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Sample records for peripheral seas relationships

  1. Large Scale Variability of Phytoplankton Blooms in the Arctic and Peripheral Seas: Relationships with Sea Ice, Temperature, Clouds, and Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Cota, Glenn F.

    2004-01-01

    Spatially detailed satellite data of mean color, sea ice concentration, surface temperature, clouds, and wind have been analyzed to quantify and study the large scale regional and temporal variability of phytoplankton blooms in the Arctic and peripheral seas from 1998 to 2002. In the Arctic basin, phytoplankton chlorophyll displays a large symmetry with the Eastern Arctic having about fivefold higher concentrations than those of the Western Arctic. Large monthly and yearly variability is also observed in the peripheral seas with the largest blooms occurring in the Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, and the Barents Sea during spring. There is large interannual and seasonal variability in biomass with average chlorophyll concentrations in 2002 and 2001 being higher than earlier years in spring and summer. The seasonality in the latitudinal distribution of blooms is also very different such that the North Atlantic is usually most expansive in spring while the North Pacific is more extensive in autumn. Environmental factors that influence phytoplankton growth were examined, and results show relatively high negative correlation with sea ice retreat and strong positive correlation with temperature in early spring. Plankton growth, as indicated by biomass accumulation, in the Arctic and subarctic increases up to a threshold surface temperature of about 276-277 degree K (3-4 degree C) beyond which the concentrations start to decrease suggesting an optimal temperature or nutrient depletion. The correlation with clouds is significant in some areas but negligible in other areas, while the correlations with wind speed and its components are generally weak. The effects of clouds and winds are less predictable with weekly climatologies because of unknown effects of averaging variable and intermittent physical forcing (e.g. over storm event scales with mixing and upwelling of nutrients) and the time scales of acclimation by the phytoplankton.

  2. Wind-sea surface temperature-sea ice relationship in the Chukchi-Beaufort Seas during autumn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Stegall, Steve T.; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2018-03-01

    Dramatic climate changes, especially the largest sea ice retreat during September and October, in the Chukchi-Beaufort Seas could be a consequence of, and further enhance, complex air-ice-sea interactions. To detect these interaction signals, statistical relationships between surface wind speed, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea ice concentration (SIC) were analyzed. The results show a negative correlation between wind speed and SIC. The relationships between wind speed and SST are complicated by the presence of sea ice, with a negative correlation over open water but a positive correlation in sea ice dominated areas. The examination of spatial structures indicates that wind speed tends to increase when approaching the ice edge from open water and the area fully covered by sea ice. The anomalous downward radiation and thermal advection, as well as their regional distribution, play important roles in shaping these relationships, though wind-driven sub-grid scale boundary layer processes may also have contributions. Considering the feedback loop involved in the wind-SST-SIC relationships, climate model experiments would be required to further untangle the underlying complex physical processes.

  3. Nuclear lamins and peripheral nuclear antigens during fertilization and embryogenesis in mice and sea urchins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, G.; Schatten, H.; Simerly, C.; Maul, G. G.; Chaly, N.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear structural changes during fertilization and embryogenesis in mice and sea urchins are traced using four antibodies. The oocytes from virgin female mice, morulae and blastocytes from mated females, and gametes from the sea urchin Lytechnius variegatis are studied using mouse monoclonal antibodies to nuclear lamin A/C, monoclonal antibody to P1, human autoimmune antibodies to lamin A/C, and to lamin B. The mouse fertilization data reveal no lamins on the oocyte; however, lamins are present on the pronuclei, and chromosomes are found on the oocytes and pronuclei. It is detected that on the sea urchin sperm the lamins are reduced to acrosomal and centriolar fossae and peripheral antigens are around the sperm nucleus. The mouse sperm bind lamin antibodies regionally and do not contain antigens. Lamins and antigens are observed on both pronuclei and chromosomes during sea urchin fertilization. Mouse embryogenesis reveals that lamin A/C is not recognized at morula and blastocyst stages; however, lamin B stains are retained. In sea urchin embryogenesis lamin recognition is lost at the blastrula, gastrula, and plutei stages. It is noted that nuclear lamins lost during spermatogenesis are restored at fertilization and peripheral antigens are associated with the surface of chromosomes during meiosis and mitosis and with the periphery of the pronuclei and nuclei during interphase.

  4. Changes in body temperature in king penguins at sea: the result of fine adjustments in peripheral heat loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander; Alard, Frank; Handrich, Yves

    2006-09-01

    To investigate thermoregulatory adjustments at sea, body temperatures (the pectoral muscle and the brood patch) and diving behavior were monitored during a foraging trip of several days at sea in six breeding king penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus. During inactive phases at sea (water temperature: 4-7 degrees C), all tissues measured were maintained at normothermic temperatures. The brood patch temperature was maintained at the same values as those measured when brooding on shore (38 degrees C). This high temperature difference causes a significant loss of heat. We hypothesize that high-energy expenditure associated with elevated peripheral temperature when resting at sea is the thermoregulatory cost that a postabsorptive penguin has to face for the restoration of its subcutaneous body fat. During diving, mean pectoral temperature was 37.6 +/- 1.6 degrees C. While being almost normothermic on average, the temperature of the pectoral muscle was still significantly lower than during inactivity in five out of the six birds and underwent temperature drops of up to 5.5 degrees C. Mean brood patch temperature was 29.6 +/- 2.5 degrees C during diving, and temperature decreases of up to 21.6 degrees C were recorded. Interestingly, we observed episodes of brood patch warming during the descent to depth, suggesting that, in some cases, king penguins may perform active thermolysis using the brood patch. It is hypothesized that functional pectoral temperature may be regulated through peripheral adjustments in blood perfusion. These two paradoxical features, i.e., lower temperature of deep tissues during activity and normothermic peripheral tissues while inactive, may highlight the key to the energetics of this diving endotherm while foraging at sea.

  5. High peripheral temperatures in king penguins while resting at sea: thermoregulation versus fat deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewden, Agnès; Enstipp, Manfred R; Picard, Baptiste; van Walsum, Tessa; Handrich, Yves

    2017-09-01

    Marine endotherms living in cold water face an energetically challenging situation. Unless properly insulated, these animals will lose heat rapidly. The field metabolic rate of king penguins at sea is about twice that on land. However, when at sea, their metabolic rate is higher during extended resting periods at the surface than during foraging, when birds descend to great depth in pursuit of their prey. This is most likely explained by differences in thermal status. During foraging, peripheral vasoconstriction leads to a hypothermic shell, which is rewarmed during extended resting bouts at the surface. Maintaining peripheral perfusion during rest in cold water, however, will greatly increase heat loss and, therefore, thermoregulatory costs. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the maintenance of a normothermic shell during surface rest: (1) to help the unloading of N 2 accumulated during diving; and (2) to allow the storage of fat in subcutaneous tissue, following the digestion of food. We tested the latter hypothesis by maintaining king penguins within a shallow seawater tank, while we recorded tissue temperature at four distinct sites. When king penguins were released into the tank during the day, their body temperature immediately declined. However, during the night, periodic rewarming of abdominal and peripheral tissues occurred, mimicking temperature patterns observed in the wild. Body temperatures, particularly in the flank, also depended on body condition and were higher in 'lean' birds (after 10 days of fasting) than in 'fat' birds. While not explicitly tested, our observation that nocturnal rewarming persists in the absence of diving activity during the day does not support the N 2 unloading hypothesis. Rather, differences in temperature changes throughout the day and night, and the effect of body condition/mass supports the hypothesis that tissue perfusion during rest is required for nutritional needs. © 2017. Published by The Company of

  6. Relationship of the Van Herick Grading System with Peripheral Iris Configuration and Level of Iris Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faisal Aziz; Niazi, Shafaq Pervez Khan; Khan, Assad Zaman

    2017-09-01

    To determine the relationship of the van Herick angle grading system with the level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Observational study. Eye department, Combined Military Hospital, Malir Cantt., Karachi, from May to October 2015. Sixty-five eyes of 65 patients were recruited. Anterior chamber depth at the temporal limbus was measured as a fraction of corneal section thickness using van Herick technique and graded on the standard 4-point scale of the van Herick grading system. Gonioscopy of the temporal quadrant was performed with a Posner 4 mirror goniolens and both the true level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration were recorded on a 4-point scale so as to equate with the van Herick 4-point grading system. Spearman's rho test was applied to determine the relationship of the van Herick grading system with level of iris root insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Amoderate positive correlation between van Herick grade and peripheral iris configuration was found which was statistically significant (rs=0.42, p < 0.001). Astatistically significant and moderate positive correlation was also detected between van Herick grade and the level of iris insertion (rs=0.45, p < 0.001). The van Herick grade has a moderately positive relationship with the peripheral iris configuration and true level of iris insertion.

  7. Relationships between central and peripheral corneal thickness in different degrees of myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Sara; Mena, Laura; Rio-San Cristobal, Ana; Martin, Raul

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between the central corneal thickness (CCT) and mid-peripheral corneal thickness (PCT) with the degree of myopia [axial length (AL) and spherical equivalent refractive error (SE)]. 175 right myopic eyes from 175 patients were divided according to the degree of SE: group #1 (n=76, 12.00 D). The CCT and PCT (3mm from the apex to the superior, inferior, nasal and temporal locations) were measured with the Orbscan-II. Relative peripheral index (RPI) was calculated by dividing the PCT by the CCT. The AL was measured with the IOL Master, and the SE was obtained with subjective refraction. AL was 25.18±1.16 mm, 26.59±1.26 mm and 29.45±2.58 mm and SE was -3.31±1.40 D, -8.32±1.64 D and -16.44±4.48 D for groups #1, #2 and #3, respectively. Non-statistically significant differences in central and peripheral corneal thickness were found between groups (P>0.05 ANOVA). Non-significant relationship was found between central and peripheral corneal thickness with the AL and SE in the three study groups and in the total sample (r0.05). The RPI values were similar between groups without significant difference between groups (P>0.05 ANOVA). Linear relationship was found between RPI superior location in group #2 (r=-0.23; P=0.04) and RPI nasal location in group #3 with the EE (r=0.41; P=0.03). There are no significant differences among low, moderate and extremely myopic eyes related to the CCT and PCT. Corneal thickness is very similar in myopic eyes with small differences that are not clinically relevant to myopic patient management. Copyright © 2012 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. The relationship between the peripheral lung cancer and the bronchi, pulmonary artery and vein: a multislice helical CT observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xueguo; Liang Mingzhu; Chen Cuifen; Qin Peixin; Zhong Guomei; He Yanguo; Liu Xiaobing; Han Mingqun; Yi Xianping; Wang Yong; Zhang Hao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationships between the peripheral lung cancer and pulmonary vessels or bronchi by 16-row multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and analyze the related factors. Methods: Fifty-four patients with peripheral lung cancer confirmed pathologically underwent contrast-enhanced MSCT. Multiplanar reformation (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP) in all patients were used to demonstrate the relationships between the peripheral lung cancer and pulmonary vessels, bronchi. The relationships were categorized five types: Type 1, erupted at the edge of nodule. Type 2, erupted at the center of nodule. Type 3, penetrated through the nodule. Type 4, contacting the nodule but stretched or encased. Type 5, contacting the nodule but smoothly compressed. The pathology type, stage, size, density and location of the peripheral lung cancer were recorded and the relationships with five types were evaluated by using Chi-square test and correlation analysis. Results: (1) Tumor-bronchi relationship: type 1 (33,61.1%) was more often seen in ≥2.0 cm and solid lesions with stage II-IV, while Type 2(14,25.9%) was often seen in < 2.0 cm and part-solid or non-solid lesions with stage I. (2) Tumor-PA relationship: Type 1 was more often seen in ≥2.0 cm and solid lesions with stage II-IV, while Type 2 was often seen in part-solid or non-solid lesions with stage I. (3) Tumor-PV relationship: type 4 was the most common type (29, 53.7%). Type 2 (13, 24.1%) was more often seen in part-solid or non-solid lesions. (4) Tumor-bronchi relationship and tumor-PA relationship had a positive correlation (r0.5265, P<0.01). Conclusions: MSCT can demonstrate the relations between the peripheral lung cancer and bronchi, PA and PV. It is useful for the differential diagnosis and prognosis evaluation of the lung cancer. (authors)

  9. The relationship between oncologists and peripheral hospital radiologists in the north-west of England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bungay, Peter M.; Carrington, Bernadette M.; Corgie, Delphine; Eardley, Anne

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To audit the relationship between Cancer Centre oncologists visiting peripheral hospitals and peripheral hospital radiologists by assessing (i) oncologists' knowledge of local radiological services; (ii) oncologists' perceptions of peripheral radiological services; (iii) peripheral radiologist's perceptions of oncologists; (iv) barriers to communication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A postal questionnaire was sent to all radiology departments visited by an oncologist, and to all medical and clinical oncologists from two regional oncology centres. RESULTS: The response rate was 100% (21 peripheral hospital radiology departments and all 35 oncologists). (i) Oncologists' knowledge of peripheral hospital imaging modalities was limited (especially MRI and intervention). (ii) 72% of oncologists rated the peripheral hospital radiology service as excellent or good, 46% rated the radiology report quality excellent to good. Deficiencies in oncological reports were identified. (iii) 44% of radiologists thought the oncologist did not relate well with the local radiology department. 50% of radiologists did not know the visiting oncologist's specialist interest. (iv) 69% of oncologists did not regularly attend peripheral hospital clinico-radiological meetings. Lack of written and oral information was hampering both specialities. CONCLUSION: Communication between oncologists and the local radiology department should include: (1) information about local radiology services for visiting oncologists (including trainees) and on the oncology team for radiologists; (2) standardized report content; (3) improved clinical information for radiologists; (4) regular clinico-radiological meetings. Bungay, P.M. et al. (2002)

  10. Space-time relationship in continuously moving table method for large FOV peripheral contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabati, M; Lauzon, M L; Frayne, R

    2003-01-01

    Data acquisition using a continuously moving table approach is a method capable of generating large field-of-view (FOV) 3D MR angiograms. However, in order to obtain venous contamination-free contrast-enhanced (CE) MR angiograms in the lower limbs, one of the major challenges is to acquire all necessary k-space data during the restricted arterial phase of the contrast agent. Preliminary investigation on the space-time relationship of continuously acquired peripheral angiography is performed in this work. Deterministic and stochastic undersampled hybrid-space (x, k y , k z ) acquisitions are simulated for large FOV peripheral runoff studies. Initial results show the possibility of acquiring isotropic large FOV images of the entire peripheral vascular system. An optimal trade-off between the spatial and temporal sampling properties was found that produced a high-spatial resolution peripheral CE-MR angiogram. The deterministic sampling pattern was capable of reconstructing the global structure of the peripheral arterial tree and showed slightly better global quantitative results than stochastic patterns. Optimal stochastic sampling patterns, on the other hand, enhanced small vessels and had more favourable local quantitative results. These simulations demonstrate the complex spatial-temporal relationship when sampling large FOV peripheral runoff studies. They also suggest that more investigation is required to maximize image quality as a function of hybrid-space coverage, acquisition repetition time and sampling pattern parameters

  11. The relationship between peripheral intravenous catheter indwell time and the incidence of phlebitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jessica; Tarnow, Karen Gahan; Perucca, Roxanne

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine any relationship between peripheral IV catheter indwell time and phlebitis in hospitalized adults. A retrospective review of quarterly quality assurance data-monitoring indwell time, phlebitis rating, and site and tubing labels-was performed. Of 1,161 sites, only 679 had documented indwell time to use. Average indwell time was 1.9 days, and overall phlebitis rate was 3.7%. Analysis of variance revealed a significant association between phlebitis and indwell time. However, asymptomatic peripheral IVs may not need to be removed at regular intervals because there were healthy, asymptomatic sites with indwell time up to 10 days.

  12. Species-energy relationship in the deep sea: A test using the Quaternary fossil record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, G.; Cronin, T. M.; Roy, K.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the processes regulating species richness in deep-sea communities. Here we take advantage of natural experiments involving climate change to test whether predictions of the species-energy hypothesis hold in the deep sea. In addition, we test for the relationship between temperature and species richness predicted by a recent model based on biochemical kinetics of metabolism. Using the deep-sea fossil record of benthic foraminifera and statistical meta-analyses of temperature-richness and productivity-richness relationships in 10 deep-sea cores, we show that temperature but not productivity is a significant predictor of species richness over the past c. 130 000 years. Our results not only show that the temperature-richness relationship in the deep-sea is remarkably similar to that found in terrestrial and shallow marine habitats, but also that species richness tracks temperature change over geological time, at least on scales of c. 100 000 years. Thus, predicting biotic response to global climate change in the deep sea would require better understanding of how temperature regulates the occurrences and geographical ranges of species. ??2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Relationship between peripheral leptin receptor and leptin in obese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Junjiang; Du Tongxin; Wang Zizheng; Wang Shukui; Huang Min

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between leptin resistance and leptin receptor in obese subjects. Methods: Forty-four individuals undergoing surgery, exclusive of diabetic mellitus, chronic inflammatory and malignant diseases, were divided into 3 groups according to the body mass index (BMI), normal controls (n=15), weight excess (n=14), and obesity group (n=15). Fasting serum leptin were detected via ELISA kits, leptin receptor (Bmax) in peripheral adipose tissues was detected by radioligand assay. Results: Serum leptin levels were higher significantly in weight excess and obesity cases groups (10.3±4.45 and 13.2±3.26 vs 5.51±3.23 μg/L, both P<0.05, respectively) compared with normal control group, suggesting the existence of leptin resistance, while the leptin receptor of the weight excess and obese groups decreased significantly than that of normal control group (36.9 ± 5.89 and 24.3 ± 3.95 vs 76.5 ± 35.3 fmol/mg protein, both P<0.01, respectively), there was no statistical differences for Kd value among three groups. Also, there was a negative correlation between BMI and leptin receptor (r=-0.613, P<0.05), and no significant correlation was found between serum leptin and peripheral leptin receptor. Conclusion: The result suggested that there was expression of leptin receptor in peripheral adipose tissues and low level of leptin receptor expression may contribute to the development of leptin resistance and obesity

  14. Phytoplankton diversity in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea measured by PCR-DGGE and its relationships with environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Yu, Zhigang; Gao, Yahui; Zhou, Qianqian; Zhen, Yu; Chen, Hongtao; Zhao, Liyuan; Yao, Qingzhen; Mi, Tiezhu

    2010-03-01

    Relationships between phytoplankton community composition and environmental variables in the East China Sea (ECS) and Yellow Sea (YS) were investigated using geochemical and molecular microbiology methods. The diversity of phytoplankton was characterized using cultivation-independent PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Groups resulting from unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages clustering of the DGGE profiles showed good consistency with the eco-environmental characteristics of the sea area they belonged to. Additionally, the clustering results based on DGGE fingerprinting and those based on morphological compositions were practically identical. The relationship of phytoplankton diversity to environmental factors was statistically analyzed. Temperature, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), and silicate-Si were found significantly related to the phytoplankton community composition. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was performed to reveal the relationship between community composition and these three environmental factors. Generally, values of the ECS are clearly separated from those of the YS in the CCA biplot, due to mainly the effect of temperature and DIN.

  15. On the relationship between atmospheric circulation and the fluctuations in the sea ice extents of the Bering and Okhotsk Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Parkinson, C. L.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the hemispheric atmospheric circulation on the sea ice covers of the Bering Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk is examined using data obtained with the Nimbus 5 electrically scanning microwave radiometer for the four winters of the 1973-1976 period. The 3-day averaged sea ice extent data were used to establish periods for which there is an out-of-phase relationship between fluctuations of the two ice covers. A comparison of the sea-level atmospheric pressure field with the seasonal, interannual, and short-term sea ice fluctuations reveal an association between changes in the phase and the amplitude of the long waves in the atmosphere and advance and retreat of Arctic ice covers.

  16. The relationship between microvessels density and CT enhancement of the peripheral lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shiyuan; Zhou Kangrong; Xiao Xiangsheng; Ye Tingjun; Zhang Zhiyong

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between microvessel density (MVD), clinical prognosis and CT enhancement of the peripheral lung cancer. Methods: 127 cases of peripheral lung cancer were examined with CT (87 cases retrospectively and 40 cases prospectively), and MVD were measured with immunohistochemical method by factor VIII on the specimens of the resected tumors. The results were analyzed and compared with CT enhancement, metastasis and prognosis. Results: The MVD was higher in the peripheral junction zone and interstitial areas than that in the parenchymal areas and necrotic zones of the tumors. Patients with nodal metastasis had higher MVD than those without nodal metastasis (56.9 +- 18.1 versus 43.8 +- 23.6, P 0.05); but the enhancement of the lung cancer correlated well with MVD (r 0.8874). Conclusions: Measurement of the microvessel density of tumor can determine the degree of angiogenesis of neoplasm and predict the metastasis or prognosis of the lung cancer. Angiogenesis not only constitutes the basis of enhancement of the tumor, but also determine the various degrees and patterns of enhancement. Spiral dynamic CT is the technique ideal to demonstrate the enhancement features, which might be helpful in making differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules

  17. Relationship between sea level and climate forcing by CO2 on geological timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gavin L; Rohling, Eelco J

    2013-01-22

    On 10(3)- to 10(6)-year timescales, global sea level is determined largely by the volume of ice stored on land, which in turn largely reflects the thermal state of the Earth system. Here we use observations from five well-studied time slices covering the last 40 My to identify a well-defined and clearly sigmoidal relationship between atmospheric CO(2) and sea level on geological (near-equilibrium) timescales. This strongly supports the dominant role of CO(2) in determining Earth's climate on these timescales and suggests that other variables that influence long-term global climate (e.g., topography, ocean circulation) play a secondary role. The relationship between CO(2) and sea level we describe portrays the "likely" (68% probability) long-term sea-level response after Earth system adjustment over many centuries. Because it appears largely independent of other boundary condition changes, it also may provide useful long-range predictions of future sea level. For instance, with CO(2) stabilized at 400-450 ppm (as required for the frequently quoted "acceptable warming" of 2 °C), or even at AD 2011 levels of 392 ppm, we infer a likely (68% confidence) long-term sea-level rise of more than 9 m above the present. Therefore, our results imply that to avoid significantly elevated sea level in the long term, atmospheric CO(2) should be reduced to levels similar to those of preindustrial times.

  18. Relationship between peripheral insertion site and catheter-related phlebitis in adult hospitalized patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparcini, Dania; Simonetti, Valentina; Blot, Stijn; Tomietto, Marco; Cicolini, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    To explore the relationship between the anatomical site of peripheral venous catheterization and risk of catheter-related phlebitis. Peripheral venous catheterization is frequently associated with phlebitis. Recent guidelines, recommend the use of an upper-extremity site for catheter insertion but no univocal consensus exists on the anatomical site with lower risk of phlebitis. Systematic review. We searched Medline (PubMed) and CINAHL (EBSCOhost) databases until the end of January 2017. We also reviewed the reference lists of retrieved articles and gray literature was excluded. Searches were limited to articles published in English with no restriction imposed to date of publication. The primary outcome was the incidence of phlebitis associated with anatomical site of peripheral catheterization. We included randomized controlled trials and observational studies on adult patients who required a peripheral catheter for the administration of medi- cation, intermittent or continuous fluid infusion. Antecubital fossa veins are associated with lower phlebitis rates, while hands veins are the most risky sites to develop phlebitis. There is no consensus regarding vein in forearm. Choosing the right anatomical site to insert a peripheral venous catheter is important to decrease phlebitis rate. Further studies should compare indwelling time in different anatomical sites with phlebitis rate. A more standardized approach in defining and assessing phlebitis among studies is recommended.

  19. A little similarity goes a long way: the effects of peripheral but self-revealing similarities on improving and sustaining interracial relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Tessa V; Magee, Joe C; Gordon, Sarah H; Gullett, Lindy

    2014-07-01

    Integrating theory on close relationships and intergroup relations, we construct a manipulation of similarity that we demonstrate can improve interracial interactions across different settings. We find that manipulating perceptions of similarity on self-revealing attributes that are peripheral to the interaction improves interactions in cross-race dyads and racially diverse task groups. In a getting-acquainted context, we demonstrate that the belief that one's different-race partner is similar to oneself on self-revealing, peripheral attributes leads to less anticipatory anxiety than the belief that one's partner is similar on peripheral, nonself-revealing attributes. In another dyadic context, we explore the range of benefits that perceptions of peripheral, self-revealing similarity can bring to different-race interaction partners and find (a) less anxiety during interaction, (b) greater interest in sustained contact with one's partner, and (c) stronger accuracy in perceptions of one's partners' relationship intentions. By contrast, participants in same-race interactions were largely unaffected by these manipulations of perceived similarity. Our final experiment shows that among small task groups composed of racially diverse individuals, those whose members perceive peripheral, self-revealing similarity perform superior to those who perceive dissimilarity. Implications for using this approach to improve interracial interactions across different goal-driven contexts are discussed.

  20. Endogenous peripheral oxytocin measures can give insight into the dynamics of social relationships: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eCrockford

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide, oxytocin, receives increasing attention due to its role in stress regulation and promoting affiliative social behavior. Research across mammals points to a complex pattern whereby social context and individual differences moderate the endogenous release of oxytocin as well as moderate the effects that exogenous administration of oxytocin has on social behavior. In addition to measuring central release of oxytocin or exogenous administration of oxytocin on social behavior, for example via inhalation, it is becoming evident that measuring endogenous peripheral oxytocin levels is an additional, informative tool. This is particularly so when oxytocin can be measured from non-invasively collected samples, such as in urine. Although it is still debated as to whether peripheral measures of oxytocin relate to central measures of oxytocin, anatomical and functional evidence indicate a link between the two. We argue that non-invasive measures of peripheral oxytocin hold several research and potential therapeutic advantages. Principally, study subjects can be sampled repeatedly in different social contexts where social history between interaction partners can be taken into account. Several hormones can be measured simultaneously allowing examination of the influence of oxytocin interactions with other hormones on motivational states. Valence of relationships as well as changes in relationship quality over time can be measured through endocrine responses. Also, the approach of identifying natural social contexts that are associated with endogenous oxytocin release offers the potential of behavioral therapy as an addition or alternative to chemical therapy in the field of mental health.

  1. Long-memory and the sea level-temperature relationship: a fractional cointegration approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventosa-Santaulària, Daniel; Heres, David R; Martínez-Hernández, L Catalina

    2014-01-01

    Through thermal expansion of oceans and melting of land-based ice, global warming is very likely contributing to the sea level rise observed during the 20th century. The amount by which further increases in global average temperature could affect sea level is only known with large uncertainties due to the limited capacity of physics-based models to predict sea levels from global surface temperatures. Semi-empirical approaches have been implemented to estimate the statistical relationship between these two variables providing an alternative measure on which to base potentially disrupting impacts on coastal communities and ecosystems. However, only a few of these semi-empirical applications had addressed the spurious inference that is likely to be drawn when one nonstationary process is regressed on another. Furthermore, it has been shown that spurious effects are not eliminated by stationary processes when these possess strong long memory. Our results indicate that both global temperature and sea level indeed present the characteristics of long memory processes. Nevertheless, we find that these variables are fractionally cointegrated when sea-ice extent is incorporated as an instrumental variable for temperature which in our estimations has a statistically significant positive impact on global sea level.

  2. Inorganic elements in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas): relationships among external and internal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Derek R.; Hooper, Michael J.; Cobb, George P.; Barnes, Melanie; Shaver, Donna; Ertolacci, Shauna; Smith, Philip N.

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic elements from anthropogenic sources have entered marine environments worldwide and are detectable in marine organisms, including sea turtles. Threatened and endangered classifications of sea turtles have heretofore made assessments of contaminant concentrations difficult because of regulatory restrictions on obtaining samples using nonlethal techniques. In the present study, claw and skin biopsy samples were examined as potential indicators of internal tissue burdens in green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas). Significant relationships were observed between claw and liver, and claw and muscle concentrations of mercury, nickel, arsenic, and selenium (p turtles.

  3. Under the sea ice: Exploring the relationship between sea ice and the foraging behaviour of southern elephant seals in East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrousse, Sara; Sallée, Jean-Baptiste; Fraser, Alexander D.; Massom, Robert A.; Reid, Phillip; Sumner, Michael; Guinet, Christophe; Harcourt, Robert; McMahon, Clive; Bailleul, Frédéric; Hindell, Mark A.; Charrassin, Jean-Benoit

    2017-08-01

    Investigating ecological relationships between predators and their environment is essential to understand the response of marine ecosystems to climate variability and change. This is particularly true in polar regions, where sea ice (a sensitive climate variable) plays a crucial yet highly dynamic and variable role in how it influences the whole marine ecosystem, from phytoplankton to top predators. For mesopredators such as seals, sea ice both supports a rich (under-ice) food resource, access to which depends on local to regional coverage and conditions. Here, we investigate sex-specific relationships between the foraging strategies of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) in winter and spatio-temporal variability in sea ice concentration (SIC) and coverage in East Antarctica. We satellite-tracked 46 individuals undertaking post-moult trips in winter from Kerguelen Islands to the peri-Antarctic shelf between 2004 and 2014. These data indicate distinct general patterns of sea ice usage: while females tended to follow the sea ice edge as it extended northward, the males remained on the continental shelf despite increasing sea ice. Seal hunting time, a proxy of foraging activity inferred from the diving behaviour, was longer for females in late autumn in the outer part of the pack ice, ∼150-370 km south of the ice edge. Within persistent regions of compact sea ice, females had a longer foraging activity (i) in the highest sea ice concentration at their position, but (ii) their foraging activity was longer when there were more patches of low concentration sea ice around their position (either in time or in space; 30 days & 50 km). The high spatio-temporal variability of sea ice around female positions is probably a key factor allowing them to exploit these concentrated patches. Despite lack of information on prey availability, females may exploit mesopelagic finfishes and squids that concentrate near the ice-water interface or within the water column (from

  4. Thermal biology of sea snakes and sea kraits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatwole, Harold; Grech, Alana; Monahan, John F; King, Susan; Marsh, Helene

    2012-08-01

    Temperature probably had no direct effect on the evolution of sea kraits within their center of origin, a geologically stable thermal zone straddling the equator, but may have indirectly affected expansions and contractions in distributions beyond that zone through global fluctuations that caused alternation of higher and lower sea levels. The northern limit of the Laticauda colubrina complex seems to be the 20°C isotherm; in the south, the range does not reach that isotherm because there is no land (also a habitat requirement of sea kraits) within the zone of suitable temperature. The relationship of temperature to the pattern of geographic variation in morphology supports either the hypothesis of peripheral convergence or the developmental hypothesis but does not distinguish between them. Quadratic surfaces relating cumulative scores for coloration and morphological characters to global position showed a strong latitudinal component and an even stronger longitudinal one in which the direction of the latitudinal effect was reversed between east and west. A multivariate analysis revealed that while morphological characters vary significantly by location and climate when tested separately, when the influence of location on morphology is taken into account, no residual relationship between climate and morphology remains. Most marine snakes have mean upper temperature tolerances between 39°C and 40°C and operate at temperatures much nearer their upper thermal limits than their lower limits but still avoid deleterious extremes by diving from excessively hot water to deeper, cooler strata, and by surfacing when water is cold. At the surface in still water in sunlight, Pelamis can maintain its body temperature slightly above that of the water, but whether this is significant in nature is questionable. As temperature falls below 18-20°C, survival time is progressively reduced, accompanied by the successive occurrence of cessation of feeding, cessation of swimming, and

  5. Relationship between apparent diffusion coefficients at 3.0-T MR imaging and Gleason grade in peripheral zone prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hambrock, T.; Somford, D.M.; Huisman, H.J.; Oort, I.M. van; Witjes, J.A.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A.; Scheenen, T.W.J.; Barentsz, J.O.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To retrospectively determine the relationship between apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) obtained with 3.0-T diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and Gleason grades in peripheral zone prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The requirement to obtain institutional

  6. Determining the pattern of cementum annuli and relationship to reproduction in male sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper, Josh; von Biela, Vanessa R.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, the southwestern Alaskan sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population has declined dramatically and the cause has yet to be determined. Population trajectories of large mammals are determined by three factors: survival rate, reproduction rate, and age of first reproduction (AFR). Of these three, AFR should respond first to environmental change. Life history theory predicts that AFR will be older with bottom-up causes (ie, food limitation) and younger when the cause of the decline is top-down (ie, predation), as there is usually abundant resources in this scenario. Traditionally, determining AFR required lethal sampling, which may not always be possible. Work on many mammalian species suggests that the width of annual cementum layers in teeth may decline when breeding begins. If so, examining teeth annuli may provide a nonlethal alternative for determining AFR. Ongoing research has shown this relationship in female sea otters, but male sea otters have not been tested. Sea otter testes and premolar teeth slides were collected by subsistence hunters working with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Alaska Sea Otter and Steller Sea Lion Commission from Alaska (1994– 2005). We determined the pattern in cementum annuli thickness for male sea otters across age by measuring annuli at three sites on each of the two slide sections available. We found that cementum annuli layers decreased with age, but found no correlation between cementum annuli and sexual maturity in male sea otters. This lack of correlation may be due to sampling error or different energy expenditures during reproduction for each sex. Since females expend large amounts of energy through gestation and lactation, we hypothesize that the width of female cementum annuli decreases at a much sharper rate when they reach AFR.The southwest Alaskan sea otter population has plummeted up to 90% since the early 1990s and the reason is unknown.1 Declines may be due to a bottom-up source caused by

  7. Relationships between sea-bed radionuclide activities and some sedimentological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligero, R.A.; Ramos-Lerate, I.; Barrera, M.; Casas-Ruiz, M.

    2001-01-01

    Natural radionuclides ( 232 Th, 226 Ra, 40 K) and 137 Cs, coming from atmospheric radioactive fallout, have been measured in sea-bed sediments of the Bay of Cadiz (South Western Spain). In this report, multivariate analysis methods have been employed to study the relationships between the activities of the radionuclides and some sedimentological variables like granulometric facies, organic content and apparent density. The correlation functions found show that it is possible to determine, with a satisfactory degree of approximation, the granulometric facies of the sediments using only radiometric information

  8. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c ) and fasting plasma glucose relationships in sea-level and high-altitude settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazo-Alvarez, J C; Quispe, R; Pillay, T D; Bernabé-Ortiz, A; Smeeth, L; Checkley, W; Gilman, R H; Málaga, G; Miranda, J J

    2017-06-01

    Higher haemoglobin levels and differences in glucose metabolism have been reported among high-altitude residents, which may influence the diagnostic performance of HbA 1c . This study explores the relationship between HbA 1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in populations living at sea level and at an altitude of > 3000 m. Data from 3613 Peruvian adults without a known diagnosis of diabetes from sea-level and high-altitude settings were evaluated. Linear, quadratic and cubic regression models were performed adjusting for potential confounders. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and concordance between HbA 1c and FPG was assessed using a Kappa index. At sea level and high altitude, means were 13.5 and 16.7 g/dl (P > 0.05) for haemoglobin level; 41 and 40 mmol/mol (5.9% and 5.8%; P < 0.01) for HbA 1c ; and 5.8 and 5.1 mmol/l (105 and 91.3 mg/dl; P < 0.001) for FPG, respectively. The adjusted relationship between HbA 1c and FPG was quadratic at sea level and linear at high altitude. Adjusted models showed that, to predict an HbA 1c value of 48 mmol/mol (6.5%), the corresponding mean FPG values at sea level and high altitude were 6.6 and 14.8 mmol/l (120 and 266 mg/dl), respectively. An HbA 1c cut-off of 48 mmol/mol (6.5%) had a sensitivity for high FPG of 87.3% (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 76.5 to 94.4) at sea level and 40.9% (95% CI 20.7 to 63.6) at high altitude. The relationship between HbA 1c and FPG is less clear at high altitude than at sea level. Caution is warranted when using HbA 1c to diagnose diabetes mellitus in this setting. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  9. Caribbean Sea rainfall variability during the rainy season and relationship to the equatorial Pacific and tropical Atlantic SST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Renguang [Institute of Global Environment and Society, Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, Calverton, MD (United States); Kirtman, Ben P. [University of Miami, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Miami, FL (United States)

    2011-10-15

    The present study investigates the Caribbean Sea rainfall variability during the early and late rainy seasons and its association with sea surface temperature (SST) and air-sea interaction based on observational estimates, the NCEP Climate Forecast System (CFS) and Global Forecast System (GFS) simulations, and the CFS retrospective forecasts. Analysis of the observational estimates indicates that air-sea interaction is important over the Caribbean Sea, whereas the atmospheric forcing of SST dominates over the Gulf of Mexico. The CFS simulation captures the basic elements of this observed air-sea relationship. The GFS simulation produces spurious SST forcing of the atmosphere over the Gulf of Mexico largely due to prescribing SST. The CFS forecasts capture the air-sea relationship in the late rainy season (August-October), but cannot reproduce the SST forcing of atmosphere over the Caribbean Sea in the early rainy season (May-July). An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis indicates that the leading modes of percent anomalies of the rainy season precipitation have the largest loading in the southern Caribbean Sea in observations. The model simulations and forecasts skillfully reproduce the spatial pattern, but not the temporal evolution. The Caribbean Sea rainfall variability in the early rainy season is mainly due to the tropical North Atlantic (TNA) SST anomalies in observations, is contributed by both the TNA and eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) SST anomalies in the CFS simulation, and has an overly large impact from the EEP SST anomalies in the GFS simulation and the CFS forecasts. The observed Caribbean Sea rainfall variability in the late rainy season has a leading impact from the EEP SST anomalies, with a secondary contribution from the TNA SST anomalies. In comparison, the model simulations and forecasts overestimate the impacts of the EEP SST anomalies due to an earlier development and longer duration of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation in the CFS

  10. Variation in the biochemical response to l-thyroxine therapy and relationship with peripheral thyroid hormone conversion efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Midgley, John E M; Larisch, Rolf; Dietrich, Johannes W; Hoermann, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Several influences modulate biochemical responses to a weight-adjusted levothyroxine (l-T4) replacement dose. We conducted a secondary analysis of the relationship of l-T4 dose to TSH and free T3 (FT3), using a prospective observational study examining the interacting equilibria between thyroid parameters. We studied 353 patients on steady-state l-T4 replacement for autoimmune thyroiditis or after surgery for malignant or benign thyroid disease. Peripheral deiodinase activity was calculated a...

  11. Relationships between in vitro lymphoproliferative responses and levels of contaminants in blood of free-ranging adult harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) from the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, Aurélie; Siebert, Ursula; Covaci, Adrian; Weijs, Liesbeth; Eppe, Gauthier; Debier, Cathy; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire; Das, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Blood samples were taken from adult harbour seals in good body condition. •Trace element and POP levels, as well as haematological parameters were determined. •Peripheral blood leucocytes were isolated from the same blood samples. •The in vitro lymphocyte stimulation indices were calculated. •No clear correlation between the lymphocyte stimulation indices and pollutants could be highlighted. -- Abstract: In vitro culture of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) is currently used in toxicological studies of marine mammals. However, blood cells of wild individuals are exposed in vivo to environmental contaminants before being isolated and exposed to contaminants in vitro. The aim of this study was to highlight potential relationships between blood contaminant levels and in vitro peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation in free-ranging adult harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) from the North Sea. Blood samples of 18 individuals were analyzed for trace elements (Fe, Zn, Se, Cu, Hg, Pb, Cd) and persistent organic contaminants and metabolites (ΣPCBs, ΣHO-PCBs, ΣPBDEs, 2-MeO-BDE68 and 6-MeO-BDE47, ΣDDXs, hexachlorobenzene, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, pentachlorophenol and tribromoanisole). The same samples were used to determine the haematology profiles, cell numbers and viability, as well as the in vitro ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation expressed as a stimulation index (SI). Correlation tests (Bravais-Pearson) and Principal Component Analysis with multiple regression revealed no statistically significant relationship between the lymphocyte SI and the contaminants studied. However, the number of lymphocytes per millilitre of whole blood appeared to be negatively correlated to pentachlorophenol (r = −0.63, p = 0.005). In adult harbour seals, the interindividual variations of in vitro lymphocyte proliferation did not appear to be directly linked to pollutant levels present in the blood, and it is likely that other factors such as age, life

  12. The Volcanic Myths of the Red Sea - Temporal Relationship Between Magmatism and Rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockli, D. F.; Bosworth, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Cenozoic Red Sea is one of the premier examples of continental rifting and active break-up. It has been cited as an example for both prototypical volcanic, pure shear rift systems with limited crustal stretching as well as magma-poor simple-shear rifting and highly asymmetric rift margins characterized by low-angle normal faults. In light of voluminous Oligocene continental flood basalts in the Afar/Ethiopian region, the Red Sea has often been viewed as a typical volcanic rift, despite evidence for asymmetric extension and hyperextended crust (Zabargad Island). An in-depth analysis of the timing, spatial distribution, and nature of Red Sea volcanism and its relationship to late Cenozoic extensional faulting should shed light on some of the misconceptions. The Eocene appearance of the East African super-plume was not accompanied by any recognized significant extensional faulting or rift-basin formation. The first phase of volcanism more closely associated with the Red Sea occurred in northern Ethiopia and western Yemen at 31-30 Ma and was synchronous with the onset of continental extension in the Gulf of Aden. Early Oligocene volcanism has also been documented in southern and central Saudi Arabia and southern Sudan. However, this voluminous Oligocene volcanism entirely predates Red Sea extensional faulting and rift formation. Marking the onset of Red Sea rifting, widespread, spatially synchronous intrusion of basaltic dikes occurred at 24-21 Ma along the entire Red Sea-Gulf of Suez rift and continuing into northern Egypt. While the initiation of lithospheric extension in the central and northern and central Red Sea and Gulf of Suez was accompanied by only sparse basaltic volcanism and possible underplating, the main phase of rifting in the Miocene Red Sea/Gulf of Suez completely lacks any significant rift-related volcanism, suggesting plate-boundary forces probably drove overall separation of Arabia from Africa. During progressive rifting, there is also no

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of Scomberomorus commerson using sequence analysis of the mtDNA D-loop region in the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mansourkiaei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Narrow-barred Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus commerson, is an epipelagic and migratory species of family Scombridae which have a significant role in terms of ecology and fishery. 100 samples were collected from the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea. Part of their dorsal fins was snipped and transferred to micro-tubes containing ethanol; then, DNAs were extracted and HRM-Real Time PCR was performed to designate representative specimens for sequencing. Phylogenetic relationships of S. commerson from Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea were investigated using sequence data of mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. None clustered Neighbor Joining tree indicated the proximity amid S. commerson in four sites. As numbers demonstrated in sequence analyses of mitochondrial DNA D-Loop region a sublimely high degree of genetic similarity among S. commerson from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea were perceived, thereafter, having one stock structure of S. commerson in four regions were proved, and this approximation can be merely justified by their migration process along the coasts of Oman Sea and Persian Gulf. Therefore, the assessment of distribution patterns of 20 haplotypes in the constructed phylogenetic tree using mtDNA D-Loop sequences ascertained that no significant clustering according to the sampling sites was concluded.

  14. Relationship of peripheral blood TLRs and Tespa1 expression levels with cytokines and oxidative stress in patients with chronic urticarial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship of peripheral blood TLRs and Tespa1 expression levels with cytokines and oxidative stress in patients with chronic urticaria. Methods: A total of 68 patients who were diagnosed with chronic urticaria and treated in Songzi People’s Hospital clinic between June 2014 and April 2017 were selected as the CU group of the research, and 80 healthy volunteers who received physical examination were selected as the control group. TLR2, TLR7 and Tespa1 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells as well as the levels of Th1/Th2 cytokines and oxidative stress indexes in serum were detected. Results: TLR2 and TLR7 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of CU group were significantly higher than those of control group while Tespa1 mRNA expression was significantly lower than that of control group. Serum IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, T-AOC, SOD and GSH-Px levels of CU group were significantly lower than those of control group, negatively correlated with peripheral blood TLR2 and TLR7 mRNA expression, and positively correlated with Tespa1 mRNA expression; serum IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-31 and MDA levels were significantly higher than those of control group, positively correlated with peripheral blood TLR2 and TLR7 mRNA expression, and negatively correlated with Tespa1 mRNA expression. Conclusions: The changes in peripheral blood TLR2, TLR7 and Tespa1 expression in patients with chronic urticaria can cause the changes in Th1/Th2 immune response and the activation of oxidative stress.

  15. Method of decommissioning nuclear reactor building by utilizing sea water buyoancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwashima, Sumio; Ogoshi, Shigeru; Kobari, Shin-ichi.

    1989-01-01

    Upon dismantling nuclear reactor buildings, peripheral yards are excavated and channels leading to sea shore are formed. Since the outer walls of the reactor buildings are made of iron-reinforced concretes, the opening poritons are grouted with concretes to attain a tightly such closed structure that radioactive wastes, etc. in the inside are not flown out upon reactor discommisioning. Peripheral buildings at relatively low level of radiation contaminations are dismantled and withdrawn. The fundations of the nuclear reactor buildings were dug out and jacked to separate base rocks and the reactor buildings. Then, sea water is introduced into the water channels to entirely float up the buildings. A water gate is disposed in the water channel on the side of sea shore to control the level of sea water. The buildings are moved and guided to the sea shore and towed to a site optimum as a permanent storage area and then burried in that place. The operation period for the discommissioning work can greatly be shortened and the radiation dose and the amount of the wastes can be reduced. (T.M.)

  16. Influence of dose-time relationship on the pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogelnik, H.D.; Vienna Univ.

    1977-01-01

    The development of peripheral neutopathies of cranial nerves and of the brachial plexus following curative doses of irradiation is closely related with the total dose applied, the number and size of the individual doses per fraction and the overall time. Additional important factors for the occurrence of these late complications are the volume of tissue irradiated and the stage of disease. In the pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathy a combined effect of different factors seems likely. (orig.) [de

  17. Inuit and Scientific Perspectives on the Relationship Between Sea Ice and Climate Change. The Ideal Complement?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laidler, G.J. [Department of Geography, University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road North, Mississauga, Ontario, L5L 1C6 (Canada)

    2006-10-15

    Sea ice is influential in regulating energy exchanges between the ocean and the atmosphere, and has figured prominently in scientific studies of climate change and climate feedbacks. However, sea ice is also a vital component of everyday life in Inuit communities of the circumpolar Arctic. Therefore, it is important to understand the links between the potential impacts of climate change on Arctic sea ice extent, distribution, and thickness as well as the related consequences for northern coastal populations. This paper explores the relationship between sea ice and climate change from both scientific and Inuit perspectives. Based on an overview of diverse literature the experiences, methods, and goals which differentiate local and scientific sea ice knowledge are examined. These efforts are considered essential background upon which to develop more accurate assessments of community vulnerability to climate, and resulting sea ice, change. Inuit and scientific perspectives may indeed be the ideal complement when investigating the links between sea ice and climate change, but effective and appropriate conceptual bridges need to be built between the two types of expertise. The complementary nature of these knowledge systems may only be realized, in a practical sense, if significant effort is expended to: (1) understand sea ice from both Inuit and scientific perspectives, along with their underlying differences; (2) investigate common interests or concerns; (3) establish meaningful and reciprocal research partnerships with Inuit communities; (4) engage in, and improve, collaborative research methods; and, (5) maintain ongoing dialogue.

  18. Seasonal variation in chromophoric dissolved organic matter and relationships among fluorescent components, absorption coefficients and dissolved organic carbon in the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-Zhuo; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Gui-Peng

    2018-04-01

    The absorption coefficient and fluorescent components of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Bohai Sea (BS), Yellow Sea (YS), and East China Sea (ECS) in spring and autumn were analyzed in this study. Excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) identified three components, namely, humic-like C1, tyrosine-like C2 and tryptophan-like C3. The seasonal variations in the vertical patterns of the CDOM absorption coefficient (aCDOM(355)) and fluorescent components were influenced by the seasonal water mass except for the terrestrial input. The relationship between aCDOM(355) and dissolved organic matter (DOC) was attributed to their own mixing behavior. The correlation of the fluorescent components with DOC was disturbed by other non-conservative processes during the export of CDOM to the open ocean. The different chemical compositions and origins of DOC and CDOM led to variability in carbon-specific CDOM absorption (a*CDOM(355)) and fluorescent component ratios (ICn/IC1). The relationship between a*CDOM(355) and aCDOM(355) demonstrated that dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the BS, but not in the ECS, highly contributed non-absorbing DOC to the total DOC concentration. The photodegradation of dominant terrestrially derived CDOM in the ECS contributed to the positive relationship between a*CDOM(355) and ICn/IC1. By contrast, the abundant autochthonous CDOM in the YS was negatively correlated with ICn/IC1 in autumn. Our established box models showed that water exchange is a potentially important source of the aromatic components in the BS, YS, and ECS. Hence, the seasonal variations in water exchange might contribute to the variability of CDOM chemical composition in the BS, YS, and ECS, and significantly influence the structure and function of their ecosystems.

  19. Relationship of Inflammatory Biomarkers with Severity of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiro Igari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The pentraxin family, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, serum amyloid P (SAP, and pentraxin 3 (PTX3, has been identified as playing a key role in inflammatory reactions such as in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we examined the relationship between peripheral arterial disease (PAD and serum levels of pentraxins. Methods. This study was undertaken via a retrospective review of PAD patients with surgical intervention for lesions of the common femoral artery. We evaluated the preoperative patient conditions, hemodynamic status, such as ankle brachial index (ABI, and clinical ischemic conditions according to Rutherford classification. Preoperatively, we collected blood samples for determining the serum levels of hs-CRP, SAP, and PTX3. Results. Twelve PAD patients with common femoral arterial lesions were treated and examined. The hemodynamic severity of PAD was not negatively correlated with hs-CRP, SAP, or PTX3. The clinical severity evaluated by Rutherford classification was significantly positively correlated with the serum level of PTX3 (p=0.019. Conclusion. We demonstrated that PTX3 might be a better marker of PAD than hs-CRP and SAP. Furthermore, PTX3 might be a prognostic marker to evaluate the severity of PAD.

  20. Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in long-term time series and palaeoecological records: deep sea as a test bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Doi, Hideyuki; Wei, Chih-Lin; Danovaro, Roberto; Myhre, Sarah E

    2016-05-19

    The link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) over long temporal scales is poorly understood. Here, we investigate biological monitoring and palaeoecological records on decadal, centennial and millennial time scales from a BEF framework by using deep sea, soft-sediment environments as a test bed. Results generally show positive BEF relationships, in agreement with BEF studies based on present-day spatial analyses and short-term manipulative experiments. However, the deep-sea BEF relationship is much noisier across longer time scales compared with modern observational studies. We also demonstrate with palaeoecological time-series data that a larger species pool does not enhance ecosystem stability through time, whereas higher abundance as an indicator of higher ecosystem functioning may enhance ecosystem stability. These results suggest that BEF relationships are potentially time scale-dependent. Environmental impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning may be much stronger than biodiversity impacts on ecosystem functioning at long, decadal-millennial, time scales. Longer time scale perspectives, including palaeoecological and ecosystem monitoring data, are critical for predicting future BEF relationships on a rapidly changing planet. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Second regional plasmapheresis conference and workshop for Southeast Asia (SEA) on the immunomodulatory role of plasma exchange in central and peripheral nervous system disorders, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 9th December 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Shanthi; Hung, Stefanie Kar Yan; Goyal, Vinay; Apiwattanakul, Metha; Thirugnanam, Umapathi N; Abdullah, Suhailah; Aye, Seinn Mya Mya; Ohnmar, Ohnmar; Si, Le Tri; Keosodsay, Saysavath; Estiasari, Riwanti; Khalife, Najib; Hiew, Fu Liong

    2018-04-06

    In December 2017, 79 delegates attended the 2nd regional plasmapheresis conference and workshop for Southeast Asia (SEA) on the immunomodulatory role of plasma exchange in central and peripheral nervous system disorders in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This meeting featured 6 plenary lectures, interactive sessions dedicated for experience sharing, case presentations, and a practical session for paramedics. Clinical experts and researchers from 7 SEA countries and India shared experience and challenges in treating autoimmune neurological disorders. While the spectrum of diseases and neurology practice remained largely similar, there was great disparities in accessibility of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) within SEA countries and between urban or rural settings. Costs, human resources, and healthcare policies are common challenges in providing sustainable TPE services. Novel techniques and innovative ideas in performing TPE were explored. A working consortium comprising of key opinion leaders was proposed to improve standards of TPE and enhance future research. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. [Peripheral retinal degenerations--treatment recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussen, A M; Kirchhof, B

    2004-10-01

    This report reviews the clinical appearance of degenerative diseases of the peripheral retina in relationship to the risk of developing a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. We present recommendations for preventive treatment in eyes at increased risk of developing retinal detachment. Retinal degenerations are common lesions involving the peripheral retina but most of them are clinically insignificant. Lattice degeneration, degenerative retinoschisis, cystic retinal tufts, and very rarely zonular traction tufts can result in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Therefore, these lesions have been considered for prophylactic treatment; however, adequate studies have not been performed to date. Most of the peripheral retinal degenerations may not require treatment except in rare, high-risk situations. According to current knowledge there is no higher incidence of secondary pucker or other side effects after laser coagulation. Therefore, generous laser indication is recommended if risk factors apply.

  3. Organic carbon and nitrogen in the surface sediments of world oceans and seas: distribution and relationship to bottom topography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1980-06-01

    Information dealing with the distribution of organic carbon and nitrogen in the top sediments of world oceans and seas has been gathered and evaluated. Based on the available information a master chart has been constructed which shows world distribution of sedimentary organic matter in the oceans and seas. Since organic matter exerts an influence upon the settling properties of fine inorganic particles, e.g. clay minerals and further, the interaction between organic matter and clay minerals is maximal, a relationship between the overall bottom topography and the distribution of clay minerals and organic matter should be observable on a worldwide basis. Initial analysis of the available data indicates that such a relationship does exist and its significance is discussed.

  4. Live Entertainment in a Fairytale Art-Peripheral Tourist Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila EL-Mahgary

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a multidisciplinary study in which the different fields of musicology, social sciences and children’s ‘fairytale’ literature blend together. The interest in this topic came from a lack of attention in past studies on the art-peripheral performers’ and audiences’ experiences with the more popular form of entertainment in art-peripheral tourist settings. Another fundamental purpose for this research is to explore the important role of the art-peripheral ‘fairytale’ settings in transforming the different groups of hosts’ and guests’ everyday rational characters and performances, as they transgress from their cultural norms, and move through the liminal spaces of the sea. Consequently, new identities in Hurghada’s hotels’ fairytale scenes are being formed, and which are the outcome of localized and western, cultural, political, economic, and social constructions. The empirical method in this study puts emphasis on the texts of classical fairytale stories, which are used as an architextual model developed in the course of earlier research undertaken by the author. It is also well worth mentioning, that Hurghada’s art-peripheral hotel settings generate cultural tourism from the simple consumption of entertainment and popular music.

  5. Sea level variability at Adriatic coast and its relationship to atmospheric forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergant, K. [Centre for Atmospheric Research, Nova Gorica Polytechnic, Nova Gorica (Slovenia); Susnik, M.; Strojan, I. [Dept. of Hydrology, Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Shaw, A.G.P. [James Rennel Div., National Oceanography Centre, Empress Dock, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Sea level (SLH) variability at the Adriatic coast was investigated for the period 1872-2001 using monthly average values of observations at 13 tide gauge stations. Linear trends and seasonal cycles were investigated first and removed afterwards from the data. Empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis was used further on remaining anomalies (SLA) to extract the regional intermonthly variability of SLH. It was found that the leading EOF and its principal component (PC) explain a major part of SLA variability (92%). The correlation between the reconstructed SLA, based on leading EOF and its PC, and overlapping observed SLA values for selected tide gauge stations is between 0.93 and 0.99. Actual SLH values at tide gauge stations can be reconstructed and some gaps in the data can be filled in on the basis of estimated SLA values if reasonable estimates of long-term trends and seasonal cycles are also available. A strong, seasonally dependent relationship between SLA at the Adriatic coast and atmospheric forcing, represented by sea level pressure (SLP) fields, was also found. Comparing the time series of leading PC and gridded SLP data for the period 1948-2001, the highest correlation coefficients (r) of -0.92 in winter, -0.84 in spring, -0.66 in summer, and -0.91 in autumn were estimated for a SLP grid point located in northern Italy. The SLP variability on this grid point contains information about the isostatic response of the sea level at the Adriatic coast, but can also be treated as a sort of teleconnection index representing the large-scale SLP variability across central and southern Europe. To some extent the large-scale SLP variability that affects the SLA at the Adriatic coast can be related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), because significant correlations were found between the NAO index and the first PC of SLA (r{sub winter}=-0.56, r{sub spring}=-0.45, r{sub summer}=-0.48, and r{sub autumn}=-0.43) for the period 1872-2001. The use of partial least

  6. The relationship between genus richness and geographic area in Late Cretaceous marine biotas: epicontinental sea versus open-ocean-facing settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J Lagomarcino

    Full Text Available For present-day biotas, close relationships have been documented between the number of species in a given region and the area of the region. To date, however, there have been only limited studies of these relationships in the geologic record, particularly for ancient marine biotas. The recent development of large-scale marine paleontological databases, in conjunction with enhanced geographical mapping tools, now allow for their investigation. At the same time, there has been renewed interest in comparing the environmental and paleobiological properties of two broad-scale marine settings: epicontinental seas, broad expanses of shallow water covering continental areas, and open-ocean-facing settings, shallow shelves and coastlines that rim ocean basins. Recent studies indicate that spatial distributions of taxa and the kinetics of taxon origination and extinction may have differed in these two settings. Against this backdrop, we analyze regional Genus-Area Relationships (GARs of Late Cretaceous marine invertebrates in epicontinental sea and open-ocean settings using data from the Paleobiology Database. We present a new method for assessing GARs that is particularly appropriate for fossil data when the geographic distribution of these data is patchy and uneven. Results demonstrate clear relationships between genus richness and area for regions worldwide, but indicate that as area increases, genus richness increases more per unit area in epicontinental seas than in open-ocean settings. This difference implies a greater degree of compositional heterogeneity as a function of geographic area in epicontinental sea settings, a finding that is consistent with the emerging understanding of physical differences in the nature of water masses between the two marine settings.

  7. Changes in Greenland’s peripheral glaciers linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, A. A.; Aagaard, S.; Lütt, A.

    2018-01-01

    Glaciers and ice caps peripheral to the main Greenland Ice Sheet contribute markedly to sea-level rise1,2,3. Their changes and variability, however, have been difficult to quantify on multi-decadal timescales due to an absence of long-term data4. Here, using historical aerial surveys, expedition...

  8. Atomic resolution view into the structure–function relationships of the human myelin peripheral membrane protein P2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruskamo, Salla [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Yadav, Ravi P. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (CSSB-HZI), German Electron Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Sharma, Satyan; Lehtimäki, Mari [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Laulumaa, Saara [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (CSSB-HZI), German Electron Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Aggarwal, Shweta; Simons, Mikael [Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine, Göttingen (Germany); Bürck, Jochen; Ulrich, Anne S. [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Juffer, André H. [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Kursula, Inari [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (CSSB-HZI), German Electron Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kursula, Petri, E-mail: petri.kursula@oulu.fi [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (CSSB-HZI), German Electron Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); University of Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    The structure of the human myelin peripheral membrane protein P2 has been refined at 0.93 Å resolution. In combination with functional experiments in vitro, in vivo and in silico, the fine details of the structure–function relationships in P2 are emerging. P2 is a fatty acid-binding protein expressed in vertebrate peripheral nerve myelin, where it may function in bilayer stacking and lipid transport. P2 binds to phospholipid membranes through its positively charged surface and a hydrophobic tip, and accommodates fatty acids inside its barrel structure. The structure of human P2 refined at the ultrahigh resolution of 0.93 Å allows detailed structural analyses, including the full organization of an internal hydrogen-bonding network. The orientation of the bound fatty-acid carboxyl group is linked to the protonation states of two coordinating arginine residues. An anion-binding site in the portal region is suggested to be relevant for membrane interactions and conformational changes. When bound to membrane multilayers, P2 has a preferred orientation and is stabilized, and the repeat distance indicates a single layer of P2 between membranes. Simulations show the formation of a double bilayer in the presence of P2, and in cultured cells wild-type P2 induces membrane-domain formation. Here, the most accurate structural and functional view to date on P2, a major component of peripheral nerve myelin, is presented, showing how it can interact with two membranes simultaneously while going through conformational changes at its portal region enabling ligand transfer.

  9. Relationships between inherent optical properties in the Baltic Sea for application to the underwater imaging problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Sagan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Statistical relationships between coefficients of light attenuation, scattering and backscattering at wavelength 550 nm derived from series of optical measurements performed in Baltic Sea waters are presented. The relationships were derived primarily to support data analysis from underwater imaging systems. Comparison of these relations with analogous empirical data from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans shows that the two sets of relationships are similar, despite the different water types and the various experimental procedures and instrumentation applied. The apparently universal character of the relationships enables an approximate calculation of other optical properties and subsequently of the contrast, signal/noise ratio, visibility range and spatial resolution of underwater imaging systems based on attenuation coefficients at wavelength 550 nm only.

  10. The relationship between sea ice bacterial community structure and biogeochemistry: A synthesis of current knowledge and known unknowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff S. Bowman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sea ice plays an important role in high latitude biogeochemical cycles, ecosystems, and climate. A complete understanding of how sea ice biogeochemistry contributes to these processes must take into account the metabolic functions of the sea ice bacterial community. While the roles of sea ice bacteria in the carbon cycle and sea ice microbial loop are evidenced by high rates of bacterial production (BP, their metabolic diversity extends far beyond heterotrophy, and their functionality encompasses much more than carbon turnover. Work over the last three decades has identified an active role for sea ice bacteria in phosphate and nitrogen cycling, mutualistic partnerships with ice algae, and even prokaryotic carbon fixation. To better understand the role of sea ice bacteria in the carbon cycle the existing sea ice BP and primary production data were synthesized. BP in sea ice was poorly correlated with primary production, but had a strong, variable relationship with chlorophyll a, with a positive correlation below 50 mg chlorophyll a m-3 and a negative correlation above this value. These results concur with previous work suggesting that BP can be inhibited by grazing or the production of bacteriostatic compounds. To extend existing observations and predictions of other community functions a metabolic inference technique was used on the available 16S rRNA gene data. This analysis provided taxonomic support for some observed metabolic processes, as well as underexplored processes such as sulfur oxidation and nitrogen fixation. The decreasing spatial and temporal extent of sea ice, and altered timing of ice formation and melt, are likely to impact the structure and function of sea ice bacterial communities. An adequate modeling framework and studies that can resolve the functional dynamics of the sea ice bacterial community, such as community gene expression studies, are urgently needed to predict future change.

  11. Relationship between the colored dissolved organic matter and dissolved organic carbon and the application on remote sensing in East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiong, Liu; Pan, Delu; Huang, Haiqing; Lu, Jianxin; Zhu, Qiankun

    2011-11-01

    A cruise was conducted in the East China Sea (ECS) in autumn 2010 to collect Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) samples. The distribution of DOC mainly controlled by the hydrography since the relationship between DOC and salinity was significant in both East China Sea. The biological activity had a significant influence on the concentration of DOC with a close correlation between DOC and Chl a. The absorption coefficient of CDOM (a355) decreased with the salinity increasing in the shelf of East China Sea (R2=0.9045). CDOM and DOC were significantly correlated in ECS where DOC distribution was dominated largely by the Changjiang diluted water. Based on the relationship of CDOM and DOC, we estimated the DOC concentration of the surface in ECS from satellite-derived CDOM images. Some deviations induced by the biological effect and related marine DOC accumulations were discussed.

  12. Mobility-Related Consequences of Reduced Lower-Extremity Peripheral Nerve Function with Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ward, Rachel E; Caserotti, P.; Cauley, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    -dwelling and institutionalized residents, 1 from a range of residential locations, and 1 of patients with peripheral arterial disease. Mean ages ranged from 71-82 years. Nerve function was assessed by vibration threshold (n=2); sensory measures and clinical signs and symptoms of neuropathy (n=2); motor nerve conduction (n=1......The objective of this study is to systematically review the relationship between lower-extremity peripheral nerve function and mobility in older adults. The National Library of Medicine (PubMed) was searched on March 23, 2015 with no limits on publication dates. One reviewer selected original...... research studies of older adults (>= 65 years) that assessed the relationship between lower-extremity peripheral nerve function and mobility-related outcomes. Participants, study design and methods of assessing peripheral nerve impairment were evaluated and results were reported and synthesized. Eight...

  13. SEA and planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoeglehner, G.; Brown, A.L.; Kørnøv, Lone

    2009-01-01

    , and the relationship of the SEA to the planning activity itself. This paper focuses on the influence that planners have in these implementation processes, postulating the hypothesis that these are key players in achieving effectiveness in SEA. Based upon implementation theory and empirical experience, the paper......As the field of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has matured, the focus has moved from the development of legislation, guidelines and methodologies towards improving the effectiveness of SEA. Measuring and of course achieving effectiveness is both complex and challenging. This paper...

  14. New Fisheries-related data from the Mediterranean Sea (November, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ANASTASOPOULOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this fourth Collective Article, with fisheries-related data from the Mediterranean, we present weight-length relationships for eight deep-sea fish species (Brama brama, Conger conger, Etmopterus spinax, Molva macrophthalma, Mora moro, Pagellus bogaraveo, Phycis blennoides from the Eastern Ionian Sea; Scyliorhinus canicula from various locations in the Mediterranean Sea and weight-length relationships and condition factor of five Mugilidae species (Liza aurata, Liza saliens, Liza ramada, Mugil cephalus, Chelon labrosus from a Mediterranean lagoon in the Ionian Sea. Moreover, we present otolith weight, fish length and otolith length relationships of the red mullet (Mullus barbatus in the Aegean and Ionian Sea and otolith weight relationships in European hake (Merluccius merluccius from the Greek Seas.

  15. Changes in triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol may precede peripheral insulin resistance, with 2-h insulin partially mediating this unidirectional relationship: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tianshu; Cheng, Yu; Tian, Shuang; Wang, Li; Liang, Xi; Duan, Wei; Na, Lixin; Sun, Changhao

    2016-11-04

    Results of longitudinal researches regarding the temporal relationship between dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR) are inconsistent. This study assessed temporal relationships of blood lipids with IR and determined whether there are any mediating effects existed in these temporal relationships. This study examined a longitudinal cohort of 3325 subjects aged 20-74 years from China with an average of 4.2 years follow-up. Measurements of fasting blood lipids, as well as fasting and 2-h serum glucose and insulin, were obtained at two time points. The Gutt index and HOMA-IR were calculated as indicators of peripheral IR and hepatic IR. A cross-lagged path analysis was performed to examine the temporal relationships between blood lipids and IR. A mediation analysis was used to examine mediating effect. After adjusting for covariates, the cross-lagged path coefficients from baseline TG and HDL-C to follow-up Gutt index were significantly greater than those from baseline Gutt index to follow-up TG and HDL-C (β 1  = -0.131 vs β 2  = -0.047, P index with a 59.3% mediating effect for TG and 61.0% for HDL-C. These findings provide strong evidence that dyslipidemia probably precede peripheral IR and that 2-h insulin partially mediates this unidirectional temporal relationship.

  16. Temperature impacts on deep-sea biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Danovaro, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Temperature is considered to be a fundamental factor controlling biodiversity in marine ecosystems, but precisely what role temperature plays in modulating diversity is still not clear. The deep ocean, lacking light and in situ photosynthetic primary production, is an ideal model system to test the effects of temperature changes on biodiversity. Here we synthesize current knowledge on temperature-diversity relationships in the deep sea. Our results from both present and past deep-sea assemblages suggest that, when a wide range of deep-sea bottom-water temperatures is considered, a unimodal relationship exists between temperature and diversity (that may be right skewed). It is possible that temperature is important only when at relatively high and low levels but does not play a major role in the intermediate temperature range. Possible mechanisms explaining the temperature-biodiversity relationship include the physiological-tolerance hypothesis, the metabolic hypothesis, island biogeography theory, or some combination of these. The possible unimodal relationship discussed here may allow us to identify tipping points at which on-going global change and deep-water warming may increase or decrease deep-sea biodiversity. Predicted changes in deep-sea temperatures due to human-induced climate change may have more adverse consequences than expected considering the sensitivity of deep-sea ecosystems to temperature changes. © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  17. A systematic review of the relationship between subchondral bone features, pain and structural pathology in peripheral joint osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Andrew J; Campbell, T Mark; Hopkinson, Devan; Kingsbury, Sarah R; Bowes, Mike A; Conaghan, Philip G

    2015-08-25

    Bone is an integral part of the osteoarthritis (OA) process. We conducted a systematic literature review in order to understand the relationship between non-conventional radiographic imaging of subchondral bone, pain, structural pathology and joint replacement in peripheral joint OA. A search of the Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases was performed for original articles reporting association between non-conventional radiographic imaging-assessed subchondral bone pathologies and joint replacement, pain or structural progression in knee, hip, hand, ankle and foot OA. Each association was qualitatively characterised by a synthesis of the data from each analysis based upon study design, adequacy of covariate adjustment and quality scoring. In total 2456 abstracts were screened and 139 papers were included (70 cross-sectional, 71 longitudinal analyses; 116 knee, 15 hip, six hand, two ankle and involved 113 MRI, eight DXA, four CT, eight scintigraphic and eight 2D shape analyses). BMLs, osteophytes and bone shape were independently associated with structural progression or joint replacement. BMLs and bone shape were independently associated with longitudinal change in pain and incident frequent knee pain respectively. Subchondral bone features have independent associations with structural progression, pain and joint replacement in peripheral OA in the hip and hand but especially in the knee. For peripheral OA sites other than the knee, there are fewer associations and independent associations of bone pathologies with these important OA outcomes which may reflect fewer studies; for example the foot and ankle were poorly studied. Subchondral OA bone appears to be a relevant therapeutic target. PROSPERO registration number: CRD 42013005009.

  18. "Languaging the Worker: Globalized Governmentalities in/of Language in Peripheral Spaces"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlaske, Kati; Barakos, Elisabeth; Motobayashi, Kyoko; McLaughlin, Mireille

    2016-01-01

    In the introduction to the special issue "Languaging the worker: globalized governmentalities in/of language in peripheral spaces", we take up the notion of governmentality as a means to interrogate the complex relationship between language, labor, power, and subjectivity in peripheral multilingual spaces. Our aim here is to argue for…

  19. Relationships between Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity and Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Kil Ha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBrachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV is known to be a good surrogate marker of clinical atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a major predictor for developing neuropathy. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between baPWV and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN in patients with type 2 diabetes.MethodsA retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted involving 692 patients with type 2 diabetes. The correlation between increased baPWV and DPN, neurological symptoms, and neurological assessment was analyzed. DPN was examined using the total symptom score (TSS, ankle reflexes, the vibration test, and the 10-g monofilament test. DPN was defined as TSS ≥2 and an abnormal neurological assessment. Data were expressed as means±standard deviation for normally distributed data and as median (interquartile range for non-normally distributed data. Independent t-tests or chi-square tests were used to make comparisons between groups, and a multiple logistic regression test was used to evaluate independent predictors of DPN. The Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test was used to adjust for age.ResultsPatients with DPN had higher baPWV and systolic blood pressure, and were more likely to be older and female, when compared to the control group. According to univariate analysis of risk factors for DPN, the odds ratio of the baPWV ≥1,600 cm/sec was 1.611 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.072 to 2.422; P=0.021 and the odds ratio in female was 1.816 (95% CI, 1.195 to 2.760; P=0.005.ConclusionIncreased baPWV was significantly correlated with peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peripheral; Neuritis - peripheral; Nerve disease; Polyneuropathy; Chronic pain - peripheral neuropathy ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 107. Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  1. The Effect Of SEA On Long Tail Monkeys (Macaca Fascicularis) Lymphocyte Culture Gamma Ray-Irradiated In Vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wa'id, Abdul; Lusiyanti, Yanti

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococus enteroxine (SEA) is one of toxins produced by the bacterium Staphylococus aureus. In the culture, SEA has proven as a potent stimulator of lymphocytes in man event at fg/ml concentrations. This research studied the effect of SEA compared to Phytohaemagglutinine (PHA) on the peripheral blood lymphocytes culture of the long-tail monkeys. About 5 ml blood was collected from 5 monkeys and irradiated using Gamma Cell-220 P3TIR with doses of 0 (control); 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0 Gy. The blood samples were cultured in the appropriate growth medium based on standard procedure and added with 1.0 ml (0.5 mug/ml) SEA or 0.15 ml PHA. The cultures were then incubated for 96 hours and prepared the slides. The results showed that on the unirradiated peripheral blood lymphocytes of long-tail monkeys the mitotic indices obtained using PHA and SEA are relatively similar. On the irradiated lymphocytes with doses of 1-3 Gy, the mitotic indices using SEA are relatively higher than that of PHA. Dose responses of dicentric, ring and acentric fragment of both PHA and SEA are relatively the same

  2. Physical oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.; Murty, V.S.N.; Suryanarayana, A.

    Physical oceanography of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea is reviewed for the first time. All available information for over 50 years is consolidated in this review. To begin with, information on peripheral or related aspects of climate...

  3. Relationship between sensorimotor peripheral nerve function and indicators of cardiovascular autonomic function in older adults from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Maia, Brittney S; Newman, Anne B; Jakicic, John M; Cauley, Jane A; Boudreau, Robert M; Schwartz, Ann V; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Satterfield, Suzanne; Vinik, Aaron I; Zivkovic, Sasa; Harris, Tamara B; Strotmeyer, Elsa S

    2017-10-01

    Age-related peripheral nervous system (PNS) impairments are highly prevalent in older adults. Although sensorimotor and cardiovascular autonomic function have been shown to be related in persons with diabetes, the nature of the relationship in general community-dwelling older adult populations is unknown. Health, Aging and Body Composition participants (n=2399, age=76.5±2.9years, 52% women, 38% black) underwent peripheral nerve testing at the 2000/01 clinic visit. Nerve conduction amplitude and velocity were measured at the peroneal motor nerve. Sensory nerve function was assessed with vibration detection threshold and monofilament (1.4-g/10-g) testing at the big toe. Symptoms of lower-extremity peripheral neuropathy were collected by self-report. Cardiovascular autonomic function indicators included postural hypotension, resting heart rate (HR), as well as HR response to and recovery from submaximal exercise testing (400m walk). Multivariable modeling adjusted for demographic/lifestyle factors, medication use and comorbid conditions. In fully adjusted models, poor motor nerve conduction velocity (function or symptoms of peripheral neuropathy and indicators of cardiovascular autonomic function. Motor nerve function and indicators of cardiovascular autonomic function remained significantly related even after considering many potentially shared risk factors. Future studies should investigate common underlying processes for developing multiple PNS impairments in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparative study of 3D TOF-SPGR and 3D FASE on the display of the relationship between cranial nerves and peripheral vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wenge; Li Yanliang; Zhang Lina; Qi Xixun; Jin Anyu; Xu Ke; Tong Zhiyong; Liu Jing

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To select a better sequence which can supply reliable radiological information for vessel compression on cranial nerves in patients with facial spasm or trigeminal neuralgia. Methods: 3D TOF-SPGR and 3D FASE were used in 40 patients with facial spasm or trigeminal neuralgia to display the relationship between cranial nerves (facial nerve and trigeminal nerve) and peripheral vessels. Results: 38 patients got surgical results. 33 unilateral vessel compression or contact on facial nerves or trigeminal nerves was found on 3D TOF-SPGR, while no contact was found in 5. 26 unilateral vessel compression or contact on facial nerves or trigeminal nerves was found on 3D FASE, while no contact was found in 12. Significant difference between the two sequences on the display of vessel compression on facial nerves or trigeminal nerves was found by statistical analysis (χ 2 =5.14, P=0.016). Conclusion: 3D TOF-SPGR is better than 3D FASE on display of the relationship between nerves and peripheral vessels, and it should be the primary MRI sequence for patients with facial spasm or trigeminal neuralgia clinically. (author)

  5. Dynamic and static elastic moduli of North Sea and deep sea chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gommesen, Lars; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2001-01-01

    We have established an empirical relationship between the dynamic and the static mechanical properties of North Sea and deep sea chalk for a large porosity interval with respect to porosity, effective stress history and textural composition. The chalk investigated is from the Tor and Hod Formatio...

  6. Sea Dragon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... In preparation for these changes, the Navy is exploring new command and control relationships, and the Marine Corps established Sea Dragon to experiment with emerging technologies, operational...

  7. The length-weight and length-length relationships of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766) from Samsun, middle Black Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Özpiçak, Melek; Saygın, Semra; Polat, Nazmi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, length-weight relationship (LWR) and length-length relationship (LLR) of bluefish,Pomatomus saltatrix were determined. A total of 125 specimens were sampled from Samsun, themiddle Black Sea in 2014 fishing season. Bluefish specimens were monthly collected fromcommercial fishing boats from October to December 2014. All captured individuals (N=125) weremeasured to the nearest 0.1 cm for total, fork and standard lengths. The weight of each fish (W)was recorded to the nearest 0.01 ...

  8. Effect of Hypoxia and Bedrest on Peripheral Vasoconstriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Adam C.; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Dolenc-Groselj, Leja; Jaki Mekjavic, Polona; Eiken, Ola

    2013-02-01

    Future planetary habitats may expose astronauts to both microgravity and hypobaric hypoxia, both inducing a reduction in peripheral perfusion. Peripheral temperature changes have been linked to sleep onset and quality [5]. However, it is still unknown what effect combining hypoxia and bedrest has on this relationship. Eleven male participants underwent three 10-day campaigns in a randomized manner: 1) normobaric hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAmb); 2) normobaric hypoxic bed rest (HBR); 3) normobaric normoxic bed rest (NBR). There was no change in skin temperature gradient between the calf and toes, an index of peripheral perfusion (Δ Tc-t), over the 10-d period in the HAmb trial. However, there was a significant increase (psleep onset and/or architecture. These data support the theory that circadian changes in temperature are functionally linked to sleepiness [1].

  9. Inter-Relationship Between Subtropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature, Arctic Sea Ice Concentration, and the North Atlantic Oscillation in Recent Summers and Winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Cullather, Richard I.; Nowicki, Sophie M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2017-01-01

    The inter-relationship between subtropical western-central Pacific sea surface temperatures (STWCPSST), sea ice concentration in the Beaufort Sea (SICBS), and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are investigated for the last 37 summers and winters (1980-2016). Lag-correlation of the STWCPSST×(-1) in spring with the NAO phase and SICBS in summer increases over the last two decades, reaching r = 0.4-0.5 with significance at 5 percent, while winter has strong correlations in approximately 1985-2005. Observational analysis and the atmospheric general circulation model experiments both suggest that STWCPSST warming acts to increase the Arctic geopotential height and temperature in the following season. This atmospheric response extends to Greenland, providing favorable conditions for developing the negative phase of the NAO. SIC and surface albedo tend to decrease over the Beaufort Sea in summer, linked to the positive surface net shortwave flux. Energy balance considering radiative and turbulent fluxes reveal that available energy that can heat surface is larger over the Arctic and Greenland and smaller over the south of Greenland, in response to the STWCPSST warming in spring. XXXX Arctic & Atlantic: Positive upper-level height/T anomaly over the Arctic and Greenland, and a negative anomaly over the central-eastern Atlantic, resembling the (-) phase of the NAO. Pacific: The negative height/T anomaly over the mid-latitudes, along with the positive anomaly over the STWCP, where 1degC warming above climatology is prescribed. Discussion: It is likely that the Arctic gets warm and the NAO is in the negative phase in response to the STWCP warming. But, there are other factors (e.g., internal variability) that contribute to determination of the NAO phase: not always the negative phase of the NAO in the event of STWCP warming (e.g.: recent winters and near neutral NAO in 2017 summer).

  10. The relationship between numbness, tingling and shooting/burning pain in patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) as measured by the EORTC QLQ-CIPN20 instrument, N06CA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, S.L.; Barton, D.L.; Qin, R.; Wos, E.J.; Sloan, J.A.; Liu, H.; Aaronson, N.K.; Satele, D.V.; Mattar, B.I.; Green, N.B.; Loprinzi, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is characterized by numbness, tingling, and shooting/burning pain. This analysis was performed to describe the relationship between numbness, tingling, and shooting/burning pain in patients with CIPN, as reported using the EORTC

  11. Statistical Modeling of Sea Ice Concentration Using Satellite Imagery and Climate Reanalysis Data in the Barents and Kara Seas, 1979–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihye Ahn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive sea ice over Arctic regions is largely involved in heat, moisture, and momentum exchanges between the atmosphere and ocean. Some previous studies have been conducted to develop statistical models for the status of Arctic sea ice and showed considerable possibilities to explain the impacts of climate changes on the sea ice extent. However, the statistical models require improvements to achieve better predictions by incorporating techniques that can deal with temporal variation of the relationships between sea ice concentration and climate factors. In this paper, we describe the statistical approaches by ordinary least squares (OLS regression and a time-series method for modeling sea ice concentration using satellite imagery and climate reanalysis data for the Barents and Kara Seas during 1979–2012. The OLS regression model could summarize the overall climatological characteristics in the relationships between sea ice concentration and climate variables. We also introduced autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models because the sea ice concentration is such a long-range dataset that the relationships may not be explained by a single equation of the OLS regression. Temporally varying relationships between sea ice concentration and the climate factors such as skin temperature, sea surface temperature, total column liquid water, total column water vapor, instantaneous moisture flux, and low cloud cover were modeled by the ARIMA method, which considerably improved the prediction accuracies. Our method may also be worth consideration when forecasting future sea ice concentration by using the climate data provided by general circulation models (GCM.

  12. Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Murray, Michael; Haulena, Martin; Tuttle, Judy; van Bonn, William; Adams, Lance; Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Keister, Robin; Stott, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter-specific qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a ‘reference’ range of transcripts for each gene in a group of clinically healthy captive and free-ranging sea otters. The 10 genes of interest represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumour suppression, cellular stress response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and cell–cell adhesion. The cycle threshold (CT) measures for most genes were normally distributed; the complement cytolysis inhibitor was the exception. The relative enumeration of multiple gene transcripts in simple peripheral blood samples expands the diagnostic capability currently available to assess the health of sea otters in situ and provides a better understanding of the state of their environment.

  13. South Polar Skua breeding populations in the Ross Sea assessed from demonstrated relationship with Adélie Penguin numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Deborah J.; Lyver, Phil O'B.; Greene, Terry C.; Whitehead, Amy L.; Dugger, Catherine; Karl, Brian J.; Barringer, James R. F.; McGarry, Roger; Pollard, Annie M.; Ainley, David G.

    2017-01-01

    In the Ross Sea region, most South Polar Skuas (Stercorarius maccormicki) nest near Adélie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) colonies, preying and scavenging on fish, penguins, and other carrion. To derive a relationship to predict skua numbers from better-quantified penguin numbers, we used distance sampling to estimate breeding skua numbers within 1000 m of 5 penguin nesting locations (Cape Crozier, Cape Royds, and 3 Cape Bird locations) on Ross Island in 3 consecutive years. Estimated numbers of skua breeding pairs were highest at Cape Crozier (270,000 penguin pairs; 1099 and 1347 skua pairs in 2 respective years) and lowest at Cape Royds (3000 penguin pairs; 45 skua pairs). The log–log linear relationship (R2 = 0.98) between pairs of skuas and penguins was highly significant, and most historical estimates of skua and penguin numbers in the Ross Sea were within 95 % prediction intervals of the regression. Applying our regression model to current Adélie Penguin colony sizes at 23 western Ross Sea locations predicted that 4635 pairs of skuas now breed within 1000 m of penguin colonies in the Ross Island metapopulation (including Beaufort Island) and northern Victoria Land. We estimate, using published skua estimates for elsewhere in Antarctica, that the Ross Sea South Polar Skua population comprises ~50 % of the world total, although this may be an overestimate because of incomplete data elsewhere. To improve predictions and enable measurement of future skua population change, we recommend additional South Polar Skua surveys using consistent distance-sampling methods at penguin colonies of a range of sizes.

  14. Outcomes of Peripheral Endovascular Interventions Based on Hospital Volume: A Mini Review of Published Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir V Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous literature showed hospital procedural volume is an independent predictor for outcomes of various cardiac procedures. However, very few studies shown similar results for peripheral endovascular interventions especially peripheral atherectomy. Here we are reviewing previously published articles to provide volume-outcome relationship for peripheral atherectomy and angioplasty with or without endovascular stenting. We found higher hospital volume significantly and independently lowers in-hospital mortality, amputation rates, peri-procedural complications, length and cost of hospitalization for peripheral endovascular interventions.

  15. Deep-sea Hexactinellida (Porifera) of the Weddell Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janussen, Dorte; Tabachnick, Konstantin R.; Tendal, Ole S.

    2004-07-01

    New Hexactinellida from the deep Weddel Sea are described. This moderately diverse hexactinellid fauna includes 14 species belonging to 12 genera, of which five species and one subgenus are new to science: Periphragella antarctica n. sp., Holascus pseudostellatus n. sp., Caulophacus (Caulophacus) discohexactinus n. sp., C. ( Caulodiscus) brandti n. sp., C. ( Oxydiscus) weddelli n. sp., and C. ( Oxydiscus) n. subgen. So far, 20 hexactinellid species have been reported from the deep Weddell Sea, 15 are known from the northern part and 10 only from here, while 10 came from the southern area, and five of these only from there. However, this apparent high "endemism" of Antarctic hexactinellid sponges is most likely the result of severe undersampling of the deep-sea fauna. We find no reason to believe that a division between an oceanic and a more continental group of species exists. The current poor database indicates that a substantial part of the deep hexactinellid fauna of the Weddell Sea is shared with other deep-sea regions, but it does not indicate a special biogeographic relationship with any other ocean.

  16. Climate change influences on environment as a determinant of Indigenous health: Relationships to place, sea ice, and health in an Inuit community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkalec, Agata; Furgal, Chris; Skinner, Mark W; Sheldon, Tom

    2015-07-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Indigenous health, human dimensions of climate change, and place-based dimensions of health by examining the role of environment for Inuit health in the context of a changing climate. We investigated the relationship between one key element of the environment - sea ice - and diverse aspects of health in an Inuit community in northern Canada, drawing on population health and health geography approaches. We used a case study design and participatory and collaborative approach with the community of Nain in northern Labrador, Canada. Focus groups (n = 2), interviews (n = 22), and participant observation were conducted in 2010-11. We found that an appreciation of place was critical for understanding the full range of health influences of sea ice use for Inuit. Negative physical health impacts were reported on less frequently than positive health benefits of sea ice use, which were predominantly related to mental/emotional, spiritual, social, and cultural health. We found that sea ice means freedom for sea ice users, which we suggest influences individual and collective health through relationships between sea ice use, culture, knowledge, and autonomy. While sea ice users reported increases in negative physical health impacts such as injuries and stress related to changing environmental conditions, we suggest that less tangible climate change impacts related to losses of health benefits and disruptions to place meanings and place attachment may be even more significant. Our findings indicate that climate change is resulting in and compounding existing environmental dispossession for Inuit. They also demonstrate the necessity of considering place meanings, culture, and socio-historical context to assess the complexity of climate change impacts on Indigenous environmental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical oceanography of the Arabian Sea: Part III - Studies on nutrient fraction and stoichiometric relationship in the Northern and the Eastern Basins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; DeSousa, S.N.; Fondekar, S.P.

    Phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen compounds have been divided into 'reserved' andoxidative fractions based on their relationships with apparent oxygen utilization in the northern and the north-eastern basins of the Arabian Sea.Two oxygen minima...

  18. Relationship between ocular surface temperature and peripheral vasoconstriction in healthy subjects: A thermographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara; Vannetti, Federica; Finocchio, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    An impairment of ocular blood flow regulation is commonly considered one of the main pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of several eye diseases, like glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an alteration of ocular blood supply induced by peripheral vasoconstric......An impairment of ocular blood flow regulation is commonly considered one of the main pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of several eye diseases, like glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an alteration of ocular blood supply induced by peripheral...

  19. The comparison of CT findings between peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and pulmonary adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Guosheng; Yang Xufeng; Zhou Xuhui; Li Ziping; Fan Miao; Chen Jindi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the principal HRCT features of peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and pulmonary adenocarcinoma and to explore their pathological mechanism, in order to improve the recognition of the CT signs of peripheral pulmonary carcinoma. Methods: The principal HRCT signs of thirty-five cases with pathologically proved peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and forty cases with pathologically proved peripheral pulmonary adenocarcinoma were analyzed retrospectively to explore the relationship between CT features and pathological findings. Results: The main features of peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma included larger masses, clear boundary, superficial sublobes and intra-tumor necrosis. While peripheral pulmonary adenocarcinoma mostly demonstrated as smaller nodules, deep sublobes, spiculations, spiculate protuberance, pleural indentation, vessel converging signs, and vacuole signs. The different of these above findings of peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma were significant (P<0.05). Peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma may depict bronchial casts and polygonal nodules; and peripheral pulmonary adenocarcinoma may demonstrate ground glass-like nodules. Conclusion: The difference of the CT findings between peripheral pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma and peripheral adenocarcinoma is based on their different histological features and biological behaviors. It is possible to differentiate them before operation in combination with clinical information. (authors)

  20. Length-weight relationship of eleven species of marine catfishes from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Noureen; Qamar, Nazia; Rashid, Shahnaz; Panhwar, Sher Khan

    2017-09-01

    This study records length-weight relationships (LWRs) for eleven commercially important marine catfish species of the family Ariidae (sea catfishes) and Plotosidae (eel catfishes) from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. The specimens were sampled from December 2014 to November 2015, using bottom trawls with various mesh sizes by commercial vessels. The species were Nemapteryx caelatus, Sciades sona, Arius gagora, Batrachocephalus mino, Netuma thalassina, N. bilineata, Osteogeneiosus militaris, Plicofollis dussumieri, P. tenuispinis, Plotosus limbatus, and P. lineatus. Of the eleven species, two species A. gagora and N. bilineata were recorded for the first time and LWRs for four species A. gagora, N. bilineata, S. sona, and B. mino still have no data in the FishBase database. In addition, new maximum length for each of the three species N. bilineata, O. militaris and B. mino was also found.

  1. Seasonal regional forecast of the minimum sea ice extent in the LapteV Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, B.; Brunette, C.; Newton, R.

    2017-12-01

    Late winter anomaly of sea ice export from the peripheral seas of the Atctic Ocean was found to be a useful predictor for the minimum sea ice extent (SIE) in the Arctic Ocean (Williams et al., 2017). In the following, we present a proof of concept for a regional seasonal forecast of the min SIE for the Laptev Sea based on late winter coastal divergence quantified using a Lagrangian Ice Tracking System (LITS) forced with satellite derived sea-ice drifts from the Polar Pathfinder. Following Nikolaeva and Sesterikov (1970), we track an imaginary line just offshore of coastal polynyas in the Laptev Sea from December of the previous year to May 1 of the following year using LITS. Results show that coastal divergence in the Laptev Sea between February 1st and May 1st is best correlated (r = -0.61) with the following September minimum SIE in accord with previous results from Krumpen et al. (2013, for the Laptev Sea) and Williams et a. (2017, for the pan-Arctic). This gives a maximum seasonal predictability of Laptev Sea min SIE anomalies from observations of approximately 40%. Coastal ice divergence leads to formation of thinner ice that melts earlier in early summer, hence creating areas of open water that have a lower albedo and trigger an ice-albedo feedback. In the Laptev Sea, we find that anomalies of coastal divergence in late winter are amplified threefold to result in the September SIE. We also find a correlation coefficient r = 0.49 between February-March-April (FMA) anomalies of coastal divergence with the FMA averaged AO index. Interestingly, the correlation is stronger, r = 0.61, when comparing the FMA coastal divergence anomalies to the DJFMA averaged AO index. It is hypothesized that the AO index at the beginning of the winter (and the associated anomalous sea ice export) also contains information that impact the magnitude of coastal divergence opening later in the winter. Our approach differs from previous approaches (e.g. Krumpen et al and Williams et al

  2. Polar bears and sea ice habitat change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Atwood, Todd C.; Butterworth, Andy

    2017-01-01

    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is an obligate apex predator of Arctic sea ice and as such can be affected by climate warming-induced changes in the extent and composition of pack ice and its impacts on their seal prey. Sea ice declines have negatively impacted some polar bear subpopulations through reduced energy input because of loss of hunting habitats, higher energy costs due to greater ice drift, ice fracturing and open water, and ultimately greater challenges to recruit young. Projections made from the output of global climate models suggest that polar bears in peripheral Arctic and sub-Arctic seas will be reduced in numbers or become extirpated by the end of the twenty-first century if the rate of climate warming continues on its present trajectory. The same projections also suggest that polar bears may persist in the high-latitude Arctic where heavy multiyear sea ice that has been typical in that region is being replaced by thinner annual ice. Underlying physical and biological oceanography provides clues as to why polar bear in some regions are negatively impacted, while bears in other regions have shown no apparent changes. However, continued declines in sea ice will eventually challenge the survival of polar bears and efforts to conserve them in all regions of the Arctic.

  3. Peripheral retinal degenerations and the risk of retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Hilel

    2003-07-01

    To review the degenerative diseases of the peripheral retina in relationship with the risk to develop a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and to present recommendations for use in eyes at increased risk of developing a retinal detachment. Focused literature review and author's clinical experience. Retinal degenerations are common lesions involving the peripheral retina, and most of them are clinically insignificant. Lattice degeneration, degenerative retinoschisis, cystic retinal tufts, and, rarely, zonular traction tufts, can result in a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Therefore, these lesions have been considered for prophylactic therapy; however, adequate studies have not been performed to date. Well-designed, prospective, randomized clinical studies are necessary to determine the benefit-risk ratio of prophylactic treatment. In the meantime, the evidence available suggests that most of the peripheral retinal degenerations should not be treated except in rare, high-risk situations.

  4. Zooplankton community structure in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea in autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongju Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study on zooplankton spatial distribution is essential for understanding food web dynamics in marine ecosystems and fishery management. Here we elucidated the composition and distribution of large mesozooplankton on the continental shelf of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea, and explored the zooplankton community structure in these water masses. Sixty vertical hauls (bottom or 200 m in deep water to surface using a ring net (diameter 0.8 m, 505-μm mesh were exploited in November 2007. The biogeographic patterns of zooplankton communities were investigated using multivariate analysis methods; copepod biodiversity was analyzed using univariate indices. Copepods and protozoans were dominate in the communities. Based on the species composition, we divided the study areas into six station groups. Significant differences in zooplankton assemblages were detected between the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. Species richness was higher in East China Sea groups than those in Yellow Sea, whereas taxonomic distinctness was higher in Yellow Sea than in East China Sea. There was a clear relationship between the species composition and water mass group.

  5. Peripheral Arterial Disease Study (PERART: Prevalence and predictive values of asymptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bundó Magda

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index (AAI is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease. The aim of the PERART study (PERipheral ARTerial disease is to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (both silent and symptomatic in a general population of both sexes and determine its predictive value related to morbimortality (cohort study. Methods/Design This cross-over, cohort study consists of 2 phases: firstly a descriptive, transversal cross-over study to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, and secondly, a cohort study to evaluate the predictive value of AAI in relation to cardiovascular morbimortality. From September 2006 to June 2007, a total of 3,010 patients over the age of 50 years will be randomly selected from a population adscribed to 24 healthcare centres in the province of Barcelona (Spain. The diagnostic criteria of peripheral arterial disease will be considered as an AAI Discussion In this study we hope to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, especially the silent forms, in the general population and establish its relationship with cardiovascular morbimortality. A low AAI may be a better marker of arterial disease than the classical cardiovascular risk factors and may, therefore, contribute to improving the predictive value of the equations of cardiovascular risk and thereby allowing optimisation of multifactorial treatment of atherosclerotic disease.

  6. Relationships between fish, sea urchins and macroalgae: The structure of shallow rocky sublittoral communities in the Cyclades, Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Cebrian, Emma; Kokkoris, Giorgos D.; Ballesteros, Enric; Sala, Enric

    2012-08-01

    Historical overfishing is the most likely explanation for the depletion of the shallow sublittoral communities in many areas not least in the Cyclades Archipelago, Greece. The present study is the first quantitative study of the shallow rocky sublittoral of the Cyclades based on in situ underwater surveys of algal cover, and fish and sea urchin abundance at 181 sampling sites in 25 islands to provide a baseline and investigate the relationship between these communities. Algal turf was the most abundant algal functional group, and canopy algae of the genus Cystoseira were more abundant at the northern islands. A range in fish biomass of almost two orders of magnitude was found across islands, but overall the Cyclades displayed much lower values than fished areas of the Western Mediterranean. We observed apex predators only in 25% of our sampling sites, and their biomass was uncorrelated to total fish biomass, indicating a depleted ecosystem. Sea urchin biomass was also low but similar to values found in other Mediterranean islands and was positively correlated with barrens. We observed a gradient of benthic community complexity from sea urchin barrens to communities dominated by Cystoseira spp. There was no correlation between sea urchins and their predators Diplodus spp., which presented extremely low densities.

  7. Climatic and ecological drivers of euphausiid community structure vary spatially in the Barents Sea: relationships from a long time series (1952-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Lvovna Orlova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphausiids play an important role in transferring energy from ephemeral primary producers to fish, seabirds, and marine mammals in the Barents Sea ecosystem. Climatic impacts have been suggested to occur at all levels of the Barents Sea food-web, but adequate exploration of these phenomena on ecologically relevant spatial scales has not been integrated sufficiently. We used a time-series of euphausiid abundance data spanning 58 years, one of the longest biological time-series in the Arctic, to explore qualitative and quantitative relationships among climate, euphausiids, and their predators, and how these parameters vary spatially in the Barents Sea. We detected four main hydrographic regions, each with distinct patterns of interannual variability in euphausiid abundance and community structure. Assemblages varied primarily in the relative abundance of Thysanoessa inermis versus T. raschii, or T. inermis versus T. longicaudata and Meganyctiphanes norvegica. Climate proxies and the abundance of capelin or cod explained 30-60% of the variability in euphausiid abundance in each region. Climate also influenced patterns of variability in euphausiid community structure, but correlations were generally weaker. Advection of boreal euphausiid taxa from the Norwegian Sea is clearly more prominent in warmer years than in colder years, and interacts with seasonal fish migrations to help explain spatial differences in primary drivers of euphausiid community structure. Non-linear effects of predators were common, and must be considered more carefully if a mechanistic understanding of the ecosystem is to be achieved. Quantitative relationships among euphausiid abundance, climate proxies, and predator stock-sizes derived from these time series are valuable for ecological models being used to predict impacts of climate change on the Barents Sea ecosystem, and how the system should be managed.

  8. Chemical oceanography of the Arabian Sea Part iv Laccadive sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SenGupta, R.; Moraes, C.; Kureishy, T.W.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Jana, T.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Rajagopal, M.D

    Patterns of distribution of nutrients and nutrients-oxygen relationships are similar to those observed in other parts of the Arabian Sea High magnesium and low fluoride concentrations in the water indicate probable loss of the latter as insoluble ion...

  9. Relationship of central and peripheral blood pressure to left ventricular mass in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lahiguera, Francisco J; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, Jose A; Gonzalez, Carmen; Martín, Joaquin; Pascual, Jose M

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship of central and peripheral blood pressure to left ventricular mass. Cross-sectional study that included 392 never treated hypertensive individuals. Measurement of office, 24-h ambulatory, and central blood pressure (obtained using applanation tonometry) and determination of left ventricular mass by echocardiography were performed in all patients. In a multiple regression analysis, with adjustment for age, gender and metabolic syndrome, 24-h blood pressure was more closely related to ventricular mass than the respective office and central blood pressures. Systolic blood pressures always exhibited a higher correlation than diastolic blood pressures in all 3 determinations. The correlation between left ventricular mass index and 24-h systolic blood pressure was higher than that of office (P<.002) or central systolic blood pressures (P<.002). Changes in 24-h systolic blood pressure caused the greatest variations in left ventricular mass index (P<.001). In our population of untreated middle-aged hypertensive patients, left ventricular mass index is more closely related to 24-h ambulatory blood pressure than to office or central blood pressure. Central blood pressure does not enable us to better identify patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Three modes of interdecadal trends in sea surface temperature and sea surface height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, A.; Pradal, M.

    2013-12-01

    It might be thought that sea surface height and sea surface temperature would be tightly related. We show that this is not necessarily the case on a global scale. We analysed this relationship in a suite of coupled climate models run under 1860 forcing conditions. The models are low-resolution variants of the GFDL Earth System Model, reported in Galbraith et al. (J. Clim. 2011). 1. Correlated changes in global sea surface height and global sea surface temperature. This mode corresponds to opening and closing of convective chimneys in the Southern Ocean. As the Southern Ocean destratifies, sea ice formation is suppressed during the winter and more heat is taken up during the summer. This mode of variability is highly correlated with changes in the top of the atmosphere radiative budget and weakly correlated with changes in the deep ocean circulation. 2. Uncorrelated changes in global sea surface height and global sea surface temperature. This mode of variability is associated with interdecadal variabliity in tropical winds. Changes in the advective flux of heat to the surface ocean play a critical role in driving these changes, which also result in significant local changes in sea level. Changes sea ice over the Southern Ocean still result in changes in solar absorption, but these are now largely cancelled by changes in outgoing longwave radiation. 3. Anticorrelated changes in global sea surface height and global sea surface temperatures. By varying the lateral diffusion coefficient in the ocean model, we are able to enhance and suppress convection in the Southern and Northern Pacific Oceans. Increasing the lateral diffusion coefficients shifts the balance sources of deep water away from the warm salty deep water of the North Atlantic and towards cold fresh deep water from the other two regions. As a result, even though the planet as a whole warms, the deep ocean cools and sea level falls, with changes of order 30 cm over 500 years. The increase in solar absorption

  11. Interdecadal change in the summer SST-precipitation relationship around the late 1990s over the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiepeng; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Wen; Wen, Zhiping

    2017-11-01

    An interdecadal change in the air-sea interaction over the South China Sea (SCS) after the late 1990s has been identified using a local contemporaneous precipitation-sea surface temperature (SST) and precipitation-SST tendency relationship. During 1979-1998, there is a negative precipitation-SST relationship over the SCS, with a larger magnitude over the northeastern SCS (NESCS) than over the southwestern SCS (SWSCS). The remote effect of warmer SST over the tropical Indian Ocean plays a crucial role in a strong anticyclone and suppressed rainfall over the SCS and western North Pacific. Due to greater mixed-layer depth over the SWSCS than over the NESCS, entrainment heat flux makes a larger contribution to a positive precipitation-SST tendency over the SWSCS than over the NESCS. The cloud-radiation effect has a dominant and positive contribution to the SST tendency over the NESCS, whereas it has a negative contribution to SST tendency over the SWSCS. In contrast, the precipitation-SST correlation becomes weakly negative over the NESCS and significantly positive over the SWSCS during 1999-2013. The CESM-CAM5 model demonstrates that cooler SST over the tropical central-eastern Pacific (TCEP) triggers a weak anticyclone, slightly suppressing rainfall over the SCS. The cloud-radiation effect still contributes mostly to a positive SST tendency over the NESCS. Warmer SST over the SWSCS induces an increase in surface evaporation and low-level moisture convergence and causes enhanced rainfall. That offsets the remote effect of TCEP SST and results in a negative precipitation-SST tendency with negative cloud-radiation feedback. The interdecadal change in remote forcing to SCS rainfall around the late 1990s is related to the evolution of TCEP SST anomalies from the preceding winter to summer, which is possibly modulated by the phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.

  12. Does a Relationship Between Arctic Low Clouds and Sea Ice Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick C.

    2016-01-01

    Arctic low clouds strongly affect the Arctic surface energy budget. Through this impact Arctic low clouds influence important aspects of the Arctic climate system, namely surface and atmospheric temperature, sea ice extent and thickness, and atmospheric circulation. Arctic clouds are in turn influenced by these elements of the Arctic climate system, and these interactions create the potential for Arctic cloud-climate feedbacks. To further our understanding of potential Arctic cloudclimate feedbacks, the goal of this paper is to quantify the influence of atmospheric state on the surface cloud radiative effect (CRE) and its covariation with sea ice concentration (SIC). We build on previous research using instantaneous, active remote sensing satellite footprint data from the NASA A-Train. First, the results indicate significant differences in the surface CRE when stratified by atmospheric state. Second, there is a weak covariation between CRE and SIC for most atmospheric conditions. Third, the results show statistically significant differences in the average surface CRE under different SIC values in fall indicating a 3-5 W m(exp -2) larger LW CRE in 0% versus 100% SIC footprints. Because systematic changes on the order of 1 W m(exp -2) are sufficient to explain the observed long-term reductions in sea ice extent, our results indicate a potentially significant amplifying sea ice-cloud feedback, under certain meteorological conditions, that could delay the fall freeze-up and influence the variability in sea ice extent and volume. Lastly, a small change in the frequency of occurrence of atmosphere states may yield a larger Arctic cloud feedback than any cloud response to sea ice.

  13. Vasculitic peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Amini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary systemic vasculitis in pre-capillary arteries is associated with peripheral neuropathy. In some types of systematic vasculitis about 60 % of patients have peripheral nervous system (PNS involvement. In vasculitic peripheral neuropathies (VPN a necrotizing and inflammatory process leads to narrowing of vasa nervorum lumen and eventually the appearance of ischemic lesions in peripheral nerves. Some features might be suggestive of VPN, like: axonal nerve degeneration, wallerian-like degeneration, and diameter irregularity of nerve. Peripheral nervous system (PNS destruction during systemic vasculitides should be considered, due to its frequency and early occurrence in vasculitis progression. The first line treatment of non systematic VPNs is corticosteroid agents, but these drugs might worsen the VPNs or systemic vasculitis.

  14. Relationships between colored dissolved organic matter and dissolved organic carbon in different coastal gradients of the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E Therese; Kratzer, Susanne; Andersson, Agneta

    2015-06-01

    Due to high terrestrial runoff, the Baltic Sea is rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the light-absorbing fraction of which is referred to as colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Inputs of DOC and CDOM are predicted to increase with climate change, affecting coastal ecosystems. We found that the relationships between DOC, CDOM, salinity, and Secchi depth all differed between the two coastal areas studied; the W Gulf of Bothnia with high terrestrial input and the NW Baltic Proper with relatively little terrestrial input. The CDOM:DOC ratio was higher in the Gulf of Bothnia, where CDOM had a greater influence on the Secchi depth, which is used as an indicator of eutrophication and hence important for Baltic Sea management. Based on the results of this study, we recommend regular CDOM measurements in monitoring programmes, to increase the value of concurrent Secchi depth measurements.

  15. The relationship between the opening of South China Sea and the formation of the Tibetan Plateau (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, X.

    2010-12-01

    The South China Sea is one of the largest marginal seas in western Pacific and underwent a complex history. Xu et al.(2004) suggested that the evolution of the South China Sea can be divided into two first order phases: Paleogene (—Early Miocene) rifting and Neogene post- rifting. An oceanic crust was formed during 32-17 Ma. Whether or not the opening of South China Sea were related to Indo-Eurasia collision and the formation of the Tibetan Plateau is one of challenging problem in Earth sciences. With an exception of the southwestern China, the Chinese continent has become an united continent in the Triassic by the Indosinian orogeny. However, the Qinghai-Tibet area in SW China was still an oceanic region, that is, the Neo-Tethys. During the period of 145-100 Ma, the Lhasa terrane collided with the Qiangtang terrane and added to the south margin of the Eurasian continent. On the other hand, the Indian plate subducted underneath the Eurasian continent since Jurassic- Cretaceous. Subsequently, collision between the two continents, India and Eurasia, were completed during 65-40 Ma, and went into a post-collisional stage, characterized by intra-continental movements, including intra-continental subduction, overthrust, strike-slip and so on. The Tibetan Plateau, the highest plateau in the world had been formed by multi-stage uplifts. Several huge strike-slip shear zone such as the Red River Fault and the Altyn were formed during that period. The >1000-km-long Oligocene—Miocene left-lateral Red River shear zone (RRSZ) and the Pliocene—active right-lateral Red River fault (RRF), stretching from SE Tibet to the South China Sea, has been cited as a lithospheric scale strike-slip fault. The age of RRSZ was recently determined no earlier than 31.9-24.2Ma and no later than 21.7 Ma (Searle et al., 2010). Many geologists believe that there possibly be close relationship between the opening of the South China Sea and Indo-Eurasia collision and the formation of the Tibetan

  16. Relationship between organochlorine pesticides and stress indicators in hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting at Punta Xen (Campeche), Southern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Nelly; Ortíz Arana, Alejandro; González Jáuregui, Mauricio; Rendón-von Osten, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    Data on the impact of environmental pollution on the homeostasis of sea turtles remains scarce, particularly in the Southern Gulf of Mexico. As many municipalities along the coastline of the Yucatan Peninsula do not rely on a waste treatment plant, these organisms could be particularly vulnerable. We searched for relationships between the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and the level of several oxidative and pollutant stress indicators of the hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) during the 2010 nesting season at Punta Xen (Campeche, Mexico). Of the 30 sampled sea turtles, endosulfans, aldrin related (aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, endrin ketone, endrin aldehyde) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDT) families were detected in 17, 21 and 26, respectively. Significant correlation existed between the size of sea turtles with the concentration of methoxychlor, cholinesterase activity in plasma and heptachlors family, and catalase activity and hexachlorohexane family. Cholinesterase activity in washed erythrocytes and lipid peroxidation were positively correlated with glutathione reductase activity. Antioxidant enzyme actions seem adequate as no lipids damages were correlated with any OCPs. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effect of OCPs on males of the area due to the significant detection of methoxychlor, which target endocrine functioning and increases its concentration with sea turtles size.

  17. Mast cell degranulation breaks peripheral tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, V C; Wasiuk, A; Bennett, K A; Benson, M J; Elgueta, R; Waldschmidt, T J; Noelle, R J

    2009-10-01

    Mast cells (MC) have been shown to mediate regulatory T-cell (T(reg))-dependent, peripheral allograft tolerance in both skin and cardiac transplants. Furthermore, T(reg) have been implicated in mitigating IgE-mediated MC degranulation, establishing a dynamic, reciprocal relationship between MC and T(reg) in controlling inflammation. In an allograft tolerance model, it is now shown that intragraft or systemic MC degranulation results in the transient loss of T(reg) suppressor activities with the acute, T-cell dependent rejection of established, tolerant allografts. Upon degranulation, MC mediators can be found in the skin, T(reg) rapidly leave the graft, MC accumulate in the regional lymph node and the T(reg) are impaired in the expression of suppressor molecules. Such a dramatic reversal of T(reg) function and tissue distribution by MC degranulation underscores how allergy may causes the transient breakdown of peripheral tolerance and episodes of acute T-cell inflammation.

  18. Peripheral biomarkers revisited: integrative profiling of peripheral samples for psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi-Takagi, Akiko; Vawter, Marquis P; Iwamoto, Kazuya

    2014-06-15

    Peripheral samples, such as blood and skin, have been used for decades in psychiatric research as surrogates for central nervous system samples. Although the validity of the data obtained from peripheral samples has been questioned and other state-of-the-art techniques, such as human brain imaging, genomics, and induced pluripotent stem cells, seem to reduce the value of peripheral cells, accumulating evidence has suggested that revisiting peripheral samples is worthwhile. Here, we re-evaluate the utility of peripheral samples and argue that establishing an understanding of the common signaling and biological processes in the brain and peripheral samples is required for the validity of such models. First, we present an overview of the available types of peripheral cells and describe their advantages and disadvantages. We then briefly summarize the main achievements of omics studies, including epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome analyses, as well as the main findings of functional cellular assays, the results of which imply that alterations in neurotransmission, metabolism, the cell cycle, and the immune system may be partially responsible for the pathophysiology of major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Finally, we discuss the future utility of peripheral samples for the development of biomarkers and tailor-made therapies, such as multimodal assays that are used as a battery of disease and trait pathways and that might be potent and complimentary tools for use in psychiatric research. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  19. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieltges, David W.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Wendling, Carolin C.; Wegner, K. Mathias

    2013-09-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest a multitude of effects on the hosts. This also includes effects on specific predator-prey relationships and the general structure of the food web. Focussing on molluscs, a major group in the Wadden Sea in terms of biomass and abundance and an important link between primary producers and predators, we review existing studies and exemplify the ecological role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. First, we give a brief inventory of parasites occurring in the Wadden Sea, ranging from microparasites (e.g. protozoa, bacteria) to macroparasites (e.g. helminths, parasitic copepods) and discuss the effects of spatial scale on heterogeneities in infection levels. We then demonstrate how parasites can affect host population dynamics by acting as a strong mortality factor, causing mollusc mass mortalities. In addition, we will exemplify how parasites can mediate the interaction strength of predator-prey relationships and affect the topological structure of the Wadden Sea food web as a whole. Finally, we highlight some ongoing changes regarding parasitism in the Wadden Sea in the course of global change (e.g. species introduction, climate change) and identify important future research questions to entangle the role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web.

  20. The Ross Sea Dipole - temperature, snow accumulation and sea ice variability in the Ross Sea region, Antarctica, over the past 2700 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertler, Nancy A. N.; Conway, Howard; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Emanuelsson, Daniel B.; Winstrup, Mai; Vallelonga, Paul T.; Lee, James E.; Brook, Ed J.; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Fudge, Taylor J.; Keller, Elizabeth D.; Baisden, W. Troy; Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.; Neff, Peter D.; Blunier, Thomas; Edwards, Ross; Mayewski, Paul A.; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Buizert, Christo; Canessa, Silvia; Dadic, Ruzica; Kjær, Helle A.; Kurbatov, Andrei; Zhang, Dongqi; Waddington, Edwin D.; Baccolo, Giovanni; Beers, Thomas; Brightley, Hannah J.; Carter, Lionel; Clemens-Sewall, David; Ciobanu, Viorela G.; Delmonte, Barbara; Eling, Lukas; Ellis, Aja; Ganesh, Shruthi; Golledge, Nicholas R.; Haines, Skylar; Handley, Michael; Hawley, Robert L.; Hogan, Chad M.; Johnson, Katelyn M.; Korotkikh, Elena; Lowry, Daniel P.; Mandeno, Darcy; McKay, Robert M.; Menking, James A.; Naish, Timothy R.; Noerling, Caroline; Ollive, Agathe; Orsi, Anaïs; Proemse, Bernadette C.; Pyne, Alexander R.; Pyne, Rebecca L.; Renwick, James; Scherer, Reed P.; Semper, Stefanie; Simonsen, Marius; Sneed, Sharon B.; Steig, Eric J.; Tuohy, Andrea; Ulayottil Venugopal, Abhijith; Valero-Delgado, Fernando; Venkatesh, Janani; Wang, Feitang; Wang, Shimeng; Winski, Dominic A.; Winton, V. Holly L.; Whiteford, Arran; Xiao, Cunde; Yang, Jiao; Zhang, Xin

    2018-02-01

    High-resolution, well-dated climate archives provide an opportunity to investigate the dynamic interactions of climate patterns relevant for future projections. Here, we present data from a new, annually dated ice core record from the eastern Ross Sea, named the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) ice core. Comparison of this record with climate reanalysis data for the 1979-2012 interval shows that RICE reliably captures temperature and snow precipitation variability in the region. Trends over the past 2700 years in RICE are shown to be distinct from those in West Antarctica and the western Ross Sea captured by other ice cores. For most of this interval, the eastern Ross Sea was warming (or showing isotopic enrichment for other reasons), with increased snow accumulation and perhaps decreased sea ice concentration. However, West Antarctica cooled and the western Ross Sea showed no significant isotope temperature trend. This pattern here is referred to as the Ross Sea Dipole. Notably, during the Little Ice Age, West Antarctica and the western Ross Sea experienced colder than average temperatures, while the eastern Ross Sea underwent a period of warming or increased isotopic enrichment. From the 17th century onwards, this dipole relationship changed. All three regions show current warming, with snow accumulation declining in West Antarctica and the eastern Ross Sea but increasing in the western Ross Sea. We interpret this pattern as reflecting an increase in sea ice in the eastern Ross Sea with perhaps the establishment of a modern Roosevelt Island polynya as a local moisture source for RICE.

  1. Relationships between colored dissolved organic matter and dissolved organic carbon in different coastal gradients of the Baltic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, E. Therese; Kratzer, Susanne; Andersson, Agneta

    2015-01-01

    Due to high terrestrial runoff, the Baltic Sea is rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the light-absorbing fraction of which is referred to as colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Inputs of DOC and CDOM are predicted to increase with climate change, affecting coastal ecosystems. We found that the relationships between DOC, CDOM, salinity, and Secchi depth all differed between the two coastal areas studied; the W Gulf of Bothnia with high terrestrial input and the NW Baltic Proper with ...

  2. Relationship of spontaneous pneumothorax cases seen in Eastern Black Sea region with meteorological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamac, Mustafa Esat; Karapolat, Sami; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Seyis, Kubra Nur; Tekinbas, Celal

    2017-08-01

    The relationship of climate changes or weather conditions with the incidence of pneumothorax has been explored for many years. We aimed at revealing the effects of meteorological changes on the incidence of pneumothorax in the Eastern Black Sea region where spontaneous pneumothorax cases are seen relatively more frequently. The records of 195 subjects (179 males and 16 females) who had been monitored and treated due to spontaneous pneumothorax between January 2006 and December 2012 at our clinic were reviewed retrospectively, and their relationship was investigated with the meteorological data obtained by going through the database archive records of the 11th Regional Meteorology Directorate for the years between 2006 and 2012. Wind velocity was observed to be less in the days of having spontaneous pneumothorax than in the days of having no spontaneous pneumothorax, and the difference was found statistically significant ( P = 0.026). The people of our region whose active lifestyle is reflected in their working life, social life, and even in their folk dances usually take a rest in the days of slower wind speed. We think that this state of resting leads to an increase in the frequency of spontaneous pneumothorax.

  3. Peripheral reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.

    1978-01-01

    Peripheral collisions, that is, collisions involving a small amount of overlap of nuclear matter, are discussed including inclusive interactions, the magnitude of the peripheral cross section, fragmentation, a compilation of experiments and available data, limiting fragmentation, factorization, some models, fragment momentum distributions, and future research directions

  4. The relationship between periodontal status and peripheral levels of neutrophils in two consanguineous siblings with severe congenital neutropenia: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tözüm, Tolga Fikret; Berker, Ezel; Ersoy, Fügen; Tezcan, Iihan; Sanal, Ozden

    2003-03-01

    Congenital neutropenia is characterized by a severe reduction in absolute neutrophil counts, resulting in an almost total absence of neutrophils. It is well known that severe neutropenia affects periodontal status. Oral manifestations include ulcerations, gingival desquamation, gingival inflammation, attachment loss, and alveolar bone loss which may result in tooth loss. Treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) may improve this periodontal condition. This article reports the relationship between periodontal disease status and peripheral neutrophil levels in two consanguineous siblings with severe congenital neutropenia who did not receive routine G-CSF for 2 years prior to examination. Both siblings were given scaling, root planing, and periodontal prophylaxis in regular follow-up visits. This report demonstrates that periodontal therapy supported by adequate oral hygiene may result in restoration of neutrophil counts in siblings with congenital neutropenia.

  5. Which Measurement of Blood Pressure Is More Associated With Albuminuria in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Central Blood Pressure or Peripheral Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Noriyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Muhei; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Kimura, Toshihiro; Nakano, Koji; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether central systolic blood pressure (SBP) was associated with albuminuria, defined as urinary albumin excretion (UAE) ≥30 mg/g creatinine, and, if so, whether the relationship of central SBP with albuminuria was stronger than that of peripheral SBP in patients with type 2 diabetes. The authors performed a cross-sectional study in 294 outpatients with type 2 diabetes. The relationship between peripheral SBP or central SBP and UAE using regression analysis was evaluated, and the odds ratios of peripheral SBP or central SBP were calculated to identify albuminuria using logistic regression model. Moreover, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of central SBP was compared with that of peripheral SBP to identify albuminuria. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that peripheral SBP (β=0.255, PAUC of peripheral SBP was significantly greater than that of central SBP to identify albuminuria (P=0.035). Peripheral SBP is superior to central SBP in identifying albuminuria, although both peripheral and central SBP are associated with UAE in patients with type 2 diabetes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Peripheral Developing Odontoma or Peripheral Ameloblastic Fibroodontoma: A Rare Challenging Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saede Atarbashi Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral odontogenic lesions are considered to be rare within the classification of odontogenic tumors. They share the same microscopic characteristics of their central counterparts. Here, we report an ulcerated mass of the maxillary gingiva that on histopathological examination was diagnosed as peripheral developing odontoma or peripheral ameloblastic fibroodontoma. The diagnosis of this tumor is challenging and may lead to unnecessary treatment.

  7. Dependence of Indian monsoon rainfall on moisture fluxes across the Arabian Sea and the impact of coupled model sea surface temperature biases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Richard C. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Devon (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew G. [University of Reading, NCAS-Climate, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    The Arabian Sea is an important moisture source for Indian monsoon rainfall. The skill of climate models in simulating the monsoon and its variability varies widely, while Arabian Sea cold sea surface temperature (SST) biases are common in coupled models and may therefore influence the monsoon and its sensitivity to climate change. We examine the relationship between monsoon rainfall, moisture fluxes and Arabian Sea SST in observations and climate model simulations. Observational analysis shows strong monsoons depend on moisture fluxes across the Arabian Sea, however detecting consistent signals with contemporaneous summer SST anomalies is complicated in the observed system by air/sea coupling and large-scale induced variability such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation feeding back onto the monsoon through development of the Somali Jet. Comparison of HadGEM3 coupled and atmosphere-only configurations suggests coupled model cold SST biases significantly reduce monsoon rainfall. Idealised atmosphere-only experiments show that the weakened monsoon can be mainly attributed to systematic Arabian Sea cold SST biases during summer and their impact on the monsoon-moisture relationship. The impact of large cold SST biases on atmospheric moisture content over the Arabian Sea, and also the subsequent reduced latent heat release over India, dominates over any enhancement in the land-sea temperature gradient and results in changes to the mean state. We hypothesize that a cold base state will result in underestimation of the impact of larger projected Arabian Sea SST changes in future climate, suggesting that Arabian Sea biases should be a clear target for model development. (orig.)

  8. Antarctic sea ice increase consistent with intrinsic variability of the Amundsen Sea Low

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, John; Hosking, J. Scott; Marshall, Gareth J.; Phillips, Tony; Bracegirdle, Thomas J.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the relationship between atmospheric circulation variability and the recent trends in Antarctic sea ice extent (SIE) using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) atmospheric data, ECMWF Interim reanalysis fields and passive microwave satellite data processed with the Bootstrap version 2 algorithm. Over 1979-2013 the annual mean total Antarctic SIE increased at a rate of 195 × 103 km2 dec-1 (1.6 % dec-1), p 4.0 % dec-1) has been in the Ross Sea sector. Off West Antarctica there is a high correlation between trends in SIE and trends in the near-surface winds. The Ross Sea SIE seasonal trends are positive throughout the year, but largest in spring. The stronger meridional flow over the Ross Sea has been driven by a deepening of the Amundsen Sea Low (ASL). Pre-industrial control and historical simulations from CMIP5 indicate that the observed deepening of the ASL and stronger southerly flow over the Ross Sea are within the bounds of modeled intrinsic variability. The spring trend would need to continue for another 11 years for it to fall outside the 2 standard deviation range seen in 90 % of the simulations.

  9. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  10. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset ... 10 percent disabling by VA's rating regulations. About peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition of the peripheral ...

  11. Tourism-Environment Impact Relationship on the Romanian Black Sea Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Cristina Stanciu

    2016-01-01

    The present paper aims to identify the key features which may intervene in the tourist developmenton the Romanian Black Sea Coast perceived as limits, constraints and bottlenecks on the basis ofwhich tourism management decisions have to be taken. In this respect, the study will take intoconsideration the concept of tourism carrying capacity, meaning the maximum acceptable level oftourist development in an area and intend to stress out the main steps to implement this instrumentto be used in the analysis of tourist potential but also as a policy tool in a strategy of touristdevelopment for the Romanian Black Sea coast.

  12. Case of Unilateral Peripheral Cone Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Mochizuki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Peripheral cone dystrophy is a subgroup of cone dystrophy, and only 4 cases have been reported. We present a patient with unilateral peripheral cone dysfunction and report the functional changes determined by electrophysiological tests and ultrastructural changes determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Case: A 34-year-old woman complained of blurred vision in both eyes. Our examination showed that her visual acuity was 0.05 OD and 0.2 OS. A relative afferent pupillary defect was present in her right eye. The results of slit-lamp examination, ophthalmoscopy, and fluorescein angiography were normal except for pallor of the right optic disc. SD-OCT showed a diffuse thinning of the retina in the posterior pole of the right eye. A severe constriction of the visual fields was found in both eyes but more in the right eye. The photopic full-field electroretinograms (ERGs were reduced in the right eye but normal in the left eye. The multifocal ERGs were severely reduced throughout the visual field except in the central area of the right eye. The multifocal ERGs from the left eye were normal. The pattern visual evoked responses were within the normal range in both eyes. She had a 5-year history of sniffing paint thinner. Results: Although the visual dysfunction was initially suspected to be due to psychological problems from the results of subjective tests, objective tests indicated a peripheral cone dysfunction in the right eye. The pathophysiological mechanism and the relationship with thinner sniffing were not determined. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that peripheral cone dysfunction can occur unilaterally. Electrophysiology and SD-OCT are valuable tests to perform to determine the pathogenesis of unusual ocular findings objectively.

  13. Weather types across the Caribbean basin and their relationship with rainfall and sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moron, Vincent; Gouirand, Isabelle; Taylor, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Eight weather types (WTs) are computed over 98.75°W-56.25°W, 8.75°N-31.25°N using cluster analysis of daily low-level (925 hPa) winds and outgoing longwave radiation, without removing the mean annual cycle, by a k-means algorithm from 1979 to 2013. The WTs can be firstly interpreted as snapshots of the annual cycle with a clear distinction between 5 "wintertime" and 3 "summertime" WTs, which account together for 70 % of the total mean annual rainfall across the studied domain. The wintertime WTs occur mostly from late November to late April and are characterized by varying intensity and location of the North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH) and transient synoptic troughs along the northern edge of the domain. Large-scale subsidence dominates the whole basin but rainfall can occur over sections of the basin, especially on the windward shores of the troughs associated with the synoptic waves. The transition between wintertime and summertime WTs is rather abrupt, especially in May. One summertime WT (WT 4) is prevalent in summer, and almost exclusive around late July. It is characterized by strong NASH, fast Caribbean low level jet and rainfall mostly concentrated over the Caribbean Islands, the Florida Peninsula, the whole Central America and the tropical Eastern Pacific. The two remaining summertime WTs display widespread rainfall respectively from Central America to Bermuda (WT 5) and over the Eastern Caribbean (WT 6). Both WTs combine reduced regional scale subsidence and weaker Caribbean low-level jet relatively to WT 4. The relationships between WT frequency and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are broadly linear. Warm central and eastern ENSO events are associated with more WT 4 (less WT 5-6) during boreal summer and autumn (0) while this relationship is reversed during boreal summer (+1) for central events only. In boreal winter, the largest anomalies are observed for two WTs consistent with negative (WT 2) and positive (WT 8) phases of the

  14. Vascular access in neonatology: peripherally inserted central catheter and peripheral venous catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Lienemann

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to present aspects of peripherally inserted central catheter and peripheral venous catheter, highlighting important points in choosing the type of access. For the passage of peripherally inserted central catheter is previously performing specific course necessary, while the primary indication occurs when it is necessary to access the patient's stay for a long period of time. Whereas peripheral venipuncture is the most appropriate in cases of needing an IV line quickly and safely, for the administration of fluids, blood collection, blood transfusion and other.

  15. The Ross Sea Dipole – temperature, snow accumulation and sea ice variability in the Ross Sea region, Antarctica, over the past 2700 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. N. Bertler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution, well-dated climate archives provide an opportunity to investigate the dynamic interactions of climate patterns relevant for future projections. Here, we present data from a new, annually dated ice core record from the eastern Ross Sea, named the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE ice core. Comparison of this record with climate reanalysis data for the 1979–2012 interval shows that RICE reliably captures temperature and snow precipitation variability in the region. Trends over the past 2700 years in RICE are shown to be distinct from those in West Antarctica and the western Ross Sea captured by other ice cores. For most of this interval, the eastern Ross Sea was warming (or showing isotopic enrichment for other reasons, with increased snow accumulation and perhaps decreased sea ice concentration. However, West Antarctica cooled and the western Ross Sea showed no significant isotope temperature trend. This pattern here is referred to as the Ross Sea Dipole. Notably, during the Little Ice Age, West Antarctica and the western Ross Sea experienced colder than average temperatures, while the eastern Ross Sea underwent a period of warming or increased isotopic enrichment. From the 17th century onwards, this dipole relationship changed. All three regions show current warming, with snow accumulation declining in West Antarctica and the eastern Ross Sea but increasing in the western Ross Sea. We interpret this pattern as reflecting an increase in sea ice in the eastern Ross Sea with perhaps the establishment of a modern Roosevelt Island polynya as a local moisture source for RICE.

  16. Collective behaviour of climate indices in the North Pacific air—sea system and its potential relationships with decadal climate changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiao-Juan; Zhi Rong; He Wen-Ping; Gong Zhi-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    A climate network of six climate indices of the North Pacific air—sea system is constructed during the period of 1948–2009. In order to find out the inherent relationship between the intrinsic mechanism of climate index network and the important climate shift, the synchronization behaviour and the coupling behaviour of these indices are investigated. Results indicate that climate network synchronization happened around the beginning of the 1960s, in the middle of the 1970s and at the beginnings of the 1990s and the 2000s separately. These synchronization states were always followed by the decrease of the coupling coefficient. Each synchronization of the network was well associated with the abrupt phase or trend changes of annually accumulated abnormal values of North Pacific sea-surface temperature and 500-hPa height, among which the one that happened in the middle of the 1970s is the most noticeable climate shift. We can also obtain this mysterious shift from the first mode of the empirical orthogonal function of six indices. That is to say, abrupt climate shift in North Pacific air—sea system is not only shown by the phase or trend changes of climate indices, but also might be indicated by the synchronizing and the coupling of climate indices. Furthermore, at the turning point of 1975, there are also abrupt correlation changes in the yearly mode of spatial degree distribution of the sea surface temperature and 500-hPa height in the region of the North Pacific, which further proves the probability of climate index synchronization and coupling shift in air—sea systems. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  17. Collective behaviour of climate indices in the North Pacific air-sea system and its potential relationships with decadal climate changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiao-Juan; Zhi Rong; He Wen-Ping; Gong Zhi-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    A climate network of six climate indices of the North Pacific air-sea system is constructed during the period of 1948-2009.In order to find out the inherent relationship between the intrinsic mechanism of climate index network and the important climate shift,the synchronization behaviour and the coupling behaviour of these indices are investigated.Results indicate that climate network synchronization happened around the beginning of the 1960s,in the middle of the 1970s and at the beginnings of the 1990s and the 2000s separately.These synchronization states were always followed by the decrease of the coupling coefficient.Each synchronization of the network was well associated with the abrupt phase or trend changes of annually accumulated abnormal vaiues of North Pacific sea-surface temperature and 500-hPa height,among which the one that happened in the middle of the 1970s is the most noticeable climate shift.We can also obtain this mysterious shift from the first mode of the empirical orthogonal function of six indices.That is to say,abrupt climate shift in North Pacific air-sea system is not only shown by the phase or trend changes of climate indices,but also night be indicated by the synchronizing and the coupling of climate indices.Furthermore,at the turning point of 1975,there are also abrupt correlation changes in the yearly mode of spatial degree distribution of the sea surface temperature and 500-hPa height in the region of the North Pacific,which further proves the probability of climate index synchronization and coupling shift in air-sea systems.

  18. Temporal and spatial variations of oceanic pCO2 and air-sea CO2 flux in th Greenland Sea and the Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaoka, Shin-Ichiro; Aoki, Shuji; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Yoshikawa-Inoue, Hisayuki

    2006-01-01

    In order to elucidate the seasonal and inter annual variations of oceanic CO 2 uptake in the Greenland Sea and the Barents Sea, the partial pressure of CO 2 in the surface ocean (pCO 2 sea ) was measured in all seasons between 1992 and 2001. We derived monthly varying relationships between pCO 2 sea and sea surface temperature (SST) and combined them with the SST data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis to determine pCO 2 sea and air-sea CO 2 flux in these seas. The pCO 2 sea values were normalized to the year 1995 by assuming that pCO 2 sea increased at the same growth rate (1.5 μatm/yr) of the pCO 2 in the air (pCO 2 air ) between 1992 and 2001. In 1995, the annual net air-sea CO 2 fluxes were evaluated to be 52 ± 20 gC/m 2 /yr in the Greenland Sea and 46 ± 18 gC/m 2 /yr in the Barents Sea. The CO 2 flux into the ocean reached its maximum in winter and minimum in summer. The wind speed and (delta)pCO 2 (=pCO 2 air -pCO 2 sea ) exerted a greater influence on the seasonal variation than the sea ice coverage. The annual CO 2 uptake examined in this study (70-80 deg N, 20 deg W-40 deg E) was estimated to be 0.050 ± 0.020 GtC/yr in 1995. The inter annual variation in the annual CO 2 uptake was found to be positively correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) via wind strength but negatively correlated with (delta)pCO 2 and the sea ice coverage. The present results indicate that the variability in wind speed and sea ice coverage play a major role, while that in (delta)pCO 2 plays a minor role, in determining the interannual variation of CO 2 uptake in this area

  19. Life on the margin: genetic isolation and diversity loss in a peripheral marine ecosystem, the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Kerstin; André, Carl

    2006-07-01

    Marginal populations are often isolated and under extreme selection pressures resulting in anomalous genetics. Consequently, ecosystems that are geographically and ecologically marginal might have a large share of genetically atypical populations, in need of particular concern in management of these ecosystems. To test this prediction, we analysed genetic data from 29 species inhabiting the low saline Baltic Sea, a geographically and ecologically marginal ecosystem. On average Baltic populations had lost genetic diversity compared to Atlantic populations: a pattern unrelated to dispersal capacity, generation time of species and taxonomic group of organism, but strongly related to type of genetic marker (mitochondrial DNA loci had lost c. 50% diversity, and nuclear loci 10%). Analyses of genetic isolation by geographic distance revealed clinal patterns of differentiation between Baltic and Atlantic regions. For a majority of species, clines were sigmoid with a sharp slope around the Baltic Sea entrance, indicating impeded gene flows between Baltic and Atlantic populations. Some species showed signs of allele frequencies being perturbed at the edge of their distribution inside the Baltic Sea. Despite the short geological history of the Baltic Sea (8000 years), populations inhabiting the Baltic have evolved substantially different from Atlantic populations, probably as a consequence of isolation and bottlenecks, as well as selection on adaptive traits. In addition, the Baltic Sea also acts a refuge for unique evolutionary lineages. This marginal ecosystem is thus vulnerable but also exceedingly valuable, housing unique genes, genotypes and populations that constitute an important genetic resource for management and conservation.

  20. Time-effect relationship of chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes after radiation therapy for seminoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauchinger, M.; Schmid, E.; Braselmann, H.; Willich, N.; Clemm, C.

    1989-01-01

    The time-effect relationship of dicentrics and cells containing unstable chromosome abnormalities C u cells) was studied in peripheral lymphocytes of 40 blood samples from 23 suffering from seminoma during a time period of 0-1720 days after radiation therapy. Nine patients were studied before treatment. Since the half-time for the disappearance of damaged cells from circulating blood is an increasing function of post-exposure time it can only be expressed as a differential value. The present model discriminates between the mean lifetime m for lymphocytes and a parameter q which is the differential half-time for the decline of damaged cells immediately after exposure (t=0). If the time t is hort compared with m the decline is asymptotically time-hyperbolic rather than exponential and can be described by q only. According to recalculations of previous data, comprising 30 years post exposure, m approximates 10 years. Differential half-times can be derived for any time post treatment within the analysed time period for the decline of the incidence of dicentrics. For example at the end of therapy (t=0) the differential half-time was calculated to be 0.4 years and at 1720 days post exposure 3.6 years resulted. The corresponding values for the percentage of C u cells cannot be derived for t=0; at 1720 days 3.9 years resulted. (author). 13 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  1. Petroleum in the South China Sea : a Chinese national interest

    OpenAIRE

    Snildal, Knut

    2000-01-01

    The thesis analyses the relationship between China's petroleum policies and China's involvement in the South China Sea conflict. The aim of the thesis is to determine what China's national interest are in the South China Sea, and to detect who forms, and how, China's South China Sea policy. The thesis discusses whether China's assumed interest in the South China Sea of exploiting the petroleum reserves of the territorially disputed areas of the South China Sea is a short-term national interes...

  2. Peripheral Arterial Disease study (PERART): prevalence and predictive values of asymptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzamora, María Teresa; Baena-Díez, José Miguel; Sorribes, Marta; Forés, Rosa; Toran, Pere; Vicheto, Marisa; Pera, Guillem; Reina, María Dolores; Albaladejo, Carlos; Llussà, Judith; Bundó, Magda; Sancho, Amparo; Heras, Antonio; Rubiés, Joan; Arenillas, Juan Francisco

    2007-12-11

    The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index (AAI) is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease). The aim of the PERART study (PERipheral ARTerial disease) is to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (both silent and symptomatic) in a general population of both sexes and determine its predictive value related to morbimortality (cohort study). This cross-over, cohort study consists of 2 phases: firstly a descriptive, transversal cross-over study to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, and secondly, a cohort study to evaluate the predictive value of AAI in relation to cardiovascular morbimortality. From September 2006 to June 2007, a total of 3,010 patients over the age of 50 years will be randomly selected from a population adscribed to 24 healthcare centres in the province of Barcelona (Spain). The diagnostic criteria of peripheral arterial disease will be considered as an AAI < 0.90, determined by portable Doppler (8 Mhz probe) measured twice by trained personnel. Cardiovascular risk will be calculated with the Framingham-Wilson tables, with Framingham calibrated by the REGICOR and SCORE groups. The subjects included will be evaluted every 6 months by telephone interview and the clnical history and death registries will be reviewed. The appearance of the following cardiovascular events will be considered as variables of response: transitory ischaemic accident, ictus, angina, myocardial infartction, symptomatic abdominal aneurysm and vascular mortality. In this study we hope to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, especially the silent forms, in the general population and establish its relationship with cardiovascular morbimortality. A low AAI may be a better marker of

  3. [Reflectance of sea ice in Liaodong Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhan-tang; Yang, Yue-zhong; Wang, Gui-fen; Cao, Wen-xi; Kong, Xiang-peng

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, the relationships between sea ice albedo and the bidirectional reflectance distribution in Liaodong Bay were investigated. The results indicate that: (1) sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is closely related to the components of sea ice, the higher the particulate concentration in sea ice surface is, the lower the sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is. On the contrary, the higher the bubble concentration in sea ice is, the higher sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is. (2) Sea ice albedo alpha(lambda) is similar to the bidirectional reflectance factor R(f) when the probe locates at nadir. The R(f) would increase with the increase in detector zenith theta, and the correlation between R(f) and the detector azimuth would gradually increase. When the theta is located at solar zenith 63 degrees, the R(f) would reach the maximum, and the strongest correlation is also shown between the R(f) and the detector azimuth. (3) Different types of sea ice would have the different anisotropic reflectance factors.

  4. Drug-induced peripheral neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilholm, Ole Jakob; Christensen, Alex Alban; Zedan, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy can be caused by medication, and various descriptions have been applied for this condition. In this MiniReview, the term 'drug-induced peripheral neuropathy' (DIPN) is used with the suggested definition: Damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system caused by a chemical...... substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention or diagnosis of a disease. Optic neuropathy is included in this definition. A distinction between DIPN and other aetiologies of peripheral neuropathy is often quite difficult and thus, the aim of this MiniReview is to discuss the major agents associated...

  5. Correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in atrophic gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Kong, Yu; Sun, Ning-Ning; Dong, Ai-Qin

    2018-01-01

    AIM To explore the correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). METHODS A total of 593 patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis by gastroscopy and pathological examination from September 2013 to September 2016 were selected for this study. The age of these patients ranged within 18- to 75-years-old. Blood pressure, height and weight were measured in each patient, and the body mass index value was calculated. Furthermore, gastric acid, serum gastrin, serum vitamin and serum creatinine tests were performed, and peripheral nerve conduction velocity and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were detected. In addition, the type of gastritis was determined by gastroscopy. The above factors were used as independent variables to analyze chronic gastritis with peripheral neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency risk factors, and to analyze the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and peripheral nerve conduction velocity. In addition, in the treatment of CAG on the basis of vitamin B12, patients with peripheral neuropathy were observed. RESULTS Age, H. pylori infection, CAG, vitamin B9 and vitamin B12 were risk factors for the occurrence of peripheral nerve degeneration. Furthermore, CAG and H. pylori infection were risk factors for chronic gastritis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Serum vitamin B12 level was positively correlated with sensory nerve conduction velocity in the tibial nerve (R = 0.463). After vitamin B12 supplementation, patients with peripheral neuropathy improved. CONCLUSION Serum vitamin B12 levels in patients with chronic gastritis significantly decreased, and the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy had a certain correlation. CAG and H. pylori infection are risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy. When treating CAG, vitamin B12 supplementation can significantly reduce peripheral nervous system lesions. Therefore, the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy

  6. Correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in atrophic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Kong, Yu; Sun, Ning-Ning; Dong, Ai-Qin

    2018-03-28

    To explore the correlation between serum vitamin B12 level and peripheral neuropathy in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). A total of 593 patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis by gastroscopy and pathological examination from September 2013 to September 2016 were selected for this study. The age of these patients ranged within 18- to 75-years-old. Blood pressure, height and weight were measured in each patient, and the body mass index value was calculated. Furthermore, gastric acid, serum gastrin, serum vitamin and serum creatinine tests were performed, and peripheral nerve conduction velocity and Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) were detected. In addition, the type of gastritis was determined by gastroscopy. The above factors were used as independent variables to analyze chronic gastritis with peripheral neuropathy and vitamin B12 deficiency risk factors, and to analyze the relationship between vitamin B12 levels and peripheral nerve conduction velocity. In addition, in the treatment of CAG on the basis of vitamin B12, patients with peripheral neuropathy were observed. Age, H. pylori infection, CAG, vitamin B9 and vitamin B12 were risk factors for the occurrence of peripheral nerve degeneration. Furthermore, CAG and H. pylori infection were risk factors for chronic gastritis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. Serum vitamin B12 level was positively correlated with sensory nerve conduction velocity in the tibial nerve ( R = 0.463). After vitamin B12 supplementation, patients with peripheral neuropathy improved. Serum vitamin B12 levels in patients with chronic gastritis significantly decreased, and the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy had a certain correlation. CAG and H. pylori infection are risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency and peripheral neuropathy. When treating CAG, vitamin B12 supplementation can significantly reduce peripheral nervous system lesions. Therefore, the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy associated with vitamin B12

  7. Nitroglycerin reverts clinical manifestations of poor peripheral perfusion in patients with circulatory shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.P. Lima (Alexandre ); M.E. van Genderen (Michel); J. van Bommel (Jasper); E. Klijn (Elko); T. Jansem (Tim); J. Bakker (Jan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Recent clinical studies have shown a relationship between abnormalities in peripheral perfusion and unfavorable outcome in patients with circulatory shock. Nitroglycerin is effective in restoring alterations in microcirculatory blood flow. The aim of this study was to

  8. Correlation between sea surface temperature and wind speed in Greenland Sea and their relationships with NAO variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Qu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO is one of the major causes of many recent changes in the Arctic Ocean. Generally, it is related to wind speed, sea surface temperature (SST, and sea ice cover. In this study, we analyzed the distributions of and correlations between SST, wind speed, NAO, and sea ice cover from 2003 to 2009 in the Greenland Sea at 10°W to 10°E, 65°N to 80°N. SST reached its peak in July, while wind speed reached its minimum in July. Seasonal variability of SST and wind speed was different for different regions. SST and wind speed mainly had negative correlations. Detailed correlation research was focused on the 75°N to 80°N band. Regression analysis shows that in this band, the variation of SST lagged three months behind that of wind speed. Ice cover and NAO had a positive correlation, and the correlation coefficient between ice cover and NAO in the year 2007 was 0.61. SST and NAO also had a positive correlation, and SST influenced NAO one month in advance. The correlation coefficients between SST and NAO reached 0.944 for the year 2005, 0.7 for the year 2008, and 0.74 for the year 2009 after shifting SST one month later. NAO also had a positive correlation with wind speed, and it also influenced wind speed one month in advance. The correlation coefficients between NAO and wind speed reached 0.783, 0.813, and 0.818 for the years 2004, 2005, and 2008, respectively, after shifting wind speed one month earlier.

  9. Impact of sea breeze on the wind-seas off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Neetu, S.; Shetye, S.R.; Chandramohan, P.

    , and fitted a theoretical equilibrium spectrum. The theoretical spectrum chosen was the TMA spectrum (Bouws et al 1985), formulated as an extension of the JONSWAP spec- trum (Hasselmann et al 1973) for wind-generated seas in a finite water depth. The depth... with the dispersion relationship for waves in finite water depth. The TMA spectrum that could provide the best fit for the sea-related observed spectrum off Goa, was determined by choosing the equivalent fetch and wind speed that minimized the sum of squares...

  10. Relationship between serum adiponectin concentration, body condition score, and peripheral tissue insulin response of dairy cows during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, J; Urh, C; Hostens, M; Van den Broeck, W; Sauerwein, H; Opsomer, G

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and peripheral tissue insulin response in dairy cows with a variable body condition score (BCS) during the dry period. Cows were selected at the beginning of the dry period based on BCS (BCS 3.75, n = 5). Animals were followed from the beginning of the dry period by weekly blood sampling and assessment of BCS and backfat thickness. Weekly blood samples were analyzed for adiponectin concentration using a bovine specific ELISA. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp tests were performed at the end of the dry period to measure peripheral tissue insulin response. Insulin dose response curves were established for both glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Regression analysis revealed that the serum concentrations of adiponectin dropped at the end of the dry period (P insulin responsiveness (reflecting the maximal effect of insulin; r = 0.76, P insulin sensitivity (reflecting the insulin concentration needed to achieve halfmaximal effect; r = -0.54, P = 0.13). At the level of the fatty acid metabolism, greater adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with lower NEFA levels during the HEC test reflecting the insulin responsiveness of the NEFA metabolism (r = -0.61, P = 0.08), whereas there was no association with the insulin sensitivity of the NEFA metabolism (r = -0.16, P = 0.67). In conclusion, serum concentrations of adiponectin were negatively associated with the BCS of dairy cows during the dry period and positively associated with insulin responsiveness of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. On the relationship between the early spring Indian Ocean's sea surface temperature (SST) and the Tibetan Plateau atmospheric heat source in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chenxu; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Cheng, Qiuming; Li, Yu; Jiang, Tingchen; San Liang, X.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of springtime Indian Ocean's sea surface temperature (SST) on the Tibetan Plateau's role as atmospheric heat source (AHS) in summer. The SST data of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature data set (HadISST) and the reanalysis data of the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) for 33 years (from 1979 to 2011) were used to analyze the relationship between the Indian Ocean SST and the Tibetan Plateau's AHS in summer, using the approaches that include correlation analysis, and lead-lag analysis. Our results show that some certain strong oceanic SSTs affect the summer plateau heat, specially finding that the early spring SSTs of the Indian Ocean significantly affect the plateau's ability to serve as a heat source in summer. Moreover, the anomalous atmospheric circulation and transport of water vapor are related to the Plateau heat variation.

  12. Age-dependent mixing of deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.R.; Maggaard, L.; Pope, R.H.; DeMaster, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Rates of bioturbation measured in deep-sea sediments commonly are tracer dependent; in particular, shorter lived radiotracers (such as 234 Th) often yield markedly higher diffusive mixing coefficients than their longer-lived counterparts (e.g., 210 Pb). At a single station in the 1,240-m deep Santa Catalina Basin, the authors document a strong negative correlation between bioturbation rate and tracer half-life. Sediment profiles of 234 Th (half-life = 24 days) yield an average mixing coefficient (60 cm 2 y -1 ) two orders of magnitude greater than that for 210 Pb (half-life = 22 y, mean mixing coefficient = 0.4 cm 2 y -1 ). A similar negative relationship between mixing rate and tracer time scale is observed at thirteen other deep-sea sites in which multiple radiotracers have been used to assess diffusive mixing rates. This relationship holds across a variety of radiotracer types and time scales. The authors hypothesize that this negative relationship results from age-dependent mixing, a process in which recently sedimented, food-rich particles are ingested and mixed at higher rates by deposit feeders than are older, food-poor particles. Results from an age-dependent mixing model demonstrate that this process indeed can yield the bioturbation-rate vs. tracer-time-scale correlations observed in deep-sea sediments. Field data on mixing rates of recently sedimented particles, as well as the radiotracer activity of deep-sea deposit feeders, provide strong support for the age-dependent mixing model. The presence of age-dependent mixing in deep-sea sediments may have major implications for diagenetic modeling, requiring a match between the characteristic time scales of mixing tracers and modeled reactants. 102 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  13. The length-weight and length-length relationships of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766 from Samsun, middle Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Özpiçak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, length-weight relationship (LWR and length-length relationship (LLR of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix were determined. A total of 125 specimens were sampled from Samsun, the middle Black Sea in 2014 fishing season. Bluefish specimens were monthly collected from commercial fishing boats from October to December 2014. All captured individuals (N=125 were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm for total, fork and standard lengths. The weight of each fish (W was recorded to the nearest 0.01 g. According to results of analyses, there were no statistically significant differences between sexes in term of length and weight (P˃0.05. The minimum and maximum total, fork and standard lengths of bluefish ranged between 13.5-23.6 cm, 12.50-21.80 cm and 10.60-20.10 cm, respectively. The equation of length-weight relationship were calculated as W=0.008TL3.12 (r2>0.962. Positive allometric growth was observed for bluefish (b>3. Length-length relationship was also highly significant (P<0.001 with coefficient of determination (r2 ranging from 0.916 to 0.988.

  14. North Sea oil and gas: a geographical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, K

    1976-01-01

    Only ten years after the first rig moved into position, British oil has been piped ashore from the North Sea and, by 1980, will be making a substantial contribution to UK energy supplies. The discovery of natural gas in 1967--for initially gas was the primary objective--has transformed the gas supply so that 90% of the UK's needs already come from the North Sea. The speed and concentration of exploration pinpoints the vital importance of this new energy source. Until now the major oil 'pipeline' in the world has been led between the Middle East and Western Europe, so this new energy source has far reaching implications, both political and economic. Keith Chapman examines these implications starting from events in the North Sea itself; the geological background, agreement on the division of the North Sea, relations between oil companies, and government embodied in offshore mining legislation. The latter part of the book concentrates on the onshore repercussions of offshore activities; how North Sea oil fits into the international oil system, the various options open for its utilisation, the attitude of the EEC towards Scottish-based resources, government policy for the North coast of Scotland--an area which planners classed as ''peripheral'' but which must now accommodate extensive support facilities and service industries for the oil sites. There is also the question of relations between national and commercial interests--government versus the giant multi-national companies which took the initial gamble in the North Sea and are now responsible for the development of a resource vital to the economic well-being of Western Europe.

  15. Propylthiouracil and peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Van Boekel

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy is a rare manifestation in hyperthyroidism. We describe the neurological manifestations of a 38 year old female with Graves' disease who developed peripheral neuropathy in the course of her treatment with propylthiouracil. After the drug was tapered off, the neurological signs disappeared. Therefore, we call attention for a possible toxic effect on peripheral nervous system caused by this drug.

  16. Image analysis software for following progression of peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epplin-Zapf, Thomas; Miller, Clayton; Larkin, Sean; Hermesmeyer, Eduardo; Macy, Jenny; Pellegrini, Marco; Luccarelli, Saverio; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Holmes, Timothy

    2009-02-01

    A relationship has been reported by several research groups [1 - 4] between the density and shapes of nerve fibers in the cornea and the existence and severity of peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy is a complication of several prevalent diseases or conditions, which include diabetes, HIV, prolonged alcohol overconsumption and aging. A common clinical technique for confirming the condition is intramuscular electromyography (EMG), which is invasive, so a noninvasive technique like the one proposed here carries important potential advantages for the physician and patient. A software program that automatically detects the nerve fibers, counts them and measures their shapes is being developed and tested. Tests were carried out with a database of subjects with levels of severity of diabetic neuropathy as determined by EMG testing. Results from this testing, that include a linear regression analysis are shown.

  17. Peripheral Neuropathy: Symptoms and Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Utah Research News Make a Difference Symptoms of Peripheral Neuropathy Print This Page Peripheral Neuropathy symptoms usually start ... more slowly over many years. The symptoms of peripheral neuropathy often include: A sensation of wearing an invisible “ ...

  18. Relationships Among Peripheral and Central Electrophysiological Measures of Spatial and Spectral Selectivity and Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheperle, Rachel A; Abbas, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    -in-Noise test. Spatial and spectral selectivity and speech perception were expected to be poorest with MAP 1 (closest electrode spacing) and best with MAP 3 (widest electrode spacing). Relationships among the electrophysiological and speech-perception measures were evaluated using mixed-model and simple linear regression analyses. All electrophysiological measures were significantly correlated with each other and with speech scores for the mixed-model analysis, which takes into account multiple measures per person (i.e., experimental MAPs). The ECAP measures were the best predictor. In the simple linear regression analysis on MAP 3 data, only the cortical measures were significantly correlated with speech scores; spectral auditory change complex amplitude was the strongest predictor. The results suggest that both peripheral and central electrophysiological measures of spatial and spectral selectivity provide valuable information about speech perception. Clinically, it is often desirable to optimize performance for individual CI users. These results suggest that ECAP measures may be most useful for within-subject applications when multiple measures are performed to make decisions about processor options. They also suggest that if the goal is to compare performance across individuals based on a single measure, then processing central to the auditory nerve (specifically, cortical measures of discriminability) should be considered.

  19. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation of peripheral-blood lymphocytes and stem cell take

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astaldi, G [Blood Research Foundation Center, Tortona, Italy; Karanovic, D; Vettori, P P; Karanovic, J; Piletic, O

    1974-01-01

    The effect of PHA-stimulation of peripheral-blood lymphocytes on the spleen-colony formation in irradiated rats was examined. 25-day old Wistar rats underwent total-body irradiation (600 R), and they were used as recipients. On the other hand, 2 and /sup 1///sub 2/ month old untreated Wistar rats were used as donors of peripheral-blood lymphocytes, which were obtained by sedimentation with Dextraven from defibrinated blood. Four rat lots were used. The 1st one did not receive irradiation, and was kept as ''blank control.'' The 2nd one was just irradiated and kept as ''radiated control.'' The 3rd and the 4th rat lots of the series were irradiated, but the former lot was injected i.v. with 5 x 10/sup 7/ peripheral-blood untreated lymphocytes, whereas the fourth lot was injected i.v. with the same amount of lymphocytes, which were previously incubated in vitro for 24 hrs with PHA-M (Difco). The results showed that the PHA-incubation of transplanted peripheral-blood lymphocytes significantly increases the number and size of the macroscopic spleen colonies, in relationship to the colonies which occurs after transplantation of untreated lymphocytes. Histo-cytological observation clearly showed that the colonies formed after injection of mitogen-pretreated peripheral-blood lymphocytes were predominantly of erythroid type and, then, of non-differentiated cells. Only a few of them were of a mixed type, consisting of both undifferentiated cells and erythroid cells.

  20. Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2014-10-01

    Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS) span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  1. Detection of free gastric cancer cell in peripheral and portal blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Ho Yoon; Lee, Jong Inn [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    In fact, there is no definite treatment modality after liver or hematogenous metastasis in the gastric cancer. So it is important to develop a new method to predict the high risk patients for systemic recurrence. If we can detect metastatic cell in circulation, it may be beneficial in assessing tumor progression, metastatic potential and prognosis. To establish the RT-PCR methodology for detection of CEA expressing cancer cells in peripheral and portal blood and to define the relationship between peripheral and portal blood detection rate of gastric cancer patients, we performed RT-PCR analysis with peripheral and portal blood samples from 24 patients with gastric cancer (stage Ia,b, n=3; stage II, n=2; stage IIIa, n=9; stage IIIb, n=7; stage IV, n=3) and checked serum CEA level preoperatively. Mean age was 49.2 years old and male : female was 1.2 : 2 (13:11 patients). The mean serum CEA level was 10.4 ng/ml and that was higher than normal in only 2 cases. There was no positive case of tumor cell in portal and peripheral blood using RT-PCR and CEA gene specific primer. Our results indicate that the incidence of circulating cancer cells is unexpectedly very low even in advanced gastric cancer patients. (author). 20 refs.

  2. Detection of free gastric cancer cell in peripheral and portal blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Ho Yoon; Lee, Jong Inn

    1998-01-01

    In fact, there is no definite treatment modality after liver or hematogenous metastasis in the gastric cancer. So it is important to develop a new method to predict the high risk patients for systemic recurrence. If we can detect metastatic cell in circulation, it may be beneficial in assessing tumor progression, metastatic potential and prognosis. To establish the RT-PCR methodology for detection of CEA expressing cancer cells in peripheral and portal blood and to define the relationship between peripheral and portal blood detection rate of gastric cancer patients, we performed RT-PCR analysis with peripheral and portal blood samples from 24 patients with gastric cancer (stage Ia,b, n=3; stage II, n=2; stage IIIa, n=9; stage IIIb, n=7; stage IV, n=3) and checked serum CEA level preoperatively. Mean age was 49.2 years old and male : female was 1.2 : 2 (13:11 patients). The mean serum CEA level was 10.4 ng/ml and that was higher than normal in only 2 cases. There was no positive case of tumor cell in portal and peripheral blood using RT-PCR and CEA gene specific primer. Our results indicate that the incidence of circulating cancer cells is unexpectedly very low even in advanced gastric cancer patients. (author). 20 refs

  3. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this page My Cart Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... Donating bone marrow Donor experiences videos Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...

  4. Relationships between otolith size and fish size in some mesopelagic and bathypelagic species from the Mediterranean Sea (Strait of Messina, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Battaglia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The length-weight relationships and the regressions between otolith size (length and width and fish length of some mesopelagic and bathypelagic fishes living in the central Mediterranean Sea were provided. Images and morphological description of otoliths (sagittae from 16 species belonging to the families of Gonostomatidae (1, Microstomatidae (2, Myctophidae (8, Phosichthyidae (2, Sternoptychidae (2 and Stomiidae (1 were given. The length-weight relationship showed an isometric growth in 13 species. No differences between right and left otolith sizes were detected by t-test, so a single linear regression was plotted against standard length (SL for otolith length (OL and otolith width (OW. Data fitted well to the regression model for both OL and OW to SL, for each species (R2 > 0.8. These relationships offer a helpful tool in feeding studies and also provide support to palaeontologists in their research on fish fossils.

  5. Surfactant control of air-sea gas exchange from North Sea coastal waters and the Atlantic Meridional Transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R.

    2016-02-01

    Suppression of gas transfer velocity (kw) by surfactants are well established, both in laboratory wind flumes and purposeful oceanic releases. However, the effects on kw of time and space varying concentrations of natural surfactant are inadequately studied. We have developed an automated gas exchange tank for simultaneous high precision measurement of kw in unmodified seawater samples. Here we present data from two studies along a coastal North Sea transect during 2012-2013 and the Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT) 24 from September to November 2014. Measurements of surfactant activity (SA), CDOM absorbance and chlorophyll-a have enabled us to characterize the effects of variable amounts of natural surfactant on kw. North Sea coastal waters range in k660 (kw normalized to the value for CO2 in freshwater at 20oC) was 6.8-24.5 cm hr-1 (n=20), with the ranges of SA, total CDOM absorbance (200-450 nm) and chlorophyll-a measured in the surface microlayer (SML) of our seawater samples were 0.08-0.38 mg l-1 T-X-100, 0.13-4.7 and 0.09-1.54 µg l-1, respectively. The AMT k660 ranged from 7.0-23.9 cm hr-1 (n=22), with SA measured in the SML and subsurface water (SSW) of our seawater samples ranging from 0.15-1.08 mg l-1 T-X-100 and 0.07-0.43 mg l-1 T-X-100, respectively. Importantly, we found 12-45% (North Sea) and 1-43% (AMT) k660 suppression relative to Milli-Q water that relate to seasonal and spatial differences in SA. The North Sea demonstrated notable seasonal influences on k660 suppression that were related to CDOM absorbance and chlorophyll-a. The degree of k660 suppression was highest in summer consistent with k660 control by natural surfactant. The degree of k660 suppression decreased with distance offshore in the North Sea and displayed a strong relationship with SA (r2 = 0.51-0.64, p = 0.02, n = 20). The AMT demonstrated notable differences in k660 suppression between hemispheres and across the Longhurst Provinces but the overall relationship between k660

  6. Predicting monsoon rainfall and pressure indices from sea surface temperature

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.

    The relationship between the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indian Ocean and monsoon rainfall has been examined by using 21 years data set (1967-87) of MOHSST.6 (Met. Office Historical Sea Surface Temperature data set, obtained from U.K. Met...

  7. Middle Holocene Organic Carbon and Biomarker Records from the South Yellow Sea: Relationship to the East Asian Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liang; Hu, Bangqi; Li, Jun; Dou, Yanguang; Xie, Luhua; Dong, Liang

    2018-03-01

    The East Asian monsoon system influences the sedimentation and transport of organic matter in East Asian marginal seas that is derived from both terrestrial and marine sources. In this study, we determined organic carbon (OC) isotope values, concentrations of marine biomarkers, and levels of OC and total nitrogen (TN) in core YSC-1 from the central South Yellow Sea (SYS). Our objectives were to trace the sources of OC and variations in palaeoproductivity since the middle Holocene, and their relationships with the East Asian monsoon system. The relative contributions of terrestrial versus marine organic matter in core sediments were estimated using a two-end-member mixing model of OC isotopes. Results show that marine organic matter has been the main sediment constituent since the middle Holocene. The variation of terrestrial organic carbon concentration (OCter) is similar to the EASM history. However, the variation of marine organic carbon concentration (OCmar) is opposite to that of the EASM curve, suggesting OCmar is distinctly influenced by terrestrial material input. Inputs of terrestrial nutrients into the SYS occur in the form of fluvial and aeolian dust, while concentrations of nutrients in surface water are derived mainly from bottom water via the Yellow Sea circulation system, which is controlled by the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). Variations in palaeoproductivity represented by marine organic matter and biomarker records are, in general, consistent with the recent EAWM intensity studies, thus, compared with EASM, EAWM may play the main role to control the marine productivity variations in the SYS.

  8. Evolutionary process of deep-sea bathymodiolus mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; de Oliveira Martins, Leonardo; Fujita, Yuko; Matsumoto, Hiroto; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro

    2010-04-27

    Since the discovery of deep-sea chemosynthesis-based communities, much work has been done to clarify their organismal and environmental aspects. However, major topics remain to be resolved, including when and how organisms invade and adapt to deep-sea environments; whether strategies for invasion and adaptation are shared by different taxa or unique to each taxon; how organisms extend their distribution and diversity; and how they become isolated to speciate in continuous waters. Deep-sea mussels are one of the dominant organisms in chemosynthesis-based communities, thus investigations of their origin and evolution contribute to resolving questions about life in those communities. We investigated worldwide phylogenetic relationships of deep-sea Bathymodiolus mussels and their mytilid relatives by analyzing nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequence data showed that mussels of the subfamily Bathymodiolinae from vents and seeps were divided into four groups, and that mussels of the subfamily Modiolinae from sunken wood and whale carcasses assumed the outgroup position and shallow-water modioline mussels were positioned more distantly to the bathymodioline mussels. We provisionally hypothesized the evolutionary history of Bathymodilolus mussels by estimating evolutionary time under a relaxed molecular clock model. Diversification of bathymodioline mussels was initiated in the early Miocene, and subsequently diversification of the groups occurred in the early to middle Miocene. The phylogenetic relationships support the "Evolutionary stepping stone hypothesis," in which mytilid ancestors exploited sunken wood and whale carcasses in their progressive adaptation to deep-sea environments. This hypothesis is also supported by the evolutionary transition of symbiosis in that nutritional adaptation to the deep sea proceeded from extracellular

  9. Tumors of peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Michael; Lutz, Amelie M.

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation between malignant and benign tumors of peripheral nerves in the early stages is challenging; however, due to the unfavorable prognosis of malignant tumors early identification is required. To show the possibilities for detection, differential diagnosis and clinical management of peripheral nerve tumors by imaging appearance in magnetic resonance (MR) neurography. Review of current literature available in PubMed and MEDLINE, supplemented by the authors' own observations in clinical practice. Although not pathognomonic, several imaging features have been reported for a differentiation between distinct peripheral nerve tumors. The use of MR neurography enables detection and initial differential diagnosis in tumors of peripheral nerves. Furthermore, it plays an important role in clinical follow-up, targeted biopsy and surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  10. Peripheral dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant S Kamat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentinogenic ghost cell tumors (DGCT are uncommon lesions mainly with rare peripheral types. This report presents a case of peripheral DGCT on the left side of the mandibular alveolar ridge of a heavy smoker, a 68-year-old man, with main presenting feature as a mild pain. Submandibular lymphadenopathy and radiological "saucerization" were evident. Differential diagnosis included fibroma, neurofibroma, peripheral ameloblastoma, peripheral odontogenic fibroma, and peripheral giant cell granuloma. Histologically, ameloblastoma-like epithelial elements were seen in association with grouped ghost cells. Proliferating polyhedral cells and stellate reticulum-like cells with various densities were spread over a wide range of the field. The lesion was curetted and after 2 years of follow up, it did not recur.

  11. Reconstructing sea level from paleo and projected temperatures 200 to 2100 AD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John; Jevrejeva, Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    -proxy reconstructions assuming that the established relationship between temperature and sea level holds from 200 to 2100 ad. Over the last 2,000 years minimum sea level (-19 to -26 cm) occurred around 1730 ad, maximum sea level (12–21 cm) around 1150 AD. Sea level 2090–2099 is projected to be 0.9 to 1.3 m for the A1B...

  12. Does high location and thickness of the Wrisberg ligament affect discoid lateral meniscus tear type based on peripheral detachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jin Hwan; Wang, Joon Ho; Kim, Dong Uk; Lee, Do Kyung; Kim, Jun Ho

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between discoid lateral meniscus (DLM) types based on peripheral detachment and anatomic features of Wrisberg ligament (WL) such as location and thickness based on magnetic resonance image (MRI). A total of 322 knees in 292 patients were reviewed. Patients were divided into four DLM types according to peripheral detachment: no shift (type 1), anterocentral shift (type 2), posterocentral shift (type 3) and central shift (type 4). We reviewed all MRI concentrating on the presence, location (high or low location), running angle, thickness of WL, and WL/posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) thickness ratio. The relationship between DLM types and anatomic features of WL were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and chi-square test. According to DLM types based on peripheral detachment, 149 knees were type 1, 38 were type 2, 79 were type 3, and 56 were type 4. Among the 322 knees, 302 (93.8%) had WL on MRI. In DLM patients, type 3 showed a statistically significant (Plocation of WL. In addition, type 3 had significantly larger (Plocation and thick WL are related to posterocentral shift type of DLM based on peripheral detachment. Based on our results, the high location and thick WL might provide information to surgeons in predicting the direction of peripheral detachment in symptomatic DLM patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness. PMID:25999883

  14. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation of peripheral-blood lymphocytes and stem cell take

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astaldi, G. (Blood Research Foundation Center, Tortona, Italy); Karanovic, D.; Vettori, P.P.; Karanovic, J.; Piletic, O.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of PHA-stimulation of peripheral-blood lymphocytes on the spleen-colony formation in irradiated rats was examined. 25-day old Wistar rats underwent total-body irradiation (600 R), and they were used as recipients. On the other hand, 2 and /sup 1///sub 2/ month old untreated Wistar rats were used as donors of peripheral-blood lymphocytes, which were obtained by sedimentation with Dextraven from defibrinated blood. Four rat lots were used. The 1st one did not receive irradiation, and was kept as ''blank control.'' The 2nd one was just irradiated and kept as ''radiated control.'' The 3rd and the 4th rat lots of the series were irradiated, but the former lot was injected i.v. with 5 x 10/sup 7/ peripheral-blood untreated lymphocytes, whereas the fourth lot was injected i.v. with the same amount of lymphocytes, which were previously incubated in vitro for 24 hrs with PHA-M (Difco). The results showed that the PHA-incubation of transplanted peripheral-blood lymphocytes significantly increases the number and size of the macroscopic spleen colonies, in relationship to the colonies which occurs after transplantation of untreated lymphocytes. Histo-cytological observation clearly showed that the colonies formed after injection of mitogen-pretreated peripheral-blood lymphocytes were predominantly of erythroid type and, then, of non-differentiated cells. Only a few of them were of a mixed type, consisting of both undifferentiated cells and erythroid cells.

  15. Peripheral nerve injury induces glial activation in primary motor cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Julieta Troncoso; Julieta Troncoso; Efraín Buriticá; Efraín Buriticá

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that peripheral facial nerve injuries are associated with sensorimotor cortex reorganization. We have characterized facial nerve lesion-induced structural changes in primary motor cortex layer 5 pyramidal neurons and their relationship with glial cell density using a rodent facial paralysis model. First, we used adult transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein in microglia and yellow fluorescent protein in pyramidal neurons which were subjected to eithe...

  16. The relation of near-infrared spectroscopy with changes in peripheral circulation in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima, Alexandre; van Bommel, Jasper; Sikorska, Karolina; van Genderen, Michel; Klijn, Eva; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Ince, Can; Bakker, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We conducted this observational study to investigate tissue oxygen saturation during a vascular occlusion test in relationship with the condition of peripheral circulation and outcome in critically ill patients. Prospective observational study. Multidisciplinary intensive care unit in a university

  17. Uric acid association with pulsatile and steady components of central and peripheral blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepeytre, Fanny; Lavoie, Pierre-Luc; Troyanov, Stéphan; Madore, François; Agharazii, Mohsen; Goupil, Rémi

    2018-03-01

    Whether the cardiovascular risk attributed to elevated uric acid levels may be explained by changes in central and peripheral pulsatile and/or steady blood pressure (BP) components remains controversial. In a cross-sectional analysis of normotensive and untreated hypertensive participants of the CARTaGENE populational cohort, we examined the relationship between uric acid, and both pulsatile and steady components of peripheral and central BP, using sex-stratified linear regressions. Of the 20 004 participants, 10 161 individuals without antihypertensive or uric acid-lowering drugs had valid pulse wave analysis and serum uric acid levels. In multivariate analysis, pulsatile components of BP were not associated with uric acid levels, whereas steady components [mean BP (MBP), peripheral and central DBP] were all associated with higher levels of uric acid levels in women and men (all P uric acid levels but not for MBP-adjusted cSBP. Peripheral and cSBP, which are aggregate measures of pulsatile and steady BP, were also associated with uric acid levels in women (β = 0.063 and 0.072, respectively, both P uric acid levels. Serum uric acid levels appear to be associated with both central and peripheral steady but not pulsatile BP, regardless of sex.

  18. Hepatic abscess versus peripheral cholangiocarcinoma: Sonographic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hwan Hoon; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kang, Chang Ho; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Hee [Kunkuk University College of Medicine, Chung-Ju Hospital, Chung-Ju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    To find out the sonographic findings that are useful to differentiate hepatic abscess from peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Twenty-two hepatic abscesses and 22 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas which had been confirmed histologically were included in this study. Objective points were echo characteristics of the lesion, internal septation, presence of peripheral low echoic rim, demarcation from normal liver(well or poorly defined), posterior enhancement, multiplicity, dilatation of bile duct(obstructive or non-obstructive), intrahepatic duct stone, pleural effusion, and intra-abdominal fluid collection. Echo characteristics of the lesion were classified in-to four types. Type I; Predominantly echogenic with hypoechoic portion, type II; Echogenic without hypoechoic portion, type III; Predominantly hypoechoic with echogenic portion, type IV; Hypoechoic without echogenic portion. 1)Nine abscesses and 2 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type I(p=0.037), 2)One abscess and 18 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type II(p=0.001), 3)Seven abscesses and none of peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type III(p=0.001), 4)Five abscesses and 2 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type IV(p=0.410). Only 7 abscesses showed internal septations(p=0.013). One abscess and 9 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas showed peripheral hypoechoic halos(p=0.012). Only 9 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas showed obstructive bile duct dilatation (p=0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between abscess and peripheral cholangiocarcinoma on other objective points. Predominantly echogenic with hypoechoic portion, predominantly hypoechoic with echogenic portion, and internal septation are the features suggestive of hepatic abscess, and echogenic without hypoechoic portion, peripheral hypoechoic halo, obstructive bile duct dilatation are suggestive of peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Therefore these sonographic findings are helpful to differentiate hepatic abscess from peripheral

  19. Association of peripheral neuropathy with circulating advanced glycation end products, soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products and other risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, C E; Michel, P-L; Gillery, P; Jaisson, S; Fonfrede, M; Morel, F; Hartemann, A; Bourron, O

    2014-11-01

    The pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy remains uncertain and nonenzymatic glycoxidation is one of the contributing mechanisms. The aim of this study was to assess the respective relationship of diabetic peripheral neuropathy with glycoxidation, compared with other identified risk factors, in patients with type 2 diabetes. We included 198 patients with type 2 diabetes and high risk for vascular complications. Circulating concentrations of three advanced glycation end products (carboxymethyllysine, methyl-glyoxal-hydroimidazolone-1, pentosidine) and of their soluble receptor (sRAGE) were measured. Peripheral neuropathy was assessed by the neuropathy disability score and by the monofilament test and defined as either an abnormal monofilament test and/or a neuropathy disability score ≥6. Multivariate regression analyses were performed adjusting for potential confounding factors for neuropathy: age, gender, diabetes duration, current smoking, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, height, peripheral arterial occlusive disease, glycated haemoglobin, estimated glomerular filtration rate and lipid profile. Prevalence of peripheral neuropathy was 20.7%. sRAGE and carboxymethyllysine were independently and positively associated with the presence of peripheral neuropathy. No significant association was found between peripheral neuropathy and methyl-glyoxal-hydroimidazolone-1 or pentosidine. Waist circumference, height and peripheral arterial occlusive disease were independently associated with peripheral neuropathy. Carboxymethyllysine and sRAGE were independently associated with peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Although the conclusions are limited by the absence of a healthy control population, this study confirms the relationship between advanced glycoxidation and diabetic peripheral neuropathy, independently of other risk factors. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Distributions and sources of volatile chlorocarbons and bromocarbons in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Bin; Yang, Gui-Peng; Lu, Xiao-Lan; Li, Li; He, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Concentrations of the six VHOC were determined in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. • VHOC distributions were affected by anthropogenic, biologic and hydrographic factors. • Diurnal variations of the six VHOC were observed. • Relationships between VHOC and related parameters were discussed. • Sources of the six VHOC were identified by principal component analysis. - Abstract: Six volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOC), namely, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform, were studied in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea from April to May, 2009. The spatial variability of these VHOC was influenced by various factors, including anthropogenic inputs, biogenic production and complicated hydrographic features such as Changjiang Diluted Water, Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass, and Kuroshio Current. Diurnal study results showed that factors such as solar irradiation, biological activity, and tide affected the abundance of these VHOC. Correlation analyses revealed that bromodichloromethane was positively correlated with chlorophyll a in surface seawater. Principal component analysis suggested that chlorinated compounds like carbon tetrachloride originated from anthropogenic sources whereas brominated compounds such as bromodichloromethane originated from biogenic sources. Sources of other chlorinated and brominated compounds may not be governed by biological processes in the marine environment

  1. Modeling the buoyancy-driven Black Sea Water outflow into the North Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kokkos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional numerical model was applied to simulate the Black Sea Water (BSW outflux and spreading over the North Aegean Sea, and its impact on circulation and stratification–mixing dynamics. Model results were validated against satellite-derived sea surface temperature and in-situ temperature and salinity profiles. Further, the model results were post-processed in terms of the potential energy anomaly, ϕ, analyzing the factors contributing to its change. It occurs that BSW contributes significantly on the Thracian Sea water column stratification, but its signal reduces in the rest of the North Aegean Sea. The BSW buoyancy flux contributed to the change of ϕ in the Thracian Sea by 1.23 × 10−3 W m−3 in the winter and 7.9 × 10−4 W m−3 in the summer, significantly higher than the corresponding solar heat flux contribution (1.41 × 10−5 W m−3 and 7.4 × 10−5 W m−3, respectively. Quantification of the ϕ-advective term crossing the north-western BSW branch (to the north of Lemnos Island, depicted a strong non-linear relation to the relative vorticity of Samothraki Anticyclone. Similar analysis for the south-western branch illustrated a relationship between the ϕ-advective term sign and the relative vorticity in the Sporades system. The ϕ-mixing term increases its significance under strong winds (>15 m s−1, tending to destroy surface meso-scale eddies.

  2. Peripheral visual performance enhancement by neurofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenya; Wan, Feng; Lou, Chin Ian; Vai, Mang I; Rosa, Agostinho

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral visual performance is an important ability for everyone, and a positive inter-individual correlation is found between the peripheral visual performance and the alpha amplitude during the performance test. This study investigated the effect of alpha neurofeedback training on the peripheral visual performance. A neurofeedback group of 13 subjects finished 20 sessions of alpha enhancement feedback within 20 days. The peripheral visual performance was assessed by a new dynamic peripheral visual test on the first and last training day. The results revealed that the neurofeedback group showed significant enhancement of the peripheral visual performance as well as the relative alpha amplitude during the peripheral visual test. It was not the case in the non-neurofeedback control group, which performed the tests within the same time frame as the neurofeedback group but without any training sessions. These findings suggest that alpha neurofeedback training was effective in improving peripheral visual performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show evidence for performance improvement in peripheral vision via alpha neurofeedback training.

  3. Clinical toxicity of peripheral nerve to intraoperative radiotherapy in a canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, Peter A. S.; DeLuca, Anne Marie; Bacher, John D.; Hampshire, Victoria A.; Terrill, Richard E.; Anderson, William J.; Kinsella, Timothy J.; Sindelar, William F.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The clinical late effects of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) on peripheral nerve were investigated in a foxhound model. Methods and Materials: Between 1982 and 1987, 40 animals underwent laparotomy with intraoperative radiotherapy of doses from 0-75 Gy administered to the right lumbosacral plexus. Subsequently, all animals were monitored closely and sacrificed to assess clinical effects to peripheral nerve. This analysis reports final clinical results of all animals, with follow-up to 5 years. Results: All animals treated with ≥ 25 Gy developed ipsilateral neuropathy. An inverse relationship was noted between intraoperative radiotherapy dose and time to neuropathy, with an effective dose for 50% paralysis (ED 50 ) of 17.2 Gy. One of the animals treated with 15 Gy IORT developed paralysis, after a much longer latency than the other animals. Conclusions: Doses of 15 Gy delivered intraoperatively may be accompanied by peripheral neuropathy with long-term follow-up. This threshold is less than that reported with shorter follow-up. The value of ED 50 determined here is in keeping with data from other animal trials, and from clinical trials in humans

  4. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...... surgical techniques and better outcome after peripheral nerve injury. Decision making in peripheral nerve surgery continues to be a complex challenge, where the mechanism of injury, repeated clinical evaluation, neuroradiological and neurophysiological examination, and detailed knowledge of the peripheral...... nervous system response to injury are prerequisite to obtain the best possible outcome. Surgery continues to be the primary treatment modality for peripheral nerve tumors and advances in adjuvant oncological treatment has improved outcome after malignant peripheral nerve tumors. The present chapter...

  5. Peripheral Circulatory Features during High-Frequency Jet Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kontorovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of a study of peripheral circulatory features during high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV. The main specific features of peripheral circulation and oxygen transport during HFJV are formulated on the basis of a study of cardiac output (impedance cardiography, peripheral vascular resistance, peripheral vascular blood filling (photoplethysmogram analysis, adaptive peripheral blood flow reactions (spectral analysis of peripheral vascular pulsation. HFJV gives rise to the peculiar pattern of peripheral hemodynamics and tissue gas exchange, which is characterized by higher oxygen uptake without a decrease in mixed venous blood saturation, with normal extraction coefficient and preserved low peripheral vascular resistance. During HFJV, unlike traditional ventilation, the main peripheral hemodynamic feature is the increased capillary bed blood volume caused by the blood flow involvement of reserve capillaries under control of volume (parasympathetic regulation of adaptive peripheral hemodynamic reactions. Key words: high-frequency jet ventilation, oxygen transport, peripheral hemodynamics.

  6. Evolutionary process of deep-sea bathymodiolus mussels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ichi Miyazaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since the discovery of deep-sea chemosynthesis-based communities, much work has been done to clarify their organismal and environmental aspects. However, major topics remain to be resolved, including when and how organisms invade and adapt to deep-sea environments; whether strategies for invasion and adaptation are shared by different taxa or unique to each taxon; how organisms extend their distribution and diversity; and how they become isolated to speciate in continuous waters. Deep-sea mussels are one of the dominant organisms in chemosynthesis-based communities, thus investigations of their origin and evolution contribute to resolving questions about life in those communities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We investigated worldwide phylogenetic relationships of deep-sea Bathymodiolus mussels and their mytilid relatives by analyzing nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequence data showed that mussels of the subfamily Bathymodiolinae from vents and seeps were divided into four groups, and that mussels of the subfamily Modiolinae from sunken wood and whale carcasses assumed the outgroup position and shallow-water modioline mussels were positioned more distantly to the bathymodioline mussels. We provisionally hypothesized the evolutionary history of Bathymodilolus mussels by estimating evolutionary time under a relaxed molecular clock model. Diversification of bathymodioline mussels was initiated in the early Miocene, and subsequently diversification of the groups occurred in the early to middle Miocene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The phylogenetic relationships support the "Evolutionary stepping stone hypothesis," in which mytilid ancestors exploited sunken wood and whale carcasses in their progressive adaptation to deep-sea environments. This hypothesis is also supported by the evolutionary transition of

  7. Distribution of trace elements in organs of six species of cetaceans from the Ligurian Sea (Mediterranean), and the relationship with stable carbon and nitrogen ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelli, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy); Das, K. [MARE center, Laboratory for Oceanology, University of Liege, B6 Sart-Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Pellegrini, R. De; Drava, G. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy); Lepoint, G. [MARE center, Laboratory for Oceanology, University of Liege, B6 Sart-Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Miglio, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy); Minganti, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche ed Alimentari - Universita degli Studi di Genova - Via Brigata Salerno, 13 I-16147 Genova (Italy)], E-mail: minganti@dictfa.unige.it; Poggi, R. [Museo Civico di Storia Naturale ' Giacomo Doria' - Via Brigata Liguria, 9 I-16121 Genova (Italy)

    2008-02-15

    Mercury (total and organic), cadmium, lead, copper, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc concentrations were measured in different organs of 6 different cetacean species stranded in an area of extraordinary ecological interest (Cetaceans' Sanctuary of the Mediterranean Sea) along the coast of the Ligurian Sea (North-West Mediterranean). Stable-isotopes ratios of carbon ({sup 13}C/{sup 12}C) and nitrogen ({sup 15}N/{sup 14}N) were also measured in the muscle. A significant relationship exists between {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N, mercury concentration and the trophic level. The distribution of essential and non-essential trace elements was studied on several organs, and a significant relationship between selenium and mercury, with a molar ratio close to 1, was found in the cetaceans' kidney, liver and spleen, regardless of their species. High selenium concentrations are generally associated with a low organic to total mercury ratio. While narrow ranges of concentrations were observed for essential elements in most organs, mercury and selenium concentrations are characterised by a wide range of variation. Bio-accumulation and bio-amplification processes in cetaceans can be better understood by comparing trace element concentrations with the stable-isotopes data.

  8. Prevalence of significant carotid artery stenosis in Iranian patients with peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghabili K

    2011-10-01

    patients had a history of coronary artery disease, six patients had hypertension, and ten patients had diabetes mellitus. Significant ICA stenosis was present in four patients (4.2% with peripheral arterial disease in one healthy individual (1% of the control group (P > 0.05. In terms of the risk factors for atherosclerosis, no statistically significant relationship was found between individual atherosclerotic risk factors and significant ICA stenosis (P > 0.05.Conclusion: The prevalence of significant ICA stenosis in Iranian patients with peripheral arterial disease is low. In addition, there is no relationship between individual atherosclerotic risk factors and significant ICA stenosis.Keywords: carotid artery stenosis, atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease, Iranian

  9. Paclitaxel Plasma Concentration after the First Infusion Predicts Treatment-Limiting Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Daniel L; Kidwell, Kelley M; Vangipuram, Kiran; Li, Feng; Pai, Manjunath P; Burness, Monika; Griggs, Jennifer J; Schott, Anne F; Van Poznak, Catherine; Hayes, Daniel F; Lavoie Smith, Ellen M; Henry, N Lynn

    2018-04-27

    Purpose: Paclitaxel exposure, specifically the maximum concentration ( C max ) and amount of time the concentration remains above 0.05 μmol/L ( T c >0.05 ), has been associated with the occurrence of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. The objective of this study was to validate the relationship between paclitaxel exposure and peripheral neuropathy. Experimental Design: Patients with breast cancer receiving paclitaxel 80 mg/m 2 × 12 weekly doses were enrolled in an observational clinical study (NCT02338115). Paclitaxel plasma concentration was measured at the end of and 16-26 hours after the first infusion to estimate C max and T c >0.05 Patient-reported peripheral neuropathy was collected via CIPN20 at each dose, and an 8-item sensory subscale (CIPN8) was used in the primary analysis to test for an association with T c >0.05 Secondary analyses were conducted using C max as an alternative exposure parameter and testing each parameter with a secondary endpoint of the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy-induced treatment disruption. Results: In 60 subjects included in the analysis, the increase in CIPN8 during treatment was associated with baseline CIPN8, cumulative dose, and relative dose intensity ( P 0.05 ( P = 0.27) nor C max ( P = 0.99). In analyses of the secondary endpoint, cumulative dose (OR = 1.46; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-1.80; P = 0.0008) and T c >0.05 (OR = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.06-3.01; P = 0.029) or C max (OR = 2.74; 95% CI, 1.45-5.20; P = 0.002) were associated with peripheral neuropathy-induced treatment disruption. Conclusions: Paclitaxel exposure is predictive of the occurrence of treatment-limiting peripheral neuropathy in patients receiving weekly paclitaxel for breast cancer. Studies are warranted to determine whether exposure-guided dosing enhances treatment effectiveness and/or prevents peripheral neuropathy in these patients. Clin Cancer Res; 1-9. ©2018 AACR. ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Position of peripheral venous cannulae and the incidence of thrombophlebitis: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicolini, Giancarlo; Bonghi, Antonia Pollidoro; Di Labio, Luisa; Di Mascio, Rocco

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to investigate the most suitable location of peripheral venous cannulae to reduce the incidence of thrombophlebitis. Peripheral intravenous cannulae are used for vascular access, but the site of insertion and size of the cannula could expose patients to local and systemic infectious complications. Small cannula size is an important factor in reducing the incidence of thrombophlebitis, but cannula location has not yet been studied. Evidence-based knowledge on how to prevent these complications is needed. An observational survey carried out was carried out in 2007 with 427 patients in one Italian hospital. A structured observation protocol was used to survey the frequency of thrombophlebitis and the relationship of location and size of peripheral intravenous cannulae. The variables evaluated were age, gender, cannula size and site of cannula location. Chi-square or Student t tests were used, and the adjusted odds ratios and relative 95% confidence intervals are reported. The frequency of peripheral intravenous cannulae thrombophlebitis was higher in females (OR:1.91;CI:1.20-3.03;P < 0.006). The highest incidence was found in patients with cannulae inserted in the dorsal side of the hand veins compared to those with cannulae inserted in cubital fossa veins (OR:3.33;CI:1.37-8.07; P < 0.001). The use of cubital fossa veins rather than forearm and hand veins should be encouraged to reduce the risk of thrombophlebitis in patients with peripheral intravenous cannulae.

  11. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in patients with peripheral vertigo: a prospective controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, Isa; Kahraman, Cuneyt; Balikci, Hasan Huseyin; Kucur, Cuneyt; Kahraman, Nilufer Kuzeyli; Ozkaya, Derya Pınar; Oghan, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between peripheral vertigo and inflammation by using the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as an inflammatory marker. We recruited 103 patients with peripheral vertigo (71 women, 32 men; mean age, 39.8 ± 14.7 years) who presented to the Otolaryngology Department of Dumlupinar University Hospital. Vertigo patients with systemic diseases, neurological disorders, malignancy or any inflammatory disease that could alter the NLR were excluded from the study. We also enrolled 103 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (controls; 82 women, 21 men; mean age, 36.7 ± 13.5 years) who underwent routine checkups in our hospital. The vertigo patients underwent full otolaryngologic and neurologic examinations and audiometric tests to rule out any other pathology causing the peripheral vertigo. NLR was calculated in all subjects and was compared between the patient and control groups. There were no significant differences between the study and control groups in terms of lipid profiles, liver-function tests, white blood cell (WBC) count, hemoglobin level, mean platelet volume, and vitamin B12 and folate levels. The mean NLR was significantly higher in the patients than in the controls (Pvertigo, found that the NLR is significantly higher among peripheral vertigo patients than among healthy controls. This result suggests that the NLR is a novel potential marker of stress in peripheral vertigo patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sea-ice induced growth decline in Arctic shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forchhammer, Mads

    2017-08-01

    Measures of increased tundra plant productivity have been associated with the accelerating retreat of the Arctic sea-ice. Emerging studies document opposite effects, advocating for a more complex relationship between the shrinking sea-ice and terrestrial plant productivity. I introduce an autoregressive plant growth model integrating effects of biological and climatic conditions for analysing individual ring-width growth time series. Using 128 specimens of Salix arctica , S. glauca and Betula nana sampled across Greenland to Svalbard, an overall negative effect of the retreating June sea-ice extent was found on the annual growth. The negative effect of the retreating June sea-ice was observed for younger individuals with large annual growth allocations and with little or no trade-off between previous and current year's growth. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Peripherally applied opioids for postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B N; Henneberg, S W; Schmiegelow, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids applied peripherally at the site of surgery may produce postoperative analgesia with few side effects. We performed this systematic review to evaluate the analgesic effect of peripherally applied opioids for acute postoperative pain. METHODS: We searched PubMed (1966 to June...... 2013), Embase (1980 to June 2013), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 6). Randomized controlled trials investigating the postoperative analgesic effect of peripherally applied opioids vs. systemic opioids or placebo, measured by pain intensity...... difference -5 mm, 95% CI: -7 to -3) for peripherally applied opioids vs. placebo and statistically significant increased time to first analgesic (mean difference 153 min, 95% CI: 41-265). When preoperative inflammation was reported (five studies), peripherally applied opioids significantly improved...

  14. Distribution of microbial populations and their relationship with environmental variables in the North Yellow Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaoge; Wang, Min; Liang, Yantao; Zhang, Zhifeng; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Xuejiao

    2012-03-01

    In order to understand the large-scale spatial distribution characteristics of picoplankton, nanophytoplankton and virioplankton and their relationship with environmental variables in coastal and offshore waters, flow cytometry (FCM) was used to analyze microbial abundance of samples collected in summer from four depths at 36 stations in the North Yellow Sea (NYS). The data revealed spatial heterogeneity in microbial populations in the offshore and near-shore waters of the NYS during the summer. For the surface layer, picoeukaryotes were abundant in the near-shore waters, Synechococcus was abundant in the offshore areas, and bacterial and viral abundances were high in the near-shore waters around the Liaodong peninsula. In the near-shore waters, no significant vertical variation of picophytoplankton (0.2-2μm) abundance was found. However, the nanophytoplankton abundance was higher in the upper layers (from the surface to 10 m depth) than in the bottom layer. For the offshore waters, both pico- and nanophytoplankton (2-20μm) abundance decreased sharply with depth in the North Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (NYSCWM). But, for the vertical distribution of virus and bacteria abundance, no significant variation was observed in both near-shore and offshore waters. Autotrophic microbes were more sensitive to environmental change than heterotrophic microbes and viruses. Viruses showed a positive correlation with bacterial abundance, suggesting that the bacteriophage might be prominent for virioplankton (about 0.45μm) in summer in the NYS and that viral abundance might play an important role in microbial loop functions.

  15. Burn-related peripheral neuropathy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yiji; Lineaweaver, William C; Zheng, Xianyou; Chen, Zenggan; Mullins, Fred; Zhang, Feng

    2017-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent disabling neuromuscular complication of burns. However, the insidious and progressive onset of burn neuropathy makes it often undiagnosed or overlooked. In our study, we reviewed the current studies on the burn-related peripheral neuropathy to summarize the morbidity, mechanism, detecting method and management of peripheral neuropathy in burn patients. Of the 1533 burn patients included in our study, 98 cases (6.39%) were presented with peripheral neuropathy. Thermal and electrical burns were the most common etiologies. Surgical procedures, especially nerve decompression, showed good effect on functional recovery of both acute and delayed peripheral neuropathy in burn patients. It is noteworthy that, for early detection and prevention of peripheral neuropathy, electrodiagnostic examinations should be performed on burn patients independent of symptoms. Still, the underlying mechanisms of burn-related peripheral neuropathy remain to be clarified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of brevetoxin exposure on the immune system of loggerhead sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Catherine J; Leggett, Stephanie R; Carter, Barbara J; Colle, Clarence

    2010-05-10

    Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, occur almost annually off the Florida coast. These blooms, commonly called "red tides", produce a group of neurotoxins collectively termed brevetoxins. Many species of sealife, including sea turtles, are severely impacted by brevetoxin exposure. Effects of brevetoxins on immune cells were investigated in rescued loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, as well as through in vitro experiments using peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) collected from captive sea turtles. In rescued animals, plasma brevetoxin concentrations were measured using a competitive ELISA. Plasma lysozyme activity was measured using a turbidity assay. Lysozyme activity correlated positively with plasma brevetoxin concentrations. Differential expression of genes affected by brevetoxin exposure was determined using two separate suppression subtractive hybridization experiments. In one experiment, genes from PBL collected from sea turtles rescued from red tide toxin exposure were compared to genes from PBL collected from healthy captive loggerhead sea turtles. In the second experiment, PBL from healthy captive loggerhead sea turtles were exposed to brevetoxin (500 ng PbTx-2/ml) in vitro for 18 h and compared to unexposed PBL. Results from the subtraction hybridization experiment conducted with red tide rescued sea turtle PBL indicated that genes involved in oxidative stress or xenobiotic metabolism were up-regulated. Using quantitative real-time PCR, a greater than 2-fold increase in superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin and greater than 10-fold increase in expression of thiopurine S-methyltransferase were observed. Results from the in vitro subtraction hybridization experiment indicated that genes coding for cytochrome c oxidases were the major up-regulated genes. Using quantitative real-time PCR, a greater than 8-fold increase in expression of beta-tubulin and greater than 3-fold increase in expression of ubiquinol were observed. Brevetoxin

  17. Temperature rise, sea level rise and increased radiative forcing - an application of cointegration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmith, Torben; Thejll, Peter; Johansen, Søren

    2016-04-01

    We analyse the statistical relationship between changes in global temperature, global steric sea level and radiative forcing in order to reveal causal relationships. There are in this, however, potential pitfalls due to the trending nature of the time series. We therefore apply a statistical method called cointegration analysis, originating from the field of econometrics, which is able to correctly handle the analysis of series with trends and other long-range dependencies. Further, we find a relationship between steric sea level and temperature and find that temperature causally depends on the steric sea level, which can be understood as a consequence of the large heat capacity of the ocean. This result is obtained both when analyzing observed data and data from a CMIP5 historical model run. Finally, we find that in the data from the historical run, the steric sea level, in turn, is driven by the external forcing. Finally, we demonstrate that combining these two results can lead to a novel estimate of radiative forcing back in time based on observations.

  18. Study on the relationship between peripheral blood red blood cells imuno-function status and serum gastrin level in patients with peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin; Fan Rong; Luo Honglai; Wang Ying; Tao Liangliang; Wang Zhenkai

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between changes of peripheral blood red blood cells immuno-function status and serum gastrin level in patients with peptic ulcer. Methods: RBC immuno-function status was studied with immune methods and serum gastrin level was measured with RIA in 51 patients with peptic ulcer and compared with 35 healthy control group. Results: RBC-C3bRR percentage was significantly lower in patients with peptic ulcer than that in controls (P<0.01), while serum gastrin level was significantly higher (P<0.01). RBC-C3bRR was significantly nagatively correlated to serum gastrin (r=-0.3828, P<0.01). RBC-ICRRR percentage was prominently higher than that in healthy controls (P<0.01), and RBC-ICRRR was positively correlated to serum gastrin level (r=0.4185, P<0.01). Conclusion: There were disturbance of RBC immune-regulation with suppressed immune function and higher gastrin levels in patients with peptic ulcer. (authors)

  19. Relationships between total length and otolith size of bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766 in the Marmara Sea of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Bal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, was monthly collected from commercial fishing boats operating in the Marmara Sea between January and December 2014. The relationship between total length and otolith size of 346 bluefish samples were examined. Total lengths of females, males and unidentified samples were ranged from between 13.2-37.0, 12.3-34.8 and 13.0-31.6 cm, respectively. Otolith lengths were between 3.82-12.60 mm and otolith width were between 1.59-4.34 mm for all samples. It was found that there is a strong correlations between otolith length-total length (r2 =0.88 and otolith width-total length (r2 0.81.

  20. 40K in the Black Sea: a proxy to estimate biogenic sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Gulina, L.V.; Sidorov, I.G.; Proskurnin, V.Yu.; Duka, M.S.; Moseichenko, I.N.; Rodina, E.A.

    2014-01-01

    An approach to estimate the rate of biogenic sedimentation in the Black Sea using the naturally occurring radionuclide 40 K has been considered. It allows assessment of the contribution of suspended matter of biological origin to the overall sediment accumulation in the Black Sea coastal, shelf and deep-water areas. Based upon this method, a relationship between the biogenic fraction of the seabed sediments and the water depth has been established with a view to differentiating the contributions of allochthonous and autochthonous suspended matter to the sedimentation rate. Overall, 40 K can be considered as an easily applicable proxy to assess sedimentation rate of biogenic fraction of particulate matter in marine environments. - Highlights: • 40 K-based approach was developed to assess biogenic sedimentation in the Black Sea. • 40 K-derived relationship between biogenic sedimentation and water depth was traced. • 40 K is an easily applicable proxy to estimate rate of biogenic sedimentation in sea

  1. Marine Creatures and the Sea in Bronze Age Greece: Ambiguities of Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Ina

    2013-06-01

    Like most cultures, prehistoric Greek communities had an ambiguous relationship with the sea and the creatures that inhabit it. Positive and negative associations always co-existed, though the particular manifestations changed over time. By drawing together evidence of consumption of marine animals, seafaring, fishing, and iconography, this article unites disparate strands of evidence in an attempt to illuminate the relationship prehistoric Greeks had with marine creatures and the sea. Based on the marked reduction in seafood consumption after the Mesolithic and the use of marine creatures in funerary iconography in the post-palatial period, it becomes apparent that the sea—then as now—is an inherently ambiguous medium that captures both positive and negative emotions. On the one hand, the sea and the animals residing in it are strongly associated with death. On the other hand, the sea's positive dimensions, such as fertility and rebirth, are expressed in conspicuous marine consumption events.

  2. Relationship between ocular surface temperature and peripheral vasoconstriction in healthy subjects: a thermographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannetti, Federica; Matteoli, Sara; Finocchio, Lucia; Lacarbonara, Francesco; Sodi, Andrea; Menchini, Ugo; Corvi, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    An impairment of ocular blood flow regulation is commonly considered one of the main pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of several eye diseases, like glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an alteration of ocular blood supply induced by peripheral vasoconstriction might be detected by measuring the ocular surface temperature. The ocular surface temperature was evaluated in a group of 38 healthy young subjects (28 males and 10 females; mean age: 25.4 ± 4.1 years) by infrared thermography. For each subject, the experimental procedure consisted of two thermographic acquisitions both lasting 10 s, recorded before and during the immersion of both hands in a mixture of ice and water (1.6 °C ± 0.4 °C). Specifically, the second acquisition began 20 s after the hand immersion. Analysis of variance was used to compare the ocular surface temperature of the two profiles. The analysis of infrared images was carried out every 2 s: at the eye opening (t(0)) until 10 s (t(5)), for both profiles. Data showed that ocular surface temperature increased significantly (p-value temperature at t(0) for P(1) = 0.12 °C ± 0.13 °C). Therefore, these results suggest a response of the ocular hemodynamic to the peripheral vasoconstriction. The ocular surface temperature may represent a cheap, non-invasive and non-time-consuming test to evaluate ocular vaso-regulation.

  3. Discrete innervation of murine taste buds by peripheral taste neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Faisal N; Whitehead, Mark C

    2006-08-09

    The peripheral taste system likely maintains a specific relationship between ganglion cells that signal a particular taste quality and taste bud cells responsive to that quality. We have explored a measure of the receptoneural relationship in the mouse. By injecting single fungiform taste buds with lipophilic retrograde neuroanatomical markers, the number of labeled geniculate ganglion cells innervating single buds on the tongue were identified. We found that three to five ganglion cells innervate a single bud. Injecting neighboring buds with different color markers showed that the buds are primarily innervated by separate populations of geniculate cells (i.e., multiply labeled ganglion cells are rare). In other words, each taste bud is innervated by a population of neurons that only connects with that bud. Palate bud injections revealed a similar, relatively exclusive receptoneural relationship. Injecting buds in different regions of the tongue did not reveal a topographic representation of buds in the geniculate ganglion, despite a stereotyped patterned arrangement of fungiform buds as rows and columns on the tongue. However, ganglion cells innervating the tongue and palate were differentially concentrated in lateral and rostral regions of the ganglion, respectively. The principal finding that small groups of ganglion cells send sensory fibers that converge selectively on a single bud is a new-found measure of specific matching between the two principal cellular elements of the mouse peripheral taste system. Repetition of the experiments in the hamster showed a more divergent innervation of buds in this species. The results indicate that whatever taste quality is signaled by a murine geniculate ganglion neuron, that signal reflects the activity of cells in a single taste bud.

  4. Influence of blood flow occlusion on the development of peripheral and central fatigue during small muscle mass handgrip exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxterman, R M; Craig, J C; Smith, J R; Wilcox, S L; Jia, C; Warren, S; Barstow, T J

    2015-09-01

    Critical power represents an important threshold for neuromuscular fatigue development and may, therefore, dictate intensities for which exercise tolerance is determined by the magnitude of fatigue accrued. Peripheral fatigue appears to be constant across O2 delivery conditions for large muscle mass exercise, but this consistency is equivocal for smaller muscle mass exercise. We sought to determine the influence of blood flow occlusion during handgrip exercise on neuromuscular fatigue development and to examine the relationship between neuromuscular fatigue development and W '. Blood flow occlusion influenced the development of both peripheral and central fatigue, thus providing further evidence that the magnitude of peripheral fatigue is not constant across O2 delivery conditions for small muscle mass exercise. W ' appears to be related to the magnitude of fatigue accrued during exercise, which may explain the reported consistency of intramuscular metabolic perturbations and work performed for severe-intensity exercise. The influence of the muscle metabolic milieu on peripheral and central fatigue is currently unclear. Moreover, the relationships between peripheral and central fatigue and the curvature constant (W ') have not been investigated. Six men (age: 25 ± 4 years, body mass: 82 ± 10 kg, height: 179 ± 4 cm) completed four constant power handgrip tests to exhaustion under conditions of control exercise (Con), blood flow occlusion exercise (Occ), Con with 5 min post-exercise blood flow occlusion (Con + Occ), and Occ with 5 min post-exercise blood flow occlusion (Occ + Occ). Neuromuscular fatigue measurements and W ' were obtained for each subject. Each trial resulted in significant peripheral and central fatigue. Significantly greater peripheral (79.7 ± 5.1% vs. 22.7 ± 6.0%) and central (42.6 ± 3.9% vs. 4.9 ± 2.0%) fatigue occurred for Occ than for Con. In addition, significantly greater peripheral (83.0 ± 4.2% vs. 69.0 ± 6.2%) and central

  5. The Caribbean conundrum of Holocene sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Luke; Mound, Jon

    2014-05-01

    In the tropics, pre-historic sea-level curve reconstruction is often problematic because it relies upon sea-level indicators whose vertical relationship to the sea surface is poorly constrained. In the Caribbean, fossil corals, mangrove peats and shell material dominate the pre-historic indicator record. The common approach to reconstruction involves the use of modern analogues to these indicators to establish a fixed vertical habitable range. The aim of these reconstructions is to find spatial variability in the Holocene sea level in an area gradually subsiding (different depths. We use the first catalogue to calibrate 14C ages to give a probabilistic age range for each indicator. We use the second catalogue to define a depth probability distribution function (pdf) for mangroves and each coral species. The Holocene indicators are grouped into 12 sub-regions around the Caribbean. For each sub-region we apply our sea-level reconstruction, which involves stepping a fixed-length time window through time and calculating the position (and rate) of sea-level (change) using a thousand realisations of the time/depth pdfs to define an envelope of probable solutions. We find that the sub-regional relative sea-level curves display spatio-temporal variability including a south-east to north-west 1500 year lag in the arrival of Holocene sea level to that of the present day. We demonstrate that these variations are primarily due to glacial-isostatic-adjustment induced sea-level change and that sub-regional variations (where sufficient data exists) are due to local uplift variability.

  6. Deep Coherent Vortices and Their Sea Surface Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ienna, Federico; Bashmachnikov, Igor; Dias, Joaquim; Peliz, Alvaro

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean Water eddies, known as Meddies, are an important dynamic process occurring at depths of 1000-meters in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. Meddies occur as a direct result of the Mediterranean Outflow exiting through the Gibraltar Strait, and represent a prevalent mechanism that can be found extensively throughout the ocean. Moreover, Meddy cores are known to produce measurable expressions at the sea surface in the form of rotating coherent vortices, not only affecting the sea surface from beneath, but also allowing for the possibility to remotely study these deep phenomena through data gathered at the sea surface. While many past studies have focused on the properties of Meddy cores, only a handful of studies focus on the physical characteristics and behavior of the surface expressions produced. Are Meddy surface expressions different from other like vortices that dominate the physical ocean surface? What are the relationships between deep and surface mechanisms, and do any feedbacks exist? To shed light on these questions, we investigate the relationship between Meddies and their sea-surface expressions through observations using in-situ float and drifter profiles and satellite altimetry. A total of 782 Meddy cores were examined in the Northeast Atlantic using temperature and salinity data obtained by CTD and Argo during the Mecanismos de transporte e de dispersão da Água Mediterrânica no Atlântico Nordeste (MEDTRANS) project, and their corresponding sea-level expressions were geo-temporally matched in satellite altimetry data. We report several statistical properties of the sea-surface expressions of Meddies, including their mean diameter and vertical magnitude, and compare the properties of their surface features to the underlying Meddy cores. We investigate how the deep core affects the surface, and whether surface expressions may in return yield information about the underlying cores. Additionally, we examine the variability of the surface

  7. Intraoperative Ultrasound for Peripheral Nerve Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsey, Matthew; Wilson, Thomas J; Henning, Phillip Troy; Yang, Lynda J-S

    2017-10-01

    Offering real-time, high-resolution images via intraoperative ultrasound is advantageous for a variety of peripheral nerve applications. To highlight the advantages of ultrasound, its extraoperative uses are reviewed. The current intraoperative uses, including nerve localization, real-time evaluation of peripheral nerve tumors, and implantation of leads for peripheral nerve stimulation, are reviewed. Although intraoperative peripheral nerve localization has been performed previously using guide wires and surgical dyes, the authors' approach using ultrasound-guided instrument clamps helps guide surgical dissection to the target nerve, which could lead to more timely operations and shorter incisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bio-optical characterization in an ultra-oligotrophic region: the North central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kheireddine, Malika

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, satellite-derived ocean color observations have been the only means of evaluating optical variability of the Red Sea. During a cruise in autumn 2014, we investigated the variability of Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) in the North Central Red Sea (NCRS) with a particular focus on the particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp, and colored dissolved organic matter, CDOM, absorption. To our knowledge, these are some of the measurements of these properties in the Red Sea. The IOPs are derived from the concentration and physical properties of suspended particles in the ocean. They provide a simple description of the influence of these particles on the light within the water column. Bio-optical relationships found for ultra-oligotrophic waters of the six stations sampled significantly depart from the mean standard relationships provided for the global ocean, showing the peculiar character of the Red Sea. These optical anomalies relate to the specific biological and environmental conditions occurring in the Red Sea ecosystem. Specifically, the surface specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients are lower than the values predicted from the global relationships due to a high proportion of relatively large sized phytoplankton. Conversely, bbp values are much higher than the mean standard values for a given chlorophyll-a concentration, Chl a. This presumably results from the influence of highly refractive submicrometer particles of Saharan origin in the surface layer of the water column.

  9. Virulence Profiles of Vibrio vulnificus in German Coastal Waters, a Comparison of North Sea and Baltic Sea Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Bier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio vulnificus is a halophilic bacterium of coastal environments known for sporadically causing severe foodborne or wound infections. Global warming is expected to lead to a rising occurrence of V. vulnificus and an increasing incidence of human infections in Northern Europe. So far, infections in Germany were exclusively documented for the Baltic Sea coast, while no cases from the North Sea region have been reported. Regional variations in the prevalence of infections may be influenced by differences in the pathogenicity of V. vulnificus populations in both areas. This study aimed to compare the distribution of virulence-associated traits and genotypes among 101 V. vulnificus isolates from the Baltic Sea and North Sea in order to assess their pathogenicity potential. Furthermore, genetic relationships were examined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST. A high diversity of MLST sequences (74 sequence types and differences regarding the presence of six potential pathogenicity markers were observed in the V. vulnificus populations of both areas. Strains with genotypes and markers associated with pathogenicity are not restricted to a particular geographic region. This indicates that lack of reported cases in the North Sea region is not caused by the absence of potentially pathogenic strains.

  10. Functional deficits in peripheral nerve mitochondria in rats with paclitaxel- and oxaliplatin-evoked painful peripheral neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Huaien; Xiao, Wen Hua; Bennett, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapeutics like paclitaxel and oxaliplatin produce a dose-limiting chronic sensory peripheral neuropathy that is often accompanied by neuropathic pain. The cause of the neuropathy and pain is unknown. In animal models, paclitaxel-evoked and oxaliplatin-evoked painful peripheral neuropathies are accompanied by an increase in the incidence of swollen and vacuolated mitochondria in peripheral nerve axons. It has been proposed that mitochondrial swelling and vacuolation are indicati...

  11. Mini-review: Far peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    The region of far peripheral vision, beyond 60 degrees of visual angle, is important to the evaluation of peripheral dark shadows (negative dysphotopsia) seen by some intraocular lens (IOL) patients. Theoretical calculations show that the limited diameter of an IOL affects ray paths at large angles, leading to a dimming of the main image for small pupils, and to peripheral illumination by light bypassing the IOL for larger pupils. These effects are rarely bothersome, and cataract surgery is highly successful, but there is a need to improve the characterization of far peripheral vision, for both pseudophakic and phakic eyes. Perimetry is the main quantitative test, but the purpose is to evaluate pathologies rather than characterize vision (and object and image regions are no longer uniquely related in the pseudophakic eye). The maximum visual angle is approximately 105 0 , but there is limited information about variations with age, race, or refractive error (in case there is an unexpected link with the development of myopia), or about how clear cornea, iris location, and the limiting retina are related. Also, the detection of peripheral motion is widely recognized to be important, yet rarely evaluated. Overall, people rarely complain specifically about this visual region, but with "normal" vision including an IOL for >5% of people, and increasing interest in virtual reality and augmented reality, there are new reasons to characterize peripheral vision more completely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and related fluctuations of trade winds in the region. The Southeast Asian sea region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer timescales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past 20 years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the Southeast Asian sea region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends during the 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the Southeast Asian seas will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  13. Sea-level records from the U.S. mid-Atlantic constrain Laurentide Ice Sheet extent during Marine Isotope Stage 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, T; Creveling, J R; Mitrovica, J X

    2017-05-30

    The U.S. mid-Atlantic sea-level record is sensitive to the history of the Laurentide Ice Sheet as the coastline lies along the ice sheet's peripheral bulge. However, paleo sea-level markers on the present-day shoreline of Virginia and North Carolina dated to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3, from 50 to 35 ka, are surprisingly high for this glacial interval, and remain unexplained by previous models of ice age adjustment or other local (for example, tectonic) effects. Here, we reconcile this sea-level record using a revised model of glacial isostatic adjustment characterized by a peak global mean sea level during MIS 3 of approximately -40 m, and far less ice volume within the eastern sector of the Laurentide Ice Sheet than traditional reconstructions for this interval. We conclude that the Laurentide Ice Sheet experienced a phase of very rapid growth in the 15 kyr leading into the Last Glacial Maximum, thus highlighting the potential of mid-field sea-level records to constrain areal extent of ice cover during glacial intervals with sparse geological observables.

  14. Arctic cloud-climate feedbacks: On relationships between Arctic clouds, sea ice, and lower tropospheric stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P. C.; Boeke, R.; Hegyi, B.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic low clouds strongly affect the Arctic surface energy budget. Through this impact Arctic low clouds influence other important aspects of the Arctic climate system, namely surface and atmospheric temperature, sea ice extent and thickness, and atmospheric circulation. Arctic clouds are in turn influenced by these Arctic climate system elements creating the potential for Arctic cloud-climate feedbacks. To further our understanding of the potential for Arctic cloud-climate feedbacks, we quantify the influence of atmospheric state on the surface cloud radiative effect (CRE). In addition, we quantify the covariability between surface CRE and sea ice concentration (SIC). This paper builds on previous research using instantaneous, active remote sensing satellite footprint data from the NASA A-Train. First, the results indicate significant differences in the surface CRE when stratified by atmospheric state. Second, a statistically insignificant covariability is found between CRE and SIC for most atmospheric conditions. Third, we find a statistically significant increase in the average surface longwave CRE at lower SIC values in fall. Specifically, a +3-5 W m-2 larger longwave CRE is found over footprints with 0% versus 100% SIC. Because systematic changes on the order of 1 W m-2 are sufficient to explain the observed long-term reductions in sea ice extent, our results indicate a potentially significant amplifying sea ice-cloud feedback that could delay the fall freeze-up and influence the variability in sea ice extent and volume, under certain meteorological conditions. Our results also suggest that a small change in the frequency of occurrence of atmosphere states may yield a larger Arctic cloud feedback than any cloud response to sea ice.

  15. Continuous sea-level reconstructions beyond the Pleistocene: improving the Mediterranean sea-level method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K.; Rohling, E. J.; Amies, J.

    2017-12-01

    Sea-level (SL) reconstructions over glacial-interglacial timeframes are critical for understanding the equilibrium response of ice sheets to sustained warming. In particular, continuous and high-resolution SL records are essential for accurately quantifying `natural' rates of SL rise. Global SL changes are well-constrained since the last glacial maximum ( 20,000 years ago, ky) by radiometrically-dated corals and paleoshoreline data, and fairly well-constrained over the last glacial cycle ( 150 ky). Prior to that, however, studies of ice-volume:SL relationships tend to rely on benthic δ18O, as geomorphological evidence is far more sparse and less reliably dated. An alternative SL reconstruction method (the `marginal basin' approach) was developed for the Red Sea over 500 ky, and recently attempted for the Mediterranean over 5 My (Rohling et al., 2014, Nature). This method exploits the strong sensitivity of seawater δ18O in these basins to SL changes in the relatively narrow and shallow straits which connect the basins with the open ocean. However, the initial Mediterranean SL method did not resolve sea-level highstands during Northern Hemisphere insolation maxima, when African monsoon run-off - strongly depleted in δ18O - reached the Mediterranean. Here, we present improvements to the `marginal basin' sea-level reconstruction method. These include a new `Med-Red SL stack', which combines new probabilistic Mediterranean and Red Sea sea-level stacks spanning the last 500 ky. We also show how a box model-data comparison of water-column δ18O changes over a monsoon interval allows us to quantify the monsoon versus SL δ18O imprint on Mediterranean foraminiferal carbonate δ18O records. This paves the way for a more accurate and fully continuous SL reconstruction extending back through the Pliocene.

  16. Long term clinical outcome of peripheral nerve stimulation in patients with chronic peripheral neuropathic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calenbergh, F. Van; Gybels, J.; Laere, K. Van

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic neuropathic pain after injury to a peripheral nerve is known to be resistant to treatment. Peripheral nerve stimulation is one of the possible treatment options, which is, however, not performed frequently. In recent years we have witnessed a renewed interest for PNS. The aim...... of the present study was to evaluate the long-term clinical efficacy of PNS in a group of patients with peripheral neuropathic pain treated with PNS since the 1980s. METHODS: Of an original series of 11 patients, 5 patients could be invited for clinical examination, detailed assessment of clinical pain and QST...... functioning) also showed positive effects. Quantitative Sensory Testing results did not show significant differences in cold pain and heat pain thresholds between the "ON" and "OFF" conditions. CONCLUSION: In selected patients with peripheral neuropathic pain PNS remains effective even after more than 20...

  17. Maternal obesity influences the relationship between location of neonate fat mass and total fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, H R; Thornton, J; Paley, C; Navder, K; Gallagher, D

    2015-08-01

    It is suggested that maternal obesity perpetuates offspring obesity to future generations. To determine whether location of neonate fat mass (FM: central vs. peripheral) is related to total neonate FM and whether maternal obesity influences this relationship. Neonate body composition and skin-fold thicknesses were assessed in healthy neonates (n = 371; 1-3 days old). Linear regression models examined the relationship between total FM and location of FM (central vs. peripheral). Location of FM was calculated by skin-folds: peripheral was the sum of (biceps and triceps)/2 and central was represented by the subscapular skin-fold. A significant interaction was found for location of FM and maternal obesity. Holding all predictors constant, in offspring born to non-obese mothers, a 0.5 mm increase in central FM predicted a 15 g greater total FM, whereas a 0.5 mm increase in peripheral FM predicted a 66 g greater total FM. However, in offspring born to obese mothers, a 0.5 mm increase in central FM predicted a 56 g total FM, whereas a 0.5 mm increase in peripheral FM predicted a 14 g greater total FM. The relationship between total FM and location of FM is influenced by maternal obesity. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  18. Variation in the biochemical response to l-thyroxine therapy and relationship with peripheral thyroid hormone conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, John E M; Larisch, Rolf; Dietrich, Johannes W; Hoermann, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Several influences modulate biochemical responses to a weight-adjusted levothyroxine (l-T4) replacement dose. We conducted a secondary analysis of the relationship of l-T4 dose to TSH and free T3 (FT3), using a prospective observational study examining the interacting equilibria between thyroid parameters. We studied 353 patients on steady-state l-T4 replacement for autoimmune thyroiditis or after surgery for malignant or benign thyroid disease. Peripheral deiodinase activity was calculated as a measure of T4–T3 conversion efficiency. In euthyroid subjects, the median l-T4 dose was 1.3 μg/kg per day (interquartile range (IQR) 0.94,1.60). The dose was independently associated with gender, age, aetiology and deiodinase activity (all P29 nmol/s revealed an increasing FT3–FT4 dissociation; the poorest converters showed the lowest FT3 levels in spite of the highest dose and circulating FT4 (P<0.001). An l-T4-related FT3–TSH disjoint was also apparent; some patients with fully suppressed TSH failed to raise FT3 above the median level. These findings imply that thyroid hormone conversion efficiency is an important modulator of the biochemical response to l-T4; FT3 measurement may be an additional treatment target; and l-T4 dose escalation may have limited success to raise FT3 appropriately in some cases. PMID:26335522

  19. Longitudinal peripheral blood transcriptional analysis of a patient with severe Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, John C; Walters, Kathie-Anne; Kindrachuk, Jason; Baxter, David; Scherler, Kelsey; Janosko, Krisztina B; Adams, Rick D; Herbert, Andrew S; James, Rebekah M; Stonier, Spencer W; Memoli, Matthew J; Dye, John M; Davey, Richard T; Chertow, Daniel S; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2017-04-12

    The 2013-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone was unprecedented in the number of documented cases, but there have been few published reports on immune responses in clinical cases and their relationships with the course of illness and severity of Ebola virus disease. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease can include severe headache, myalgia, asthenia, fever, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and hemorrhage. Although experimental treatments are in development, there are no current U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapies. We report a detailed study of host gene expression as measured by microarray in daily peripheral blood samples collected from a patient with severe Ebola virus disease. This individual was provided with supportive care without experimental therapies at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center from before onset of critical illness to recovery. Pearson analysis of daily gene expression signatures revealed marked gene expression changes in peripheral blood leukocytes that correlated with changes in serum and peripheral blood leukocytes, viral load, antibody responses, coagulopathy, multiple organ dysfunction, and then recovery. This study revealed marked shifts in immune and antiviral responses that preceded changes in medical condition, indicating that clearance of replicating Ebola virus from peripheral blood leukocytes is likely important for systemic viral clearance. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Theory versus practice in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobos, Víctor, E-mail: vlobosg@gmail.com [CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Research Group on Strategic Approaches to Environment and Sustainability (SENSU), 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, San Crescente 551, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Partidario, Maria [CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Research Group on Strategic Approaches to Environment and Sustainability (SENSU), 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-09-15

    Could the theory of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) be ahead of its time and decoupled from its practice? This paper evolved in search for this leading research question. Over the years the discourse on SEA experienced a gradual shift from the technocratic and rationalist thinking that supported its origin to more strategic approaches and integrated concepts, suggested since the mid 1990's. In this paper we share the results of our analysis of international thinking and practical experience with SEA. Results reveal that SEA practice changes very slowly when compared to advanced thinking supporting the noted shift. Current SEA practice shows to be still predominantly rooted in the logic of projects' environmental impact assessment (EIA). It is strongly bound to legal and regulatory requirements, and the motivation for its application persists being the delivery of environmental (or final) reports to meet legal obligations. Even though advanced SEA theoretical thinking claim its potential to help decisions to look forward, change mind-sets and the rationale of decision-making to meet sustainability challenges and enhance societal values, we note a weak relationship between the theoretical development of SEA and its practice. Why is this happening? Which factors explain this apparent inertia, resistance to change, in the SEA practice? Results appear to demonstrate the influence of assumptions, understandings, concepts, and beliefs in the use of SEA, which in turn suggest the political sensitivity of the instrument. - Highlights: • Theoretical thinking in SEA is ahead of its time. • SEA international practice reveals inertia to move out of project’ EIA comfort zone. • World current SEA practice show similar understandings of 30 years ago. • 100 world reports and survey of practitioners supported world review. • SEA great challenge is to change paradigms into new scientific complexity theories.

  1. Theory versus practice in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobos, Víctor; Partidario, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Could the theory of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) be ahead of its time and decoupled from its practice? This paper evolved in search for this leading research question. Over the years the discourse on SEA experienced a gradual shift from the technocratic and rationalist thinking that supported its origin to more strategic approaches and integrated concepts, suggested since the mid 1990's. In this paper we share the results of our analysis of international thinking and practical experience with SEA. Results reveal that SEA practice changes very slowly when compared to advanced thinking supporting the noted shift. Current SEA practice shows to be still predominantly rooted in the logic of projects' environmental impact assessment (EIA). It is strongly bound to legal and regulatory requirements, and the motivation for its application persists being the delivery of environmental (or final) reports to meet legal obligations. Even though advanced SEA theoretical thinking claim its potential to help decisions to look forward, change mind-sets and the rationale of decision-making to meet sustainability challenges and enhance societal values, we note a weak relationship between the theoretical development of SEA and its practice. Why is this happening? Which factors explain this apparent inertia, resistance to change, in the SEA practice? Results appear to demonstrate the influence of assumptions, understandings, concepts, and beliefs in the use of SEA, which in turn suggest the political sensitivity of the instrument. - Highlights: • Theoretical thinking in SEA is ahead of its time. • SEA international practice reveals inertia to move out of project’ EIA comfort zone. • World current SEA practice show similar understandings of 30 years ago. • 100 world reports and survey of practitioners supported world review. • SEA great challenge is to change paradigms into new scientific complexity theories

  2. Linking Regional Winter Sea Ice Thickness and Surface Roughness to Spring Melt Pond Fraction on Landfast Arctic Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Nasonova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic sea ice cover has decreased strongly in extent, thickness, volume and age in recent decades. The melt season presents a significant challenge for sea ice forecasting due to uncertainty associated with the role of surface melt ponds in ice decay at regional scales. This study quantifies the relationships of spring melt pond fraction (fp with both winter sea ice roughness and thickness, for landfast first-year sea ice (FYI and multiyear sea ice (MYI. In 2015, airborne measurements of winter sea ice thickness and roughness, as well as high-resolution optical data of melt pond covered sea ice, were collected along two ~5.2 km long profiles over FYI- and MYI-dominated regions in the Canadian Arctic. Statistics of winter sea ice thickness and roughness were compared to spring fp using three data aggregation approaches, termed object and hybrid-object (based on image segments, and regularly spaced grid-cells. The hybrid-based aggregation approach showed strongest associations because it considers the morphology of the ice as well as footprints of the sensors used to measure winter sea ice thickness and roughness. Using the hybrid-based data aggregation approach it was found that winter sea ice thickness and roughness are related to spring fp. A stronger negative correlation was observed between FYI thickness and fp (Spearman rs = −0.85 compared to FYI roughness and fp (rs = −0.52. The association between MYI thickness and fp was also negative (rs = −0.56, whereas there was no association between MYI roughness and fp. 47% of spring fp variation for FYI and MYI can be explained by mean thickness. Thin sea ice is characterized by low surface roughness allowing for widespread ponding in the spring (high fp whereas thick sea ice has undergone dynamic thickening and roughening with topographic features constraining melt water into deeper channels (low fp. This work provides an important contribution towards the parameterizations of fp in

  3. EFFECT OF MODERATE ALTITUDE ON PERIPHERAL MUSCLE OXYGENATION DURING LEG RESISTANCE EXERCISE IN YOUNG MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Matsuoka

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Training at moderate altitude (~1800m is often used by athletes to stimulate muscle hypoxia. However, limited date is available on peripheral muscle oxidative metabolism at this altitude (1800AL. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute exposure to 1800AL alters muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis muscle during resistance exercise. Twenty young active male subjects (aged 16 - 21 yr performed up to 50 repetitions of the parallel squat at 1800AL and near sea level (SL. They performed the exercise protocol within 3 h after arrival at 1800 AL. During the exercise, the changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (OxyHb in the vastus lateralis muscle, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2, and heart rate were measured using near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (NIRcws and pulse oximetry, respectively. Changes in OxyHb were expressed by Deff defined as the relative index of the maximum change ratio (% from the resting level. OxyHb in the vastus lateralis muscle decreased dramatically from the resting level immediately after the start of exercise at both altitudes. The Deff during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001 lower at 1800AL (60.4 ± 6.2 % than at near SL (74.4 ± 7.6 %. SpO2 during exercise was significantly (p < 0.001 lower at 1800AL (92.0 ± 1.7 % than at near SL (96.7 ± 1.2 %. Differences (SL - 1800AL in Deff during exercise correlated fairly strongly with differences in SpO2 during exercise (r = 0.660. These results suggested that acute exposure to moderate altitude caused a more dramatical decrease in peripheral muscle oxygenation during leg resistance exercise. It is salient to note, therefore , that peripheral muscle oxygenation status at moderate altitude could be evaluated using NIRcws and that moderate altitudes might be effectively used to apply hypoxic stress on peripheral muscles.

  4. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part III: Peripheral nerves of the lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Berta; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-06-01

    The ultrasonographic examination is currently increasingly used in imaging peripheral nerves, serving to supplement the physical examination, electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive and well-tolerated by patients. The typical ultrasonographic picture of peripheral nerves as well as the examination technique have been discussed in part I of this article series, following the example of the median nerve. Part II of the series presented the normal anatomy and the technique for examining the peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part of the article series focuses on the anatomy and technique for examining twelve normal peripheral nerves of the lower extremity: the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves, the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, the pudendal, sciatic, tibial, sural, medial plantar, lateral plantar, common peroneal, deep peroneal and superficial peroneal nerves. It includes diagrams showing the proper positioning of the sonographic probe, plus USG images of the successively discussed nerves and their surrounding structures. The ultrasonographic appearance of the peripheral nerves in the lower limb is identical to the nerves in the upper limb. However, when imaging the lower extremity, convex probes are more often utilized, to capture deeply-seated nerves. The examination technique, similarly to that used in visualizing the nerves of upper extremity, consists of locating the nerve at a characteristic anatomic reference point and tracking it using the "elevator technique". All 3 parts of the article series should serve as an introduction to a discussion of peripheral nerve pathologies, which will be presented in subsequent issues of the "Journal of Ultrasonography".

  5. Projecting Future Sea Level Rise for Water Resources Planning in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Kao, K.; Chung, F.

    2008-12-01

    that account for this acceleration are needed. One such method is an empirical relationship between air temperatures and global sea levels. The air temperature-sea level rise relationship was applied to the 12 climate change projections selected by the California Climate Action Team to estimate future sea levels. The 95% confidence level developed from the historical data was extrapolated to estimate the uncertainties in the future projections. To create sea level rise trend probability distributions, a lognormal probability distribution and a generalized extreme value probability distribution are used. Parameter estimations for these distributions are subjective and inevitably involve uncertainties, which will be improved as more research is conducted in this area.

  6. Treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Casandra J; Watson, James C

    2015-02-01

    Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy impairs quality of life and can be difficult to treat. To discuss current treatment recommendations for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Literature review. Systematic review of the literature discussing treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Existing treatment guidelines were studied and compared. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy occurs in about one in six people with diabetes. This condition impairs quality of life and increases healthcare costs. Treatment recommendations exist, but individual patient therapy can require a trial-and-error approach. Many treatment options have adjuvant benefits or side effects which should be considered prior to initiating therapy. Often, a combination of treatment modalities with various mechanisms of action is required for adequate pain control. Adequate medication titration and a reasonable trial period should be allowed. The treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy can be challenging, but effective management can improve patient's quality of life. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy impairs quality of life and can be difficult to treat. Many treatment options have adjuvant benefits or side effects which should be considered prior to initiating therapy. Often, a combination of treatment modalities with various mechanisms of action is required for adequate pain control. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  7. Fish production and climate: Sprat in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Köster, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    Processes controlling the production of new fish (recruitment) are poorly understood and therefore challenge population ecologists and resource managers. Sprat in the Baltic Sea is no exception: recruitment varies widely between years and is virtually independent of the biomass of mature sprat......-scale climate variability (North Atlantic Oscillation), Baltic Sea ice coverage, and water temperature. These relationships increase our understanding of sprat population dynamics and enable a desirable integration of fisheries ecology and management with climatology and oceanography....

  8. Density-dependent changes in effective area occupied for sea-bottom-associated marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorson, James T.; Rindorf, Anna; Gao, Jin

    2016-01-01

    among taxa and regions. The average relationship is weak but significant (0.6% increase in area for a 10% increase in abundance), whereas only a small proportion of species–region combinations show a negative relationship (i.e. shrinking area when abundance increases). Approximately one...... for every 10% abundance increase) followed by Pleuronectiformes and Scorpaeniformes, and the Eastern Bering Sea shows a strong relationship between abundance and area occupied relative to other regions. We conclude that the BM explains a small but important portion of spatial dynamics for sea......The spatial distribution of marine fishes can change for many reasons, including density-dependent distributional shifts. Previous studies show mixed support for either the proportional-density model (PDM; no relationship between abundance and area occupied, supported by ideal-free distribution...

  9. Promoting peripheral myelin repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye; Notterpek, Lucia

    2016-09-01

    Compared to the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nerves have a remarkable ability to regenerate and remyelinate. This regenerative capacity to a large extent is dependent on and supported by Schwann cells, the myelin-forming glial cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In a variety of paradigms, Schwann cells are critical in the removal of the degenerated tissue, which is followed by remyelination of newly-regenerated axons. This unique plasticity of Schwann cells has been the target of myelin repair strategies in acute injuries and chronic diseases, such as hereditary demyelinating neuropathies. In one approach, the endogenous regenerative capacity of Schwann cells is enhanced through interventions such as exercise, electrical stimulation or pharmacological means. Alternatively, Schwann cells derived from healthy nerves, or engineered from different tissue sources have been transplanted into the PNS to support remyelination. These transplant approaches can then be further enhanced by exercise and/or electrical stimulation, as well as by the inclusion of biomaterial engineered to support glial cell viability and neurite extension. Advances in our basic understanding of peripheral nerve biology, as well as biomaterial engineering, will further improve the functional repair of myelinated peripheral nerves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Peripheral neuropathy in HIV: prevalence and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Scott R.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Chen, Huichao; Yeh, Tzu-min; Lee, Anthony J.; Schifitto, Giovanni; Wu, Kunling; Bosch, Ronald J.; McArthur, Justin C.; Simpson, David M.; Clifford, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To estimate neuropathic sign/symptom rates with initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected ART-naive patients, and to investigate risk factors for: peripheral neuropathy and symptomatic peripheral neuropathy (SPN), recovery from peripheral neuropathy/SPN after neurotoxic ART (nART) discontinuation, and the absence of peripheral neuropathy/SPN while on nART. Design AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trial participants who initiated cART in randomized trials for ART-naive patients were annually screened for symptoms/signs of peripheral neuropathy. ART use and disease characteristics were collected longitudinally. Methods Peripheral neuropathy was defined as at least mild loss of vibration sensation in both great toes or absent/hypoactive ankle reflexes bilaterally. SPN was defined as peripheral neuropathy and bilateral symptoms. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression was used to estimate associations. Results Two thousand, one hundred and forty-one participants were followed from January 2000 to June 2007. Rates of peripheral neuropathy/SPN at 3 years were 32.1/8.6% despite 87.1% with HIV-1RNA 400 copies/ml or less and 70.3% with CD4 greater than 350 cells/µl. Associations with higher odds of peripheral neuropathy included older patient age and current nART use. Associations with higher odds of SPN included older patient age, nART use, and history of diabetes mellitus. Associations with lower odds of recovery after nART discontinuation included older patient age. Associations with higher odds of peripheral neuropathy while on nART included older patient age and current protease inhibitor use. Associations with higher odds of SPN while on nART included older patient age, history of diabetes, taller height, and protease inhibitor use. Conclusion Signs of peripheral neuropathy remain despite virologic/immunologic control but frequently occurs without symptoms. Aging is a risk factor for

  11. Conditions Of Safe Ship Operations And Sea Waterway Parameters Based On The Reconstruction Of Świnoujście-Szczecin Fairway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucma Stanisław

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the state vector of safe ship operation on sea waterways. The author determines relationships between the state vector of safe ship operation and parameters of sea waterway system elements. These include three subsystems: area, navigation and traffic control. These relationships have been exemplified with the 68-kilometre Świnoujście-Szczecin fairway, presently under reconstruction. A systematic approach to sea waterway design is globally unique.

  12. Relationships between declining summer sea ice, increasing temperatures and changing vegetation in the Siberian Arctic tundra from MODIS time series (2000–11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutrieux, L P; Bartholomeus, H; Herold, M; Verbesselt, J

    2012-01-01

    The concern about Arctic greening has grown recently as the phenomenon is thought to have significant influence on global climate via atmospheric carbon emissions. Earlier work on Arctic vegetation highlighted the role of summer sea ice decline in the enhanced warming and greening phenomena observed in the region, but did not contain enough details for spatially characterizing the interactions between sea ice, temperature and vegetation photosynthetic absorption. By using 1 km resolution data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) as a primary data source, this study presents detailed maps of vegetation and temperature trends for the Siberian Arctic region, using the time integrated normalized difference vegetation index (TI-NDVI) and summer warmth index (SWI) calculated for the period 2000–11 to represent vegetation greenness and temperature respectively. Spatio-temporal relationships between the two indices and summer sea ice conditions were investigated with transects at eight locations using sea ice concentration data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). In addition, the derived vegetation and temperature trends were compared among major Arctic vegetation types and bioclimate subzones. The fine resolution trend map produced confirms the overall greening (+1% yr −1 ) and warming (+0.27% yr −1 ) of the region, reported in previous studies, but also reveals browning areas. The causes of such local decreases in vegetation, while surrounding areas are experiencing the opposite reaction to changing conditions, are still unclear. Overall correlations between sea ice concentration and SWI as well as TI-NDVI decreased in strength with increasing distance from the coast, with a particularly pronounced pattern in the case of SWI. SWI appears to be driving TI-NDVI in many cases, but not systematically, highlighting the presence of limiting factors other than temperature for plant growth in the region. Further unravelling those limiting

  13. Peripheral Vestibular System Disease in Vestibular Schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Hansen, Søren; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2015-01-01

    density of the peripheral vestibular nerve branches, and atrophy of the neuroepithelium of the vestibular end organs. In cases with small tumors, peripheral disease occurred only in the tissue structures innervated by the specific nerve from which the tumor originated. CONCLUSION: Vestibular schwannomas...... are associated with distinctive disease of the peripheral vestibular tissue structures, suggesting anterograde degeneration and that dizziness in these patients may be caused by deficient peripheral vestibular nerve fibers, neurons, and end organs. In smaller tumors, a highly localized disease occurs, which...

  14. EXPRESSION OF GENETIC LOCI IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR FRACTION FROM PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kogan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The early diagnosis and radical treatment of aggressive prostate cancers (PC is an effective way of improving survival and quality of life in patients. To develop mini-invasive tests is one of the ways of solving the problem. The cells of a peripheral blood mononuclear fraction in the expression patterns of their genetic loci reflect the presence or absence of cancers, including information on therapeutic effectiveness. RT-PRC was used to study the relative expression of 15 genetic loci in a chromosome and one locus of mitochondrial DNA in the cells of the peripheral blood mononuclear fraction in patients with PC or benign prostate hyperplasia and in healthy men. The genetic locus patterns whose change may be of informative value for differential diagnosis in patients with different stages of PC were revealed. The authors studied the relationship and showed the prognostic role and non-relationship of the altered transcriptional activity of loci in the TP53, GSTP1, and IL10 genes in PC to the changes in prostate-specific antigen the level with 90 % specificity and 93 % specificity.

  15. Tracing the transport of colored dissolved organic matter in water masses of the Southern Beaufort Sea: relationship with hydrographic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, A.; Bricaud, A.; Benner, R.; Para, J.; Sempéré, R.; Prieur, L.; Bélanger, S.; Babin, M.

    2012-03-01

    Light absorption by colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) [aCDOM(λ)] plays an important role in the heat budget of the Arctic Ocean, contributing to the recent decline in sea ice, as well as in biogeochemical processes. We investigated aCDOM(λ) in the Southern Beaufort Sea where a significant amount of CDOM is delivered by the Mackenzie River. In the surface layer, aCDOM(440) showed a strong and negative correlation with salinity, indicating strong river influence and conservative transport in the river plume. Below the mixed layer, a weak but positive correlation between aCDOM(440) and salinity was observed above the upper halocline, resulting from the effect of removal of CDOM due to brine rejection and lateral intrusion of Pacific summer waters into these layers. In contrast, the relationship was negative in the upper and the lower haloclines, suggesting these waters originated from Arctic coastal waters. DOC concentrations in the surface layer were strongly correlated with aCDOM(440) (r2 = 0.97), suggesting that this value can be estimated in this area, using aCDOM(440) that is retrieved using satellite ocean color data. Implications for estimation of DOC concentrations in surface waters using ocean color remote sensing are discussed.

  16. [Preliminary analysis of the relationship between peripheral arterial disease and other atherosclerosis markers and diabetic nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, José; Moreno, Tamara; Coca, Inmaculada; Jiménez-Villodres, Manuel; Rodríguez-Morata, Alejandro; Valdivielso, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    To determine lipid serum levels, lipoproteins and other markers related to nephropathy and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a type 2 diabetes population stratified according to their level of renal dysfunction. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 72 type 2 diabetic patients followed-up in outpatient clinics. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL/min) and albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR, mg/g) (eGFR > 60 and ACR 60 and ACR > 30 [n = 12], eGFR30-60 [n = 23] and eGFR < 30 [n = 14]). Clinical and anthropometric characteristic of all patients were recorded. Fasting lipids and apolipoproteins, as well as renal and hematology parameters were measured. Finally, a multivariate Wald stepwise logistic regression statistic analysis was performed to determine variables independently associated with the presence of renal dysfunction. The univariate statistical analysis showed that the higher renal dysfunction, the higher the prevalence of hypertension, smoking habit and triglycerides levels, and the lower hemoglobin levels (P < .05). The multivariate statistical analysis showed that only triglycerides levels (OR: 1.019, 95% CI: 1.004-1.034) and hemoglobin levels (OR: 0.516 95% CI: 0.292-0.914) were independently associated to the presence of renal dysfunction (eGFR < 60 mL/min.). The further inclusion of the presence of PAD in the statistical model did not modify those associations. The results confirm the relationship between triglycerides levels and diabetic nephropathy, independently of the presence of PAD. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Peripheral facial palsy: Speech, communication and oral motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movérare, T; Lohmander, A; Hultcrantz, M; Sjögreen, L

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of acquired unilateral peripheral facial palsy on speech, communication and oral functions and to study the relationship between the degree of facial palsy and articulation, saliva control, eating ability and lip force. In this descriptive study, 27 patients (15 men and 12 women, mean age 48years) with unilateral peripheral facial palsy were included if they were graded under 70 on the Sunnybrook Facial Grading System. The assessment was carried out in connection with customary visits to the ENT Clinic and comprised lip force, articulation and intelligibility, together with perceived ability to communicate and ability to eat and control saliva conducted through self-response questionnaires. The patients with unilateral facial palsy had significantly lower lip force, poorer articulation and ability to eat and control saliva compared with reference data in healthy populations. The degree of facial palsy correlated significantly with lip force but not with articulation, intelligibility, perceived communication ability or reported ability to eat and control saliva. Acquired peripheral facial palsy may affect communication and the ability to eat and control saliva. Physicians should be aware that there is no direct correlation between the degree of facial palsy and the possible effect on communication, eating ability and saliva control. Physicians are therefore recommended to ask specific questions relating to problems with these functions during customary medical visits and offer possible intervention by a speech-language pathologist or a physiotherapist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Trace elements and stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) in fish from deep-waters of the Sulu Sea and the Celebes Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Agusa, Tetsuro; Kubota, Reiji; Mochizuki, Hiroko; Ramu, Karri; Nishida, Shuhei; Ohta, Suguru; Yeh, Hsin-ming; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    Trace elements (TEs) and stable isotope ratios (δ 15 N and δ 13 C) were analyzed in fish from deep-water of the Sulu Sea, the Celebes Sea and the Philippine Sea. Concentrations of V and Pb in pelagic fish from the Sulu Sea were higher than those from the Celebes Sea, whereas the opposite trend was observed for δ 13 C. High concentrations of Zn, Cu and Ag were found in non-migrant fish in deep-water, while Rb level was high in fish which migrate up to the epipelagic zone, probably resulting from differences in background levels of these TEs in each water environment or function of adaptation to deep-water by migrant and non-migrant species. Arsenic level in the Sulu Sea fish was positively correlated with δ 15 N, indicating biomagnification of arsenic. To our knowledge, this is the first study on relationship between diel vertical migration and TE accumulation in deep-water fish.

  19. IGF-I and IGFBP2 in peripheral artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbonaviciene, Grazina; Frystyk, Jan; Urbonavicius, Sigitas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The search for novel risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has provided valuable clinical data concerning underlying mechanism of disease. Increasing evidence indicates a possible involvement of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and its binding protein 2 (IGFBP......-2) in the pathogenesis of CVD disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-2 with all-cause and CVD mortality in a prospective study of patients with lower-extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). METHODS AND MATERIAL: Serum IGF-I and IGFBP-2...... levels were obtained in 440 patients (257 males) with symptomatic PAD. Patients were followed for a median of 6.1 (IQ 5.1-7.2) years. The relationship between times to lethal outcome and baseline serum IGF-I and IFGBP-2 levels were examined by Cox proportional hazard analysis. The role of IFGBP-2...

  20. Hypothyroidism: Can It Cause Peripheral Neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism: Can it cause peripheral neuropathy? Can hypothyroidism cause peripheral neuropathy and, if so, how is it treated? Answers from Todd B. Nippoldt, M.D. Hypothyroidism — a condition in which your ...

  1. Peripheral ameloblastic fibro-odontoma or peripheral developing complex odontoma: report of a case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibel, Jesper; Grønbæk, Anni Birgitte; Poulsen, Sven

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Peripheral (extraosseous) odontogenic tumors are rare. CASE REPORT. This report describes a case which illustrates the clinical and histopathological features of a lesion in an 8-year-old, healthy Caucasian girl that on purely morphological grounds would seem to be an ameloblastic fibro-odontoma......, but may represent a case of a peripheral developing complex odontoma. CONCLUSION. Conservative surgical enucleation of the lesion was followed by unbcomplicated healing and no recurrence was seen....

  2. The influence of the Amundsen Sea Low on the winds in the Ross Sea and surroundings: Insights from a synoptic climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggins, Jack H. J.; McDonald, Adrian J.

    2015-03-01

    The Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) is an area of climatologically low atmospheric pressure situated over the Southern Ocean. The depth and location of this feature have significant effects on winds, temperature, moisture transport, and sea ice in its vicinity. In this article, we quantify the modulating effect of this feature on winds over the Ross Sea and Ross Ice Shelf. We examine composites of surface winds sampled according to extrema in ASL depth, longitude, and latitude. We employ the output of a previously developed synoptic climatology to identify the explanatory synoptic-scale forcings. In autumn, winter, and spring (AWS) we find that the impact of the depth of the ASL is smaller than that of its location. The ASL moves eastward when it is deep, thereby reducing its influence on Ross Sea winds. When the ASL is northward, we find strongly enhanced southerly flows over the Ross Sea and Ice Shelf, forced by greater cyclonic activity in the north of the Ross Sea. In summer, we find increased cyclonic flow coinciding with a deeper ASL, despite the ASL being located in the Bellingshausen Sea at this time. The responses to the ASL longitude and latitude are profoundly different to those in AWS, suggesting that relationships are strongly dependent on the varying seasonal location of the low. We examine two metrics of the ASL depth and identify that the absolute mean sea level pressure (MSLP) has a more widespread response than that of the relative MSLP.

  3. Promoting peripheral myelin repair

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ye; Notterpek, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nerves have a remarkable ability to regenerate and remyelinate. This regenerative capacity to a large extent is dependent on and supported by Schwann cells, the myelin-forming glial cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In a variety of paradigms, Schwann cells are critical in the removal of the degenerated tissue, which is followed by remyelination of newly-regenerated axons. This unique plasticity of Schwann cells has been the ...

  4. Variability of surface meteorological parameters over the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Fernandes, A.A

    different parameters shows that the sea surface temperature and air temperature are positively and significantly correlated over the study area. A similar relationship is found between wind speed and cloudiness amount. Wind speed and cloudiness...

  5. Peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma of maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Ajmera, Neha; Singh, Amit

    2010-07-01

    Peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma is a reactive gingival overgrowth occurring frequently in anterior maxilla. It is a slow-growing benign tumor which may lead to pathologic migration and other periodontal problems, so it should be excised as soon as possible. The recurrence rate of peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma is reported to be 8% to 20%, so a close postoperative follow-up is required. Herein, we are reporting a similar case of peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma in the maxillary anterior region.

  6. Comparative study on octopus vulgaris (cuvier, 1797) from the mediterranean and red sea coasts of egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Riad, R.; Gabr, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Specimens from common octopus, Octopus vulgaris captured from the Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea showed significant differences in four of seven morphometric measurements .These differences are sufficient to recognize the populations of this species in the two habitats. The computed length-Wight relationship and condition factor for common octopus in both areas showed that representatives of this species from the Red Sea are heavier than those captured from the Mediterranean Sea for the same l...

  7. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE, LARGE-SCALE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION, AND CONVECTION OVER THE TROPICAL INDIAN AND PACIFIC OCEANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orbita Roswintiarti

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the quantitative estimates of the effect of large-scale circulations on the sea surface temperature (SST-tropical convection relationship and the effect of SST on the large-scale circulation-convection relationship over the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans are presented. Although convection tends to maximize at warm SSTs, increased deep convection is also determined by the divergence (DIV associated with large-scale circulation. An analysis of the relationship between SST and deep convection shows that under subsidence and clear conditions, there is a decrease in convection or increase in Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR at a maximum rate of 3.4 Wm-2 °C-1. In the SST range of 25°C to 29.5°C, a large increase in deep convection (decrease in OLR occurs in the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans. The OLR reduction is found to be a strong function of the large-scale circulation in the Indian and western Pacific Oceans. Under a weak large-scale circulation, the rate of OLR reduction is about    -3.5 Wm-2 °C-1 to -8.1 Wm-2 °C-1. Under the influence of strong rising motions, the rate can increase to about -12.5 Wm-2 °C-1 for the same SST range. The overall relationship between large-scale circulation and deep convection is nearly linear. A maximum rate of OLR reduction with respect to DIV is -6.1 Wm-2 (10-6 s-1 in the western Pacific Ocean. It is also found that the DIV-OLR relationship is less dependent on SST. For example, the rate of OLR reduction over the western Pacific Ocean for 26°C < SST £ 27°C is -4.2 Wm-2 (10-6 s-1, while that for 28°C < SST £ 29°C is  -5.1 Wm-2 (10-6 s-1. These results are expected to have a great importance for climate feedback mechanisms associated with clouds and SST and for climate predictability.

  8. The relationship between phytoplankton distribution and water column characteristics in North West European shelf sea waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehling, Johanna; Davidson, Keith; Bolch, Christopher J S; Brand, Tim D; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the "Ellett Line" cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA), of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations) clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN:DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS) demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community), and both salinity and DIN:DSi (diatoms alone). Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi limitation of

  9. The relationship between phytoplankton distribution and water column characteristics in North West European shelf sea waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Fehling

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the "Ellett Line" cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA, of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN:DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community, and both salinity and DIN:DSi (diatoms alone. Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi

  10. Coaching Peripheral Vision Training for Soccer Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…

  11. [Ultrasound-guided peripheral catheterization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleras-Duran, Laia; Fuentes-Pumarola, Concepció

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral catheterization is a technique that can be difficult in some patients. Some studies have recently described the use of ultrasound to guide the venous catheterization. To describe the success rate, time required, complications of ultrasound-guided peripheral venous catheterization. and patients and professionals satisfaction The search was performed in databases (Medline-PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and Cuiden Plus) for studies published about ultrasound-guided peripheral venous catheterization performed on patients that provided results on the success of the technique, complications, time used, patient satisfaction and the type of professional who performed the technique. A total of 21 studies were included. Most of them get a higher success rate 80% in the catheterization ecoguide and time it is not higher than the traditional technique. The Technical complications analyzed were arterial puncture rates and lower nerve 10%. In all studies measuring and comparing patient satisfaction in the art ecoguide is greater. Various professional groups perform the technique. The use of ultrasound for peripheral pipes has a high success rate, complications are rare and the time used is similar to that of the traditional technique. The technique of inserting catheters through ultrasound may be learned by any professional group performing venipuncture. Finally, it gets underscores the high patient satisfaction with the use of this technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Correction of asymmetric quark-antiquark strange sea to Weinberg angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yong; Lv Zhun; Ma Boqiang

    2004-01-01

    The authors derive a new Paschos-Wolfenstein relationship which should bring an important correction to Weinberg angle sin 2 θ w when considering the quark-antiquark asymmetry in the nucleon sea. The authors also obtain the distributions of asymmetric strange antistrange sea by using the light-cone meson-baryon fluctuation model with two kinds of wave functions, respectively. The most important issue is that the correction of asymmetric strange-antistrange sea can reduce approximately 30%-80% of the difference with three standard deviations between the measured value of the Weinberg angle sin 2 θ w by the NuTeV Collaboration and the predicted value by the standard model. (author)

  13. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part III: Peripheral nerves of the lower limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Kowalska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasonographic examination is currently increasingly used in imaging peripheral nerves, serving to supplement the physical examination, electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive and well-tolerated by patients. The typical ultrasonographic picture of peripheral nerves as well as the examination technique have been discussed in part I of this article series, following the example of the median nerve. Part II of the series presented the normal anatomy and the technique for examining the peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part of the article series focuses on the anatomy and technique for examining twelve normal peripheral nerves of the lower extremity: the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves, the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, the pudendal, sciatic, tibial, sural, medial plantar, lateral plantar, common peroneal, deep peroneal and superficial peroneal nerves. It includes diagrams showing the proper positioning of the sonographic probe, plus USG images of the successively discussed nerves and their surrounding structures. The ultrasonographic appearance of the peripheral nerves in the lower limb is identical to the nerves in the upper limb. However, when imaging the lower extremity, convex probes are more often utilized, to capture deeply-seated nerves. The examination technique, similarly to that used in visualizing the nerves of upper extremity, consists of locating the nerve at a characteristic anatomic reference point and tracking it using the “elevator technique”. All 3 parts of the article series should serve as an introduction to a discussion of peripheral nerve pathologies, which will be presented in subsequent issues of the “Journal of Ultrasonography”.

  14. Autism and peripheral hearing loss: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Alison N; McBoyle, Melanie; Kakande, Emily; Dar Santos, Rachelle C; Kozak, Frederick K

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review the literature describing the relationship between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and peripheral hearing loss including literature recommendations for audiological assessment and auditory habilitation in cases where peripheral hearing loss and ASD coexist. Published studies indexed in MEDLINE (1948-2011). The search strategy identified 595 potential studies. After a review of the titles, 115 abstracts were reviewed and 39 articles were retrieved and assessed independently by at least two authors for possible inclusion. 22 articles pertained to children with ASD and peripheral hearing loss, hearing assessment in children with ASD, audiological habilitation for children with ASD or hyper-responsiveness in children with ASD. 17 further studies were garnered from the reference section of the 22 papers. Controversy exists in the literature regarding prevalence of hearing impairment among individuals with ASD. In cases where ASD and hearing impairment co-exist, diagnosis of one condition often leads to a delay in diagnosing the other. Audiological assessment can be difficult in children with ASD and test-retest reliability of behavioural thresholds can be poor. In cases where hearing impairment exists and hearing aids or cochlear implantation are recommended, devices are often fit with special considerations for the child with ASD. Hyper-responsiveness to auditory stimuli may be displayed by individuals with ASD. Evidence or the suspicion of hyper-responsiveness may be taken into consideration when fitting amplification and planning behavioural intervention. Prevalence rates of hearing impairment among individuals with ASD continue to be debated. At present there is no conclusive evidence that children with ASD are at increased risk of peripheral hearing loss. A complete audiological assessment is recommended in all cases where ASD is suspected so as not to delay the diagnosis of hearing impairment in the event that hearing loss and ASD co

  15. Baltic Sea biodiversity status vs. cumulative human pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper H.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Korpinen, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have tried to explain spatial and temporal variations in biodiversity status of marine areas from a single-issue perspective, such as fishing pressure or coastal pollution, yet most continental seas experience a wide range of human pressures. Cumulative impact assessments have...... been developed to capture the consequences of multiple stressors for biodiversity, but the ability of these assessments to accurately predict biodiversity status has never been tested or ground-truthed. This relationship has similarly been assumed for the Baltic Sea, especially in areas with impaired...... status, but has also never been documented. Here we provide a first tentative indication that cumulative human impacts relate to ecosystem condition, i.e. biodiversity status, in the Baltic Sea. Thus, cumulative impact assessments offer a promising tool for informed marine spatial planning, designation...

  16. Sea surface temperatures and salinities from platforms in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and the South China Sea (Nan Hai) from 1896-1950 (NODC Accession 0000506)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface temperatures and salinities were collected in the Barents Sea, Sea of Japan, North Atlantic Ocean, Philippine Sea, Red Sea, and South China Sea (Nan Hai)...

  17. On microseisms recorded near the Ligurian coast (Italy) and their relationship with sea wave height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferretti, G.; Zunino, Andrea; Scafidi, D.

    2013-01-01

    data set including also observations from January to December 2011 is used to calibrate an empirical predictive relation for sea wave height whose functional form is a modified version of the classical definition of H13 . By means of a Markov chainMonte Carlo algorithm we set up a procedure...... to investigate the inverse problem and to find a set of parameter values for predicting sea wave heights from microseism....

  18. Observational analysis of air-sea fluxes and sea water temperature offshore South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, X.; Huang, J.; Gao, Z.; Liu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the air-sea fluxes (momentum flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux) from eddy covariance method based on data collected at an offshore observation tower in the South China Sea from January 2009 to December 2016 and sea water temperature (SWT) on six different levels based on data collected from November 2011 to June 2013. The depth of water at the tower over the sea averages about 15 m. This study presents the in-situ measurements of continuous air-sea fluxes and SWT at different depths. Seasonal and diurnal variations in air-sea fluxes and SWT on different depths are examined. Results show that air-sea fluxes and all SWT changed seasonally; sea-land breeze circulation appears all the year round. Unlike winters where SWT on different depths are fairly consistent, the difference between sea surface temperature (SST) and sea temperature at 10 m water depth fluctuates dramatically and the maximum value reaches 7 °C during summer.

  19. Chromosome radiosensitivity and kinetics of proliferation of peripheral lymphocytes in individuals with aneuploid karyotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konecna, H; Kalina, I; Ondrussekova, A

    1988-08-01

    Experimentally investigated was the radiosensitivity of chromosomes and the kinetics of the proliferation of peripheral lymphocytes in patients with aneuploid (DS and TS) and normal karyotype irradiated in vitro in the G/sub o/ stage of the cell cycle. Trisomic lymphocytes were found to proliferate more rapidly in the in vitro culture and to be more sensitive than diploid cell populations. In monosomic lymphocytes in Turner syndrome patients, the proliferation and incidence of chromosomal abberations was similar to the disomic lines in Down's syndrome patients and in Turner syndrome patients, and to that found in persons with a normal karyotype. The results of the experiment show that there is a relationship between the proliferation rate of peripheral lymphocytes cultures in vitro and the radiosensivity of chromosomes. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs., 11 refs.

  20. Chromosome radiosensitivity and kinetics of proliferation of peripheral lymphocytes in individuals with aneuploid karyotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konecna, H.; Kalina, I.; Ondrussekova, A.

    1988-01-01

    Experimentally investigated was the radiosensitivity of chromosomes and the kinetics of the proliferation of peripheral lymphocytes in patients with aneuploid (DS and TS) and normal karyotype irradiated in vitro in the G o stage of the cell cycle. Trisomic lymphocytes were found to proliferate more rapidly in the in vitro culture and to be more sensitive than diploid cell populations. In monosomic lymphocytes in Turner syndrome patients, the proliferation and incidence of chromosomal abberations was similar to the disomic lines in Down's syndrome patients and in Turner syndrome patients, and to that found in persons with a normal karyotype. The results of the experiment show that there is a relationship between the proliferation rate of peripheral lymphocytes cultures in vitro and the radiosensivity of chromosomes. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs., 11 refs

  1. Peripheral Neuropathy – Clinical and Electrophysiological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae; Prasad, Kalpana; Lloyd, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a primer on the pathophysiology and clinical evaluation of peripheral neuropathy for the radiologist. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) has utility in the diagnosis of many focal peripheral nerve lesions. When combined with history, examination, electrophysiology, and laboratory data, future advancements in high-field MRN may play an increasingly important role in the evaluation of patients with peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24210312

  2. Influence of the Yellow Sea Warm Current on phytoplankton community in the central Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Liu, Su-Mei; Wei, Hao; Zhao, Yuan; Huang, Bang-Qin

    2015-12-01

    In early spring, a hydrological front emerges in the central Yellow Sea, resulting from the intrusion of the high temperature and salinity Yellow Sea Warm Current (YSWC). The present study, applying phytoplankton pigments and flow cytometry measurements in March of 2007 and 2009, focuses on the biogeochemical effects of the YSWC. The nutrients fronts were coincident with the hydrological front, and a positive linear relationship between nitrate and salinity was found in the frontal area. This contrast with the common situation of coastal waters where high salinity values usually correlate with poor nutrients. We suggested nutrient concentrations of the YSWC waters might have been enhanced by mixing with the local nutrient-rich waters when it invaded the Yellow Sea from the north of the Changjiang estuary. In addition, our results indicate that the relative abundance of diatoms ranged from 26% to 90%, showing a higher value in the YSCC than in YSWC waters. Similar distributions were found between diatoms and dinoflagellates, however the cyanobacteria and prasinophytes showed an opposite distribution pattern. Good correlations were found between the pigments and flow cytometry observations on the picophytoplankton groups. Prasinophytes might be the major contributor to pico-eukaryotes in the central Yellow Sea as similar distributional patterns and significant correlations between them. It seems that the front separates the YSWC from the coastal water, and different phytoplankton groups are transported in these water masses and follow their movement. These results imply that the YSWC plays important roles in the distribution of nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and also in the community structure of the central Yellow Sea.

  3. Environment and feeding change the ability of heart rate to predict metabolism in resting Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Beth L; Rosen, David A S; Haulena, Martin; Hindle, Allyson G; Trites, Andrew W

    2011-01-01

    The ability to use heart rate (fh) to predict oxygen consumption rates ([Formula: see text]) in Steller sea lions and other pinnipeds has been investigated in fasting animals. However, it is unknown whether established fh:[Formula: see text] relationships hold under more complex physiological situations, such as when animals are feeding or digesting. We assessed whether fh could accurately predict [Formula: see text] in trained Steller sea lions while fasting and after being fed. Using linear mixed-effects models, we derived unique equations to describe the fh:[Formula: see text] relationship for fasted sea lions resting on land and in water. Feeding did not significantly change the fh:[Formula: see text] relationship on land. However, Steller sea lions in water displayed a different fh:[Formula: see text] relationship after consuming a 4-kg meal compared with the fasting condition. Incorporating comparable published fh:[Formula: see text] data from Steller sea lions showed a distinct effect of feeding after a 6-kg meal. Ultimately, our study illustrated that both feeding and physical environment are statistically relevant when deriving [Formula: see text] from telemetered fh, but that only environment affects the practical ability to predict metabolism from fh. Updating current bioenergetic models with data gathered using these predictive fh:[Formula: see text] equations will yield more accurate estimates of metabolic rates of free-ranging Steller sea lions under a variety of physiological, behavioral, and environmental states.

  4. Relationship between Eurasian large-scale patterns and regional climate variability over the Black and Baltic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunavicius, G.; Pupienis, D. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Hydrology and Climatology; Basharin, D. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol (Ukraine). Sevastopol Marine Hydrophysical Inst.

    2012-11-01

    Using a NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset and the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis approach we studied interannual to decadal variabilities of the sea-level air pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT) fields over Eurasia during the 2nd part of the 20th century. Our results agree with those of the previous studies, which conclude that Eurasian trends are the result of storm-path changes driven by the interdecadal behaviour of the NAO-like meridional dipole pattern in the Atlantic. On interannual and decadal time scales, significant synchronous correlations between correspondent modes of SAT and SLP EOF patterns were found. This fact suggests that there is a strong and stable Eurasian interrelationship between SAT and SLP large-scale fields which affects the local climate of two sub-regions: the Black and Baltic Seas. The climate variability in these sub-regions was studied in terms of Eurasian large-scale surface-temperature and air-pressure patterns responses. We concluded that the sub-regional climate variability substantially differs over the Black and Baltic Seas, and depends on different Eurasian large-scale patterns. We showed that the Baltic Sea region is influenced by the patterns arising primary from NAO-like meridional dipole, as well as Scandinavian patterns, while the Black Sea's SAT/SLP variability is influenced mainly by the second mode EOF (eastern Atlantic) and large scale tropospheric wave structures. (orig.)

  5. Analysis of sea level data sequences in Colombian pacific ands its relationship to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, Ernesto Santiago; Montealegre; Jose Edgar

    2003-01-01

    By analyzing series of mean sea level (MSL), data for the towns of Tumaco (01 degrades N 78 degrades 44 minutes W, elevation: 0 meters) and Buenaventura (03 degrades 51 degrades N, 76 degrades 58 minutes W, elevation: 1 meter) the seasonal, intra-annual and inter-annual variability of the MSL are studied in the Colombian pacific, in connection with the el Nino-La Nina - southern oscillation (ENSO) cycle. The detection and the analysis of possible trends are examined in search of likely signal of global change in Colombia. This work concludes that the mean sea level (MSL) data for Tumaco and Buenaventura, are a good indicator, the first one, and a relatively acceptable indicator, the second, of the ENSO cycle, although of very low resolution during the La Nina episodes, in both cases. It was detected equally, a marked tendency for increasing of the mean sea level, approximately starting from the beginnings of the decade of the seventies, which could be related to the higher frequency of warm episodes. Although the longitude of the analyzed series doesn't allow arriving to conclusive results, the increasing tendency of the sea levels during the last twenty years could serve as an early warning in connection with possible manifestations of the global change in Colombia

  6. The challenges and beauty of peripheral nerve regrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochodne, Douglas W

    2012-03-01

    This review provides an overview of selected aspects of peripheral nerve regeneration and potential avenues to explore therapeutically. The overall coordinated and orchestrated pattern of recovery from peripheral nerve injury has a beauty of execution and progress that rivals all other forms of neurobiology. It involves changes at the level of the perikaryon, coordination with important peripheral glial partners, the Schwann cells, a controlled inflammatory response, and growth that overcomes surprising intrinsic roadblocks. Both regenerative axon growth and collateral sprouting encompass fascinating aspects of this story. Better understanding of peripheral nerve regeneration may also lead to enhanced central nervous system recovery. © 2012 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  7. Study on the relationship between peripheral blood red blood cells immunofunction status and serum TNF-α levels in pediatric patients with Henoch-Schoenlein purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yue; He Haoming

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between changes of peripheral RBC immuno-function and serum TNF-α levels in pediatric patients with Henoch-Schoenlein purpura. Methods: RBC immuno-function status was studied with immunologic methods and serum TNF-α levels were measured with RIA in 31 pediatric patients with Henoch-Schoenlein purpura and 35 controls, Results: Levels of RBC-C3bRR were significantly lower and levels of serum TNF-α were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). These two variables were significantly negatively correlated (r=-0.3018, P<0.05). On the contrary, the RBC-ICRRR levels were significantly higher in the patients (P<0.01) and were positively correlated with levels of TNF-α (r=0.3588, P<0.05). Conclusion: There were disturbances of RBC immuno-regulation with suppressed immuno-function in the purpura patients, which were related to the high levels of TNF-α. (authors)

  8. Statistical analysis of global surface air temperature and sea level using cointegration methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmith, Torben; Johansen, Søren; Thejll, Peter

    Global sea levels are rising which is widely understood as a consequence of thermal expansion and melting of glaciers and land-based ice caps. Due to physically-based models being unable to simulate observed sea level trends, semi-empirical models have been applied as an alternative for projecting...... of future sea levels. There is in this, however, potential pitfalls due to the trending nature of the time series. We apply a statistical method called cointegration analysis to observed global sea level and surface air temperature, capable of handling such peculiarities. We find a relationship between sea...... level and temperature and find that temperature causally depends on the sea level, which can be understood as a consequence of the large heat capacity of the ocean. We further find that the warming episode in the 1940s is exceptional in the sense that sea level and warming deviates from the expected...

  9. Statistical analysis of global surface temperature and sea level using cointegration methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Torben; Johansen, Søren; Thejll, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Global sea levels are rising which is widely understood as a consequence of thermal expansion and melting of glaciers and land-based ice caps. Due to the lack of representation of ice-sheet dynamics in present-day physically-based climate models being unable to simulate observed sea level trends......, semi-empirical models have been applied as an alternative for projecting of future sea levels. There is in this, however, potential pitfalls due to the trending nature of the time series. We apply a statistical method called cointegration analysis to observed global sea level and land-ocean surface air...... temperature, capable of handling such peculiarities. We find a relationship between sea level and temperature and find that temperature causally depends on the sea level, which can be understood as a consequence of the large heat capacity of the ocean. We further find that the warming episode in the 1940s...

  10. Relationship between uterine morphology and peripheral concentrations of sex steroid hormone in wild Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Masako; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Tsujimoto, Tsunenori; Osawa, Takeshi

    2009-07-01

    Developing a better understanding of the reproductive physiology and breeding condition peculiar to wild Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) is crucial for estimation of their habitat distribution. The aim of this study was to clarify the changes in morphology of the genital organs, cellular proliferation in the endometrium and sex steroid hormone concentrations along with the reproductive cycle in Japanese black bears. Samples were collected from a total of 24 female Japanese black bears (1-15 presumptive years old) that were caught in the wild in Iwate prefecture during the period between August 1999 and September 2005. Twenty-two out of the 24 animals were hunted from May to October. The ovaries from the 24 animals and the uteri from 23 animals were observed macroscopically and histologically to examine the relationship between morphology of the genital organs and the month of the year the animal was caught. The staining pattern of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the endometrium was characterised. Peripheral concentrations of oestradiol-17beta and progesterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. All the animals that had a corpus luteum (n=12) were captured from August to October. The thickness of the endometrium in the animals captured from August to October (n=16) was significantly greater than those in animals captured from May to July (n=5) (Pblack bears.

  11. Odontogenic keratocyst: a peripheral variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, H; Vij, R; Gupta, V; Sengupta, S

    2011-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocyst, which is developmental in nature, is an intraosseous lesion though on rare occasions it may occur in an extraosseous location. The extraosseous variant is referred to as peripheral odontogenic keratocyst. Though, clinically, peripheral odontogenic keratocyst resembles the gingival cyst of adults, it has histologic features that are pathognomonic of odontogenic keratocyst. This article presents a case of this uncommon entity.

  12. Retrieval of sea surface air temperature from satellite data over Indian Ocean: An empirical approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    the sea surface air temperature from satellite derived sea surface humidity in the Indian Ocean. Using the insitu data on surface met parameters collected on board O.R.V. Sagar Kanya in the Indian Ocean over a period of 15 years, the relationship between...

  13. What doesn’t kill them makes them stronger: an association between elongation factor 1-α overdominance in the sea star Pisaster ochraceus and “sea star wasting disease”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Wares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a massive mortality event has killed millions of sea stars, of many different species, along the Pacific coast of North America. This disease event, known as ‘sea star wasting disease’ (SSWD, is linked to viral infection. In one affected sea star (Pisaster ochraceus, previous work had identified that the elongation factor 1-α locus (EF1A harbored an intronic insertion allele that is lethal when homozygous yet appears to be maintained at moderate frequency in populations through increased fitness for heterozygotes. The environmental conditions supporting this increased fitness are unknown, but overdominance is often associated with disease. Here, we evaluate populations of P. ochraceus to identify the relationship between SSWD and EF1A genotype. Our data suggest that there may be significantly decreased occurrence of SSWD in individuals that are heterozygous at this locus. These results suggest further studies are warranted to understand the functional relationship between diversity at EF1A and survival in P. ochraceus.

  14. Microplastics and biogeochemical relationships in sediments from Skagerrak, Kattegat and Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob; Lassen, Pia; Shashoua, Yvonne

    This study is a first attempt in Denmark on assessing the presence of microplastics in our open & coastal waters from Baltic to North Sea. Among the conclusions: - Microplastic particles can be found in sediment in Danish waters and is a potential indicator for MSFD. - Normalisation to %TOC...

  15. Philippines – China Relations: The Case of the South China Sea (Spratly Islands Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Anthony M. Velasco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research is focused on examining by describing historically the relationship between the Philippines and China in the disputed claims over the islands in South China Sea. To crystalize this goal, the discourse in the paper heavily employs inter-textual analysis that is logically arranged into an opening idea on the context of the conflicting issue over the islands situated in Spratlys, then followed by an extensive illustration of the relationship between the Philippines and China concerning the territorial claims over the islands of South China Sea. Subsequently, a brief reflection guided by the principle of territoriality is portrayed with the goal to authoritatively explain the idea of jurisdiction over the islands in the Spratly area. After that, the paper briefly concludes with a prospectus on the issue of South China Sea.

  16. The diagnostic value of CT bronchial sign in peripheral solitary pulmonary lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Pengfei; Xiao Xiangsheng; Liu Shiyuan; Yu Hong; Li Huimin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differential diagnostic values of CT bronchial sign for peripheral solitary pulmonary lesions (SPLs). Methods: One hundred and eleven patients with peripheral SPLs were scanned using multi-slice helical CT (MSCT), and multiplanar reconstruction was performed to show the relationship between the lesion and bronchus, the differences between the benign and malignancy were compared by using chi-square test. Results: Bronchial cutoff rate in malignant lesions (47/95, 49.5%) was markedly higher than that in benign lesions (10/42,23.8%. χ 2 =7.896, P 2 =6.975,4.818, P 2 =7.390,P 2 =0.641,0.062, P>0.05). The focal bronchial wall thickening in malignancy (21/22) was markedly higher than benign lesions (1/22. χ 2 =4.185, P 2 =8.650, P<0.05). Conclusion: CT bronchial sign is very important in the differentiation of benign and malignant pulmonary lesions. (authors)

  17. Altered Antioxidant-Oxidant Status in the Aqueous Humor and Peripheral Blood of Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fernández de la Cámara, Cristina; Salom, David; Sequedo, Ma Dolores; Hervás, David; Marín-Lambíes, Cristina; Aller, Elena; Jaijo, Teresa; Díaz-LLopis, Manuel; Millán, José María; Rodrigo, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Retinitis Pigmentosa is a common form of hereditary retinal degeneration constituting the largest Mendelian genetic cause of blindness in the developed world. It has been widely suggested that oxidative stress possibly contributes to its pathogenesis. We measured the levels of total antioxidant capacity, free nitrotyrosine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation, extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) activity, protein, metabolites of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway, heme oxygenase-I and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in aqueous humor or/and peripheral blood from fifty-six patients with retinitis pigmentosa and sixty subjects without systemic or ocular oxidative stress-related disease. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that retinitis pigmentosa alters ocular antioxidant defence machinery and the redox status in blood. Patients with retinitis pigmentosa present low total antioxidant capacity including reduced SOD3 activity and protein concentration in aqueous humor. Patients also show reduced SOD3 activity, increased TBARS formation and upregulation of the nitric oxide/cyclic GMP pathway in peripheral blood. Together these findings confirmed the hypothesis that patients with retinitis pigmentosa present reduced ocular antioxidant status. Moreover, these patients show changes in some oxidative-nitrosative markers in the peripheral blood. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between these peripheral markers and retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:24069283

  18. Carbon sources and trophic relationships of ice seals during recent environmental shifts in the Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiway W; Springer, Alan M; Budge, Suzanne M; Horstmann, Lara; Quakenbush, Lori T; Wooller, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    Dramatic multiyear fluctuations in water temperature and seasonal sea ice extent and duration across the Bering-Chukchi continental shelf have occurred in this century, raising a pressing ecological question: Do such environmental changes alter marine production processes linking primary producers to upper trophic-level predators? We examined this question by comparing the blubber fatty acid (FA) composition and stable carbon isotope ratios of individual FA (δ¹³CFA) of adult ringed seals (Pusa hispida), bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), spotted seals (Phoca largha), and ribbon seals (Histriophoca fasciata), collectively known as "ice seals," sampled during an anomalously warm, low sea ice period in 2002-2005 in the Bering Sea and a subsequent cold, high sea ice period in 2007-2010. δ¹³C(FA) values, used to estimate the contribution to seals of carbon derived from sea ice algae (sympagic production) relative to that derived from water column phytoplankton (pelagic production), indicated that during the cold period, sympagic production accounted for 62-80% of the FA in the blubber of bearded seals, 51-62% in spotted seals, and 21-60% in ringed seals. Moreover, the δ¹³CFA values of bearded seals indicated a greater incorporation of sympagic FAs during the cold period than the warm period. This result provides the first empirical evidence of an ecosystem-scale effect of a putative change in sympagic production in the Western Arctic. The FA composition of ice seals showed clear evidence of resource partitioning among ringed, bearded, and spotted seals, and little niche separation between spotted and ribbon seals, which is consistent with previous studies. Despite interannual variability, the FA composition of ringed and bearded seals showed little evidence of differences in diet between the warm and cold periods. The findings that sympagic production contributes significantly to food webs supporting ice seals, and that the contribution apparently is less in

  19. Research on effects of ionizing radiation of human peripheral blood white cell adhesive molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haijun; Cheng Ying; Le Chen; Min Rui

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the links between expression and function of adhesive molecule on the surface of irradiated peripheral blood white cells. Methods: Heparinized human peripheral blood was exposed to γ rays with different dose. At the different post-radiation time adhesive molecule expression on cellular surface was determined by double fluorescence labeling antibodies which were against adhesive molecule and special mark of granulocyte or mononuclear cell respectively with flow cytometry, and cellular adhesive ability to different matrixes mediated by adhesive molecule was estimated by commercializing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit and crystalviolet dying. Results: A decline pattern of CD11b on surface of mononuclear cells and CD29 on surface of granulocyte with irradiation dose increase was found. The changes of adhesive ability of mononuclear cells to substance of β1-integrin and collagen-I was well related with irradiation dose. Conclusion: Good relationship shown by the changes of adhesive molecule expression and adhesive ability mediated by the molecules on the surface of peripheral blood white cells with radiation dose was primary base of further research on indicting exposure dose by biomarker. (authors)

  20. Tracing the transport of colored dissolved organic matter in water masses of the Southern Beaufort Sea: relationship with hydrographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Matsuoka

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Light absorption by colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM [aCDOM(λ] plays an important role in the heat budget of the Arctic Ocean, contributing to the recent decline in sea ice, as well as in biogeochemical processes. We investigated aCDOM(λ in the Southern Beaufort Sea where a significant amount of CDOM is delivered by the Mackenzie River. In the surface layer, aCDOM(440 showed a strong and negative correlation with salinity, indicating strong river influence and conservative transport in the river plume. Below the mixed layer, a weak but positive correlation between aCDOM(440 and salinity was observed above the upper halocline, resulting from the effect of removal of CDOM due to brine rejection and lateral intrusion of Pacific summer waters into these layers. In contrast, the relationship was negative in the upper and the lower haloclines, suggesting these waters originated from Arctic coastal waters. DOC concentrations in the surface layer were strongly correlated with aCDOM(440 (r2 = 0.97, suggesting that this value can be estimated in this area, using aCDOM(440 that is retrieved using satellite ocean color data. Implications for estimation of DOC concentrations in surface waters using ocean color remote sensing are discussed.

  1. Synovial sarcoma mimicking benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larque, Ana B.; Nielsen, G.P.; Chebib, Ivan [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Pathology, Boston, MA (United States); Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-11-15

    To assess the radiographic and clinicopathologic features of synovial sarcoma of the nerve that were clinically or radiologically interpreted as benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Five patients with synovial sarcoma arising from the peripheral nerve and interpreted clinically and radiologically as peripheral nerve sheath tumors were identified. Clinicopathologic and imaging features were evaluated. There were three females and two males, ranging in age from 28 to 50 (mean 35.8) years. Most patients (4/5) complained of a mass, discomfort or pain. MR images demonstrated a heterogeneous, enhancing, soft tissue mass contiguous with the neurovascular bundle. On histologic examination, most tumors were monophasic synovial sarcoma (4/5). At the time of surgery, all tumors were noted to arise along or within a peripheral nerve. All patients were alive with no evidence of disease with median follow-up of 44 (range 32-237) months. For comparison, approximately 775 benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the extremities were identified during the same time period. Primary synovial sarcoma of the nerve can mimic peripheral nerve sheath tumors clinically and on imaging and should be included in the differential diagnosis for tumors arising from peripheral nerves. (orig.)

  2. The distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sau Pinn; Yasin, Zulfigar; Ismail, Siti Hasmah; Tan, Shau Hwai

    2013-11-01

    A study on the distribution and diversity of sea cucumbers in the coral reefs of the South China Sea, Sulu Sea and Sulawesi Sea was carried out in July 2009. The survey was done using wandering transect underwater with SCUBA. Twelve species of sea cucumber were found from four different families and nine genera. The most dominant family was Holothuriidae (five species), followed by Stichopodidae (three species), Synaptidae (three species) and Cucumariidae with only one species. The most dominant species found around the island was Pearsonothuria graffei, which can be found abundantly on substrate of dead corals in a wide range of depth (6-15 m). The Sulawesi Sea showed a higher diversity of sea cucumber with seven different species compared to the South China Sea with only six different species and Sulu Sea with only two species. Ordination by multidimensional scaling of Bray-Curtis similarities clustered the sampling locations to three main clusters with two outgroups. Previous studies done indicated a higher diversity of sea cucumber as compared to this study. This can be indication that the population and diversity of sea cucumbers in the reef is under threat.

  3. Peripheral refractive correction and automated perimetric profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, J M; Wood, J M; Crews, S J

    1988-06-01

    The effect of peripheral refractive error correction on the automated perimetric sensitivity profile was investigated on a sample of 10 clinically normal, experienced observers. Peripheral refractive error was determined at eccentricities of 0 degree, 20 degrees and 40 degrees along the temporal meridian of the right eye using the Canon Autoref R-1, an infra-red automated refractor, under the parametric conditions of the Octopus automated perimeter. Perimetric sensitivity was then undertaken at these eccentricities (stimulus sizes 0 and III) with and without the appropriate peripheral refractive correction using the Octopus 201 automated perimeter. Within the measurement limits of the experimental procedures employed, perimetric sensitivity was not influenced by peripheral refractive correction.

  4. Peripheral facial nerve dysfunction: CT evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disbro, M.A.; Harnsberger, H.R.; Osborn, A.G.

    1985-06-01

    Peripheral facial nerve dysfunction may have a clinically apparent or occult cause. The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of 36 patients with peripheral facial nerve dysfunction to obtain information on the location of the suspected lesion and the number, sequence, and type of radiographic evaluations performed. Inadequate clinical evaluations before computed tomography (CT) was done and unnecessary CT examinations were also noted. They have suggested a practical clinical and radiographic scheme to evaluate progressive peripheral facial dysfunction with no apparent cause. If this scheme is applied, unnecessary radiologic tests and delays in diagnosis and treatment may be avoided.

  5. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantunali, D; Dursun, T; Yucel, D; Hasirci, N; Hasirci, V

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers) and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type) are being presented. PMID:25489251

  6. Inter-decadal change of the lagged inter-annual relationship between local sea surface temperature and tropical cyclone activity over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haikun; Wu, Liguang; Raga, G. B.

    2018-02-01

    This study documents the inter-decadal change of the lagged inter-annual relationship between the TC frequency (TCF) and the local sea surface temperature (SST) in the western North Pacific (WNP) during 1979-2014. An abrupt shift of the lagged relationship between them is observed to occur in 1998. Before the shift (1979-1997), a moderately positive correlation (0.35) between previous-year local SST and TCF is found, while a significantly negative correlation (- 0.71) is found since the shift (1998-2014). The inter-decadal change of the lagged relationship between TCF and local SST over the WNP is also accompanied by an inter-decadal change in the lagged inter-annual relationship between large-scale factors affecting TCs and local SST over the WNP. During 1998-2014, the previous-year local SST shows a significant negative correlation with the mid-level moisture and a significant positive correlation with the vertical wind shear over the main development region of WNP TC genesis. Almost opposite relationships are seen during 1979-1997, with a smaller magnitude of the correlation coefficients. These changes are consistent with the changes of the lagged inter-annual relationship between upper- and lower-level winds and local SST over the WNP. Analyses further suggests that the inter-decadal shift of the lagged inter-annual relationship between WNP TCF and local SST may be closely linked to the inter-decadal change of inter-annual SST transition over the tropical central-eastern Pacific associated with the climate regime shift in the late 1990s. Details on the underlying physical process need further investigation using observations and simulations.

  7. Mantle helium in the Red Sea brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, J.E.; Weiss, R.F.; Craig, H.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that He isotope studies of terrestrial samples have shown the existence of two He components that are clearly distinct from atmospheric He. These are termed 'crustal' He and 'mantle' He; the latter was discovered as 'excess 3 He' in deep ocean water and attributed to a flux of primordial He from the mantle. Studies of the 3 He/ 4 He ratio in deep Pacific water and in He trapped in submarine basalt glasses showed that this 'mantle' component is characterised by ratios about ten times the atmospheric ratio and 100 times the ratio in 'crustal' He. Basalt glasses from other deep sea waters also showed similar ratios, and it is indicated that 'mantle' He in areas in which new lithosphere is being formed has a unique and uniform isotopic signature. Measurements of He and Ne are here reported that reveal additional information on the origin of Red Sea brines and their relationship to the Red Sea rifts. (U.K.)

  8. Conceptual and methodological challenges to integrating SEA and cumulative effects assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, Jill; Noble, Bram F.

    2011-01-01

    The constraints to assessing and managing cumulative environmental effects in the context of project-based environmental assessment are well documented, and the potential benefits of a more strategic approach to cumulative effects assessment (CEA) are well argued; however, such benefits have yet to be clearly demonstrated in practice. While it is widely assumed that cumulative effects are best addressed in a strategic context, there has been little investigation as to whether CEA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are a 'good fit' - conceptually or methodologically. This paper identifies a number of conceptual and methodological challenges to the integration of CEA and SEA. Based on results of interviews with international experts and practitioners, this paper demonstrates that: definitions and conceptualizations of CEA are typically weak in practice; approaches to effects aggregation vary widely; a systems perspective lacks in both SEA and CEA; the multifarious nature of SEA complicates CEA; tiering arrangements between SEA and project-based assessment are limited to non-existing; and the relationship of SEA to regional planning remains unclear.

  9. Food web structure and vulnerability of a deep-sea ecosystem in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Tecchio, Samuele; Coll, Marta; Christensen, Villy; Company, Joan B.; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Sarda, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing fishing pressure on the continental margins of the oceans, and this raises concerns about the vulnerability of the ecosystems thriving there. The current knowledge of the biology of deep-water fish species identifies potential reduced resilience to anthropogenic disturbance. However, there are extreme difficulties in sampling the deep sea, resulting in poorly resolved and indirectly obtained food-web relationships. Here, we modelled the flows and biomasses of a Mediterrane...

  10. Sea Cucumber Glycosides: Chemical Structures, Producing Species and Important Biological Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Muhammad Abdul Mojid; Shin, Hee Jae; Rahman, M Aminur; Islam, Mohamad Tofazzal

    2017-10-17

    Sea cucumbers belonging to echinoderm are traditionally used as tonic food in China and other Asian countries. They produce abundant biologically active triterpene glycosides. More than 300 triterpene glycosides have been isolated and characterized from various species of sea cucumbers, which are classified as holostane and nonholostane depending on the presence or absence of a specific structural unit γ(18,20)-lactone in the aglycone. Triterpene glycosides contain a carbohydrate chain up to six monosaccharide units mainly consisting of d-xylose, 3-O-methy-d-xylose, d-glucose, 3-O-methyl-d-glucose, and d-quinovose. Cytotoxicity is the common biological property of triterpene glycosides isolated from sea cucumbers. Besides cytotoxicity, triterpene glycosides also exhibit antifungal, antiviral and hemolytic activities. This review updates and summarizes our understanding on diverse chemical structures of triterpene glycosides from various species of sea cucumbers and their important biological activities. Mechanisms of action and structural-activity relationships (SARs) of sea cucumber glycosides are also discussed briefly.

  11. Peripheral retinal changes in highly myopic young Asian eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Z; Koh, Victor; Tan, Marcus; Tan, Colin S; Nah, Gerard; Shen, Liang; Bhargava, Mayuri; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Zhao, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2018-03-25

    To determine the type and prevalence of peripheral retinal changes and its relationship with axial length (AL) in a population of young Asian adult males. This was a cross-sectional study of male subjects aged between 19 and 25 years old. High myopes [spherical equivalent refraction, (SER) lattice degeneration (LD; n = 109, 14.6%) were the commonest findings, and their prevalence was significantly higher among high myopes (LD, 16.9% versus 5.8%; WWOP, 57.2% versus 5.8%; both p < 0.001). Among high myopes, temporal LD was more common (71%) and 35% had more than one area in the same eye. Increasing AL was associated with LD (odds ratio 1.28, p = 0.01) and retinal holes (odd's ratio 1.44, p = 0.02) on multivariate analysis. White without pressure (WWOP) and LD were the commonest peripheral retinal changes. One-third of high myopes with LD had more than one area in the same eye. Increasing AL was associated with LD and retinal holes. Studies in older adults should be conducted to develop clinical guidelines for the management of high myopes. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basić-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanović; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida

    2013-06-01

    Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients.

  13. CT characteristics of peripheral organizing pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Oh; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Kyung Soo; Choi, Hyung Sik; Jun, Young Hwan; Park, Yong Koo

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostic dilemma of persistent mass-forming parenchymal opacity in the lung periphery occurs occasionally in the realm of diagnostic radiology. Until recently, literature on the role of computed tomography in peripheral organizing pneumonia, which is difficult to differentiate from malignancy, has little been published. We experienced one case of pathologically proven organizing pneumonia diagnosed preoperatively by chest CT. When it comes to solitary peripheral mass density in the lung, we think that CT can be proved useful in the diagnosis of benign organizing pneumonia by showing regular and smoothly corrugate margin, peripheral contrast enhancement with inner low density, and air-trapping by intervening normal lung parenchyma.

  14. Laser peripheral iridoplasty for angle-closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai Siene; Ang, Ghee Soon; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

    2012-02-15

    Angle-closure glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Treatment is aimed at opening the anterior chamber angle and lowering the IOP with medical and/or surgical treatment (e.g. trabeculectomy, lens extraction). Laser iridotomy works by eliminating pupillary block and widens the anterior chamber angle in the majority of patients. When laser iridotomy fails to open the anterior chamber angle, laser iridoplasty may be recommended as one of the options in current standard treatment for angle-closure. Laser peripheral iridoplasty works by shrinking and pulling the peripheral iris tissue away from the trabecular meshwork. Laser peripheral iridoplasty can be used for crisis of acute angle-closure and also in non-acute situations.   To assess the effectiveness of laser peripheral iridoplasty in the treatment of narrow angles (i.e. primary angle-closure suspect), primary angle-closure (PAC) or primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in non-acute situations when compared with any other intervention. In this review, angle-closure will refer to patients with narrow angles (PACs), PAC and PACG. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12), MEDLINE (January 1950 to January 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 5 January 2012. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this review. Patients with narrow angles, PAC or PACG were eligible. We excluded studies that included only patients with acute presentations

  15. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R.; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-01-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly ‘protective’ effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions. PMID:27069641

  16. Linkages between the circulation and distribution of dissolved organic matter in the White Sea, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Stedmon, Colin A.; Semushin, Andrey V.; Martma, Tõnu; Ivanov, Boris V.; Kowalczuk, Piotr; Granskog, Mats A.

    2016-05-01

    The White Sea is a semi-enclosed Arctic marginal sea receiving a significant loading of freshwater (225-231 km3 yr-1 equaling an annual runoff yield of 2.5 m) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from river run-off. We report discharge weighed values of stable oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) of -14.0‰ in Northern Dvina river for the period 10 May-12 October 2012. We found a significant linear relationship between salinity (S) and δ18O (δ18O=-17.66±0.58+0.52±0.02×S; R2=0.96, N=162), which indicates a dominant contribution of river water to the freshwater budget and little influence of sea ice formation or melt. No apparent brine additions from sea-ice formation is evident in the White Sea deep waters as seen from a joint analysis of temperature (T), S, δ18O and aCDOM(350) data, confirming previous suggestions about strong tidal induced vertical mixing in winter being the likely source of the deep waters. We investigated properties and distribution of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the White Sea basin and coastal areas in summer. We found contrasting DOM properties in the inflowing Barents Sea waters and White Sea waters influenced by terrestrial runoff. Values of absorption by CDOM at 350 nm (aCDOM(350)) and DOC (exceeding 10 m-1 and 550 μmol l-1, respectively) in surface waters of the White Sea basin are higher compared to other river-influenced coastal Arctic domains. Linear relationship between S and CDOM absorption, and S and DOC (DOC=959.21±52.99-25.80±1.79×S; R2=0.85; N=154) concentrations suggests conservative mixing of DOM in the White Sea. The strongest linear correlation between CDOM absorption and DOC was found in the ultraviolet (DOC=56.31±2.76+9.13±0.15×aCDOM(254); R2=0.99; N=155), which provides an easy and robust tool to trace DOC using CDOM absorption measurements as well as remote sensing algorithms. Deviations from this linear relationship in surface waters likely indicate contribution from

  17. [Changes and significance of peripheral blood platelet count in tumor shrinkage induced by a low dose of CTX in T739 mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo-lin; Jia, Yu-jie; Jiang, Miao-na; Shu, Xiao-hong; Li, Chuan-gang

    2008-06-01

    To establish a mouse model for BTT739 tumor-bearing mice cured by a low dose of cyclophosphamide (CTX). And then to observe the dynamic changes and significance of peripheral blood counts especially blood platelet count during tumor shrinkage induced by a low dose of CTX in T739 mice. Mouse bladder carcinoma tissues were inoculated subcutaneously into T739 mice. Seven days later, different doses of CTX or the same volume of NS were administered intraperitoneally to treat these tumor-bearing T739 mice. Tumor sizes were observed and recorded subsequently to find out the minimal dose of CTX that could cure most of these tumor-bearing mice. Then another 12 tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into 15 mg/kg CTX treatment group and control group. Blood samples were obtained from orbital venous sinus on different times after CTX treatment. Complete blood counts were performed and the relationship between peripheral blood platelet counts and tumor shrinkage was analyzed. Within 2 weeks after CTX treatment, the speed of tumor shrinkage had a positive relationship with the dose of CTX used; but the survival rate of the tumor-bearing mice had a negative relationship with the dose of CTX used in 2 months after CTX treatment. 15 mg/kg CTX could cure most of the tumor bearing mice, while it had no remarkably inhibitive effects on peripheral blood cells. The perpherial platelet count increased to (1483.4+/-184.4)x10(9)/L in mice 6 h after CTX treatment. There was significant difference compared with that in mice of control group (1086.6+/-81.0)x10(9)/L (P0.05). CTX 15 mg/kg could cure most of bladder tumor-bearing T739 mice. The transient increase of the peripheral platelet count in 6 h after CTX treatment may relate to the antitumor effects of CTX.

  18. Broad-scale predictability of carbohydrates and exopolymers in Antarctic and Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Graham J. C.; Aslam, Shazia N.; Michel, Christine; Niemi, Andrea; Norman, Louiza; Meiners, Klaus M.; Laybourn-Parry, Johanna; Paterson, Harriet; Thomas, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Sea ice can contain high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), much of which is carbohydrate-rich extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microalgae and bacteria inhabiting the ice. Here we report the concentrations of dissolved carbohydrates (dCHO) and dissolved EPS (dEPS) in relation to algal standing stock [estimated by chlorophyll (Chl) a concentrations] in sea ice from six locations in the Southern and Arctic Oceans. Concentrations varied substantially within and between sampling sites, reflecting local ice conditions and biological content. However, combining all data revealed robust statistical relationships between dCHO concentrations and the concentrations of different dEPS fractions, Chl a, and DOC. These relationships were true for whole ice cores, bottom ice (biomass rich) sections, and colder surface ice. The distribution of dEPS was strongly correlated to algal biomass, with the highest concentrations of both dEPS and non-EPS carbohydrates in the bottom horizons of the ice. Complex EPS was more prevalent in colder surface sea ice horizons. Predictive models (validated against independent data) were derived to enable the estimation of dCHO concentrations from data on ice thickness, salinity, and vertical position in core. When Chl a data were included a higher level of prediction was obtained. The consistent patterns reflected in these relationships provide a strong basis for including estimates of regional and seasonal carbohydrate and dEPS carbon budgets in coupled physical-biogeochemical models, across different types of sea ice from both polar regions. PMID:24019487

  19. Broad-scale predictability of carbohydrates and exopolymers in Antarctic and Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Graham J C; Aslam, Shazia N; Michel, Christine; Niemi, Andrea; Norman, Louiza; Meiners, Klaus M; Laybourn-Parry, Johanna; Paterson, Harriet; Thomas, David N

    2013-09-24

    Sea ice can contain high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), much of which is carbohydrate-rich extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microalgae and bacteria inhabiting the ice. Here we report the concentrations of dissolved carbohydrates (dCHO) and dissolved EPS (dEPS) in relation to algal standing stock [estimated by chlorophyll (Chl) a concentrations] in sea ice from six locations in the Southern and Arctic Oceans. Concentrations varied substantially within and between sampling sites, reflecting local ice conditions and biological content. However, combining all data revealed robust statistical relationships between dCHO concentrations and the concentrations of different dEPS fractions, Chl a, and DOC. These relationships were true for whole ice cores, bottom ice (biomass rich) sections, and colder surface ice. The distribution of dEPS was strongly correlated to algal biomass, with the highest concentrations of both dEPS and non-EPS carbohydrates in the bottom horizons of the ice. Complex EPS was more prevalent in colder surface sea ice horizons. Predictive models (validated against independent data) were derived to enable the estimation of dCHO concentrations from data on ice thickness, salinity, and vertical position in core. When Chl a data were included a higher level of prediction was obtained. The consistent patterns reflected in these relationships provide a strong basis for including estimates of regional and seasonal carbohydrate and dEPS carbon budgets in coupled physical-biogeochemical models, across different types of sea ice from both polar regions.

  20. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: sea otters and black abalone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Peter; Jurgens, Laura J; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-11-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations.

  1. Diagnosing sea ice from the north american multi model ensemble and implications on mid-latitude winter climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, Akiko; Pegion, Kathy

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice plays an important role in the climate system, moderating the exchange of energy and moisture between the ocean and the atmosphere. An emerging area of research investigates how changes, particularly declines, in sea ice extent (SIE) impact climate in regions local to and remote from the Arctic. Therefore, both observations and model estimates of sea ice become important. This study investigates the skill of sea ice predictions from models participating in the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) project. Three of the models in this project provide sea-ice predictions. The ensemble average of these models is used to determine seasonal climate impacts on surface air temperature (SAT) and sea level pressure (SLP) in remote regions such as the mid-latitudes. It is found that declines in fall SIE are associated with cold temperatures in the mid-latitudes and pressure patterns across the Arctic and mid-latitudes similar to the negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO). These findings are consistent with other studies that have investigated the relationship between declines in SIE and mid-latitude weather and climate. In an attempt to include additional NMME models for sea-ice predictions, a proxy for SIE is used to estimate ice extent in the remaining models, using sea surface temperature (SST). It is found that SST is a reasonable proxy for SIE estimation when compared to model SIE forecasts and observations. The proxy sea-ice estimates also show similar relationships to mid-latitude temperature and pressure as the actual sea-ice predictions.

  2. The effect of low versus high approach-motivated positive affect on memory for peripherally versus centrally presented information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Philip A; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2010-08-01

    Emotions influence attention and processes involved in memory. Although some research has suggested that positive affect categorically influences these processes differently than neutral affect, recent research suggests that motivational intensity of positive affective states influences these processes. The present experiments examined memory for centrally or peripherally presented information after the evocation of approach-motivated positive affect. Experiment 1 found that, relative to neutral conditions, pregoal, approach-motivated positive affect (caused by a monetary incentives task) enhanced memory for centrally presented information, whereas postgoal, low approach-motivated positive affect enhanced memory for peripherally presented information. Experiment 2 found that, relative to a neutral condition, high approach-motivated positive affect (caused by appetitive pictures) enhanced memory for centrally presented information but hindered memory for peripheral information. These results suggest a more complex relationship between positive affect and memory processes and highlight the importance of considering the motivational intensity of positive affects in cognitive processes. Copyright 2010 APA

  3. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000234.htm Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge To use the sharing ... peripheral artery). You may have also had a stent placed. To perform the procedure: Your doctor inserted ...

  4. Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oval in shape. Diagnosis A doctor's evaluation Sometimes culture The diagnosis of peripheral ulcerative keratitis is suspected when the doctor sees the affected cornea in a person who also has a severe and/or long- ...

  5. Study of the dose-effect relationship of γ-H2AX radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Shuangshuang; Fan Yaguang; Gun Zhijuan; Wang Jixian; Zhao Yongcheng; Sun Yuping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: By using laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) to test the dose-effects relationship between ionizing radiation intensity and quantity of the γ-H2AX in vivo and in vitro respectively, and the consistency relationship between the vivo and vitro retrial. Methods: To irradiate the peripheral blood from Wister female rats by 137 Cs at 7 with different doses (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 2.54, 4, 6, 8 Gy) extract the lymphocytes from the peripheral blood and detect the dose-effects relationship between irradiation intensity and number of γ-H2AX foci. Results: There are good dose-effects relationships between the irradiation and foci number both in vivo and in vitro, which are linear, Y vivo =0.096+0.13X; Y vitro =0.040+0.21X. And there is good consistency (R=0.98) between the γ-H2AX in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions: γ-H2AX has the possibility for clinical trial as an indicator, and we can use vitro trials in place of the vivo trails to evaluate the dose people received. (authors)

  6. Hyperacute peripheral neuropathy is a predictor of oxaliplatin-induced persistent peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanishima, Hiroyuki; Tominaga, Toshiji; Kimura, Masamichi; Maeda, Tsunehiro; Shirai, Yasutsugu; Horiuchi, Tetsuya

    2017-05-01

    Chronic peripheral neuropathy is a major adverse response to oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy regimens, but there are no established risk factors pertaining to it. We investigated the efficacy of hyperacute peripheral neuropathy (HAPN) as a predictor of oxaliplatin-induced persistent peripheral neuropathy (PPN). Forty-seven cases of stage III colorectal cancer who received adjuvant chemotherapy with oxaliplatin after curative surgery between January 2010 and August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. HAPN was defined as acute peripheral neuropathy (APN) occurring on day 1 (≤24 h after oxaliplatin infusion) of the first cycle. PPN was defined as neuropathy lasting >1 year after oxaliplatin discontinuation. The average total dose of oxaliplatin was 625.8 mg/m 2 , and the average relative dose intensity was 66.7%. Twenty-two of the 47 patients (46.8%) had PPN and 13 (27.7%) had HAPN. Male sex, treatment for neuropathy, HAPN, and APN were significantly more frequent in patients with PPN (p = 0.013, 0.02, <0.001, and 0.023, respectively). There was no significant difference in the total oxaliplatin dose between patients with and without PPN (p = 0.061). Multivariate analyses revealed total dose of oxaliplatin and HAPN as independent predictors of PPN [p = 0.015; odds ratio (OR) = 1.005, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.001-1.009 and p = 0.001; OR = 75.307, 5.3-1070.123, respectively]. The total dose of oxaliplatin was relatively lower in patients with HAPN than that in those without HAPN in the PPN-positive group (not significant, p = 0.068). HAPN was found to be a predictor of oxaliplatin-induced PPN.

  7. Studies of peripheral sensory nerves in paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy: Evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Flatters, Sarah J.L.; Bennett, Gary J.

    2006-01-01

    Paclitaxel chemotherapy frequently induces neuropathic pain during and often persisting after therapy. The mechanisms responsible for this pain are unknown. Using a rat model of paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy, we have performed studies to search for peripheral nerve pathology. Paclitaxel-induced mechano-allodynia and mechano-hyperalgesia were evident after a short delay, peaked at day 27 and finally resolved on day 155. Paclitaxel- and vehicle-treated rats were perfused on d...

  8. Unipedal stance testing in the assessment of peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurvitz, E A; Richardson, J K; Werner, R A

    2001-02-01

    To define further the relation between unipedal stance testing and peripheral neuropathy. Prospective cohort. Electroneuromyography laboratory of a Veterans Affairs medical center and a university hospital. Ninety-two patients referred for lower extremity electrodiagnostic studies. A standardized history and physical examination designed to detect peripheral neuropathy, 3 trials of unipedal stance, and electrodiagnostic studies. Peripheral neuropathy was identified by electrodiagnostic testing in 32%. These subjects had a significantly shorter (p unipedal stance time (15.7s, longest of 3 trials) than the patients without peripheral neuropathy (37.1s). Abnormal unipedal stance time (unipedal stance time had a negative predictive value of 90%. Abnormal unipedal stance time was associated with an increased risk of having peripheral neuropathy on univariate analysis (odds ratio = 8.8, 95% confidence interval = 2.5--31), and was the only significant predictor of peripheral neuropathy in the regression model. Aspects of the neurologic examination did not add to the regression model compared with abnormal unipedal stance time. Unipedal stance testing is useful in the clinical setting both to identify and to exclude the presence of peripheral neuropathy.

  9. Bomb radiocarbon in the Red Sea: A medium-scale gas exchange experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cember, R.

    1989-01-01

    The history of bomb-produced radiocarbon in the surface waters of the Red Sea and the western Gulf of Aden was reconstructed from annual growth bands of corals. Gulf of Aden surface water entering the Red Sea and flowing to the north at the surface of the Red Sea becomes progressively enriched in bomb 14 C by air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide. With physical oceanographic observations and analysis as the basis of a simple model, this progressive northward enrichment can be used to calculate a mean invasionn flux for CO 2 across the Red Sea surface. The CO 2 invasion flux so calculated is 8 mol/m 2 /yr with an uncertainty of approximately 2 mol/m 2 /yr. When combined with the extensive historical observations of wind speeds in the Red Sea, the calculated CO 2 invasion flux supports the empirical relationship between CO 2 invasion and wind speed proposed by other workers. Sea surface pCO 2 was measured at seven stations along the length of the Red Sea in January 1985. These pCO 2 data show that in midwinter the net flux of CO 2 across the Red Sea surface (i.e. the difference between the invasion and evasion fluxes) is approximately zero for the Red Sea as a whole. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  10. Sea ice roughness: the key for predicting Arctic summer ice albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, J.; Ehn, J. K.; Tsamados, M.; Stroeve, J.; Barber, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    Although melt ponds on Arctic sea ice evolve in stages, ice with smoother surface topography typically allows the pond water to spread over a wider area, reducing the ice-albedo and accelerating further melt. Building on this theory, we simulated the distribution of meltwater on a range of statistically-derived topographies to develop a quantitative relationship between premelt sea ice surface roughness and summer ice albedo. Our method, previously applied to ICESat observations of the end-of-winter sea ice roughness, could account for 85% of the variance in AVHRR observations of the summer ice-albedo [Landy et al., 2015]. Consequently, an Arctic-wide reduction in sea ice roughness over the ICESat operational period (from 2003 to 2008) explained a drop in ice-albedo that resulted in a 16% increase in solar heat input to the sea ice cover. Here we will review this work and present new research linking pre-melt sea ice surface roughness observations from Cryosat-2 to summer sea ice albedo over the past six years, examining the potential of winter roughness as a significant new source of sea ice predictability. We will further evaluate the possibility for high-resolution (kilometre-scale) forecasts of summer sea ice albedo from waveform-level Cryosat-2 roughness data in the landfast sea ice zone of the Canadian Arctic. Landy, J. C., J. K. Ehn, and D. G. Barber (2015), Albedo feedback enhanced by smoother Arctic sea ice, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 10,714-10,720, doi:10.1002/2015GL066712.

  11. Predicting responses of the Adélie penguin population of Edmonson Point to future sea ice changes in the Ross Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosca eBallerini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs predict changes in the sea ice environment and in atmospheric precipitations over larger areas of Antarctica. These changes are expected to affect the population dynamics of seabirds and marine mammals, but the extent of this influence is not clear. We investigated the future population trajectories of the colony of Adélie penguins at Edmonson Point, in the Ross Sea, from 2010 to 2100. To do so, we incorporated the relationship between sea ice and demographic parameters of the studied colony into a matrix population model. Specifically, we used sea ice projections from AOGCMs and a proxy for snowfall precipitation. Simulations of population persistence under future climate change scenarios showed that a reduction in sea ice extent and an increase in precipitation events during the breeding season will drive the population to extinction. However, the population growth rate estimated by the model was lower than the population growth rate observed during the last decades, suggesting that recruits from other colonies maintain the observed population dynamics at Edmonson Point. This local ‘rescue’ effect is consistent with a metapopulation dynamic for Adélie penguins in the Ross Sea, in which neighboring colonies might exhibit contrasting population trends and different density-dependent effects. In the hypothesis that connectivity with larger source colonies or that local recruitment would decrease, the sink colony at Edmonson Point is predicted to disappear.

  12. Cloud Response to Arctic Sea Ice Loss and Implications for Feedbacks in the CESM1 Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, A.; Kay, J. E.; Chepfer, H.; Guzman, R.; Bonazzola, M.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds have the potential to accelerate or slow the rate of Arctic sea ice loss through their radiative influence on the surface. Cloud feedbacks can therefore play into Arctic warming as clouds respond to changes in sea ice cover. As the Arctic moves toward an ice-free state, understanding how cloud - sea ice relationships change in response to sea ice loss is critical for predicting the future climate trajectory. From satellite observations we know the effect of present-day sea ice cover on clouds, but how will clouds respond to sea ice loss as the Arctic transitions to a seasonally open water state? In this study we use a lidar simulator to first evaluate cloud - sea ice relationships in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1) against present-day observations (2006-2015). In the current climate, the cloud response to sea ice is well-represented in CESM1: we see no summer cloud response to changes in sea ice cover, but more fall clouds over open water than over sea ice. Since CESM1 is credible for the current Arctic climate, we next assess if our process-based understanding of Arctic cloud feedbacks related to sea ice loss is relevant for understanding future Arctic clouds. In the future Arctic, summer cloud structure continues to be insensitive to surface conditions. As the Arctic warms in the fall, however, the boundary layer deepens and cloud fraction increases over open ocean during each consecutive decade from 2020 - 2100. This study will also explore seasonal changes in cloud properties such as opacity and liquid water path. Results thus far suggest that a positive fall cloud - sea ice feedback exists in the present-day and future Arctic climate.

  13. Lipid-lowering drugs (statins) and peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emad, Mohammadreza; Arjmand, Hosein; Farpour, Hamid Reza; Kardeh, Bahareh

    2018-03-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a disorder with often unknown causes. Some drugs, including statins, are proposed to be among the causes of peripheral neuropathy. This study aimed at evaluating this condition by electrodiagnostic study among patients who had received statins. This case-control study was conducted in Shiraz, Iran in 2015, and included 39 patients aged 35-55 who had received statins for at least 6 months, and 39 healthy matched controls. Using electrodiagnosis, the sensory and motor wave features (amplitude, latency and nerve conduction velocity) of the peripheral nerves (Median, Ulnar, Tibial, Sural, and Peroneal) were evaluated among the subjects. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and pneuropathy, there were no significant differences in any of the definitions presented for peripheral neuropathy. However, the difference was close to significance for one definition [2 abnormalities in 2 nerves (p=0.055)]. Regarding mean values of the features, significant differences were observed in two features: amplitude of the peroneal motor nerve (p=0.048) and amplitude of the sural sensory nerve (p=0.036). Since statins are widely used, awareness regarding their side-effects would lead to better treatment. Even though no significant differences were found between the groups regarding the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy, there were significant differences in amplitudes of the sural sensory response and the peroneal motor response. This indicates the involvement of peripheral nerves. Therefore, we recommend that patients and physicians should be informed about the possible symptoms of this condition.

  14. Randomized sham-controlled pilot trial of weekly electro-acupuncture for the prevention of taxane-induced peripheral neuropathy in women with early stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Heather; Crew, Katherine D; Capodice, Jillian; Awad, Danielle; Buono, Donna; Shi, Zaixing; Jeffres, Anne; Wyse, Sharon; Whitman, Wendy; Trivedi, Meghna S; Kalinsky, Kevin; Hershman, Dawn L

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) as a non-pharmacological intervention to prevent or reduce chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy of taxane. Women with stage I-III breast cancer scheduled to receive taxane therapy were randomized to receive a standardized protocol of 12 true or sham EA (SEA) weekly treatments concurrent with taxane treatment. Subjects completed the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF), Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Taxane neurotoxicity subscale (FACT-NTX), and other assessments at baseline and weeks 6, 12, and 16. A total of 180 subjects were screened, 63 enrolled and 48 completed week 16 assessments. Mean age was 50 with 25 % white, 25 % black, and 43 % Hispanic; 52 % had no prior chemotherapy. At week 12, both groups reported an increase in mean BPI-SF worst pain score, but no mean differences were found between groups (SEA 2.8 vs. EA 2.6, P = .86). By week 16, the SEA group returned to baseline, while the EA group continued to worsen (SEA 1.7 vs. EA 3.4, P = .03). The increase in BPI-SF worst pain score was 1.62 points higher in the EA group than in the SEA group at week 16 (P = .04). In a randomized, sham-controlled trial of EA for prevention of taxane-induced CIPN, there were no differences in pain or neuropathy between groups at week 12. Of concern, subjects on EA had a slower recovery than SEA subjects. Future studies should focus on EA for treatment as opposed to prevention of CIPN.

  15. Peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carzoglio, J.; Tancredi, N.; Capurro, S.; Ravecca, T.; Scarrone, P.

    2006-01-01

    A new case of peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) is reported. It is localized in the superior right gingival region, a less frequent site, and has the histopathological features previously reported. Immunochemical studies were performed, revealing a differential positive stain to cytokeratins in tumor cells deeply seated in the tumor mass, probably related to tumoral cell heterogeneity.Interestingly, in this particular case S-100 protein positive reactivity was also detected in arborescent cells intermingled with tumoral cells, resembling Langerhans cells. Even though referred in the literature in central Pindborg tumors, no references were found about their presence in peripheral tumors, like the one that is presented here

  16. Haemopoietic progenitor cells in human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, F.E.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation reported is to purify haemopoietic progenitor cells from human peripheral blood using density gradient centrifugation in order to isolate a progenitor cell fraction without immunocompetent cells. The purification technique of peripheral blood flow colony forming unit culture (CFU-c) by means of density gradient centrifugation and a combined depletion of various rosettes is described. The results of several 'in vitro' characteristics of purified CFU-c suspensions and of the plasma clot diffusion chamber culture technique are presented. Irradiation studies revealed that for both human bone marrow and peripheral blood the CFU-c were less radioresistant than clusters. Elimination of monocytes (and granulocytes) from the test suspensions induced an alteration in radiosensitivity pararmeters. The results obtained with the different techniques are described by analysing peripheral progenitor cell activity in myeloproliferative disorders. (Auth.)

  17. Label-free photoacoustic microscopy of peripheral nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas Paul; Zhang, Chi; Yao, Da-Kang; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological problem that affects millions of people worldwide. Diagnosis and treatment of this condition are often hindered by the difficulties in making objective, noninvasive measurements of nerve fibers. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) has the ability to obtain high resolution, specific images of peripheral nerves without exogenous contrast. We demonstrated the first proof-of-concept imaging of peripheral nerves using PAM. As validated by both standard histology and photoacoustic spectroscopy, the origin of photoacoustic signals is myelin, the primary source of lipids in the nerves. An extracted sciatic nerve sandwiched between two layers of chicken tissue was imaged by PAM to mimic the in vivo case. Ordered fibrous structures inside the nerve, caused by the bundles of myelin-coated axons, could be observed clearly. With further technical improvements, PAM can potentially be applied to monitor and diagnose peripheral neuropathies.

  18. Assessment of the sea-ice carbon pump: Insights from a three-dimensional ocean-sea-ice biogeochemical model (NEMO-LIM-PISCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Moreau

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of sea ice in the carbon cycle is minimally represented in current Earth System Models (ESMs. Among potentially important flaws, mentioned by several authors and generally overlooked during ESM design, is the link between sea-ice growth and melt and oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and total alkalinity (TA. Here we investigate whether this link is indeed an important feature of the marine carbon cycle misrepresented in ESMs. We use an ocean general circulation model (NEMO-LIM-PISCES with sea-ice and marine carbon cycle components, forced by atmospheric reanalyses, adding a first-order representation of DIC and TA storage and release in/from sea ice. Our results suggest that DIC rejection during sea-ice growth releases several hundred Tg C yr−1 to the surface ocean, of which < 2% is exported to depth, leading to a notable but weak redistribution of DIC towards deep polar basins. Active carbon processes (mainly CaCO3 precipitation but also ice-atmosphere CO2 fluxes and net community production increasing the TA/DIC ratio in sea-ice modified ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes by a few Tg C yr−1 in the sea-ice zone, with specific hemispheric effects: DIC content of the Arctic basin decreased but DIC content of the Southern Ocean increased. For the global ocean, DIC content increased by 4 Tg C yr−1 or 2 Pg C after 500 years of model run. The simulated numbers are generally small compared to the present-day global ocean annual CO2 sink (2.6 ± 0.5 Pg C yr−1. However, sea-ice carbon processes seem important at regional scales as they act significantly on DIC redistribution within and outside polar basins. The efficiency of carbon export to depth depends on the representation of surface-subsurface exchanges and their relationship with sea ice, and could differ substantially if a higher resolution or different ocean model were used.

  19. Peripheral Neuropathy and Nerve Compression Syndromes in Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Amy L; Agarwal, Shailesh; Cederna, Paul S; Levi, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    Peripheral neuropathy and nerve compression syndromes lead to substantial morbidity following burn injury. Patients present with pain, paresthesias, or weakness along a specific nerve distribution or experience generalized peripheral neuropathy. The symptoms manifest at various times from within one week of hospitalization to many months after wound closure. Peripheral neuropathy may be caused by vascular occlusion of vasa nervorum, inflammation, neurotoxin production leading to apoptosis, and direct destruction of nerves from the burn injury. This article discusses the natural history, diagnosis, current treatments, and future directions for potential interventions for peripheral neuropathy and nerve compression syndromes related to burn injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Peripheral orbit model

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, Yasuo

    1975-01-01

    Peripheral orbit model, in which an incoming hadron is assumed to revolve in a peripheral orbit around a target hadron, is discussed. The non-diffractive parts of two-body reaction amplitudes of hadrons are expressed in terms of the radius, width an absorptivity of the orbit. The radius of the orbit is about 1 fm and the width of the orbit is determined by the range of the interaction between the hadrons. The model reproduces all available experimental data on differential cross-sections and polarizations of $K^{-}p\\to K^{-}p$ and $\\bar K^{\\circ}n$ reactions for all angles successfully. This contribution is not included in the proceedings since it will appear in Progress of Theoretical Physics Vol. 51 (1974) No 2. Any person interested in the subject may apply for reprints to the author.

  1. Egg production and shell relationship of the land hermit crab Coenobita scaevola (Anomura: Coenobitidae from Wadi El-Gemal, Red Sea, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa S. Sallam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to characterize the fecundity of the land hermit crab Coenobita scaevola as well as the influence of shell type on fecundity using morphometric relationships. Hermit crabs were collected monthly from January to December 2007 from the protected area of Wadi El-Gemal, at Marsa Alam on the Red Sea, and ovigerous females were selected. Hermit crab wet weight and the gastropod shell weight were recorded. The number of eggs carried by females of several sizes (CL, carapace length, stages of development and egg size were determined. Shells of eight gastropod species were occupied by ovigerous females of C. scaevola. Shells of Nerita undata was the most occupied (65.7%, particularly by individuals falling within the size range 5.0–7.0 mm CL. Only 35 berried females were recorded during May, July and September and the mean fecundity was 679.8 ± 140 eggs. Fecundity was found positively correlated with crab size and shell dimensions. The relationship between fecundity and the internal volume of the occupied shell was ranked as the most correlated. The impact of shell utilization on hermit crab fecundity is discussed.

  2. Case report of a patient with peripheral facial nerve palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Rysová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Title of bachelor's thesis: Case report of a patient with peripheral facial nerve palsy Summary: Teoretical part of bachelor's thesis contains theoretical foundation of peripheral facial nerve palsy. Practical part of bachelor's thesis contains physiotherapeutic case report of patient with peripheral facial nerve palsy. Key words: peripheral facial nerve palsy, casuistry, rehabilitation

  3. Northern Alaskan land surface response to reduced Arctic sea ice extent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Matthew E. [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States); Cassano, John J. [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-05-15

    With Arctic sea ice extent at near-record lows, an improved understanding of the relationship between sea ice and the land surface is warranted. We examine the land surface response to changing sea ice by first conducting a simulation using the Community Atmospheric Model version 3.1 with end of the twenty-first century sea ice extent. This future atmospheric response is then used to force the Weather and Research Forecasting Model version 3.1 to examine the terrestrial land surface response at high resolution over the North Slope of Alaska. Similar control simulations with twentieth century sea ice projections are also performed, and in both simulations only sea ice extent is altered. In the future sea ice extent experiment, atmospheric temperature increases significantly due to increases in latent and sensible heat flux, particularly in the winter season. Precipitation and snow pack increase significantly, and the increased snow pack contributes to warmer soil temperatures for most seasons by insulating the land surface. In the summer, however, soil temperatures are reduced due to increased albedo. Despite warmer near-surface atmospheric temperatures, it is found that spring melt is delayed throughout much of the North Slope due to the increased snow pack, and the growing season length is shortened. (orig.)

  4. Otolith Sr concentration analyzed by PIXE in Ariake estuary-dependent sea bass juveniles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Taro; Arai, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Masaru; Yoshida, Koji

    1997-01-01

    Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) is a typical euryhaline marine fish and frequently migrates from salt to freshwater environments during early life stages. We hypothesized that strontium concentrations in the otolith could be a useful index to examine freshwater entry because of its lower concentration in freshwater. Otoliths of Japanese sea bass juveniles collected in the Chikugo river and estuary were analyzed by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) to see relationship between strontium concentration and ambient salinity. Strontium concentrations in otoliths of sea bass juveniles are significantly lower in the river samples than in brackish water samples. (author)

  5. North Sea Scyphomedusae; summer distribution, estimated biomass and significance particularly for 0-group Gadoid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, S. J.; Hislop, J. R. G.; Shanks, A. M.

    Data on the by-catch of Scyphomedusae from pelagic trawls was collected during the routine ICES International 0-group Gadoid Surveys of the North Sea, in June and July of the years 1971-1986 (except 1984). These data are used to describe the distributions, abundances and biomasses of three common North Sea Scyphomedusae: Aurelia aurita (L.), Cyanea capillata (L.) and C. lamarckii (Péron & Lesuer). Information is also presented on inter-annual variability, size (umbrella diameter) frequencies and, for the Cyanea species, umbrella diameter: wet weight relationships. The general role and ecological significance of Scyphomedusae is discussed and, given the well known 'shelter' relationships between Scyphomedusae and certain 0-group fish, whiting ( Merlangius merlangus) and haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus), in particular. The data were examined for evidence of such relationships. Aurelia aurita, although fairly widespread in the northern North Sea was virtually absent from the central North Sea but very abundant in coastal waters. This species was particularly abundant off the Scottish east coast and especially in the Moray Firth. Cyanea lamerckii was most abundant in the southern and eastern North Sea. More widespread than Aurelia, this species was also most abundant in coastal regions, particularly off the Danish west coast. Cyanea capillata, with a more northern distribution was also more widely distributed and abundant offshore. This species was most abundant in the area between the Orkney/Shetland Isles and the Norwegian Deep and in shelf waters of the north west approaches to the North Sea. As with C. lamarckii it was also, in some years, abundant off the Scottish east coast and west of Denmark. The abundance and the size frequency of the jellyfish show considerable inter-annual variability, and variability between regions of the North Sea. It is considered that hydrographic variability and differences in food supply to both medusae and to their sessile

  6. Accumulation of technetium-99 in the Irish Sea?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Kinson S.; McCubbin, David; Bonfield, Rachel; McDonald, Paul; Service, Matthew; Conney, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    An assessment has been carried out to determine the impact of continued 99 Tc discharges into the Irish Sea from the nuclear fuels reprocessing plant at Sellafield. Samples of surface and bottom seawater and sediment have been collected from the Irish Sea and analysed for 99 Tc. The information has been used, together with supporting data, to determine the effect of summer stratification upon the seawater concentrations and to evaluate whether sediments provide a sink for 99 Tc. Hydrographic data provide clear evidence of thermal stratification of waters above the muddy sediment in the western Irish Sea. Surface water contained higher 99 Tc concentrations than bottom water, and concentrations were inversely related to water salinity. This inverse relationship was not observed in the eastern Irish Sea close to Sellafield. 99 Tc activities in surficial sediments were greatest (>20 Bq/kg) at sites closest to the Cumbrian coastline. Activity, from equivalent sampling sites, remained similar between surveys carried out in 1995 and 1998. The muted response of the seabed sediments, to fluctuations in the Sellafield discharges, compared with the water column is to be expected given that they reflect the integrated radionuclide discharge history

  7. Loss of Peripheral Sensory Function Explains Much of the Increase in Postural Sway in Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Anson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postural sway increases with age and peripheral sensory disease. Whether, peripheral sensory function is related to postural sway independent of age in healthy adults is unclear. Here, we investigated the relationship between tests of visual function (VISFIELD, vestibular function (CANAL or OTOLITH, proprioceptive function (PROP, and age, with center of mass sway area (COM measured with eyes open then closed on firm and then a foam surface. A cross-sectional sample of 366 community dwelling healthy adults from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging was tested. Multiple linear regressions examined the association between COM and VISFIELD, PROP, CANAL, and OTOLITH separately and in multi-sensory models controlling for age and gender. PROP dominated sensory prediction of sway across most balance conditions (β's = 0.09–0.19, p's < 0.001, except on foam eyes closed where CANAL function loss was the only significant sensory predictor of sway (β = 2.12, p < 0.016. Age was not a consistent predictor of sway. This suggests loss of peripheral sensory function explains much of the age-associated increase in sway.

  8. Divergence within and among Seaweed Siblings (Fucus vesiculosus and F. radicans) in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardehed, Angelica; Johansson, Daniel; Sundqvist, Lisa; Schagerström, Ellen; Zagrodzka, Zuzanna; Kovaltchouk, Nikolaj A; Bergström, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Rafajlovic, Marina; Pereyra, Ricardo T; Johannesson, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Closely related taxa provide significant case studies for understanding evolution of new species but may simultaneously challenge species identification and definition. In the Baltic Sea, two dominant and perennial brown algae share a very recent ancestry. Fucus vesiculosus invaded this recently formed postglacial sea 8000 years ago and shortly thereafter Fucus radicans diverged from this lineage as an endemic species. In the Baltic Sea both species reproduce sexually but also recruit fully fertile new individuals by asexual fragmentation. Earlier studies have shown local differences in morphology and genetics between the two taxa in the northern and western Bothnian Sea, and around the island of Saaremaa in Estonia, but geographic patterns seem in conflict with a single origin of F. radicans. To investigate the relationship between northern and Estonian distributions, we analysed the genetic variation using 9 microsatellite loci in populations from eastern Bothnian Sea, Archipelago Sea and the Gulf of Finland. These populations are located in between earlier studied populations. However, instead of bridging the disparate genetic gap between N-W Bothnian Sea and Estonia, as expected from a simple isolation-by-distance model, the new populations substantially increased overall genetic diversity and showed to be strongly divergent from the two earlier analysed regions, showing signs of additional distinct populations. Contrasting earlier findings of increased asexual recruitment in low salinity in the Bothnian Sea, we found high levels of sexual reproduction in some of the Gulf of Finland populations that inhabit extremely low salinity. The new data generated in this study supports the earlier conclusion of two reproductively isolated but very closely related species. However, the new results also add considerable genetic and morphological complexity within species. This makes species separation at geographic scales more demanding and suggests a need for more

  9. Divergence within and among Seaweed Siblings (Fucus vesiculosus and F. radicans in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Ardehed

    Full Text Available Closely related taxa provide significant case studies for understanding evolution of new species but may simultaneously challenge species identification and definition. In the Baltic Sea, two dominant and perennial brown algae share a very recent ancestry. Fucus vesiculosus invaded this recently formed postglacial sea 8000 years ago and shortly thereafter Fucus radicans diverged from this lineage as an endemic species. In the Baltic Sea both species reproduce sexually but also recruit fully fertile new individuals by asexual fragmentation. Earlier studies have shown local differences in morphology and genetics between the two taxa in the northern and western Bothnian Sea, and around the island of Saaremaa in Estonia, but geographic patterns seem in conflict with a single origin of F. radicans. To investigate the relationship between northern and Estonian distributions, we analysed the genetic variation using 9 microsatellite loci in populations from eastern Bothnian Sea, Archipelago Sea and the Gulf of Finland. These populations are located in between earlier studied populations. However, instead of bridging the disparate genetic gap between N-W Bothnian Sea and Estonia, as expected from a simple isolation-by-distance model, the new populations substantially increased overall genetic diversity and showed to be strongly divergent from the two earlier analysed regions, showing signs of additional distinct populations. Contrasting earlier findings of increased asexual recruitment in low salinity in the Bothnian Sea, we found high levels of sexual reproduction in some of the Gulf of Finland populations that inhabit extremely low salinity. The new data generated in this study supports the earlier conclusion of two reproductively isolated but very closely related species. However, the new results also add considerable genetic and morphological complexity within species. This makes species separation at geographic scales more demanding and suggests a

  10. Peripheral involvement of the joint in seronegative spondylarthritis; Periphere Gelenkbeteiligung bei seronegativen Spondarthritiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingg, G.; Soltesz, I. [Rheumazentrum Bad Kreuznach (Germany). Zentrales Roentgeninstitut

    1997-10-01

    The subjects of this contributions have been restricted to the peripheral manifestations of seronegative spondylarthrosis, for reasons of conciseness and clearness. The most frequent occurrences discussed are psoriasis arthritis and, a little bit less frequent, peripheral involvement of the joint in ancylosing spondylitis and Reiter syndrome, as well as enteropathic spondylarthrosis. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Als Thema dieser Veroeffentlichung wurden aus Gruenden der Kuerze und der Uebersichtlichkeit aber nur die peripheren Manifestationen der seronegativen Spondarthropathien gewaehlt. Hier wiederum haben wir es am haeufigsten mit der Psoriasisarthritis und etwas seltener mit der peripheren Gelenkbeteiligung bei der Bechterew`schen Erkrankung und der Reiter`schen Erkrankung sowie der enteropathischen Spondarthritiden zu tun. (orig./AJ)

  11. On the renewal of the denitrifying layer in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Somasundar, K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    A one-dimensional (vertical) advection-diffusion model has been applied to the deep layer characterized by a linear potential temperature(theta)-salinity relationship in the Arabian Sea to estimate the velocity of ascending motion. The results...

  12. Estimating the Ocean Flow Field from Combined Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Surface Height Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stammer, Detlef; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This project was part of a previous grant at MIT that was moved over to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) together with the principal investigator. The final report provided here is concerned only with the work performed at SIO since January 2000. The primary focus of this project was the study of the three-dimensional, absolute and time-evolving general circulation of the global ocean from a combined analysis of remotely sensed fields of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH). The synthesis of those two fields was performed with other relevant physical data, and appropriate dynamical ocean models with emphasis on constraining ocean general circulation models by a combination of both SST and SSH data. The central goal of the project was to improve our understanding and modeling of the relationship between the SST and its variability to internal ocean dynamics, and the overlying atmosphere, and to explore the relative roles of air-sea fluxes and internal ocean dynamics in establishing anomalies in SST on annual and longer time scales. An understanding of those problems will feed into the general discussion on how SST anomalies vary with time and the extend to which they interact with the atmosphere.

  13. Imaging of the peripheral vascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, S.A.; Pond, G.D.; Pinsky, S.; Moss, G.S.; Srikantaswamy, S.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1984-01-01

    This book is limited neither to the peripheral vascular system nor to diagnostic imaging techniques. Its 18 chapters cover nonimaging blood-flow techniques (Doppler ultrasound, plethysmography) as well as noninvasive and invasive imaging techniques (ultrasound, computed tomography, radionuclide digital-subtraction angiography, and contrast angiography). These are applied not only to the peripheral vascular system but also to the aorta and vena cava

  14. Concurrent Peripheral Pathologies and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 as Contributors to Acute Post-Stroke Shoulder Pain: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Majid Akhavan Hejazi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Post-stroke shoulder pain is associated with either a peripheral or central pathology. However, most of the time, it is challenging to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between the suggested pathology and shoulder pain reported. We report a 66 year-old man who developed a right hemiplegic shoulder pain two months post stroke with initial investigations suggestive of peripheral pathologies. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment did not improve his shoulder pain. Later he developed complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS of the right hand and the initial shoulder pain subsequently relieved following resolution of the CRPS.

  15. Raman spectroscopic detection of peripheral nerves towards nerve-sparing surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamikawa, Takeo; Harada, Yoshinori; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2017-02-01

    The peripheral nervous system plays an important role in motility, sensory, and autonomic functions of the human body. Preservation of peripheral nerves in surgery, namely nerve-sparing surgery, is now promising technique to avoid functional deficits of the limbs and organs following surgery as an aspect of the improvement of quality of life of patients. Detection of peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves is required for the nerve-sparing surgery; however, conventional nerve identification scheme is sometimes difficult to identify peripheral nerves due to similarity of shape and color to non-nerve tissues or its limited application to only motor peripheral nerves. To overcome these issues, we proposed a label-free detection technique of peripheral nerves by means of Raman spectroscopy. We found several fingerprints of peripheral myelinated and unmyelinated nerves by employing a modified principal component analysis of typical spectra including myelinated nerve, unmyelinated nerve, and adjacent tissues. We finally realized the sensitivity of 94.2% and the selectivity of 92.0% for peripheral nerves including myelinated and unmyelinated nerves against adjacent tissues. Although further development of an intraoperative Raman spectroscopy system is required for clinical use, our proposed approach will serve as a unique and powerful tool for peripheral nerve detection for nerve-sparing surgery in the future.

  16. Determination of the Territorial Sea Baseline - Measurement Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Cezary; Weintrit, Adam; Specht, Mariusz; Dabrowski, Pawel

    2017-12-01

    Determining the course of the territorial sea baseline (TSB) of the coastal state is the basis for establishing its maritime boundaries, thus becoming indirect part of maritime policy of the state. Besides the following aspects: legal and methodological as described in the conventions, acts, standards and regulations, equally important is the issue of measurement methodology with respect to the boundaries of the territorial sea. The publication discussed accuracy requirements of the TSB measurement implementation, the relationship of sea level with a choice of the method of its determination, and discussed the implementation of such a measurement on a selected example. As the test reservoir was used the 400-meter stretch of the public beach in Gdynia. During the measurements they used the GNSS geodetic receiver operating in real time based on the geodetic network - VRSnet.pl. Additionally, a comparison was made of the applied method with analogous measurements of the TSB performed in 1999.

  17. [Atherectomy for peripheral arterial disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Louise Skovgaard; Høgh, Annette Langager; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2015-04-13

    Symptomatic peripheral arterial disease is managed according to national and international guidelines and the number of vascular reconstructions performed each year has increased over the past decade mainly due to an increasing frequency of endovascular procedures. Atherectomy as an alternative to the established treatment of symptomatic peripheral arterial disease has recently been analysed in a Cochrane review. In Denmark, atherectomy is not performed and so far the evidence is poor as the method is not an alternative to the established treatment in this country.

  18. Spatial differences in growth of lesser sandeel in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Wright, Peter J.; Jensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Lesser sandeel, Ammodytes marinus, is a key prey to a variety of North Sea predators, including species such as single load seabirds which are highly sensitive to prey size and condition. Whilst differences in weight at age across the North Sea have been investigated previously, the scale and cause...... of this variation as well as the potential link to spatial differences in predator performance remains unknown. This study presents an analysis of spatial patterns in length and condition of the lesser sandeel in the North Sea and the relationship of these with physical and biological factors. Both mean length...... considerably both spatially and temporally, resulting in 4 fold and 1.9 fold variations in the number of sandeels required to obtain a specific weight, respectively. Hence, the value of sandeel as prey to single load predators varies considerably with values in central and northeastern North Sea being...

  19. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Prem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the fourth leading cause of death world-wide and a further increase in the prevalence as well as mortality of the disease is predicted for coming decades. There is now an increased appreciation for the need to build awareness regarding COPD and to help the thousands of people who suffer from this disease and die prematurely from COPD or its associated complication(s. Peripheral neuropathy in COPD has received scanty attention despite the fact that very often clinicians come across COPD patients having clinical features suggestive of peripheral neuropathy. Electrophysiological tests like nerve conduction studies are required to distinguish between axonal and demyelinating type of disorder that cannot be analyzed by clinical examination alone. However, various studies addressing peripheral neuropathy in COPD carried out so far have included patients with COPD having markedly varying baseline characteristics like severe hypoxemia, elderly patients, those with long duration of illness, etc. that are not uniform across the studies and make it difficult to interpret the results to a consistent conclusion. Almost one-third of COPD patients have clinical evidence of peripheral neuropathy and two-thirds have electrophysiological abnormalities. Some patients with no clinical indication of peripheral neuropathy do have electrophysiological deficit suggestive of peripheral neuropathy. The more frequent presentation consists of a polyneuropathy that is subclinical or with predominantly sensory signs, and the neurophysiological and pathological features of predominantly axonal neuropathy. The presumed etiopathogenic factors are multiple: chronic hypoxia, tobacco smoke, alcoholism, malnutrition and adverse effects of certain drugs.

  20. Nerve conduction and excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Moldovan, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    counterparts in the peripheral nervous system, in some instances without peripheral nervous system symptoms. Both hereditary and acquired demyelinating neuropathies have been studied and the effects on nerve pathophysiology have been compared with degeneration and regeneration of axons. SUMMARY: Excitability......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is aimed at providing information about the role of nerve excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders. It has been known for many years that the insight into peripheral nerve pathophysiology provided by conventional nerve conduction studies is limited. Nerve...... excitability studies are relatively novel but are acquiring an increasingly important role in the study of peripheral nerves. RECENT FINDINGS: By measuring responses in nerve that are related to nodal function (strength-duration time constant, rheobase and recovery cycle) and internodal function (threshold...

  1. Addressing environmental issues through foraminifera – Case studies from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    of relict foraminifera in certain environments also helps in deciphering palaeo-sea level conditions (Mazumder, 2004; Panchang et al., communicated). Significant Results: The relative rise and fall of sea level over the time has been studied with the help... and shared or distributed, contributing to balance the economy of the country during the time of crisis. Sufficient or excess rainfall conditions will even improve relationship between the states as well as bordering countries sharing water resources...

  2. The northward expansion of Synaptula reciprocans (Echinodermata) in the Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragkousis, Michail; Marmara, Dimitra; Filiz, Halit

    2017-01-01

    Synaptula reciprocans was reported in the Mediterranean Sea for the first time back in 1986. Since then there have been numerous reports, following the species' gradual expansion and establishment in the eastern Mediterranean basin. Here we report, by using citizen science methods, from the project...... titled "Is it Alien to you? Share it" of iSea, the most recent known expansion sites of S. reciprocans, including its new northern-most frontier. Furthermore, the provided photographic evidence testifies for possible interspecies relationships, for the first time....

  3. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    COJOCARU, Inimioara Mihaela; COJOCARU, Manole; SILOSI, Isabela; VRABIE, Camelia Doina

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral nervous system refers to parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. Systemic autoimmune diseases can affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems in a myriad of ways and through a heterogeneous number of mechanisms leading to many different clinical manifestations. As a result, neurological complications of these disorders can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The most common complication of peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement ...

  4. Passive Scalar Evolution in Peripheral Region

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedev, V. V.; Turitsyn, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    We consider evolution of a passive scalar (concentration of pollutants or temperature) in a chaotic (turbulent) flow. A universal asymptotic behavior of the passive scalar decay (homogenization) related to peripheral regions (near walls) is established. The passive scalar moments and its pair correlation function in the peripheral region are analyzed. A special case investigated in our paper is the passive scalar decay along a pipe.

  5. Aluminum concentrations in central and peripheral areas of malignant breast lesions do not differ from those in normal breast tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues-Peres, Raquel Mary; Cadore, Solange; Febraio, Stefanny; Heinrich, Juliana Karina; Serra, Katia Piton; Derchain, Sophie F M; Vassallo, Jose; Sarian, Luis Otavio

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum is used in a wide range of applications and is a potential environmental hazard. The known genotoxic effects of aluminum might play a role in the development of breast cancer. However, the data currently available on the subject are not sufficient to establish a causal relationship between aluminum exposure and the augmented risk of developing breast cancer. To achieve maximum sensitivity and specificity in the determination of aluminum levels, we have developed a detection protocol using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The objective of the present study was to compare the aluminum levels in the central and peripheral areas of breast carcinomas with those in the adjacent normal breast tissues, and to identify patient and/or tumor characteristics associated with these aluminum levels. A total of 176 patients with breast cancer were included in the study. Samples from the central and peripheral areas of their tumors were obtained, as well as from the surrounding normal breast tissue. Aluminum quantification was performed using GFAAS. The average (mean ± SD) aluminum concentrations were as follows: central area, 1.88 ± 3.60 mg/kg; peripheral area, 2.10 ± 5.67 mg/kg; and normal area, 1.68 ± 11.1 mg/kg. Overall and two-by-two comparisons of the aluminum concentrations in these areas indicated no significant differences. We detected a positive relationship between aluminum levels in the peripheral areas of the tumors, age and menopausal status of the patients (P = .02). Using a sensitive quantification technique we detected similar aluminum concentrations in the central and peripheral regions of breast tumors, and in normal tissues. In addition, we did not detect significant differences in aluminum concentrations as related to the location of the breast tumor within the breast, or to other relevant tumor features such as stage, size and steroid receptor status. The next logical step is the assessment of whether the aluminum

  6. Elevated specific peripheral cytokines found in major depressive disorder patients with childhood trauma exposure: a cytokine antibody array analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaojia; Peng, Hongjun; Wang, Lifeng; Vasish, Seewoobudul; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Weijia; Wu, Weiwei; Liao, Mei; Wang, Mi; Tang, Hao; Li, Wenping; Li, Weihui; Li, Zexuan; Zhou, Jiansong; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Lingjiang

    2013-10-01

    Taking into consideration the previous evidence of revealing the relationship of early life adversity, major depressive disorder (MDD), and stress-linked immunological changes, we recruited 22 MDD patients with childhood trauma exposures (CTE), 21 MDD patients without CTE, and 22 healthy controls without CTE, and then utilized a novel cytokine antibody array methodology to detect potential biomarkers underlying MDD in 120 peripheral cytokines and to evaluate the effect of CTE on cytokine changes in MDD patients. Although 13 cytokines were identified with highly significant differences in expressions between MDD patients and normal controls, this relationship was significantly attenuated and no longer significant after consideration of the effect of CTE in MDD patients. Depressed individuals with CTE (TD patients) were more likely to have higher peripheral levels of those cytokines. Severity of depression was associated with plasma levels of certain increased cytokines; meanwhile, the increased cytokines led to a proper separation of TD patients from normal controls during clustering analyses. Our research outcomes add great strength to the relationship between depression and cytokine changes and suggest that childhood trauma may play a vital role in the co-appearance of cytokine changes and depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Do North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries maintain high catch rates at low stock size?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard

    2008-01-01

    This study presents all investigation of the relationship between stock size of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) and catch rates in seven commercial fishing fleets. The shape of the relationship was estimated using a model allowing both density-dependent changes in catchability and bias...

  8. Imaging of the peripheral retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Kernt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical progress of the recent years has revolutionized imaging in ophthalmology. Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO, digital angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT, and detection of fundus autofluorescence (FAF have fundamentally changed our understanding of numerous retinal and choroidal diseases. Besides the tremendous advances in macular diagnostics, there is more and more evidence that central pathologies are often directly linked to changes in the peripheral retina. This review provides a brief overview on current posterior segment imaging techniques with a special focus on the peripheral retina.

  9. Peripheral myelin protein 22 alters membrane architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorf, Kathleen F.; Marinko, Justin T.; Hampton, Cheri M.; Ke, Zunlong; Hadziselimovic, Arina; Schlebach, Jonathan P.; Law, Cheryl L.; Li, Jun; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Sanders, Charles R.; Ohi, Melanie D.

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is highly expressed in myelinating Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system. PMP22 genetic alterations cause the most common forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD), which is characterized by severe dysmyelination in the peripheral nerves. However, the functions of PMP22 in Schwann cell membranes remain unclear. We demonstrate that reconstitution of purified PMP22 into lipid vesicles results in the formation of compressed and cylindrically wrapped protein-lipid vesicles that share common organizational traits with compact myelin of peripheral nerves in vivo. The formation of these myelin-like assemblies depends on the lipid-to-PMP22 ratio, as well as on the PMP22 extracellular loops. Formation of the myelin-like assemblies is disrupted by a CMTD-causing mutation. This study provides both a biochemical assay for PMP22 function and evidence that PMP22 directly contributes to membrane organization in compact myelin. PMID:28695207

  10. An analysis of the relationship between drought events and mangrove changes along the northern coasts of the Pe rsian Gulf and Oman Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafi-Gholami, Davood; Mahmoudi, Beytollah; Zenner, Eric K.

    2017-12-01

    Relating the changes of mangrove forests to spatially explicit reductions in rainfall amounts and increases in drought occurrences is a prerequisite for improving the effectiveness and success of mangrove forest conservation programs. To this end, we investigated the relationship between drought events (quantified using the Standardized Precipitation Index [SPI]) and changes in area and canopy cover of mangrove forests on the northern coast of the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea using satellite imagery and long-term annual rainfall data over a period of 30 years (1986-2016). Statistical analyses revealed 1998 as the year marking the most significant change-point in the mean annual rainfall values in the catchments and mangroves, after which average SPI values consistently remained at lower levels. In the period of 1998-2016, decreases in the mean annual rainfall and increases in the severity of droughts differed spatially and were greater in the catchments and mangroves on the coasts of the Oman Sea than the coasts of the Persian Gulf. These spatially explicit results were closely mirrored by the mangrove response, with differential in reductions in mangrove areas and canopy cover that corresponded closely with the spatial distribution of drought intensities in the different parts of the coasts, with correlation coefficients ≥0.89 for the different coastal regions.

  11. Peripheral Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure High blood cholesterol Coronary heart disease Stroke Metabolic syndrome Screening and Prevention Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.) and its complications. Know your family history of health problems related to P.A. ...

  12. Peripheral Osteoma of the Mandibular Notch: Report of a Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Toshinori; Izumi, Toshiharu; Baba, Junichi; Maegawa, Jiro; Mitsudo, Kenji; Tohnai, Iwai

    2013-01-01

    Osteoma is a benign, slow-growing osteogenic tumor that sometimes arises from the craniomaxillofacial region, such as the sinus, temporal or jaw bones. Osteoma consists of compact or cancellous bone that may be peripheral, central or extraskeletal type. Peripheral osteoma arises from the periosteum and is commonly a unilateral, pedunculated mushroom-like mass. Peripheral osteoma of the mandible is relatively uncommon, and peripheral osteoma of the mandibular notch is extremely rare, although many cases arise from the mandibular body, angle, condyle, or coronoid process. We report here an unusual peripheral osteoma of the mandibular notch in a 78-year-old nonsyndromic female

  13. Providing straw to allow exploratory behaviour in a pig experimental system does not modify putative indicators of positive welfare: peripheral oxytocin and serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcet Rius, M; Cozzi, A; Bienboire-Frosini, C; Teruel, E; Chabaud, C; Monneret, P; Leclercq, J; Lafont-Lecuelle, C; Pageat, P

    2018-01-22

    Numerous studies have shown that providing straw to pigs can reduce undesirable behaviours such as aggression, tail biting and stereotypy. The measurement of various neuromodulators can be helpful in assessing the development of positive behaviours and overall animal welfare. The oxytocin release is frequently linked to positive emotions and positive welfare. It has been suggested that oxytocin modulates the serotoninergic system. This study aims to investigate the potential effect of straw provision in pigs on peripheral levels of oxytocin and serotonin. In total, 18 mini-pigs were involved in an exploratory study conducted in two parallel groups, Enriched (n=10) and Control (n=8) groups. Pigs were divided by group and housed in pens of two individuals. Straw was provided continuously only in Enriched group and renewed each day for 2 weeks. Two blood samples were drawn from each animal 5 to 10 min before providing the straw, and 15 min after providing straw, during the 1st week, to analyse peripheral changes in oxytocin and serotonin before and after straw provision, and determine the existence of a putative short-term effect. The same procedure was carried out for Control group, without straw provision. Long-term effects of straw provision were also examined using blood samples drawn at the same hour from each animal in the 2nd and 3rd weeks. During this time, animals had the permanent possibility to explore the straw in Enriched group but not in Control group. At the end of each week, one animal-keeper completed two visual analogue scales for each mini-pig regarding the difficulty/ease to work with and handle it and its trust in humans. Results showed peripheral oxytocin increases in both groups after 2 weeks (P=0.02). Results did not demonstrate any effect of providing straw to allow exploratory behaviour on peripheral serotonin. Other results were not significant. This preliminary study explored the relationship between peripheral oxytocin and serotonin and

  14. Multiple correlation analyses revealed complex relationship between DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang-Fei; Deng, Fei-Yan; Wu, Long-Fei; Mo, Xing-Bo; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Jian; Guo, Yu-Fan; Zeng, Ke-Qin; Wang, Ming-Jun; Zhu, Xiao-Wei; Xia, Wei; Wang, Lan; He, Pei; Bing, Peng-Fei; Lu, Xin; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Lei, Shu-Feng

    2018-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important regulator on the mRNA expression. However, a genome-wide correlation pattern between DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is largely unknown. The comprehensive relationship between mRNA and DNA methylation was explored by using four types of correlation analyses and a genome-wide methylation-mRNA expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in PBMCs in 46 unrelated female subjects. An enrichment analysis was performed to detect biological function for the detected genes. Single pair correlation coefficient (r T1 ) between methylation level and mRNA is moderate (-0.63-0.62) in intensity, and the negative and positive correlations are nearly equal in quantity. Correlation analysis on each gene (T4) found 60.1% genes showed correlations between mRNA and gene-based methylation at P correlation (R T4  > 0.8). Methylation sites have regulation effects on mRNA expression in eQTL analysis, with more often observations in region of transcription start site (TSS). The genes under significant methylation regulation both in correlation analysis and eQTL analysis tend to cluster to the categories (e.g., transcription, translation, regulation of transcription) that are essential for maintaining the basic life activities of cells. Our findings indicated that DNA methylation has predictive regulation effect on mRNA with a very complex pattern in PBMCs. The results increased our understanding on correlation of methylation and mRNA and also provided useful clues for future epigenetic studies in exploring biological and disease-related regulatory mechanisms in PBMC.

  15. First application of comet assay in blood cells of Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliani, Ilaria; Campani, Tommaso; Giannetti, Matteo; Marsili, Letizia; Casini, Silvia; Fossi, Maria Cristina

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the comet assay in erythrocytes of Caretta caretta, a species never investigated for genotoxicity. We studied 31 loggerhead sea turtles from three Italian marine rescue centres. Peripheral blood samples were collected from all the animals and the comet assay applied. All comet cells were analysed using two methods: visual scoring and computer image analysis. The % DNA in tail mean value ± SD and Damage Index were 21.56 ± 15.41 and 134.83 ± 94.12, respectively. A strong and statistically significant statistically correlation between the two analytical methods was observed (r = 0.95; p comet assay is a useful method to detect the possible effects of genotoxic agents in loggerhead sea turtle and to increase the knowledge about the ecotoxicological health status of this threatened species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEMPOROMANDIBULAR-JOINT MOBILITY AND PERIPHERAL JOINT MOBILITY RECONSIDERED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P.U.; DEBONT, L.G.M.; VANDERWEELE, L.T.; Boering, G.

    The purpose of this paper was to study the relationship between temporomandibular joint (TMJ) mobility and mobility of joints and to study the general character of joint mobility in 83 subjects, 55 females and 28 males (mean age 26.7, range 13-46 years). The subjects were recruited from the

  17. Genetic Differentiation between Mullus barbatus from the Western Part of the Black Sea andMullus surmuletus (Pisces, Mullidae from the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya P. Ivanova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationship of two species Mullus barbatus from the western part of Black Sea (Varna and M. surmuletus from the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki were investigated using the electrophoretic data from enzymatic systems, codifying for 15 putative loci, and the patterns of general muscle proteins (PROT coded from nine loci. Several loci PROT- 4*, PROT-5* and PROT-8* as well as two mMDH and two sMDH loci, and LDH-A* showed different electrophoretic patterns among species and can be used as species-specific markers. Only one esterase locus (EST-9* was found to be polymorphic for both species. The remaining enzymes and proteins were monomorphic. In this study for the first time existence of hybrids between two species were reported. Hybrids were registered in the Mediterranean Sea (Thessaloniki as well in the northeastern part of Black Sea (Balshoj Utrish using electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing methods. Genetic distance D Nei (0.526 and time of divergence (tNei = 3 215 000 years between M. barbatus (Varna Bay and M. surmuletus (Thessaloniki give evidence for existence of these two well diverged species in one genus.

  18. Climate Modeling and Causal Identification for Sea Ice Predictability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunke, Elizabeth Clare [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Urrego Blanco, Jorge Rolando [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Urban, Nathan Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-12

    This project aims to better understand causes of ongoing changes in the Arctic climate system, particularly as decreasing sea ice trends have been observed in recent decades and are expected to continue in the future. As part of the Sea Ice Prediction Network, a multi-agency effort to improve sea ice prediction products on seasonal-to-interannual time scales, our team is studying sensitivity of sea ice to a collection of physical process and feedback mechanism in the coupled climate system. During 2017 we completed a set of climate model simulations using the fully coupled ACME-HiLAT model. The simulations consisted of experiments in which cloud, sea ice, and air-ocean turbulent exchange parameters previously identified as important for driving output uncertainty in climate models were perturbed to account for parameter uncertainty in simulated climate variables. We conducted a sensitivity study to these parameters, which built upon a previous study we made for standalone simulations (Urrego-Blanco et al., 2016, 2017). Using the results from the ensemble of coupled simulations, we are examining robust relationships between climate variables that emerge across the experiments. We are also using causal discovery techniques to identify interaction pathways among climate variables which can help identify physical mechanisms and provide guidance in predictability studies. This work further builds on and leverages the large ensemble of standalone sea ice simulations produced in our previous w14_seaice project.

  19. Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woon Ju; Cho, June Sik; Shin, Kyung Sook; Jeong, Hyung Yong; Noh; Seung Moo; Song, Kyu Sang

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (peripheral PNETs) are very rare and highly aggressive soft tissue malignancies originating from the neural crest. To the best of our knowledge, only a few cases of peripheral PNETs of the stomach have been reported in the literature. We report a case of large peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the stomach with MDCT findings in a 22-year-old man presenting epigastric pain and vomiting

  20. Climatology of sea breezes along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Basit

    2018-04-25

    Long-term near-surface observations from five coastal stations, high-resolution model data from Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and high-resolution daily sea surface temperature (SST) from National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are used to investigate the climatology of sea breezes over the eastern side of the Red Sea region. Results show existence of separate sea breeze systems along different segments of the Red Sea coastline. Based on the physical character and synoptic influences, sea breezes in the Red Sea are broadly divided into three regions: the north and the middle Red Sea (NMRS), the Red Sea convergence zone (RSCZ) and the southern Red Sea (SRS) regions. On average, sea breezes developed on 67% of days of the 10-year study period. Although sea breezes occur almost all year, this mesoscale phenomenon is most frequent from May to October (78% of the total sea breeze days). The sea breeze frequency increases from north to south (equatorwards), and sea breeze characteristics appear to vary both temporally and spatially. In addition to land-sea thermal differential, coastline shape, latitude and topography, the prevailing northwesterly at NMRS region, the convergence of northwesterly and southeasterly wind system at RSCZ region and the northeast and southwest monsoon at SRS region play an important role in defining the sea breeze characteristics over the Red Sea.

  1. Intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability in Indonesian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napitu, A. M.; Gordon, A. L.; Yuan, X.

    2012-12-01

    The satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal variability (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an The satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) data, 1998-mid 2012, are used to examine intraseasonal variability (ISV; 20-90 days) across the Indonesian seas. The most energetic ISV is observed in the Banda Sea and across the Indo-Australia basin with an average SST standard deviation (STD) between 0.4-0.5°C, with strongest signature during boreal winter. What physical processes force the SST ISV variability within the Indonesian seas? Ocean process, sea-air interaction, or both? To help identify the main forcing, the satellite derived outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and wind stress data in the region are examined. The OLR shows robust intraseasonal variations and is significantly correlated with the SST, particularly for variability with periods of 30-60 days, with OLR accounting for ~60-70% of the SST variance. The OLR is also maximum during boreal winter. Conversely, the surface wind may play insignificant role in perturbing the SST at intraseasonal timescales as shown by weak correlation between wind stress and SST. We thus suspect that the surface solar flux (suggested by the OLR) is likely more dominant than the surface turbulent heat flux (indicated by the surface wind) as the main source for the ISV in the SST in Indonesian seas. Furthermore the maximum OLR phase, coupled with a period of minimum mixed layer depth, may explain the strong SST variation during boreal winter in Indonesian seas. The influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the OLR and SST variability is currently being evaluated.

  2. Presence of the Striped Seabream (Lithognathus mormyrus L., 1758 in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AYDIN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Mediterranean demersal species reach to the Black Sea through the Turkish Straits System and adapt to this nearly landlocked environment. In this article, the existence of Mediterranean originated striped seabream (Lithognathus mormyrus L., 1758 in the Black Sea is studied. In this study, 25 individuals were sampled in the Middle Black Sea region (Ordu – Fatsa by trammel nets. The minimum and maximum lengths of the sampled species were measured as 16 cm and 20.1 cm respectively, while the length-weight relationship can be given by the equation, W=0.0711L2.3981 (R² = 0.8171.

  3. Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma T-Cell Lymphoma Transformed Mycosis Fungoides Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia Young Adult Lymphoma Overview Treatment Options Relapsed/Refractory Long-term ...

  4. Peripheral facial palsy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Yılmaz, Tuba Sevim; Akıncı, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Leiomyosarcoma, embrionary rhabdomyosarcoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor: report of three cases of atypical retroperitoneal sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalan, Julian; Justino Junior, Reinaldo Ottero; Tjioe Tjia Min; Lima, Ana Carolina Mori; Fonte, Alexandre Calabria da; Goncalves, Carlos Marcelo

    2005-01-01

    We report three cases of atypical retroperitoneal sarcomas: leiomyosarcoma, embrionary rhabdomyosarcoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (previously known as neuro sarcoma and neuro fibrosarcoma). These lesions, which are characterized by large and heterogeneous retroperitoneal masses, are uncommon and usually diagnosed late. Intravenous contrast enhanced computerized tomography is a useful method for the evaluation of these tumors and their relationship with adjacent structures. (author)

  6. Peripheral doses from pediatric IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Eric E.; Maserang, Beth; Wood, Roy; Mansur, David

    2006-01-01

    Peripheral dose (PD) data exist for conventional fields (≥10 cm) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery to standard adult-sized phantoms. Pediatric peripheral dose reports are limited to conventional therapy and are model based. Our goal was to ascertain whether data acquired from full phantom studies and/or pediatric models, with IMRT treatment times, could predict Organ at Risk (OAR) dose for pediatric IMRT. As monitor units (MUs) are greater for IMRT, it is expected IMRT PD will be higher; potentially compounded by decreased patient size (absorption). Baseline slab phantom peripheral dose measurements were conducted for very small field sizes (from 2 to 10 cm). Data were collected at distances ranging from 5 to 72 cm away from the field edges. Collimation was either with the collimating jaws or the multileaf collimator (MLC) oriented either perpendicular or along the peripheral dose measurement plane. For the clinical tests, five patients with intracranial or base of skull lesions were chosen. IMRT and conventional three-dimensional (3D) plans for the same patient/target/dose (180 cGy), were optimized without limitation to the number of fields or wedge use. Six MV, 120-leaf MLC Varian axial beams were used. A phantom mimicking a 3-year-old was configured per Center for Disease Control data. Micro (0.125 cc) and cylindrical (0.6 cc) ionization chambers were appropriated for the thyroid, breast, ovaries, and testes. The PD was recorded by electrometers set to the 10 -10 scale. Each system set was uniquely calibrated. For the slab phantom studies, close peripheral points were found to have a higher dose for low energy and larger field size and when MLC was not deployed. For points more distant from the field edge, the PD was higher for high-energy beams. MLC orientation was found to be inconsequential for the small fields tested. The thyroid dose was lower for IMRT delivery than that predicted for conventional (ratio of IMRT/cnventional ranged from

  7. Influence of the Gulf Stream on the Barents Sea ice retreat and Eurasian coldness during early winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kazutoshi; Inoue, Jun; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal sea-ice retreat over the Barents Sea during early winter has been considered a leading driver of recent midlatitude severe winters over Eurasia. However, causal relationships between such retreat and the atmospheric circulation anomalies remains uncertain. Using a reanalysis dataset, we found that poleward shift of a sea surface temperature front over the Gulf Stream likely induces warm southerly advection and consequent sea-ice decline over the Barents Sea sector, and a cold anomaly over Eurasia via planetary waves triggered over the Gulf Stream region. The above mechanism is supported by the steady atmospheric response to the diabatic heating anomalies over the Gulf Stream region obtained with a linear baroclinic model. The remote atmospheric response from the Gulf Stream would be amplified over the Barents Sea region via interacting with sea-ice anomaly, promoting the warm Arctic and cold Eurasian pattern. (letter)

  8. Classical swine fever virus induces pyroptosis in the peripheral lymphoid organs of infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin; Zhu, Mengjiao; Deng, Shaofeng; Fan, Shuangqi; Xu, Hailuan; Liao, Jiedan; Li, Peng; Zheng, Jingfang; Zhao, Mingqiu; Chen, Jinding

    2018-05-02

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a highly lethal disease in pigs, which is characterized by immunosuppression. Leukopenia is known to be a possible mechanism of immunosuppression during CSFV infection. As a new and specialized form of cell death, pyroptosis is the key response of the innate immune system to pathogens, and is widely involved in the occurrence and development of infectious diseases. However, the relationship between CSFV and pyroptosis has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of pyroptosis in pigs following CSFV infection. According to qRT-PCR assay results, the prevalence of this virus in peripheral lymphoid organs (tonsils, lymph nodes, and spleen) was much higher than that in other organs. Severe bleeding, necrosis, and a significant reduction in lymphocytes were found in the peripheral lymphoid organs of CSFV-infected pigs based on histological examination. In-depth studies showed that an increased ratio of deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells were present in the peripheral lymphoid organs of the CSFV-infected group according to immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, the p10 subunit and activity of caspase-1, which is a regulator of pyroptosis, the N-terminal domain of gasdermin D, which is an executor of pyroptosis, and the cleavage and secretion of IL-1b, which is a product of pyroptosis were increased in the peripheral lymphoid organs of the CSFV-infected group. Together, these results demonstrated that pyroptosis is involved in CSFV-induced cell death in vivo, which provides a new understanding of the mechanism associated with lymphocyte depletion and immunosuppression in pigs infected with this virus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Peripheral Protein Unfolding Drives Membrane Bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaw, Hew Ming Helen; Raghunath, Gokul; Dyer, R Brian

    2018-06-20

    Dynamic modulation of lipid membrane curvature can be achieved by a number of peripheral protein binding mechanisms such as hy-drophobic insertion of amphipathic helices and membrane scaffolding. Recently, an alternative mechanism was proposed in which crowding of peripherally bound proteins induces membrane curvature through steric pressure generated by lateral collisions. This effect was enhanced using intrinsically disordered proteins that possess high hydrodynamic radii, prompting us to explore whether membrane bending can be triggered by the folding-unfolding transition of surface-bound proteins. We utilized histidine-tagged human serum albumin bound to Ni-NTA-DGS containing liposomes as our model system to test this hypothesis. We found that reduction of the disulfide bonds in the protein resulted in unfolding of HSA, which subsequently led to membrane tubule formation. The frequency of tubule formation was found to be significantly higher when the proteins were unfolded while being localized to a phase-separated domain as opposed to randomly distributed in fluid phase liposomes, indicating that the steric pressure generated from protein unfolding is directly responsible for membrane deformation. Our results are critical for the design of peripheral membrane protein-immobilization strategies and open new avenues for exploring mechanisms of membrane bending driven by conformational changes of peripheral membrane proteins.

  10. 21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....5870 Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to stimulate electrically a peripheral nerve... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain...

  11. Peripheral dose outside applicators in electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, James C L; Grigorov, Grigor N

    2006-01-01

    The peripheral dose outside the applicators in electron beams was studied using a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator. To measure the peripheral dose profiles and point doses for the applicator, a solid water phantom was used with calibrated Kodak TL films. Peak dose spot was observed in the 4 MeV beam outside the applicator. The peripheral dose peak was very small in the 6 MeV beam and was ignorable at higher energies. Using the 10 x 10 cm 2 cutout and applicator, the dose peak for the 4 MeV beam was about 12 cm away from the field central beam axis (CAX) and the peripheral dose profiles did not change with depths measured at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 cm. The peripheral doses and profiles were further measured by varying the angle of obliquity, cutout and applicator size for the 4 MeV beam. The local peak dose was increased with about 3% per degree angle of obliquity, and was about 1% of the prescribed dose (angle of obliquity equals zero) at 1 cm depth in the phantom using the 10 x 10 cm 2 cutout and applicator. The peak dose position was also shifted 7 mm towards the CAX when the angle of obliquity was increased from 0 to 15 deg. (note)

  12. Low-frequency variability in North Sea and Baltic Sea identified through simulations with the 3-D coupled physical–biogeochemical model ECOSMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Daewel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we present results from a long-term model simulation of the 3-D coupled ecosystem model ECOSMO II for a North Sea and Baltic Sea set-up. The model allows both multi-decadal hindcast simulation of the marine system and specific process studies under controlled environmental conditions. Model results have been analysed with respect to long-term multi-decadal variability in both physical and biological parameters with the help of empirical orthogonal function (EOF analysis. The analysis of a 61-year (1948–2008 hindcast reveals a quasi-decadal variation in salinity, temperature and current fields in the North Sea in addition to singular events of major changes during restricted time frames. These changes in hydrodynamic variables were found to be associated with changes in ecosystem productivity that are temporally aligned with the timing of reported regime shifts in the areas. Our results clearly indicate that for analysing ecosystem productivity, spatially explicit methods are indispensable. Especially in the North Sea, a correlation analysis between atmospheric forcing and primary production (PP reveals significant correlations between PP and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and wind forcing for the central part of the region, while the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO and air temperature are correlated to long-term changes in PP in the southern North Sea frontal areas. Since correlations cannot serve to identify causal relationship, we performed scenario model runs perturbing the temporal variability in forcing condition to emphasize specifically the role of solar radiation, wind and eutrophication. The results revealed that, although all parameters are relevant for the magnitude of PP in the North Sea and Baltic Sea, the dominant impact on long-term variability and major shifts in ecosystem productivity was introduced by modulations of the wind fields.

  13. Intraoperative digital angiography: Peripheral vascular applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, K.; Reifsteck, J.E.; Binet, E.F.; Fleisher, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Intraoperative digital angiography is the procedure of choice for the peripheral vascular surgeon who wishes to evaluate his results before terminating anesthesia. Two operating suites at the John L. McClellan Memorial Veterans Hospital are equipped with permanent ceiling-mounted Philips C-arm fluoroscopes and share an ADAC 4100 digital angiographic system. In the last 18 months, 40 peripheral vascular intraoperative digital angiographic procedures have been performed, in all but two cases using direct arterial puncture. In 65% of cases, the intraoperative study showed no significant abnormality. In 12.5%, minor abnormalities not requiring reoperation were seen. In 22.5% of cases, the intraoperative digital angiogram revealed a significant abnormality requiring immediate operative revision. None of the patients who underwent reoperation experienced postoperative sequelae. Intraoperative digital angiography is useful in identifying complications of peripheral vascular operations

  14. Assessment of Competition between Fisheries and Steller Sea Lions in Alaska Based on Estimated Prey Biomass, Fisheries Removals and Predator Foraging Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha C Y Hui

    Full Text Available A leading hypothesis to explain the dramatic decline of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus in western Alaska during the latter part of the 20th century is a change in prey availability due to commercial fisheries. We tested this hypothesis by exploring the relationships between sea lion population trends, fishery catches, and the prey biomass accessible to sea lions around 33 rookeries between 2000 and 2008. We focused on three commercially important species that have dominated the sea lion diet during the population decline: walleye pollock, Pacific cod and Atka mackerel. We estimated available prey biomass by removing fishery catches from predicted prey biomass distributions in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska; and modelled the likelihood of sea lions foraging at different distances from rookeries (accessibility using satellite telemetry locations of tracked animals. We combined this accessibility model with the prey distributions to estimate the prey biomass accessible to sea lions by rookery. For each rookery, we compared sea lion population change to accessible prey biomass. Of 304 comparisons, we found 3 statistically significant relationships, all suggesting that sea lion populations increased with increasing prey accessibility. Given that the majority of comparisons showed no significant effect, it seems unlikely that the availability of pollock, cod or Atka mackerel was limiting sea lion populations in the 2000s.

  15. Cold fronts in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and their relationship to extreme wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Otero, L. J.; Restrepo, J. C.; Ruiz, J.; Cadena, M.

    2013-11-01

    Extreme ocean waves in the Caribbean Sea are commonly related to the effects of storms and hurricanes during the months of June through November. The collapse of 200 m of the Puerto Colombia pier in March 2009 revealed the effects of meteorological phenomena other than storms and hurricanes that may be influencing the extreme wave regime in the Colombian Caribbean. The marked seasonality of these atmospheric fronts was established by analyzing the meteorological-marine reports of the Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales of Colombia (IDEAM, based on its initials in Spanish) and the Centro de Investigación en Oceanografía y Meteorología of Colombia (CIOH, based on its initials in Spanish) during the last 16 yr. The highest number of cold fronts was observed during the months of January, February, and March, with 6 fronts occurring per year. An annual trend was observed and the highest number of fronts occurred in 2010 (20 in total); moreover, an annual strong relationship between the maximum average wave values and the cold fronts in the central zone of the Colombian Caribbean during the first three months of the year was established. In addition, the maximum values of the significant height produced by the passage of cold fronts during the last 16 yr were identified. Although the Colombian Caribbean has been affected by storms and hurricanes in the past, this research allows us to conclude that there is a strong relationship between cold fronts and the largest waves in the Colombian Caribbean during the last 16 yr, which have caused damage to coastal infrastructure. We verified that the passage of a cold front corresponded to the most significant extreme wave event of the last two decades in the Colombian Caribbean, which caused the structural collapse of the Puerto Colombia pier, located near the city of Barranquilla, between 5 and 10 March 2009. This information is invaluable when evaluating average and extreme wave regimes for the

  16. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslantunali D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available D Arslantunali,1–3,* T Dursun,1,2,* D Yucel,1,4,5 N Hasirci,1,2,6 V Hasirci,1,2,7 1BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Biotechnology, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Bioengineering, Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey; 4Faculty of Engineering, Department of Medical Engineering, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 5School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 7Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type are being presented. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials

  17. Sea-ice evaluation of NEMO-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-sea-ice model setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Per; Löptien, Ulrike; Hordoir, Robinson; Höglund, Anders; Schimanke, Semjon; Axell, Lars; Haapala, Jari

    2017-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered marginal sea in northern Europe with intense wintertime ship traffic and a sensitive ecosystem. Understanding and modeling the evolution of the sea-ice pack is important for climate effect studies and forecasting purposes. Here we present and evaluate the sea-ice component of a new NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-sea-ice setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea region (NEMO-Nordic). The setup includes a new depth-based fast-ice parametrization for the Baltic Sea. The evaluation focuses on long-term statistics, from a 45-year long hindcast, although short-term daily performance is also briefly evaluated. We show that NEMO-Nordic is well suited for simulating the mean sea-ice extent, concentration, and thickness as compared to the best available observational data set. The variability of the annual maximum Baltic Sea ice extent is well in line with the observations, but the 1961-2006 trend is underestimated. Capturing the correct ice thickness distribution is more challenging. Based on the simulated ice thickness distribution we estimate the undeformed and deformed ice thickness and concentration in the Baltic Sea, which compares reasonably well with observations.

  18. Relationships between human vitality and mitochondrial respiratory parameters, reactive oxygen species production and dNTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Gram, Martin

    2013-01-01

    . Therefore, we measured a number of cellular parameters related to mitochondrial activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from middle-aged men, and tested for association with vitality. These parameters estimate mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...

  19. Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Finsterer, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell?s palsy). Three quarters of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the presence of typical symptoms and signs, blood chemical investigations, cerebro-spinal-fluid-investigations, X-ray of the...

  20. Sediment volume in the north polar sand seas of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, N.; Greeley, R.

    1990-01-01

    Data from studies of the cross-sectional area of terrestrial transverse dunes have been combined with maps of dune morphometry derived from Viking orbiter images to generate new estimates of sediment thickness and dune sediment volume in the north polar sand seas of Mars. A relationship between dune spacing and equivalent sediment thickness (EST) was developed from field data on Namibian and North American dunes and was applied to data on dune spacing and dune cover measured on Viking orbiter images to generate maps of dune sediment thickness for Martian north polar sand seas. There are four major sand seas in the north polar region of Mars, covering an area of 6.8 x 10 5 km 2 . Equivalent sediment thickness ranges between 0.5 and 6.1 m with a mean of 1.8 m. The sand seas contain a total of 1158 km 3 of dune sediment, which may have been derived by erosion of polar layered deposits and concentrated in its present location by winds that change direction seasonally

  1. Air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, D C.E.; De Baar, H J.W.; De Jong, E; Koning, F A [Netherlands Institute for Sea Research NIOZ, Den Burg Texel (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The greenhouse gas carbon dioxide is emitted by anthropogenic activities. The oceans presumably serve as a net sink for 17 to 39% of these emissions. The objective of this project is to quantify more accurately the locality, seasonality and magnitude of the net air-sea flux of CO2 with emphasis on the South Atlantic Ocean. In situ measurements of the fugacity of CO2 in surface water and marine air, of total dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity and of air-sea exchange of CO2 have been made at four Atlantic crossings, in the Southern Ocean, in a Norwegian fjord and in the Dutch coastal zone. Skin temperature was detected during several of the cruises. The data collected in the course of the project support and refine previous findings. Variability of dissolved CO2 in surface water is related in a complex way to biological and physical factors. The carbonate equilibria cause dissolved gaseous CO2 to react in an intricate manner to disturbances. Dissolved gaseous CO2 hardly ever attains equilibrium with the atmospheric CO2 content by means of air-sea exchange, before a new disturbance occurs. Surface water fCO2 changes could be separated in those caused by seasonal warming and those by biological uptake in a Southern Ocean spring. Incorporation of a thermal skin effect and a change of the wind speed interval strongly increased the small net oceanic uptake for the area. The Atlantic crossings point to a relationship between water mass history and surface water CO2 characteristics. In particular, current flow and related heat fluxes leave their imprint on the concentration dissolved gaseous CO2 and on air-sea exchange. In the Dutch coastal zone hydrography and inorganic carbon characteristics of the water were heterogeneous, which yielded variable air-sea exchange of CO2. figs., tabs., refs.

  2. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part II: Peripheral nerves of the upper limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Kowalska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ultrasonographic examination is frequently used for imaging peripheral nerves. It serves to supplement the physical examination, electromyography, and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive, well-tolerated by patients, and relatively inexpensive. Part I of this article series described in detail the characteristic USG picture of peripheral nerves and the proper examination technique, following the example of the median nerve. This nerve is among the most often examined peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part presents describes the normal anatomy and ultrasound picture of the remaining large nerve branches in the upper extremity and neck – the spinal accessory nerve, the brachial plexus, the suprascapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial and ulnar nerves. Their normal anatomy and ultrasonographic appearance have been described, including the division into individual branches. For each of them, specific reference points have been presented, to facilitate the location of the set trunk and its further monitoring. Sites for the application of the ultrasonographic probe at each reference point have been indicated. In the case of the ulnar nerve, the dynamic component of the examination was emphasized. The text is illustrated with images of probe positioning, diagrams of the normal course of the nerves as well as a series of ultrasonographic pictures of normal nerves of the upper limb. This article aims to serve as a guide in the ultrasound examination of the peripheral nerves of the upper extremity. It should be remembered that a thorough knowledge of the area’s topographic anatomy is required for this type of examination.

  3. Sea level report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Study of Cenozoic Era sea levels shows a continual lowering of sea level through the Tertiary Period. This overall drop in sea level accompanied the Pleistocene Epoch glacio-eustatic fluctuations. The considerable change of Pleistocene Epoch sea level is most directly attributable to the glacio-eustatic factor, with a time span of 10 5 years and an amplitude or range of approximately 200 m. The lowering of sea level since the end of the Cretaceous Period is attributed to subsidence and mid-ocean ridges. The maximum rate for sea level change is 4 cm/y. At present, mean sea level is rising at about 3 to 4 mm/y. Glacio-eustacy and tectono-eustacy are the parameters for predicting sea level changes in the next 1 my. Glacio-eustatic sea level changes may be projected on the basis of the Milankovitch Theory. Predictions about tectono-eustatic sea level changes, however, involve predictions about future tectonic activity and are therefore somewhat difficult to make. Coastal erosion and sedimentation are affected by changes in sea level. Erosion rates for soft sediments may be as much as 50 m/y. The maximum sedimentation accumulation rate is 20 m/100 y

  4. Peripheral Atherectomy: Applications and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittleider, Derek; Russell, Erich

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral atherectomy is a class of procedures that is rapidly increasing in volume. Multiple classes of devices exist, and newer variants are added to the market annually. The devices see wide application for de novo lesions, in-stent restenosis, and adjunctive therapy for drug-coated balloons. The body of evidence supporting atherectomy is less robust than for many other peripheral therapies. The frequency and severity of complications from atherectomy can be significant compared with angioplasty and stenting, and familiarity with preventative and bailout techniques is essential for the interventionalist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Imaging of a glioma using peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starosta-Rubinstein, S.; Ciliax, B.J.; Penney, J.B.; McKeever, P.; Young, A.B.

    1987-02-01

    Two types of benzodiazepine receptors have been demonstrated in mammalian tissues, one which is localized on neuronal elements in brain and the other, on glial cells and in peripheral tissues such as kidney. In vivo administration of /sup 3/H-labeled PK 11195 (1-(2-chlorophenyl-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxamide) or (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam with 5 mg of clonazepam per kg to rats with intracranial C6 gliomas resulted in high levels of tritiated-drug binding to the tumor as shown by quantitative autoradiography. Pharmacological studies indicated that the bound drugs labeled the peripheral benzodiazepine binding site. Binding to the peripheral benzodiazepine site was confirmed primarily to malignant cells with little binding to adjacent normal brain tissue or to necrotic tissue. Tumor cell binding was completely inhibited by preadministration of the peripheral benzodiazepine blocking agent PK 11195 at 5 mg/kg. The centrally selective benzodiazepine ligand clonazepam had no effect on PK 11195 binding to the tumor cells. When binding to other tumor cell lines grown in nude mice and nude athymic rats was evaluated, little or no peripheral benzodiazepine binding was detected on human pheochromocytoma (RN1) and neuroblastoma (SK-N-MC, SK-N-SH) tumor cells, respectively. However, high densities of peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites were observed on tumors derived from a human glioma cell line (ATCC HTB 14, U-87 MG). The presence of high concentrations of specific peripheral benzodiazepine receptors on glial tumors suggests that human primary central nervous system tumors could be imaged and diagnosed using peripheral benzodiazepine ligands labeled with positron- or gamma-emitting isotopes.

  6. Arctic continental shelf morphology related to sea-ice zonation, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimnitz, E.; Toimil, L.; Barnes, P.

    1978-01-01

    Landsat-1 and NOAA satellite imagery for the winter 1972-1973, and a variety of ice and sea-floor data were used to study sea-ice zonation and dynamics and their relation to bottom morphology and geology on the Beaufort Sea continental shelf of arctic Alaska. In early winter the location of the boundary between undeformed fast ice and westward-drifting pack ice of the Pacific Gyre is controlled by major coastal promontories. Pronounced linear pressure- and shear-ridges, as well as hummock fields, form along this boundary and are stabilized by grounding, generally between the 10- and 20-m isobaths. Slippage along this boundary occurs intermittently at or seaward of the grounded ridges, forming new grounded ridges in a widening zone, the stamukhi zone, which by late winter extends out to the 40-m isobath. Between intermittent events along the stamukhi zone, pack-ice drift and slippage is continuous along the shelf edge, at average rates of 3-10 km/day. Whether slippage occurs along the stamukhi zone or along the shelf edge, it is restricted to a zone several hundred meters wide, and ice seaward of the slip face moves at uniform rates without discernible drag effects. A causal relationship is seen between the spatial distribution of major ice-ridge systems and offshore shoals downdrift of major coastal promontories. The shoals appear to have migrated shoreward under the influence of ice up to 400 m in the last 25 years. The sea floor seaward of these shoals within the stamukhi zone shows high ice-gouge density, large incision depths, and a high degree of disruption of internal sedimentary structures. The concentration of large ice ridges and our sea floor data in the stamukhi zone indicate that much of the available marine energy is expended here, while the inner shelf and coast, where the relatively undeformed fast ice grows, are sheltered. There is evidence that anomalies in the overall arctic shelf profile are related to sea-ice zonation, ice dynamics, and bottom

  7. Prospective surveillance of phlebitis associated with peripheral intravenous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malach, Tal; Jerassy, Ziona; Rudensky, Bernard; Schlesinger, Yechiel; Broide, Etty; Olsha, Oded; Yinnon, Amos M; Raveh, David

    2006-06-01

    Guidelines have been published for prevention of phlebitis associated with peripheral intravenous catheters (IVC), but this complication continues to occur. We sought to determine the rate of phlebitis associated with peripheral IVCs to identify predictors for phlebitis and to isolate pathogenic bacteria from phlebitic catheter tips. Nine-point prevalence studies were conducted during the years 1996-2003 of all hospitalized patients with a peripheral IVC. During the last 3 surveys, conducted in 2003, phlebitic lines were removed, and, for each line, 1 to 2 nonphlebitic lines, in place for 48 to 72 hours, were removed and cultured as controls. In between these surveys, findings and guidelines for improvement were distributed to the staff. During these surveys, 40% +/- 8% of hospitalized patients had a peripheral IVC. The rate of peripheral IVC-associated phlebitis decreased from 12.7% (20/157) in 1998 to 2.6% (5/189) in 2003 (P phlebitis included pain (P phlebitis associated with peripheral intravenous catheters decreased significantly throughout the study period. The identification of predictors for phlebitis and the dissemination of this information in an educational drive may have contributed to this improvement.

  8. The North Sea contracting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.J.C.

    1996-09-01

    The North Sea Contracting Industry provides in-depth profiles of major contracting organisations including manpower, facilities, expertise, future directions and financial details. It addresses key issues such as: how will the role of operators and contractors change toward 2000 and beyond?; how will the contractor-operator relationship develop?; will the contractors take a more speculative role in projects such as leasing and contract to produce?; does the future belong to broad skilled providers or small specialised niche players, or both?; and how will rapid technological improvements affect the industry? (author)

  9. Peripheral ossifying fibroma of oral cavity: histopathologic differential diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral ossifying fibroma is a benign neoplasm that usuallydevelops from gingiva, presenting as an exophytic smooth surfaced pink or red nodular mass that is sessile or is less frequently seen on a pedicle. From the Indian perspective, it is usually noticed in 5th-6th decades of life with female predilection. Microscopically, the tumour shows stratified squamous epithelium and highly cellular fibrous stroma, sparse endothelial proliferation with fibroblasts and dystrophic calcifications. It has to be differentiated histopathologically from pyogenic granuloma, fibroma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, peripheral odontogenic fibroma and fibrous hyperplasia. A case of peripheral ossifying fibroma of maxillary gingiva in a 55-year-old Indian woman is reported.

  10. MRI features of tuberculosis of peripheral joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawlani, V.; Chandra, T.; Mishra, R.N.; Aggarwal, A.; Jain, U.K.; Gujral, R.B. E-mail: gujralrb@sgpgi.ac.in

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this article is to present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of peripheral tubercular arthritis. The clinical presentation of peripheral tubercular arthritis is variable and simulates other chronic inflammatory arthritic disorders. MRI is a highly sensitive technique which demonstrates fine anatomical details and identifies the early changes of arthritis, which are not visible on radiographs. The MRI features of tubercular arthritis include synovitis, effusion, central and peripheral erosions, active and chronic pannus, abscess, bone chips and hypo-intense synovium. These imaging features in an appropriate clinical setting may help in the diagnosis of tubercular arthritis. Early diagnosis and treatment can effectively eliminate the long-term morbidity of joints affected by tuberculosis.

  11. MRI features of tuberculosis of peripheral joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawlani, V.; Chandra, T.; Mishra, R.N.; Aggarwal, A.; Jain, U.K.; Gujral, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of peripheral tubercular arthritis. The clinical presentation of peripheral tubercular arthritis is variable and simulates other chronic inflammatory arthritic disorders. MRI is a highly sensitive technique which demonstrates fine anatomical details and identifies the early changes of arthritis, which are not visible on radiographs. The MRI features of tubercular arthritis include synovitis, effusion, central and peripheral erosions, active and chronic pannus, abscess, bone chips and hypo-intense synovium. These imaging features in an appropriate clinical setting may help in the diagnosis of tubercular arthritis. Early diagnosis and treatment can effectively eliminate the long-term morbidity of joints affected by tuberculosis

  12. Contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA. Technique and contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Yousef W.; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) has gained wide acceptance as a valuable tool in the diagnostic work-up of patients with peripheral arterial disease. This review presents current concepts in peripheral CE-MRA with emphasis on MRI technique and contrast agents. Peripheral CE-MRA is defined as an MR angiogram of the arteries from the aortic bifurcation to the feet. Advantages of CE-MRA include minimal invasiveness and lack of ionizing radiation. The basic technique employed for peripheral CE-MRA is the bolus-chase method. With this method a paramagnetic MRI contrast agent is injected intravenously and T1-weighted images are acquired in the subsequent arterial first-pass phase. In order to achieve high quality MR angiograms without interfering venous contamination or artifacts, a number of factors need to be taken into account. This includes magnetic field strength of the MRI system, receiver coil configuration, use of parallel imaging, contrast bolus timing technique, and k-space filling strategies. Furthermore, it is possible to optimize peripheral CE-MRA using venous compression techniques, hybrid scan protocols, time-resolved imaging, and steady-state MRA. Gadolinium(Gd)-based contrast agents are used for CE-MRA of the peripheral arteries. Extracellular Gd agents have a pharmacokinetic profile similar to iodinated contrast media. Accordingly, these agents are employed for first-pass MRA. Blood-pool Gd-based agents are characterized by prolonged intravascular stay, due to macromolecular structure or protein binding. These agents can be used for first-pass, as well as steady-state MRA. Some Gd-based contrast agents with low thermodynamic stability have been linked to development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with severe renal insufficiency. Using optimized technique and a stable MRI contrast agent, peripheral CE-MRA is a safe procedure with diagnostic accuracy close to that of conventional catheter X

  13. Associations between peripheral vertigo and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viliušytė, Edita; Macaitytė, Raminta; Vaitkus, Antanas; Rastenytė, Daiva

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesize that peripheral vertigo is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Two mechanisms could be considered – gastric acids may directly irritate the respiratory mucosa and cause inflammation, or Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) could be present and cause local infection. Reflux material (Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and pepsin) could get into the middle ear via Eustachian tube and affect osseous structures directly. Disturbance of ossicles could cause tinnitus, which is more common for peripheral vertigo. H. pylori could also get in the esophagus and in the upper respiratory tract via gastroesophageal reflux, and could cause tympanosclerosis and fixation of ossicles. In our study group, 120 of 153 (78.4%) patients had gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Diagnostic tests of H. pylori (rapid urease test or blood antibody test) were performed for 96 of 120 (80%) patients with GERD and were found positive for 32 of 96 (33.3%) patients. Peripheral vertigo was present in 93 of 120 (77.6%) patients with GERD compared to 33 of 126 (26%) patients without GERD (χ(2)=9.016, p=0.003). H. pylori and peripheral vertigo coexisted in 26 of 126 patients (20.6%) (OR 1.36; 95% CI 0.49-3.74, p=0.55). Our study demonstrated statistically significant association between peripheral vertigo and GERD but not between peripheral vertigo and H. pylori. Further more extensive investigations are needed in order to explore our hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Red-Sea rift magmatism near Al Lith, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    A newly recognized Tertiary dike complex and comagmatic volcanic rocks exposed on the central Saudi Arabian coastal plain record early stages of magmatism related to Red Sea rifting. Intrusive and stratigraphic relationships, and new potassium-argon dating indicate episodic magmatism from about 30 Ma to the present. Additional stratigraphic and radiometric evidence suggests that limited rift-related magmatism may have began as early as about 50 Ma ago. An early phase of crustal extension in the region was accompanied by faulting and graben formation and by dike-swarm intrusion. The style of extension and intrusion changed approximately 20 Ma ago. Localized volcanism and sheeted dike injection ceased and were replaced by the intrusion of thick gabbro dikes. This change may mark the onset of sea-floor spreading in the central Red Sea.

  15. 4. One Sea, One Humanity. Modeling the Man-Sea Relationship in Friedrich Ratzel’s Anthropogeographical Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Santini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevailing concept of geography, understood as the study and description of the Earth, can be viewed as a form of removal: less than two-thirds of the globe, that is, the seas or the liquid elements of the Earth, are removed or at the very least are not explicitly designated. This article will focus on issues concerning the classification, systematization, and conceptualization of geographic knowledge that took place in nineteenth-century Germany. I will try to demonstrate how this alleged “removal” operates in modern geography and how it links with a contrasting movement that aims to reintegrate the liquid element of the Earth into the field of geography, on the basis of the man/world relation. I will focus in particular on Friedrich Ratzel’s (1844-1904 pioneering studies in anthropogeography and political geography.

  16. The wind sea and swell waves climate in the Nordic seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Vettor, Roberto; Breivik, Øyvind; Sterl, Andreas; Reistad, Magnar; Soares, Carlos Guedes; Lima, Daniela

    2015-02-01

    A detailed climatology of wind sea and swell waves in the Nordic Seas (North Sea, Norwegian Sea, and Barents Sea), based on the high-resolution reanalysis NORA10, developed by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, is presented. The higher resolution of the wind forcing fields, and the wave model (10 km in both cases), along with the inclusion of the bottom effect, allowed a better description of the wind sea and swell features, compared to previous global studies. The spatial patterns of the swell-dominated regional wave fields are shown to be different from the open ocean, due to coastal geometry, fetch dimensions, and island sheltering. Nevertheless, swell waves are still more prevalent and carry more energy in the Nordic Seas, with the exception of the North Sea. The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the winter regional wind sea and swell patterns is also presented. The analysis of the decadal trends of wind sea and swell heights during the NORA10 period (1958-2001) shows that the long-term trends of the total significant wave height (SWH) in the Nordic Seas are mostly due to swell and to the wave propagation effect.

  17. Peripheral Neuropathy: A Practical Approach to Diagnosis and Symptom Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, James C; Dyck, P James B

    2015-07-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most prevalent neurologic conditions encountered by physicians of all specialties. Physicians are faced with 3 distinct challenges in caring for patients with peripheral neuropathy: (1) how to efficiently and effectively screen (in less than 2 minutes) an asymptomatic patient for peripheral neuropathy when they have a disorder in which peripheral neuropathy is highly prevalent (eg, diabetes mellitus), (2) how to clinically stratify patients presenting with symptoms of neuropathy to determine who would benefit from specialty consultation and what testing is appropriate for those who do not need consultation, and (3) how to treat the symptoms of painful peripheral neuropathy. In this concise review, we address these 3 common clinical scenarios. Easily defined clinical patterns of involvement are used to identify patients in need of neurologic consultation, the yield of laboratory and other diagnostic testing is reviewed for the evaluation of length-dependent, sensorimotor peripheral neuropathies (the most common form of neuropathy), and an algorithmic approach with dosing recommendations is provided for the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with peripheral neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationships between southeastern Australian rainfall and sea surface temperatures examined using a climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, I. G.

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall in southeastern Australia has declined in recent years, particularly during austral autumn over the state of Victoria. A recent study suggests that sea surface temperature (SST) variations in both the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) region and in a meridional dipole in the central Indian Ocean have influenced Victorian late autumn rainfall since 1950. However, it remains unclear to what extent SSTs in these and other regions force such a teleconnection. Analysis of a 1080 year simulation by the climate model CSIRO Mk3.5 shows that the model Victorian rainfall is correlated rather realistically with SSTs but that part of the above relationships is due to the model ENSO. Furthermore, the remote patterns of pressure, rainfall, and land temperature greatly diminish when the data are lagged by 1 month, suggesting that the true forcing by the persisting SSTs is weak. In a series of simulations of the atmospheric Mk3.5 with idealized SST anomalies, raised SSTs to the east of Indonesia lower the simulated Australian rainfall, while those to the west raise it. A positive ITF anomaly lowers pressure over Australia, but with little effect on Victorian rainfall. The meridional dipole and SSTs to the west and southeast of Australia have little direct effect on southeastern Australia in the model. The results suggest that tropical SSTs predominate as an influence on Victorian rainfall. However, the SST indices appear to explain only a fraction of the observed trend, which in the case of decadal means remains within the range of unforced variability simulated by Mk3.5.

  19. Measurement of sea ice thickness using electromagnetic sounding; Denji tansaho wo mochiita kaihyoatsu no keisoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawauchi, K; Suzuki, I; Goto, N [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Hoshiyama, K

    1997-10-22

    Thickness of sea ice is measured by an electromagnetic method making use of the peculiarities of sea ice. Sea ice floats on the seawater (saline water), and the result is two horizontal layers greatly different from each other in conductivity, with seawater being highly conductive and ice being non-conductive. A study is conducted on Lake Kumatori, a saline lake in Abashiri City, in which effort a board of naturally frozen sea ice and a board of sea ice allowed to form on the sea surface at a spot from which ice has been removed are examined. A portable electromagnetic probe EM38 of GEONICS Company is employed to perform measurement in a horizontal dipole mode. To determine the relationship between the obtained conductivity measurements and sea ice thickness, holes are bored in the sea ice boards for the measurement of their thickness for the formulation of an experimental regression equation. Measurements along the traverse line 1 and traverse line 3 are converted into sea ice thickness by use of the experimental regression equation, and the result is that ice thickness is the greatest near the quay growing thinner away from the shore. The study shows that sea ice thickness may be measured accurately by electromagnetic probing. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Peripheral retinal nonperfusion associated with chronic myeloid leukemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobacht, S.; Vandoninck, K.F.; Deutman, A.F.; Klevering, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report a case of peripheral retinal nonperfusion and chronic myeloid leukemia in a 23-year-old woman. DESIGN: Observational case report. METHODS: A complete ophthalmic and systemic evaluation was performed. RESULTS: Ophthalmic examination revealed peripheral retinal nonperfusion with

  1. Investigating Arctic Sea Ice Survivability in the Beaufort Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Tooth

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arctic sea ice extent has continued to decline in recent years, and the fractional coverage of multi-year sea ice has decreased significantly during this period. The Beaufort Sea region has been the site of much of the loss of multi-year sea ice, and it continues to play a large role in the extinction of ice during the melt season. We present an analysis of the influence of satellite-derived ice surface temperature, ice thickness, albedo, and downwelling longwave/shortwave radiation as well as latitude and airborne snow depth estimates on the change in sea ice concentration in the Beaufort Sea from 2009 to 2016 using a Lagrangian tracking database. Results from this analysis indicate that parcels that melt during summer in the Beaufort Sea reside at lower latitudes and have lower ice thickness at the beginning of the melt season in most cases. The influence of sea ice thickness and snow depth observed by IceBridge offers less conclusive results, with some years exhibiting higher thicknesses/depths for melted parcels. Parcels that melted along IceBridge tracks do exhibit lower latitudes and ice thicknesses, however, which indicates that earlier melt and breakup of ice may contribute to a greater likelihood of extinction of parcels in the summer.

  2. Common dolphins in the Alboran Sea: Facing a reduction in their suitable habitat due to an increase in Sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadas, A.; Vázquez, J. A.

    2017-07-01

    The short-beaked common dolphin Mediterranean subpopulation appears to have suffered a steep decline over recent decades and was listed in 2003 as 'Endangered' in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The Alboran Sea is the last region in the Mediterranean where it is still abundant. In this study, we relate features of this species' ecology to climate change, focusing on distribution and density. This work used a two decades-long dataset on the common dolphin in the Alboran Sea and a time series of environmental changes. Once established, these relationships were used in conjunction with some simulated scenarios of environmental change to predict the potential effects of further change on these species over the next 100 years. Two approaches were used: 1) projection from a regression line from local variation, and 2) a HadCM3 climate model with time-varying anthropogenic effects. Generalized Additive Models were used to model the relationship between density of the animals with SST and other environmental covariates. Results from both approaches were very similar. The predictions of density from the regression line fell within the ranges from the HadCM3 climate model, the first being based on local and locally, point to point, differentiated information, which lead us to consider the first approach as the best for this area. At the small spatial scale of the Alboran Sea and Gulf of Vera, an increase in SST will potentially yield a reduction in suitable habitat for common dolphins, with a progressive reduction in density from east to west.

  3. The clinical identification of peripheral neuropathy among older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, James K

    2002-11-01

    To identify simple clinical rules for the detection of a diffuse peripheral neuropathy among older outpatients. Observational, blinded, controlled study. A tertiary-care electrodiagnostic laboratory and biomechanics laboratory. One hundred research subjects, 68 with electrodiagnostic evidence of peripheral neuropathy, between the ages of 50 and 80 years. Not applicable. One examiner, unaware of the results of electrodiagnostic testing, evaluated Achilles' and patellar reflexes, Romberg testing, semiquantified vibration, and position sense at the toe and ankle in all subjects, and unipedal stance time and the Michigan Diabetes Neuropathy Score in a subset of subjects. Significant group differences were present in all clinical measures tested. Three signs, Achilles' reflex (absent despite facilitation), vibration (128Hz tuning fork perceived for <10s), and position sense (<8/10 1-cm trials) at the toe, were the best predictors of peripheral neuropathy on both univariate and logistic regression (pseudo R(2)=.744) analyses. The presence of 2 or 3 signs versus 0 or 1 sign identified peripheral neuropathy with sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 94.1%, 84.4%, 92.8%, and 87.1%, respectively. Values were similar among subgroups of subjects with and without diabetes mellitus. When other clinicians applied the technique to 12 more subjects, excellent interrater reliability regarding the presence of peripheral neuropathy (kappa=.833) and good to excellent interrater reliability for each sign (kappa range,.667-1.00) were shown. Among older persons, the presence of 2 or 3 of the 3 clinical signs strongly suggested electrodiagnostic evidence of a peripheral neuropathy, regardless of etiology. Age-related decline in peripheral nerve function need not be a barrier to the clinical recognition of a diffuse peripheral neuropathy among older persons. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of

  4. The status of the peripheral blood in fish from radioactively contaminated Techa river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tryapitsina, G.; Akleyev, A. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine and Chelyabinsk State University (Russian Federation); Shaposhnikova, I.; Andreev, S.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Rudolfsen, G. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and University of Tromsoe (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    fish from middle and low reaches of the Techa river at the level of the control values, and in fish from the upper reaches - lower than that in the control population. Thus, it is possible to draw a conclusion that fish inhabiting the upper most contaminated part of the Techa river have ineffective erythropoiesis. Significant negative relationship with {sup 90}Sr content in the fish organism was found for the following parameters: percentage and absolute number of mature erythrocytes, percentage of non-dividing erythrocytes, percentage and absolute number of monocytes, percentage of neutrophils. Positive relationship with {sup 90}Sr content was found for the percentage of erythroblasts in peripheral blood, normocytes and dividing erythroid cells, absolute quantity of immature polychromatic erythrocytes, percentage and absolute quantity of thrombocytes, leukocytes and lymphocytes is observed. The work was supported by the NRPA. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  5. Sea level change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Church, J.A.; Clark, P.U.; Cazenave, A.; Gregory, J.M.; Jevrejeva, S.; Levermann, A.; Merrifield, M.A.; Milne, G.A.; Nerem, R.S.; Nunn, P.D.; Payne, A.J.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Stammer, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    This chapter considers changes in global mean sea level, regional sea level, sea level extremes, and waves. Confidence in projections of global mean sea level rise has increased since the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) because of the improved...

  6. Air-sea exchange studies at the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Kunz, G.J.; Veefkind, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The North Sea can be considered as a local 'inner' sea in which many processes are quite different from these over the open ocean. The surrounding land has a major influence, being the source for man-made aerosols and gases, whereas the North Sea acts as a sink for these. At the same time the North

  7. Sea ice dynamics across the Mid-Pleistocene transition in the Bering Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlef, H; Belt, S T; Sosdian, S M; Smik, L; Lear, C H; Hall, I R; Cabedo-Sanz, P; Husum, K; Kender, S

    2018-03-05

    Sea ice and associated feedback mechanisms play an important role for both long- and short-term climate change. Our ability to predict future sea ice extent, however, hinges on a greater understanding of past sea ice dynamics. Here we investigate sea ice changes in the eastern Bering Sea prior to, across, and after the Mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT). The sea ice record, based on the Arctic sea ice biomarker IP 25 and related open water proxies from the International Ocean Discovery Program Site U1343, shows a substantial increase in sea ice extent across the MPT. The occurrence of late-glacial/deglacial sea ice maxima are consistent with sea ice/land ice hysteresis and land-glacier retreat via the temperature-precipitation feedback. We also identify interactions of sea ice with phytoplankton growth and ocean circulation patterns, which have important implications for glacial North Pacific Intermediate Water formation and potentially North Pacific abyssal carbon storage.

  8. Peripheral neuropathy of dietary riboflavin deficiency in racing pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y; Kondo, H; Itakura, C

    1996-02-01

    An occurrence of peripheral neuropathy in nine 14- to 55-day-old racing pigeons was documented. The predominant clinical signs were diarrhea, and leg and wing paralysis. Grossly, there was discoloration and swelling of all the peripheral nerve trunks. Microscopic lesions comprising swelling, fragmentation and demyelination of myelin sheaths, and proliferation of Schwann cells, were seen in the peripheral nerves of all birds examined. These changes were associated with moderate to severe swelling, fragmentation, atrophy and loss of axons. The peripheral nerve lesions in these cases were similar to those of dietary riboflavin deficiency in chickens. An analysis of the diet given to the pigeons indicated that the riboflavin concentration was only 0.9 mg/kg feed.

  9. Neuro-otological and peripheral nerve involvement in Fabry disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carmona

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fabry disease (FD is an X-linked lysosomal storage disease, with multisystemic glycosphingolipids deposits. Neuro-otological involvement leading to hearing loss and vestibular dysfunctions has been described, but there is limited information about the frequency, site of lesion, or the relationship with peripheral neuropathy. The aim was to evaluate the presence of auditory and vestibular symptoms, and assess neurophysiological involvement of the VIII cranial nerve, correlating these findings with clinical and neurophysiological features of peripheral neuropathy. We studied 36 patients with FD with a complete neurological and neuro-otological evaluation including nerve conduction studies, quantitative sensory testing (to evaluate small fiber by warm and cold threshold detection and cold and heat pain, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, videonistagmography, audiometry and brainstem auditory evoked potentials. Neuro-otologic symptoms included hearing loss (22.2%, vertigo (27.8% or both (25%. An involvement of either cochlear or vestibular function was identified in most patients (75%. In 70% of our patients the involvement of both cochlear and vestibular function could not be explained by a neural or vascular mechanism. Small fiber neuropathy was identified in 77.7%. There were no significant associations between neurootological and QST abnormalities. Neuro-otologic involvement is frequent and most likely under-recognized in patients with FD. It lacks a specific neural or vascular pattern, suggesting multi-systemic, end organ damage. Small fiber neuropathy is an earlier manifestation of FD, but there is no correlation between the development of neuropathy and neuro-otological abnormalities.

  10. Capillaroscopy as an Outcome Measure for Clinical Trials on the Peripheral Vasculopathy in SSc—Is It Useful?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Cutolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral microvascular impairment in systemic sclerosis (SSc may be easily detected and scored in a safe noninvasive way by nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC. The paper highlights clinical conditions related to SSc in which NVC may represent an outcome measure of therapeutical interventions, by elaborating on their already assessed relationship with the NVC patterns and eventually scores. The 3 important biological/clinical conditions are: the positivity for SSc-specific serum autoantibodies, the presence of SSc skin digital ulcers (DUs and of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH SSc associated. In conclusion, to the question if capillaroscopy (NVC may represent in SSc an outcome measure for clinical trials on the peripheral vasculopathy, based on the growing evidence and our detailed studies, the answer is positive. Recent therapeutic trials in SSc are confirming this role, and the experience is growing rapidly.

  11. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour of the Maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Sahai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old man was diagnosed with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla. He was treated with total maxillectomy. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a close resection margin. The tumour was of high grade with an MIB-1 labelling index of almost 60%. At six weeks following the surgery, he developed local tumour relapse. The patient succumbed to the disease at five months from the time of diagnosis. The present report underlines the locally aggressive nature of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla which necessitates an early therapeutic intervention. A complete resection with clear margins is the most important prognostic factor for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in the head and neck region. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be considered to improve the local control. Future research may demarcate the role of targeted therapy for patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour.

  12. Relationships Between the Bulk-Skin Sea Surface Temperature Difference, Wind, and Net Air-Sea Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, William J.; Castro, Sandra L.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The primary purpose of this project was to evaluate and improve models for the bulk-skin temperature difference to the point where they could accurately and reliably apply under a wide variety of environmental conditions. To accomplish this goal, work was conducted in three primary areas. These included production of an archive of available data sets containing measurements of the skin and bulk temperatures and associated environmental conditions, evaluation of existing skin layer models using the compiled data archive, and additional theoretical work on the development of an improved model using the data collected under diverse environmental conditions. In this work we set the basis for a new physical model of renewal type, and propose a parameterization for the temperature difference across the cool skin of the ocean in which the effects of thermal buoyancy, wind stress, and microscale breaking are all integrated by means of the appropriate renewal time scales. Ideally, we seek to obtain a model that will accurately apply under a wide variety of environmental conditions. A summary of the work in each of these areas is included in this report. A large amount of work was accomplished under the support of this grant. The grant supported the graduate studies of Sandra Castro and the preparation of her thesis which will be completed later this year. This work led to poster presentations at the 1999 American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting and 2000 IGARSS meeting. Additional work will be presented in a talk at this year's American Meteorological Society Air-Sea Interaction Meeting this May. The grant also supported Sandra Castro during a two week experiment aboard the R/P Flip (led by Dr. Andrew Jessup of the Applied Physics Laboratory) to help obtain additional shared data sets and to provide Sandra with a fundamental understanding of the physical processes needed in the models. In a related area, the funding also partially supported Dr. William Emery and Daniel

  13. Water soluble peripheral and non-peripheral tetrasubstituted zinc phthalocyanines: Synthesis, photochemistry and bovine serum albumin binding behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çakır, Volkan; Çakır, Dilek [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Pişkin, Mehmet [Department of Food Technology, Çanakkale Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100 Çanakkale (Turkey); Durmuş, Mahmut [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 141, Gebze 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya, E-mail: zekeriya_61@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2014-10-15

    The new peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-1,3-bis[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]propan-2-ol substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine complexes (2a and 3a) and their quaternized amphiphilic derivatives (2b and 3b) have been synthesized and characterized using UV–vis, FT-IR, {sup 1}H-NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR, MS spectroscopic data and elemental analysis for the first time. The quaternized complexes (2b and 3b) show excellent solubility in water and DMSO which makes them potential photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. The photochemical (singlet oxygen generation and photodegradation under light irradiation) properties of these novel phthalocyanines are investigated in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for non-quaternized complexes and in DMSO, phosphate buffered solution (PBS) or PBS+triton X-100 (TX) solution for quaternized complexes. In this study, the effects of the aggregation of the molecules, quaternization, position of the substituents (peripherally or non-peripherally) and nature of the solvents (DMSO, PBS or PBS+triton X-100) on the photochemical parameters of the zinc (II) phthalocyanines are also reported. In addition, a spectroscopic investigation of the binding behavior of the quaternized zinc(II) phthalocyanine complexes to bovine serum albumin (BSA) is also presented in this work. - Highlights: • Synthesis of zinc phthalocyanines is performed. • Photophysical and photochemical properties of phthalocyanines are studied. • Photodynamic therapy studies are performed.

  14. Water soluble peripheral and non-peripheral tetrasubstituted zinc phthalocyanines: Synthesis, photochemistry and bovine serum albumin binding behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çakır, Volkan; Çakır, Dilek; Pişkin, Mehmet; Durmuş, Mahmut; Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya

    2014-01-01

    The new peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-1,3-bis[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]propan-2-ol substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine complexes (2a and 3a) and their quaternized amphiphilic derivatives (2b and 3b) have been synthesized and characterized using UV–vis, FT-IR, 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR, MS spectroscopic data and elemental analysis for the first time. The quaternized complexes (2b and 3b) show excellent solubility in water and DMSO which makes them potential photosensitizers for use in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. The photochemical (singlet oxygen generation and photodegradation under light irradiation) properties of these novel phthalocyanines are investigated in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) for non-quaternized complexes and in DMSO, phosphate buffered solution (PBS) or PBS+triton X-100 (TX) solution for quaternized complexes. In this study, the effects of the aggregation of the molecules, quaternization, position of the substituents (peripherally or non-peripherally) and nature of the solvents (DMSO, PBS or PBS+triton X-100) on the photochemical parameters of the zinc (II) phthalocyanines are also reported. In addition, a spectroscopic investigation of the binding behavior of the quaternized zinc(II) phthalocyanine complexes to bovine serum albumin (BSA) is also presented in this work. - Highlights: • Synthesis of zinc phthalocyanines is performed. • Photophysical and photochemical properties of phthalocyanines are studied. • Photodynamic therapy studies are performed

  15. Demographic processes of developmentally peripheral areas in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pénzes János

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates the demographic processes and challenges of the Hungarian developmentally peripheral settlements. Demographic challenges can be regarded as important consequences of the social and economic disadvantages in spatial terms. However, the interrelating negative demographic tendencies cause even more backward situation blocking or hindering the development. The objective of the current analysis is to discover the demographic characteristics of the peripheral settlements, to detect the spatial disparities and to point out the correlation between backwardness and the investigated demographic phenomena with the help of the census databases 1980-2011 and local datasets on Roma population. Using methods of multivariate statistical analysis, seven indicators were selected in order to achieve the goals of the paper. Backward areas are primarily characterized by population decrease with significant disparities, but there were growing communities among them as well. Some small villages in Northern and Southwestern Hungary will foreseeably face complete depopulation within few years. Primarily small sized villages faced intense decrease in rate of natural change, but dynamic population growth was also detected. Migration loss tends to correlate with the extent of peripherality, as increasing values of migration balance accompany decreasing ratio of peripheral settlements in the area. The ratio of elderly population shows an expressively two-faced character, with the extremely aging and very juvenile settlements. The ratios of Roma population reflect the scale of peripherality. Extended ethnic change could be predicted in Northeastern and Southwestern Hungary and near the Middle Tisza valley. Presented demographic processes will make the backwardness of most of the peripheral settlements stable.

  16. 15 CFR 918.5 - Eligibility, qualifications, and responsibilities-Sea Grant Regional Consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... identification and communication of user communities' research and educational needs. (6) Relationships. The Sea... ability to obtain matching funds from non-Federal sources, such as State legislatures, university... Grant organizations. (3) Maintain an effective management framework and application of organizational...

  17. Extending the Instrumental Record of Sea-Level Change: A 1300-Year Sea-Level Record From Eastern Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, J. P.; Cleary, P.

    2002-12-01

    The instrumental record of sea-level change in the northeastern United States extends back to the early 20th century and at New York City (NYC) extends back to 1856. These tide gauge records indicate that sea level has risen at a rate of 2.5 to 4 mm/year over the last 100-150 years. Geologic evidence of sea-level change in the region over the last 2,000 years indicates rates of sea-level rise of about 1 mm/year or less. The discordance between the instrumental and geologic records is frequently cited as potentially providing evidence that anthropogenic warming of the climate system has resulted in an increase in the rate of sea-level rise. In order to begin to test the hypothesis that acceleration in the rate of sea-level rise has occurred in the last 150 years due to anthropogenic climate warming, accurate and precise information on the timing of the apparent acceleration in sea-level rise are needed. Here we construct a high-resolution relative sea-level record for the past 1350 years by dating basal salt marsh peat samples above a glacial erratic in a western Connecticut salt marsh. Preservation of marsh vegetation remains in the sediment record that has a narrow vertical habitat range at the upper end of the tidal range provides information on past sea levels. { \\it Spartina patens} (marsh hay) and { \\it Juncus gerardi} (black rush) dominate both the modern marsh and their remains are the major constituent of the marsh sediments and occur in the modern marsh between mean high water (MHW) and mean highest high water. We use the elevation distribution of modern plant communities to estimate the relationship of sediment samples to paleo-mean high water. The chronology is based on 15 radiocarbon ages, supplemented by age estimates derived from the horizons of industrial Pb pollution and pollen indicative of European land clearance. Thirteen of the radiocarbon ages and the Pb and pollen data come from samples taken along a contact between marsh peat and a glacial

  18. Optical coherent tomography in diagnoses of peripheral retinal degenarations

    OpenAIRE

    O. G. Pozdeyeva; T. B. Shaimov; A. Yu. Galin; R. B. Shaimov; T. A. Shaimova; A. V. Zolotova; A. V. Fomin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Studying the capabilities of optical coherence tomography (RTVue-100, OPTOVUE, USA) in evaluation of peripheral retinal degenerations, vitreoretinal adhesions, adjacent vitreous body as well as measurement of morphometric data.Methods: The study included 189 patients (239 eyes) with peripheral retinal degeneration. 77 men and 112 women aged 18 to 84 underwent an ophthalmologic examination since November 2012 until October 2013. The peripheral retina was visualized with the help of op...

  19. Threshold dose for peripheral neuropathy following intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in a large animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsella, T.J.; DeLuca, A.M.; Barnes, M.; Anderson, W.; Terrill, R.; Sindelar, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation injury to peripheral nerve is a dose-limiting toxicity in the clinical application of intraoperative radiotherapy, particularly for pelvic and retroperitoneal tumors. Intraoperative radiotherapy-related peripheral neuropathy in humans receiving doses of 20-25 Gy is manifested as a mixed motor-sensory deficit beginning 6-9 months following treatment. In a previous experimental study of intraoperative radiotherapy-related neuropathy of the lumbro-sacral plexus, an approximate inverse linear relationship was reported between the intraoperative dose (20-75 Gy range) and the time to onset of hind limb paresis (1-12 mos following intraoperative radiotherapy). The principal histological lesion in irradiated nerve was loss of large nerve fibers and perineural fibrosis without significant vascular injury. Similar histological changes in irradiated nerves were found in humans. To assess peripheral nerve injury to lower doses of intraoperative radiotherapy in this same large animal model, groups of four adult American Foxhounds received doses of 10, 15, or 20 Gy to the right lumbro-sacral plexus and sciatic nerve using 9 MeV electrons. The left lumbro-sacral plexus and sciatic nerve were excluded from the intraoperative field to allow each animal to serve as its own control. Following treatment, a complete neurological exam, electromyogram, and nerve conduction studies were performed monthly for 1 year. Monthly neurological exams were performed in years 2 and 3 whereas electromyogram and nerve conduction studies were performed every 3 months during this follow-up period. With follow-up of greater than or equal to 42 months, no dog receiving 10 or 15 Gy IORT shows any clinical or laboratory evidence of peripheral nerve injury. However, all four dogs receiving 20 Gy developed right hind limb paresis at 8, 9, 9, and 12 mos following intraoperative radiotherapy

  20. Clinical impact of exercise in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Marko; Jug, Borut; Lenasi, Helena

    2017-08-01

    Increasing prevalence, high morbidity and mortality, and decreased health-related quality of life are hallmarks of peripheral arterial disease. About one-third of peripheral arterial disease patients have intermittent claudication with deleterious effects on everyday activities, such as walking. Exercise training improves peripheral arterial disease symptoms and is recommended as first line therapy for peripheral arterial disease. This review examines the effects of exercise training beyond improvements in walking distance, namely on vascular function, parameters of inflammation, activated hemostasis and oxidative stress, and quality of life. Exercise training not only increases walking distance and physiologic parameters in patients with peripheral arterial disease, but also improves the cardiovascular risk profile by helping patients achieve better control of hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity and dyslipidemia, thus further reducing cardiovascular risk and the prevalence of coexistent atherosclerotic diseases. American guidelines suggest supervised exercise training, performed for a minimum of 30-45 min, at least three times per week, for at least 12 weeks. Walking is the most studied exercise modality and its efficacy in improving cardiovascular parameters in patients with peripheral arterial disease has been extensively proven. As studies have shown that supervised exercise training improves walking performance, cardiovascular parameters and quality of life in patients with peripheral arterial disease, it should be encouraged and more often prescribed.

  1. Coastal wetlands, sea level, and the dimensions of geomorphic resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2018-03-01

    Geomorphic system resilience is often perceived as an intrinsic property of system structure and interactions but is also related to idiosyncratic place and history factors. The importance of geographical and historical circumstances makes it difficult to generate categorical statements about geomorphic resilience. However, network-based analyses of system structure can be used to determine the dynamical stability (= resilience) based on generally applicable relationships and to determine scenarios of stability or instability. These provide guidelines for assessing place and history factors to assess resilience. A model of coastal wetlands is analyzed, based on interactions among relative sea level, wetland surface elevation, hydroperiod, vegetation, and sedimentation. The system is generally (but not always) dynamically unstable and non-resilient. Because of gradients of environmental factors and patchy distributions of microtopography and vegetation, a coastal wetland landscape may have extensive local variations in stability/resilience and in the key relationships that trigger instabilities. This is illustrated by a case study where dynamically unstable fragmentation is found in two nearby coastal wetlands in North Carolina's Neuse River estuary-Otter Creek Mouth and Anderson Creek. Neither is keeping pace with relative sea level rise, and both show unstable state transitions within the wetland system; but locally stable relationships exist within the wetland systems.

  2. ACCELERATION OF SEA LEVEL RISE OVER MALAYSIAN SEAS FROM SATELLITE ALTIMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. A. Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea level rise becomes our concern nowadays as a result of variously contribution of climate change that cause by the anthropogenic effects. Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. Due to this change, sea level is now constantly rising and eventually will threaten many low-lying and unprotected coastal areas in many ways. This paper is proposing a significant effort to quantify the sea level trend over Malaysian seas based on the combination of multi-mission satellite altimeters over a period of 23 years. Eight altimeter missions are used to derive the absolute sea level from Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS. Data verification is then carried out to verify the satellite derived sea level rise data with tidal data. Eight selected tide gauge stations from Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are chosen for this data verification. The pattern and correlation of both measurements of sea level anomalies (SLA are evaluated over the same period in each area in order to produce comparable results. Afterwards, the time series of the sea level trend is quantified using robust fit regression analysis. The findings clearly show that the absolute sea level trend is rising and varying over the Malaysian seas with the rate of sea level varies and gradually increase from east to west of Malaysia. Highly confident and correlation level of the 23 years measurement data with an astonishing root mean square difference permits the absolute sea level trend of the Malaysian seas has raised at the rate 3.14 ± 0.12 mm yr-1 to 4.81 ± 0.15 mm yr-1 for the chosen sub-areas, with an overall mean of 4.09 ± 0.12 mm yr-1. This study hopefully offers a beneficial sea level information to be applied in a wide range of related environmental and climatology issue such as flood and global warming.

  3. Acceleration of Sea Level Rise Over Malaysian Seas from Satellite Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, A. I. A.; Din, A. H. M.; Khalid, N. F.; Omar, K. M.

    2016-09-01

    Sea level rise becomes our concern nowadays as a result of variously contribution of climate change that cause by the anthropogenic effects. Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. Due to this change, sea level is now constantly rising and eventually will threaten many low-lying and unprotected coastal areas in many ways. This paper is proposing a significant effort to quantify the sea level trend over Malaysian seas based on the combination of multi-mission satellite altimeters over a period of 23 years. Eight altimeter missions are used to derive the absolute sea level from Radar Altimeter Database System (RADS). Data verification is then carried out to verify the satellite derived sea level rise data with tidal data. Eight selected tide gauge stations from Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak are chosen for this data verification. The pattern and correlation of both measurements of sea level anomalies (SLA) are evaluated over the same period in each area in order to produce comparable results. Afterwards, the time series of the sea level trend is quantified using robust fit regression analysis. The findings clearly show that the absolute sea level trend is rising and varying over the Malaysian seas with the rate of sea level varies and gradually increase from east to west of Malaysia. Highly confident and correlation level of the 23 years measurement data with an astonishing root mean square difference permits the absolute sea level trend of the Malaysian seas has raised at the rate 3.14 ± 0.12 mm yr-1 to 4.81 ± 0.15 mm yr-1 for the chosen sub-areas, with an overall mean of 4.09 ± 0.12 mm yr-1. This study hopefully offers a beneficial sea level information to be applied in a wide range of related environmental and climatology issue such as flood and global warming.

  4. Morphometric relationships and size at sexual maturity of the deep-sea Caribbean lobster Metanephrops binghami (Decapoda: Nephropidae in the Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the morphometric relationships and size at sexual maturity of deep-sea Caribbean lobster. Data were obtained in the Colombian Caribbean in four trawling surveys in November and December 2009 between 200 and 550 m depth. 709 individuals with sizes between 53.65 and 191.00 mm (TL (mean 121.17 ± 27.13 mm were measured. M. binghami had a positive allometric growth. Lobsters of the family Nephropidae have a worldwide distribution and economic importance. High levels of biomass of Metanephrops binghami have been reported in the Colombian Caribbean and this species could become a potential new resource for the Western Atlantic fishery. However, prior to the development of a new fishery, more biological research is needed to understand the life cycle of this species. Aspects such as growth, spawning, recruitment, mortality, nursery areas and associated biodiversity should be carefully studied.

  5. Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea and White Sea from R/Vs Artemovsk, Atlantida, Okeanograf, Professor Rudovits, and ice observations, 1957 - 1995 (NODC Accession 0073674)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, Salinity, Oxygen, Phosphate, pH and Alkalinity data collected in the North Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, North Sea, Norwegian...

  6. From the chlorophyll a in the surface layer to its vertical profile: a Greenland Sea relationship for satellite applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cherkasheva

    2013-04-01

    maximum with its median magnitude reaching up to three times the surface concentration. While the variability of the Greenland Sea season in April, May and June followed the global non-monthly resolved relationship of the chlorophyll profile to surface chlorophyll concentrations described by the model of Morel and Berthon (1989, it deviated significantly from the model in the other months (July–September, when the maxima of the chlorophyll are at quite different depths. The Greenland Sea dimensionless monthly median profiles intersected roughly at one common depth within each category. By applying a Gaussian fit with 0.1 mg C m−3 surface chlorophyll steps to the median monthly resolved chlorophyll profiles of the defined categories, mathematical approximations were determined. They generally reproduce the magnitude and position of the CHL maximum, resulting in an average 4% underestimation in Ctot (and 2% in rough primary production estimates when compared to in situ estimates. These mathematical approximations can be used as the input to the satellite-based primary production models that estimate primary production in the Arctic regions.

  7. [Chemical characteristics of precipitation in South China Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong-Wei; Long, Ai-Min; Xie, Lu-Hua; Xiao, Hua-Yun; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2014-02-01

    Rainwater samples were collected in the summer on "Shiyan 3" during the 2012 South China Sea Sectional Scientific Survey. The concentrations of anion and cation, and pH in precipitation were determined and backward trajectories of air mass were simulated to analyze the chemical characteristics of ions and examine the source of ions. The results indicated that the mean pH value of precipitation was 6.3, with 5.6 of minimal value in summer in South China Sea. The order of anion and cation abundance was Cl(-) > S04(2-) > NO3(-) and Na(+) > Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) > K(+). Cl(-) was the major anion and Na(+) was the major cation, with concentrations of 2 637.5 microeq x L(-1) and 2095.5 microeq x L(-1), respectively, showing that they were the characteristics of marine atmospheric precipitation. There was a good linear relationship between each pair of 7 ions, with correlation coefficient above 0.9, suggesting that they may have a common source. However, the correlation coefficients were lower between NO3(-) and other ions than the others, suggesting that NO3(-) had more complex sources. The concentrations of Ca(2+) and K(+) in precipitation may be related to coral environment in South China Sea. The backward trajectories in 6 stations showed that the air mass was from south and southwest of South China Sea, without passing through above the continent. These results suggested that precipitation affected by human ion source can be ignored in summer in South China Sea.

  8. Consequences of peripheral frequency selectivity for nonsimultaneous masking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, H.

    1973-01-01

    The frequency selectivity of the peripheral ear (e.g., at the VIIIth nerve level) is so acute that onset and offset transients in responses to short signals produce a nonnegligible extension of the signal duration. Thus, peripheral excitation patterns produced by signals which were separated in time

  9. Atherectomy in Peripheral Artery Disease: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Tariq M; Afari, Maxwell E; Garcia, Lawrence A

    2017-04-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a clinical manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The physiological force and shear stress from angioplasty and stenting have made PAD treatment challenging. Atherectomy devices have continued to emerge as a major therapy in the management of peripheral vascular disease. This article presents a review of the current literature for the atherectomy devices used in PAD.

  10. Aluminum concentrations in central and peripheral areas of malignant breast lesions do not differ from those in normal breast tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aluminum is used in a wide range of applications and is a potential environmental hazard. The known genotoxic effects of aluminum might play a role in the development of breast cancer. However, the data currently available on the subject are not sufficient to establish a causal relationship between aluminum exposure and the augmented risk of developing breast cancer. To achieve maximum sensitivity and specificity in the determination of aluminum levels, we have developed a detection protocol using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The objective of the present study was to compare the aluminum levels in the central and peripheral areas of breast carcinomas with those in the adjacent normal breast tissues, and to identify patient and/or tumor characteristics associated with these aluminum levels. Methods A total of 176 patients with breast cancer were included in the study. Samples from the central and peripheral areas of their tumors were obtained, as well as from the surrounding normal breast tissue. Aluminum quantification was performed using GFAAS. Results The average (mean ± SD) aluminum concentrations were as follows: central area, 1.88 ± 3.60 mg/kg; peripheral area, 2.10 ± 5.67 mg/kg; and normal area, 1.68 ± 11.1 mg/kg. Overall and two-by-two comparisons of the aluminum concentrations in these areas indicated no significant differences. We detected a positive relationship between aluminum levels in the peripheral areas of the tumors, age and menopausal status of the patients (P = .02). Conclusions Using a sensitive quantification technique we detected similar aluminum concentrations in the central and peripheral regions of breast tumors, and in normal tissues. In addition, we did not detect significant differences in aluminum concentrations as related to the location of the breast tumor within the breast, or to other relevant tumor features such as stage, size and steroid receptor status. The next

  11. Speciated atmospheric mercury in the marine boundary layer of the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunjie; Ci, Zhijia; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Guo, Jia

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study are to identify the spatial and temporal distributions of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and fine particulate mercury (HgP2.5) in the marine boundary layer (MBL) of the Bohai Sea (BS) and Yellow Sea (YS), and to investigate the relationships between mercury species and meteorological parameters. The mean concentrations of GEM, RGM, and HgP2.5 were 2.03 ng m-3, 2.5 pg m-3, and 8.2 pg m-3 in spring, and 2.09 ng m-3, 4.3 pg m-3, and 8.3 pg m-3 in fall. Reactive mercury (RGM + HgP2.5) represented RGM + HgP2.5), which indicated that most mercury export in the MBL was GEM and the direct outflow of reactive mercury was very small. Moreover, GEM concentrations over the BS were generally higher than those over the YS both in spring and fall. Although RGM showed a homogeneous distribution over the BS and YS both in spring and fall, the mean RGM concentration in fall was significantly higher than that in spring. In contrast, the spatial distribution of HgP2.5 generally reflected a gradient with high levels near the coast of China and low levels in the open sea, suggesting the significant atmospheric mercury outflow from China. Interestingly, the mean RGM concentrations during daytime were significantly higher than those during nighttime both in spring and fall, while the opposite results were observed for HgP2.5. Additionally, RGM positively correlates with air temperature while negatively correlates with relative humidity. In conclusion, the elevated atmospheric mercury levels in the BS and YS compared to other open seas suggested that the human activities had a significant influence on the oceanic mercury cycle downwind of China.

  12. Detecting peripheral-based attacks on the host memory

    CERN Document Server

    Stewin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This work addresses stealthy peripheral-based attacks on host computers and presents a new approach to detecting them. Peripherals can be regarded as separate systems that have a dedicated processor and dedicated runtime memory to handle their tasks. The book addresses the problem that peripherals generally communicate with the host via the host’s main memory, storing cryptographic keys, passwords, opened files and other sensitive data in the process – an aspect attackers are quick to exploit.  Here, stealthy malicious software based on isolated micro-controllers is implemented to conduct an attack analysis, the results of which provide the basis for developing a novel runtime detector. The detector reveals stealthy peripheral-based attacks on the host’s main memory by exploiting certain hardware properties, while a permanent and resource-efficient measurement strategy ensures that the detector is also capable of detecting transient attacks, which can otherwise succeed when the applied strategy only me...

  13. Species distribution models of tropical deep-sea snappers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Gomez

    Full Text Available Deep-sea fisheries provide an important source of protein to Pacific Island countries and territories that are highly dependent on fish for food security. However, spatial management of these deep-sea habitats is hindered by insufficient data. We developed species distribution models using spatially limited presence data for the main harvested species in the Western Central Pacific Ocean. We used bathymetric and water temperature data to develop presence-only species distribution models for the commercially exploited deep-sea snappers Etelis Cuvier 1828, Pristipomoides Valenciennes 1830, and Aphareus Cuvier 1830. We evaluated the performance of four different algorithms (CTA, GLM, MARS, and MAXENT within the BIOMOD framework to obtain an ensemble of predicted distributions. We projected these predictions across the Western Central Pacific Ocean to produce maps of potential deep-sea snapper distributions in 32 countries and territories. Depth was consistently the best predictor of presence for all species groups across all models. Bathymetric slope was consistently the poorest predictor. Temperature at depth was a good predictor of presence for GLM only. Model precision was highest for MAXENT and CTA. There were strong regional patterns in predicted distribution of suitable habitat, with the largest areas of suitable habitat (> 35% of the Exclusive Economic Zone predicted in seven South Pacific countries and territories (Fiji, Matthew & Hunter, Nauru, New Caledonia, Tonga, Vanuatu and Wallis & Futuna. Predicted habitat also varied among species, with the proportion of predicted habitat highest for Aphareus and lowest for Etelis. Despite data paucity, the relationship between deep-sea snapper presence and their environments was sufficiently strong to predict their distribution across a large area of the Pacific Ocean. Our results therefore provide a strong baseline for designing monitoring programs that balance resource exploitation and

  14. Intravenous Lidocaine Infusion to Treat Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapetrou, Peter; Kumar, Aashish J; Muppuri, Rudram; Chakrabortty, Shushovan

    2015-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating side effect of chemotherapy, which manifests as paresthesias, dysesthesias, and numbness in the hands and feet. Numerous chemoprotective agents and treatments have been used with limited success to treat chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. We report a case in which a patient presenting with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy received an IV lidocaine infusion over the course of 60 minutes with complete symptomatic pain relief for a prolonged period of 2 weeks.

  15. Computed tomographic findings of intrahepatic peripheral cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee

    1986-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is synonymous with bile duct carcinoma, and can originate in a small intrahepatic bile duct (peripheral type), a major intrahepatic duct including the hepatic hills, an extrahepatic duct, or near the papilla of Vater (central type). In a sense bile duct carcinoma of the peripheral type is cholangiocarcinoma of the liver; it has the same gross configuration as hepatocellular carcinoma, resulting in difficulty to differentiate on the CT. The authors studied CT findings of 14 cases of pathologically proven peripheral type cholangiocarcinoma of the liver during the last 4 years. The results were as follows: 1. Of 14 cases, 8 were female and 6 were male, and the age ranged from 5th to 7th decades. 2. Preoperative clinical diagnosis were as follows: hepatoma 8 cases, abscess 5 cases and metastasis 1 case in order of frequency. 3. Diagnosis were confirmed by hepatic lobectomy in 7 cases, wedge resection in 5 cases and needle biopsy in 2 case. 4. Laboratory findings were not specific, but there were only 2 cases with elevated alpha-fetoprotein level. 5. Associated diseases were gallstones in 1 case, intrahepatic duct stones in 1 case, extrahepatic duct stones in 2 cases, acute or chronic cholecystitis in 5 cases and CS in 3 cases. 6. Angiographic and scintigraphic findings were helpful in differential diagnosis from hepatoma but ultrasonography was non-specific. 7. The number of tumor were solitary in 12 cases and multiple in 2 cases. Among solitary cases, the site of involvement of the liver were right lobe in 8 cases and left lobe in 4 cases. 8. Common CT features of the intrahepatic peripheral cholangiocinoma of the liver were irregular, inhomogeneous, occasionally peripherally enhancing, low density liver mass, frequently accompanied by diffuse or segmental dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct. If there were normal alpha fetoprotein level, positive skin and/or stool examination for CS and diffuse or segmental dilatation of the intrahepatic duct

  16. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  17. Diabetes and obesity are the main metabolic drivers of peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Brian C; Gao, LeiLi; Li, Yufeng; Zhou, Xianghai; Reynolds, Evan; Banerjee, Mousumi; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Feldman, Eva L; Ji, Linong

    2018-04-01

    To determine the associations between individual metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and peripheral neuropathy in a large population-based cohort from Pinggu, China. A cross-sectional, randomly selected, population-based survey of participants from Pinggu, China was performed. Metabolic phenotyping and neuropathy outcomes were performed by trained personnel. Glycemic status was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria, and the MetS using modified consensus criteria (body mass index instead of waist circumference). The primary peripheral neuropathy outcome was the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI) examination. Secondary outcomes were the MNSI questionnaire and monofilament testing. Multivariable models were used to assess for associations between individual MetS components and peripheral neuropathy. Tree-based methods were used to construct a classifier for peripheral neuropathy using demographics and MetS components. The mean (SD) age of the 4002 participants was 51.6 (11.8) and 51.0% were male; 37.2% of the population had normoglycemia, 44.0% prediabetes, and 18.9% diabetes. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy increased with worsening glycemic status (3.25% in normoglycemia, 6.29% in prediabetes, and 15.12% in diabetes, P peripheral neuropathy. Age, diabetes, and weight were the primary splitters in the classification tree for peripheral neuropathy. Similar to previous studies, diabetes and obesity are the main metabolic drivers of peripheral neuropathy. The consistency of these results reinforces the urgent need for effective interventions that target these metabolic factors to prevent and/or treat peripheral neuropathy.

  18. Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices (RAPID): Registry assessment of peripheral interventional devices core data elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W Schuyler; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Morales, Pablo; Wilgus, Rebecca W; Heath, Anne H; Williams, Mary F; Tcheng, James E; Marinac-Dabic, J Danica; Malone, Misti L; Reed, Terrie L; Fukaya, Rie; Lookstein, Robert A; Handa, Nobuhiro; Aronow, Herbert D; Bertges, Daniel J; Jaff, Michael R; Tsai, Thomas T; Smale, Joshua A; Zaugg, Margo J; Thatcher, Robert J; Cronenwett, Jack L

    2018-02-01

    The current state of evaluating patients with peripheral artery disease and more specifically of evaluating medical devices used for peripheral vascular intervention (PVI) remains challenging because of the heterogeneity of the disease process, the multiple physician specialties that perform PVI, the multitude of devices available to treat peripheral artery disease, and the lack of consensus about the best treatment approaches. Because PVI core data elements are not standardized across clinical care, clinical trials, and registries, aggregation of data across different data sources and physician specialties is currently not feasible. Under the auspices of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Medical Device Epidemiology Network initiative-and its PASSION (Predictable and Sustainable Implementation of the National Registries) program, in conjunction with other efforts to align clinical data standards-the Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices (RAPID) workgroup was convened. RAPID is a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to develop a consensus lexicon and to promote interoperability across clinical care, clinical trials, and national and international registries of PVI. The current manuscript presents the initial work from RAPID to standardize clinical data elements and definitions, to establish a framework within electronic health records and health information technology procedural reporting systems, and to implement an informatics-based approach to promote the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials and registry efforts in PVI. Ultimately, we hope this work will facilitate and improve device evaluation and surveillance for patients, clinicians, health outcomes researchers, industry, policymakers, and regulators. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. All rights reserved.

  19. Carvedilol prevents functional deficits in peripheral nerve mitochondria of rats with oxaliplatin-evoked painful peripheral neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areti, Aparna; Komirishetty, Prashanth; Kumar, Ashutosh

    2017-01-01

    Oxaliplatin use as chemotherapeutic agent is frequently limited by cumulative neurotoxicity which may compromise quality of life. Reports relate this neurotoxic effect to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in peripheral nerves and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Carvedilol is an antihypertensive drug, has also been appreciated for its antioxidant and mitoprotective properties. Carvedilol co-treatment did not reduce the anti-tumor effects of oxaliplatin in human colon cancer cells (HT-29), but exhibited free radical scavenging activity against oxaliplatin-induced oxidative stress in neuronal cells (Neuro-2a). Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of carvedilol in the experimental model of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OIPN) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Oxaliplatin reduced the sensory nerve conduction velocity and produced the thermal and mechanical nociception. Carvedilol significantly (P < 0.001) attenuated these functional and sensorimotor deficits. It also counteracted oxidative/nitrosative stress by reducing the levels of nitrotyrosine and improving the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression in both sciatic nerve and DRG tissues. It improved the mitochondrial function and prevented the oxaliplatin-induced alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential in sciatic nerve thus prevented loss of intra epidermal nerve fiber density in the foot pads. Together the results prompt the use of carvedilol along with chemotherapy with oxaliplatin to prevent the peripheral neuropathy. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representation neuroprotective mechanisms of carvedilol in oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. - Highlights: • Oxaliplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction causes neurotoxicity. • Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to bioenergetic and functional deficits. • Carvedilol alleviated oxaliplatin-induced behavioural and functional changes. • Targeting mitochondria with carvedilol attenuated neuropathic pain.

  20. Carvedilol prevents functional deficits in peripheral nerve mitochondria of rats with oxaliplatin-evoked painful peripheral neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Areti, Aparna; Komirishetty, Prashanth; Kumar, Ashutosh, E-mail: ashutosh.niperhyd@gov.in

    2017-05-01

    Oxaliplatin use as chemotherapeutic agent is frequently limited by cumulative neurotoxicity which may compromise quality of life. Reports relate this neurotoxic effect to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in peripheral nerves and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Carvedilol is an antihypertensive drug, has also been appreciated for its antioxidant and mitoprotective properties. Carvedilol co-treatment did not reduce the anti-tumor effects of oxaliplatin in human colon cancer cells (HT-29), but exhibited free radical scavenging activity against oxaliplatin-induced oxidative stress in neuronal cells (Neuro-2a). Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of carvedilol in the experimental model of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OIPN) in Sprague-Dawley rats. Oxaliplatin reduced the sensory nerve conduction velocity and produced the thermal and mechanical nociception. Carvedilol significantly (P < 0.001) attenuated these functional and sensorimotor deficits. It also counteracted oxidative/nitrosative stress by reducing the levels of nitrotyrosine and improving the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase expression in both sciatic nerve and DRG tissues. It improved the mitochondrial function and prevented the oxaliplatin-induced alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential in sciatic nerve thus prevented loss of intra epidermal nerve fiber density in the foot pads. Together the results prompt the use of carvedilol along with chemotherapy with oxaliplatin to prevent the peripheral neuropathy. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representation neuroprotective mechanisms of carvedilol in oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. - Highlights: • Oxaliplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction causes neurotoxicity. • Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to bioenergetic and functional deficits. • Carvedilol alleviated oxaliplatin-induced behavioural and functional changes. • Targeting mitochondria with carvedilol attenuated neuropathic pain.

  1. Relationship of nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid and total antioxidants in peripheral blood with insomnia after stroke: study protocol for a prospective non-randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Fang Li; Tong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been shown to regulate sleep. The nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, GABA and total antioxidants may relate to insomnia in stroke patients. In this prospective single-center non-randomized controlled clinical trial performed in the China Rehabilitation Research Center, we analyzed the relationship of nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, GABA and total antioxidants with insomnia after stroke. Patients during rehabilitation of stroke were recruited and assigned to the insomnia group or non-insomnia group. Simultaneously, persons without stroke or insomnia served as normal controls. Each group contained 25 cases. The primary outcome was nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, GABA and total antioxidants in peripheral blood. The secondary outcomes were Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (Chinese version), and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. The relationship of nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, GABA and total antioxidants with insomnia after stroke was analyzed and showed that they were lower in the insomnia group than in the non-insomnia group. The severity of stroke was higher in the insomnia group than in the non-insomnia group. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the nocturnal concentrations of melatonin and GABA were associated with insomnia after stroke. This trial was regis-tered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT03202121.

  2. Rag Deletion in Peripheral T Cells Blocks TCR Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, J. Scott; Ames, Kristina T.; Boursalian, Tamar E.; Fink, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    Mature CD4+Vβ5+ T cells that recognize a peripherally expressed endogenous superantigen are tolerized either by deletion or T cell receptor (TCR) revision. In Vβ5 transgenic mice, this latter tolerance pathway results in the appearance of CD4+Vβ5−TCRβ+ T cells, coinciding with Rag1, Rag2, and TdT expression and the accumulation of Vβ-DJβ recombination intermediates in peripheral CD4+ T cells. Because post-thymic RAG-dependent TCR rearrangement has remained controversial, we sought to definitively determine whether TCR revision is an extrathymic process that occurs in mature peripheral T cells. We now show that Rag deletion in post-positive selection T cells in Vβ5 transgenic mice blocks TCR revision in vivo, and that mature peripheral T cells sorted to remove cells bearing endogenous TCRβ chains can express newly generated TCRβ molecules in adoptive hosts. These findings unambiguously demonstrate post-thymic, RAG-dependent TCR rearrangement and define TCR revision as a tolerance pathway that targets mature peripheral CD4+ T cells. PMID:20435935

  3. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, C; Berumen, M L; Bouwmeester, J; Papathanassiou, E; Al-Suwailem, A; Voolstra, C R

    2013-10-03

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with 'deep-sea' and 'cold-water' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

  4. First biological measurements of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea.

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2013-10-03

    It is usually assumed that metabolic constraints restrict deep-sea corals to cold-water habitats, with \\'deep-sea\\' and \\'cold-water\\' corals often used as synonymous. Here we report on the first measurements of biological characters of deep-sea corals from the central Red Sea, where they occur at temperatures exceeding 20°C in highly oligotrophic and oxygen-limited waters. Low respiration rates, low calcification rates, and minimized tissue cover indicate that a reduced metabolism is one of the key adaptations to prevailing environmental conditions. We investigated four sites and encountered six species of which at least two appear to be undescribed. One species is previously reported from the Red Sea but occurs in deep cold waters outside the Red Sea raising interesting questions about presumed environmental constraints for other deep-sea corals. Our findings suggest that the present understanding of deep-sea coral persistence and resilience needs to be revisited.

  5. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: an update on the current understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addington, James; Freimer, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a common side effect of selected chemotherapeutic agents. Previous work has suggested that patients often under report the symptoms of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and physicians fail to recognize the presence of such symptoms in a timely fashion. The precise pathophysiology that underlies chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, in both the acute and the chronic phase, remains complex and appears to be medication specific. Recent work has begun to demonstrate and further clarify potential pathophysiological processes that predispose and, ultimately, lead to the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. There is increasing evidence that the pathway to neuropathy varies with each agent. With a clearer understanding of how these agents affect the peripheral nervous system, more targeted treatments can be developed in order to optimize treatment and prevent long-term side effects.

  6. Liposomes to target peripheral neurons and Schwann cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooyeon Lee

    Full Text Available While a wealth of literature for tissue-specific liposomes is emerging, optimal formulations to target the cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS are lacking. In this study, we asked whether a novel formulation of phospholipid-based liposomes could be optimized for preferential uptake by microvascular endothelia, peripheral neurons and Schwann cells. Here, we report a unique formulation consisting of a phospholipid, a polymer surfactant and cholesterol that result in enhanced uptake by targeted cells. Using fluorescently labeled liposomes, we followed particle internalization and trafficking through a distinct route from dextran and escape from degradative compartments, such as lysosomes. In cultures of non-myelinating Schwann cells, liposomes associate with the lipid raft marker Cholera toxin, and their internalization is inhibited by disruption of lipid rafts or actin polymerization. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis does not significantly impact liposome entry. To evaluate the efficacy of liposome targeting in tissues, we utilized myelinating explant cultures of dorsal root ganglia and isolated diaphragm preparations, both of which contain peripheral neurons and myelinating Schwann cells. In these models, we detected preferential liposome uptake into neurons and glial cells in comparison to surrounding muscle tissue. Furthermore, in vivo liposome administration by intramuscular or intravenous injection confirmed that the particles were delivered to myelinated peripheral nerves. Within the CNS, we detected the liposomes in choroid epithelium, but not in myelinated white matter regions or in brain parenchyma. The described nanoparticles represent a novel neurophilic delivery vehicle for targeting small therapeutic compounds, biological molecules, or imaging reagents into peripheral neurons and Schwann cells, and provide a major advancement toward developing effective therapies for peripheral

  7. Species composition and dietary relationships in a brackish shallow water fish assemblage in the Bothnian Sea, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorman, Staffan; Wiederholm, Anne-Marie

    1984-09-01

    A nearshore fish assemblage inhabiting a shallow bay in the southern Bothnian Sea, Sweden, with demanding environmental conditions (c. 5‰; >15°C during 4 months 1980 and 1 month 1981) was studied during a two-year period, in 1980 and 1981. Seasonal distribution patterns, dietary relationships, and growth rates were studied in Pungitius pungitius (L.), Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas.), Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.), Phoxinus phoxinus (L.), Pomatoschistus microps (Krøyer) and Gobius niger L. The structure of the juvenile populations changed both over seasons and years but the adult populations remained constant. Lower water temperature, fewer individuals, lower and delayed fish growth, and lower interspecific food overlaps were found in 1981 compared to 1980. Few significant correlations were found in both years between the following community parameters: diversity, niche width, food overlap, and the proportion of each species in the fish assemblage. According to these results it is suggested that food competition and resource partitioning were of minor importance for the structuring of the fish community in the present area. Rather, the extreme salinity and the fluctuations in temperature regulated the fish populations. One may conclude that the populations of juveniles were more influenced by short-term changes in the environment than those of the adults.

  8. Evaluation of downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficient algorithms in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tiwari, Surya Prakash

    2016-05-07

    Despite the importance of the optical properties such as the downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficient for characterizing the upper water column, until recently no in situ optical measurements were published for the Red Sea. Kirby et al. used observations from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of the diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd(490)) in the Red Sea. To better understand optical variability and its utility in the Red Sea, it is imperative to comprehend the diffuse attenuation coefficient and its relationship with in situ properties. Two apparent optical properties, spectral remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) and the downwelling diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd), are calculated from vertical profile measurements of downwelling irradiance (Ed) and upwelling radiance (Lu). Kd characterizes light penetration into water column that is important for understanding both the physical and biogeochemical environment, including water quality and the health of ocean environment. Our study tests the performance of the existing Kd(490) algorithms in the Red Sea and compares them against direct in situ measurements within various subdivisions of the Red Sea. Most standard algorithms either overestimated or underestimated with the measured in situ values of Kd. Consequently, these algorithms provided poor retrieval of Kd(490) for the Red Sea. Random errors were high for all algorithms and the correlation coefficients (r2) with in situ measurements were quite low. Hence, these algorithms may not be suitable for the Red Sea. Overall, statistical analyses of the various algorithms indicated that the existing algorithms are inadequate for the Red Sea. The present study suggests that reparameterizing existing algorithms or developing new regional algorithms is required to improve retrieval of Kd(490) for the Red Sea. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is

  9. Peripheral phlebitis: a point-prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Georgita T; Barrett, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine the factors influencing peripheral phlebitis in the adult medical-surgical population. The authors would then be able to use those data to determine whether a change in practice was warranted. Data collection and analysis of 188 intravenous sites revealed that females with higher doses of medications in intravenous sites of longer dwell times and suboptimal nutrition were at greater risk of developing peripheral phlebitis. The point prevalence was greater than the recommended 5%, which led the authors to review their facility's patient care and documentation practices.

  10. [Degenerative lesions of the peripheral retina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conart, J-B; Baron, D; Berrod, J-P

    2014-01-01

    Degenerative lesions of the peripheral retina are present from teenage years onwards and increase with age. These abnormabilities are frequent, some of them being benign while others predispose to retinal tears and detachment. In the latter case, the lesions are rhegmatogenous and may justify prophylactic treatment by laser photocoagulation. We distinguish congenital lesions of the peripheral retina and intraretinal, chorioretinal and vitreoretinal degenerations. The holes and tears observed in 2% of the population consist of round atrophic holes, "horseshoe" tears, oral dialyses and giant tears. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Crustal structure and development of the SW Barents Sea and the adjacent continental margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, Asbjoern Johan

    1998-12-31

    Because of its expected petroleum potential, the western Barents Sea has been extensively mapped and investigated. The present thesis deals with many aspects of the geological development of this area. The emphasis is on Late Paleozoic structuring, Late Mesozoic basin formation, and early Tertiary margin formation including geodynamical response to the late Cenozoic sedimentation. The thesis begins with a review of the literature on the Late Palaeozoic structural development of the south-western Barents Sea, Svalbard and eastern Greenland. A structural map is developed for the Upper Carboniferous rift system in the southwestern Barents Sea that shows the interference of the northeasterly and the northerly structural grain. A discussion of the Ottar Basin uses a combination of seismic interpretation and gravity modelling to investigate this important structural element of the Upper Palaeozoic rift system. Previous work on Late Mesozoic basin formation in the southwestern Barents Sea is extended by incorporating new seismic reflection data and gravity modelling. Finally, the focus is shifted from the Barents Sea shelf to the continental-ocean transition and the oceanic basin. Gridded free-air gravity data from the ERS-1 enables the construction of a Bouguer gravity map of unprecedented resolution. The relationship between isostacy and gravity was resolved by modelling the thermal structure across the margin. Admittance analysis of the relationship between bathymetry and free-air gravity indicates an elastic thickness of the oceanic Lithosphere of 15-20 km, which is compatible with the depth to the 450{sup o}C isotherm obtained from thermal modelling. It is concluded that the southwestern Barents Sea margin does not deviate in any significant respects from passive rifted margins, except for a very straight and narrow continent-ocean transition zone. 332 refs., 55 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. A seasonal study of dissolved cobalt in the Ross Sea, Antarctica: micronutrient behavior, absence of scavenging, and relationships with Zn, Cd, and P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Saito

    2010-12-01

    Sea. In contrast, the observed ecological stoichiometries for Co were below values necessary for the growth of eukaryotic phytoplankton in laboratory culture experiments conducted in the absence of added zinc, implying the need for significant Zn nutrition in the Zn-Co cambialistic enzymes. The lack of an obvious kink in the dissolved Co:PO43− relationship was in contrast to Zn:PO43− and Cd:PO43− kinks previously observed in the Ross Sea. An excess uptake mechanism for kink formation is proposed as a major driver of Cd:PO43− kinks, where Zn and Cd uptake in excess of that needed for optimal growth occurs at the base of the euphotic zone, and no clear Co kink occurs because its abundances are too low for excess uptake. An unusual characteristic of Co geochemistry in the Ross Sea is an apparent lack of Co scavenging processes, as inferred from the absence of dCo removal below the euphotic zone. We hypothesize that this vertical distribution reflects a low rate of Co scavenging by Mn oxidizing bacteria, perhaps due to Mn scarcity, relative to the timescale of the annual deep winter mixing in the Ross Sea. Thus Co exhibits nutrient-like behavior in the Ross Sea, in contrast to its hybrid-type behavior in other ocean regions, with implications for the possibility of increased marine Co inventories and utility as a paleooceanographic proxy.

  13. F wave index: A diagnostic tool for peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G R Sathya

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that F wave index in upper limb was significantly lower in patients with peripheral neuropathy than the healthy controls, and could be used for early detection of peripheral neuropathy.

  14. Phosphorus dynamics in the Black Sea and Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372617034

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of the key nutrient phosphorus (P) in hypoxic and anoxic marine basins are still incompletely understood. This thesis focuses on the cycling of P in two of such basins: the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea. Water column particulates and sediments from the deep basin of the Black Sea were

  15. How Changing Human Lifestyles are Shaping Europe's Regional Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, L. D.; Lowe, C. D.; Langmead, O.; McQuatters-Gollop, A.; Attrill, M.; Cooper, P.; Gilbert, A.; Knudsen, S.; Garnacho, E.

    2007-05-01

    European society is experiencing unprecedented changes triggered by expansion of the European Union, the fall of Communism, economic growth and the onset of globalisation. Europe's regional seas, the Baltic, Black Sea, Mediterranean and North-East Atlantic (including the North Sea), provide key goods and services to the human population but have suffered from severe degradation in past decades. Their integrity as coupled social and ecological systems depends on how humanity will anticipate potential problems and deal with its ecological footprint in the future. We report the outcome of an EU-funded 15-country, 28 institution project entitled European Lifestyles and Marine Ecosystems (ELME). Our studies were designed to inform new EU policy and legislation that incorporates Ecosystem-Based Management. ELME has modelled the key relationships between economic and social drivers (D), environmental pressures (P) and changes in the state of the environment (S) in Europe's regional seas. We examined four key issues in each sea: habitat change, eutrophication, chemical pollution and fisheries. We developed conceptual models for each regional sea and employed a novel stochastic modelling technique to examine the interrelationship between key components of the conceptual models. We used the models to examine 2-3 decade projections of current trends in D, P and S and how a number of alternative development scenarios might modify these trends. These simulations demonstrate the vulnerability of Europe's seas to human pressure. As affluence increases in countries acceding to the EU, so does the demand for marine goods and services. There are `winners' and `losers' amongst marine species; the winners are often species that are opportunistic invaders or those with low economic value. In the case of eutrophication, semi-enclosed seas such as the Baltic or Black Sea are already affected by the `legacy of the past'; nutrients that have accumulated in soils, ground waters and

  16. Prediction of Sea Surface Temperature Using Long Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Wang, Hui; Dong, Junyu; Zhong, Guoqiang; Sun, Xin

    2017-10-01

    This letter adopts long short-term memory(LSTM) to predict sea surface temperature(SST), which is the first attempt, to our knowledge, to use recurrent neural network to solve the problem of SST prediction, and to make one week and one month daily prediction. We formulate the SST prediction problem as a time series regression problem. LSTM is a special kind of recurrent neural network, which introduces gate mechanism into vanilla RNN to prevent the vanished or exploding gradient problem. It has strong ability to model the temporal relationship of time series data and can handle the long-term dependency problem well. The proposed network architecture is composed of two kinds of layers: LSTM layer and full-connected dense layer. LSTM layer is utilized to model the time series relationship. Full-connected layer is utilized to map the output of LSTM layer to a final prediction. We explore the optimal setting of this architecture by experiments and report the accuracy of coastal seas of China to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method. In addition, we also show its online updated characteristics.

  17. Wind-driven export of Weddell Sea slope water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijers, A. J. S.; Meredith, M. P.; Abrahamsen, E. P.; Morales Maqueda, M. A.; Jones, D. C.; Naveira Garabato, A. C.

    2016-10-01

    The export of waters from the Weddell Gyre to lower latitudes is an integral component of the southern subpolar contribution to the three-dimensional oceanic circulation. Here we use more than 20 years of repeat hydrographic data on the continental slope on the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and 5 years of bottom lander data on the slope at 1000 m to show the intermittent presence of a relatively cold, fresh, westward flowing current. This is often bottom-intensified between 600 and 2000 dbar with velocities of over 20 cm s-1, transporting an average of 1.5 ± 1.5 Sv. By comparison with hydrography on the continental slope within the Weddell Sea and modeled tracer release experiments we show that this slope current is an extension of the Antarctic Slope Current that has crossed the South Scotia Ridge west of Orkney Plateau. On monthly to interannual time scales the density of the slope current is negatively correlated (r > 0.6 with a significance of over 95%) with eastward wind stress over the northern Weddell Sea, but lagging it by 6-13 months. This relationship holds in both the high temporal resolution bottom lander time series and the 20+ year annual hydrographic occupations and agrees with Weddell Sea export variability observed further east. We compare several alternative hypotheses for this wind stress/export relationship and find that it is most consistent with wind-driven acceleration of the gyre boundary current, possibly modulated by eddy dynamics, and represents a mechanism by which climatic perturbations can be rapidly transmitted as fluctuations in the supply of intermediate-level waters to lower latitudes.

  18. Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices (RAPID) - Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices Core Data Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W Schuyler; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Morales, Pablo; Wilgus, Rebecca W; Heath, Anne H; Williams, Mary F; Tcheng, James E; Marinac-Dabic, J Danica; Malone, Misti L; Reed, Terrie L; Fukaya, Rie; Lookstein, Robert; Handa, Nobuhiro; Aronow, Herbert D; Bertges, Daniel J; Jaff, Michael R; Tsai, Thomas T; Smale, Joshua A; Zaugg, Margo J; Thatcher, Robert J; Cronenwett, Jack L; Nc, Durham; Md, Silver Spring; Japan, Tokyo; Ny, New York; Ri, Providence; Vt, Burlington; Mass, Newton; Colo, Denver; Ariz, Tempe; Calif, Santa Clara; Minn, Minneapolis; Nh, Lebanon

    2018-01-25

    The current state of evaluating patients with peripheral artery disease and more specifically of evaluating medical devices used for peripheral vascular intervention (PVI) remains challenging because of the heterogeneity of the disease process, the multiple physician specialties that perform PVI, the multitude of devices available to treat peripheral artery disease, and the lack of consensus about the best treatment approaches. Because PVI core data elements are not standardized across clinical care, clinical trials, and registries, aggregation of data across different data sources and physician specialties is currently not feasible.Methods and Results:Under the auspices of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Medical Device Epidemiology Network initiative-and its PASSION (Predictable and Sustainable Implementation of the National Registries) program, in conjunction with other efforts to align clinical data standards-the Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices (RAPID) workgroup was convened. RAPID is a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to develop a consensus lexicon and to promote interoperability across clinical care, clinical trials, and national and international registries of PVI. The current manuscript presents the initial work from RAPID to standardize clinical data elements and definitions, to establish a framework within electronic health records and health information technology procedural reporting systems, and to implement an informatics-based approach to promote the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials and registry efforts in PVI. Ultimately, we hope this work will facilitate and improve device evaluation and surveillance for patients, clinicians, health outcomes researchers, industry, policymakers, and regulators.

  19. Ethnic differences in the +405 and -460 vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphisms and peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes residing in a North London, community in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitouni, Karima; Tinworth, Lorna; Earle, Kenneth Anthony

    2017-06-29

    There are marked ethnic differences in the susceptibility to the long-term diabetic vascular complications including sensory neuropathy. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) +405 (C/G) and -460 (T/C) polymorphisms are associated with retinopathy and possibly with nephropathy, however no information is available on their relationship with peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, we examined the prevalence of these VEGF genotypes in a multi-ethnic cohort of patients with diabetes and their relationship with evident peripheral diabetic neuropathy. In the current investigation, we studied 313 patients with diabetes mellitus of African-Caribbean, Indo-Asian and Caucasian ethnic origin residing in an inner-city community in London, United Kingdom attending a single secondary care centre. Genotyping was performed for the VEGF +405 and VEGF -460 polymorphisms using a pyrosequencing technique. Forty-nine patients (15.6%) had clinical evidence of peripheral neuropathy. Compared to Caucasian patients, African-Caribbean and Indo-Asian patients had lower incidence of neuropathy (24.6%, 14.28%, 6.7%, respectively; P = 0.04). The frequency of the VEGF +405 GG genotype was more common in Indo-Asian patients compared to African-Caribbean and Caucasian patients (67.5%, 45.3%, 38.4%, respectively; p ≤ 0.02). The G allele was more common in patients with type 2 diabetes of Indo-Asian origin compared to African-Caribbean and Caucasian origin (p ≤ 0.02). There was no difference between the ethnic groups in VEGF -460 genotypes. The distributions of the VEGF +405 and VEGF -460 genotypes were similar between the diabetic patients with and without neuropathy. In this cohort of patients, VEGF +405 and VEGF -460 polymorphisms were not associated with evident diabetic peripheral neuropathy, however an association was found between VEGF +405 genotypes and Indo-Asian which might have relevance to their lower rates of ulceration and amputation. This finding highlights the need for

  20. Enhancement characteristics of benign and malignant focal peripheral nodules in the peripheral zone of the prostate gland studied using contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.; Yang, J.-C.; Luo, Y.; Li, J.; Li, Y.; Shi, H.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess the value of contrast-enhanced grey-scale transrectal ultrasound (CETRUS) in predicting the nature of peripheral zone hypoechoic lesions of the prostate. Materials and Methods: Ninety-one patients with peripheral zone hypoechoic lesions on ultrasound were evaluated with CETRUS followed by lesion-specific and sextant transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies. The enhancement patterns of the lesions were observed and graded subjectively using adjacent peripheral zone tissue as the reference. Time to enhancement (AT), time to peak intensity (TTP) and peak intensity (PI) were quantified within each nodule. Ultrasound findings were correlated with biopsy findings. Results: Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the hypoechoic lesions revealed prostate cancer in 44 patients and benign prostatic diseases in 47. The intensity of enhancement within the lesions were graded as no enhancement, increased, equal, or decreased compared with adjacent peripheral zone tissue in two, 30, five and seven in the prostate cancer group and 14, 15, four and 14 in the benign group, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The peak enhancement intensity was found to be the most optimal discriminatory parameter (area under curve AUC 0.70; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.82). Conclusion: Malignant hypoechoic nodules in the peripheral zone of the prostate are more likely to enhance early and more intensely on CETRUS. A non-enhanced hypoechoic peripheral zone lesion was more likely to be benign

  1. Evaluating the impact of sea surface temperature (SST) on spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a concentration in the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chenxu; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Cheng, Qiuming; Tsou, JinYeu; Jiang, Tingchen; Liang, X. San

    2018-06-01

    In this study, we analyze spatial and temporal sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophylla (Chl-a) concentration in the East China Sea (ECS) during the period 2003-2016. Level 3 (4 km) monthly SST and Chl-a data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Satellite (MODIS-Aqua) were reconstructed using the data interpolation empirical orthogonal function (DINEOF) method and used to evaluated the relationship between the two variables. The approaches employed included correlation analysis, regression analysis, and so forth. Our results show that certain strong oceanic SSTs affect Chl-a concentration, with particularly high correlation seen in the coastal area of Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. The mean temperature of the high correlated region was 18.67 °C. This finding may suggest that the SST has an important impact on the spatial distribution of Chl-a concentration in the ECS.

  2. Assessing concentration uncertainty estimates from passive microwave sea ice products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, W.; Brucker, L.; Miller, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Sea ice concentration is an essential climate variable and passive microwave derived estimates of concentration are one of the longest satellite-derived climate records. However, until recently uncertainty estimates were not provided. Numerous validation studies provided insight into general error characteristics, but the studies have found that concentration error varied greatly depending on sea ice conditions. Thus, an uncertainty estimate from each observation is desired, particularly for initialization, assimilation, and validation of models. Here we investigate three sea ice products that include an uncertainty for each concentration estimate: the NASA Team 2 algorithm product, the EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI-SAF) product, and the NOAA/NSIDC Climate Data Record (CDR) product. Each product estimates uncertainty with a completely different approach. The NASA Team 2 product derives uncertainty internally from the algorithm method itself. The OSI-SAF uses atmospheric reanalysis fields and a radiative transfer model. The CDR uses spatial variability from two algorithms. Each approach has merits and limitations. Here we evaluate the uncertainty estimates by comparing the passive microwave concentration products with fields derived from the NOAA VIIRS sensor. The results show that the relationship between the product uncertainty estimates and the concentration error (relative to VIIRS) is complex. This may be due to the sea ice conditions, the uncertainty methods, as well as the spatial and temporal variability of the passive microwave and VIIRS products.

  3. Neurotoxic 1-deoxysphingolipids and paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Rita; Bielawski, Jacek; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Othman, Alaa; Alecu, Irina; Ernst, Daniela; Kornhauser, Drew; Hornemann, Thorsten; Spassieva, Stefka

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect of paclitaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy. In the current study, we tested the involvement of a novel class of neurotoxic sphingolipids, the 1-deoxysphingolipids. 1-Deoxysphingolipids are produced when the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase uses l-alanine instead of l-serine as its amino acid substrate. We tested whether treatment of cells with paclitaxel (250 nM, 1 µM) and cisplatin (250 nM, 1 µM) would result in elevated cellular levels of 1-deoxysphingolipids. Our results revealed that paclitaxel, but not cisplatin treatment, caused a dose-dependent elevation of 1-deoxysphingolipids levels and an increase in the message and activity of serine palmitoyltransferase (P peripheral neuropathy symptoms [evaluated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy-20 (CIPN20) instrument] and the 1-deoxysphingolipid plasma levels (measured by mass spectrometry) in 27 patients with breast cancer who were treated with paclitaxel chemotherapy. Our results showed that there was an association between the incidence and severity of neuropathy and the levels of very-long-chain 1-deoxyceramides such as C24 (P neuropathy (P peripheral neuropathy.—Kramer, R., Bielawski, J., Kistner-Griffin, E., Othman, A., Alecu, I., Ernst, D., Kornhauser, D., Hornemann, T., Spassieva, S. Neurotoxic 1-deoxysphingolipids and paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. PMID:26198449

  4. The Preoperative Peripheral Blood Monocyte Count Is Associated with Liver Metastasis and Overall Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shidong Hu

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common malignancy in males and the second most common in females worldwide. Distant metastases have a strong negative impact on the prognosis of CRC patients. The most common site of CRC metastases is the liver. Both disease progression and metastasis have been related to the patient's peripheral blood monocyte count. We therefore performed a case-control study to assess the relationship between the preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count and colorectal liver metastases (CRLM.Clinical data from 117 patients with colon cancer and 93 with rectal cancer who were admitted to the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital (Beijing, China between December 2003 and May 2015 were analysed retrospectively, with the permission of both the patients and the hospital.Preoperative peripheral blood monocyte counts, the T and N classifications of the primary tumour and its primary site differed significantly between the two groups (P 0.505 × 109 cells/L, high T classification and liver metastasis were independent risk factors for 5-year OS (RR: 2.737, 95% CI: 1.573~ 4.764, P <0.001; RR: 2.687, 95%CI: 1.498~4.820, P = 0.001; RR: 4.928, 95%CI: 2.871~8.457, P < 0.001.The demonstrated association between preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count and liver metastasis in patients with CRC recommends the former as a useful predictor of postoperative prognosis in CRC patients.

  5. The Preoperative Peripheral Blood Monocyte Count Is Associated with Liver Metastasis and Overall Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shidong; Zou, Zhenyu; Li, Hao; Zou, Guijun; Li, Zhao; Xu, Jian; Wang, Lingde; Du, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy in males and the second most common in females worldwide. Distant metastases have a strong negative impact on the prognosis of CRC patients. The most common site of CRC metastases is the liver. Both disease progression and metastasis have been related to the patient's peripheral blood monocyte count. We therefore performed a case-control study to assess the relationship between the preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count and colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). Clinical data from 117 patients with colon cancer and 93 with rectal cancer who were admitted to the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital (Beijing, China) between December 2003 and May 2015 were analysed retrospectively, with the permission of both the patients and the hospital. Preoperative peripheral blood monocyte counts, the T and N classifications of the primary tumour and its primary site differed significantly between the two groups (P colon cancer (OR: 0.078, 95%CI: 0.020~0.309, P 0.505 × 109 cells/L, high T classification and liver metastasis were independent risk factors for 5-year OS (RR: 2.737, 95% CI: 1.573~ 4.764, P <0.001; RR: 2.687, 95%CI: 1.498~4.820, P = 0.001; RR: 4.928, 95%CI: 2.871~8.457, P < 0.001). The demonstrated association between preoperative peripheral blood monocyte count and liver metastasis in patients with CRC recommends the former as a useful predictor of postoperative prognosis in CRC patients.

  6. Myctophid and pelagic shrimp assemblages in the oxygen minimum zone of the Andaman Sea during the winter monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karuppasamy, P.K.; LaluRaj, C.M.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; Nair, M.

    of myctophid in the oxygen minimum zone of Northern Arabian Sea. The Joint Global Ocean Flux23 study showed a strong relationship between the distribution of organisms and the oxygen profiles in the Arabian Sea, especially in locations where the OMZ..., M.S., Sardesai, S., Sarma, V.V.S.S., Shenoy, D.M., Nail, H, Maheswaran, P.A., Krishna Kumari, K., Rajesh, G., Sudhir, A.K. & Binu, M.S., Severe fish mortality associated with red tide observed in the sea off Cochin. Curr.Sci., (1998), 75, 543...

  7. Multilocus phylogeny and recent rapid radiation of the viviparous sea snakes (Elipidae: Hydrophiinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Kate L.; Lee, Michael S.Y.; Mumpuni

    2013-01-01

    The viviparous sea snakes (Hydrophiinae: Hydrophiini) comprise a young but morphologically and ecologically diverse clade distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific. Despite presenting a very promising model for marine diversification studies, many relationships among the 62 species and 16 genera...

  8. Some morphometric relationships of hatchery reared male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... distributed exotic fishes in the world (Canonico et al.,. 2005). ... factor of a fish species are the two most significant biological .... and presented for 1773 marine and freshwater species by Froese .... size from the same and different habitats to validate ... relationships of fish species from Aegean Sea (Greece).

  9. Observations and Modeling of Turbulent Air-Sea Coupling in Coastal and Strongly Forced Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Suslow, David G.

    The turbulent fluxes of momentum, mass, and energy across the ocean-atmosphere boundary are fundamental to our understanding of a myriad of geophysical processes, such as wind-wave generation, oceanic circulation, and air-sea gas transfer. In order to better understand these fluxes, empirical relationships were developed to quantify the interfacial exchange rates in terms of easily observed parameters (e.g., wind speed). However, mounting evidence suggests that these empirical formulae are only valid over the relatively narrow parametric space, i.e. open ocean conditions in light to moderate winds. Several near-surface processes have been observed to cause significant variance in the air-sea fluxes not predicted by the conventional functions, such as a heterogeneous surfaces, swell waves, and wave breaking. Further study is needed to fully characterize how these types of processes can modulate the interfacial exchange; in order to achieve this, a broad investigation into air-sea coupling was undertaken. The primary focus of this work was to use a combination of field and laboratory observations and numerical modeling, in regimes where conventional theories would be expected to breakdown, namely: the nearshore and in very high winds. These seemingly disparate environments represent the marine atmospheric boundary layer at its physical limit. In the nearshore, the convergence of land, air, and sea in a depth-limited domain marks the transition from a marine to a terrestrial boundary layer. Under extreme winds, the physical nature of the boundary layer remains unknown as an intermediate substrate layer, sea spray, develops between the atmosphere and ocean surface. At these ends of the MABL physical spectrum, direct measurements of the near-surface processes were made and directly related to local sources of variance. Our results suggest that the conventional treatment of air-sea fluxes in terms of empirical relationships developed from a relatively narrow set of

  10. Management of spastic hand by selective peripheral neurotomies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Selective peripheral neurotomies (SPN) are proposed when spasticity is focalized on muscles that are under the control of a single or few peripheral nerves. Objective: This study was done to evaluate the functional results of SPN of median and ulnar nerves in 10 patients who had spastic hyperflexion of the ...

  11. Peripheral cold acclimatization in Antarctic scuba divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgman, S A

    1991-08-01

    Peripheral acclimatization to cold in scuba divers stationed at the British Antarctic Survey's Signy Station was investigated during a year in Antarctica. Five divers and five non-diver controls underwent monthly laboratory tests of index finger immersion in cold water for 30 min. Index finger pulp temperature and time of onset of cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) were measured. Pain was recorded with verbal and numerical psychophysical subjective pain ratings. Average finger temperatures and median finger pain from 6-30 min of immersion, maximum finger temperatures during the first CIVD cycle, and finger temperatures at the onset of CIVD were calculated. Comparison of the variables recorded from divers and non-divers were performed with analysis of variance. No significant differences were found among the variables recorded from divers and non-divers. From a review of the literature, divers have responses typical of non-cold-adapted Caucasians. There is, therefore, no evidence that Signy divers peripherally acclimatized to cold. We suggest that these findings occur because either the whole body cooling which divers undergo inhibits peripheral acclimatization or because of insufficiently frequent or severe cold exposure while diving. Further basic studies on the duration, frequency and severity of cold exposure necessary to induce peripheral cold acclimatization are required before this question can be satisfactorily answered.

  12. Monitoring sea level and sea surface temperature trends from ERS satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per; Beckley, B.

    2002-01-01

    Data from the two ESA satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 are used in global and regional analysis of sea level and sea surface temperature trends over the last, 7.8 years. T he ERS satellites and in the future the ENVISAT satellite provide unique opportunity for monitoring both changes in sea level and sea...

  13. Monitoring of chlorophyll-a and sea surface silicate concentrations in the south part of Cheju island in the East China sea using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanzhi; Huang, Zhaojun; Fu, Dongyang; Tsou, Jin Yeu; Jiang, Tingchen; Liang, X. San; Lu, Xia

    2018-05-01

    Continually supplied with nutrients, phytoplankton maintains high productivity under ideal illumination and temperature conditions. Data in the south part of Cheju Island in the East China Sea (ECS), which has experienced a spring bloom since the 2000s, were acquired during a research cruise in the spring of 2007. Compared with in-situ measurements, MODIS chlorophyll-a measurements showed high stability in this area. Excluding some invalid stations data, the relationships between nutrients and chlorophyll-a concentrations in the study area were examined and compared with the results in 2015. A high positive correlation between silicate and chlorophyll-a concentration was identified, and a regression relationship was proposed. MODIS chlorophyll-a measurements and sea surface temperature were utilized to determine surface silicate distribution. The silicate concentration retrieved from MODIS exhibited good agreement with in-situ measurements with R2 of 0.803, root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.326 μmol/L (8.23%), and mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.925 μmol/L (23.38%). The study provides a new solution to identify nutrient distributions using satellite data such as MODIS for water bodies, but the method still needs to be refined to determine the relationship of chlorophyll-a and nutrients during other seasons to monitor water quality in this and other areas.

  14. Sources of multi-decadal variability in Arctic sea ice extent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, J J; Hargreaves, J C; Annan, J D; Abe-Ouchi, A

    2012-01-01

    The observed dramatic decrease in September sea ice extent (SIE) has been widely discussed in the scientific literature. Though there is qualitative agreement between observations and ensemble members of the Third Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3), it is concerning that the observed trend (1979–2010) is not captured by any ensemble member. The potential sources of this discrepancy include: observational uncertainty, physical model limitations and vigorous natural climate variability. The latter has received less attention and is difficult to assess using the relatively short observational sea ice records. In this study multi-centennial pre-industrial control simulations with five CMIP3 climate models are used to investigate the role that the Arctic oscillation (AO), the Atlantic multi-decadal oscillation (AMO) and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) play in decadal sea ice variability. Further, we use the models to determine the impact that these sources of variability have had on SIE over both the era of satellite observation (1979–2010) and an extended observational record (1953–2010). There is little evidence of a relationship between the AO and SIE in the models. However, we find that both the AMO and AMOC indices are significantly correlated with SIE in all the models considered. Using sensitivity statistics derived from the models, assuming a linear relationship, we attribute 0.5–3.1%/decade of the 10.1%/decade decline in September SIE (1979–2010) to AMO driven variability. (letter)

  15. Pathophysiology of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Starobova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy is a common, dose-dependent adverse effect of several antineoplastics. It can lead to detrimental dose reductions and discontinuation of treatment, and severely affects the quality of life of cancer survivors. Clinically, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy presents as deficits in sensory, motor, and autonomic function which develop in a glove and stocking distribution due to preferential effects on longer axons. The pathophysiological processes are multi-factorial and involve oxidative stress, apoptotic mechanisms, altered calcium homeostasis, axon degeneration and membrane remodeling as well as immune processes and neuroinflammation. This review focusses on the commonly used antineoplastic substances oxaliplatin, cisplatin, vincristine, docetaxel, and paclitaxel which interfere with the cancer cell cycle—leading to cell death and tumor degradation—and cause severe acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies. We discuss drug mechanism of action and pharmacokinetic disposition relevant to the development of peripheral neuropathy, the epidemiology and clinical presentation of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, emerging insight into genetic susceptibilities as well as current understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment approaches.

  16. Late-Holocene dynamics of sea-surface temperature and terrestrial hydrology in southwestern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granger, R.; Meadows, M.E.; Hahn, A.; Zabel, M.; Stuut, J-B W.; Herrmann, N.; Schefuß, E.

    2018-01-01

    Invasive parasites can spill over to new hosts in invaded ecosystems with often unpredictable trophic relationships in the newly arising parasite-host interactions. In European seas, the intestinal copepod Mytilicola orientalis was co-introduced with Pacific oysters (Magallana gigas) and spilled

  17. Hierarchical modeling of bycatch rates of sea turtles in the western North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, B.; Sullivan, P.J.; Epperly, S.; Morreale, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the locations of the endangered loggerhead Caretta caretta and critically endangered leatherback Dermochelys coriacea sea turtles are influenced by water temperatures, and that incidental catch rates in the pelagic longline fishery vary by region. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model to examine the effects of environmental variables, including water temperature, on the number of sea turtles captured in the US pelagic longline fishery in the western North Atlantic. The modeling structure is highly flexible, utilizes a Bayesian model selection technique, and is fully implemented in the software program WinBUGS. The number of sea turtles captured is modeled as a zero-inflated Poisson distribution and the model incorporates fixed effects to examine region-specific differences in the parameter estimates. Results indicate that water temperature, region, bottom depth, and target species are all significant predictors of the number of loggerhead sea turtles captured. For leatherback sea turtles, the model with only target species had the most posterior model weight, though a re-parameterization of the model indicates that temperature influences the zero-inflation parameter. The relationship between the number of sea turtles captured and the variables of interest all varied by region. This suggests that management decisions aimed at reducing sea turtle bycatch may be more effective if they are spatially explicit. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  18. Lithostratigraphy, depositional history and sea level changes of the Cauvery Basin, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuvairvasamy Ramkumar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sedimentary sequence exposed in the erstwhile Tiruchirapalli district hosts a more or less complete geological record of the Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary period. Systematic field mapping, collation of data on the micro-meso scale lithology, sedimentary structures, petrography, faunal assemblage and facies relationships of these rocks, in the light of modern stratigraphic concepts, helped to enumerate the lithostratigraphic setup and depositional history of the basin. Spatial and temporal variations of the lithologies and revised stratigraphic units are presented in this paper. Many high frequency sea level cycles (presumably fourth or higher order which stack up to form third order sea level cycles (six in number, which in turn form part of second order cycles (two in number, including seven eustatic sea level peaks, have been recorded in this basin. Trend analysis of sea level curves indicates a gradual increase of the sea level from Barremian to Coniacian and a gradual decrease from Coniacian to Danian. Such lasting sea level trends had their influence on the sedimentation pattern and facies association. It is inferred that depositional bathymetry was maintained at a shallow-moderate level, primarily influenced by a lack of major subsidence during the depositional history of this basin. The study also revealed a prevalent simple basin filling process and dominant control by sea level changes, rather than tectonic movements over the depositional regime.

  19. Urbanization and the Resulting Peripheralization in Solo Raya, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradoto, W.; Mardiansjah, F. H.; Manullang, O. R.; Putra, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    Dynamic urbanization in Solo Raya, a local term for Surakarta Metropolitan, amongst rapid regional based-urbanization in Indonesia, shows the unbalance pattern of growth. A number of Surakarta City’s peripherals become the newly growing area which is characterized by a well-facilitated region, while the former urbanized areas next to the city center present the declining process. Different socioeconomic development triggers a unique mosaic of socio-spatial pattern, on which the phenomena of peripheralization could be investigated. Urban investment that boosted by the political will of both the national and local government has led to a shift in demographic condition. A relatively massive in-migration has been attracted to the peripheral and creates the new landscape of urban-rural society. Complex dynamic of metropolitan growth and the resulting peripheralization reminds that socio-spatial pattern calls the challenges for managing the rapid change of land use and space use. The pattern of urbanization that differs upon the surrounding areas of Surakarta City would be interesting to be explored. This paper will discuss the conceptual framework of peripheral urbanization and the methodological approach. It is actually the part of ongoing research on peripheralisation in Solo Raya.

  20. Hydrodynamic patterns favouring sea urchin recruitment in coastal areas: A Mediterranean study case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, S; Quattrocchi, G; Guala, I; Cucco, A

    2018-05-11

    In invertebrate fisheries, sea urchin harvesting continues to grow with dramatic consequences for benthic ecosystems. The identification of areas with a marked natural recruitment and the mechanisms regulating it is crucial for the conservation of benthic communities and for planning the sustainable harvesting. This study evaluates the spatial distribution and density of recruits of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus along the Sinis + Peninsula (Sardinia) and explores its significant relationships with the local oceanographic features. Our results reveal that recruitment is favoured in areas with slow currents and high levels of confinement and trapping of the water masses. Analysis of the residual circulation indicates that the presence of local standing circulation structures promotes the sea urchin recruitment process. Our findings emphasize the importance of managing local sea urchin harvesting as a system of populations with their demographic influence mainly dependent on the most important ecological driver that is the recruitment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Potential ocean–atmosphere preconditioning of late autumn Barents-Kara sea ice concentration anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. King

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies have revealed the importance of the climatic state in November on the seasonal climate of the subsequent winter. In particular, it has been shown that interannual variability of sea ice concentration (SIC over the Barents-Kara (BK seas in November is linked to winter atmospheric circulation anomaly that projects on the North Atlantic Oscillation. Understanding the lead–lag processes involving the different components of the climate system from autumn to winter is therefore important. This note presents dynamical interpretation for the ice-ocean–atmosphere relationships that can affect the BK SIC anomaly in late autumn. It is found that cyclonic (anticyclonic wind anomaly over the Arctic in October, by Ekman drift, can be responsible for positive (negative SIC in the BK seas in November. The results also suggest that ocean heat transport via the Barents Sea Opening in September and October can contribute to BK SIC anomaly in November.

  2. Levels of some Trace Metals in Macroalgae from the Red Sea in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboul-Naga, Wafiqa Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), Copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and cobalt (Co) in ten macroalgae species from the Red Sea coastal water varied widely and also the trend of abundance of each metal also differed from one group to another. Concentration factors varied among species for iron (Fe) copper (Cu) manganese (Mn), but with iron (Fe) showing generally high concentration factors. Highly significant (P<0.05) relationships were found between manganese (Mn) and Nickel (Ni), and, Zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Moreover, moderate correlations were observed between manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) and chromium (Cr), indicating that manganese (Mn) is the most accumulated metal in the macro algae of the Red Sea. In spite of the level of trace metals in the macro algae of the Red Sea. In spite of the level of trace metals in the macro algae, dominance is moderate relative to other sea areas subjected to intensive pollution. That is, the results indicated a nonpolluted environment. (author)

  3. Winter sea ice export from the Laptev Sea preconditions the local summer sea ice cover and fast ice decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Itkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ice retreat in the eastern Eurasian Arctic is a consequence of atmospheric and oceanic processes and regional feedback mechanisms acting on the ice cover, both in winter and summer. A correct representation of these processes in numerical models is important, since it will improve predictions of sea ice anomalies along the Northeast Passage and beyond. In this study, we highlight the importance of winter ice dynamics for local summer sea ice anomalies in thickness, volume and extent. By means of airborne sea ice thickness surveys made over pack ice areas in the south-eastern Laptev Sea, we show that years of offshore-directed sea ice transport have a thinning effect on the late-winter sea ice cover. To confirm the preconditioning effect of enhanced offshore advection in late winter on the summer sea ice cover, we perform a sensitivity study using a numerical model. Results verify that the preconditioning effect plays a bigger role for the regional ice extent. Furthermore, they indicate an increase in volume export from the Laptev Sea as a consequence of enhanced offshore advection, which has far-reaching consequences for the entire Arctic sea ice mass balance. Moreover we show that ice dynamics in winter not only preconditions local summer ice extent, but also accelerate fast-ice decay.

  4. Processes driving sea ice variability in the Bering Sea in an eddying ocean/sea ice model: Mean seasonal cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linghan; McClean, Julie L.; Miller, Arthur J.; Eisenman, Ian; Hendershott, Myrl C.; Papadopoulos, Caroline A.

    2014-12-01

    The seasonal cycle of sea ice variability in the Bering Sea, together with the thermodynamic and dynamic processes that control it, are examined in a fine resolution (1/10°) global coupled ocean/sea-ice model configured in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) framework. The ocean/sea-ice model consists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Parallel Ocean Program (POP) and the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE). The model was forced with time-varying reanalysis atmospheric forcing for the time period 1970-1989. This study focuses on the time period 1980-1989. The simulated seasonal-mean fields of sea ice concentration strongly resemble satellite-derived observations, as quantified by root-mean-square errors and pattern correlation coefficients. The sea ice energy budget reveals that the seasonal thermodynamic ice volume changes are dominated by the surface energy flux between the atmosphere and the ice in the northern region and by heat flux from the ocean to the ice along the southern ice edge, especially on the western side. The sea ice force balance analysis shows that sea ice motion is largely associated with wind stress. The force due to divergence of the internal ice stress tensor is large near the land boundaries in the north, and it is small in the central and southern ice-covered region. During winter, which dominates the annual mean, it is found that the simulated sea ice was mainly formed in the northern Bering Sea, with the maximum ice growth rate occurring along the coast due to cold air from northerly winds and ice motion away from the coast. South of St Lawrence Island, winds drive the model sea ice southwestward from the north to the southwestern part of the ice-covered region. Along the ice edge in the western Bering Sea, model sea ice is melted by warm ocean water, which is carried by the simulated Bering Slope Current flowing to the northwest, resulting in the S-shaped asymmetric ice edge. In spring and fall, similar thermodynamic and dynamic

  5. Peripheral endocannabinoids regulate skeletal muscle development and maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjiao Zhao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As a principal tissue responsible for insulin-mediated glucose uptake, skeletal muscle is important for whole-body health. The role of peripheral endocannabinoids as regulators of skeletal muscle metabolism has recently gained a lot of interest, as endocannabinoid system disorders could cause peripheral insulin resistance. We investigated the role of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in skeletal muscle development and maintenance. Cultures of C2C12 cells, primary satellite cells and mouse skeletal muscle single fibers were used as model systems for our studies. We found an increase in cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 mRNA and endocannabinoid synthetic enzyme mRNA skeletal muscle cells during differentiation. We also found that activation of CB1 inhibited myoblast differentiation, expanded the number of satellite cells, and stimulated the fast-muscle oxidative phenotype. Our findings contribute to understanding of the role of the endocannabinoid system in skeletal muscle metabolism and muscle oxygen consumption, and also help to explain the effects of the peripheral endocannabinoid system on whole-body energy balance.

  6. Sea Surface Height Variability and Eddy Statistical Properties in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhan, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Satellite sea surface height (SSH) data over 1992-2012 are analyzed to study the spatial and temporal variability of sea level in the Red Sea. Empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis suggests the remarkable seasonality of SSH in the Red Sea

  7. National evaluation of Chinese coastal erosion to sea level rise using a Bayesian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Q; Fan, X; Du, X; Zhu, J

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a Causal Bayesian network is developed to predict decadal-scale shoreline evolution of China to sea-level rise. The Bayesian model defines relationships between 6 factors of Chinese coastal system such as coastal geomorphology, mean tide range, mean wave height, coastal slope, relative sea-level rise rate and shoreline erosion rate. Using the Bayesian probabilistic model, we make quantitative assessment of china's shoreline evolution in response to different future sea level rise rates. Results indicate that the probability of coastal erosion with high and very high rates increases from 28% to 32.3% when relative sea-level rise rates is 4∼6mm/a, and to 44.9% when relative sea-level rise rates is more than 6mm/a. A hindcast evaluation of the Bayesian model shows that the model correctly predicts 79.3% of the cases. Model test indicates that the Bayesian model shows higher predictive capabilities for stable coasts and very highly eroding coasts than moderately and highly eroding coasts. This study demonstrates that the Bayesian model is adapted to predicting decadal-scale Chinese coastal erosion associated with sea-level rise

  8. Peripheral blood lymphocyte apoptosis and its relationship with thyroid function tests in adolescents with hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grywalska, Ewelina; Surdacka, Agata; Tarach, Jerzy; Klatka, Janusz; Roliński, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Failures in apoptotic pathways can contribute to various autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease (GD). The aim of the present research was to assess changes in the degree of peripheral blood (PB) lymphocyte apoptosis during methimazole (MMI) treatment in the group of teenage children, and to describe its relationship with thyroid function tests. Material and methods The percentage of PB apoptotic lymphocytes, assessed by the decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (CMXRos staining), was measured in 30 adolescents at the time of diagnosis and after obtaining normalization of the thyroid hormone levels. Results The percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes in previously untreated patients with GD (5.16 ±2.81%) was significantly lower (p = 0.000001) than the percentage of apoptotic cells in the same group of patients after obtaining methimazole-induced euthyroidism (10.72 ±4.66%). There was a correlation between the increase of the mean percentages of apoptotic lymphocytes and the reduction of FT4 levels (R = 0.63, p < 0.0001), as well as the reduction of TT3 levels (R = 0.95, p < 0.0001). The more signs and symptoms accompanying the diagnosis of GD, the higher was the increment of the degree of lymphocyte apoptosis observed during the MMI-treatment (R = 0.74, p < 0.0000001). The methimazole dosage correlated (R = 0.85, p < 0.0001) with the percentage of apoptotic cells. Conclusions The use of methimazole in treatment of hyperthyroidism due to GD leads to an increment of apoptotic cells in PB. Higher doses of methimazole cause a higher increase of apoptotic lymphocytes. Apoptosis induction of human PB lymphocytes seems to be one of the indicators of proper hyperthyroidism treatment. PMID:23185197

  9. Highly variable Pliocene sea surface conditions in the Norwegian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Bachem

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pliocene was a time of global warmth with small sporadic glaciations, which transitioned towards the larger-scale Pleistocene glacial–interglacial variability. Here, we present high-resolution records of sea surface temperature (SST and ice-rafted debris (IRD in the Norwegian Sea from 5.32 to 3.14 Ma, providing evidence that the Pliocene surface conditions of the Norwegian Sea underwent a series of transitions in response to orbital forcing and gateway changes. Average SSTs are 2 °C above the regional Holocene mean, with notable variability on millennial to orbital timescales. Both gradual changes and threshold effects are proposed for the progression of regional climate towards the Late Pliocene intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation. Cooling from 4.5 to 4.3 Ma may be linked to the onset of poleward flow through the Bering Strait. This cooling was further intensified by a period of cool summers due to weak obliquity forcing. A 7 °C warming of the Norwegian Sea at 4.0 Ma suggests a major increase in northward heat transport from the North Atlantic, leading to an enhanced zonal SST gradient in the Nordic Seas, which may be linked to the expansion of sea ice in the Arctic and Nordic Seas. A warm Norwegian Sea and enhanced zonal temperature gradient between 4.0 and 3.6 Ma may have been a priming factor for increased glaciation around the Nordic Seas due to enhanced evaporation and precipitation at high northern latitudes.

  10. Contemporary Arctic Sea Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    During recent decades, the Arctic region has warmed at a rate about twice the rest of the globe. Sea ice melting is increasing and the Greenland ice sheet is losing mass at an accelerated rate. Arctic warming, decrease in the sea ice cover and fresh water input to the Arctic ocean may eventually impact the Arctic sea level. In this presentation, we review our current knowledge of contemporary Arctic sea level changes. Until the beginning of the 1990s, Arctic sea level variations were essentially deduced from tide gauges located along the Russian and Norwegian coastlines. Since then, high inclination satellite altimetry missions have allowed measuring sea level over a large portion of the Arctic Ocean (up to 80 degree north). Measuring sea level in the Arctic by satellite altimetry is challenging because the presence of sea ice cover limits the full capacity of this technique. However adapted processing of raw altimetric measurements significantly increases the number of valid data, hence the data coverage, from which regional sea level variations can be extracted. Over the altimetry era, positive trend patterns are observed over the Beaufort Gyre and along the east coast of Greenland, while negative trends are reported along the Siberian shelf. On average over the Arctic region covered by satellite altimetry, the rate of sea level rise since 1992 is slightly less than the global mea sea level rate (of about 3 mm per year). On the other hand, the interannual variability is quite significant. Space gravimetry data from the GRACE mission and ocean reanalyses provide information on the mass and steric contributions to sea level, hence on the sea level budget. Budget studies show that regional sea level trends over the Beaufort Gyre and along the eastern coast of Greenland, are essentially due to salinity changes. However, in terms of regional average, the net steric component contributes little to the observed sea level trend. The sea level budget in the Arctic

  11. Micromethod for determination of cortisol in peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleeva, A.; Mileva, Zh.; Kekhajova, M.

    1982-01-01

    The micromethod for determination of cortisol in peripheral blood is based on the classical radiommunologic method for its determination. A drop of peripheral blood is applied on filter paper, used for detection of phenyketonuria. A 7 mm disk of this paper is then cut with a perforator and placed in the tube instead of 50 microliters blood plasma. The classical radiommunoassay and the micromethod were used in parallel for determining peripheral blood cortisol concentrations in 26 sexually mature persons, in 12 children and in 40 patients with thyroid hyperfunction. In all tested 78 persons no statistically significant difference (P>0.5) was found in cortisol concentrations, determined by the two methods. (authors)

  12. Sea Surface Temperature and Ocean Color Variability in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaty, A. P.

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is a marginal sea in the Southeast Asian region whose surface circulation is driven by monsoons and whose surface currents have complex seasonal patterns. Its rich natural resources and strategic location have made its small islands areas of political dispute among the neighboring nations. This study aims to show the seasonal and interannual variability of sea surface temperature and ocean color in South China Sea. It makes use of NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data sets on sea surface temperature for the period 1981-2000 and NASA's Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite data sets on pigment concentration (ocean color) for the period 1981-1996 and 1997-2000, respectively. Transect lines were drawn along several potential hotspot areas to show the variability in sea surface temperature and pigment concentration through time. In-situ data on sea surface temperature along South China Sea were likewise plotted to see the variability with time. Higher seasonal variability in sea surface temperature was seen at higher latitudes. Interannual variability was within 1-3 Kelvin. In most areas, pigment concentration was higher during northern hemisphere winter and autumn, after the monsoon rains, with a maximum of 30 milligrams per cubic meter.

  13. Vulnerability of marginal seas to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis, Damia; Jordà, Gabriel

    2017-04-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) is a serious thread for coastal areas and has a potential negative impact on society and economy. SLR can lead for instance to land loss, beach reduction, increase of the damage of marine storms on coastal infrastructures and to the salinization of underground water streams. It is well acknowledged that future SLR will be inhomogeneous across the globe, with regional differences of up to 100% with respect to global mean sea level (GMSL). Several studies have addressed the projections of SLR at regional scale, but most of them are based on global climate models (GCMs) that have a relatively coarse spatial resolution (>1°). In marginal seas this has proven to be a strong limitation, as their particular configurations require spatial resolutions that are not reachable by present GCMs. A paradigmatic case is the Mediterranean Sea, connected to the global ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar, a narrow passage of 14 km width. The functioning of the Mediterranean Sea involves a variety of processes including an overturning circulation, small-scale convection and a rich mesoscale field. Moreover, the long-term evolution of Mediterranean sea level has been significantly different from the global mean during the last decades. The observations of present climate and the projections for the next decades have lead some authors to hypothesize that the particular characteristics of the basin could allow Mediterranean mean sea level to evolve differently from the global mean. Assessing this point is essential to undertake proper adaptation strategies for the largely populated Mediterranean coastal areas. In this work we apply a new approach that combines regional and global projections to analyse future SLR. In a first step we focus on the quantification of the expected departures of future Mediterranean sea level from GMSL evolution and on the contribution of different processes to these departures. As a result we find that, in spite of its particularities

  14. Effect of peripheral morphine in a human model of acute inflammatory pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillesø, J; Hammer, N A; Pedersen, J L

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the presence of opioid inducible receptors on peripheral nerves and peripheral antinociceptive effects of opioids. However, the effects of peripheral opioid administration in man are controversial. Our study used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, th......Several studies have demonstrated the presence of opioid inducible receptors on peripheral nerves and peripheral antinociceptive effects of opioids. However, the effects of peripheral opioid administration in man are controversial. Our study used a randomized, double-blind, placebo......-controlled, three-way crossover design in a human model of acute inflammatory pain (heat injury). We studied 18 healthy volunteers who each received morphine locally (2 mg), morphine systemically (2 mg), or placebo on three separate study days. The subjects received morphine infiltration subcutaneously (s.c.). 1 h......, but local morphine infiltration neither reduced pain during the burn, nor primary or secondary hyperalgesia to mechanical and heat stimuli after the burn. In conclusion, peripherally applied morphine had no acute antinociceptive effects in this human model of acute inflammatory pain....

  15. Sea Ice Drift Monitoring in the Bohai Sea Based on GF4 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Wei, P.; Zhu, H.; Xing, B.

    2018-04-01

    The Bohai Sea is the inland sea with the highest latitude in China. In winter, the phenomenon of freezing occurs in the Bohai Sea due to frequent cold wave influx. According to historical records, there have been three serious ice packs in the Bohai Sea in the past 50 years which caused heavy losses to our economy. Therefore, it is of great significance to monitor the drift of sea ice and sea ice in the Bohai Sea. The GF4 image has the advantages of short imaging time and high spatial resolution. Based on the GF4 satellite images, the three methods of SIFT (Scale invariant feature - the transform and Scale invariant feature transform), MCC (maximum cross-correlation method) and sift combined with MCC are used to monitor sea ice drift and calculate the speed and direction of sea ice drift, the three calculation results are compared and analyzed by using expert interpretation and historical statistical data to carry out remote sensing monitoring of sea ice drift results. The experimental results show that the experimental results of the three methods are in accordance with expert interpretation and historical statistics. Therefore, the GF4 remote sensing satellite images have the ability to monitor sea ice drift and can be used for drift monitoring of sea ice in the Bohai Sea.

  16. Climatology of sea breezes along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Basit; Abualnaja, Yasser; Al-Subhi, Abdullah M.; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Nellikkattu Thody, Manoj; Sturman, Andrew P.

    2018-01-01

    and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are used to investigate the climatology of sea breezes over the eastern side of the Red Sea region. Results show existence of separate sea breeze systems along different segments of the Red Sea coastline. Based on the physical

  17. Sea urchins, their predators and prey in SW Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Mamede

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchins play a key role structuring benthic communities of rocky shores through an intense herbivory. The most abundant sea urchin species on shallow rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal is Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea. It is considered a key species in various locations throughout its geographical distribution by affecting the structure of macroalgae communities and may cause the abrupt transformation of habitats dominated by foliose algae to habitats dominated by encrusting algae - the urchin barrens. The removal of P. lividus predators by recreational and commercial fishing is considered a major cause of this phenomenon by affecting the trophic relationships between predators, sea urchins and algae communities. Marine protected areas (MPAs usually lead to the recovery of important predator species that control sea urchin populations and restore habitats dominated by foliose macroalgae. Therefore, MPAs provide a good opportunity to test cascading effects and indirect impacts of fishing at the ecosystem level. The ecological role of P. lividus was studied on rocky subtidal habitats of the SW coast of Portugal (Alentejo considering three trophic levels: population of P. lividus, their predators (fish and shellfish and their prey (macroalgae communities. Several studies were conducted: (1 a non-destructive observational study on the abundance and distribution patterns of P. lividus, their predators and preys, comparing areas with different protection; (2 a manipulative in situ study with cages to assess the role of P. lividus as an herbivore and the influence of predation; (3 a descriptive study of P. lividus predators based on underwater filming; (4 and a study of human perception on these trophic relationships and other issues on sea urchin ecology and fishery, based on surveys made to fishermen and divers. Subtidal studies were performed with SCUBA diving at 3-12 m deep. Results indicate that in the

  18. Surveillance at sea: The transactional politics of border control in the Aegean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Dijstelbloem (Huub); R. van Reekum (Rogier); W. Schinkel (Willem)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe relationship between vision and action is a key element of both practices and conceptualizations of border surveillance in Europe. This article engages with what we call the ‘operative vision’ of surveillance at sea, specifically as performed by the border control apparatus in the

  19. Surveillance at sea : The transactional politics of border control in the Aegean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijstelbloem, H.; van Reekum, R.; Schinkel, W.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between vision and action is a key element of both practices and conceptualizations of border surveillance in Europe. This article engages with what we call the ‘operative vision’ of surveillance at sea, specifically as performed by the border control apparatus in the Aegean. We

  20. Exploring the relationship of peripheral total bilirubin, red blood cell, and hemoglobin with blood pressure during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Tian; Yang, Song; Yang, Ya-Ming; Zhao, Hai-Long; Chen, Yan-Chun; Zhao, Xiang-Hai; Wen, Jin-Bo; Tian, Yuan-Rui; Yan, Wei-Li; Shen, Chong

    2017-11-04

    Total bilirubin is beneficial for protecting cardiovascular diseases in adults. The authors aimed to investigate the association of total bilirubin, red blood cell, and hemoglobin levels with the prevalence of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. A total of 3776 students (aged from 6 to 16 years old) were examined using cluster sampling. Pre-high blood pressure and high blood pressure were respectively defined as the point of 90th and 95th percentiles based on the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were standardized into z-scores. Peripheral total bilirubin, red blood cell and hemoglobin levels were significantly correlated with age, and also varied with gender. Peripheral total bilirubin was negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure in 6- and 9-year-old boys, whilst positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure in the 12-year-old boys and 13- to 15-year-old girls (p0.05). Total bilirubin could be weakly correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as correlations varied with age and gender in children and adolescents; in turn, the increased levels of red blood cell and hemoglobin are proposed to be positively associated with the prevalence of high blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure of sea bream (Sparus aurata) to toxic concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene: possible human health effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zena, R; Speciale, A; Calabrò, C; Calò, M; Palombieri, D; Saija, A; Cimino, F; Trombetta, D; Lo Cascio, P

    2015-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can accumulate in the food chain, due to their lipophilic properties. Fish can accumulate contaminants including PAHs and frequent consumption of such contaminated fish can pose risk to human health. The aim of this study was to clarify if acute exposure of sea bream (Sparus aurata, a fish species of great economic importance in the Atlantic and Mediterranean areas) to a PAH, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), at a dose that can induce CYP1A and pathological changes in fish gills, liver and muscle, can induce accumulation in muscle. We investigated the cytotoxic effects (as changes in cell viability, DNA laddering and glutathione content) of in vitro exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to organic extracts obtained from muscle of sea breams previously exposed via water to B[a]P (2mg/l, for 12, 24 and 72 h). At this level of exposure, B[a]P caused morphological changes, inflammatory response and CYP1A induction not only in sea bream gills and liver but also in muscle; furthermore, in fish muscle we observed a substantial B[a]P accumulation, which may be associated with the increased CYP1A activity in liver and especially in muscle. However, when PBMCs were exposed to organic extracts obtained from sea bream muscle contaminated with B[a]P, a toxic, although modest effect was revealed, consisting in a significant decrease in cell glutathione levels without alterations in cell viability and DNA laddering. This suggests that consumption of sea breams from B[a]P contaminated waters might represent a risk for human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Quantitative Proxy for Sea-Ice Based on Diatoms: A Cautionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterovich, A.; Caissie, B.

    2016-12-01

    Sea ice in the Polar Regions supports unique and productive ecosystems, but the current decline in the Arctic sea ice extent prompts questions about previous sea ice declines and the response of ice related ecosystems. Since satellite data only extend back to 1978, the study of sea