restrictive diets.

  15. Genetic Diversity of Aromatic Rice Germplasm Revealed By SSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Jasim Aljumaili

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic rice cultivars constitute a small but special group of rice and are considered the best in terms of quality and aroma. Aroma is one of the most significant quality traits of rice, and variety with aroma has a higher price in the market. This research was carried out to study the genetic diversity among the 50 aromatic rice accessions from three regions (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak with 3 released varieties as a control using the 32 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. The objectives of this research were to quantify the genetic divergence of aromatic rice accessions using SSR markers and to identify the potential accessions for introgression into the existing rice breeding program. Genetic diversity index among the three populations such as Shannon information index (I ranged from 0.25 in control to 0.98 in Sabah population. The mean numbers of effective alleles and Shannon’s information index were 0.36 and 64.90%, respectively. Similarly, the allelic diversity was very high with mean expected heterozygosity (He of 0.60 and mean Nei’s gene diversity index of 0.36. The dendrogram based on UPGMA and Nei’s genetic distance classified the 53 rice accessions into 10 clusters. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed that 89% of the total variation observed in this germplasm came from within the populations, while 11% of the variation emanated among the populations. These results reflect the high genetic differentiation existing in this aromatic rice germplasm. Using all these criteria and indices, seven accessions (Acc9993, Acc6288, Acc6893, Acc7580, Acc6009, Acc9956, and Acc11816 from three populations have been identified and selected for further evaluation before introgression into the existing breeding program and for future aromatic rice varietal development.

  16. Genetic Diversity of Aromatic Rice Germplasm Revealed By SSR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim Aljumaili, Saba; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A; Sakimin, Siti Zaharah; Arolu, Ibrahim Wasiu; Miah, Gous

    2018-01-01

    Aromatic rice cultivars constitute a small but special group of rice and are considered the best in terms of quality and aroma. Aroma is one of the most significant quality traits of rice, and variety with aroma has a higher price in the market. This research was carried out to study the genetic diversity among the 50 aromatic rice accessions from three regions (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak) with 3 released varieties as a control using the 32 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The objectives of this research were to quantify the genetic divergence of aromatic rice accessions using SSR markers and to identify the potential accessions for introgression into the existing rice breeding program. Genetic diversity index among the three populations such as Shannon information index ( I ) ranged from 0.25 in control to 0.98 in Sabah population. The mean numbers of effective alleles and Shannon's information index were 0.36 and 64.90%, respectively. Similarly, the allelic diversity was very high with mean expected heterozygosity ( H e ) of 0.60 and mean Nei's gene diversity index of 0.36. The dendrogram based on UPGMA and Nei's genetic distance classified the 53 rice accessions into 10 clusters. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 89% of the total variation observed in this germplasm came from within the populations, while 11% of the variation emanated among the populations. These results reflect the high genetic differentiation existing in this aromatic rice germplasm. Using all these criteria and indices, seven accessions (Acc9993, Acc6288, Acc6893, Acc7580, Acc6009, Acc9956, and Acc11816) from three populations have been identified and selected for further evaluation before introgression into the existing breeding program and for future aromatic rice varietal development.

  17. Genetic Diversity of Aromatic Rice Germplasm Revealed By SSR Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim Aljumaili, Saba; Sakimin, Siti Zaharah; Arolu, Ibrahim Wasiu; Miah, Gous

    2018-01-01

    Aromatic rice cultivars constitute a small but special group of rice and are considered the best in terms of quality and aroma. Aroma is one of the most significant quality traits of rice, and variety with aroma has a higher price in the market. This research was carried out to study the genetic diversity among the 50 aromatic rice accessions from three regions (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak) with 3 released varieties as a control using the 32 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The objectives of this research were to quantify the genetic divergence of aromatic rice accessions using SSR markers and to identify the potential accessions for introgression into the existing rice breeding program. Genetic diversity index among the three populations such as Shannon information index (I) ranged from 0.25 in control to 0.98 in Sabah population. The mean numbers of effective alleles and Shannon's information index were 0.36 and 64.90%, respectively. Similarly, the allelic diversity was very high with mean expected heterozygosity (He) of 0.60 and mean Nei's gene diversity index of 0.36. The dendrogram based on UPGMA and Nei's genetic distance classified the 53 rice accessions into 10 clusters. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 89% of the total variation observed in this germplasm came from within the populations, while 11% of the variation emanated among the populations. These results reflect the high genetic differentiation existing in this aromatic rice germplasm. Using all these criteria and indices, seven accessions (Acc9993, Acc6288, Acc6893, Acc7580, Acc6009, Acc9956, and Acc11816) from three populations have been identified and selected for further evaluation before introgression into the existing breeding program and for future aromatic rice varietal development. PMID:29736396

  18. Does the concept of Clar's aromatic sextet work for dicationic forms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons?--testing the model against charged systems in singlet and triplet states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominikowska, Justyna; Palusiak, Marcin

    2011-07-07

    The concept of Clar's π-electron aromatic sextet was tested against a set of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in neutral and doubly charged forms. Systems containing different types of rings (in the context of Clar's concept) were chosen, including benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene and triphenylene. In the case of dicationic structures both singlet and triplet states were considered. It was found that for singlet state dicationic structures the concept of aromatic sextet could be applied and the local aromaticity could be discussed in the context of that model, whereas in the case of triplet state dicationic structures Clar's model rather failed. Different aromaticity indices based on various properties of molecular systems were applied for the purpose of the studies. The discussion about the interdependence between the values of different aromaticity indices applied to neutral and charged systems in singlet and triplet states is also included. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  19. Studies of peripheral sensory nerves in paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy: Evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Flatters, Sarah J.L.; Bennett, Gary J.

    2006-01-01

    Paclitaxel chemotherapy frequently induces neuropathic pain during and often persisting after therapy. The mechanisms responsible for this pain are unknown. Using a rat model of paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy, we have performed studies to search for peripheral nerve pathology. Paclitaxel-induced mechano-allodynia and mechano-hyperalgesia were evident after a short delay, peaked at day 27 and finally resolved on day 155. Paclitaxel- and vehicle-treated rats were perfused on d...

  20. Peripheral ameloblastic fibro-odontoma or peripheral developing complex odontoma: report of a case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibel, Jesper; Grønbæk, Anni Birgitte; Poulsen, Sven

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Peripheral (extraosseous) odontogenic tumors are rare. CASE REPORT. This report describes a case which illustrates the clinical and histopathological features of a lesion in an 8-year-old, healthy Caucasian girl that on purely morphological grounds would seem to be an ameloblastic fibro-odontoma......, but may represent a case of a peripheral developing complex odontoma. CONCLUSION. Conservative surgical enucleation of the lesion was followed by unbcomplicated healing and no recurrence was seen....

  1. F wave index: A diagnostic tool for peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G R Sathya

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that F wave index in upper limb was significantly lower in patients with peripheral neuropathy than the healthy controls, and could be used for early detection of peripheral neuropathy.

  2. Computed tomographic findings of intrahepatic peripheral cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee

    1986-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is synonymous with bile duct carcinoma, and can originate in a small intrahepatic bile duct (peripheral type), a major intrahepatic duct including the hepatic hills, an extrahepatic duct, or near the papilla of Vater (central type). In a sense bile duct carcinoma of the peripheral type is cholangiocarcinoma of the liver; it has the same gross configuration as hepatocellular carcinoma, resulting in difficulty to differentiate on the CT. The authors studied CT findings of 14 cases of pathologically proven peripheral type cholangiocarcinoma of the liver during the last 4 years. The results were as follows: 1. Of 14 cases, 8 were female and 6 were male, and the age ranged from 5th to 7th decades. 2. Preoperative clinical diagnosis were as follows: hepatoma 8 cases, abscess 5 cases and metastasis 1 case in order of frequency. 3. Diagnosis were confirmed by hepatic lobectomy in 7 cases, wedge resection in 5 cases and needle biopsy in 2 case. 4. Laboratory findings were not specific, but there were only 2 cases with elevated alpha-fetoprotein level. 5. Associated diseases were gallstones in 1 case, intrahepatic duct stones in 1 case, extrahepatic duct stones in 2 cases, acute or chronic cholecystitis in 5 cases and CS in 3 cases. 6. Angiographic and scintigraphic findings were helpful in differential diagnosis from hepatoma but ultrasonography was non-specific. 7. The number of tumor were solitary in 12 cases and multiple in 2 cases. Among solitary cases, the site of involvement of the liver were right lobe in 8 cases and left lobe in 4 cases. 8. Common CT features of the intrahepatic peripheral cholangiocinoma of the liver were irregular, inhomogeneous, occasionally peripherally enhancing, low density liver mass, frequently accompanied by diffuse or segmental dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct. If there were normal alpha fetoprotein level, positive skin and/or stool examination for CS and diffuse or segmental dilatation of the intrahepatic duct

  3. Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woon Ju; Cho, June Sik; Shin, Kyung Sook; Jeong, Hyung Yong; Noh; Seung Moo; Song, Kyu Sang

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (peripheral PNETs) are very rare and highly aggressive soft tissue malignancies originating from the neural crest. To the best of our knowledge, only a few cases of peripheral PNETs of the stomach have been reported in the literature. We report a case of large peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the stomach with MDCT findings in a 22-year-old man presenting epigastric pain and vomiting

  4. Equilibrium studies of the adsorption of aromatic disulfonates by Mg-Al oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Tomohito; Umetsu, Mami; Kumagai, Shogo; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2018-03-01

    The removal of m-benzenedisulfonate (BDS2-) and 2,6-naphthalenedisulfonate (NDS2-) anions by Mg-Al oxide was investigated. Langmuir model best describes the adsorption of both aromatic disulfonate anions, with the maximum amount of uptake higher for BDS2-. Mg-Al oxide reacts easier with the aromatic disulfonate anion with higher charge density, a trend that is the opposite of that observed in aromatic sulfonate anions. After increasing the charge from -1 to -2, the removal of aromatic disulfonates by Mg-Al oxide is controlled by electrostatic interactions, instead of hydrophobic interactions that are dominant for aromatic sulfonate anions.

  5. Self-assembled electrical materials from contorted aromatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shengxiong

    This thesis describes the design, synthesis, self-assembly and electrical properties of new types of contorted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These topologically interesting contorted aromatics show promising transistor characteristics as new building blocks for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) at different length scales. In chapter 2, a class of pentacenes that are substituted along their long edges with aromatic rings were synthesized. Their solid-state assemblies were studied by X-ray crystallography. Their performance as thin film transistors (TFTs) and single crystal field effect transistors (SCFETs) were systematically evaluated. A structure-property relationship between these highly phenylated pentacenes was found. Chapter 3 explores the new concept of whether a non-planar aromatic core could yield efficacious electronic materials, as the ultimate success in the organic electronics will require a holistic approach to creating new building blocks. Synthesis, functionalization and assembly of a new type of contorted hexabenzocoronene (HBC) whose aromatic core is heavily distorted away from planarity due to the steric congestion around its proximal carbons were discussed. Structural studies by X-ray crystallography showed that these HBC molecules stack into columnar structures in the solid state, which are ideal for conduction. Chapter 4 describes that microscale liquid crystalline thin film OFETs of tetradodecyloxy HBC showed the best transistor properties of all discotic columnar materials. Chapter 5 details the fabrication and characterization of nanoscale single crystalline fiber OFETs of octadodecyloxyl HBC. In Chapter 6 we show that a molecular scale monolayer of HBC acid chlorides could be self-assembled on SiO2 insulating layer and could be organized laterally between the ends of 2 nm carbon nanotube gaps to form high quality FETs that act as environmental and chemical sensors. Chapter 7 details the enforced one-dimensional photoconductivity

  6. A dualidade presença/ausência nas imagens impressas de Edvard Munch e Andy Warhol: aproximações possíveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Mobilon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao observar a iconografia na obra impressa desses dois artistas de contextos diversos, é possível estabelecer uma aproximação. Ambos praticaram repetições e variações temáticas/cromáticas. Uma exposição ocorrida no Louisiana Museum of Modern Art (Dinamarca colocou lado a lado os dois artistas. O curador da exposição, Poul Erik Tøjner, afirma que ambos compartilham uma consciência retórica sobre os meios e fins da arte. A retórica de Munch, ancorada no Simbolismo, vai além da reiteração de um pensamento sobre o fantasma da ausência, muitas vezes materializado em mancha, sombra e duplo. Warhol, ao emergir nos anos 1960 em Nova York, escolheu a serigrafia - um meio utilizado na publicidade - para "pintar" os seus ícones - estrelas de Hollywood, quase todas de destino trágico. As suas imagens - Marilyns, cadeiras elétricas, latas de sopa Campbell, etc. - tematizam não a presença desses seres e objetos, e sim sua ausência.

  7. Possíveis relações entre o contexto histórico e a recepção do behaviorismo radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Nascimento da Cruz

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a recepção do behaviorismo radical, em especial, na década de 70, e busca relacionar a polêmica em torno de algumas noções skinnerianas acerca da liberdade e da dignidade divulgadas no livro Para Além da Liberdade e Dignidade. Essa discussão foi orientada por três conjuntos de questões: a a incompatibilidade entre alguns aspectos históricos e a definição behaviorista radical de liberdade e dignidade; b os problemas em identificar o behaviorismo radical como uma abordagem solidária com os pressupostos de uma ideologia liberalista; c a linguagem utilizada por Skinner como fonte de problemas. Por fim, são discutidos as limitações e os problemas envolvidos em tentativas de esclarecimentos de possíveis mal-entendidos acerca do behaviorismo radical. Ao mesmo tempo, demonstra-se que a recepção do behaviorismo radical é perpassada por aspectos além daqueles relacionados à validade interna do sistema explicativo skinneriano, e que discordâncias acerca dessa abordagem nem sempre podem ser explicadas como desconhecimento e equívocos sobre a mesma.

  8. Educação inclusiva, ensino de Ciências e linguagem científica: possíveis relações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Canavarro Benite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, reclama-se por uma Educação Inclusiva na Sociedade da Informação. Dessa forma, é urgente se ensinar ciências no mundo onde o saber científico e tecnológico é cada dia mais valorizado, admitindo que não é possível a formação de um cidadão crítico sem conhecimentos básicos necessários para a realização de julgamentos e consequentes opções. O exercício da cidadania exige a participação efetiva dos indivíduos, tenham eles necessidades educativas especiais (NEE ou não, em todas as esferas da sociedade. Neste artigo, serão apresentados alguns apontamentos sobre a relação complexa entre educação inclusiva, ensino de ciências e linguagem científica, assumindo a urgência da compreensão de necessidades específicas que possam orientar o ensino de ciências para este grupo social. Completa este trabalho uma breve discussão sobre as características do conhecimento científico.

  9. Comercialização no ensino superior: é possível manter a idéia de bem público?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Marco Antonio Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor, um dos promotores do debate no Brasil sobre o impacto na educação de medidas tomadas pela OMC, indaga se é possível manter a idéia de que o ensino superior é um bem público preconizada pela Conferência Mundial sobre o Ensino Superior, em Paris, em 1998. A comunidade acadêmica perdeu a oportunidade de reagir eficazmente, quando, em 1994, foi aprovado o Acordo Geral sobre Comércio e Serviços (AGCS. No entanto, a existência de provedores privados não torna um serviço comercial. Persistem as figuras da concessão, delegação ou autorização, mantidos, sob regulamentação, os princípios básicos que protegem os bens públicos. Na OMC, os países anglo-saxônicos agem de forma incoerente, mantendo fechadas as portas que pedem aos demais para abrir. O grande perigo, no momento, está na tentativa de se criar um sistema internacional de acreditação, sem participação da América Latina.

  10. In vitro toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons to cetacean cells and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvan, M.J. III.

    1993-01-01

    Cetaceans bioaccumulate high aromatic hydrocarbon tissue residues, and elevated levels of PCB residues in tissues are proposed to have occurred concurrently with recent epizootic deaths of dolphins. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop and characterize an epithelial cell line derived from dolphin tissues, (2) to investigate the effects of hydrocarbon pollutants on those cells, and (3) to analyze the toxicity of hydrocarbon pollutants on cetacean tissues in vitro. An epithelial cell line, Carvan dolphin kidney (CDK), isolated from a spontaneously aborted female bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus, grew rapidly. These cells were neither transformed nor immortal. Velocity sedimentation analysis showed CDK cells contained nuclear aryl hydrocarbon receptor, suggestive of cytochrome P450 inducibility. BaP inhibited mitosis in CDK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Data indicate that CDK cells metabolize BaP, that BaP metabolites bind to cellular DNA initiating unscheduled DNA synthesis, and that the inhibition of cytochrome P450 metabolism decrease the BaP-associated inhibition of mitosis in dolphin cells. The data also suggest that TCDD acts synergistically to increase the levels of DNA damage by the procarcinogen BaP. Cetacean liver microsomes was isolated and evaluated for the presence of cytochrome P450 proteins by SDS-PAGE, apparent minimum molecular weight determination, and immunoblot analysis. P450 activity was induced in cetacean tissue samples and CDK cells by exposure in vitro to one of several cytochrome P450-inducing chemicals. The data suggest that cetacean tissues and cells can be utilized to study the in vitro induction of cytochrome P450, resultant metabolism of xenobiotic contaminants, and the subsequent cellular and molecular responses. However, the identity of specific P450 isozymes involved in this process will remain undetermined until monoclonal antibodies that recognize cetacean P450s can be generated.

  11. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Peripheral Immune Mediators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Steffen; Pipper, Christian; Skogstrand, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to examine if 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was related to the peripheral immunological and inflammatory signature both at birth, and in newly diagnosed patients with childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their healthy controls; (2) Methods: The birth cohort consisted of 470...... patients and 500 healthy controls. Dried blood samples were collected from the neonates in the period 1981–1999. The newly diagnosed cohort consisted of 460 patients and 453 siblings. Serum samples were collected in the period 1997–2005. A variety of peripheral immune mediators were measured and compared...... to total 25(OH)D levels (25(OH)D2 + 25(OH)D3). For each immune mediator, the relative change (RC) in the mean level was modeled by robust log-normal regression and correction for multiple testing was performed; (3) Results: Two associations were identified; there was a negative association between 25(OH...

  12. Bridge-builders in the peripheral region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Birgit; Gretzinger, Susanne

    (Sotarauta and Pulkkinen 2011). In a similar vein, Burt (2005) argues that actors can drive networking and innovation through connecting a priori unconnected firms and thereby integrate diverse resources and knowledge for the sake of benefitting and developing a business network. Belso-Martinez et al. (2015...... development and, indirectly, local development in the periphery through enhancing networking and innovativeness. As a stylized fact, peripheral regions face important limitations to innovation-based economic development (Danson and De Souza 2012), which impair the potential for firm growth, notably of small......Maggio [1988] versus the concept of network brokers developed by Burt [2005]) into a comparative conceptual framework on innovation-based business networks in peripheral regions. We argue that agents who work for changing the firms’ behaviour towards a more collaborative stance and greater openness...

  13. Light emitting device having peripheral emissive region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-05-28

    Light emitting devices are provided that include one or more OLEDs disposed only on a peripheral region of the substrate. An OLED may be disposed only on a peripheral region of a substantially transparent substrate and configured to emit light into the substrate. Another surface of the substrate may be roughened or include other features to outcouple light from the substrate. The edges of the substrate may be beveled and/or reflective. The area of the OLED(s) may be relatively small compared to the substrate surface area through which light is emitted from the device. One or more OLEDs also or alternatively may be disposed on an edge of the substrate about perpendicular to the surface of the substrate through which light is emitted, such that they emit light into the substrate. A mode expanding region may be included between each such OLED and the substrate.

  14. Mast cell degranulation breaks peripheral tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, V C; Wasiuk, A; Bennett, K A; Benson, M J; Elgueta, R; Waldschmidt, T J; Noelle, R J

    2009-10-01

    Mast cells (MC) have been shown to mediate regulatory T-cell (T(reg))-dependent, peripheral allograft tolerance in both skin and cardiac transplants. Furthermore, T(reg) have been implicated in mitigating IgE-mediated MC degranulation, establishing a dynamic, reciprocal relationship between MC and T(reg) in controlling inflammation. In an allograft tolerance model, it is now shown that intragraft or systemic MC degranulation results in the transient loss of T(reg) suppressor activities with the acute, T-cell dependent rejection of established, tolerant allografts. Upon degranulation, MC mediators can be found in the skin, T(reg) rapidly leave the graft, MC accumulate in the regional lymph node and the T(reg) are impaired in the expression of suppressor molecules. Such a dramatic reversal of T(reg) function and tissue distribution by MC degranulation underscores how allergy may causes the transient breakdown of peripheral tolerance and episodes of acute T-cell inflammation.

  15. [Peripheral intravenous catheter-related phlebitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sar-van der Brugge, Simone; Posthuma, E F M Ward

    2011-01-01

    Phlebitis is a very common complication of the use of intravenous catheters. Two patients with an i.v. catheter complicated by thrombophlebitis are described. Patient A was immunocompromised due to chronic lymphatic leukaemia and developed septic thrombophlebitis with positive blood cultures for S. Aureus. Patient B was being treated with flucloxacillin because of an S. Aureus infection and developed chemical phlebitis. Septic phlebitis is rare, but potentially serious. Chemical or mechanical types of thrombophlebitis are usually less severe, but happen very frequently. Risk factors include: female sex, previous episode of phlebitis, insertion at (ventral) forearm, emergency placement and administration of antibiotics. Until recently, routine replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters after 72-96 h was recommended, but randomised controlled trials have not shown any benefit of this routine. A recent Cochrane Review recommends replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters when clinically indicated only.

  16. Multifragmentation in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trautmann, W.; Adloff, J.C.; Bouissou, P.; Hubele, J.; Imme, G.; Iori, I.; Kreutz, P.; Leray, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Liu, Z.; Lynen, U.; Meijer, R.J.; Milkau, U.; Moroni, A.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Ngo, C.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Pochodzalla, J.; Raciti, G.; Rudolf, G.; Schuettauf, A.; Stuttge, L.

    1993-10-01

    The complete fragmentation of highly excited nuclear systems into fragments of intermediate mass is observed in heavy-ion reactions at relativistic bombarding energies in the range of several hundreds of MeV per nucleon. Similar features are found for peripheral collisions between heavy nuclei and for more central collisions between a heavy and a light nucleus. The partition space explored in multifragment decays is well described by the statistical multifragmentation models. The expansion before breakup is confirmed by the analysis of the measured fragment energies of ternary events in their own rest frame. Collective radial flow is confined to rather small values in these peripheral-type reactions. Many conceptually different models seem to be capable of reproducing the charge correlations measured for the multifragment decays. (orig.)

  17. Radiothermometry indifferential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, L.I.; Kogan, E.A.; Yashunskaya, N.I.

    1991-01-01

    Methods of radiothermometry for differential diagnosis of peripheral lung formations using a radiometer operating within 10 cm-wave band were worked out. Altogether 59 patients (of them 45 men) were investigated. Temperature was measured on the chest surface in the area of a lung pathological formation projected on it. Placing its image on the heart and major vessel shadows was avoided. Mean temperature was calculated from 6-8 measurements. Temperature above a peripheral lung tumor was shown to be by 0.5 deg C higher than that of unchanged pulmonary tissue. Benign spheroidal formations (tuberculoma, hamartoma) were characterized by a decrease of 0.6-0.9 deg C as compared to unchanged pulmonary tissue. Comparison of operation of 2 radiometers (the second one operating in the 8 mm-wave band) has shown diagnostic advantages of the first one

  18. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-11

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be

  19. Neurophysiological approach to disorders of peripheral nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Clarissa; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of the peripheral nerve system (PNS) are heterogeneous and may involve motor fibers, sensory fibers, small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers and autonomic nerve fibers, with variable anatomical distribution (single nerves, several different nerves, symmetrical affection of all nerves......, plexus, or root lesions). Furthermore pathological processes may result in either demyelination, axonal degeneration or both. In order to reach an exact diagnosis of any neuropathy electrophysiological studies are crucial to obtain information about these variables. Conventional electrophysiological...

  20. Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, Carlos G. [Uppsala University (Sweden); Weiss, Christian [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

  1. Case of Unilateral Peripheral Cone Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Mochizuki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Peripheral cone dystrophy is a subgroup of cone dystrophy, and only 4 cases have been reported. We present a patient with unilateral peripheral cone dysfunction and report the functional changes determined by electrophysiological tests and ultrastructural changes determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Case: A 34-year-old woman complained of blurred vision in both eyes. Our examination showed that her visual acuity was 0.05 OD and 0.2 OS. A relative afferent pupillary defect was present in her right eye. The results of slit-lamp examination, ophthalmoscopy, and fluorescein angiography were normal except for pallor of the right optic disc. SD-OCT showed a diffuse thinning of the retina in the posterior pole of the right eye. A severe constriction of the visual fields was found in both eyes but more in the right eye. The photopic full-field electroretinograms (ERGs were reduced in the right eye but normal in the left eye. The multifocal ERGs were severely reduced throughout the visual field except in the central area of the right eye. The multifocal ERGs from the left eye were normal. The pattern visual evoked responses were within the normal range in both eyes. She had a 5-year history of sniffing paint thinner. Results: Although the visual dysfunction was initially suspected to be due to psychological problems from the results of subjective tests, objective tests indicated a peripheral cone dysfunction in the right eye. The pathophysiological mechanism and the relationship with thinner sniffing were not determined. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that peripheral cone dysfunction can occur unilaterally. Electrophysiology and SD-OCT are valuable tests to perform to determine the pathogenesis of unusual ocular findings objectively.

  2. Diagnostics of peripheric plasma in thermonuclear devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtsenya, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    Review of basic methods, applied or developed for peripheral plasma diagnostics is given, including electric probes of various types, collecting probes for studying impurity ion and main plasma component characteristics, spectroscopic and corpuscular-optical methods, laser fluorescence spectroscopy, mass-spectrometry, heavy ion and atom (lithium and hydrogen) beam methods. Ranges of plasma parameters their measurements being provided by the methods indicated are presented

  3. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part III: Peripheral nerves of the lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Berta; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-06-01

    The ultrasonographic examination is currently increasingly used in imaging peripheral nerves, serving to supplement the physical examination, electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive and well-tolerated by patients. The typical ultrasonographic picture of peripheral nerves as well as the examination technique have been discussed in part I of this article series, following the example of the median nerve. Part II of the series presented the normal anatomy and the technique for examining the peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part of the article series focuses on the anatomy and technique for examining twelve normal peripheral nerves of the lower extremity: the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves, the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, the pudendal, sciatic, tibial, sural, medial plantar, lateral plantar, common peroneal, deep peroneal and superficial peroneal nerves. It includes diagrams showing the proper positioning of the sonographic probe, plus USG images of the successively discussed nerves and their surrounding structures. The ultrasonographic appearance of the peripheral nerves in the lower limb is identical to the nerves in the upper limb. However, when imaging the lower extremity, convex probes are more often utilized, to capture deeply-seated nerves. The examination technique, similarly to that used in visualizing the nerves of upper extremity, consists of locating the nerve at a characteristic anatomic reference point and tracking it using the "elevator technique". All 3 parts of the article series should serve as an introduction to a discussion of peripheral nerve pathologies, which will be presented in subsequent issues of the "Journal of Ultrasonography".

  4. Peripheral nerve involvement in Bell's palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Bueri

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of patients with Bell's palsy were studied in order to disclose the presence of subclinical peripheral nerve involvement. 20 patients, 8 male and 12 female, with recent Bell's palsy as their unique disease were examined, in all cases other causes of polyneuropathy were ruled out. Patients were investigated with CSF examination, facial nerve latencies in the affected and in the sound sides, and maximal motor nerve conduction velocities, as well as motor terminal latencies from the right median and peroneal nerves. CSF laboratory examination was normal in all cases. Facial nerve latencies were abnormal in all patients in the affected side, and they differed significantly from those of control group in the clinically sound side. Half of the patients showed abnormal values in the maximal motor nerve conduction velocities and motor terminal latencies of the right median and peroneal nerves. These results agree with previous reports which have pointed out that other cranial nerves may be affected in Bell's palsy. However, we have found a higher frequency of peripheral nerve involvement in this entity. These findings, support the hypothesis that in some patients Bell's palsy is the component of a more widespread disease, affecting other cranial and peripheral nerves.

  5. Central and peripheral control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, M M I

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

  6. Central and peripheral control of food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla M. M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

  7. Control of peripheral units by satellite computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, K.T.

    1974-01-01

    A computer system was developed allowing the control of nuclear physics experiments, and use of the results by means of graphical and conversational assemblies. This system which is made of two computers, one IBM-370/135 and one Telemecanique Electrique T1600, controls the conventional IBM peripherals and also the special ones made in the laboratory, such as data acquisition display and graphics units. The visual display is implemented by a scanning-type television, equipped with a light-pen. These units in themselves are universal, but their specifications were established to meet the requirements of nuclear physics experiments. The input-output channels of the two computers have been connected together by an interface, designed and implemented in the Laboratory. This interface allows the exchange of control signals and data (the data are changed from bytes into word and vice-versa). The T1600 controls the peripherals mentionned above according to the commands of the IBM370. Hence the T1600 has here the part of a satellite computer which allows conversation with the main computer and also insures the control of its special peripheral units [fr

  8. Auditory attention activates peripheral visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D Cate

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed that putatively unimodal regions of visual cortex can be activated during auditory tasks in sighted as well as in blind subjects. However, the task determinants and functional significance of auditory occipital activations (AOAs remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined AOAs in an intermodal selective attention task to distinguish whether they were stimulus-bound or recruited by higher-level cognitive operations associated with auditory attention. Cortical surface mapping showed that auditory occipital activations were localized to retinotopic visual cortex subserving the far peripheral visual field. AOAs depended strictly on the sustained engagement of auditory attention and were enhanced in more difficult listening conditions. In contrast, unattended sounds produced no AOAs regardless of their intensity, spatial location, or frequency. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Auditory attention, but not passive exposure to sounds, routinely activated peripheral regions of visual cortex when subjects attended to sound sources outside the visual field. Functional connections between auditory cortex and visual cortex subserving the peripheral visual field appear to underlie the generation of AOAs, which may reflect the priming of visual regions to process soon-to-appear objects associated with unseen sound sources.

  9. Pathophysiology of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Starobova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy is a common, dose-dependent adverse effect of several antineoplastics. It can lead to detrimental dose reductions and discontinuation of treatment, and severely affects the quality of life of cancer survivors. Clinically, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy presents as deficits in sensory, motor, and autonomic function which develop in a glove and stocking distribution due to preferential effects on longer axons. The pathophysiological processes are multi-factorial and involve oxidative stress, apoptotic mechanisms, altered calcium homeostasis, axon degeneration and membrane remodeling as well as immune processes and neuroinflammation. This review focusses on the commonly used antineoplastic substances oxaliplatin, cisplatin, vincristine, docetaxel, and paclitaxel which interfere with the cancer cell cycle—leading to cell death and tumor degradation—and cause severe acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies. We discuss drug mechanism of action and pharmacokinetic disposition relevant to the development of peripheral neuropathy, the epidemiology and clinical presentation of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, emerging insight into genetic susceptibilities as well as current understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment approaches.

  10. Computer aided diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekh, Viktor; Soliz, Peter; McGrew, Elizabeth; Barriga, Simon; Burge, Mark; Luan, Shuang

    2014-03-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) refers to the nerve damage that can occur in diabetes patients. It most often affects the extremities, such as the feet, and can lead to peripheral vascular disease, deformity, infection, ulceration, and even amputation. The key to managing diabetic foot is prevention and early detection. Unfortunately, current existing diagnostic techniques are mostly based on patient sensations and exhibit significant inter- and intra-observer differences. We have developed a computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The thermal response of the feet of diabetic patients following cold stimulus is captured using an infrared camera. The plantar foot in the images from a thermal video are segmented and registered for tracking points or specific regions. The temperature recovery of each point on the plantar foot is extracted using our bio-thermal model and analyzed. The regions that exhibit abnormal ability to recover are automatically identified to aid the physicians to recognize problematic areas. The key to our CAD system is the segmentation of infrared video. The main challenges for segmenting infrared video compared to normal digital video are (1) as the foot warms up, it also warms up the surrounding, creating an ever changing contrast; and (2) there may be significant motion during imaging. To overcome this, a hybrid segmentation algorithm was developed based on a number of techniques such as continuous max-flow, model based segmentation, shape preservation, convex hull, and temperature normalization. Verifications of the automatic segmentation and registration using manual segmentation and markers show good agreement.

  11. Redox shuttles having an aromatic ring fused to a 1,1,4,4-tetrasubstituted cyclohexane ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2015-12-01

    An electrolyte includes an alkali metal salt; an aprotic solvent; and a redox shuttle additive including an aromatic compound having at least one aromatic ring fused with at least one non-aromatic ring, the aromatic ring having two or more oxygen or phosphorus-containing substituents.

  12. Peripheral Osteoma of the Mandibular Notch: Report of a Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Toshinori; Izumi, Toshiharu; Baba, Junichi; Maegawa, Jiro; Mitsudo, Kenji; Tohnai, Iwai

    2013-01-01

    Osteoma is a benign, slow-growing osteogenic tumor that sometimes arises from the craniomaxillofacial region, such as the sinus, temporal or jaw bones. Osteoma consists of compact or cancellous bone that may be peripheral, central or extraskeletal type. Peripheral osteoma arises from the periosteum and is commonly a unilateral, pedunculated mushroom-like mass. Peripheral osteoma of the mandible is relatively uncommon, and peripheral osteoma of the mandibular notch is extremely rare, although many cases arise from the mandibular body, angle, condyle, or coronoid process. We report here an unusual peripheral osteoma of the mandibular notch in a 78-year-old nonsyndromic female

  13. The challenges and beauty of peripheral nerve regrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochodne, Douglas W

    2012-03-01

    This review provides an overview of selected aspects of peripheral nerve regeneration and potential avenues to explore therapeutically. The overall coordinated and orchestrated pattern of recovery from peripheral nerve injury has a beauty of execution and progress that rivals all other forms of neurobiology. It involves changes at the level of the perikaryon, coordination with important peripheral glial partners, the Schwann cells, a controlled inflammatory response, and growth that overcomes surprising intrinsic roadblocks. Both regenerative axon growth and collateral sprouting encompass fascinating aspects of this story. Better understanding of peripheral nerve regeneration may also lead to enhanced central nervous system recovery. © 2012 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  14. Chinese herbal medicine for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Li, Xinxue; Yang, Guoyan; Liu, Jian Ping

    2013-10-06

    Chinese herbal medicine is frequently used for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy in China. Many controlled trials have been undertaken to investigate its efficacy.This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in the year 2011. To assess the beneficial effects and harms of Chinese herbal medicine for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. On 14 May 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register CENTRAL (2012, Issue 4 in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2012), AMED (January 1985 to May 2012) and in October 2012, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1979 to October 2012), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI) (1979 to October 2012), and VIP Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (1989 to October 2012). We searched for unpublished literature in the Chinese Conference Papers Database, and Chinese Dissertation Database (from inception to October 2012). There were no language or publication restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine (with a minimum of four weeks treatment duration) for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions. Trials of herbal medicine plus a conventional drug versus the drug alone were also included. Two authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. Forty-nine randomised trials involving 3639 participants were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Thirty-eight different herbal medicines were tested in these trials, including four single herbs (extracts from a single herb), eight traditional Chinese patent medicines, and 26 self concocted Chinese herbal compound prescriptions. The trials reported on global symptom improvement (including improvement in numbness or pain) and changes in nerve conduction

  15. Peripheral changes in endometriosis-associated pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotti, Matteo; Vincent, Katy; Brawn, Jennifer; Zondervan, Krina T.; Becker, Christian M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pain remains the cardinal symptom of endometriosis. However, to date, the underlying mechanisms are still only poorly understood. Increasing evidence points towards a close interaction between peripheral nerves, the peritoneal environment and the central nervous system in pain generation and processing. Recently, studies demonstrating nerve fibres and neurotrophic and angiogenic factors in endometriotic lesions and their vicinity have led to increased interest in peripheral changes in endometriosis-associated pain. This review focuses on the origin and function of these nerves and factors as well as possible peripheral mechanisms that may contribute to the generation and modulation of pain in women with endometriosis. METHODS We conducted a systematic search using several databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL) of publications from January 1977 to October 2013 to evaluate the possible roles of the peripheral nervous system in endometriosis pathophysiology and how it can contribute to endometriosis-associated pain. RESULTS Endometriotic lesions and peritoneal fluid from women with endometriosis had pronounced neuroangiogenic properties with increased expression of new nerve fibres, a shift in the distribution of sensory and autonomic fibres in some locations, and up-regulation of several neurotrophins. In women suffering from deep infiltrating endometriosis and bowel endometriosis, in which the anatomical distribution of lesions is generally more closely related to pelvic pain symptoms, endometriotic lesions and surrounding tissues present higher nerve fibre densities compared to peritoneal lesions and endometriomas. More data are needed to fully confirm a direct correlation between fibre density in these locations and the amount of perceived pain. A better correlation between the presence of nerve fibres and pain symptoms seems to exist for eutopic endometrium. However, this appears not to be exclusive to endometriosis. No correlation between

  16. (Liquid + liquid) phase behavior for systems containing (aromatic + TBA + methylcyclohexane)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanadzadeh, H.; Ghanadzadeh, A.

    2004-01-01

    The determination region of solubility of TBA (tert-butanol) with representative compounds of the gasoline was investigated experimentally at temperature of 298.2 K. Type 1 (liquid + liquid) phase diagrams were obtained for (methylcyclohexane + TBA + aromatic compounds). These results were correlated simultaneously by the UNIQUAC model. The values of the interaction parameters between each pair of components in the systems were obtained for the UNIQUAC model using the experimental result. The root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the observed and calculated mole percents was 1.88 for (methylcyclohexane + TBA + benzene), 2.45 for (methylcyclohexane + TBA + toluene) and 2.86 for (methylcyclohexane + TBA + ethylbenzene). The mutual solubility of methylcyclohexane and aromatic compounds (e.g., benzene toluene and ethylbenzene (BTE)) was also investigated by the addition of TBA at temperature of 298.2 K

  17. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with special focus on cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamaraiselvan Rengarajan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are a group of compounds consisting of two or more fused aromatic rings. Most of them are formed during incomplete combustion of organic materials such as wood and fossil fuels, petroleum products, and coal. The composition of PAH mixtures varies with the source and is also affected by selective weathering effects in the environment. PAHs are ubiquitous pollutants frequently found in a variety of environments such as fresh water and marine sediments, the atmosphere, and ice. Due to their widespread distribution, the environmental pollution due to PAHs has aroused global concern. Many PAHs and their epoxides are highly toxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic to microorganisms as well as to higher forms of life including humans. The main aim of this review is to provide contemporary information on PAH sources, route of exposure, worldwide emission rate, and adverse effects on humans, especially with reference to cancer.

  18. Graphene growth by conversion of aromatic self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchanin, Andrey [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University Jena (Germany); Jena Center for Soft Matter (JCSM), Jena (Germany); Center for Energy and Environmental Chemistry Jena (CEEC), Jena (Germany); Abbe Center of Photonics (ACP), Jena (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Despite present diversity of graphene production methods there is still a high demand for improvement of the existing production schemes or development of new. Here a method is reviewed to produce graphene employing aromatic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as molecular precursors. This method is based on electron irradiation induced crosslinking of aromatic SAMs resulting in their conversion into carbon nanomembranes (CNMs) with high thermal stability and subsequent pyrolysis of CNMs into graphene in vacuum or in the inert atmosphere. Depending on the production conditions, such as chemical structure of molecular precursors, irradiation and annealing parameters, various properties of the produced graphene sheets including shape, crystallinity, thickness, optical properties and electric transport can be adjusted. The assembly of CNM/graphene van der Waals heterostructures opens a flexible route to non-destructive chemical functionalization of graphene for a variety of applications in electronic and photonic devices. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. MTBE and aromatic hydrocarbons in North Carolina stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Robert C; Black, David C; McBlief, Kathleen V

    2002-01-01

    A total of 249 stormwater samples were collected from 46 different sampling locations in North Carolina over an approximate 1-year period and analyzed to identify land use types where fuel oxygenates and aromatic hydrocarbons may be present in higher concentrations and at greater frequency. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in ion selective mode to achieve a quantitation limit of 0.05 microg/l. m-,p-Xylene and toluene were detected in over half of all samples analyzed, followed by MTBE: o-xylene: 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene: ethylbenzene; and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. Benzene, DIPE, TAME and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene were detected in runoff from a gas station or discharge of contaminated groundwater from a former leaking underground storage tank. For all of the aromatic hydrocarbons, the maximum observed contaminant concentrations were over an order of magnitude lower than current drinking water standards.

  20. Time-resolved fluorometry of the aromatic amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laws, W.R.; Ross, J.B.A.; Katsoyannis, P.G.; Wyssbrod, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    The aromatic amino acids tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine are the chromophores that produce the intrinsic fluorescence of proteins. It has been a long-desired goal to be able to use the fluorescence of these amino acids to help understand protein dynamics, structure, and function. Considerable information about proteins in solution has come from steady-state, or time-averaged, fluorescence measurements, especially from the fluorescence of tryptophan. For a protein to be characterized more extensively, however, the time dependence of the intrinsic fluorescence must also be explained. Unfortunately, complex fluorescence decay kinetics have been observed not only for proteins having just a single aromatic amino acid, but also for simple analogues of these amino acids; the cause of these complex decays is not fully understood. Considerable effort must still be made to resolve the mechanisms causing the complex decays

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some grounded coffee brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Sharma, Rashmi; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-08-01

    Potentially toxic 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in four brands of grounded coffee. Four to 13 PAHs were detected. Concentrations of total PAHs in different brands of coffee samples were in the range of 831.7-1,589.7 μg/kg. Benzo[a]pyrene (2A: probable human carcinogen) was found in Nescafe Premium whereas naphthalene (2B: possible human carcinogen) was found in all the samples of coffee.

  2. THE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2013-01-01

    The mid-infrared spectra of neutral homogeneous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) clusters have been computed using density functional theory including an empirical correction for dispersion. The C-H out-of-plane bending modes are redshifted for all the clusters considered in this work. The magnitude of the redshift and the peak broadening are dependent on PAH size, shape, and on the PAH arrangement in the cluster

  3. THE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricca, Alessandra [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Allamandola, Louis J., E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca-1@nasa.gov, E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov [Space Science Division, Mail Stop 245-6, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    The mid-infrared spectra of neutral homogeneous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) clusters have been computed using density functional theory including an empirical correction for dispersion. The C-H out-of-plane bending modes are redshifted for all the clusters considered in this work. The magnitude of the redshift and the peak broadening are dependent on PAH size, shape, and on the PAH arrangement in the cluster.

  4. Formic-acid-induced depolymerization of oxidized lignin to aromatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Alireza; Ulbrich, Arne; Coon, Joshua J.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2014-11-01

    Lignin is a heterogeneous aromatic biopolymer that accounts for nearly 30% of the organic carbon on Earth and is one of the few renewable sources of aromatic chemicals. As the most recalcitrant of the three components of lignocellulosic biomass (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin), lignin has been treated as a waste product in the pulp and paper industry, where it is burned to supply energy and recover pulping chemicals in the operation of paper mills. Extraction of higher value from lignin is increasingly recognized as being crucial to the economic viability of integrated biorefineries. Depolymerization is an important starting point for many lignin valorization strategies, because it could generate valuable aromatic chemicals and/or provide a source of low-molecular-mass feedstocks suitable for downstream processing. Commercial precedents show that certain types of lignin (lignosulphonates) may be converted into vanillin and other marketable products, but new technologies are needed to enhance the lignin value chain. The complex, irregular structure of lignin complicates chemical conversion efforts, and known depolymerization methods typically afford ill-defined products in low yields (that is, less than 10-20wt%). Here we describe a method for the depolymerization of oxidized lignin under mild conditions in aqueous formic acid that results in more than 60wt% yield of low-molecular-mass aromatics. We present the discovery of this facile C-O cleavage method, its application to aspen lignin depolymerization, and mechanistic insights into the reaction. The broader implications of these results for lignin conversion and biomass refining are also considered.

  5. Generalised Multiplicative Indices of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Benzenoid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulli, V. R.; Stone, Branden; Wang, Shaohui; Wei, Bing

    2017-05-01

    Many types of topological indices such as degree-based topological indices, distance-based topological indices, and counting-related topological indices are explored during past recent years. Among degree-based topological indices, Zagreb indices are the oldest one and studied well. In the paper, we define a generalised multiplicative version of these indices and compute exact formulas for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and jagged-rectangle Benzenoid systems.

  6. Photometabolism of Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds by Rhodopseudomonas palustris OU 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikala, C.; Ramana, C. V.; Rao, P. Raghuveer

    1994-01-01

    Rhodopseudomonas palustris OU 11 (ATCC 51186; DSM 7375) isolated from a pond of chemical industry effluent could anaerobically photometabolize heterocyclic aromatic compounds belonging to the pyridine and pyrazine groups only after a period of adaptation on pyrazinoic acid of 5 to 6 weeks. Growth on heterocyclic compounds was light dependent. The effects of various concentrations of heterocyclic compounds on growth suggest that higher concentrations of these compounds inhibit growth and are toxic. PMID:16349307

  7. Kurdistan crude oils as feedstock for production of aromatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsalam R. Karim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crude oils from various locations in Iraqi Kurdistan were fully evaluated, so that enables refiners to improve their operation by selecting the best crude oil that yields high naphtha content to be used as a catalytic reforming feedstock after determination of total sulfur content and then de sulfurizing them, then cyclizing or reforming these sweet naphtha cuts to produce aromatic fractions which can be split into benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

  8. Conformationally restrained aromatic analogues of fosmidomycin and FR900098.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Thomas; Schlüter, Katrin; Pein, Miriam; Behrendt, Christoph; Bergmann, Bärbel; Walter, Rolf D

    2007-07-01

    The synthesis and in-vitro antimalarial activity of conformationally restrained bis(pivaloyloxymethyl) ester analogues of the natural product fosmidomycin is presented. In contrast to alpha-aryl-substituted analogues, conformationally restrained aromatic analogues exhibit only moderate in-vitro antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7 of Plasmodium falciparum. The most active derivative displays an IC(50) value of 47 microM.

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Metal Concentrations in Imported Canned Maize

    OpenAIRE

    Embbey K Ossai; Chukwujindu Maxwell Iwegbue; Elizabeth E. Ajogungbe; Godswill O Tesi

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations and profile of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) and metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Fe and Mn) were determined in selected brands of canned maize in the Nigeria market with a view to providing information on the hazards associated with the consumption of these products. The measurement of the concentrations of PAHs was carried out by using a gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) after extraction by ultra-sonication with acetone/dichloromethane and cl...

  10. Solubilities of oxygenated aromatic solids in pressurized hot water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Planeta, Josef; Roth, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2009), s. 1457-1461 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0886; GA ČR GA203/08/1536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : oxygenated aromatics * solubility * pressurized hot water Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.695, year: 2009

  11. Burn-related peripheral neuropathy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yiji; Lineaweaver, William C; Zheng, Xianyou; Chen, Zenggan; Mullins, Fred; Zhang, Feng

    2017-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent disabling neuromuscular complication of burns. However, the insidious and progressive onset of burn neuropathy makes it often undiagnosed or overlooked. In our study, we reviewed the current studies on the burn-related peripheral neuropathy to summarize the morbidity, mechanism, detecting method and management of peripheral neuropathy in burn patients. Of the 1533 burn patients included in our study, 98 cases (6.39%) were presented with peripheral neuropathy. Thermal and electrical burns were the most common etiologies. Surgical procedures, especially nerve decompression, showed good effect on functional recovery of both acute and delayed peripheral neuropathy in burn patients. It is noteworthy that, for early detection and prevention of peripheral neuropathy, electrodiagnostic examinations should be performed on burn patients independent of symptoms. Still, the underlying mechanisms of burn-related peripheral neuropathy remain to be clarified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. MODELING GALACTIC EXTINCTION WITH DUST AND 'REAL' POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulas, Giacomo; Casu, Silvia; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare; Zonca, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the remarkable apparent variety of galactic extinction curves by modeling extinction profiles with core-mantle grains and a collection of single polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our aim is to translate a synthetic description of dust into physically well-grounded building blocks through the analysis of a statistically relevant sample of different extinction curves. All different flavors of observed extinction curves, ranging from the average galactic extinction curve to virtually 'bumpless' profiles, can be described by the present model. We prove that a mixture of a relatively small number (54 species in 4 charge states each) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can reproduce the features of the extinction curve in the ultraviolet, dismissing an old objection to the contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the interstellar extinction curve. Despite the large number of free parameters (at most the 54 × 4 column densities of each species in each ionization state included in the molecular ensemble plus the 9 parameters defining the physical properties of classical particles), we can strongly constrain some physically relevant properties such as the total number of C atoms in all species and the mean charge of the mixture. Such properties are found to be largely independent of the adopted dust model whose variation provides effects that are orthogonal to those brought about by the molecular component. Finally, the fitting procedure, together with some physical sense, suggests (but does not require) the presence of an additional component of chemically different very small carbonaceous grains.

  13. Formation of highly oxygenated organic molecules from aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molteni, Ugo; Bianchi, Federico; Klein, Felix; El Haddad, Imad; Frege, Carla; Rossi, Michel J.; Dommen, Josef; Baltensperger, Urs

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOCs) often dominate the urban atmosphere and consist to a large degree of aromatic hydrocarbons (ArHCs), such as benzene, toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes, e.g., from the handling and combustion of fuels. These compounds are important precursors for the formation of secondary organic aerosol. Here we show that the oxidation of aromatics with OH leads to a subsequent autoxidation chain reaction forming highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) with an O : C ratio of up to 1.09. This is exemplified for five single-ring ArHCs (benzene, toluene, o-/m-/p-xylene, mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) and ethylbenzene), as well as two conjugated polycyclic ArHCs (naphthalene and biphenyl). We report the elemental composition of the HOMs and show the differences in the oxidation patterns of these ArHCs. A potential pathway for the formation of these HOMs from aromatics is presented and discussed. We hypothesize that AVOCs may contribute substantially to new particle formation events that have been detected in urban areas.

  14. Formation of highly oxygenated organic molecules from aromatic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Molteni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOCs often dominate the urban atmosphere and consist to a large degree of aromatic hydrocarbons (ArHCs, such as benzene, toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes, e.g., from the handling and combustion of fuels. These compounds are important precursors for the formation of secondary organic aerosol. Here we show that the oxidation of aromatics with OH leads to a subsequent autoxidation chain reaction forming highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs with an O : C ratio of up to 1.09. This is exemplified for five single-ring ArHCs (benzene, toluene, o-/m-/p-xylene, mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and ethylbenzene, as well as two conjugated polycyclic ArHCs (naphthalene and biphenyl. We report the elemental composition of the HOMs and show the differences in the oxidation patterns of these ArHCs. A potential pathway for the formation of these HOMs from aromatics is presented and discussed. We hypothesize that AVOCs may contribute substantially to new particle formation events that have been detected in urban areas.

  15. Biodegradation of aliphatic vs. aromatic hydrocarbons in fertilized arctic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out to test a simple bioremediation treatment strategy in the Arctic and analyze the influence of fertilization the degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., pristine, n-tetradecane, n-pentadecane, 2-methylnaphthalene, naphthalene, and acenaphthalene. The site was a coarse sand pad that once supported fuel storage tanks. Diesel-range organics concentrations were 250-860 mg/kg soil at the beginning of the study. Replicate field plots treated with fertilizer yielded final concentrations of 0, 50, 100, or 200 mg N/kg soil. Soil pH and soil-water potentials decreased due to fertilizer application. The addition of fertilizer considerably increased soil respiration potentials, but not the populations of microorganisms measured. Fertilizer addition also led to ??? 50% loss of measured aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in surface and subsurface soils. For fertilized plots, hydrocarbon loss was not associated with the quantity of fertilizer added. Losses of aliphatic hydrocarbons were ascribed to biotic processes, while losses of aromatic hydrocarbons were due to biotic and abiotic processes.

  16. Ensemble modeling for aromatic production in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Rizk

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble Modeling (EM is a recently developed method for metabolic modeling, particularly for utilizing the effect of enzyme tuning data on the production of a specific compound to refine the model. This approach is used here to investigate the production of aromatic products in Escherichia coli. Instead of using dynamic metabolite data to fit a model, the EM approach uses phenotypic data (effects of enzyme overexpression or knockouts on the steady state production rate to screen possible models. These data are routinely generated during strain design. An ensemble of models is constructed that all reach the same steady state and are based on the same mechanistic framework at the elementary reaction level. The behavior of the models spans the kinetics allowable by thermodynamics. Then by using existing data from the literature for the overexpression of genes coding for transketolase (Tkt, transaldolase (Tal, and phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (Pps to screen the ensemble, we arrive at a set of models that properly describes the known enzyme overexpression phenotypes. This subset of models becomes more predictive as additional data are used to refine the models. The final ensemble of models demonstrates the characteristic of the cell that Tkt is the first rate controlling step, and correctly predicts that only after Tkt is overexpressed does an increase in Pps increase the production rate of aromatics. This work demonstrates that EM is able to capture the result of enzyme overexpression on aromatic producing bacteria by successfully utilizing routinely generated enzyme tuning data to guide model learning.

  17. Metagenomic screening for aromatic compound-responsive transcriptional regulators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Uchiyama

    Full Text Available We applied a metagenomics approach to screen for transcriptional regulators that sense aromatic compounds. The library was constructed by cloning environmental DNA fragments into a promoter-less vector containing green fluorescence protein. Fluorescence-based screening was then performed in the presence of various aromatic compounds. A total of 12 clones were isolated that fluoresced in response to salicylate, 3-methyl catechol, 4-chlorocatechol and chlorohydroquinone. Sequence analysis revealed at least 1 putative transcriptional regulator, excluding 1 clone (CHLO8F. Deletion analysis identified compound-specific transcriptional regulators; namely, 8 LysR-types, 2 two-component-types and 1 AraC-type. Of these, 9 representative clones were selected and their reaction specificities to 18 aromatic compounds were investigated. Overall, our transcriptional regulators were functionally diverse in terms of both specificity and induction rates. LysR- and AraC- type regulators had relatively narrow specificities with high induction rates (5-50 fold, whereas two-component-types had wide specificities with low induction rates (3 fold. Numerous transcriptional regulators have been deposited in sequence databases, but their functions remain largely unknown. Thus, our results add valuable information regarding the sequence-function relationship of transcriptional regulators.

  18. Methemoglobin Formation and Characterization of Hemoglobin Adducts of Carcinogenic Aromatic Amines and Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Khyatiben V; Chiu, Ting-Lan; Amin, Elizabeth Ambrose; Turesky, Robert J

    2016-03-21

    Arylamines (AAs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are structurally related carcinogens formed during the combustion of tobacco or cooking of meat. They undergo cytochrome P450 mediated N-hydroxylation to form metabolites which bind to DNA and lead to mutations. The N-hydroxylated metabolites of many AAs also can undergo a co-oxidation reaction with oxy-hemolgobin (HbO2) to form methemoglobin (met-Hb) and the arylnitroso intermediates, which react with the β-Cys(93) chain of Hb to form Hb-arylsulfinamide adducts. The biochemistry of arylamine metabolism has been exploited to biomonitor certain AAs through their Hb arylsulfinamide adducts in humans. We examined the reactivity of HbO2 with the N-hydroxylated metabolites of 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP, HONH-ABP), aniline (ANL, HONH-ANL), and the HAAs 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC, HONH-AαC), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP, HONH-PhIP), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx, HONH-MeIQx). HONH-ABP, HO-ANL, and HONH-AαC induced methemoglobinemia and formed Hb sulfinamide adducts. However, HONH-MeIQx and HONH-PhIP did not react with the oxy-heme complex, and met-Hb formation and chemical modification of the β-Cys(93) residue were negligible. Molecular modeling studies showed that the distances between the H-ON-AA or H-ON-HAA substrates and the oxy-heme complex of HbO2 were too far away to induce methemoglobinemia. Different conformational changes in flexible helical and loop regions around the heme pocket induced by the H-ON-AA or H-ON-HAAs may explain the different proclivities of these chemicals to induce methemoglobinemia. Hb-Cys(93β) sulfinamide and sulfonamide adducts of ABP, ANL, and AαC were identified, by Orbitrap MS, following the proteolysis of Hb with trypsin, Glu-C, or Lys-C. Hb sulfinamide and sulfonamide adducts of ABP were identified in the blood of mice exposed to ABP, by Orbitrap MS. This is the first report of the identification of intact Hb

  19. Relação entre saúde mental e trabalho: a concepção de sindicalistas e possíveis formas de enfrentamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Pereira da Silva

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo: apresentar as concepções de sindicalistas a respeito da relação entre trabalho e adoecimento mental, bem como algumas de suas ações, que possam indicar rumos para abordagens do movimento sindical que favoreçam o enfrentamento do adoecimento mental relacionado ao trabalho. Método: foram realizadas entrevistas reflexivas em profundidade com cinco representantes sindicais de diferentes categorias profissionais, do estado de São Paulo, que possuem um histórico de comprometimento com a saúde dos trabalhadores. Resultados: a concepção predominante entre os sindicalistas entrevistados é de que as causas dos adoecimentos do trabalhador são de caráter multifatorial. Assim, esses líderes sindicais reconhecem a organização do trabalho, os processos produtivos, as relações trabalhistas e as condições físicas do ambiente de trabalho como alguns dos fatores que podem gerar sofrimentos ou adoecimentos psíquicos nos trabalhadores. Discussão: os participantes indicam, como possíveis estratégias de enfrentamento do adoecimento mental provocado pelo trabalho, a união dos trabalhadores e dos sindicatos, o restabelecimento de laços de solidariedade, maior investimento do Estado e conscientização de toda a sociedade a respeito da relação entre a saúde mental e o trabalho.

  20. Crise econômica e possíveis perspectivas jurídico-sociais Economic crisis and possible legal and social perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Fontenele Sampaio Cunha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho evidencia que o século xxi (recomeçou a partir dos efeitos globais da crise econômica de 2008, com imediatos reflexos na reconstrução interativa do direito, da economia e da política, examinando as novas perspectivas jurídicas e sociais daí decorrentes, principalmente no que diz respeito à redefinição da soberania estatal, e questionando-se o que se deve entender por desenvolvimento sustentável. O trabalho analisa, assim, as consequências possíveis nos mecanismos de regulação do mercado e nas relações de emprego, as afetações coletivas intra e intergeracionais, além das novas responsabilidades e interações entre os estados e os agentes econômicos no nível internacional, concluindo que os riscos provenientes da crise econômica não possuem respostas únicas, individuais ou exclusivas.This paper demonstrates that the twenty-first century (re started from the overall effects of the economic crisis of 2008, with immediate consequences for the interactive reconstruction of the right, the economy and politics, examining the new legal and social perspectives resulting mainly in regard to the redefinition of state sovereignty and questioning what is meant by sustainable development. The paper examines therefore the possible consequences in the mechanisms of market regulation and employment relations, and their collective effects intra and inter-generationals, in addition to new responsibilities and interactions between states and economic agents at the international level, concluding that risks from the economic crisis have no answers only, individual or nique.