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Sample records for peripheral runoff studies

  1. Long-Term Effectiveness of the Zilver PTX Drug-Eluting Stent for Femoropopliteal Peripheral Artery Disease in Patients with No Patent Tibial Runoff Vessels-Results from the Zilver PTX Japan Post-Market Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollari, Stefano; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Ohki, Takao; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Nakamura, Masato; Komori, Kimihiro; Nanto, Shinsuke; O'Leary, Erin E; Lottes, Aaron E; Saunders, Alan T; Dake, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate 2-year results of the Zilver PTX (Cook Medical, Bloomington, Indiana) drug-eluting stent (DES) for femoropopliteal peripheral artery disease (PAD) in patients with no continuous patent infrapopliteal runoff arteries compared with patients with ≥ 1 continuous patent runoff vessels. A retrospective analysis of patients with femoropopliteal PAD enrolled in the Zilver PTX Post-Market Surveillance Study in Japan was performed. There were no exclusion criteria. Outcomes, including freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR), patency, and clinical benefit, for the no-runoff group (n = 54) were compared with the runoff group (n = 846). The 2 groups were similar in terms of demographics, lesion characteristics, and comorbidities (P > .05). There was a higher incidence of critical limb ischemia in the no-runoff group compared with the runoff group (44.8% vs 19.7%; P < .01). There were 3 amputations (5.6%) in the no-runoff group versus 7 amputations (0.8%) in the runoff group (P = .02). At 2 years, freedom from TLR rates were 81.3% versus 83.8% (P = .87), patency rates were 68.4% versus 70.7% (P = .95), and clinical benefit rates were 73.7% versus 80.0% (P = .16) in the no-runoff versus runoff group, respectively. Results in patients with no continuous patent tibial runoff were favorable through 2 years and similar to results for patients with ≥ 1 continuous patent runoff vessels, indicating that the Zilver PTX DES may be a valid treatment option for patients with these difficult-to-treat lesions. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Runoff erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Evelpidou, Niki (Ed.); Cordier, Stephane (Ed.); Merino, Agustin (Ed.); Figueiredo, Tomás de (Ed.); Centeri, Csaba (Ed.)

    2013-01-01

    Table of Contents PART I – THEORY OF RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 1 - RUNOFF EROSION – THE MECHANISMS CHAPTER 2 - LARGE SCALE APPROACHES OF RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 3 - MEASURING PRESENT RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 4 - MODELLING RUNOFF EROSION CHAPTER 5 - RUNOFF EROSION AND HUMAN SOCIETIES: THE INFLUENCE OF LAND USE AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL EROSION PART II - CASE STUDIES CASE STUDIES – INTRODUCTION: RUNOFF EROSION IN MEDITERRANEAN AREA CASE STUDY 1: Soil Erosion Risk...

  3. Study on Water Quality of Surface Runoff and Groundwater Runoff on the Basis of Separation by a Numerical Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Kawara, Osami; Fukumoto, Kohji

    1994-01-01

    In this study we investigated the water quality of surface runoff and groundwater runoff from the basins of the Yodo River and the Asahi River based on that separated by a numerical filter. The water quality of the surface runoff is greatly different from the groundwater runoff. The tendency of concentration change in accordance with river discharges is different from each other. The water qtiality of groundwater runoff changes with river discharges clockwise in many cases. The differences of...

  4. A protocol for conducting rainfall simulation to study soil runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibet, Leonard C; Saporito, Louis S; Allen, Arthur L; May, Eric B; Kleinman, Peter J A; Hashem, Fawzy M; Bryant, Ray B

    2014-04-03

    Rainfall is a driving force for the transport of environmental contaminants from agricultural soils to surficial water bodies via surface runoff. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of antecedent soil moisture content on the fate and transport of surface applied commercial urea, a common form of nitrogen (N) fertilizer, following a rainfall event that occurs within 24 hr after fertilizer application. Although urea is assumed to be readily hydrolyzed to ammonium and therefore not often available for transport, recent studies suggest that urea can be transported from agricultural soils to coastal waters where it is implicated in harmful algal blooms. A rainfall simulator was used to apply a consistent rate of uniform rainfall across packed soil boxes that had been prewetted to different soil moisture contents. By controlling rainfall and soil physical characteristics, the effects of antecedent soil moisture on urea loss were isolated. Wetter soils exhibited shorter time from rainfall initiation to runoff initiation, greater total volume of runoff, higher urea concentrations in runoff, and greater mass loadings of urea in runoff. These results also demonstrate the importance of controlling for antecedent soil moisture content in studies designed to isolate other variables, such as soil physical or chemical characteristics, slope, soil cover, management, or rainfall characteristics. Because rainfall simulators are designed to deliver raindrops of similar size and velocity as natural rainfall, studies conducted under a standardized protocol can yield valuable data that, in turn, can be used to develop models for predicting the fate and transport of pollutants in runoff.

  5. Experimental study on soluble chemical transfer to surface runoff from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juxiu; Yang, Jinzhong; Hu, Bill X; Sun, Huaiwei

    2016-10-01

    Prevention of chemical transfer from soil to surface runoff, under condition of irrigation and subsurface drainage, would improve surface water quality. In this paper, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the effects of various soil and hydraulic factors on chemical transfer from soil to surface runoff. The factors include maximum depth of ponding water on soil surface, initial volumetric water content of soil, depth of soil with low porosity, type or texture of soil and condition of drainage. In the experiments, two soils, sand and loam, mixed with different quantities of soluble KCl were filled in the sandboxes and prepared under different initial saturated conditions. Simulated rainfall induced surface runoff are operated in the soils, and various ponding water depths on soil surface are simulated. Flow rates and KCl concentration of surface runoff are measured during the experiments. The following conclusions are made from the study results: (1) KCl concentration in surface runoff water would decrease with the increase of the maximum depth of ponding water on soil surface; (2) KCl concentration in surface runoff water would increase with the increase of initial volumetric water content in the soil; (3) smaller depth of soil with less porosity or deeper depth of soil with larger porosity leads to less KCl transfer to surface runoff; (4) the soil with finer texture, such as loam, could keep more fertilizer in soil, which will result in more KCl concentration in surface runoff; and (5) good subsurface drainage condition will increase the infiltration and drainage rates during rainfall event and will decrease KCl concentration in surface runoff. Therefore, it is necessary to reuse drained fertile water effectively during rainfall, without polluting groundwater. These study results should be considered in agriculture management to reduce soluble chemical transfer from soil to surface runoff for reducing non-point sources pollution.

  6. Space-time relationship in continuously moving table method for large FOV peripheral contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabati, M; Lauzon, M L; Frayne, R

    2003-01-01

    Data acquisition using a continuously moving table approach is a method capable of generating large field-of-view (FOV) 3D MR angiograms. However, in order to obtain venous contamination-free contrast-enhanced (CE) MR angiograms in the lower limbs, one of the major challenges is to acquire all necessary k-space data during the restricted arterial phase of the contrast agent. Preliminary investigation on the space-time relationship of continuously acquired peripheral angiography is performed in this work. Deterministic and stochastic undersampled hybrid-space (x, k y , k z ) acquisitions are simulated for large FOV peripheral runoff studies. Initial results show the possibility of acquiring isotropic large FOV images of the entire peripheral vascular system. An optimal trade-off between the spatial and temporal sampling properties was found that produced a high-spatial resolution peripheral CE-MR angiogram. The deterministic sampling pattern was capable of reconstructing the global structure of the peripheral arterial tree and showed slightly better global quantitative results than stochastic patterns. Optimal stochastic sampling patterns, on the other hand, enhanced small vessels and had more favourable local quantitative results. These simulations demonstrate the complex spatial-temporal relationship when sampling large FOV peripheral runoff studies. They also suggest that more investigation is required to maximize image quality as a function of hybrid-space coverage, acquisition repetition time and sampling pattern parameters

  7. Estimating Subcatchment Runoff Coefficients using Weather Radar and a Downstream Runoff Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage subcatchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and flow measurements from a downstream runoff sensor. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate...... the runoff coefficients of the separate subcatchments. The method is demonstrated through a case study of an urban drainage catchment (678 ha) located in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The study has proven that it is possible to use corresponding measurements of the relative rainfall distribution over...... the catchment and downstream runoff measurements to identify the runoff coefficients at subcatchment level....

  8. Estimating subcatchment runoff coefficients using weather radar and a downstream runoff sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R; Bassø, Lene

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage subcatchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and flow measurements from a downstream runoff sensor. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients of the separate subcatchments. The method is demonstrated through a case study of an urban drainage catchment (678 ha) located in the city of Aarhus, Denmark. The study has proven that it is possible to use corresponding measurements of the relative rainfall distribution over the catchment and downstream runoff measurements to identify the runoff coefficients at subcatchment level.

  9. Soil erosion-runoff relationships: insights from laboratory studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, Amrakh; Warrington, David; Levy, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the processes and mechanisms affecting runoff generation and subsequent soil erosion in semi-arid regions is essential for the development of improved soil and water conservation management practices. Using a drip type laboratory rain simulator, we studied runoff and soil erosion, and the relationships between them, in 60 semi-arid region soils varying in their intrinsic properties (e.g., texture, organic matter) under differing extrinsic conditions (e.g., rain properties, and conditions prevailing in the field soil). Both runoff and soil erosion were significantly affected by the intrinsic soil and rain properties, and soil conditions within agricultural fields or watersheds. The relationship between soil erosion and runoff was stronger when the rain kinetic energy was higher rather than lower, and could be expressed either as a linear or exponential function. Linear functions applied to certain limited cases associated with conditions that enhanced soil structure stability, (e.g., slow wetting, amending with soil stabilizers, minimum tillage in clay soils, and short duration exposure to rain). Exponential functions applied to most of the cases under conditions that tended to harm soil stability (e.g., fast wetting of soils, a wide range of antecedent soil water contents and rain kinetic energies, conventional tillage, following biosolid applications, irrigation with water of poor quality, consecutive rain simulations). The established relationships between runoff and soil erosion contributed to a better understanding of the mechanisms governing overland flow and soil loss, and could assist in (i) further development of soil erosion models and research techniques, and (ii) the design of more suitable management practices for soil and water conservation.

  10. Multi-detector row computed tomography angiography of peripheral arterial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kock, Marc C.J.M.; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Pattynama, Peter M.T.; Myriam Hunink, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    With the introduction of multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT), scan speed and image quality has improved considerably. Since the longitudinal coverage is no longer a limitation, multi-detector row computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) is increasingly used to depict the peripheral arterial runoff. Hence, it is important to know the advantages and limitations of this new non-invasive alternative for the reference test, digital subtraction angiography. Optimization of the acquisition parameters and the contrast delivery is important to achieve a reliable enhancement of the entire arterial runoff in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) using fast CT scanners. The purpose of this review is to discuss the different scanning and injection protocols using 4-, 16-, and 64-detector row CT scanners, to propose effective methods to evaluate and to present large data sets, to discuss its clinical value and major limitations, and to review the literature on the validity, reliability, and cost-effectiveness of multi-detector row CT in the evaluation of PAD. (orig.)

  11. Pollutant concentrations in road runoff: Southeast Queensland case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drapper, D.; Tomlinson, R.; Williams, P.

    2000-04-01

    This paper discusses the results of research into the pollutants in runoff from road pavement surfaces following natural rainfall events. Road runoff water quality was monitored at 21 sites centering around Brisbane, in southeast Queensland, Australia. The sites were selected according to traffic volumes, surrounding land use, pavement surface type, ease of access, and commercial vehicle percentage. Bridge sites were chosen for convenience of sample collection and minimized infrastructure modification. First flush grab samplers were permanently installed at each site to collect the first 20 L of runoff from one of the bridge drainage scuppers. The runoff samples were tested for a number of heavy metals, hydrocarbons, pesticides, and other physical characteristics. The observed results fall within the ranges of concentrations reported internationally and nationally but do not typically follow the 30,000 average annual daily traffic results reported in the United States. Traffic volumes have not been found to be the best indicator of road runoff pollutant concentrations. Interevent duration has been found to be a statistically significant factor for pollutant concentrations. Sites incorporating exit lanes have recorded higher concentrations of acid-extractable copper and zinc, tending to support the hypothesis that brake pad and tire wear caused by rapid deceleration contributes to the concentrations of these metals in road runoff. Laser particle sizing has shown that a significant proportion of the sediment found in the runoff is <100 {micro}m. However, these particulates do settle in water within 24 h, under laboratory conditions. This may be due to the presence of heavy metals.

  12. A field study to evaluate runoff quality from green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Joshi, U M; Balasubramanian, R

    2012-03-15

    Green (vegetated) roofs are emerging as practical strategies to improve the environmental quality of cities. However, the impact of green roofs on the storm water quality remains a topic of concern to city planners and environmental policy makers. This study investigated whether green roofs act as a source or a sink of various metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni, Li and Co), inorganic anions (NO3-, NO2-, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), Cl-, F- and Br-) and cation (NH4+). A series of green roof assemblies were constructed. Four different real rain events and several artificial rain events were considered for the study. Results showed that concentrations of most of the chemical components in runoff were highest during the beginning of rain events and subsided in the subsequent rain events. Some of the important components present in the runoff include Na, K, Ca, Mg, Li, Fe, Al, Cu, NO3-, PO4(3-) and SO4(2-). However, the concentration of these chemical components in the roof runoff strongly depends on the nature of substrates used in the green roof and the volume of rain. Based on the USEPA standards for freshwater quality, we conclude that the green roof used in this study is reasonably effective except that the runoff contains significant amounts of NO3- and PO4(3-). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Methodology and significance of studies of atmospheric deposition in highway runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, John A.; Rice, Karen C.; Willoughby, Timothy C.

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition and the processes that are involved in causing and altering atmospheric deposition in relation to highway surfaces and runoff were evaluated nationwide. Wet deposition is more easily monitored than dry deposition, and data on wet deposition are available for major elements and water properties (constituents affecting acid deposition) from the inter-agency National Atmospheric Deposition Program/ National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Many trace constituents (metals and organic compounds) of interest in highway runoff loads, however, are not included in the NADP/NTN. Dry deposition, which constitutes a large part of total atmospheric deposition for many constituents in highway runoff loads, is difficult to monitor accurately. Dry-deposition rates are not widely available.Many of the highway-runoff investigations that have addressed atmospheric-deposition sources have had flawed investigative designs or problems with methodology. Some results may be incorrect because of reliance on time-aggregated data collected during a period of changing atmospheric emissions. None of the investigations used methods that could accurately quantify the part of highway runoff load that can be attributed to ambient atmospheric deposition. Lack of information about accurate ambient deposition rates and runoff loads was part of the problem. Samples collected to compute the rates and loads were collected without clean-sampling methods or sampler protocols, and without quality-assurance procedures that could validate the data. Massbudget calculations comparing deposition and runoff did not consider loss of deposited material during on-highway processing. Loss of deposited particles from highway travel lanes could be large, as has been determined in labeled particle studies, because of resuspension caused by turbulence from passing traffic. Although a cause of resuspension of large particles, traffic turbulence may increase the rate of deposition for small particles and

  14. Physicochemical conditions and properties of particles in urban runoff and rivers: Implications for runoff pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Qionghua; Wu, Yaketon; Wang, Xiaochang C

    2017-04-01

    In this study, to gain an improved understanding of the fate and fractionation of particle-bound pollutants, we evaluated the physicochemical conditions and the properties of particles in rainwater, urban runoff, and rivers of Yixing, a city with a large drainage density in the Taihu Lake Basin, China. Road runoff and river samples were collected during the wet and dry seasons in 2015 and 2016. There were significant differences between the physicochemical conditions (pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), and electroconductivity (EC)) of rainwater, runoff, and rivers. The lowest pH and highest ORP values of rainwater provide the optimal conditions for leaching of particle-bound pollutants such as heavy metals. The differences in the physicochemical conditions of the runoff and rivers may contribute to the redistribution of pollutants between particulate and dissolved phases after runoff is discharged into waterways. Runoff and river particles were mainly composed of silt and clay (runoff particles contained a higher proportion of nano-scale particles (runoff pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Urban Land: Study of Surface Run-off Composition and Its Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palagin, E. D.; Gridneva, M. A.; Bykova, P. G.

    2017-11-01

    The qualitative composition of urban land surface run-off is liable to significant variations. To study surface run-off dynamics, to examine its behaviour and to discover reasons of these variations, it is relevant to use the mathematical apparatus technique of time series analysis. A seasonal decomposition procedure was applied to a temporary series of monthly dynamics with the annual frequency of seasonal variations in connection with a multiplicative model. The results of the quantitative chemical analysis of surface wastewater of the 22nd Partsjezd outlet in Samara for the period of 2004-2016 were used as basic data. As a result of the analysis, a seasonal pattern of variations in the composition of surface run-off in Samara was identified. Seasonal indices upon 15 waste-water quality indicators were defined. BOD (full), suspended materials, mineralization, chlorides, sulphates, ammonium-ion, nitrite-anion, nitrate-anion, phosphates (phosphorus), iron general, copper, zinc, aluminium, petroleum products, synthetic surfactants (anion-active). Based on the seasonal decomposition of the time series data, the contribution of trends, seasonal and accidental components of the variability of the surface run-off indicators was estimated.

  16. Estimating Runoff Coefficients Using Weather Radars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage catchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and insewer flow measurements. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients...... of separate subcatchments. The method is demonstrated through a case study of an urban drainage catchment (678ha) located in the municipality of Aarhus, Denmark. The study has proven it is possible to use corresponding measurements of the relative rainfall distribution over the catchment and runoff...... measurements to identify the runoff coefficients at subcatchment level. The number of potential subcatchments is limited by the number of available rainfall events with a sufficient spatial variability....

  17. A study of regional trends in annual and seasonal precipitation and runoff series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tveito, O.E.; Hisdal, H.

    1994-03-10

    In this study long and homogeneous time series of runoff and precipitation are studied to identify variations in time and space. The method of empirical orthogonal functions (EOF-method) is applied. Both annual observations, smoothed (using Gauss filter) and seasonal values are analyzed. The analysis shows that the temporal variations in runoff and precipitation coincide. The deviations occurring in the seasonal values are caused by snow accumulation and snow melt. In the filtered series temporal trends are found. A comparison between the different normal periods has been carried out for precipitation. The 1900-30 and 1960-90 periods differ from the 1930-60 period. This may be caused by different weather types dominating the different periods. The different weather types are reflected in different empirical orthogonal functions. This is verified by regional studies. The coinciding patterns in runoff and precipitation are important aspects in climate studies and for extrapolation purposes. 11 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Runoff of pesticides from rice fields in the Ile de Camargue (Rhone river delta, France): Field study and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comoretto, Laetitia; Arfib, Bruno; Talva, Romain; Chauvelon, Philippe; Pichaud, Marc; Chiron, Serge; Hoehener, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    A field study on the runoff of pesticides was conducted during the cultivation period in 2004 on a hydraulically isolated rice farm of 120 ha surface with one central water outlet. Four pesticides were studied: Alphamethrin, MCPA, Oxadiazon, and Pretilachlor. Alphamethrin concentrations in runoff never exceeded 0.001 μg L -1 . The three other pesticides were found in concentrations between 5.2 and 28.2 μg L -1 in the runoff water shortly after the application and decreased thereafter. The data for MCPA compared reasonably well with predictions by an analytical runoff model, accounting for volatilization, degradation, leaching to groundwater, and sorption to soil. The runoff model estimated that runoff accounted for as much as 18-42% of mass loss for MCPA. Less runoff is observed and predicted for Oxadiazon and Pretilachlor. It was concluded that runoff from rice paddies carries important loads of dissolved pesticides to the wetlands in the Ile de Camargue, and that the model can be used to predict this runoff. - Runoff of dissolved pesticides was measured on a rice farm in the Camargue (France) and modeled with an analytical model

  19. A pilot study to evaluate runoff quantity from green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Young; Lee, Min Jung; Han, Mooyoung

    2015-04-01

    The use of green roofs is gaining increased recognition in many countries as a solution that can be used to improve environmental quality and reduce runoff quantity. To achieve these goals, pilot-scale green roof assemblies have been constructed and operated in an urban setting. From a stormwater management perspective, green roofs are 42.8-60.8% effective in reducing runoff for 200 mm soil depth and 13.8-34.4% effective in reducing runoff for 150 mm soil depth. By using Spearman rank correlation analysis, high rainfall intensity was shown to have a negative relationship with delayed occurrence time, demonstrating that the soil media in green roofs do not efficiently retain rainwater. Increasing the number of antecedent dry days can help to improve water retention capacity and delay occurrence time. From the viewpoint of runoff water quality, green roofs are regarded as the best management practice by filtration and adsorption through growth media (soil). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nerve conduction and excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Moldovan, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    counterparts in the peripheral nervous system, in some instances without peripheral nervous system symptoms. Both hereditary and acquired demyelinating neuropathies have been studied and the effects on nerve pathophysiology have been compared with degeneration and regeneration of axons. SUMMARY: Excitability......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is aimed at providing information about the role of nerve excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders. It has been known for many years that the insight into peripheral nerve pathophysiology provided by conventional nerve conduction studies is limited. Nerve...... excitability studies are relatively novel but are acquiring an increasingly important role in the study of peripheral nerves. RECENT FINDINGS: By measuring responses in nerve that are related to nodal function (strength-duration time constant, rheobase and recovery cycle) and internodal function (threshold...

  1. Influence of Cattle Trails on Runoff Quantity and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jim J; Curtis, Tony; Chanasyk, David S; Willms, Walter D

    2017-03-01

    Cattle trails in grazed pastures close to rivers may adversely affect surface water quality of the adjacent river by directing runoff to it. The objective of this 3-yr study (2013-2015) in southern Alberta, Canada, was to determine if cattle trails significantly increased the risk of runoff and contaminants (sediment, nutrients) compared with the adjacent grazed pasture (control). A portable rainfall simulator was used to generate artificial rainfall (140 mm h) and runoff. The runoff properties measured were time to runoff and initial abstraction (infiltration), total runoff depth and average runoff rates, as well as concentrations and mass loads of sediment, N, and P fractions. Cattle trails significantly ( ≤ 0.10) decreased time to runoff and initial abstraction (26-32%) in the 2 yr measured and increased total runoff depth, runoff coefficients, and average runoff rates (21-51%) in 2 of 3 yr. Concentrations of sediment, N, and P fractions in runoff were not significantly greater for cattle trails than for control areas. However, mass loads of total suspended solids (57-85% increase), NH-N (31-90%), and dissolved reactive P (DRP) (30-92%) were significantly greater because of increased runoff volumes. Overall, runoff quantity and loads of sediment, NH-N, and DRP were greater for cattle trails compared with the adjacent grazed pasture, and hydrologic connection with cattle-access sites on the riverbank suggests that this could adversely affect water quality in the adjacent river. Extrapolation of the study results should be tempered by the specific conditions represented by this rainfall simulation study. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. GIS-based Approach to Estimate Surface Runoff in Small Catchments: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtek Matej

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of surface runoff assessment is one of the important and relevant topics of hydrological as well as geographical research. The aim of the paper is therefore to estimate and assess surface runoff on the example of Vyčoma catchment which is located in the Western Slovakia. For this purpose, SCS runoff curve number method, modeling in GIS and remote sensing were used. An important task was the creation of a digital elevation model (DEM, which enters the surface runoff modeling and affects its accuracy. Great attention was paid to the spatial interpretation of land use categories applying aerial imagery from 2013 and hydrological soil groups as well as calculation of maximum daily rainfall with N-year return periods as partial tasks in estimating surface runoff. From the methodological point of view, the importance of the paper can be seen in the use of a simple GIS-based approach to assess the surface runoff conditions in a small catchment.

  3. RUNOFF POTENTIAL OF MUREŞ RIVER UPPER BASIN TRIBUTARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. SOROCOVSCHI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Runoff Potential of Mureş River Upper Basin Tributaries. The upper basin of the Mureş River includes a significant area of the Eastern Carpathians central western part with different runoff formation conditions. In assessing the average annual runoff potential we used data from six gauging stations and made assessments on three distinct periods. Identifying the appropriate areas of the obtained correlations curves (between specific average runoff and catchments mean altitude allowed the assessment of potential runoff at catchment level and on geographical units. The potential average runoff is also assessed on altitude intervals of the mentioned areas. The runoff potential analysis on hydrographic basins, geographical units and altitude intervals highlights the variant spatial distribution of this general water resources indicator in the different studied areas.

  4. Soils - Potential Runoff

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This digital spatial data set provides information on the spatial distribution of potential runoff-contributing areas in Kansas. Potential runoff-contributing areas...

  5. Isotope techniques in catchment behaviour studies with particular emphasis on snowmelt runoff investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurtsever, Y.

    1984-05-01

    The dynamics of runoff occurring mainly by snowmelt have been investigated by the aid of environmental isotopes. Regular samples collected from river water and snow cover throughout 1978 to 1981 at two selected catchment basins in eastern Turkey were analysed for their oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium contents. The tritium results together with detailed hydrological and hydro-meteorological data have enabled to study the time distribution of various component flow systems involved in the total runoff resulting from snowmelt

  6. Water erosion in surface soil conditions: runoff velocity, concentration and D50 index of sediments in runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos,Júlio César; Bertol,Ildegardis; Barbosa,Fabrício Tondello; Bertól,Camilo; Mafra,Álvaro Luiz; Miquelluti,David José; Mecabô Júnior,José

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Water erosion and contamination of water resources are influenced by concentration and diameter of sediments in runoff. This study aimed to quantify runoff velocity and concentration and the D50 index of sediments in runoff under different soil surface managements, in the following treatments: i) cropped systems: no-tilled soil covered by ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) residue, with high soil cover and minimal roughness (HCR); no tilled soil covered by vetch (Vicia sativa L.) res...

  7. Stormwater runoff plumes in the Southern California Bight: A comparison study with SAR and MODIS imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Benjamin; Trinh, Rebecca; Gierach, Michelle M

    2017-05-15

    Stormwater runoff is the largest source of pollution in the Southern California Bight (SCB), resulting from untreated runoff and pollutants from urban watersheds entering the coastal waters after rainstorms. We make use of both satellite SAR and MODIS-Aqua ocean color imagery to examine two different components of runoff plumes, the surface slick and the sediment discharge. We expand on earlier satellite SAR studies by examining an extensive collection of multi-platform SAR imagery, spanning from 1992 to 2014, that provides a more comprehensive view of the plume surface slick characteristics, illustrated with distribution maps of the extent and flow direction of the plumes. The SAR-detected surface plumes are compared with coincident rain and runoff measurements, and with available measured shoreline fecal bacteria loads. We illustrate differences in the detection of SAR surface plumes with the sediment-related discharge plumes derived from MODIS imagery. A conceptual satellite stormwater runoff monitoring approach is presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrology in a mediterranean mountain environment. The Vallcebre research catchment (north eastern Spain) II. Rainfall-runoff relationships and runoff processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latron, J.; Solar, M.; Nord, G.; Llorens, P.; Gallart, F.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrological response and runoff processes have been studied in the Vallcebre research basins (North Eastern Spain) for almost 20 years. Results obtained allowed to build a more complete perceptual model of the hydrological functioning of Mediterranean mountains basins. On a seasonal and monthly scale, there was no simple relationship between rainfall and runoff depths. Monthly rainfall and runoff values revealed the existence of a threshold in the relationship between rainfall and runoff depths. At the event scale, the storm-flow coefficient had a clear seasonal pattern. The effect of the water table position on how rainfall and runoff volumes relate was observed. Examination of soil water potential and water table dynamics during representative floods helped to identify 3 types of characteristic hydrological behaviour during the year. Under dry conditions, runoff was generated essentially as infiltration excess runoff in low permeable areas, whereas saturation excess runoff dominated during wetting-up and wet conditions. During wetting-up transition, saturated areas resulted from the development of scattered perched water tables, whereas in wet conditions they were linked to the rise of the shallow water table. (Author) 8 refs.

  9. Analysis of long-term trends (1950–2009) in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient in major urban watersheds in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velpuri, N M; Senay, G B

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the long-term trends in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient in major urban watersheds in the United States. The seasonal Mann–Kendall trend test was performed on monthly precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient data from 1950 to 2009 obtained from 62 urban watersheds covering 21 major urban centers in the United States. The results indicate that only five out of 21 urban centers in the United States showed an uptrend in precipitation. Twelve urban centers showed an uptrend in runoff coefficient. However, six urban centers did not show any trend in runoff coefficient, and three urban centers showed a significant downtrend. The highest rate of change in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient was observed in the Houston urban watershed. Based on the results obtained, we also attributed plausible causes for the trends. Our analysis indicated that while a human only influence is observed in most of the urban watersheds, a combined climate and human influence is observed in the central United States. (letter)

  10. SWAT use of gridded observations for simulating runoff - a Vietnam river basin study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, M. T.; Raghavan, S. V.; Liong, S. Y.

    2012-08-01

    Many research studies that focus on basin hydrology have applied the SWAT model using station data to simulate runoff. But over regions lacking robust station data, there is a problem of applying the model to study the hydrological responses. For some countries and remote areas, the rainfall data availability might be a constraint due to many different reasons such as lacking of technology, war time and financial limitation that lead to difficulty in constructing the runoff data. To overcome such a limitation, this research study uses some of the available globally gridded high resolution precipitation datasets to simulate runoff. Five popular gridded observation precipitation datasets: (1) Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE), (2) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), (3) Precipitation Estimation from Remote Sensing Information using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN), (4) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), (5) a modified version of Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN2) and one reanalysis dataset, National Centers for Environment Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) are used to simulate runoff over the Dak Bla river (a small tributary of the Mekong River) in Vietnam. Wherever possible, available station data are also used for comparison. Bilinear interpolation of these gridded datasets is used to input the precipitation data at the closest grid points to the station locations. Sensitivity Analysis and Auto-calibration are performed for the SWAT model. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and Coefficient of Determination (R2) indices are used to benchmark the model performance. Results indicate that the APHRODITE dataset performed very well on a daily scale simulation of discharge having a good NSE of 0.54 and R2 of 0.55, when compared to the discharge simulation using station data (0.68 and 0.71). The GPCP proved to be the

  11. A glacier runoff extension to the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Van Beusekom; R. J. Viger

    2016-01-01

    A module to simulate glacier runoff, PRMSglacier, was added to PRMS (Precipitation Runoff Modeling System), a distributed-parameter, physical-process hydrological simulation code. The extension does not require extensive on-glacier measurements or computational expense but still relies on physical principles over empirical relations as much as is feasible while...

  12. Inorganic constituents in surface runoff from urbanised areas in winter: the case study of the city of Brest, Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Bulskaya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the inorganic constituents of snow and snowmelt surface runoff in a case study of the city of Brest and to indicate components that could pose a threat to the environment. Samples of snow and snowmelt runoff were analysed for the following parameters: total suspended solids, pH, the contents of nitrate, phosphate and ammonium ions, and of heavy metals. The concentrations of most of these pollutants were higher in the snowmelt runoff than in snow. The concentrations of pollutants in the snowmelt surface runoff exceeded the levels established by national regulations (maximum permissible concentrations.

  13. A Preliminary Study on the Measurement of Sediment Concentration in Hill-Slope Runoff with an Electrolyte Tracer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Shi Fan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sediment concentration in hill-slope runoff is an important index for soil erosion. Developing a reliable and portable measuring system of sediment concentration is a core issue for soil and water conservation study, especially for the Tibetan Plateau under unfavorable climate and terrain conditions for field investigation. Challenges include uneven distribution of sediment across a runoff section as well as difficulty in detecting a wide range of particle sizes. An electrolyte tracer, with the advantage of uniform distribution and its widely used electric-conductivity sensor, can avoid the problems of direct measurement of sediment. A new measurement method of sediment concentration in runoff with an electrolyte tracer is proposed based on a premise that sediment concentration is closely correlated with hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient of solute in runoff. In this study, an experiment system of hill-slope runoff with an electrolyte tracer and sediments is first designed. Second, two model parameters in the advective-dispersive equation of solute transport, flow velocity and diffusion coefficient, are inversely estimated by calibrating the observed concentrations of an electrolyte tracer. And third, the relationship between sediment concentrations and hydrodynamic dispersion coefficients are defined through specified regression. As a result, a measurement system of sediment concentration in hill-slope runoff with an electrolyte tracer is primarily established by integrating the relationship of variables, experiment system, and model theory.

  14. Experimental study on influence of vegetation coverage on runoff in wind-water erosion crisscross region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinhua; Zhang, Ronggang; Sun, Juan

    2018-02-01

    Using artificial rainfall simulation method, 23 simulation experiments were carried out in water-wind erosion crisscross region in order to analyze the influence of vegetation coverage on runoff and sediment yield. The experimental plots are standard plots with a length of 20m, width of 5m and slope of 15 degrees. The simulation experiments were conducted in different vegetation coverage experimental plots based on three different rainfall intensities. According to the experimental observation data, the influence of vegetation coverage on runoff and infiltration was analyzed. Vegetation coverage has a significant impact on runoff, and the higher the vegetation coverage is, the smaller the runoff is. Under the condition of 0.6mm/min rainfall intensity, the runoff volume from the experimental plot with 18% vegetation coverage was 1.2 times of the runoff from the experimental with 30% vegetation coverage. What’s more, the difference of runoff is more obvious in higher rainfall intensity. If the rainfall intensity reaches 1.32mm/min, the runoff from the experimental plot with 11% vegetation coverage is about 2 times as large as the runoff from the experimental plot with 53%vegetation coverage. Under the condition of small rainfall intensity, the starting time of runoff in the experimental plot with higher vegetation coverage is later than that in the experimental plot with low vegetation coverage. However, under the condition of heavy rainfall intensity, there is no obvious difference in the beginning time of runoff. In addition, the higher the vegetation coverage is, the deeper the rainfall infiltration depth is.The results can provide reference for ecological construction carried out in wind erosion crisscross region with serious soil erosion.

  15. Does runoff or temperature control chemical weathering rates?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiriksdottir, Eydis Salome; Gislason, Sigurdur Reynir; Oelkers, Eric H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The rate chemical weathering is affected by both temperature and runoff. Separating out these two factors is challenging because runoff tends to increase with increasing temperature. → In this study, natural river water samples collected on basaltic catchments over a five year period are used together with experimentally derived dissolution rate model for basaltic glass to pull apart the effects of runoff and temperature. → This study shows that the rate of chemical denudation is controlled by both temperature and runoff, but is dominated by runoff. - Abstract: The rate of chemical denudation is controlled by both temperature and runoff. The relative role of these two factors in the rivers of NE Iceland is determined through the rigorous analysis of their water chemistry over a 5-a period. River catchments are taken to be analogous to laboratory flow reactors; like the fluid in flow reactors, the loss of each dissolved element in river water is the sum of that of the original rainwater plus that added from kinetically controlled dissolution and precipitation reactions. Consideration of the laboratory determined dissolution rate behaviour of basalts and measured water chemistry indicates that the maximum effect of changing temperature on chemical denudation in the NE Icelandic rivers was 5-25% of the total change, whereas that of runoff was 75-95%. The bulk of the increased denudation rates with runoff appear to stem from an increase in reactive surface area for chemical weathering of catchment solids.

  16. Prediction and optimization of runoff via ANFIS and GA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.K. Ghose

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In planning of water resource projects, the estimation of the availability of water plays an important role. The first step in the water availability estimation is the computation of runoff resulting from the precipitation on river catchments. The length of the runoff measured in a stream may be of short period or long period depending upon the catchment characteristics. Keeping this in mind the present work is focused on two different model generation. In the first phase of this study, runoff rating curves are developed considering present day water level (H(t as input and present day runoff (Q(t as the model output. In the second phase of the study runoff prediction models are developed considering 1 day lag water level (H(t − 1, 2 day lag water level (H(t − 2 and 1 day lag runoff (Q(t − 1 as inputs and 1 day ahead runoff (Q(t + 1 as the output of the model. Models developed and used for prediction of runoff are Non-Linear Multiple Regression (NLMR and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS. Both the models were trained and tested to predict the performance of models. Genetic Algorithm (GA is then coupled with NLMR model to obtain the condition of hydrological parameter for which the runoff is maximum.

  17. Improving the GIS-DRP Approach by Means of DelineatingRunoff Characteristics with New Discharge Relevant Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Hümann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At present it is common to use geographic information system (GIS applications to assess runoff generation. One of these GIS-based tools to generate maps of dominant runoff processes is the so called GIS-DRP approach. The tool, which has been developed mainly based on agricultural areas, uses commonly available input data like a digital elevation model (DEM, geological information as well as land use information. The aim of this study is to test, validate and improve this GIS-DRP method for forested and silviculture areas. Hence, soil-hydrologic investigations and several mapping techniques of dominant runoff processes were conducted on 25 test-plots in four forested catchments in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. By comparing the results of the mapping techniques and those of the test plots, weak points in the original GIS-DRP method were detected. Subsequently, it was possible to enhance the GIS-DRP approach by incorporating new discharge relevant parameters like topsoil sealing, extreme weather events and semipermeability of the substratum. Moreover, the improved GIS-DRP approach can be widely used in different landscapes and for different fields of application. The adapted method can now support foresters and decision makers in forestry planning, answer questions concerning the landscape water balance and peripheral water retention or provide extra information for sustainable forest planning in times of a changing climate.

  18. Investigating the Influence of Various Stormwater Runoff Control Facilities on Runoff Control Efficiency in a Small Catchment Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rei Itsukushima

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization causes an increase in the flood discharge because of the infiltration capacity. Furthermore, extreme precipitation events have been an increasing concern for many regions worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the influence of different outflow control facilities on runoff reduction in a small watershed. We focused on the soil-improvement technology and rainwater tanks as outflow control facilities and conducted a runoff calculation using a rainfall event of a magnitude that is likely to occur once in a hundred years. The calculation showed that the soil-improvement technology reduced runoff during long-term continuous rainfall, whereas in a concentrated short-term rainfall event, a significant difference in the runoff reduction effect between rainfall tanks of various volumes was observed. Since effective countermeasures for runoff reduction differ depending on the rainfall distribution pattern, we suggested both facilities for storing initial rainfall and initiating countermeasures for penetration improvement over the long term.

  19. Propagation of soil moisture memory to runoff and evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, R.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2012-10-01

    As a key variable of the land-climate system soil moisture is a main driver of runoff and evapotranspiration under certain conditions. Soil moisture furthermore exhibits outstanding memory (persistence) characteristics. Also for runoff many studies report distinct low frequency variations that represent a memory. Using data from over 100 near-natural catchments located across Europe we investigate in this study the connection between soil moisture memory and the respective memory of runoff and evapotranspiration on different time scales. For this purpose we use a simple water balance model in which dependencies of runoff (normalized by precipitation) and evapotranspiration (normalized by radiation) on soil moisture are fitted using runoff observations. The model therefore allows to compute memory of soil moisture, runoff and evapotranspiration on catchment scale. We find considerable memory in soil moisture and runoff in many parts of the continent, and evapotranspiration also displays some memory on a monthly time scale in some catchments. We show that the memory of runoff and evapotranspiration jointly depend on soil moisture memory and on the strength of the coupling of runoff and evapotranspiration to soil moisture. Furthermore we find that the coupling strengths of runoff and evapotranspiration to soil moisture depend on the shape of the fitted dependencies and on the variance of the meteorological forcing. To better interpret the magnitude of the respective memories across Europe we finally provide a new perspective on hydrological memory by relating it to the mean duration required to recover from anomalies exceeding a certain threshold.

  20. Peripheral phlebitis: a point-prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Georgita T; Barrett, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine the factors influencing peripheral phlebitis in the adult medical-surgical population. The authors would then be able to use those data to determine whether a change in practice was warranted. Data collection and analysis of 188 intravenous sites revealed that females with higher doses of medications in intravenous sites of longer dwell times and suboptimal nutrition were at greater risk of developing peripheral phlebitis. The point prevalence was greater than the recommended 5%, which led the authors to review their facility's patient care and documentation practices.

  1. Benzalkonium runoff from roofs treated with biocide products - In situ pilot-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromaire, M C; Van de Voorde, A; Lorgeoux, C; Chebbo, G

    2015-09-15

    Roof maintenance practices often involve the application of biocide products to fight against moss, lichens and algae. The main component of these products is benzalkonium chloride, a mixture of alkyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chlorides with mainly C12 and C14 alkyl chain lengths, which is toxic for the aquatic environment. This paper describes, on the basis of an in-situ pilot scale study, the evolution of roof runoff contamination over a one year period following the biocide treatment of roof frames. Results show a major contamination of roof runoff immediately after treatment (from 5 to 30 mg/L), followed by an exponential decrease. 175-375 mm of cumulated rainfall is needed before the runoff concentrations become less than EC50 values for fish (280 μg/l). The residual concentration in the runoff water remains above 4 μg/L even after 640 mm of rainfall. The level of benzalkonium ions leaching depends on the roofing material, with lower concentrations and total mass leached from ceramic tiles than from concrete tiles, and on the state of the tile (new or worn out). Mass balance calculations indicate that a large part of the mass of benzalkonium compounds applied to the tiles is lost, probably due to biodegradation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Predicting Surface Runoff from Catchment to Large Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting surface runoff from catchment to large region is a fundamental and challenging task in hydrology. This paper presents a comprehensive review for various studies conducted for improving runoff predictions from catchment to large region in the last several decades. This review summarizes the well-established methods and discusses some promising approaches from the following four research fields: (1 modeling catchment, regional and global runoff using lumped conceptual rainfall-runoff models, distributed hydrological models, and land surface models, (2 parameterizing hydrological models in ungauged catchments, (3 improving hydrological model structure, and (4 using new remote sensing precipitation data.

  3. Assessment of runoff contributing catchment areas in rainfall runoff modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2006-01-01

    In numerical modelling of rainfall caused runoff in urban sewer systems an essential parameter is the hydrological reduction factor which defines the percentage of the impervious area contributing to the surface flow towards the sewer. As the hydrological processes during a rainfall are difficult...... to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till now...... recommended literature values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literature values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchment. In addition, different catchment descriptions...

  4. 5 CFR 2422.28 - Runoff elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Runoff elections. 2422.28 Section 2422.28... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY REPRESENTATION PROCEEDINGS § 2422.28 Runoff elections. (a) When a runoff may be held. A runoff election is required in an election involving at least three (3) choices, one of...

  5. Episodic runoff generation at Central European headwater catchments studied using water isotope concentration signals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votrubová, J.; Dohnal, M.; Vogel, T.; Šanda, M.; Tesař, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2017), s. 114-122 ISSN 0042-790X Grant - others:Grantová agentura České republiky (GA ČR)(CZ) GC14-15201J Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : O isotope * headwater catchment runoff * subsurface runoff * tracer * rainfall-runoff episodes Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Hydrology Impact factor: 1.654, year: 2016

  6. 29 CFR 102.70 - Runoff election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Runoff election. 102.70 Section 102.70 Labor Regulations... Runoff election. (a) The regional director shall conduct a runoff election, without further order of the... objections are filed as provided in § 102.69. Only one runoff shall be held pursuant to this section. (b...

  7. Rainfall simulations to study the types of groundcover on surface runoff and soil erosion in Champagne vineyards in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Morvan; Christophe, Naisse; Issa Oumarou, Malam; Jean-François, Desprats; Anne, Combaud; Olivier, Cerdan

    2015-04-01

    In the literature, grass cover is often considered to be one of the best methods of limiting runoff in the vineyards; But results can vary, especially when the plot area is Champagne vineyards in France, was to quantify the influence of the cultivation practices in the inter-rows of vines and determine the influence of the density of the grass cover in the wheel tracks on the surface runoff and soil erosion in experimental plots of 0.25 m2 under simulated rainfall. Three types of ground cover were studied. In the bark-and-vine-prunings plots, the runoff coefficient ranged from 1.3 to 4.0% and soil losses were <1 g/m²/h. In the bare soil plot, the highest runoff coefficient of the study was found (80.0%) and soil losses reached 7.4 g/m²/h. In the grass cover plots, the runoff coefficient and amount of eroded soil were highly variable: the runoff coefficients ranged from 0.4 to 77.0%, and soil losses were between less than 1 and 13.4 g/m²/h. Soil type, soil moisture, slope and agricultural practices did not account for the variability. In fact, the density of grass cover in the wheel tracks explained a portion of this variability. The lack of grass in the centre of the inter-row allowed for a preferential flow and created an erosion line in the wheel tracks where the soil was compacted. This study showed that grass cover in a vineyard was not necessarily sufficient to reduce surface runoff and prevent soil erosion. To be effective, the grass cover must be dense enough in the wheel tracks of agricultural machinery to avoid runoff coefficients close to those achieved with bare soil.

  8. Nonlinear response in runoff magnitude to fluctuating rain patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtu, R; Fonley, M

    2015-03-01

    The runoff coefficient of a hillslope is a reliable measure for changes in the streamflow response at the river link outlet. A high runoff coefficient is a good indicator of the possibility of flash floods. Although the relationship between runoff coefficient and streamflow has been the subject of much study, the physical mechanisms affecting runoff coefficient including the dependence on precipitation pattern remain open topics for investigation. In this paper, we analyze a rainfall-runoff model at the hillslope scale as that hillslope is forced with different rain patterns: constant rain and fluctuating rain with different frequencies and amplitudes. When an oscillatory precipitation pattern is applied, although the same amount of water may enter the system, its response (measured by the runoff coefficient) will be maximum for a certain frequency of precipitation. The significant increase in runoff coefficient after a certain pattern of rainfall can be a potential explanation for the conditions preceding flash-floods.

  9. Runoff prediction using rainfall data from microwave links: Tabor case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stransky, David; Fencl, Martin; Bares, Vojtech

    2018-05-01

    Rainfall spatio-temporal distribution is of great concern for rainfall-runoff modellers. Standard rainfall observations are, however, often scarce and/or expensive to obtain. Thus, rainfall observations from non-traditional sensors such as commercial microwave links (CMLs) represent a promising alternative. In this paper, rainfall observations from a municipal rain gauge (RG) monitoring network were complemented by CMLs and used as an input to a standard urban drainage model operated by the water utility of the Tabor agglomeration (CZ). Two rainfall datasets were used for runoff predictions: (i) the municipal RG network, i.e. the observation layout used by the water utility, and (ii) CMLs adjusted by the municipal RGs. The performance was evaluated in terms of runoff volumes and hydrograph shapes. The use of CMLs did not lead to distinctively better predictions in terms of runoff volumes; however, CMLs outperformed RGs used alone when reproducing a hydrograph's dynamics (peak discharges, Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient and hydrograph's rising limb timing). This finding is promising for number of urban drainage tasks working with dynamics of the flow. Moreover, CML data can be obtained from a telecommunication operator's data cloud at virtually no cost. That makes their use attractive for cities unable to improve their monitoring infrastructure for economic or organizational reasons.

  10. SWAT use of gridded observations for simulating runoff – a Vietnam river basin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Vu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many research studies that focus on basin hydrology have applied the SWAT model using station data to simulate runoff. But over regions lacking robust station data, there is a problem of applying the model to study the hydrological responses. For some countries and remote areas, the rainfall data availability might be a constraint due to many different reasons such as lacking of technology, war time and financial limitation that lead to difficulty in constructing the runoff data. To overcome such a limitation, this research study uses some of the available globally gridded high resolution precipitation datasets to simulate runoff. Five popular gridded observation precipitation datasets: (1 Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE, (2 Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, (3 Precipitation Estimation from Remote Sensing Information using Artificial Neural Network (PERSIANN, (4 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP, (5 a modified version of Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN2 and one reanalysis dataset, National Centers for Environment Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR are used to simulate runoff over the Dak Bla river (a small tributary of the Mekong River in Vietnam. Wherever possible, available station data are also used for comparison. Bilinear interpolation of these gridded datasets is used to input the precipitation data at the closest grid points to the station locations. Sensitivity Analysis and Auto-calibration are performed for the SWAT model. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE and Coefficient of Determination (R2 indices are used to benchmark the model performance. Results indicate that the APHRODITE dataset performed very well on a daily scale simulation of discharge having a good NSE of 0.54 and R2 of 0.55, when compared to the discharge simulation using station data (0

  11. Development of a portable field rainfall simulator for use in hillside vineyard runoff and erosion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battany, M. C.; Grismer, M. E.

    2000-04-01

    An inexpensive, mobile field rainfall simulator and runoff plot frame were developed for use on hillside vineyards. The simulator framework and components were lightweight, readily available and easily manageable such that they can be handled by one person during transport, set-up and operation. The vineyard rainfall simulator was simpler than many of the machines in recent use for similar studies, yet offered equal or improved performance for small-plot studies. The system developed consistent sized 2·58 mm raindrops at intensities ranging from 20 to 90 mm/h. The average distribution uniformity coefficient at an intensity of 60 mm/h was 91·7%, with a deviation of only 2·2%. This coefficient was similar to the range reported for a more complex rotating disk simulator, and was notably greater than that obtained for other similar devices. The system water capacity of 40 l allowed for 1-h storm durations at 60 mm/h, usually sufficient time for commencement of erosion and runoff. The runoff plot frame was designed to be quickly installed, and to discourage sediment deposition in the routing of runoff to collect containers.

  12. Erosivity, surface runoff, and soil erosion estimation using GIS-coupled runoff-erosion model in the Mamuaba catchment, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva, Richarde; Guimarães Santos, Celso Augusto; Carneiro de Lima Silva, Valeriano; Pereira e Silva, Leonardo

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluates erosivity, surface runoff generation, and soil erosion rates for Mamuaba catchment, sub-catchment of Gramame River basin (Brazil) by using the ArcView Soil and Water Assessment Tool (AvSWAT) model. Calibration and validation of the model was performed on monthly basis, and it could simulate surface runoff and soil erosion to a good level of accuracy. Daily rainfall data between 1969 and 1989 from six rain gauges were used, and the monthly rainfall erosivity of each station was computed for all the studied years. In order to evaluate the calibration and validation of the model, monthly runoff data between January 1978 and April 1982 from one runoff gauge were used as well. The estimated soil loss rates were also realistic when compared to what can be observed in the field and to results from previous studies around of catchment. The long-term average soil loss was estimated at 9.4 t ha(-1) year(-1); most of the area of the catchment (60%) was predicted to suffer from a low- to moderate-erosion risk (soil erosion was estimated to exceed > 12 t ha(-1) year(-1). Expectedly, estimated soil loss was significantly correlated with measured rainfall and simulated surface runoff. Based on the estimated soil loss rates, the catchment was divided into four priority categories (low, moderate, high and very high) for conservation intervention. The study demonstrates that the AvSWAT model provides a useful tool for soil erosion assessment from catchments and facilitates the planning for a sustainable land management in northeastern Brazil.

  13. Assessing the water balance in the Sahel : Impact of small scale rainfall variability on runoff. Part 2 : Idealized modeling of runoff sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Vischel, Théo; Lebel, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    As in many other semi-arid regions in the world, the Sahelian hydrological environment is characterized by a mosaic of small endoreic catchments with dry soil surface conditions producing mostly Hortonian runoff. Using an SCS-type event based rainfall-runoff model, an idealized modeling experiment of a Sahelian environment is set up to study the sensitivity of runoff to small scale rainfall variability. A set of 548 observed rain events is used to force the hydrological model to study the sen...

  14. Comparative assessment of herbicide and fungicide runoff risk: a case study for peanut production in the Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Thomas L; Bosch, David D; Strickland, Timothy C

    2014-08-15

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is produced intensively in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain of the eastern USA. To effectively protect the region's water quality data are needed which quantify runoff of pesticides used to protect these crops. Fungicides are used intensively yet there is little published data which describe their potential for loss in surface runoff. This study compared runoff of a fungicide, tebuconazole (α-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol), and an herbicide, metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide) from 0.2 ha fields in strip (ST), a commonly used conservation-tillage practice, and conventional tillage (CT) near Tifton, GA (USA). Following their first application, metolachlor and tebuconazole were detected at high frequency in runoff. Concentrations and their annual losses increased with application frequency and runoff event timing and frequency with respect to applications, and when fields were positioned at the top of the slope and CT was practiced. Runoff one day after treatment (DAT) contributed to high tebuconazole runoff loss, up to 9.8% of the amount applied on an annual basis. In all cases, metolachlor loss was more than 10 times less even though total application was 45% higher. This was linked to the fact that the one metolachlor application to each crop was in May, one of the region's driest months. In sum, studies showed that fungicide runoff rates may be relatively high and emphasize the need to focus on these products in future studies on peanut and other crops. The study also showed that peanut farmers should be encouraged to use conservation tillage practices like ST which can substantially reduce pesticide runoff. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Bivariate Rainfall and Runoff Analysis Using Shannon Entropy Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Zhang, L.

    2012-12-01

    Rainfall-Runoff analysis is the key component for many hydrological and hydraulic designs in which the dependence of rainfall and runoff needs to be studied. It is known that the convenient bivariate distribution are often unable to model the rainfall-runoff variables due to that they either have constraints on the range of the dependence or fixed form for the marginal distributions. Thus, this paper presents an approach to derive the entropy-based joint rainfall-runoff distribution using Shannon entropy theory. The distribution derived can model the full range of dependence and allow different specified marginals. The modeling and estimation can be proceeded as: (i) univariate analysis of marginal distributions which includes two steps, (a) using the nonparametric statistics approach to detect modes and underlying probability density, and (b) fitting the appropriate parametric probability density functions; (ii) define the constraints based on the univariate analysis and the dependence structure; (iii) derive and validate the entropy-based joint distribution. As to validate the method, the rainfall-runoff data are collected from the small agricultural experimental watersheds located in semi-arid region near Riesel (Waco), Texas, maintained by the USDA. The results of unviariate analysis show that the rainfall variables follow the gamma distribution, whereas the runoff variables have mixed structure and follow the mixed-gamma distribution. With this information, the entropy-based joint distribution is derived using the first moments, the first moments of logarithm transformed rainfall and runoff, and the covariance between rainfall and runoff. The results of entropy-based joint distribution indicate: (1) the joint distribution derived successfully preserves the dependence between rainfall and runoff, and (2) the K-S goodness of fit statistical tests confirm the marginal distributions re-derived reveal the underlying univariate probability densities which further

  16. River runoff influences on the Central Mediterranean overturning circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verri, Giorgia; Pinardi, N.; Oddo, P.; Ciliberti, S. A.; Coppini, G.

    2018-03-01

    The role of riverine freshwater inflow on the Central Mediterranean Overturning Circulation (CMOC) was studied using a high-resolution ocean model with a complete distribution of rivers in the Adriatic and Ionian catchment areas. The impact of river runoff on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea basins was assessed by a twin experiment, with and without runoff, from 1999 to 2012. This study tries to show the connection between the Adriatic as a marginal sea containing the downwelling branch of the anti-estuarine CMOC and the large runoff occurring there. It is found that the multiannual CMOC is a persistent anti-estuarine structure with secondary estuarine cells that strengthen in years of large realistic river runoff. The CMOC is demonstrated to be controlled by wind forcing at least as much as by buoyancy fluxes. It is found that river runoff affects the CMOC strength, enhancing the amplitude of the secondary estuarine cells and reducing the intensity of the dominant anti-estuarine cell. A large river runoff can produce a positive buoyancy flux without switching off the antiestuarine CMOC cell, but a particularly low heat flux and wind work with normal river runoff can reverse it. Overall by comparing experiments with, without and with unrealistically augmented runoff we demonstrate that rivers affect the CMOC strength but they can never represent its dominant forcing mechanism and the potential role of river runoff has to be considered jointly with wind work and heat flux, as they largely contribute to the energy budget of the basin. Looking at the downwelling branch of the CMOC in the Adriatic basin, rivers are demonstrated to locally reduce the volume of Adriatic dense water formed in the Southern Adriatic Sea as a result of increased water stratification. The spreading of the Adriatic dense water into the Ionian abyss is affected as well: dense waters overflowing the Otranto Strait are less dense in a realistic runoff regime, with respect to no runoff experiment, and

  17. Study on Variations in Climatic Variables and Their Influence on Runoff in the Manas River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ren

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change in Northwest China could lead to the change of the hydrological cycle and water resources. This paper assessed the influence of climate change on runoff in the Manas River basin as follows. First, the temporal trends and abrupt change points of runoff, precipitation, and mean, lowest and highest temperature in yearly scale during the period of 1961–2015 were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall (MK test. Then the correlation between runoff and climatic variables was characterized in a monthly, seasonal and yearly scale using the partial correlation method. Furthermore, three global climate models (GCMs from Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 were bias-corrected using Equidistant Cumulative Distribution Functions (EDCDF method to reveal the future climate change during the period from 2021 to 2060 compared with the baseline period of 1961–2000. The influence of climate change on runoff was studied by simulating the runoff with the GCMs using a modified TOPMODEL considering the future snowmelt during the period from 2021 to 2060. The results showed that the runoff, precipitation, and mean, lowest and highest temperature all presented an increasing trend in yearly scale during the period of 1961–2015, and their abrupt change points were at a similar time; the runoff series was more strongly related to temperature than to precipitation in the spring, autumn and yearly scales, and the opposite was true in winter. All GCMs projected precipitation and temperature, and the runoff simulated with these GCMs were predicted to increase in the period from 2021 to 2060 compared with the baseline period of 1961–2000. These findings provide valuable information for assessing the influence of climate change on water resources in the Manas River basin, and references for water management in such regions.

  18. Raster-based derivation of a flood runoff susceptibility map using the revised runoff curve number (CN) for the Kuantan watershed, Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akbari, Abolghasem; Samah, Azizan Abu; Daryabor, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop a methodology for generating a flood runoff susceptibility (FRS) map using a revised curve number (CN) method. The study area is in the Kuantan watershed (KW), Malaysia, which was seriously affected by floods in December 2013 and December 2014. A revised runoff CN map w......, the finding of this research provides a road map for government agencies to effectively implement flood mitigation projects in the study area.......This study aims to develop a methodology for generating a flood runoff susceptibility (FRS) map using a revised curve number (CN) method. The study area is in the Kuantan watershed (KW), Malaysia, which was seriously affected by floods in December 2013 and December 2014. A revised runoff CN map....... Approximately 5% of the study area was identified as a very high-risk zone and 13% as high-risk zone. However, the spatial extent of a high-risk zone in the downstream end and lowland areas of the KW could be considered to be the main cause of flood damage in recent years. From practical point of view...

  19. Spot Spraying Reduces Herbicide Concentrations in Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice R; Silburn, D Mark; McHugh, Allen D; Fillols, Emilie; Rojas-Ponce, Samuel; Baillie, Craig; Lewis, Stephen

    2016-05-25

    Rainfall simulator trials were conducted on sugar cane paddocks across dry-tropical and subtropical Queensland, Australia, to examine the potential for spot spraying to reduce herbicide losses in runoff. Recommended rates of the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluoroxypyr, atrazine, and diuron were sprayed onto 0, 20, 40, 50, 70, or 100% of the area of runoff plots. Simulated rainfall was applied 2 days after spraying to induce runoff at one plant cane and three ratoon crop sites. Over 50% of all herbicides were transported in the dissolved phase of runoff, regardless of the herbicide's sediment-water partition coefficient. For most sites and herbicides, runoff herbicide concentrations decreased with decreasing spray coverage and with decreasing herbicide load in the soil and cane residues. Importantly, sites with higher infiltration prior to runoff and lower total runoff had lower runoff herbicide concentrations.

  20. Event-based model diagnosis of rainfall-runoff model structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanzel, P.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is a comparative evaluation of different rainfall-runoff model structures. Comparative model diagnostics facilitate the assessment of strengths and weaknesses of each model. The application of multiple models allows an analysis of simulation uncertainties arising from the selection of model structure, as compared with effects of uncertain parameters and precipitation input. Four different model structures, including conceptual and physically based approaches, are compared. In addition to runoff simulations, results for soil moisture and the runoff components of overland flow, interflow and base flow are analysed. Catchment runoff is simulated satisfactorily by all four model structures and shows only minor differences. Systematic deviations from runoff observations provide insight into model structural deficiencies. While physically based model structures capture some single runoff events better, they do not generally outperform conceptual model structures. Contributions to uncertainty in runoff simulations stemming from the choice of model structure show similar dimensions to those arising from parameter selection and the representation of precipitation input. Variations in precipitation mainly affect the general level and peaks of runoff, while different model structures lead to different simulated runoff dynamics. Large differences between the four analysed models are detected for simulations of soil moisture and, even more pronounced, runoff components. Soil moisture changes are more dynamical in the physically based model structures, which is in better agreement with observations. Streamflow contributions of overland flow are considerably lower in these models than in the more conceptual approaches. Observations of runoff components are rarely made and are not available in this study, but are shown to have high potential for an effective selection of appropriate model structures (author) [de

  1. Runoff Potentiality of a Watershed through SCS and Functional Data Analysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Adham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Runoff potentiality of a watershed was assessed based on identifying curve number (CN, soil conservation service (SCS, and functional data analysis (FDA techniques. Daily discrete rainfall data were collected from weather stations in the study area and analyzed through lowess method for smoothing curve. As runoff data represents a periodic pattern in each watershed, Fourier series was introduced to fit the smooth curve of eight watersheds. Seven terms of Fourier series were introduced for the watersheds 5 and 8, while 8 terms of Fourier series were used for the rest of the watersheds for the best fit of data. Bootstrapping smooth curve analysis reveals that watersheds 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 are with monthly mean runoffs of 29, 24, 22, 23, 26, and 27 mm, respectively, and these watersheds would likely contribute to surface runoff in the study area. The purpose of this study was to transform runoff data into a smooth curve for representing the surface runoff pattern and mean runoff of each watershed through statistical method. This study provides information of runoff potentiality of each watershed and also provides input data for hydrological modeling.

  2. Runoff Potentiality of a Watershed through SCS and Functional Data Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, M. I.; Shirazi, S. M.; Othman, F.; Rahman, S.; Yusop, Z.; Ismail, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Runoff potentiality of a watershed was assessed based on identifying curve number (CN), soil conservation service (SCS), and functional data analysis (FDA) techniques. Daily discrete rainfall data were collected from weather stations in the study area and analyzed through lowess method for smoothing curve. As runoff data represents a periodic pattern in each watershed, Fourier series was introduced to fit the smooth curve of eight watersheds. Seven terms of Fourier series were introduced for the watersheds 5 and 8, while 8 terms of Fourier series were used for the rest of the watersheds for the best fit of data. Bootstrapping smooth curve analysis reveals that watersheds 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8 are with monthly mean runoffs of 29, 24, 22, 23, 26, and 27 mm, respectively, and these watersheds would likely contribute to surface runoff in the study area. The purpose of this study was to transform runoff data into a smooth curve for representing the surface runoff pattern and mean runoff of each watershed through statistical method. This study provides information of runoff potentiality of each watershed and also provides input data for hydrological modeling. PMID:25152911

  3. Studies of peripheral sensory nerves in paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy: Evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Flatters, Sarah J.L.; Bennett, Gary J.

    2006-01-01

    Paclitaxel chemotherapy frequently induces neuropathic pain during and often persisting after therapy. The mechanisms responsible for this pain are unknown. Using a rat model of paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy, we have performed studies to search for peripheral nerve pathology. Paclitaxel-induced mechano-allodynia and mechano-hyperalgesia were evident after a short delay, peaked at day 27 and finally resolved on day 155. Paclitaxel- and vehicle-treated rats were perfused on d...

  4. Experimental study of water fluxes in a residential area: 2. Road infiltration, runoff and evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, R.; Rosier, P.; Dixon, A.; Bromley, J.; Cooper, J. D.

    2003-08-01

    Lack of accurate data has led some hydrologists and city planners to assume that urban infiltration is zero and runoff is 100% of the rainfall. These assumptions lead to an over estimation of road runoff volume and an underestimation of direct recharge to groundwater, which is already rising under some UK cities. This study investigates infiltration and runoff processes and quantifies the percentage of rainfall that contributes to storm drainage, and that which infiltrates through different types of road surface. Access tubes were installed for measuring soil water content using a neutron probe in three car parks, a road and a grass site at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford. Storm drainage was recorded at the exit of the Thamesmead Estate in Crowmarsh Gifford, just before the drain joins the River Thames at Wallingford. Rainfall and water table depth were also recorded. Weekly measurements of soil moisture content indicated that the top 40 cm layer is not influenced by water-table fluctuations and, therefore, positive changes in soil moisture could be attributed to infiltration of rainfall through the surface. Depending on the nature of the surface, subsurface layers, level of traffic, etc., between 6 and 9% of rainfall was found to infiltrate through the road surfaces studied. The storm drainage generated by road runoff revealed a flow pattern similar to that of the receiving watercourse (River Thames) and increased with the increase of infiltration and soil water content below the road surface. The ratio of runoff to rainfall was 0·7, 0·9 and 0·5 for annual, winter (October-March) and summer (April-September) respectively. As the results of the infiltration indicated that 6 to 9% of annual rainfall infiltrates through the road surface, this means that evaporation represents, 21-24% of annual rainfall, with more evaporation taking place during summer than winter.

  5. Specifics of surface runoff contents and treatment in large cities

    OpenAIRE

    V.N. Chechevichkin; N.I. Vatin

    2014-01-01

    The degree of surface runoff pollution in large cities has been assessed in modern conditions in the case study of production sites of St. Petersburg. Increased content of petroleum derivatives and heavy metal ions both in rainwater runoff and especially in snowmelt runoff has been revealed. It has been established that the composition of infiltration runoff from the newly built-up sites within the city limits commonly depends on their background, especially in the places of former unaut...

  6. [Hydrology and pollution characteristics of urban runoff: Beijing as a sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xin; Du, Peng-Fei; Li, Zhi-Yi; Yu, Zheng-Rong; Wang, Rui; Huang, Jin-Liang

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study is identification and characterization of hydrological process of urban runoff, as well as concentration variation of pollutants in it. Samples were collected in 4 rainfall events in Beijing from Jun. 2006 to Aug. 2006. Hydrology and pollution of the rainfall-runoff process were analyzed on roof and road. Study results show that the shapes of hydrological curves of runoff, despite for a 5 - 20 min delay and a milder tendency, are similar to rainfall curves. Runoff coefficients of roof are 0.80 - 0.98, while 0.87 - 0.97 of road. Event mean concentrations (EMC) of pollutants are influenced by build-up and wash-off features, which leads to a higher concentration in road runoff than in roof runoff. Major pollutants that excess the water quality standards are COD, TN, and TP. Evident correlations (> 0.1) are found between pollutants. Correlation with particles are higher for COD and SO4(2-) (> 0.5), while lower for nutrients (pollutant variety, types of land covers, and rainfall intensity. FFE are found more intense in SS, more frequently in road runoff, and more difficult to form for COD and nutrients with low rainfall intensity. Therefore, control of first period of runoff would be an effective approach for runoff management in Beijing.

  7. Runoff analysis by means of multiple isotope tracers in Iwami river drainage, Akita, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubaya, Osamu; Yoshida, Minako; Tanaka-Miyamoto, Kiriko.

    1990-01-01

    By means of three isotope tracer techniques, proportion of direct runoff and characters of groundwater runoff were studied in the Iwami River drainage during a high runoff period for about 3 days, caused by a heavy rainfall of 85 mm for 17 hours. The proportion of direct runoff is 15 % or less of the total runoff caused by the rainfall, while 65 % of river water at the peak of runoff. Differences observed in the runoff manners among 18 O, 2 H, and 3 H are interpreted as a result of preferential runoff of previous precipitations stored in some unsaturated zone above the saturated groundwater zone. Cl - content is not conservative as a tracer to study runoff mechanisms. (author)

  8. Climatic Models Ensemble-based Mid-21st Century Runoff Projections: A Bayesian Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achieng, K. O.; Zhu, J.

    2017-12-01

    There are a number of North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) climatic models that have been used to project surface runoff in the mid-21st century. Statistical model selection techniques are often used to select the model that best fits data. However, model selection techniques often lead to different conclusions. In this study, ten models are averaged in Bayesian paradigm to project runoff. Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) is used to project and identify effect of model uncertainty on future runoff projections. Baseflow separation - a two-digital filter which is also called Eckhardt filter - is used to separate USGS streamflow (total runoff) into two components: baseflow and surface runoff. We use this surface runoff as the a priori runoff when conducting BMA of runoff simulated from the ten RCM models. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate how well RCM multi-model ensembles simulate surface runoff, in a Bayesian framework. Specifically, we investigate and discuss the following questions: How well do ten RCM models ensemble jointly simulate surface runoff by averaging over all the models using BMA, given a priori surface runoff? What are the effects of model uncertainty on surface runoff simulation?

  9. The economic benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces: a case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Biao; Xie, Gaodi; Zhang, Canqiang; Zhang, Jing

    2012-06-15

    Urbanization involves the replacement of vegetated surfaces with impervious built surfaces, and it often results in an increase in the rate and volume of rainwater surface runoff. Urban green spaces play a positive role in rainwater-runoff reduction. However, few studies have explored the benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces. Based on inventory data of urban green spaces in Beijing, the paper evaluated the economic benefits of rainwater-runoff reduction by urban green spaces, using the rainwater-runoff-coefficient method as well as the economic valuation methods. The results showed that, 2494 cubic meters of potential runoff was reduced per hectare of green area and a total volume of 154 million cubic meters rainwater was stored in these urban green spaces, which almost corresponds to the annual water needs of the urban ecological landscape in Beijing. The total economic benefit was 1.34 billion RMB in 2009 (RMB: Chinese currency, US$1=RMB6.83), which is equivalent to three-quarters of the maintenance cost of Beijing's green spaces; the value of rainwater-runoff reduction was 21.77 thousand RMB per hectare. In addition, the benefits in different districts and counties were ranked in the same order as urban green areas, and the average benefits per hectare of green space showed different trends, which may be related to the impervious surface index in different regions. This research will contribute to an understanding of the role that Beijing's green spaces play in rainwater regulation and in the creation and scientific management of urban green spaces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Runoff from armored slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Models exist for calculating overland flow on hillsides but no models have been found which explicitly deal with runoff from armored slopes. Flow on armored slopes differs from overland flow, because substantial flow occurs beneath the surface of the rock layer at low runnoff, and both above and below the surface for high runoff. In addition to the lack of a suitable model, no estimates of the PMP exist for such small areas and for very short durations. This paper develops a model for calculating runoff from armored embankments. The model considers the effect of slope, drainage area and ''flow concentration'' caused by irregular grading or slumping. A rainfall-duration curve based on the PMP is presented which is suitable for very small drainage areas. The development of the runoff model and rainfall-duration curve is presented below, along with a demonstration of the model on the design of a hypothetical tailings embankment

  11. Assessment of Runoff Contributing Catchment Areas in Rainfall Runoff Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2005-01-01

    to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till now...... recommended literary values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literary values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchments. In addition, different catchment descriptions...

  12. Improving runoff risk estimates: Formulating runoff as a bivariate process using the SCS curve number method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stephen B.; Walter, M. Todd

    2009-03-01

    The Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) method is widely used to predict storm runoff for hydraulic design purposes, such as sizing culverts and detention basins. As traditionally used, the probability of calculated runoff is equated to the probability of the causative rainfall event, an assumption that fails to account for the influence of variations in soil moisture on runoff generation. We propose a modification to the SCS-CN method that explicitly incorporates rainfall return periods and the frequency of different soil moisture states to quantify storm runoff risks. Soil moisture status is assumed to be correlated to stream base flow. Fundamentally, this approach treats runoff as the outcome of a bivariate process instead of dictating a 1:1 relationship between causative rainfall and resulting runoff volumes. Using data from the Fall Creek watershed in western New York and the headwaters of the French Broad River in the mountains of North Carolina, we show that our modified SCS-CN method improves frequency discharge predictions in medium-sized watersheds in the eastern United States in comparison to the traditional application of the method.

  13. Estimating runoff from ungauged catchments for reservoir water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lower Middle Zambezi Basin is sandwiched between three hydropower ... This study applied a rainfall-runoff model (HEC-HMS) and GIS techniques to ... Missing data were generated using the mean value infilling method. ... A hydrological model, HEC- HMS, was used to simulate runoff from the ungauged catchments.

  14. Effects of low-impact-development (LID) practices on streamflow, runoff quantity, and runoff quality in the Ipswich River Basin, Massachusetts-A Summary of field and modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Waldron, Marcus C.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Sorenson, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    Low-impact-development (LID) approaches are intended to create, retain, or restore natural hydrologic and water-quality conditions that may be affected by human alterations. Wide-scale implementation of LID techniques may offer the possibility of improving conditions in river basins, such as the Ipswich River Basin in Massachusetts, that have run dry during the summer because of groundwater withdrawals and drought. From 2005 to 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in a cooperative funding agreement with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, monitored small-scale installations of LID enhancements designed to diminish the effects of storm runoff on the quantity and quality of surface water and groundwater. Funding for the studies also was contributed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Targeted Watersheds Grant Program through a financial assistance agreement with Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation. The monitoring studies examined the effects of * replacing an impervious parking-lot surface with a porous surface on groundwater quality, * installing rain gardens and porous pavement in a neighborhood of 3 acres on the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff, and * installing a 3,000-ft2 (square-foot) green roof on the quantity and quality of rainfall-generated roof runoff. In addition to these small-scale installations, the U.S. Geological Survey's Ipswich River Basin model was used to simulate the basin-wide effects on streamflow of several changes: broad-scale implementation of LID techniques, reduced water-supply withdrawals, and water-conservation measures. Water-supply and conservation scenarios for application in model simulations were developed with the assistance of two technical advisory committees that included representatives of State agencies responsible for water resources, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, water suppliers, and non-governmental organizations. From June

  15. EVALUATION OF RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODELS FOR MEDITERRANEAN SUBCATCHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cilek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and the application of rainfall-runoff models have been a corner-stone of hydrological research for many decades. The amount of rainfall and its intensity and variability control the generation of runoff and the erosional processes operating at different scales. These interactions can be greatly variable in Mediterranean catchments with marked hydrological fluctuations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of rainfall-runoff model, for rainfall-runoff simulation in a Mediterranean subcatchment. The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA, a simplified hydrological process-based approach, was used in this study to combine hydrological surface runoff factors. In total 128 input layers derived from data set includes; climate, topography, land use, crop type, planting date, and soil characteristics, are required to run the model. Initial ground cover was estimated from the Landsat ETM data provided by ESA. This hydrological model was evaluated in terms of their performance in Goksu River Watershed, Turkey. It is located at the Central Eastern Mediterranean Basin of Turkey. The area is approximately 2000 km2. The landscape is dominated by bare ground, agricultural and forests. The average annual rainfall is 636.4mm. This study has a significant importance to evaluate different model performances in a complex Mediterranean basin. The results provided comprehensive insight including advantages and limitations of modelling approaches in the Mediterranean environment.

  16. Climate change and runoff in south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, R. P.; Aryal, S. K.; Durrant, J.; Pearcey, M.; Braccia, M.; Charles, S. P.; Boniecka, L.; Hodgson, G. A.; Bari, M. A.; Viney, N. R.; McFarlane, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    SummaryThis paper presents the results of computer simulations of runoff from 13 major fresh and brackish river basins in south-western Australia (SWA) under climate projections obtained from 15 GCMs with three future global warming scenarios equivalent to global temperature rises of 0.7 °C, 1.0 °C and 1.3 °C by 2030. The objective was to apply an efficient methodology, consistent across a large region, to examine the implications of the best available projections in climate trends for future surface water resources. An ensemble of rainfall-runoff models was calibrated on stream flow data from 1975 to 2007 from 106 gauged catchments distributed throughout the basins of the study area. The sensitivity of runoff to projected changes in mean annual rainfall is examined using the climate 'elasticity' concept. Averaged across the study area, all 15 GCMs project declines in rainfall under all global warming scenarios with a median decline of 8% resulting in a median decline in runoff of 25%. Such uniformity in projections from GCMs is unusual. Over SWA the average annual runoff under the 5th wettest and 5th driest of the 45 projections of the 2030 climate declines by 10 and 42%, respectively. Under the 5th driest projection the runoff decline ranges from 53% in the northern region to 40% in the southern region. Strong regional variations in climate sensitivity are found with the proportional decline in runoff greatest in the northern region and the greatest volumetric declines in the wetter basins in the south. Since the mid 1970s stream flows into the major water supply reservoirs in SWA have declined by more than 50% following a 16% rainfall reduction. This has already had major implications for water resources planning and for the preservation of aquatic and riparian ecosystems in the region. Our results indicate that this reduction in runoff is likely to continue if future climate projections eventuate.

  17. Rooftop runoff as a source of contamination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lye, Dennis J

    2009-10-15

    Scientific reports concerning chemical and microbiological contaminant levels of rainwater runoff from rooftop collection in both urban and rural areas are reviewed. This alternative source of water has been documented to often contain substantial amounts of contaminants. Studies describing levels of heavy metal contamination specific to runoff from rooftop catchment areas containing exposed metal surfaces are discussed. Depending upon the intended use, scientific evidence is also accumulating that various treatments and disinfections will be required prior to release of roof-runoff water either into surface waters or for more direct consumer usage. For microbial contamination, current proposed standards and guidelines regarding this type of water source are shown to vary widely worldwide. Scientific literature reveals a lack of clarity regarding water quality guidelines and health related standards for certain types of rooftop runoff. Studies suggests that rainwater collection systems which are properly designed, maintained, and treated may provide a valuable supplement to existing water supplies by reducing demand on community water supplies/infrastructure costs, enhancing effective management of storm water runoff, and increasing restoration of underground reservoirs through controlled infiltration.

  18. ISLSCP II UNH/GRDC Composite Monthly Runoff

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The University of New Hampshire (UNH)/Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) composite runoff data combines simulated water balance model runoff estimates...

  19. Contaminants in urban runoff to Norwegian fjords

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jartun, Morten [Geological Survey of Norway, Trondheim (Norway); Pettersen, Arne [Norwegian Geotechnical Inst., Oslo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    Introduction: Sediments from urban stormwater runoff have been collected and analyzed for the content of various contaminants in harbor areas of Harstad, Trondheim, Bergen, and Drammen, Norway. Materials and methods: The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), tributyltin, heavy metals, and total organic carbon were determined in most samples. This study provides substantial empirical data on the active, ongoing dispersion of pollutants from land-based sources in an urban area toward the marine environments in Norway. Results and discussion: The results of the analyses clearly demonstrate the importance of the urban environment representing a variety of contamination sources, and that stormwater runoff is an important dispersion mechanism of toxic pollutants. Conclusion: The concentrations of different contaminants in the urban runoff sediments show that there are several active pollution sources supplying the runoff systems with PCBs, PAHs (including benzo(a)pyrene, B(a)p), and heavy metals such as lead, mercury, zinc, and cadmium. This study describe the usefulness of the methods on how to examine ongoing urban contamination of harbors and similar recipients before any remediation plan for improving the environmental condition of marine sediments is effectuated. (orig.)

  20. Impact of possible climate changes on river runoff under different natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Yeugeniy M.; Nasonova, Olga N.; Kovalev, Evgeny E.; Ayzel, Georgy V.

    2018-06-01

    The present study was carried out within the framework of the International Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) for 11 large river basins located in different continents of the globe under a wide variety of natural conditions. The aim of the study was to investigate possible changes in various characteristics of annual river runoff (mean values, standard deviations, frequency of extreme annual runoff) up to 2100 on the basis of application of the land surface model SWAP and meteorological projections simulated by five General Circulation Models (GCMs) according to four RCP scenarios. Analysis of the obtained results has shown that changes in climatic runoff are different (both in magnitude and sign) for the river basins located in different regions of the planet due to differences in natural (primarily climatic) conditions. The climatic elasticities of river runoff to changes in air temperature and precipitation were estimated that makes it possible, as the first approximation, to project changes in climatic values of annual runoff, using the projected changes in mean annual air temperature and annual precipitation for the river basins. It was found that for most rivers under study, the frequency of occurrence of extreme runoff values increases. This is true both for extremely high runoff (when the projected climatic runoff increases) and for extremely low values (when the projected climatic runoff decreases).

  1. Variability of Measured Runoff and Soil Loss from Field Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Asadzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Field plots are widely used in studies related to the measurements of soil loss and modeling of erosion processes. Research efforts are needed to investigate factors affecting the data quality of plots. Spatial scale or size of plots is one of these factors which directly affects measuring runoff and soil loss by means of field plots. The effect of plot size on measured runoff or soil loss from natural plots is known as plot scale effect. On the other hand, variability of runoff and sediment yield from replicated filed plots is a main source of uncertainty in measurement of erosion from plots which should be considered in plot data interpretation processes. Therefore, there is a demand for knowledge of soil erosion processes occurring in plots of different sizes and of factors that determine natural variability, as a basis for obtaining soil loss data of good quality. This study was carried out to investigate the combined effects of these two factors by measurement of runoff and soil loss from replicated plots with different sizes. Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the variability of runoff and soil loss data seven plots, differing in width and length, were constructed in a uniform slope of 9% at three replicates at Koohin Research Station in Qazvin province. The plots were ploughed up to down slope in September 2011. Each plot was isolated using soil beds with a height of 30 cm, to direct generated surface runoff to the lower part of the plots. Runoff collecting systems composed of gutters, pipes and tankswere installed at the end of each plot. During the two-year study period of 2011-2012, plots were maintained in bare conditions and runoff and soil loss were measured for each single event. Precipitation amounts and characteristics were directly measured by an automatic recording tipping-bucket rain gauge located about 200 m from the experimental plots. The entire runoff volume including eroded sediment was measured on

  2. The effect of the runoff size on the pesticide concentration in runoff water and in FOCUS streams simulated by PRZM and TOXSWA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaanse, Paulien I; Van Leerdam, Robert C; Boesten, Jos J T I

    2017-04-15

    Within the European Union the exposure of aquatic organisms to pesticides is assessed by simulations with the so-called FOCUS Surface Water Scenarios. Runoff plays an important role in these scenarios. As little is known about the effect of runoff size on the exposure, we investigated the effect of runoff size on the concentration in the runoff water and in streams simulated with the PRZM and TOXSWA models for two FOCUS runoff scenarios. For weakly sorbing pesticides (K F,oc runoff water decreased exponentially with increasing daily runoff size. The runoff size hardly affected the pesticide concentration in the runoff water of strongly sorbing pesticides (K F,oc ≥1000Lkg -1 ). For weakly sorbing pesticides the concentration in the FOCUS stream reached a maximum at runoff sizes of about 0.3 to 1mm. The concentration increased rapidly when the runoff size increased from 0 to 0.1mm and gradually decreased when runoff exceeded 1mm. For strongly sorbing pesticides the occurrence of the maximum concentration in the stream is clearly less pronounced and lies approximately between 1 and 20mm runoff. So, this work indicates that preventing small runoff events (e.g. by vegetated buffer strips) reduces exposure concentrations strongly for weakly sorbing pesticides. A simple metamodel was developed for the ratio between the concentrations in the stream and in the runoff water. This model predicted the ratios simulated by TOXSWA very well and it demonstrated that (in addition to runoff size and concentration in runoff) the size of the pesticide-free base flow and pesticide treatment ratio of the catchment determine the stream concentration to a large extent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement and modeling of diclosulam runoff under the influence of simulated severe rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wesenbeeck, I J; Peacock, A L; Havens, P L

    2001-01-01

    A runoff study was conducted near Tifton, GA to measure the losses of water, sediment, and diclosulam (N-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-5-ethoxy-7-fluoro-[1,2,4]triazolo-[1,5c]-pyrimidine- 2-sulfonamide), a new broadleaf herbicide, under a 50-mm-in-3-h simulated rainfall event on three separate 0.05-ha plots. Results of a runoff study were used to validate the Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM, v. 3.12) using field-measured soil, chemical, and weather inputs. The model-predicted edge-of-field diclosulam loading was within 1% of the average observed diclosulam runoff from the field study; however, partitioning between phases was not as well predicted. The model was subsequently used with worst-case agricultural practice inputs and a 41-yr weather record from Dublin, GA to simulate edge-of-field runoff losses for the two most prevalent soils (Tifton and Bibb) in the southeastern U.S. peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) market for 328 simulation years, and showed that the 90th percentile runoff amounts, expressed as percent of applied diclosulam, were 1.8, 0.6, and 5.2% for the runoff study plots and Tifton and Bibb soils, respectively. The runoff study and modeling indicated that more than 97% of the total diclosulam runoff was transported off the field by water, with < 3% associated with the sediment. Diclosulam losses due to runoff can be further reduced by lower application rates, tillage and crop residue management practices that reduce edge-of-field runoff, and conservation practices such as vegetated filter strips.

  4. Time focused measurements of roof runoff quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriewer, A.; Horn, H.; Helmreich, B.

    2008-01-01

    Runoff properties and their changes during runoff of a 14 year old zinc roof were investigated. Zinc, lead, cadmium, pH value, rain intensity and electric conductivity have been measured for a period of one year. A runoff rate of 3.73 g/m 2 a and a volume weighted mean zinc concentration of 4.9 mg/L were determined. First flush behaviour was observed in 93% of runoff events. Low rain intensities are correlating with higher zinc concentrations in runoff, whereas the duration of antecedent dry periods could not directly be linked with initial zinc concentrations

  5. Studies on the discharge from Vernagtferner with special regard to meltwater within the firn aquifer runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oerter, H.

    1981-08-01

    The report describes the runoff from a glacier with the runoff from Vernagtferner glacier as an example. Especially the storage and drainage processes in the firn body and the contribution of the snow meltwater to the total runoff are described using dye tracers and the environmental natural isotopes D, T and O-18. (orig./HP) [de

  6. The role of atherectomy in the treatment of lower extremity peripheral artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of lower extremity peripheral artery disease (LE-PAD) continues to increase and associated morbidity remains high. Despite the significant development of percutaneous revascularization strategies, over the past decade, LE-PAD still represents a unique challenge for interventional cardiologists and vascular surgeons. Method Typical features of atherosclerosis that affects peripheral vascular bed (diffuse nature, poor distal runoff, critical limb ischemia, chronic total occlusion) contribute to the disappointing results of traditional percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). New technologies have been developed in attempt to improve the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous revascularization. Among these, atherectomy, debulking and removing atherosclerotic plaque, offers the potential advantage of eliminating stretch on arterial walls and reducing rates of restenosis. Conclusions This review summarizes the features and the current applications of new debulking devices. PMID:23173800

  7. ArcCN-Runoff: An ArcGIS tool for generating curve number and runoff maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, X.; Huang, M.-L.

    2004-01-01

    The development and the application of ArcCN-Runoff tool, an extension of ESRI@ ArcGIS software, are reported. This tool can be applied to determine curve numbers and to calculate runoff or infiltration for a rainfall event in a watershed. Implementation of GIS techniques such as dissolving, intersecting, and a curve-number reference table improve efficiency. Technical processing time may be reduced from days, if not weeks, to hours for producing spatially varied curve number and runoff maps. An application example for a watershed in Lyon County and Osage County, Kansas, USA, is presented. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Runoff and soil loss from bench terraces. 1. An event-based model of rainfall infiltration and surface runoff.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.I.J.M.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Overland flow resulting from an excess of rain over infiltration is an essential component of many models of runoff and erosion from fields or catchments. The spatially variable infiltration (SVI) model and a set of associated equations relating depth of runoff and maximum rate of 'effective' runoff

  9. Surface runoff in the Itaim Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a work done in the Itaim watershed at Taubaté, SP, and had the objective of estimating the surface runoff based on the Curve-Number (CN method in area with vegetation cover of grassland (Brachiaria Decumbens, that prevails in this watershed. The surface runoff was estimated using three different methods: 1st values of accumulated Infiltration (IAc obtained in the field were used, considered as the Potential Infiltration (S, which varied from 15.37 mm to 51.88 mm with an average value of 23.46 mm. With those measured infiltration rates and using the maximum precipitation values for Taubaté, SP, with duration time of 3 hours: P = 54.4; 70.3; 80.8; 86.7; 90.9; 94.1 and 103.9 mm, respectively, for the return times, Tr = 2, 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 and 100 years, the following values of surface runoff were generated: 34.83; 49.33; 59.14; 64.71; 68.69; 71.73 and 81.10 mm, respectively; In the 2nd method it was considered that the prevailing vegetation cover of the watershed was Dirty Pasture (Pasture with regrowth of natural vegetation and therefore, a value of CN = 75 was used and generated a potential infiltration, S = 84,7 mm and resulted in surface runoff values that varied from 11 to 44 mm; In the 3rd method, the value of CN was considered equal to 66.57. This value was calculated weighting the contribution of all land use cover classes of the watershed, and as a result a higher value of potential infiltration, S = 127 mm, was obtained. Consequently, the surface runoff values were 5.33; 11.64; 16.72; 19.83; 22.16; 23.98 and 29.83 mm, respectively. Therefore, the comparison with the results obtained by the two Curve-Number methods (conventional and weighted allowed to be concluded that the Curve-Number method applied in a conventional way underestimated the surface runoff in the studied area. However, results indicate that it is possible to use this method for surface runoff estimates as long as adjustments based on potential

  10. Impact of Roadway Stormwater Runoff on Microbial Contamination in the Receiving Stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Kristen N; Chen, Si; Steinman, Andrew J; He, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    Stormwater runoff from roadways has increasingly become a regulatory concern for water pollution control. Recent work has suggested roadway stormwater runoff as a potential source of microbial pollutants. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of roadway runoff on the microbiological quality of receiving streams. Microbiological quality of roadway stormwater runoff and the receiving stream was monitored during storm events with both cultivation-dependent fecal bacteria enumeration and cultivation-independent high-throughput sequencing techniques. Enumeration of total coliforms as a measure of fecal microbial pollution found consistently lower total coliform counts in roadway runoff than those in the stream water, suggesting that roadway runoff was not a major contributor of microbial pollutants to the receiving stream. Further characterization of the microbial community in the stormwater samples by 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based high-throughput amplicon sequencing revealed significant differences in the microbial composition of stormwater runoff from the roadways and the receiving stream. The differences in microbial composition between the roadway runoff and stream water demonstrate that roadway runoff did not appear to have a major influence on the stream in terms of microbiological quality. Thus, results from both fecal bacteria enumeration and high-throughput amplicon sequencing techniques were consistent that roadway stormwater runoff was not the primary contributor of microbial loading to the stream. Further studies of additional watersheds with distinct characteristics are needed to validate these findings. Understanding gained in this study could support the development of more effective strategies for stormwater management in sensitive watersheds. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Simulation and assessment of urbanization impacts on runoff metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Xia, Jun; Yu, Jingjie

    2018-01-01

    changes. The Qing River catchment as a peri-urban catchment in the Beijing metropolitan area is selected as our study region. Results show that: (1) the dryland agriculture is decreased from 13.9% to 1.5% of the total catchment area in the years 2000–2015, while the percentages of impervious surface...... information for urban planning such as Sponge City design.......Urbanization-induced landuse changes alter runoff regimes in complex ways. In this study, a detailed investigation of the urbanization impacts on runoff regimes is provided by using multiple runoff metrics and with consideration of landuse dynamics. A catchment hydrological model is modified...

  12. Characterization of Urban Runoff Pollution between Dissolved and Particulate Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Zhang; Simin, Li; Fengbing, Tang

    2013-01-01

    To develop urban stormwater management effectively, characterization of urban runoff pollution between dissolved and particulate phases was studied by 12 rainfall events monitored for five typical urban catchments. The average event mean concentration (AEMC) of runoff pollutants in different phases was evaluated. The AEMC values of runoff pollutants in different phases from urban roads were higher than the ones from urban roofs. The proportions of total dissolved solids, total dissolved nitr...

  13. Climate change impact on the river runoff: regional study for the Central Asian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaitseva, Natalya

    2004-01-01

    The water resources of the Aral Sea Basin are jointly used by the Central Asian states. The river flow is concentrated in the two largest transboundary rivers: the Amudarya and Syrdarya Rivers, which run down from the mountains to the plains, cross the deserts and flow into the Aral Sea. Uzbekistan is the major water consumer in the Aral Sea Basin. In accordance with interstate agreements, on average 43-52 km 2 of water per year as allotted for use by Uzbekistan from the boundary rivers. About 90% of river flow is formed beyond Uzbekistan boundaries. Under current conditions, water resource shortages in Uzbekistan, even a small but stable reduction of these resources presents a drastic problem. The degree of impact of possible climate changes on the regime of mountain rivers of the Central Asia can be evaluated by sufficiently reliable mathematical models of the runoff formation in mountains. The basic mathematical model describes a complete cycle of the runoff formation, reflecting the main factors and processes: precipitation, dynamics of a snow cover, evaporation, contribution of melting and rain water to the catchment, glacial runoff, runoff transformation and losses in basin. The model complex consists of the model Of snow cover formation in the mountains basin, model of glacial runoff and model of snow melt and rainfall water inflow transformation in runoff. Model calculations of snow reserves in the mountains under different climatic scenarios have demonstrated their gradual decrease due to growing aridity of the climate. Contribution of the snow is expected to decrease by 15-30%1 especially for rivers, which are snow-fed. At present, the annual glacial runoff of the rivers of the Syrdarya River basin amounts to 8-15%. Under different prognoses,,, increase in this flow of up to 20% is expected. Contribution of glacial runoff to the rivers of the Amudarya River basin might grow 32-39% under the most 'severe' climatic scenarios. During the cropping season, an

  14. Snowmelt Runoff: A New Focus of Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Xu, Yingying; Yan, Baixing; Guan, Jiunian

    2012-01-01

    Irregular precipitation associated with global climate change had been causing various problems in urban regions. Besides the runoff due to rainfall in summer, the snowmelt runoff in early spring could also play an important role in deteriorating the water quality of the receiving waters. Due to global climate change, the snowfall has increased gradually in individual regions, and snowstorms occur more frequently, which leads to an enhancement of snowmelt runoff flow during the melting seasons. What is more, rivers just awaking from freezing cosntitute a frail ecosystem, with poor self-purification capacity, however, the urban snowmelt runoff could carry diverse pollutants accumulated during the winter, such as coal and/or gas combustion products, snowmelting agents, automotive exhaust and so on, which seriously threaten the receiving water quality. Nevertheless, most of the research focused on the rainfall runoff in rainy seasons, and the study on snowmelt runoff is still a neglected field in many countries and regions. In conclusion, due to the considerable water quantity and the worrisome water quality, snowmelt runoff in urban regions with large impervious surface areas should be listed among the important targets in urban nonpoint source pollution management and control. PMID:23202881

  15. Snowmelt runoff: a new focus of urban nonpoint source pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Xu, Yingying; Yan, Baixing; Guan, Jiunian

    2012-11-30

    Irregular precipitation associated with global climate change had been causing various problems in urban regions. Besides the runoff due to rainfall in summer, the snowmelt runoff in early spring could also play an important role in deteriorating the water quality of the receiving waters. Due to global climate change, the snowfall has increased gradually in individual regions, and snowstorms occur more frequently, which leads to an enhancement of snowmelt runoff flow during the melting seasons. What is more, rivers just awaking from freezing constitute a frail ecosystem, with poor self-purification capacity, however, the urban snowmelt runoff could carry diverse pollutants accumulated during the winter, such as coal and/or gas combustion products, snowmelting agents, automotive exhaust and so on, which seriously threaten the receiving water quality. Nevertheless, most of the research focused on the rainfall runoff in rainy seasons, and the study on snowmelt runoff is still a neglected field in many countries and regions. In conclusion, due to the considerable water quantity and the worrisome water quality, snowmelt runoff in urban regions with large impervious surface areas should be listed among the important targets in urban nonpoint source pollution management and control.

  16. ARIES CATCHMENT UPPER AND MIDDLE COURSE SMALL STREAMS SEASONAL RUNOFF REGIME CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CS. HORVATH

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is based on the processing and interpreting data from 16 gauging stations, of which 10 control catchments smaller than 150 km2 and so reflects more faithfully the local characteristics of the runoff. To highlight the runoff regime features during the year we selected three periods (1950-1967, 1950-2009 and 1970-2009. The geographical features of the central eastern part of the Apuseni Mountains, especially the climatic and geomorphic characteristics, are faithfully reflected in the rivers runoff regime. So, on all rivers the dominant is the spring runoff and the lowest percentage of the total annual average water volume is measured in the winter. Distribution and frequency of the richest (March, April and May and the poorest (January, February, August and September average runoff months vary according to the catchments altitude. The multiannual seasonal and monthly variation of the runoff was highlighted by the coefficients of variation. The study reveals that the rhythmic structure of the runoff regime reflects the local supply, the geological conditions and the reliefs morphological and morphometric characteristics.

  17. Perennial grass management impacts on runoff and sediment export from vegetated channels in pulse flow runoff events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, H.M.; Cruse, R.M.; Burras, C.L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the United States Congress is to replace 30% of United States petroleum with biofuels by 2030. If this goal will be accomplished, it is estimated that 25-50% of the land enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) have its biomass removed. However, the purpose of many conservation practices enrolled in CRP is to improve or maintain water quality and not to serve as a source of biomass. This study was conducted to determine if biomass removal has an effect on runoff and sediment export from vegetated channels during low intensity storms that occur frequently. In June 2006, 24 channels were created that measured 2 m x 10 m. The treatments of grass species (big bluestem, corn, smooth bromegrass, and switchgrass) and biomass removal (removed, not removed) were applied to the channels in a split-plot arrangement. Three times in 2007 and 3 more times in 2008, a 787 L load of water with suspended sediment was drained on the head and sides of each experimental unit and the entire load of water that ran off was collected, weighed, and sampled for sediment concentration. Biomass removal increased runoff and sediment by an average of 15% over the two years of the study. The channels planted to perennial C4 grasses were most effective at reducing runoff and sediment export, while the corn was consistently the least effective at reducing runoff and sediment export. (author)

  18. Perennial grass management impacts on runoff and sediment export from vegetated channels in pulse flow runoff events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, H.M. [Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Minnesota-Crookston, 2900 University Avenue, Crookston, MN 56716 (United States); Cruse, R.M.; Burras, C.L. [Agronomy Department, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010-1010 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The goal of the United States Congress is to replace 30% of United States petroleum with biofuels by 2030. If this goal will be accomplished, it is estimated that 25-50% of the land enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) have its biomass removed. However, the purpose of many conservation practices enrolled in CRP is to improve or maintain water quality and not to serve as a source of biomass. This study was conducted to determine if biomass removal has an effect on runoff and sediment export from vegetated channels during low intensity storms that occur frequently. In June 2006, 24 channels were created that measured 2 m x 10 m. The treatments of grass species (big bluestem, corn, smooth bromegrass, and switchgrass) and biomass removal (removed, not removed) were applied to the channels in a split-plot arrangement. Three times in 2007 and 3 more times in 2008, a 787 L load of water with suspended sediment was drained on the head and sides of each experimental unit and the entire load of water that ran off was collected, weighed, and sampled for sediment concentration. Biomass removal increased runoff and sediment by an average of 15% over the two years of the study. The channels planted to perennial C4 grasses were most effective at reducing runoff and sediment export, while the corn was consistently the least effective at reducing runoff and sediment export. (author)

  19. Peripheral Arterial Disease Study (PERART: Prevalence and predictive values of asymptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bundó Magda

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index (AAI is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease. The aim of the PERART study (PERipheral ARTerial disease is to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (both silent and symptomatic in a general population of both sexes and determine its predictive value related to morbimortality (cohort study. Methods/Design This cross-over, cohort study consists of 2 phases: firstly a descriptive, transversal cross-over study to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, and secondly, a cohort study to evaluate the predictive value of AAI in relation to cardiovascular morbimortality. From September 2006 to June 2007, a total of 3,010 patients over the age of 50 years will be randomly selected from a population adscribed to 24 healthcare centres in the province of Barcelona (Spain. The diagnostic criteria of peripheral arterial disease will be considered as an AAI Discussion In this study we hope to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, especially the silent forms, in the general population and establish its relationship with cardiovascular morbimortality. A low AAI may be a better marker of arterial disease than the classical cardiovascular risk factors and may, therefore, contribute to improving the predictive value of the equations of cardiovascular risk and thereby allowing optimisation of multifactorial treatment of atherosclerotic disease.

  20. Surface runoff generation in a small watershed covered by sugarcane and riparian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pires Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since an understanding of how runoff is generated is of great importance to soil conservation, to water availability and to the management of a watershed, the objective of this study was to understand the generation of surface runoff in a watershed covered by sugarcane and riparian forest. Nine surface runoff plots were set up, evenly distributed on the lower, middle and upper slopes. The lower portion was covered by riparian forest. We showed that the average surface runoff coefficient along the slope in the present study was higher than in other studies under different land uses. Furthermore, the surface runoff was higher under sugarcane compared to the riparian forest, especially after sugarcane harvesting. Besides land cover, other factors such as the characteristics of rainfall events, relief and physical soil characteristics such as soil bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity influenced the surface runoff generation.

  1. Runoff characteristics and non-point source pollution analysis in the Taihu Lake Basin: a case study of the town of Xueyan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q D; Sun, J H; Hua, G F; Wang, J H; Wang, H

    2015-10-01

    Non-point source pollution is a significant environmental issue in small watersheds in China. To study the effects of rainfall on pollutants transported by runoff, rainfall was monitored in Xueyan town in the Taihu Lake Basin (TLB) for over 12 consecutive months. The concentrations of different forms of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and chemical oxygen demand, were monitored in runoff and river water across different land use types. The results indicated that pollutant loads were highly variable. Most N losses due to runoff were found around industrial areas (printing factories), while residential areas exhibited the lowest nitrogen losses through runoff. Nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) were the dominant forms of soluble N around printing factories and hotels, respectively. The levels of N in river water were stable prior to the generation of runoff from a rainfall event, after which they were positively correlated to rainfall intensity. In addition, three sites with different areas were selected for a case study to analyze trends in pollutant levels during two rainfall events, using the AnnAGNPS model. The modeled results generally agreed with the observed data, which suggests that AnnAGNPS can be used successfully for modeling runoff nutrient loading in this region. The conclusions of this study provide important information on controlling non-point source pollution in TLB.

  2. Application of MIKE SHE to study the impact of coal mining on river runoff in Gujiao mining area, Shanxi, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Ping

    Full Text Available Coal mining is one of the core industries that contribute to the economic development of a country but deteriorate the environment. Being the primary source of energy, coal has become essential to meet the energy demand of a country. It is excavated by both opencast and underground mining methods and affects the environment, especially hydrological cycle, by discharging huge amounts of mine water. Natural hydrological processes have been well known to be vulnerable to human activities, especially large scale mining activities, which inevitably generate surface cracks and subsidence. It is therefore valuable to assess the impact of mining on river runoff for the sustainable development of regional economy. In this paper, the impact of coal mining on river runoff is assessed in one of the national key coal mining sites, Gujiao mining area, Shanxi Province, China. The characteristics of water cycle are described, the similarities and differences of runoff formation are analyzed in both coal mining and pre-mining periods. The integrated distributed hydrological model named MIKE SHE is employed to simulate and evaluate the influence of coal mining on river runoff. The study shows that mining one ton of raw coal leads to the reduction of river runoff by 2.87 m3 between 1981 and 2008, of which the surface runoff decreases by 0.24 m3 and the baseflow by 2.63 m3. The reduction degree of river runoff for mining one ton of raw coal shows an increasing trend over years. The current study also reveals that large scale coal mining initiates the formation of surface cracks and subsidence, which intercepts overland flow and enhances precipitation infiltration. Together with mine drainage, the natural hydrological processes and the stream flows have been altered and the river run off has been greatly reduced.

  3. Application of MIKE SHE to study the impact of coal mining on river runoff in Gujiao mining area, Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jianhua; Yan, Shiyan; Gu, Pan; Wu, Zening; Hu, Caihong

    2017-01-01

    Coal mining is one of the core industries that contribute to the economic development of a country but deteriorate the environment. Being the primary source of energy, coal has become essential to meet the energy demand of a country. It is excavated by both opencast and underground mining methods and affects the environment, especially hydrological cycle, by discharging huge amounts of mine water. Natural hydrological processes have been well known to be vulnerable to human activities, especially large scale mining activities, which inevitably generate surface cracks and subsidence. It is therefore valuable to assess the impact of mining on river runoff for the sustainable development of regional economy. In this paper, the impact of coal mining on river runoff is assessed in one of the national key coal mining sites, Gujiao mining area, Shanxi Province, China. The characteristics of water cycle are described, the similarities and differences of runoff formation are analyzed in both coal mining and pre-mining periods. The integrated distributed hydrological model named MIKE SHE is employed to simulate and evaluate the influence of coal mining on river runoff. The study shows that mining one ton of raw coal leads to the reduction of river runoff by 2.87 m3 between 1981 and 2008, of which the surface runoff decreases by 0.24 m3 and the baseflow by 2.63 m3. The reduction degree of river runoff for mining one ton of raw coal shows an increasing trend over years. The current study also reveals that large scale coal mining initiates the formation of surface cracks and subsidence, which intercepts overland flow and enhances precipitation infiltration. Together with mine drainage, the natural hydrological processes and the stream flows have been altered and the river run off has been greatly reduced.

  4. Peripherally inserted central catheters. Guidewire versus nonguidewire use: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, S C; Edwards, S; McClure, S

    1992-01-01

    To date, no research articles have been published that explore the practice of using guidewires for placement of peripherally inserted central catheters. The literature contains speculations regarding the pros and cons of guidewire use. However, no studies to date have compared patient outcomes when peripherally inserted central catheter lines are inserted with and without guidewires. To examine the use of guidewires for peripherally inserted central lines, a comparative study was conducted at two acute care facilities, one using guidewires for insertion and one inserting peripherally inserted central catheter lines without guidewires. 109 catheters were studied between January 1, 1990 and January 1, 1991. The primary focus of this study was to examine whether guidewire use places patients at higher risk for catheter-related complications, particularly phlebitis. No significant differences in phlebitis rates between the two study sites were found. Other catheter-related and noncatheter-related complications were similar between the two facilities. The results of this study do not support the belief that guidewire use increases complication rates.

  5. Pollution loads in urban runoff and sanitary wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L

    2004-07-05

    While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control through the establishment of wastewater treatment plants in many developing countries, no considerable planning nor any serious measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution (urban stormwater runoff). The present study is a screening analysis to investigate the pollution loads in urban runoff compared to point source loads as a first prerequisite for planning and management of receiving water quality. To compare pollutant loads from point and non-point urban sources, the pollutant load is expressed as the weight of pollutant per hectare area per year (kg/ha.year). Unit loads were estimated in stormwater runoff, raw sanitary wastewater and secondary treatment effluents in Isfahan, Iran. Results indicate that the annual pollution load in urban runoff is lower than the annual pollution load in sanitary wastewater in areas with low precipitation but it is higher in areas with high precipitation. Two options, namely, advanced treatment (in lieu of secondary treatment) of sanitary wastewater and urban runoff quality control systems (such as detention ponds) were investigated as controlling systems for pollution discharges into receiving waters. The results revealed that for Isfahan, as a low precipitation urban area, advanced treatment is a more suitable option, but for high precipitation urban areas, urban surface runoff quality control installations were more effective for suspended solids and oxygen-demanding matter controls, and that advanced treatment is the more effective option for nutrient control.

  6. Pollution loads in urban runoff and sanitary wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taebi, Amir; Droste, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    While more attention has been paid in recent years to urban point source pollution control through the establishment of wastewater treatment plants in many developing countries, no considerable planning nor any serious measures have been taken to control urban non-point source pollution (urban stormwater runoff). The present study is a screening analysis to investigate the pollution loads in urban runoff compared to point source loads as a first prerequisite for planning and management of receiving water quality. To compare pollutant loads from point and non-point urban sources, the pollutant load is expressed as the weight of pollutant per hectare area per year (kg/ha·year). Unit loads were estimated in stormwater runoff, raw sanitary wastewater and secondary treatment effluents in Isfahan, Iran. Results indicate that the annual pollution load in urban runoff is lower than the annual pollution load in sanitary wastewater in areas with low precipitation but it is higher in areas with high precipitation. Two options, namely, advanced treatment (in lieu of secondary treatment) of sanitary wastewater and urban runoff quality control systems (such as detention ponds) were investigated as controlling systems for pollution discharges into receiving waters. The results revealed that for Isfahan, as a low precipitation urban area, advanced treatment is a more suitable option, but for high precipitation urban areas, urban surface runoff quality control installations were more effective for suspended solids and oxygen-demanding matter controls, and that advanced treatment is the more effective option for nutrient control

  7. Characterizations of the first flush in storm water runoff from an urban roadway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B C; Matsui, S; Shimizu, Y; Matsuda, T

    2005-07-01

    Storm water runoff from urban roadways contains anthropogenic pollutants, which are mainly generated from traffic-related activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of pollutants from the roadway runoff as well as first flush effects. Storm water runoff was sampled during five storm events from the experimental site in Otsu, Shiga, Japan. From the hydrographs and pollutographs for the roadway runoff, the concentration of pollutants increased with increasing runoff flow in the low flow rate event, but did not significantly increase in the high flow rate event. Moreover, according to the analysis of cumulative pollutant mass versus runoff volume curves from five storm events, the first 50% of the runoff volume transported 62% of TOC and Mo, 60% of SS, 59% of Fe, Mn and Cu, 58% of Ni, 57% of Cd and Pb, 56% of Al, 55% of Zn, and 54% of Cr, as the mean values. The first 30% and 80% of the runoff volume also transported 34-43% mass of the pollutants and 82-88% mass of the pollutants, respectively. This study for storm water runoff may also provide useful information to correctly design treatment facilities, such as detention tanks and ponds, filtration and adsorption systems.

  8. Human impacts on runoff regime of middle and lower Yellow River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-fang Sang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the 54-year (1950 to 2003 monthly runoff series from February, April, August, and November, as well as the annual runoff series, measured at both Huayuankou and Lijin hydrological stations were chosen as representative data, and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT was applied to analyze the impacts of human activities on the runoff regime of the middle and lower Yellow River. A point of change in 1970 was first determined, and the observed series before 1970 were considered natural runoff while those after 1970 were restored according to linear trends. Then, the CWT was applied to both the observed and restored runoff series to reveal their variations at multi-temporal scales, including the five temporal ranges of 1–4, 6–8, 9–12, 16–22, and 22–30 years, and the trend at the temporal scale of 54 years. These analysis results are compared and discussed in detail. In conclusion, because of the impacts of human activities, there have been significant changes in the runoff regime in the middle and lower Yellow River since 1970. The decaying tendency of annual runoff has become more pronounced, and the inner-annual distribution of runoff has changed, but human activities have had little impact on the periodic characteristics of runoff.

  9. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE AVERAGE RUNOFF IN THE IZA AND VIȘEU WATERSHEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HORVÁTH CS.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The average runoff represents the main parameter with which one can best evaluate an area’s water resources and it is also an important characteristic in al river runoff research. In this paper we choose a GIS methodology for assessing the spatial evolution of the average runoff, using validity curves we identifies three validity areas in which the runoff changes differently with altitude. The tree curves were charted using the average runoff values of 16 hydrometric stations from the area, eight in the Vișeu and eight in the Iza river catchment. Identifying the appropriate areas of the obtained correlations curves (between specific average runoff and catchments mean altitude allowed the assessment of potential runoff at catchment level and on altitudinal intervals. By integrating the curves functions in to GIS we created an average runoff map for the area; from which one can easily extract runoff data using GIS spatial analyst functions. The study shows that from the three areas the highest runoff corresponds with the third zone but because it’s small area the water volume is also minor. It is also shown that with the use of the created runoff map we can compute relatively quickly correct runoff values for areas without hydrologic control.

  10. Total pollution effect of urban surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongbing; Luo, Lin; Huang, Gu; Liu, Ping; Li, Jingxian; Hu, Sheng; Wang, Fuxiang; Xu, Rui; Huang, Xiaoxue

    2009-01-01

    For pollution research with regard to urban surface runoff, most sampling strategies to date have focused on differences in land usage. With single land-use sampling, total surface runoff pollution effect cannot be evaluated unless every land usage spot is monitored. Through a new sampling strategy known as mixed stormwater sampling for a street community at discharge outlet adjacent to river, this study assessed the total urban surface runoff pollution effect caused by a variety of land uses and the pollutants washed off from the rain pipe system in the Futian River watershed in Shenzhen City of China. The water quality monitoring indices were COD (chemical oxygen demand), TSS (total suspend solid), TP (total phosphorus), TN (total nitrogen) and BOD (biochemical oxygen demand). The sums of total pollution loads discharged into the river for the four indices of COD, TSS, TN, and TP over all seven rainfall events were very different. The mathematical model for simulating total pollution loads was established from discharge outlet mixed stormwater sampling of total pollution loads on the basis of four parameters: rainfall intensity, total land area, impervious land area, and pervious land area. In order to treat surface runoff pollution, the values of MFF30 (mass first flush ratio) and FF30 (first 30% of runoff volume) can be considered as split-flow control criteria to obtain more effective and economical design of structural BMPs (best management practices) facilities.

  11. Study of the Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Meltwater Contribution to the Total Runoff in the Upper Changjiang River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hao Fang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Melt runoff (MR contributes significantly to the total runoff in many river basins. Knowledge of the meltwater contribution (MCR, defined as the ratio of MR to the total runoff to the total runoff benefits water resource management and flood control. A process-based land surface model, Noah-MP, was used to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of MR and MCR in the Upper Changjiang River (as known as Yangtze River Basin (UCRB located in southwestern China. The model was first calibrated and validated using snow cover fraction (SCF, runoff, and evapotranspiration (ET data. The calibrated model was then used to perform two numerical experiments from 1981 to 2010: control experiment that considers MR and an alternative experiment that MR is removed. The difference between two experiments was used to quantify MR and MCR. The results show that in the entire UCRB, MCR was approximately 2.0% during the study period; however, MCR exhibited notable spatiotemporal variability. Four sub-regions over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP showed significant annual MCR ranging from 3.9% to 6.0%, while two sub-regions in the low plain regions showed negligible annual MCR. The spatial distribution of MCR was generally consistent with the distribution of glaciers and elevation distribution. Mann-Kendall (M-K tests of the long-term annual MCR indicated that the four sub-regions in QTP exhibited increasing trends ranging from 0.01%/year to 0.21%/year during the study period but only one displayed statistically significant trend. No trends were found for the peak time (PT of MR and MCR, in contrast, advancing trend were observed for the center time (CT of MR, ranging from 0.01 months/year to 0.02 months/year. These trends are related to the changes of air temperature and precipitation in the study area.

  12. Variation of runoff source areas under different soil wetness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Runoff source areas can serve as focus areas for water quality monitoring and catchment management. In this study, a conceptual form of the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method (SCS-CN) is used to define variable-source runoff areas in a meso-scale catchment in the Zagros mountain region, southwest of ...

  13. Rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments: an important source of water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, S K; Gottschall, N; Wilkes, G; Grégoire, D S; Topp, E; Pintar, K D M; Sunohara, M; Marti, R; Lapen, D R

    2015-01-01

    When surface water levels decline, exposed streambed sediments can be mobilized and washed into the water course when subjected to erosive rainfall. In this study, rainfall simulations were conducted over exposed sediments along stream banks at four distinct locations in an agriculturally dominated river basin with the objective of quantifying the potential for contaminant loading from these often overlooked runoff source areas. At each location, simulations were performed at three different sites. Nitrogen, phosphorus, sediment, fecal indicator bacteria, pathogenic bacteria, and microbial source tracking (MST) markers were examined in both prerainfall sediments and rainfall-induced runoff water. Runoff generation and sediment mobilization occurred quickly (10-150 s) after rainfall initiation. Temporal trends in runoff concentrations were highly variable within and between locations. Total runoff event loads were considered large for many pollutants considered. For instance, the maximum observed total phosphorus runoff load was on the order of 1.5 kg ha. Results also demonstrate that runoff from exposed sediments can be a source of pathogenic bacteria. spp. and spp. were present in runoff from one and three locations, respectively. Ruminant MST markers were also present in runoff from two locations, one of which hosted pasturing cattle with stream access. Overall, this study demonstrated that rainfall-induced runoff from exposed streambed sediments can be an important source of surface water pollution. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Study of the relationship between runoff, rainfall and evaporation watershed in the southern zone of the Mediterranean (case of Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benlarbi, D.; Boutoutaou, D.; Saker, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Water resources in Algeria are not distributed evenly inspace and time that engenders enormous difficulties for their mobilization. Water shortage is becoming a major problem. A number of regions already suffers from water deficiency and the others will soon follow. To solve this problem, the construction of new dams becomes indispensable. Through the hydrological studies and the exploitation of future dams, the evaluation of wateryield in sites of these structures is indispensable. At present, the calculation of the interannual runoff in absence of data for the not gauged watercourse is determined from empirical formulae established especially for the climatic and geographical conditions of Algeria. Unfortunately, all these formulas do not provide accurate results.Watersheds which were used in the study represent almost the entire surface of Northern Algeria whose number is 106 basins.The objective of the present study is to establish working tools, allowing the planners and the managers to determine the value of the interannual runoff of watershed for the climatic conditions of Algeria without going through the empirical formulae often used in the absence of measurable dataand leading to absurd errors.The calculation parameters for interannual runoff from the proposed model are standard meteorological data (air temperature, humidity and pluviometry), always available and periodically broadcastedby meteorological services and hydrology of Algeria. Runoff values calculated by the model are close to the values of measured runoff.The difference between them didnot exceed 15 to 20%. (author)

  15. Studies and Analysis of the Effectiveness of Stormwater Runoff Purification Equipment in Vilnius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidija Jaruševičiūtė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to protect the natural environment from pollution, pollutant reduction in the stormwater runoff of urban areas is a particularly relevant factor. Uneven surface water flow and changes in pollutant concentration complicate conventional matching techniques and processes as well as prolong the duration of time which requires a comprehensive study in this area. Therefore, experiments on inflow stormwater turbidity and impurity with suspended solids and petroleum products were carried out according to the prepared sample collecting methodology. The study evaluated the effectiveness of cleaning a stormwater treatment plant along the settlement chamber in the chosen points. The settling time of impurities found in stormwater was analyzed under the presence of ideal conditions in the laboratory. The conducted experiments established dependence between suspended solids and turbidity. Stormwater pollution by SS was reduced only to 21–35% after heavy rain or a snow melting period in treatment plants. Keywords: storm water runoff, cleaning stormwater treatment plant, pollutants, turbidity, suspended solids, petrol products.DOI: 10.3846/mla.2010.087

  16. Statin use and peripheral sensory perception: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brenton; Williams, Cylie M; Jilbert, Elise; James, Alicia M; Haines, Terry P

    2014-06-01

    Peripheral sensory neuropathy is a neurological deficit resulting in decreased detection of sensation through the peripheral nervous system. Peripheral sensory neuropathy is commonly diagnosed with the use of a monofilament and either a tuning fork or neurothesiometer. Statins are a widely used medication and there has been some debate of association with their use and peripheral sensory neuropathy. This pilot study aimed to test the sensory perception of participants with long-term statin use and compare these results to their peers who were not taking statins. Thirty participants were recruited and equally divided into a statin and non-statin group. Healthy participants were screened by their medical and medication history, Australian Type 2 Diabetes Risk assessment, and random blood glucose level. An assessor who was blinded to the participant group conducted sensory assessments using a 10 g monofilament and neurothesiometer. There was no difference in monofilament testing results between the groups. The statin group was less sensate at the styloid process (p = 0.031) and medial malleolus (p = 0.003) than the control group. Results at the hallux were not statistically significant (p = 0.183). This result is suggestive of a potential association between long-term statin use and a decrease in peripheral sensory perception. This may be because of peripheral sensory neuropathy. Limitations such as consideration of participant height, participant numbers, and inability to analyze results against statin groups are reported. As statins are a life-saving medication, careful consideration should be applied to these results and further research be conducted to determine if these results are applicable to larger populations.

  17. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades rainfall has become more intense in Sicily, making large proportions of steeply sloping agricultural land more vulnerable to soil erosion, mainly orchards and vineyards (Diodato and Bellocchi 2010). The prevention of soil degradation is indirectly addressed in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC). As a consequence, new EU compliance conditions for food producers requires them to have tools and solutions for on-farm implementation of sustainable practices (Singh et al. 2014). The Agricultural Runoff and Best Management Practice Tool has been developed by Syngenta to help farm advisers and managers diagnose the runoff potential from fields with visible signs of soil erosion. The tool consists of 4 steps including the assessment of three key landscape factors (slope, topsoil permeability and depth to restrictive horizon) and 9 mainly soil and crop management factors influencing the runoff potential. Based on the runoff potential score (ranging from 0 to 10), which is linked to a runoff potential class, the Runoff Tool uses in-field and edge-of-the-field Best Management Practices (BMPs) to mitigate runoff (aligned with advice from ECPA's TOPPS-prowadis project). The Runoff tool needs testing in different regions and crops to create a number of use scenarios with regional/crop specific advice on BMPs. For this purpose the Tool has been tested in vineyards of the Tasca d'Almerita and Planeta wineries, which are large family-owned estates with long-standing tradition in viticulture in Sicily. In addition to runoff potential scores, Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) scores have been calculated to allow for a comparison between different diagnostic tools. VSA allows for immediate diagnosis of soil quality (a higher score means a better soil quality) including many indicators of runoff (Shepherd 2008). Runoff potentials were moderate to high in all tested fields. Slopes were classified as

  18. Influence of climate variability on large rivers runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Nurtaev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with IPCC Report the influence of climate change on the water cycle will increase hydrologic variability by means of changing of precipitation patterns, melting of ice and change of runoff. Precipitation has increased in high northern latitudes and decreased in southern latitudes. This study presents an analysis of river runoffs trends in different climatic zones of the world in condition of climate change.

  19. Patency of runoff detected by MR angiography at 3.0 T with cuff-compression: a predictor of successful endovascular recanalization below the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yue-Qi; Zhao, Jun-Gong; Wang, Jue; Tan, Hua-Qiao; Lu, Hai-Tao; Cheng, Ying-Sheng; Wei, Li-Ming; Zhang, Pei-Lei [Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Shanghai (China); Liu, Fang [Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai (China)

    2014-11-15

    Our aim was to assess the reliability of detecting distal runoff vessels using contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) that were occult on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for predicting the outcome of endovascular recanalization (ER). This retrospective analysis comprised 63 patients with diabetes (98 limbs) who underwent ER for infrapopliteal lesions. Before ER, they underwent CE-MRA and DSA for peripheral arterial disease; runoff vessels were detected with CE-MRA, but not with DSA. Immediate and follow-up postoperative outcomes were assessed. Univariate analysis was performed to identify variables associated with successful ER. Successful ER was achieved in 85.7 % of limbs, and runoff score was significantly lower than in failure limbs (5.1 ± 1.1 vs. 6.2 ± 1.3; P < 0.05). During follow-up, sustained ankle-brachial index (ABI) improvement was found in 76.6 % claudication patients, and walking distance improvement in 86.5 %; pain was relieved in 70.6 % of critical limb ischemia (CLI) limbs, ulceration healed in 81.3 %, and limb-salvage rate was 100 %. Restenosis/occlusion rate was higher for patients with CLI at 12 months (48.8 % vs. 96.3 % in claudication; P < 0.01). Runoff score was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of ER success (odds ratio = 4.096, 95 % confidence interval: 2.056-8.158; P < 0.001). Runoff vessels detected using CE-MRA could indicate immediate success and better outcome of ER for infrapopliteal occlusions. (orig.)

  20. Detecting surface runoff location in a small catchment using distributed and simple observation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehotin, Judicaël; Breil, Pascal; Braud, Isabelle; de Lavenne, Alban; Lagouy, Mickaël; Sarrazin, Benoît

    2015-06-01

    Surface runoff is one of the hydrological processes involved in floods, pollution transfer, soil erosion and mudslide. Many models allow the simulation and the mapping of surface runoff and erosion hazards. Field observations of this hydrological process are not common although they are crucial to evaluate surface runoff models and to investigate or assess different kinds of hazards linked to this process. In this study, a simple field monitoring network is implemented to assess the relevance of a surface runoff susceptibility mapping method. The network is based on spatially distributed observations (nine different locations in the catchment) of soil water content and rainfall events. These data are analyzed to determine if surface runoff occurs. Two surface runoff mechanisms are considered: surface runoff by saturation of the soil surface horizon and surface runoff by infiltration excess (also called hortonian runoff). The monitoring strategy includes continuous records of soil surface water content and rainfall with a 5 min time step. Soil infiltration capacity time series are calculated using field soil water content and in situ measurements of soil hydraulic conductivity. Comparison of soil infiltration capacity and rainfall intensity time series allows detecting the occurrence of surface runoff by infiltration-excess. Comparison of surface soil water content with saturated water content values allows detecting the occurrence of surface runoff by saturation of the soil surface horizon. Automatic records were complemented with direct field observations of surface runoff in the experimental catchment after each significant rainfall event. The presented observation method allows the identification of fast and short-lived surface runoff processes at a small spatial and temporal resolution in natural conditions. The results also highlight the relationship between surface runoff and factors usually integrated in surface runoff mapping such as topography, rainfall

  1. Characterization of Urban Runoff Pollution between Dissolved and Particulate Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhang; Simin, Li; Fengbing, Tang

    2013-01-01

    To develop urban stormwater management effectively, characterization of urban runoff pollution between dissolved and particulate phases was studied by 12 rainfall events monitored for five typical urban catchments. The average event mean concentration (AEMC) of runoff pollutants in different phases was evaluated. The AEMC values of runoff pollutants in different phases from urban roads were higher than the ones from urban roofs. The proportions of total dissolved solids, total dissolved nitrogen, and total dissolved phosphorus in total ones for all the catchments were 26.19%–30.91%, 83.29%–90.51%, and 61.54–68.09%, respectively. During rainfall events, the pollutant concentration at the initial stage of rainfall was high and then sharply decreased to a low value. Affected by catchments characterization and rainfall distribution, the highest concentration of road pollutants might appear in the later period of rainfall. Strong correlations were also found among runoffs pollutants in different phases. Total suspended solid could be considered as a surrogate for particulate matters in both road and roof runoff, while dissolved chemical oxygen demand could be regarded as a surrogate for dissolved matters in roof runoff. PMID:23935444

  2. Characterization of urban runoff pollution between dissolved and particulate phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhang; Simin, Li; Fengbing, Tang

    2013-01-01

    To develop urban stormwater management effectively, characterization of urban runoff pollution between dissolved and particulate phases was studied by 12 rainfall events monitored for five typical urban catchments. The average event mean concentration (AEMC) of runoff pollutants in different phases was evaluated. The AEMC values of runoff pollutants in different phases from urban roads were higher than the ones from urban roofs. The proportions of total dissolved solids, total dissolved nitrogen, and total dissolved phosphorus in total ones for all the catchments were 26.19%-30.91%, 83.29%-90.51%, and 61.54-68.09%, respectively. During rainfall events, the pollutant concentration at the initial stage of rainfall was high and then sharply decreased to a low value. Affected by catchments characterization and rainfall distribution, the highest concentration of road pollutants might appear in the later period of rainfall. Strong correlations were also found among runoffs pollutants in different phases. Total suspended solid could be considered as a surrogate for particulate matters in both road and roof runoff, while dissolved chemical oxygen demand could be regarded as a surrogate for dissolved matters in roof runoff.

  3. A glacier runoff extension to the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beusekom, Ashley E.; Viger, Roland

    2016-01-01

    A module to simulate glacier runoff, PRMSglacier, was added to PRMS (Precipitation Runoff Modeling System), a distributed-parameter, physical-process hydrological simulation code. The extension does not require extensive on-glacier measurements or computational expense but still relies on physical principles over empirical relations as much as is feasible while maintaining model usability. PRMSglacier is validated on two basins in Alaska, Wolverine, and Gulkana Glacier basin, which have been studied since 1966 and have a substantial amount of data with which to test model performance over a long period of time covering a wide range of climatic and hydrologic conditions. When error in field measurements is considered, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies of streamflow are 0.87 and 0.86, the absolute bias fractions of the winter mass balance simulations are 0.10 and 0.08, and the absolute bias fractions of the summer mass balances are 0.01 and 0.03, all computed over 42 years for the Wolverine and Gulkana Glacier basins, respectively. Without taking into account measurement error, the values are still within the range achieved by the more computationally expensive codes tested over shorter time periods.

  4. Runoff and sediment transport in the arid regions of Argentina and India - a case study in comparative hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, K.D.; Menenti, M.; Huygen, J.; Fernandez, P.C.; Vich, A.

    1996-01-01

    The arid zones of Argentina and India have been compared. In both regions run-off is often generated by the Hortonian infiltration surplus overland flow, and run-off response to precipitation input tends to be rapid. The sediment transport is governedby the transport capacity of run-off rather than

  5. Change detection of runoff-urban growth relationship in urbanised watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abas, Aisya Azizah; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-01-01

    Urban growth has negative environmental impacts that create water-based disasters such as flash floods and storm runoff causing billions of dollars worth of damage each year. Due to serious flash floods in urbanised areas of Malaysia, water resource management is a vital issue. This paper reports on a study that has been carried out using remote sensing techniques and hydrological modelling for examining the spatial patterns changes of urban areas and its impacts on surface runoff. The estimation of surface runoff based on the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS CN) method was performed by integrating both remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. Remote sensing is a data sources for monitoring urban growth by quantifying the changes of urban area and its environmental impact are then analysed by using a GIS-based hydrological model. By linking the integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS, the relationship of runoff with urban expansion are further examined. Hence, the changes in runoff due to urbanisation are analysed. This methodology is applied to the central region of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur, where rapid urban growth has occurred over the last decade. The results showed that there was a significant between spatial patterns of urban growth and estimated runoff depth. The increase in runoff from year 2000, 2006 and 2010 are estimated about five percent

  6. Sampling and chemical analysis of urban street runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, J.; Striebel, T.; Robien, A.; Herrmann, R.

    1993-01-01

    In order to characterize the environmentally relevant physical and chemical properties of urban street runoff, an automatic sampling device was developed. Precipitation samples were collected together with runoff samples. Organic and inorganic compounds were analysed in the runoff. Dissolved and particle bound substances were analysed separately. The concentrations in runoff are generally considerably higher than in precipitation. Concentrations of lead, fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, in particular are higher in runoffs at sites with high traffic densities than at sites with low traffic densities. Preceding dry period normally has no effect on the measured concentrations. The typical chemograph of a dissolved substance shows a maximum at the beginning of the event dropping quickly to a minimum, which often coincides with the maximum in runoff rate. A slight rise is observed with decreasing runoff rates at the end of the event. Applying a mathematical model, chemographs may be described by three terms: - Relatively large amounts of easily soluble material at the beginning of the event decrease with increasing runoff. Conservative behaviour is assumed. - A part which varies inversely to the runoff rate. This term assumes zero-order kinetics; the amount dissolved from surfaces is constant with time. - A small constant term. Concentrations of particle bound substances correlate with amounts of total suspended solids. Frequently a negative correlation between the specific concentration of substances and the concentration of total suspended solids is observed. (orig.) [de

  7. Cropland filter strip removal of cattle manure constituents in runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is little scientifically-derived information available to help identify setback distances required to effectively reduce contaminants from incoming runoff on cropland areas. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of cropland filter strip (CFS) length and runoff rate on concen...

  8. Impacts of climate variability on the runoff in the South Eastern part of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizama Rivas, Bernardo; Koleva-Lizama, Ivanka

    2004-01-01

    The basic climatic factors, which affect the river runoff, are atmospheric precipitation and temperature. On the basis of the set of data from some hydro-meteorological gauging stations with more than 45 years observations have been studied the effect of meteorological conditions on runoff in the southeastern region of Bulgaria. The change of the temperature, precipitation and runoff over the southeastern Bulgarian catchments are investigated and analyzed. During the application of several statistical tests was found that there are changes in the runoff, which are not caused by the man's activity. The features in the variations of above mentioned hydro-meteorological elements and their inherent trends are determined. The results of this study show that the runoff decreases considerably all over the studied region in the last years. An attempt to find a cause of the changes was done. The significant tendency to gradual reduction of runoff in the region is due to considerably decrease of the precipitation all over the Balkans. The study shows that high temperatures and low precipitation conduct to drought in the region and appears unsuitable conditions for the river runoff feeding and development of plants. (Author)

  9. Volumetric runoff coefficients for experimental rural catchments in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguas, Encarnación V.; Molina, Cecilio; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Ayuso, José L.; Casalí, Javier; Cid, Patricio; Dafonte, Jorge; Duarte, Antonio C.; Farguell, Joaquim; Giménez, Rafael; Giráldez, Juan V.; Gómez, Helena; Gómez, Jose A.; González-Hidalgo, J. Carlos; Keizer, J. Jacob; Lucía, Ana; Mateos, Luciano; Rodríguez-Blanco, M. Luz; Schnabel, Sussane; Serrano-Muela, M. Pilar

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of runoff and peaks therein is essential for designing hydraulic infrastructures and for assessing the hydrological implications of likely scenarios of climate and/or land-use change. Different methods are available to calculate runoff coefficients. For instance, the runoff coefficient of a catchment can be described either as the ratio of total depth of runoff to total depth of rainfall or as the ratio of peak flow to rainfall intensity for the time of concentration (Dhakal et al. 2012). If the first definition is considered, runoff coefficients represent the global effect of different features and states of catchments and its determination requires a suitable analysis according to the objectives pursued (Chow et al., 1988). In this work, rainfall-runoff data and physical attributes from small rural catchments located in the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain) were examined in order to compare the representative values of runoff coefficients using three different approaches: i) statistical analysis of rainfall-runoff data and their quantiles (Dhakal et al., 2012); ii) probabilistic runoff coefficients from the rank-ordered pairs of observed rainfall-runoff data and their relationships with rainfall depths (Schaake et al., 1967); iii) finally, a multiple linear model based on geomorphological attributes. These catchments exhibit great variety with respect to their natural settings, such as climate, topography and lithology. We present a preliminary analysis of the rainfall-runoff relationships as well as their variability in a complex context such as the Iberian Peninsula where contrasted environmental systems coexist. We also discuss reference parameters representing runoff coefficients commonly included into hydrological models. This study is conceived as the first step to explore further working protocols and modeling gaps in a very susceptible area to the climate change such as the Iberian Peninsula's, where the analysis of runoff coefficients is

  10. Run-off from roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to find the run-off from roof material a roof has been constructed with two different slopes (30 deg C and 45 deg C). Beryllium-7 and caesium-137 has been used as tracers. Considering new roof material the pollution removed by runoff processes has been shown to be very different for various roof materials. The pollution is much more easily removed from silicon-treated material than from porous red-tile roof material. Caesium is removed more easily than beryllium. The content of caesium in old roof materials is greater in red-tile than in other less-porous materials. However, the measured removal from new material does not correspond to the amount accumulated in the old. This could be explained by weathering and by saturation effects. This last effect is probably the more important. The measurements on old material indicates a removal of 44-86% of the caesium pollution by run-off, whereas the measurement on new showed a removal of only 31-50%. It has been demonstrated that the pollution concentration in the run-off water could be very different from that in rainwater. The work was part of the EEC Radiation Protection Programme and done under a subcontract with Association Euratom-C.E.A. No. SC-014-BIO-F-423-DK(SD) under contract No. BIO-F-423-81-F. (author)

  11. Impacts of Spatial Distribution of Impervious Areas on Runoff Response of Hillslope Catchments: Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study analyzes variations in the model-projected changes in catchment runoff response after urbanization that stem from variations in the spatial distribution of impervious areas, interevent differences in temporal rainfall structure, and antecedent soil moisture (ASM). In t...

  12. ESTIMATION OF RUNOFF IN AN UNGAUGED RURAL WATERSHED, TAMILNADU STATE, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    MANOHARAN, A; MURUGAPPAN, A

    2012-01-01

    Runoff estimation in ungauged catchment is a challenge for the hydrological engineers and planners. For any hydrological study on an ungauged watershed, a methodology has to be appropriately selected for the determination of runoff at its outlet. Several methods have been used to estimate the runoff from a watershed. GIS and Remote Sensing techniques seem to be accurate and sensitive that includes several important properties of watershed namely, soil permeability, landuse and antecedent soil...

  13. A Theory of Strategic Voting in Runoff Elections

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent Bouton

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the properties of runoff electoral systems when voters are strategic. A model of three-candidate runoff elections is presented, and two new features are included: the risk of upset victory in the second round is endogenous, and many types of runoff systems are considered. Three main results emerge. First, runoff elections produce equilibria in which only two candidates receive a positive fraction of the votes. Second, a sincere voting equilibrium does not always exist. Fin...

  14. Frequency analysis of urban runoff quality in an urbanizing catchment of Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huapeng; Tan, Xiaolong; Fu, Guangtao; Zhang, Yingying; Huang, Yuefei

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the frequency distribution of urban runoff quality indicators using a long-term continuous simulation approach and evaluates the impacts of proposed runoff control schemes on runoff quality in an urbanizing catchment in Shenzhen, China. Four different indicators are considered to provide a comprehensive assessment of the potential impacts: total runoff depth, event pollutant load, Event Mean Concentration, and peak concentration during a rainfall event. The results obtained indicate that urban runoff quantity and quality in the catchment have significant variations in rainfall events and a very high rate of non-compliance with surface water quality regulations. Three runoff control schemes with the capacity to intercept an initial runoff depth of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 15 mm are evaluated, respectively, and diminishing marginal benefits are found with increasing interception levels in terms of water quality improvement. The effects of seasonal variation in rainfall events are investigated to provide a better understanding of the performance of the runoff control schemes. The pre-flood season has higher risk of poor water quality than other seasons after runoff control. This study demonstrates that frequency analysis of urban runoff quantity and quality provides a probabilistic evaluation of pollution control measures, and thus helps frame a risk-based decision making for urban runoff quality management in an urbanizing catchment.

  15. Long-term runoff changes in regions of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miklanek, Pavol; Pekarova; Pavla

    2004-01-01

    Mean annual runoff variability includes both natural and anthropogenic (climate change) impacts. Aim of the paper is to identify the long-term trends and the cyclic runoff components of selected Slovak rivers for the period 1931-2000, and of the Danube river for the period 1840-2000. The variability is analysed by the long-term runoff trends of 27 Slovak rivers for the period 1931-2000. The stations were included into the Slovak National Climate Program and they are supposed not to be influenced by anthropogenic activities except of possible climate change. Comparison of the monthly runoff series of the 27 rivers allowed us to draw 3 regions with different runoff trends on the territory of Slovakia (constant trend in Northern and Eastern Slovakia, slow decrease in Central Slovakia, and rapid decrease in Southern Slovakia; The identification of different cyclic components of the runoff series is included. The length of the series allows to identify the 22-year cycles as maximum. By means of the longer runoff series of the Danube river it is shown that the more dry periods occurred in the central Europe and Slovakia in mid 19 th century. The longer Danube series were used also to find the longer runoff cycles of about 31 and 46 years. The mean annual temperature in Europe was lower by 0.6 o C in mid 19 th century compared to 1990s. The temperature increase is put down to climate change impact. The driest period shown by Danube runoff series in mid 19 th century occurred before the start of the climate change. Therefore it is probable that the long-term runoff variability has its own dynamics as well. (Author)

  16. Random Modeling of Daily Rainfall and Runoff Using a Seasonal Model and Wavelet Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-ming Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Instead of Fourier smoothing, this study applied wavelet denoising to acquire the smooth seasonal mean and corresponding perturbation term from daily rainfall and runoff data in traditional seasonal models, which use seasonal means for hydrological time series forecasting. The denoised rainfall and runoff time series data were regarded as the smooth seasonal mean. The probability distribution of the percentage coefficients can be obtained from calibrated daily rainfall and runoff data. For validated daily rainfall and runoff data, percentage coefficients were randomly generated according to the probability distribution and the law of linear proportion. Multiplying the generated percentage coefficient by the smooth seasonal mean resulted in the corresponding perturbation term. Random modeling of daily rainfall and runoff can be obtained by adding the perturbation term to the smooth seasonal mean. To verify the accuracy of the proposed method, daily rainfall and runoff data for the Wu-Tu watershed were analyzed. The analytical results demonstrate that wavelet denoising enhances the precision of daily rainfall and runoff modeling of the seasonal model. In addition, the wavelet denoising technique proposed in this study can obtain the smooth seasonal mean of rainfall and runoff processes and is suitable for modeling actual daily rainfall and runoff processes.

  17. Impacts of the active layer on runoff in an upland permafrost basin, northern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tanguang; Zhang, Tingjun; Guo, Hong; Hu, Yuantao; Shang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yulan

    2018-01-01

    The paucity of studies on permafrost runoff generation processes, especially in mountain permafrost, constrains the understanding of permafrost hydrology and prediction of hydrological responses to permafrost degradation. This study investigated runoff generation processes, in addition to the contribution of summer thaw depth, soil temperature, soil moisture, and precipitation to streamflow in a small upland permafrost basin in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Results indicated that the thawing period and the duration of the zero-curtain were longer in permafrost of the northern Tibetan Plateau than in the Arctic. Limited snowmelt delayed the initiation of surface runoff in the peat permafrost in the study area. The runoff displayed intermittent generation, with the duration of most runoff events lasting less than 24 h. Precipitation without runoff generation was generally correlated with lower soil moisture conditions. Combined analysis suggested runoff generation in this region was controlled by soil temperature, thaw depth, precipitation frequency and amount, and antecedent soil moisture. This study serves as an important baseline to evaluate future environmental changes on the Tibetan Plateau.

  18. APPLICATION OF GIS IN MODELING ZILBERCHAI BASIN RUNOFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Malekani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Runoff is one of most important hydrological variables that are used in many civil works, planning for optimal use of reservoirs, organizing rivers and warning flood. The runoff curve number (CN is a key factor in determining runoff in the SCS (Soil Conservation Service based hydrologic modeling method. The traditional SCS-CN method for calculating the composite curve number consumes a major portion of the hydrologic modeling time. Therefore, geographic information systems (GIS are now being used in combination with the SCS-CN method. This work uses a methodology of determining surface runoff by Geographic Information System model and applying SCS-CN method that needs the necessary parameters such as land use map, hydrologic soil groups, rainfall data, DEM, physiographic characteristic of the basin. The model is built by implementing some well known hydrologic methods in GIS like as ArcHydro, ArcCN-Runoff for modeling of Zilberchai basin runoff. The results show that the high average weighted of curve number indicate that permeability of the basin is low and therefore likelihood of flooding is high. So the fundamental works is essential in order to increase water infiltration in Zilberchai basin and to avoid wasting surface water resources. Also comparing the results of the computed and observed runoff value show that use of GIS tools in addition to accelerate the calculation of the runoff also increase the accuracy of the results. This paper clearly demonstrates that the integration of GIS with the SCS-CN method provides a powerful tool for estimating runoff volumes in large basins.

  19. Application of GIS in Modeling Zilberchai Basin Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekani, L.; Khaleghi, S.; Mahmoodi, M.

    2014-10-01

    Runoff is one of most important hydrological variables that are used in many civil works, planning for optimal use of reservoirs, organizing rivers and warning flood. The runoff curve number (CN) is a key factor in determining runoff in the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) based hydrologic modeling method. The traditional SCS-CN method for calculating the composite curve number consumes a major portion of the hydrologic modeling time. Therefore, geographic information systems (GIS) are now being used in combination with the SCS-CN method. This work uses a methodology of determining surface runoff by Geographic Information System model and applying SCS-CN method that needs the necessary parameters such as land use map, hydrologic soil groups, rainfall data, DEM, physiographic characteristic of the basin. The model is built by implementing some well known hydrologic methods in GIS like as ArcHydro, ArcCN-Runoff for modeling of Zilberchai basin runoff. The results show that the high average weighted of curve number indicate that permeability of the basin is low and therefore likelihood of flooding is high. So the fundamental works is essential in order to increase water infiltration in Zilberchai basin and to avoid wasting surface water resources. Also comparing the results of the computed and observed runoff value show that use of GIS tools in addition to accelerate the calculation of the runoff also increase the accuracy of the results. This paper clearly demonstrates that the integration of GIS with the SCS-CN method provides a powerful tool for estimating runoff volumes in large basins.

  20. MODELING OF STORM WATER RUNOFF FROM GREEN ROOFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Burszta-Adamiak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Apart from direct measurements, modelling of runoff from green roofs is valuable source of information about effectiveness of this type of structure from hydrological point of view. Among different type of models, the most frequently used are numerical models. They allow to assess the impact of green roofs on decrease and attenuation of runoff, reduction of peak runoff and value of water retention. This paper presents preliminary results of research on computing the rate of runoff from green roofs using GARDENIA model. The analysis has been carried out for selected rainfall events registered during measuring campaign on pilot-scale green roofs. Obtained results are promising and show good fit between observed and simulated runoff.

  1. Impact of climate variability on runoff in the north-central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Lin, Wei; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2014-01-01

    Large changes in runoff in the north-central United States have occurred during the past century, with larger floods and increases in runoff tending to occur from the 1970s to the present. The attribution of these changes is a subject of much interest. Long-term precipitation, temperature, and streamflow records were used to compare changes in precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) to changes in runoff within 25 stream basins. The basins studied were organized into four groups, each one representing basins similar in topography, climate, and historic patterns of runoff. Precipitation, PET, and runoff data were adjusted for near-decadal scale variability to examine longer-term changes. A nonlinear water-balance analysis shows that changes in precipitation and PET explain the majority of multidecadal spatial/temporal variability of runoff and flood magnitudes, with precipitation being the dominant driver. Historical changes in climate and runoff in the region appear to be more consistent with complex transient shifts in seasonal climatic conditions than with gradual climate change. A portion of the unexplained variability likely stems from land-use change.

  2. Comparative assessment of predictions in ungauged basins – Part 3: Runoff signatures in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Viglione

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This is the third of a three-part paper series through which we assess the performance of runoff predictions in ungauged basins in a comparative way. Whereas the two previous papers by Parajka et al. (2013 and Salinas et al. (2013 assess the regionalisation performance of hydrographs and hydrological extremes on the basis of a comprehensive literature review of thousands of case studies around the world, in this paper we jointly assess prediction performance of a range of runoff signatures for a consistent and rich dataset. Daily runoff time series are predicted for 213 catchments in Austria by a regionalised rainfall–runoff model and by Top-kriging, a geostatistical estimation method that accounts for the river network hierarchy. From the runoff time-series, six runoff signatures are extracted: annual runoff, seasonal runoff, flow duration curves, low flows, high flows and runoff hydrographs. The predictive performance is assessed in terms of the bias, error spread and proportion of unexplained spatial variance of statistical measures of these signatures in cross-validation (blind testing mode. Results of the comparative assessment show that, in Austria, the predictive performance increases with catchment area for both methods and for most signatures, it tends to increase with elevation for the regionalised rainfall–runoff model, while the dependence on climate characteristics is weaker. Annual and seasonal runoff can be predicted more accurately than all other signatures. The spatial variability of high flows in ungauged basins is the most difficult to estimate followed by the low flows. It also turns out that in this data-rich study in Austria, the geostatistical approach (Top-kriging generally outperforms the regionalised rainfall–runoff model.

  3. Quantifying rainfall-runoff relationships on the Mieso Hypo Calcic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean annual rainfall at Mieso is 738 mm. The soil is a Hypo Calcic Vertisol with a high clay and silt content and is very susceptible to crusting. To achieve the objective of the study, rainfall-runoff measurements were made during 2003 and 2004 on 2 m x 2 m plots provided with a runoff measuring system, and replicated ...

  4. [Total pollution features of urban runoff outlet for urban river].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong-Bing; Luo, Lin; Huang, Gu; He, Qiang; Liu, Ping

    2009-11-01

    The urban stormwater runoff discharged to urban river, especially to rainfall source river, cannot be ignored. In this study, the Futian River watershed in Shenzhen city in a typical southern city of China is taken as the research object. In order to guide the pollution control for urban river, the eighteen rainfall events were monitored, and the total pollution features of the urban runoff outlet for this urban river were analyzed and discussed by using the process of pollutographs, the identifying to first flush, event mean concentration (EMC), etc. Results show that the concentrations of COD, SS, TN, TP and BOD5 are ten times more than the grade V of the environmental quality standards for surface water during the runoff time; the pollution caused by heavy metals (Cr, Ge, Cu, Hg and As) in runoff at a typical rainfall event is serious; the average and range of pollutant concentration at this runoff outlet in study area are evidently higher than at Shapingba in Chongqing city of China and at Silerwood in Canada, but are lower than at Shilipu in Wuhan city of China. The first flushes of COD, SS, BOD5, especially COD and SS, are evident, but the TN and TP are not. The average EMC of COD, TN, TP and BOD5 are 224.14, 571.15, 5.223, 2.04, 143.5 mg/L, respectively. To some extent, the EMC of COD is about two times of the value of the near cities, Macao and Zhuhai. The EMC of TN and TP are obviously higher than Beijing, Guangzhou and Shanghai. To compared with foreign counties, the EMC of the study area in Shenzhen is obviously much higher than the cities of Korean, USA and Canada. So the total pollution caused by the urban surface runoff in study area is serious and necessary to be treated.

  5. [A review of green roof performance towards management of roof runoff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-ping; Huang, Pei; Zhou, Zhi-xiang; Gao, Chi

    2015-08-01

    Green roof has a significant influence on reducing runoff volume, delaying runoff-yielding time, reducing the peak flow and improving runoff quality. This paper addressed the related research around the world and concluded from several aspects, i.e., the definition of green roof of different types, the mechanism how green roof manages runoff quantity and quality, the ability how green roof controls roof runoff, and the influence factors of green roof toward runoff quantity and quality. Afterwards, there was a need for more future work on research of green roof toward roof runoff, i.e., vegetation selection of green roof, efficient construction model selection of green roof, the regulating characteristics of green roof on roof runoff, the value assessment of green roof on roof runoff, analysis of source-sink function of green roof on the water pollutants of roof runoff and the research on the mitigation measures of roof runoff pollution. This paper provided a guideline to develop green roofs aiming to regulating roof runoff.

  6. Comparison between snowmelt-runoff and rainfall-runoff nonpoint source pollution in a typical urban catchment in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhi, Xiaosha; Shen, Zhenyao; Dai, Ying; Aini, Guzhanuer

    2018-01-01

    As a climate-driven event, nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is caused by rainfall- or snowmelt-runoff processes; however, few studies have compared the characteristics and mechanisms of these two kinds of NPS processes. In this study, three factors relating to urban NPS, including surface dust, snowmelt, and rainfall-runoff processes, were analyzed comprehensively by both field sampling and laboratory experiments. The seasonal variation and leaching characteristics of pollutants in surface dust were explored, and the runoff quality of snowmelt NPS and rainfall NPS were compared. The results indicated that dusts are the main sources of urban NPS and more pollutants are deposited in dust samples during winter and spring. However, pollutants in surface dust showed a low leaching ratio, which indicated most NPS pollutants would be carried as particulate forms. Compared to surface layer, underlying snow contained higher chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids (TSS), Cu, Fe, Mn, and Pb concentrations, while the event mean concentration of most pollutants in snowmelt tended to be higher in roads. Moreover, the TSS and heavy metal content of snowmelt NPS was always higher than those of rainfall NPS, which indicated the importance of controlling snowmelt pollution for effective water quality management.

  7. Limited Dissolved Phosphorus Runoff Losses from Layered Double Hydroxide and Struvite Fertilizers in a Rainfall Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaert, Maarten; da Silva, Rodrigo C; Degryse, Fien; McLaughlin, Mike J; Smolders, Erik

    2018-03-01

    The enrichment of P in surface waters has been linked to P runoff from agricultural fields amended with fertilizers. Novel slow-release mineral fertilizers, such as struvite and P-exchanged layered double hydroxides (LDHs), have received increasing attention for P recycling from waste streams, and these fertilizers may potentially reduce the risk of runoff losses. Here, a rainfall simulation experiment was performed to evaluate P runoff associated with the application of recycled slow-release fertilizers relative to that of a soluble fertilizer. Monoammonium phosphate (MAP), struvite, and LDH granular fertilizers were broadcasted at equal total P doses on soil packed in trays (5% slope) and covered with perennial ryegrass ( L.). Four rainfall simulation events of 30 min were performed at 1, 5, 15, and 30 d after the fertilizer application. Runoff water from the trays was collected, filtered, and analyzed for dissolved P. For the MAP treatment, P runoff losses were high in the first two rain events and leveled off in later rain events. In total, 42% of the applied P in the MAP treatment was lost due to runoff. In the slow-release fertilizer treatments, P runoff losses were limited to 1.9 (struvite) and 2.4% (LDH) of the applied doses and were more similar over the different rain events. The use of these novel P fertilizer forms could be beneficial in areas with a high risk of surface water eutrophication and a history of intensive fertilization. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Modeling rainfall-runoff process using soft computing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisi, Ozgur; Shiri, Jalal; Tombul, Mustafa

    2013-02-01

    Rainfall-runoff process was modeled for a small catchment in Turkey, using 4 years (1987-1991) of measurements of independent variables of rainfall and runoff values. The models used in the study were Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Gene Expression Programming (GEP) which are Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches. The applied models were trained and tested using various combinations of the independent variables. The goodness of fit for the model was evaluated in terms of the coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), coefficient of efficiency (CE) and scatter index (SI). A comparison was also made between these models and traditional Multi Linear Regression (MLR) model. The study provides evidence that GEP (with RMSE=17.82 l/s, MAE=6.61 l/s, CE=0.72 and R2=0.978) is capable of modeling rainfall-runoff process and is a viable alternative to other applied artificial intelligence and MLR time-series methods.

  9. Trend and concentrations of legacy lead (Pb) in highway runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayhanian, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the results of lead (Pb) concentrations from both highway runoff and contaminated soil along 32 and 23 highway sites, respectively. In general, the Pb concentration on topsoil (0–15 cm) along highways was much higher than the Pb concentration in subsurface soil (15–60 cm). The Pb deposited on soil appears to be anthropogenic and a strong correlation was found between the Pb concentration in surface soil and highway runoff in urban areas. The concentration of Pb measured during 1980s from highways runoff throughout the world was up to 11 times higher than the measured values in mid 1990s and 2000s. The current Pb deposited on soil near highways appears to be a mixture of paint, tire weight balance and old leaded gasoline combustion. Overall, the Pb phase-out regulation reduced the Pb deposits in the environment and consequently lowered Pb loading into receiving waters. - Highlights: ► Pb concentrations in highway runoff ranged from 0.5 to 752 mg/L. ► 78% of total lead concentration in highway runoff was in particulate form. ► Pb deposited on highway sites was mostly within 0 to 15 cm of soil column. ► Pb concentration in highway runoff and top soil was strongly correlated. ► Current Pb concentration in highway runoff is up to 11 times lower than late 1980s. - Most Pb deposited on soil near highways is within the top 15 cm. This Pb is the major sources of Pb concentration in highway runoff that has substantially been reduced since lead phase-out era.

  10. Case study of physiotherapeutic treatment of patient with diagnosis facial nerve peripheral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Zahrádková, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    Title of Bachelorʼs thesis: Case study of physiotherapeutic treatment of patient with diagnosis facial nerve peripheral palsy. Aim of thesis: Summary of theoretical findings of patientʼs diagnosis, study metodology of physiotherapeutic care, treatment design, monitoring of treatment, and evaluate the effect of patient with diagnosis facial nerve peripheral palsy. Summary: This thesis comprehensively summarizes the findings of of peripheral facial nerve palsy and it's treatment with physiotera...

  11. Runoff of particle bound pollutants from urban impervious surfaces studied by analysis of sediments from stormwater traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jartun, Morten; Ottesen, Rolf Tore; Steinnes, Eiliv; Volden, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Runoff sediments from 68 small stormwater traps around the harbor of urban Bergen, Norway, were sampled and the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heavy metals, and total organic carbon (TOC) were determined in addition to grain size. Our study provides empirical data from a large area in the interface between the urban and marine environment, studying the active transport of pollutants from land-based sources. The results of the analyses clearly demonstrate the importance of the urban environment representing a variety of contamination sources, and that stormwater runoff is an important dispersion mechanism of toxic pollutants. The concentrations of different pollutants in urban runoff sediments show that there are several active pollution sources supplying the sewage systems with PCBs, PAHs and heavy metals such as lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd). The concentration of PCB 7 in the urban runoff sediments ranged between 16 , the concentration range was < 0.2-80 mg/kg, whereas the concentration ranges of Pb, Zn and Cd were 9-675, 51.3-4670 and 0.02-11.1 mg/kg respectively. Grain size distribution in 21 selected samples varied from a median particle diameter of 13 to 646 μm. However, several samples had very fine-grained particles even up to the 90 percentile of the samples, making them available for stormwater dispersion in suspended form. The sampling approach proposed in this paper will provide environmental authorities with a useful tool to examine ongoing urban contamination of harbors and similar recipients

  12. Modeling of the Monthly Rainfall-Runoff Process Through Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Aranda Daniel Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problems associated with the assessment of water resources of a river, the modeling of the rainfall-runoff process (RRP allows the deduction of runoff missing data and to extend its record, since generally the information available on precipitation is larger. It also enables the estimation of inputs to reservoirs, when their building led to the suppression of the gauging station. The simplest mathematical model that can be set for the RRP is the linear regression or curve on a monthly basis. Such a model is described in detail and is calibrated with the simultaneous record of monthly rainfall and runoff in Ballesmi hydrometric station, which covers 35 years. Since the runoff of this station has an important contribution from the spring discharge, the record is corrected first by removing that contribution. In order to do this a procedure was developed based either on the monthly average regional runoff coefficients or on nearby and similar watershed; in this case the Tancuilín gauging station was used. Both stations belong to the Partial Hydrologic Region No. 26 (Lower Rio Panuco and are located within the state of San Luis Potosi, México. The study performed indicates that the monthly regression model, due to its conceptual approach, faithfully reproduces monthly average runoff volumes and achieves an excellent approximation in relation to the dispersion, proved by calculation of the means and standard deviations.

  13. Mouse forward genetics in the study of the peripheral nervous system and human peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Darlene S.; Popko, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Forward genetics, the phenotype-driven approach to investigating gene identity and function, has a long history in mouse genetics. Random mutations in the mouse transcend bias about gene function and provide avenues towards unique discoveries. The study of the peripheral nervous system is no exception; from historical strains such as the trembler mouse, which led to the identification of PMP22 as a human disease gene causing multiple forms of peripheral neuropathy, to the more recent identification of the claw paw and sprawling mutations, forward genetics has long been a tool for probing the physiology, pathogenesis, and genetics of the PNS. Even as spontaneous and mutagenized mice continue to enable the identification of novel genes, provide allelic series for detailed functional studies, and generate models useful for clinical research, new methods, such as the piggyBac transposon, are being developed to further harness the power of forward genetics. PMID:18481175

  14. Characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMC) from rainfall runoff on an urban highway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Young; Kim, Hyoungjun; Kim, Youngjin; Han, Moo Young

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the characterization of the event mean concentration (EMC) of runoff during heavy precipitation events on highways. Highway runoff quality data were collected from the 7th highway, in South Korea during 2007-2009. The samples were analyzed for runoff quantity and quality parameters such as COD cr , TSS, TPHs, TKN, NO 3 , TP, PO 4 and six heavy metals, e.g., As, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn. Analysis of resulting hydrographs and pollutant graphs indicates that the peak of the pollutant concentrations in runoff occurs 20 min after the first rainfall runoff occurrence. The first flush effect depends on the preceding dry period and the rainfall intensity. The results of this study can be used as a reference for water quality management of urban highways. - Research highlights: → Field test on urban highway were performed to 50 of 100 storm events for 3 years. → The peak pollutant concentrations occurs 20 min after the first runoff. → The first flush effect depends on the preceding dry period and rainfall intensity. → Relationship between runoff and event mean concentration for SS and COD. → A crest of the EMC by 70-80 m 3 /event and decreasing EMC after 70-80 m 3 /event. - This study investigate the characterization of the EMC of runoff during rainfall event on highway.

  15. A simple topography-driven, calibration-free runoff generation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H.; Birkel, C.; Hrachowitz, M.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2017-12-01

    Determining the amount of runoff generation from rainfall occupies a central place in rainfall-runoff modelling. Moreover, reading landscapes and developing calibration-free runoff generation models that adequately reflect land surface heterogeneities remains the focus of much hydrological research. In this study, we created a new method to estimate runoff generation - HAND-based Storage Capacity curve (HSC) which uses a topographic index (HAND, Height Above the Nearest Drainage) to identify hydrological similarity and partially the saturated areas of catchments. We then coupled the HSC model with the Mass Curve Technique (MCT) method to estimate root zone storage capacity (SuMax), and obtained the calibration-free runoff generation model HSC-MCT. Both the two models (HSC and HSC-MCT) allow us to estimate runoff generation and simultaneously visualize the spatial dynamic of saturated area. We tested the two models in the data-rich Bruntland Burn (BB) experimental catchment in Scotland with an unusual time series of the field-mapped saturation area extent. The models were subsequently tested in 323 MOPEX (Model Parameter Estimation Experiment) catchments in the United States. HBV and TOPMODEL were used as benchmarks. We found that the HSC performed better in reproducing the spatio-temporal pattern of the observed saturated areas in the BB catchment compared with TOPMODEL which is based on the topographic wetness index (TWI). The HSC also outperformed HBV and TOPMODEL in the MOPEX catchments for both calibration and validation. Despite having no calibrated parameters, the HSC-MCT model also performed comparably well with the calibrated HBV and TOPMODEL, highlighting the robustness of the HSC model to both describe the spatial distribution of the root zone storage capacity and the efficiency of the MCT method to estimate the SuMax. Moreover, the HSC-MCT model facilitated effective visualization of the saturated area, which has the potential to be used for broader

  16. Transport of three veterinary antimicrobials from feedlot pens via simulated rainfall runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sura, Srinivas; Degenhardt, Dani; Cessna, Allan J; Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; McAllister, Tim A

    2015-07-15

    Veterinary antimicrobials are introduced to wider environments by manure application to agricultural fields or through leaching or runoff from manure storage areas (feedlots, stockpiles, windrows, lagoons). Detected in manure, manure-treated soils, and surface and ground water near intensive cattle feeding operations, there is a concern that environmental contamination by these chemicals may promote the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Surface runoff and leaching appear to be major transport pathways by which veterinary antimicrobials eventually contaminate surface and ground water, respectively. A study was conducted to investigate the transport of three veterinary antimicrobials (chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, tylosin), commonly used in beef cattle production, in simulated rainfall runoff from feedlot pens. Mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 3.5 times higher in surface material from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Runoff rates and volumetric runoff coefficients were similar across all treatments but both were significantly higher from non-bedding (0.53Lmin(-1); 0.27) than bedding areas (0.40Lmin(-1); 0.19). In keeping with concentrations in pen surface material, mean concentrations of veterinary antimicrobials were 1.4 to 2.5 times higher in runoff generated from bedding vs. non-bedding pen areas. Water solubility and sorption coefficient of antimicrobials played a role in their transport in runoff. Estimated amounts of chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin that could potentially be transported to the feedlot catch basin during a one in 100-year precipitation event were 1.3 to 3.6ghead(-1), 1.9ghead(-1), and 0.2ghead(-1), respectively. This study demonstrates the magnitude of veterinary antimicrobial transport in feedlot pen runoff and supports the necessity of catch basins for runoff containment within feedlots. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Peripheral Arterial Disease study (PERART): prevalence and predictive values of asymptomatic peripheral arterial occlusive disease related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzamora, María Teresa; Baena-Díez, José Miguel; Sorribes, Marta; Forés, Rosa; Toran, Pere; Vicheto, Marisa; Pera, Guillem; Reina, María Dolores; Albaladejo, Carlos; Llussà, Judith; Bundó, Magda; Sancho, Amparo; Heras, Antonio; Rubiés, Joan; Arenillas, Juan Francisco

    2007-12-11

    The early diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease is essential for developing preventive strategies in populations at high risk and acting when the disease is still asymptomatic. A low ankle-arm index (AAI) is a good marker of vascular events and may be diminished without presenting symptomatology (silent peripheral arterial disease). The aim of the PERART study (PERipheral ARTerial disease) is to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (both silent and symptomatic) in a general population of both sexes and determine its predictive value related to morbimortality (cohort study). This cross-over, cohort study consists of 2 phases: firstly a descriptive, transversal cross-over study to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, and secondly, a cohort study to evaluate the predictive value of AAI in relation to cardiovascular morbimortality. From September 2006 to June 2007, a total of 3,010 patients over the age of 50 years will be randomly selected from a population adscribed to 24 healthcare centres in the province of Barcelona (Spain). The diagnostic criteria of peripheral arterial disease will be considered as an AAI < 0.90, determined by portable Doppler (8 Mhz probe) measured twice by trained personnel. Cardiovascular risk will be calculated with the Framingham-Wilson tables, with Framingham calibrated by the REGICOR and SCORE groups. The subjects included will be evaluted every 6 months by telephone interview and the clnical history and death registries will be reviewed. The appearance of the following cardiovascular events will be considered as variables of response: transitory ischaemic accident, ictus, angina, myocardial infartction, symptomatic abdominal aneurysm and vascular mortality. In this study we hope to determine the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, especially the silent forms, in the general population and establish its relationship with cardiovascular morbimortality. A low AAI may be a better marker of

  18. The assessment of land use change impact on watersheds runoff using SWAT: case study of Urmia Lake in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Anahita; Jarihani, Ben; Rezaie, Hossein

    2015-04-01

    Lake Urmia, long counted among the world's largest saltwater lakes, contains only 5% of the amount of water it did just 20 years ago. The decline is generally blamed on a combination of drought, increased water diversion for irrigated agriculture within the lake's watershed and land use mismanagement. It has been believed that land use changes in Lake Urmia basin is one of the most important factors in shrinkage of Urmia Lake in recent decades. Transforming the traditional agricultural practices (i.e., wheat) to the more water consuming practices (i.e., apple orchards) is one of the most important reasons increased agricultural water consumption in the watershed. In this study we assessed the effect of the land use changes of watershed in hydrological runoff processing in the Nazloo chai watershed, one of the most important river basins of the Urmia Lake basin. Actually the rapid and at the same time unreasonable transformations of land use in farm lands of Urmia lake sub basins, extremely has been raised the amount of blue water (surface or groundwater) consumption in watershed which leads to dramatic decrement of watershed runoff amounts. One of the most unfavorable consequences of land use change was changing the blue and green (rainwater insofar as it does not become runoff) water usage patterns in watershed, in addition to water use increment. The soil and water assessment tool (SWAT), one of the most important and reliable models which was used to model the rainfall runoff, has been used in current study. The land use maps were extracted from Landsat images archives for the most severe turning points in respect of land use change in the recent 30 years. After calibrating the model, several land use patterns of historical data were used in the model to produce the runoff. The results showed the strong relation between land use change and runoff reduction in the Lake Urmia basin.

  19. Runoff and Evapotranspiration Sensitivities to a Changing Climate in the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M.; Xiao, M.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is likely to alter streamflow seasonal patterns, affect water availability, and otherwise pose challenges to water resources management. It is therefore important to understand how streamflow will respond to changes in climate. Previous studies have mostly focused on runoff sensitivity to precipitation (P) and temperature change, but runoff sensitivity to potential evapotranspiration (PET) is less well understood. In order to investigate how variations in precipitation and PET influence runoff, we conducted both statistical and model-based analyses of 84 near-natural basins in California, Oregon, and Washington. We obtained meteorological forcing data at 1/16 degree spatial resolution for each basin from the University of Washington/UCLA Experimental Surface Water Monitor, and observed runoff data from USGS. For the statistical method, we applied three estimators of the precipitation elasticity of runoff from previous studies. We also estimated the PET elasticity of runoff, using Penman-Monteith reference ET as a surrogate for PET. For the modelling method, we implemented the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) Model, where PET is an explicit input. We performed experiments in which we changed P and PET by 1% individually to examine their effects on runoff, from which we computed the P and PET elasticities. We explore the spatial patterns in the elasticities of runoff and their relationships with basin characteristics and climatology. We also evaluate how well the statistical and model-based results meet the complementary relationship posited by Dooge (based on the Budyko Hypothesis) that the precipitation and PET elasticities of annual runoff should sum to one.

  20. Runoff response to climate change and human activities in a typical karst watershed, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Shu, Dongcai; Tian, Yichao

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the runoff variation characteristics of long time series in a karst region, analyse comprehensively its different driving factors, and estimate quantitatively the contribution rates of climate change and human activities to net runoff variation. Liudong river basin, a typical karst watershed in southwest China, is the study site. Statistical methods, such as linear fitting, the Morlet wavelet analysis, normalized curve and double mass curve, are applied to analyse the runoff of the watershed. Results show that the runoff in the karst watershed during the research period exhibits a three-stage change and the abrupt change points are the years 1981 and 2007: (1) 1968-1980, the runoff initially exhibited a trend of sustained decreasing and then an abrupt fluctuation. The runoff was obviously destroyed through precipitation-producing processes. Improper land utilisation and serious forest and grass destruction intensified the fluctuation variation amplitude of the runoff. (2) 1981-2006, the changing processes of runoff and precipitation exhibited good synchronism. Precipitation significantly affected runoff variation and human activities had a slight interference degree. (3) 2007-2013, the fluctuation range of runoff was considerably smaller than that of precipitation. The significant growth of forest and grassland areas and the increase in water consumption mitigated runoff fluctuation and greatly diminished runoff variation amplitude. According to calculation, the relative contribution rates of precipitation and human activities to net runoff variation with 1981-2007 as the reference period were -81% and 181% in average, respectively, during 1968-1980, and -117% and 217% in average, respectively, during 2007-2013. In general, the analysis of runoff variation trend and of the contribution rate of its main influencing factors in the typical karst watershed for nearly half a century may be significant to solve the drought problem in the karst

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY AND PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE IN THE OUTCOME OF DIABETIC FOOT MANAGEMENT – A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Prakash S, Krishnakumar, Chandra Prabha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Peripheral neuropathy and Peripheral Vascular Disease are the risk factors for the development of diabetic foot. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences and predictors of outcome parameters in patients with diabetic foot by stratifying these subjects according to the severity of these risk factors. Materials and methods: This is a prospective study conducted in 70 patients in the age group of 30-90 years diagnosed as Type II Diabetes with foot ulcers. After detailed clinical examination the following tests were conducted in all the patients: Complete blood count (CBC, Haemoglobin (Hb, Random Blood Sugar (RBS, Erythrocyte Sedimentation rate (ESR, Chest X-ray(CXR, Electrocardiography (ECG, foot X-ray, pus culture, Neuropathy testing by Semmes Weinstein Monofilament Test and Vibration Perception Threshold and Peripheral vascularity assessment by Duplex Doppler. Then grading of the ulcers was done using Wagner’s Grade. The outcome of the patients was assessed by recording the healing time, mode of surgery and amputation rates of the patients. Results: A total of 70 patients with diabetic foot were consecutively included into the study (65.7% male, age (31% in 51-60 years, mean diabetes duration (5.2 years, Ulcer Grade (37% in Grade IV, Foot lesions (45.7% in toe, Blood sugar levels (64% in 300-400 mg/dl, Neuropathy (84%, Peripheral vascular disease (67%, major amputation (7% and mortality (1.4%. Conclusion: All diabetic patients should undergo testing for neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease apart from doing other tests.

  2. Rain, Snow, and Spring Runoff Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the theory behind the correlation between warm rain, rapid snowmelt, and the subsequent runoff using the concepts of enthalpy, thermal transfer, and energy transfer. Concludes that rapid runoff is not a consequence of rain per se but of the high humidities associated with the rain. (JRH)

  3. Determination of characteristics maximal runoff mountain rivers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... water) on the rivers of the Crimean Mountains were used materials of observations for long-term period (from the beginning of observations to 2010 inclusive) on 54 of streamflow station with using a the so-called «operator» model for maximum runoff formation. Keywords: maximum runoff; rain floods; hillslope runoff; karst ...

  4. LARGE-SCALE INDICATIVE MAPPING OF SOIL RUNOFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Panidi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In our study we estimate relationships between quantitative parameters of relief, soil runoff regime, and spatial distribution of radioactive pollutants in the soil. The study is conducted on the test arable area located in basin of the upper Oka River (Orel region, Russia. Previously we collected rich amount of soil samples, which make it possible to investigate redistribution of the Chernobyl-origin cesium-137 in soil material and as a consequence the soil runoff magnitude at sampling points. Currently we are describing and discussing the technique applied to large-scale mapping of the soil runoff. The technique is based upon the cesium-137 radioactivity measurement in the different relief structures. Key stages are the allocation of the places for soil sampling points (we used very high resolution space imagery as a supporting data; soil samples collection and analysis; calibration of the mathematical model (using the estimated background value of the cesium-137 radioactivity; and automated compilation of the map (predictive map of the studied territory (digital elevation model is used for this purpose, and cesium-137 radioactivity can be predicted using quantitative parameters of the relief. The maps can be used as a support data for precision agriculture and for recultivation or melioration purposes.

  5. [Effect of antecedent dry weather period on urban storm runoff pollution load].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-qing; Yin, Cheng-qing; Kong, Ling-li; He, Qing-ci

    2007-10-01

    Twelve storm events were surveyed at Shilipu catchment in Wuhan City through three-year monitoring regime. The flow discharges, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in runoff were measured to study the mechanism of urban stormwater runoff pollution. The relationship between the event pollution load and the antecedent dry weather period was identified to discuss the influence of the urban surface sanitation management, operation of sewer pipe maintenance and rainfall characteristics on the urban stormwater runoff pollution. It was found that the antecedent dry weather period and runoff amount were the important determining factors in the generation of urban stormwater runoff pollution. The event pollution load was positively correlated to the antecedent dry weather period between two rainfall events (R2 = 0.95, p pollution loads. The best regression equation to estimate pollution load for storm events was developed based on the antecedent dry weather period and runoff depth. Source control including improving urban street sweeping activities and operation of sewer pipe maintenance should be made to reduce the amount of available pollutant over the dry days. It is important alternative to control urban stormwater runoff pollution for Hanyang District.

  6. Attribution analysis of runoff decline in a semiarid region of the Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binquan; Liang, Zhongmin; Zhang, Jianyun; Wang, Guoqing; Zhao, Weimin; Zhang, Hongyue; Wang, Jun; Hu, Yiming

    2018-01-01

    Climate variability and human activities are two main contributing attributions for runoff changes in the Yellow River, China. In the loess hilly-gully regions of the middle Yellow River, water shortage has been a serious problem, and this results in large-scale constructions of soil and water conservation (SWC) measures in the past decades in order to retain water for agricultural irrigation and industrial production. This disturbed the natural runoff characteristics. In this paper, we focused on a typical loess hilly-gully region (Wudinghe and Luhe River basins) and investigated the effects of SWC measures and climate variability on runoff during the period of 1961-2013, while the SWC measures were the main representative of human activities in this region. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall test was used to analyze the changes of annual precipitation, air temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET), and runoff. The analysis revealed the decrease in precipitation, significant rise in temperature, and remarkable runoff reduction with a rate of more than 0.4 mm per year. It was found that runoff capacity in this region also decreased. Using the change point detection methods, the abrupt change point of annual runoff series was found at 1970, and thus, the study period was divided into the baseline period (1961-1970) and changed period (1971-2013). A conceptual framework based on four statistical runoff methods was used for attribution analysis of runoff decline in the Wudinghe and Luhe River basins (-37.3 and -56.4%, respectively). Results showed that runoff reduction can be explained by 85.2-90.3% (83.3-85.7%) with the SWC measures in the Wudinghe (Luhe) River basin while the remaining proportions were caused by climate variability. The findings suggested that the large-scale SWC measures demonstrated a dominant influence on runoff decline, and the change of precipitation extreme was also a promoting factor of the upward trending of SWC measures' contribution to

  7. Modeling Ballasted Tracks for Runoff Coefficient C

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the Regional Transportation District (RTD)s light rail tracks were modeled to determine the Rational Method : runoff coefficient, C, values corresponding to ballasted tracks. To accomplish this, a laboratory study utilizing a : rain...

  8. Investigating runoff efficiency in upper Colorado River streamflow over past centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Connie A.; Pederson, Gregory T.

    2018-01-01

    With increasing concerns about the impact of warming temperatures on water resources, more attention is being paid to the relationship between runoff and precipitation, or runoff efficiency. Temperature is a key influence on Colorado River runoff efficiency, and warming temperatures are projected to reduce runoff efficiency. Here, we investigate the nature of runoff efficiency in the upper Colorado River (UCRB) basin over the past 400 years, with a specific focus on major droughts and pluvials, and to contextualize the instrumental period. We first verify the feasibility of reconstructing runoff efficiency from tree-ring data. The reconstruction is then used to evaluate variability in runoff efficiency over periods of high and low flow, and its correspondence to a reconstruction of late runoff season UCRB temperature variability. Results indicate that runoff efficiency has played a consistent role in modulating the relationship between precipitation and streamflow over past centuries, and that temperature has likely been the key control. While negative runoff efficiency is most common during dry periods, and positive runoff efficiency during wet years, there are some instances of positive runoff efficiency moderating the impact of precipitation deficits on streamflow. Compared to past centuries, the 20th century has experienced twice as many high flow years with negative runoff efficiency, likely due to warm temperatures. These results suggest warming temperatures will continue to reduce runoff efficiency in wet or dry years, and that future flows will be less than anticipated from precipitation due to warming temperatures.

  9. Statistical analysis and modelling of surface runoff from arable fields

    OpenAIRE

    P. Fiener; K. Auerswald; F. Winter; M. Disse

    2013-01-01

    Surface runoff generation on arable fields is an important driver of (local) flooding, on-site and off-site damages by erosion, and of nutrient and agrochemical transport. In general, three different processes generate surface runoff (Hortonian runoff, saturation excess runoff, and return of subsurface flow). Despite the developments in our understanding of these processes it remains difficult to predict, which processes govern runoff generation during the course of an event or through...

  10. Transport of oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and ivermectin in surface runoff from irrigated pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Daniel A; Popova, Ina E; Tate, Kenneth W; Parikh, Sanjai J

    2017-09-02

    The transport of oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and ivermectin from manure was assessed via surface runoff on irrigated pasture. Surface runoff plots in the Sierra Foothills of Northern California were used to evaluate the effects of irrigation water application rates, pharmaceutical application conditions, vegetative cover, and vegetative filter strip length on the pharmaceutical discharge in surface runoff. Experiments were designed to permit the maximum potential transport of pharmaceuticals to surface runoff water, which included pre-irrigation to saturate soil, trimming grass where manure was applied, and laying a continuous manure strip perpendicular to the flow of water. However, due to high sorption of the pharmaceuticals to manure and soil, less than 0.1% of applied pharmaceuticals were detected in runoff water. Results demonstrated an increase of pharmaceutical transport in surface runoff with increased pharmaceutical concentration in manure, the concentration of pharmaceuticals in runoff water remained constant with increased irrigation flow rate, and no appreciable decrease in pharmaceutical runoff was produced with the vegetative filter strip length increased from 30.5 to 91.5 cm. Most of the applied pharmaceuticals were retained in the manure or within the upper 5 cm of soil directly beneath the manure application sites. As this study evaluated conditions for high transport potential, the data suggest that the risk for significant chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and ivermectin transport to surface water from cattle manure on irrigated pasture is low.

  11. Beyond the SCS curve number: A new stochastic spatial runoff approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, M. S., Jr.; Parolari, A.; McDonnell, J.; Porporato, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) method is the standard approach in practice for predicting a storm event runoff response. It is popular because its low parametric complexity and ease of use. However, the SCS-CN method does not describe the spatial variability of runoff and is restricted to certain geographic regions and land use types. Here we present a general theory for extending the SCS-CN method. Our new theory accommodates different event based models derived from alternative rainfall-runoff mechanisms or distributions of watershed variables, which are the basis of different semi-distributed models such as VIC, PDM, and TOPMODEL. We introduce a parsimonious but flexible description where runoff is initiated by a pure threshold, i.e., saturation excess, that is complemented by fill and spill runoff behavior from areas of partial saturation. To facilitate event based runoff prediction, we derive simple equations for the fraction of the runoff source areas, the probability density function (PDF) describing runoff variability, and the corresponding average runoff value (a runoff curve analogous to the SCS-CN). The benefit of the theory is that it unites the SCS-CN method, VIC, PDM, and TOPMODEL as the same model type but with different assumptions for the spatial distribution of variables and the runoff mechanism. The new multiple runoff mechanism description for the SCS-CN enables runoff prediction in geographic regions and site runoff types previously misrepresented by the traditional SCS-CN method. In addition, we show that the VIC, PDM, and TOPMODEL runoff curves may be more suitable than the SCS-CN for different conditions. Lastly, we explore predictions of sediment and nutrient transport by applying the PDF describing runoff variability within our new framework.

  12. Detection and attribution of nitrogen runoff trend in China's croplands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xikang; Zhan, Xiaoying; Zhou, Feng; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Gu, Baojing; Reis, Stefan; Wu, Yali; Liu, Hongbin; Piao, Shilong; Tang, Yanhong

    2018-03-01

    Reliable detection and attribution of changes in nitrogen (N) runoff from croplands are essential for designing efficient, sustainable N management strategies for future. Despite the recognition that excess N runoff poses a risk of aquatic eutrophication, large-scale, spatially detailed N runoff trends and their drivers remain poorly understood in China. Based on data comprising 535 site-years from 100 sites across China's croplands, we developed a data-driven upscaling model and a new simplified attribution approach to detect and attribute N runoff trends during the period of 1990-2012. Our results show that N runoff has increased by 46% for rice paddy fields and 31% for upland areas since 1990. However, we acknowledge that the upscaling model is subject to large uncertainties (20% and 40% as coefficient of variation of N runoff, respectively). At national scale, increased fertilizer application was identified as the most likely driver of the N runoff trend, while decreased irrigation levels offset to some extent the impact of fertilization increases. In southern China, the increasing trend of upland N runoff can be attributed to the growth in N runoff rates. Our results suggested that increased SOM led to the N runoff rate growth for uplands, but led to a decline for rice paddy fields. In combination, these results imply that improving management approaches for both N fertilizer use and irrigation is urgently required for mitigating agricultural N runoff in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Firstflush of Pollutants in Surface Runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Pejman Razi; Amir Taebi

    2005-01-01

    One of the factors impacting quality of water resources is pollution due to urban storm runoff during first stage of storm runoff and is commonly called "firsflush". At this stage the pollution load is rather high. However, if this pollution is properly controlled and managed, the size of the required treatment facilities will be considerably reduced. The surface runoff pollution in the city of Isfahan is high and necessitates the implementation of some control system. For this purpose, ten r...

  14. Urban rainwater runoff quantity and quality: a potential endogenous resource in cities?

    OpenAIRE

    Angrill Toledo, Sara; Petit Boix, Anna; Morales Pinzon, Tito; Josa Garcia-Tornel, Alejandro; Rieradevall Pons, Joan; Gabarrell Durany, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Rainwater harvesting might help to achieve self-sufficiency, but it must comply with health standards. We studied the runoff quantity and quality harvested from seven urban surfaces in a university campus in Barcelona according to their use (pedestrian or motorized mobility) and materials (concrete, asphalt and slabs). An experimental rainwater harvesting system was used to collect the runoff resulting from a set of rainfall events. We estimated the runoff coefficient and initial abstraction ...

  15. Multi-linear model of transformation of runoff in river-basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szolgay, J.; Kubes, R.

    2005-01-01

    The component part of atmospheric precipitations-runoff model of Hron River is a individual model of transformation of flows in river network, too, which transforms runoff from separate partial catchment basin into terminal profile. This component of precipitations-runoff model can also be used as individual hydrologic transformation model of runoff waves in river-basin. Identification and calibration of this model is realised independently on precipitations-runoff model of Hron River, which is described in this chapter in detail.

  16. Runoff generation in a Mediterranean semi-arid landscape: Thresholds, scale, rainfall and catchment characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Fabian; Schmidt, Sebastian; Sauter, Martin; Lange, Jens

    2016-04-01

    detected. Besides rainfall characteristics, we found that available soil water storage capacity and bedrock permeability are the most important factors controlling runoff generation in our study area.

  17. Runoff response to climate change and human activities in a typical karst watershed, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Shijie; Shu, Dongcai; Tian, Yichao

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the runoff variation characteristics of long time series in a karst region, analyse comprehensively its different driving factors, and estimate quantitatively the contribution rates of climate change and human activities to net runoff variation. Liudong river basin, a typical karst watershed in southwest China, is the study site. Statistical methods, such as linear fitting, the Morlet wavelet analysis, normalized curve and double mass curve, are applied to analyse the runoff of the watershed. Results show that the runoff in the karst watershed during the research period exhibits a three-stage change and the abrupt change points are the years 1981 and 2007: (1) 1968–1980, the runoff initially exhibited a trend of sustained decreasing and then an abrupt fluctuation. The runoff was obviously destroyed through precipitation-producing processes. Improper land utilisation and serious forest and grass destruction intensified the fluctuation variation amplitude of the runoff. (2) 1981–2006, the changing processes of runoff and precipitation exhibited good synchronism. Precipitation significantly affected runoff variation and human activities had a slight interference degree. (3) 2007–2013, the fluctuation range of runoff was considerably smaller than that of precipitation. The significant growth of forest and grassland areas and the increase in water consumption mitigated runoff fluctuation and greatly diminished runoff variation amplitude. According to calculation, the relative contribution rates of precipitation and human activities to net runoff variation with 1981–2007 as the reference period were −81% and 181% in average, respectively, during 1968–1980, and −117% and 217% in average, respectively, during 2007–2013. In general, the analysis of runoff variation trend and of the contribution rate of its main influencing factors in the typical karst watershed for nearly half a century may be significant to solve the drought

  18. Bayesian analyses of seasonal runoff forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzysztofowicz, R.; Reese, S.

    1991-12-01

    Forecasts of seasonal snowmelt runoff volume provide indispensable information for rational decision making by water project operators, irrigation district managers, and farmers in the western United States. Bayesian statistical models and communication frames have been researched in order to enhance the forecast information disseminated to the users, and to characterize forecast skill from the decision maker's point of view. Four products are presented: (i) a Bayesian Processor of Forecasts, which provides a statistical filter for calibrating the forecasts, and a procedure for estimating the posterior probability distribution of the seasonal runoff; (ii) the Bayesian Correlation Score, a new measure of forecast skill, which is related monotonically to the ex ante economic value of forecasts for decision making; (iii) a statistical predictor of monthly cumulative runoffs within the snowmelt season, conditional on the total seasonal runoff forecast; and (iv) a framing of the forecast message that conveys the uncertainty associated with the forecast estimates to the users. All analyses are illustrated with numerical examples of forecasts for six gauging stations from the period 1971 1988.

  19. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Deborah A.; Johnson, Gwynn R. [Portland State University, Mechanical and Materials Engineering, POB 751, Portland, OR 97207 (United States); Spolek, Graig A., E-mail: graig@cecs.pdx.edu [Portland State University, Mechanical and Materials Engineering, POB 751, Portland, OR 97207 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4 cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. - Highlights: > Biochar in green roof soil reduces nitrogen and phosphorus in the runoff. > Addition of biochar reduces turbidity of runoff. > Addition of biochar reduces total organic carbon content in runoff by 67-72%. > Biochar improves water retention of saturated soil. - In this controlled laboratory experiment, greenroof soil was amended by the addition of biochar, which reduced the water runoff concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon.

  20. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Deborah A.; Johnson, Gwynn R.; Spolek, Graig A.

    2011-01-01

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4 cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention. - Highlights: → Biochar in green roof soil reduces nitrogen and phosphorus in the runoff. → Addition of biochar reduces turbidity of runoff. → Addition of biochar reduces total organic carbon content in runoff by 67-72%. → Biochar improves water retention of saturated soil. - In this controlled laboratory experiment, greenroof soil was amended by the addition of biochar, which reduced the water runoff concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon.

  1. Can arbuscular mycorrhiza and fertilizer management reduce phosphorus runoff from paddy fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujuan; Wang, Li; Ma, Fang; Zhang, Xue; Li, Zhe; Li, Shiyang; Jiang, Xiaofeng

    2015-07-01

    Our study sought to assess how much phosphorus (P) runoff from paddy fields could be cut down by fertilizer management and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. A field experiment was conducted in Lalin River basin, in the northeast China: six nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer levels were provided (0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of the recommended fertilizer supply), with or without inoculation with Glomus mosseae. The volume and concentrations of particle P (PP) and dissolved P (DP) were measured for each runoff during the rice growing season. It was found that the seasonal P runoff, including DP and PP, under the local fertilization was 3.7 kg/ha, with PP, rather than DP, being the main form of P in runoff water. Additionally, the seasonal P runoff dropped only by 8.9% when fertilization decreased by 20%; rice yields decreased with declining fertilization. We also found that inoculation increased rice yields and decreased P runoff at each fertilizer level and these effects were lower under higher fertilization. Conclusively, while rice yields were guaranteed arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and fertilizer management would play a key role in reducing P runoff from paddy fields. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Hillslope runoff and sediment transport in south east Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken (Nee Bull), L. J.; Kirkby, M. J.

    2003-04-01

    Runoff from semi-arid hillslopes in SE Spain is generated very selectively at all scales. Site response at the 1 m2 scale may be described by the dynamics of local infiltration and crusting, defining Hydrologically Similar Surfaces (HYSS), which are strongly associated with soil type and vegetation cover. This study reports the use of several reconnaissance methods to define HYSS consistently. These methods are (1) the use of small sediment traps which disturb the surface minimally,(2) the use of painted lines and (3) the identification of Morphological Zones associated with different levels of runoff and sediment transport. Five monitoring sites were established on hillslope concavities in two semi-arid catchments in South East Spain. Rainfall data were also collected from the nearest gauge established during previous research. Results show that a storm event in the Rambla de Nogalte on the 30th of June of 83.0 mm was responsible for a maximum runoff depth of 12 cm and a maximum hillslope sediment transport of 1886 cm3 m-1. The same storm in the Rambla de Torrealvilla produced 53.4 mm of rainfall on the 1st of July 2002, had a maximum runoff depth of 26 cm and was responsible for a maximum hillslope sediment transport of 2311 cm3 m-1. In general sediment transport rate and sediment travel distance increased with the distance downslope into the hillslope hollow, and these were related to the maximum depth of flow produced over the hillside. Very little sediment movement occurred directly downslope of bushes as was expected. No significant relationships were established between sediment transport and slope angle or vegetation cover. However, sediment transport and depth of runoff varied with lithology, with marl sites producing the most runoff and sediment transport. The site located on red schist was particularly unresponsive to rainfall and did not experience much sediment transport. Initial models for the response of larger areas suggest that runoff is controlled

  3. Runoff of pyrethroid insecticides from concrete surfaces following simulated and natural rainfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiying; Haver, Darren; Rust, Michael; Gan, Jay

    2012-03-01

    Intensive residential use of insecticides has resulted in their ubiquitous presence as contaminants in urban surface streams. For pest eradication, urban hard surfaces such as concrete are often directly treated with pesticides, and wind/water can also carry pesticides onto hard surfaces from surrounding areas. This study expanded on previous bench-scale studies by considering pesticide runoff caused by irrigation under dry weather conditions and rain during the wet season, and evaluated the effects of pesticide residence time on concrete, single versus recurring precipitations, precipitation intensity, and concrete surface conditions, on pesticide transferability to runoff water. Runoff from concrete 1 d after pesticide treatment contained high levels of bifenthrin (82 μg/L) and permethrin (5143 μg/L for cis and 5518 μg/L for trans), indicating the importance of preventing water contact on concrete after pesticide treatments. Although the runoff transferability quickly decreased as the pesticide residence time on concrete increased, detectable residues were still found in runoff water after 3 months (89 d) exposure to hot and dry summer conditions. ANOVA analysis showed that precipitation intensities and concrete surface conditions (i.e., acid wash, silicone seal, stamping, and addition of microsilica) did not significantly affect the pesticide transferability to runoff. For concrete slabs subjected to natural rainfalls during the winter wet season, pesticide levels in the runoff decreased as the time interval between pesticide application and the rain event increased. However, bifenthrin and permethrin were still detected at 0.15-0.17 and 0.75-1.15 μg/L in the rain runoff after 7 months (221 d) from the initial treatment. In addition, pesticide concentrations showed no decrease between the two rainfall events, suggesting that concrete surfaces contaminated by pesticides may act as a reservoir for pesticide residues, leading to sustained urban runoff

  4. Runoff estimation in residencial area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Regina de Almeida Siqueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the watershed runoff caused by extreme events that often result in the flooding of urban areas. The runoff of a residential area in the city of Guaratinguetá, São Paulo, Brazil was estimated using the Curve-Number method proposed by USDA-NRCS. The study also investigated current land use and land cover conditions, impermeable areas with pasture and indications of the reforestation of those areas. Maps and satellite images of Residential Riverside I Neighborhood were used to characterize the area. In addition to characterizing land use and land cover, the definition of the soil type infiltration capacity, the maximum local rainfall, and the type and quality of the drainage system were also investigated. The study showed that this neighborhood, developed in 1974, has an area of 792,700 m², a population of 1361 inhabitants, and a sloping area covered with degraded pasture (Guaratinguetá-Piagui Peak located in front of the residential area. The residential area is located in a flat area near the Paraiba do Sul River, and has a poor drainage system with concrete pipes, mostly 0.60 m in diameter, with several openings that capture water and sediments from the adjacent sloping area. The Low Impact Development (LID system appears to be a viable solution for this neighborhood drainage system. It can be concluded that the drainage system of the Guaratinguetá Riverside I Neighborhood has all of the conditions and characteristics that make it suitable for the implementation of a low impact urban drainage system. Reforestation of Guaratinguetá-Piagui Peak can reduce the basin’s runoff by 50% and minimize flooding problems in the Beira Rio neighborhood.

  5. [Pollution Characteristics of Surface Runoff of Typical Town in Chongqing City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long-tao; Duan, Bing-zheng; Zhao, Jian-wei; Hua, Yu-mei; Zhu, Duan-wei

    2015-08-01

    Six kinds of impermeable underlying surface, cement tile roof, asbestos roof, cement flat roof, residential concrete pavement, asphalt pavement of restaurants, asphalt pavement of oil depot, and a combined sewer overflow canal in the Jiansheng town of Dadukou district in Chongqing city were chosen as sample plots to study the characteristics of nutritional pollutants and heavy metals in town runoff. The research showed that the average mass concentrations of TSS, COD, TN, TP in road runoff were (1681.2 +/- 677.2), (1154.7 +/- 415.5), (12.07 +/- 2.72), (3.32 +/- 1.15) mgL(-1), respectively. These pollutants were higher than those in roof runoff which were (13.3 +/- 6.5), (100.4 +/- 24.8), (3.58 +/- 0.70), (0.10 +/- 0.02) mg x L(-1), respectively. TDN accounted for 62.60% +/- 34.38% of TN, and TDP accounted for 42.22% +/- 33.94% of TP in the runoff of impermeable underlying surface. Compared with the central urban runoff, town runoff in our study had higher mass concentrations of these pollutants. The mass concentrations of TSS, COD, TDN, TN, TDP and TP in the combined sewer overflow were (281.57 +/- 308.38), (231.21 +/- 42.95), (8.16 +/- 2.78), (10.60 +/- 3.94), (0.38 +/- 0.23) and (1.51 +/- 0.75) mg x L(-1), respectively. The average levels of heavy metals in this kind of runoff did not exceed the class VI level of the surface water environmental quality standard. Most pollutants in the combined sewer overflow had first flush. However, this phenomenon was very rare for TSS. There was a significant positive correlation between TSS and COD, TP in the combined sewer overflow. And this correlation was significant between NH4+ -N and TP, TDP, TN, TDP. However, a negative correlation existed between NO3- -N and all other indicators.

  6. Surface Runoff of Pesticides from a Clay Loam Field in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsbo, Mats; Sandin, Maria; Jarvis, Nick; Etana, Ararso; Kreuger, Jenny

    2016-07-01

    Pesticides stored at or close to the soil surface after field application can be mobilized and transported off the field when surface runoff occurs. The objective of our study was to quantify the potential pesticide losses in surface runoff from a conventionally managed agricultural field in a Swedish climate. This was achieved by measuring surface runoff volumes and concentrations in runoff of six spring-applied pesticides and autumn-applied glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). Measurements were performed for 3 yr both during the growing seasons and during intervening winter snowmelt periods on a clay loam field close to Uppsala. During growing seasons, surface runoff was generated on only five occasions during one 25-d period in 2012 when the infiltration capacity of the soil may have been reduced by structural degradation due to large cumulative rainfall amounts after harrowing. Concentrations in surface runoff exceeded Swedish water quality standards in all samples during this growing season for diflufenican and pirimicarb. Surface runoff was generated during three snowmelt periods during the winter of 2012-2013. All of the applied pesticides were found in snowmelt samples despite incorporation of residues by autumn plowing, degradation, and leaching into the soil profile during the period between spraying and sampling. Concentrations of glyphosate ranged from 0.12 to 7.4 μg L, and concentrations of AMPA ranged from 0 to 2.7 μg L. Our results indicate that temporal changes in hydraulic properties during the growing season and when the soil freezes during winter affect pesticide losses through surface runoff. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Variation of Runoff and Precipitation in the Hekou-Longmen Region of the Yellow River Based on Elasticity Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Erhui; Mu, Xingmin; Zhao, Guangju; Gao, Peng; Shao, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation is very important to the formation of runoff, and studying of runoff variation and its response to precipitation has practical significance to sustainable utilization of water resources. The study used Mann-Kendall test, anomaly accumulation method, and precipitation elasticity of runoff method to analyze the changes in the relation of precipitation and runoff and the contribution of precipitation to runoff change in the Hekou-Longmen region (from 1957 to 2010), Huangfuchuan wat...

  8. Field-testing competing runoff source and hydrochemical conceptualisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, A. W.; Saffarpour, S.; Adams, R.; Costelloe, J. F.; McDonnell, J.

    2014-12-01

    There are competing conceptualisations of heterogeneity in catchment systems. It is often convenient to divide catchments into zones, for example the soil profile, groundwater aquifers (saturated zone), riparian zones, etc. We also often divide flow sources into distinct categories such as surface runoff, interflow and baseflow, implying a few distinct stores of water. In tracer hydrology we typically assume water from such zones has distinct and invariant chemistry that is used to infer the runoff source mixture through conservative mixing model techniques such as End-Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA). An alternative conceptualisation is that catchments consist of a large number of stores with varying residence times. In this case individual stores contribute a variable proportion of flow and may have a temporally varying composition due to processes such as evapo-concentration. Hence they have a variable influence on the hydrochemistry of runoff. In this presentation, examples from two field studies in southern Australia will be presented that examine the relationships between hydrologic and hydrochemical conceptualisations and the relative variation within and between different hydrologic zones. The implications for water quality behaviour will be examined and the additional behavioural complexities associated with interactions between runoff pathways for non-conservative chemical species will be discussed.

  9. The estimation of the catchment runoff using a small number of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimation of the catchment runoff using a small number of rainfall stations in Burkina Faso. Youssouf Dembele, Jean Duchesne. Abstract. The objective of this study was to determine a suitable method to compute the runoff over a catchment with a few number of rainfall stations. Input hydrological variables were ...

  10. [Research on evaluation of water quality of Beijing urban stormwater runoff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Pei-Qiang; Ren, Yu-Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The natural rainwater and stormwater runoff samples from three underlying surfaces (rooftop, campus road and ring road) were sampled and analyzed from July to October, 2010 in Beijing. Eight rainfall events were collected totally and thirteen water quality parameters were measured in each event. Grey relationship analysis and principal component analysis were applied to assess composite water quality and identify the main pollution sources of stormwater runoff. The results show that the composite water quality of ring road runoff is mostly polluted, and then is rooftop runoff, campus road runoff and rainwater, respectively. The composite water quality of ring road runoff is inferior to V class of surface water, while rooftop runoff, campus road runoff and rainwater are in II class of surface water. The mean concentration of TN and NH4(+)-N in rainwater and runoff is 5.49-11.75 mg x L(-1) and 2.90-5.67 mg x L(-1), respectively, indicating that rainwater and runoff are polluted by nitrogen (N). Two potential pollution sources are identified in ring road runoff: (1) P, SS and organic pollutant are possibly related to debris which is from vehicle tyre and material of ring road; (2) N and dissolved metal have relations with automobile exhaust emissions and bulk deposition.

  11. Phosphorus runoff from turfgrass as affected by phosphorus fertilization and clipping management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Peter M; Horgan, Brian P; Rosen, Carl J; Hollman, Andrew B; Pagliari, Paulo H

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorus enrichment of surface water is a concern in many urban watersheds. A 3-yr study on a silt loam soil with 5% slope and high soil test P (27 mg kg(-1) Bray P1) was conducted to evaluate P fertilization and clipping management effects on P runoff from turfgrass (Poa pratensis L.) under frozen and nonfrozen conditions. Four fertilizer treatments were compared: (i) no fertilizer, (ii) nitrogen (N)+potassium (K)+0xP, (iii) N+K+1xP, and (iv) N+K+3xP. Phosphorus rates were 21.3 and 63.9 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) the first year and 7.1 and 21.3 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) the following 2 yr. Each fertilizer treatment was evaluated with clippings removed or clippings recycled back to the turf. In the first year, P runoff increased with increasing P rate and P losses were greater in runoff from frozen than nonfrozen soil. In year 2, total P runoff from the no fertilizer treatment was greater than from treatments receiving fertilizer. This was because reduced turf quality resulted in greater runoff depth from the no fertilizer treatment. In year 3, total P runoff from frozen soil and cumulative total P runoff increased with increasing P rate. Clipping management was not an important factor in any year, indicating that returning clippings does not significantly increase P runoff from turf. In the presence of N and K, P fertilization did not improve turf growth or quality in any year. Phosphorus runoff can be reduced by not applying P to high testing soils and avoiding fall applications when P is needed.

  12. Functional nanostructured materials for stormwater runoff treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ko, Dongah

    Numerous heavy metal removal practices for stormwater runoff have been studied and applied; however, there is still room for improvement. Among these practices, adsorption has proven to be the most efficient way of removing heavy metals. Commonly used adsorbents have an innate sorption capacity...... in relation to high concentrations of heavy metal ions, but if they are to be used for stormwater runoff, high affinity with rapid sorption kinetics for low concentrations of heavy metals is necessary. Therefore, in this study, new types of functional nanostructured polymer sorbents for effective heavy metal...... removal from stormwater are suggested. First, comparison studies of several existing polymer sorbents were conducted, to find decisive functional groups for removing heavy metals from the solution. To enhance the sorption kinetics and affinity of polymer sorbents in the presence of competing ions, sulphur...

  13. Fill and spill drives runoff connectivity over frozen ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, A. E.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2018-03-01

    Snowmelt-runoff processes on frozen ground are poorly understood at the hillslope scale. This is especially true for hillslopes on the northern Great Plains of North America where long periods of snow-covered frozen ground with very shallow slopes mask any spatial patterns and process controls on connectivity and hillslope runoff generation. This study examines a 4.66 ha (46,600 m2) hillslope on the northern Great Plains during the 2014 spring snowmelt season to explore hillslope runoff processes. Specifically, we explore the spatial patterns of runoff production source areas and examine how surface topography and patterns of snow cover, snow water equivalent, soil water content, and thawed layer depth - which we measured on a 10 m grid across our 46,600 m2 hillslope - affect melt water partitioning and runoff connectivity. A key question was whether or not the controls on connectivity are consistent with the fill and spill mechanism found in rain-dominated and unfrozen soil domains. The contrast between the slow infiltration rates into frozen soil and the relatively fast rates of snowmelt delivery to the soil surface resulted in water accumulation in small depressions under the snowpack. Consequently, infiltration was minimal over the 12 day melt period. Instead, nested filling of micro- and meso-depressions was followed by macro-scale, whole-slope spilling. This spilling occurred when large patches of ponded water exceeded the storage capacity behind downslope micro barriers in the surface topography, and flows from them coalesced to drive a rapid increase in runoff at the hillslope outlet. These observations of ponded water and flowpaths followed mapable fill and spill locations based on 2 m resolution digital topographic analysis. Interestingly, while surface topography is relatively unimportant under unfrozen conditions at our site because of low relief and high infiltrability, surface topography shows episodically critical importance for connectivity and

  14. The impact of global warming on river runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    A global atmospheric model is used to calculate the annual river runoff for 33 of the world's major rivers for the present climate and for a doubled CO2 climate. The model has a horizontal resolution of 4 x 5 deg, but the runoff from each model grid box is quartered and added to the appropriate river drainage basin on a 2 x 2.5 deg resolution. The computed runoff depends on the model's precipitation, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture storage. For the doubled CO2 climate, the runoff increased for 25 of the 33 rivers, and in most cases the increases coincide with increased rainfall within the drainage basins. There were runoff increases in all rivers in high northern latitudes, with a maximum increase of 47 percent. At low latitudes there were both increases and decreases ranging from a 96 increase to a 43 percent decrease. The effect of the simplified model assumptions of land-atmosphere interactions on the results is discussed.

  15. Assimilating satellite soil moisture into rainfall-runoff modelling: towards a systematic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, Christian; Tarpanelli, Angelica; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture is the main factor for the repartition of the mass and energy fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere thus playing a fundamental role in the hydrological cycle. Indeed, soil moisture represents the initial condition of rainfall-runoff modelling that determines the flood response of a catchment. Different initial soil moisture conditions can discriminate between catastrophic and minor effects of a given rainfall event. Therefore, improving the estimation of initial soil moisture conditions will reduce uncertainties in early warning flood forecasting models addressing the mitigation of flood hazard. In recent years, satellite soil moisture products have become available with fine spatial-temporal resolution and a good accuracy. Therefore, a number of studies have been published in which the impact of the assimilation of satellite soil moisture data into rainfall-runoff modelling is investigated. Unfortunately, data assimilation involves a series of assumptions and choices that significantly affect the final result. Given a satellite soil moisture observation, a rainfall-runoff model and a data assimilation technique, an improvement or a deterioration of discharge predictions can be obtained depending on the choices made in the data assimilation procedure. Consequently, large discrepancies have been obtained in the studies published so far likely due to the differences in the implementation of the data assimilation technique. On this basis, a comprehensive and robust procedure for the assimilation of satellite soil moisture data into rainfall-runoff modelling is developed here and applied to six subcatchment of the Upper Tiber River Basin for which high-quality hydrometeorological hourly observations are available in the period 1989-2013. The satellite soil moisture product used in this study is obtained from the Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT) onboard Metop-A satellite and it is available since 2007. The MISDc ("Modello Idrologico Semi

  16. An Overview of Rainfall-Runoff Model Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report explores rainfall-runoff models, their generation methods, and the categories under which they fall. Runoff plays an important role in the hydrological cycle by returning excess precipitation to the oceans and controlling how much water flows into stream systems. Mode...

  17. Predicting runoff of suspended solids and particulate phosphorus for selected Louisiana soils using simple soil tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Wang, Jim J; Zhang, Hailin

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the relationships among total suspended solids (TSS) and particulate phosphorus (PP) in runoff and selected soil properties. Nine Louisiana soils were subjected to simulated rainfall events, and runoff collected and analyzed for various parameters. A highly significant relationship existed between runoff TSS and runoff turbidity. Both runoff TSS and turbidity were also significantly related to runoff PP, which on average accounted for more than 98% of total P (TP) in the runoff. Runoff TSS was closely and positively related to soil clay content in an exponential fashion (y=0.10e0.01x, R2=0.91, Psoil electrical conductivity (EC) (y=0.02 x(-3.95), R2=0.70, Psoil suspension turbidity" (SST) which measures turbidity in a 1:200 soil/water suspension, exhibited highly significant linear relationships with runoff TSS (y=0.06x-4.38, R2=0.82, Psoil clay content and EC in a multiple regression, suggesting that SST was able to account for the integrated effect of clay content and electrolytic background on runoff TSS. The SST test could be used for assessment and management of sediment and particulate nutrient losses in surface runoff.

  18. Rainfall and runoff regime trends in mountain catchments (Case study area: the upper Hron River basin, Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blahušiaková Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of trends and causes of changes of selected hydroclimatic variables influencing the runoff regime in the upper Hron River basin (Slovakia. Different methods for identifying trends in data series are evaluated and include: simple mass curve analysis, linear regression, frequency analysis of flood events, use of the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration software, and the Mann-Kendall test. Analyses are performed for data from two periods (1931-2010 and 1961-2010. The changes in runoff are significant, especially in terms of lower QMax and 75 percentile values. This fact is also confirmed by the lower frequency and extremity of flood events. The 1980s are considered a turning point in the development of all hydroclimatic variables. The Mann-Kendall test shows a significant decrease in runoff in the winter period. The main causes of runoff decline are: the considerable increase in air temperature, the decrease in snow cover depth and changes in seasonal distribution of precipitation amounts.

  19. 49 CFR 213.59 - Elevation of curved track; runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elevation of curved track; runoff. 213.59 Section... track; runoff. (a) If a curve is elevated, the full elevation shall be provided throughout the curve, unless physical conditions do not permit. If elevation runoff occurs in a curve, the actual minimum...

  20. Performance of Two Bioswales on Urban Runoff Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfu Xiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of two bioswales eight years after construction in Davis, California. The treatment bioswale measured 9 m × 1 m × 1 m (L × W × D. Engineered soil mix (75% native lava rock and 25% loam soil replaced the native loam soil. Four Red Tip Photinia (Photinia × fraseri Dress trees and two Blueberry Muffin Hawthorn (Rhaphiolepis umbellata (Thunb. Makino shrubs were planted in the bioswale. Runoff flowed into the bioswale from an adjacent 171 m2 panel of turf grass. An identically sized control bioswale consisting of non-disturbed native soil was located adjacent to the treatment bioswale. Surface runoff quantity and quality were measured during three experiments with different pollutant loads. When compared to the control, the treatment bioswale reduced surface runoff by 99.4%, and reduced nitrogen, phosphate, and total organic carbon loading by 99.1%, 99.5%, and 99.4%, respectively. After eight years, tree growth characteristics were similar across both sites.

  1. Outcomes of tibial endovascular intervention in patients with poor pedal runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer-Bositis, Hallie E; Hicks, Taylor D; Haidar, Georges M; Sideman, Matthew J; Pounds, Lori L; Davies, Mark G

    2018-06-01

    Tibial interventions for critical limb ischemia are now commonplace. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of pedal runoff on patient-centered outcomes after tibial endovascular intervention. A database of patients undergoing lower extremity endovascular interventions at a single urban academic medical center between 2006 and 2016 was retrospectively queried. Patients with critical ischemia (Rutherford 5 and 6) were identified. Preintervention angiograms were reviewed in all cases to assess pedal runoff. Each dorsalis pedis, lateral plantar, and medial plantar artery was assigned a score according to the reporting standards of the Society for Vascular Surgery (0, no stenosis >20%; 1, 21%-49% stenosis; 2, 50%-99% stenosis; 2.5, half or less of the vessel length occluded; 3, more than half the vessel length occluded). A foot score (dorsalis pedis + medial plantar + lateral plantar + 1) was calculated for each foot (1-10). Two runoff score groups were identified: good vs poor, runoff score of 6 (47% had a runoff score ≥7). Overall major adverse cardiac events were equivalent at 30 days after the procedure in both groups. At 5 years, vessels with compromised runoff (score ≥7) had significantly lower ulcer healing (25% ± 3% vs 73% ± 4%, mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]) and a lower 5-year limb salvage rate (45% ± 6% vs 69% ± 4%, mean ± SEM) compared with those with good runoff (score runoff (score ≥7) had significantly lower clinical efficacy (23% ± 8% vs 38% ± 4%, mean ± SEM), amputation-free survival (32% ± 6% vs 48% ± 5%, mean ± SEM), and freedom from major adverse limb events (23% ± 9% vs 41% ± 8%, mean ± SEM) at 5 years compared with patients with good runoff (score runoff score can identify those patients who will not achieve ulcer healing and patient-centered outcomes after tibial intervention. Defining such subgroups will allow stratification of the patients and appropriate application of

  2. Variations of annual and seasonal runoff in Guangdong Province, south China: spatiotemporal patterns and possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Jianfeng

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we thoroughly analyzed spatial and temporal distributions of runoff and their relation with precipitation changes based on monthly runoff dataset at 25 hydrological stations and monthly precipitation at 127 stations in Guangdong Province, south China. Trends of the runoff and precipitation are detected using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. Correlations between runoff and precipitation are tested using Spearman's and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicate that: (1) annual maximum monthly runoff is mainly in decreasing tendency and significant increasing annual minimum monthly runoff is observed in the northern and eastern Guangdong Province. In addition, annual mean runoff is observed to be increasing at the stations located in the West and North Rivers and the coastal region; (2) analysis of seasonal runoff variations indicates increasing runoff in spring, autumn and winter. Wherein, significant increase of runoff is found at 8 stations and only 3 stations are dominated by decreasing runoff in winter; (3) runoff changes of the Guangdong Province are mainly the results of precipitation changes. The Guangdong Province is wetter in winter, spring and autumn. Summer is coming to be drier as reflected by decreasing runoff in the season; (4) both precipitation change and water reservoirs also play important roles in the increasing of annual minimum monthly streamflow. Seasonal shifts of runoff variations may pose new challenges for the water resources management under the influences of climate changes and intensifying human activities.

  3. Direct measurements of meltwater runoff on the Greenland ice sheet surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laurence C; Yang, Kang; Pitcher, Lincoln H; Overstreet, Brandon T; Chu, Vena W; Rennermalm, Åsa K; Ryan, Jonathan C; Cooper, Matthew G; Gleason, Colin J; Tedesco, Marco; Jeyaratnam, Jeyavinoth; van As, Dirk; van den Broeke, Michiel R; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice; Langen, Peter L; Cullather, Richard I; Zhao, Bin; Willis, Michael J; Hubbard, Alun; Box, Jason E; Jenner, Brittany A; Behar, Alberto E

    2017-12-12

    Meltwater runoff from the Greenland ice sheet surface influences surface mass balance (SMB), ice dynamics, and global sea level rise, but is estimated with climate models and thus difficult to validate. We present a way to measure ice surface runoff directly, from hourly in situ supraglacial river discharge measurements and simultaneous high-resolution satellite/drone remote sensing of upstream fluvial catchment area. A first 72-h trial for a 63.1-km 2 moulin-terminating internally drained catchment (IDC) on Greenland's midelevation (1,207-1,381 m above sea level) ablation zone is compared with melt and runoff simulations from HIRHAM5, MAR3.6, RACMO2.3, MERRA-2, and SEB climate/SMB models. Current models cannot reproduce peak discharges or timing of runoff entering moulins but are improved using synthetic unit hydrograph (SUH) theory. Retroactive SUH applications to two older field studies reproduce their findings, signifying that remotely sensed IDC area, shape, and supraglacial river length are useful for predicting delays in peak runoff delivery to moulins. Applying SUH to HIRHAM5, MAR3.6, and RACMO2.3 gridded melt products for 799 surrounding IDCs suggests their terminal moulins receive lower peak discharges, less diurnal variability, and asynchronous runoff timing relative to climate/SMB model output alone. Conversely, large IDCs produce high moulin discharges, even at high elevations where melt rates are low. During this particular field experiment, models overestimated runoff by +21 to +58%, linked to overestimated surface ablation and possible meltwater retention in bare, porous, low-density ice. Direct measurements of ice surface runoff will improve climate/SMB models, and incorporating remotely sensed IDCs will aid coupling of SMB with ice dynamics and subglacial systems. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  4. Cross-Regional Assessment Of Coupling And Variability In Precipitation-Runoff Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Buttle, J. M.; Laudon, H.; McDonnell, J. J.; McGuire, K. J.; Seibert, J.; Shanley, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    The higher mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere are particularly sensitive to change due to the important role the zero-degree isotherm plays in the phase of precipitation and intermediate storage as snow. An international inter-catchment comparison program North-Watch seeks to improve our understanding of the sensitivity of northern catchments to change by examining their hydrological and biogeochemical variability and response. The catchments are located in Sweden (Krycklan), Scotland (Mharcaidh, Girnock and Strontian), the United States (Sleepers River, Hubbard Brook and HJ Andrews) and Canada (Catamaran, Dorset and Wolf Creek). For this study, 8 catchments with 10 continuous years of daily precipitation and runoff data were selected to assess the seasonal coupling of rainfall and runoff and the memory effect of runoff events on the hydrograph at different time scales. To assess the coupling and synchroneity of precipitation, continuous wavelet transforms and wavelet coherence were used. Wavelet spectra identified the relative importance of both annual versus seasonal flows while wavelet coherence was applied to identify over different time scales along the 10-year window how well precipitation and runoff were coupled. For example, while on a given day, precipitation may be closely coupled to runoff, a wet year may not necessarily be a high runoff year in catchments with large storage. Assessing different averaging periods in the variation of daily flows highlights the importance of seasonality in runoff response and the relative influence of rain versus snowmelt on flow magnitude and variability. Wet catchments with limited seasonal precipitation variability (Strontian, Girnock) have precipitation signals more closely coupled with runoff, whereas dryer catchments dominated by snow (Wolf Creek, Krycklan) have strongly coupling only during freshet. Most catchments with highly seasonal precipitation show strong intermittent coupling during their wet season. At

  5. Direct measurements of meltwater runoff on the Greenland ice sheet surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laurence C.; Yang, Kang; Pitcher, Lincoln H.; Overstreet, Brandon T.; Chu, Vena W.; Rennermalm, Åsa K.; Ryan, Jonathan C.; Cooper, Matthew G.; Gleason, Colin J.; Tedesco, Marco; Jeyaratnam, Jeyavinoth; van As, Dirk; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice; Langen, Peter L.; Cullather, Richard I.; Zhao, Bin; Willis, Michael J.; Hubbard, Alun; Box, Jason E.; Jenner, Brittany A.; Behar, Alberto E.

    2017-12-01

    Meltwater runoff from the Greenland ice sheet surface influences surface mass balance (SMB), ice dynamics, and global sea level rise, but is estimated with climate models and thus difficult to validate. We present a way to measure ice surface runoff directly, from hourly in situ supraglacial river discharge measurements and simultaneous high-resolution satellite/drone remote sensing of upstream fluvial catchment area. A first 72-h trial for a 63.1-km2 moulin-terminating internally drained catchment (IDC) on Greenland's midelevation (1,207–1,381 m above sea level) ablation zone is compared with melt and runoff simulations from HIRHAM5, MAR3.6, RACMO2.3, MERRA-2, and SEB climate/SMB models. Current models cannot reproduce peak discharges or timing of runoff entering moulins but are improved using synthetic unit hydrograph (SUH) theory. Retroactive SUH applications to two older field studies reproduce their findings, signifying that remotely sensed IDC area, shape, and supraglacial river length are useful for predicting delays in peak runoff delivery to moulins. Applying SUH to HIRHAM5, MAR3.6, and RACMO2.3 gridded melt products for 799 surrounding IDCs suggests their terminal moulins receive lower peak discharges, less diurnal variability, and asynchronous runoff timing relative to climate/SMB model output alone. Conversely, large IDCs produce high moulin discharges, even at high elevations where melt rates are low. During this particular field experiment, models overestimated runoff by +21 to +58%, linked to overestimated surface ablation and possible meltwater retention in bare, porous, low-density ice. Direct measurements of ice surface runoff will improve climate/SMB models, and incorporating remotely sensed IDCs will aid coupling of SMB with ice dynamics and subglacial systems.

  6. The Impact of Urban Run-Off on Ogbor River | Atuluegwu | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of urban run-off on Ogbor River in Aba metropolis has been studied. The run-off contains toxic chemical, heavy metals and suspended solids. Water samples were collected from three discharged points in the months of May to September. The results of the analysis of the samples show high-level concentration of ...

  7. Phosphorus runoff from sewage sludge applied to different slopes of lateritic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan Hui; Wang, Ming Kuang; Wang, Guo; Chen, Ming Hua; Luo, Dan; Ding, Feng Hua; Li, Rong

    2011-01-01

    Sewage sludge (SS) applied to sloping fields at rates that exceed annual forest nutrient requirements can be a source of phosphorus (P) in runoff. This study investigates the effects of different slopes (18, 27, 36, and 45%) on P in runoff from plots amended with SS (120 Mg ha). Lateritic soil (pH 5.2) was exposed to five simulated rainfalls (90 mm h) on outdoor plots. When sludge was broadcast and mixed with surface soils, the concentrations and loss in runoff of total P in the mixed sample (MTP), total P in the settled sample (STP), total particulate P (TPP), total suspended P (TSP), and total dissolved P (TDP) were highest at 1 or 18 d after application. Initially, pollution risks to surface waters generally increased to different degrees with steeper slopes, and then diminished gradually with dwindling differences between the slopes. The runoff losses coefficient of MTP increased in the order 36 > 45 > 27 > 18%. The initial event (1 and 18 d) accounted for 67.0 to 83.6% of total runoff P losses. Particulate fraction were dominant carriers for P losses, while with the lower slopes there was higher content of P per unit particulate fraction in runoff. Phosphorus losses were greatly affected by the interaction of sludge-soil-runoff and the modification of soil properties induced by sludge amendment. It is recommended to choose lower slopes (soils should be studied further in the field under a wider diversity of conditions. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  8. Contrast Runoff Correlates with the Clinical Outcome of Cervical Epidural Neuroplasty Using a Racz Catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yun-Joung; Lee, Myoung No; Cho, Min Ji; Park, Hue Jung; Moon, Dong Eon; Kim, Young Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Epidural neuroplasty using a Racz catheter has a therapeutic effect. Studies have found no correlation between foraminal stenosis and the outcome of epidural neuroplasty, which is thought to depend on contrast runoff. To examine the correlation between the contrast spread pattern and pain reduction in cervical epidural neuroplasty using a Racz catheter. Retrospective study. An interventional pain-management practice in a university hospital. Fluoroscopic images were reviewed retrospectively. The spread of contrast from the neural foramen to a nerve root was called contrast runoff. If the contrast did not spread in this manner, then there was no contrast runoff. We defined successful epidural neuroplasty as a 50% or greater reduction from the pre-procedure numeric rating scale (NRS) score for total pain, and an at least 40% reduction in the neck pain and disability scale (NPDS) score. This study reviewed 169 patients. Among the patients who had a contrast runoff pattern, the epidural neuroplasty was rated as successful in 96 (74.4%), 97 (75.2%), 86 (66.7%), and 79 (61.2%) cases one, 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure, respectively. When there was no contrast runoff, the epidural neuroplasty was successful in 12 (30%), 12 (30%), 10 (25%), and 10 (25%) cases at one, 3, 6, and 12 months after the procedure (P runoff pattern had odds ratios of 6.788, 7.073, 6.000, and 4.740 at one, 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively (P runoff pattern had a higher success rate. Contrast runoff should be observed during neuroplasty, even in the presence of foraminal stenosis. Cervical spinal pain, contrast, contrast runoff, epidural neuroplasty, percutaneous adhesiolysis, Racz catheter.

  9. Investigation of Quality and Reclamation of Urban Storm Runoff in City of Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parvinnia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban storm runoff is considered as a potentially reclaimable and valuable resource in many arid and semiarid areas, in Iran. Urban storm runoff in Shiraz is collected mainly by Khoshk River and transported to the Maharloo Lake without any treatment or reclamation. In this study, storm runoff quality and the possibility for its reclamation from different parts of the city in certain canals and pipes are investigated. The quality of the first flush in three relatively large and small suburban areas with different land uses is studied. For the purposes of this study, three stations were considered: one near the downstream end of the city on Khoshk River with a relatively large watershed, one in the middle of the city where street runoff is the main constituent of the flush, and a third one near the western outskirts of the city with relatively small mainly residential watershed.

  10. Phosphorus runoff from waste water treatment biosolids and poultry litter applied to agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John W; Coale, Frank J; Sims, J Thomas; Shober, Amy L

    2010-01-01

    Differences in the properties of organic phosphorus (P) sources, particularly those that undergo treatment to reduce soluble P, can affect soil P solubility and P transport in surface runoff. This 2-yr field study investigated soil P solubility and runoff P losses from two agricultural soils in the Mid-Atlantic region after land application of biosolids derived from different waste water treatment processes and poultry litter. Phosphorus speciation in the biosolids and poultry litter differed due to treatment processes and significantly altered soil P solubility and dissolved reactive P (DRP) and bioavailable P (FeO-P) concentrations in surface runoff. Runoff total P (TP) concentrations were closely related to sediment transport. Initial runoff DRP and FeO-P concentrations varied among the different biosolids and poultry litter applied. Over time, as sediment transport declined and DRP concentrations became an increasingly important component of runoff FeO-P and TP, total runoff P was more strongly influenced by the type of biosolids applied. Throughout the study, application of lime-stabilized biosolids and poultry litter increased concentrations of soil-soluble P, readily desorbable P, and soil P saturation, resulting in increased DRP and FeO-P concentrations in runoff. Land application of biosolids generated from waste water treatment processes that used amendments to reduce P solubility (e.g., FeCl(3)) did not increase soil P saturation and reduced the potential for DRP and FeO-P transport in surface runoff. These results illustrate the importance of waste water treatment plant process and determination of specific P source coefficients to account for differential P availability among organic P sources.

  11. Simplified Laboratory Runoff Procedure (SLRP): Procedure and Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The Simplified Laboratory Runoff Procedure (SLRP) was developed to provide a faster, less expensive approach to evaluate surface runoff water quality from dredged material placed in an upland environment...

  12. Possible change on the runoff in the upper Yellow River basin under global climate change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this study,the characteristics and changing trends of temperature,precipitation,and runoff in the upper Yellow River basin up Tangnag station are analyzed by using hydrological and meteorological data in the past 50 years from observation stations in the basin.Further,in this study,the evolving trend of runoff in the future decades is forecasted in the basin based on the method of suppositional climate scenes combination.The results indicate temperature variation in the basin has an evident positive relation with global warming,and the precipitation variations are quite complicated in the basin because of differences of located geographic positions during the past 50 years.Runoff in the basin has been decreasing continually since the end of the 1980s because the mean temperature in the basin has been rising and precipitation in the main areas of runoff formation in the basin has been decreasing.Runoff will largely decrease if precipitation decreases and temperature rises continuously,whereas runoff will increase if temperature is invariable and precipitation increases largely;the increase magnitude of runoff may be more than that of precipitation because of the synchronously increasing supply of meltwater from snow,glacier,and frozen soils in future several decades.

  13. Urban runoff and combined sewer overflow. [Wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffa, P.E. (Calocerinos and Spina, Liverpool, NY); Freedman, S.D.; Owens, E.M.; Field, R.; Cibik, C.

    1982-06-01

    The control, treatment and management of urban runoff and sewer overflow are reviewed. Simplified modeling and monitoring techniques are used to characterize urban runoff and to assess control alternatives. (KRM)

  14. A Clinical and Electrophysiological Study of Peripheral Neuropathies in Predialysis Chronic Kidney Disease Patients and Relation of Severity of Peripheral Neuropathy with Degree of Renal Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Dushyanth Babu; Mallipeddi, Sarat; Apparao, A; Vengamma, B; Sivakumar, V; Kolli, Satyarao

    2017-01-01

    To study the prevalence, clinical features, electrophysiological features, and severity of peripheral neuropathy in predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with respect to severity of renal failure and presence of diabetes mellitus. Between May 2015 and December 2016, 200 predialysis CKD patients were assessed prospectively. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in predialysis CKD patients in the present study was 45% based on clinical symptoms and 90% electrophysiologically. Mean age of 200 predialysis CKD patients who participated in the study was 53.2 ± 13.2 years. One hundred and thirty-six (68%) patients were male and 64 (32%) patients were female. Mean duration of disease was 2.2 ± 1.6 years. Nearly 45% patients of patients had asymptomatic peripheral neuropathy in the present study, which was more common in mild-to-moderate renal failure group. One hundred twenty-six patients (63%) had definite damage and 54 patients (27%) had early damage. In mild-to-moderate renal failure ( n = 100) and severe renal failure patients ( n = 100), 88% and 92% had significant peripheral neuropathy, respectively. Most common nerves involved were sural nerve, median sensory nerve, and ulnar sensory nerve. Diabetic patients (97%) showed more severe and high prevalence of peripheral neuropathy when compared to nondiabetic patients (83%). Most common patterns were pure axonal sensorimotor neuropathy and mixed sensorimotor neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy is common in predialysis patients, prevalence and severity of which increases as renal failure worsens. Predialysis patients with diabetes show higher prevalence and severity of peripheral neuropathy when compared with nondiabetics.

  15. A Clinical and Electrophysiological Study of Peripheral Neuropathies in Predialysis Chronic Kidney Disease Patients and Relation of Severity of Peripheral Neuropathy with Degree of Renal Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasti, Dushyanth Babu; Mallipeddi, Sarat; Apparao, A.; Vengamma, B.; Sivakumar, V.; Kolli, Satyarao

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence, clinical features, electrophysiological features, and severity of peripheral neuropathy in predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with respect to severity of renal failure and presence of diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Between May 2015 and December 2016, 200 predialysis CKD patients were assessed prospectively. Results: The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in predialysis CKD patients in the present study was 45% based on clinical symptoms and 90% electrophysiologically. Mean age of 200 predialysis CKD patients who participated in the study was 53.2 ± 13.2 years. One hundred and thirty-six (68%) patients were male and 64 (32%) patients were female. Mean duration of disease was 2.2 ± 1.6 years. Nearly 45% patients of patients had asymptomatic peripheral neuropathy in the present study, which was more common in mild-to-moderate renal failure group. One hundred twenty-six patients (63%) had definite damage and 54 patients (27%) had early damage. In mild-to-moderate renal failure (n = 100) and severe renal failure patients (n = 100), 88% and 92% had significant peripheral neuropathy, respectively. Most common nerves involved were sural nerve, median sensory nerve, and ulnar sensory nerve. Diabetic patients (97%) showed more severe and high prevalence of peripheral neuropathy when compared to nondiabetic patients (83%). Most common patterns were pure axonal sensorimotor neuropathy and mixed sensorimotor neuropathy. Conclusion: Peripheral neuropathy is common in predialysis patients, prevalence and severity of which increases as renal failure worsens. Predialysis patients with diabetes show higher prevalence and severity of peripheral neuropathy when compared with nondiabetics. PMID:29204008

  16. Agroforestry practices, runoff, and nutrient loss: a paired watershed comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawatta, Ranjith P; Krstansky, J John; Henderson, Gray S; Garrett, Harold E

    2002-01-01

    A paired watershed study consisting of agroforestry (trees plus grass buffer strips), contour strips (grass buffer strips), and control treatments with a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation was used to examine treatment effects on runoff, sediment, and nutrient losses. During the (1991-1997) calibration and subsequent three-year treatment periods, runoff was measured in 0.91- and 1.37-m H-flumes with bubbler flow meters. Composite samples were analyzed for sediment, total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate, and ammonium. Calibration equations developed to predict runoff, sediment, and nutrients losses explained 66 to 97% of the variability between treatment watersheds. The contour strip and agroforestry treatments reduced runoff by 10 and 1% during the treatment period. In both treatments, most runoff reductions occurred in the second and third years after treatment establishment. The contour strip treatment reduced erosion by 19% in 1999, while erosion in the agroforestry treatment exceeded the predicted loss. Treatments reduced TP loss by 8 and 17% on contour strip and agroforestry watersheds. Treatments did not result in reductions in TN during the first two years of the treatment period. The contour strip and agroforestry treatments reduced TN loss by 21 and 20%, respectively, during a large precipitation event in the third year. During the third year of treatments, nitrate N loss was reduced 24 and 37% by contour strip and agroforestry treatments. Contour strip and agroforestry management practices effectively reduced nonpoint-source pollution in runoff from a corn-soybean rotation in the clay pan soils of northeastern Missouri.

  17. Managing urban runoff in residential neighborhoods: Nitrogen and phosphorus in lawn irrigation driven runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, Marti L.; Yang, Yun-Ya; Majcherek, Tammy; Haver, Darren; Oki, Lorence

    2017-01-01

    Sources and mechanisms of nutrient transport in lawn irrigation driven surface runoff are largely unknown. We investigated the transport of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in lawn irrigation driven surface runoff from a residential neighborhood (28 ha) of 56% impervious and 44% pervious areas. Pervious areas encompassing turfgrass (lawns) in the neighborhood were irrigated with the reclaimed water in common areas during the evening to late night and with the municipal water in homeowner’s lawns during the morning. The stormwater outlet pipe draining the residential neighborhood was instrumented with a flow meter and Hach autosampler. Water samples were collected every 1-h and triple composite samples were obtained at 3-h intervals during an intensive sampling period of 1-week. Mean concentrations, over 56 sampling events, of total N (TN) and total P (TP) in surface runoff at the outlet pipe were 10.9±6.34 and 1.3±1.03 mg L–1, respectively. Of TN, the proportion of nitrate–N was 58% and other–N was 42%, whereas of TP, orthophosphate–P was 75% and other–P was 25%. Flow and nutrient (N and P) concentrations were lowest from 6:00 a.m. to noon, which corresponded with the use of municipal water and highest from 6:00 p.m. to midnight, which corresponded with the use of reclaimed water. This data suggests that N and P originating in lawn irrigation driven surface runoff from residential catchments is an important contributor of nutrients in surface waters. PMID:28604811

  18. Long-term characterization of residential runoff and assessing potential surrogates of fecal indicator organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reano, Dane C; Haver, Darren L; Oki, Lorence R; Yates, Marylynn V

    2015-05-01

    Investigations into the microbiological impacts of urban runoff on receiving water bodies, especially during storm conditions, have yielded general paradigms that influence runoff abatement and control management strategies. To determine whether these trends are present in other runoff sources, the physical, chemical, and microbiological components of residential runoff from eight neighborhoods in Northern and Southern California were characterized over the course of five years. Sampling occurred regularly and during storm events, resulting in 833 data sets. Analysis of runoff data assisted in characterizing residential runoff, elucidating differences between dry and storm conditions, and identifying surrogates capable of assessing microbiological quality. Results indicate that although microbial loading increases during storm events similar to urban runoff, annual microbial loading in these study sites principally occurs during dry conditions (24% storm, 76% dry). Generated artificial neural network and multiple linear regression models assessed surrogate performance by accurately predicting Escherichia coli concentrations from validation data sets (R(2) = 0.74 and 0.77, respectively), but required input from other fecal indicator organism (FIO) variables to maintain performance (R(2) = 0.27 and 0.18, respectively, without FIO). This long-term analysis of residential runoff highlights characteristics distinct from urban runoff and establishes necessary variables for determining microbiological quality, thus better informing future management strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Can green roof act as a sink for contaminants? A methodological study to evaluate runoff quality from green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Joshi, Umid Man

    2014-11-01

    The present study examines whether green roofs act as a sink or source of contaminants based on various physico-chemical parameters (pH, conductivity and total dissolved solids) and metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb). The performance of green roof substrate prepared using perlite, vermiculite, sand, crushed brick, and coco-peat, was compared with local garden soil based on improvement of runoff quality. Portulaca grandiflora was used as green roof vegetation. Four different green roof configurations, with vegetated and non-vegetated systems, were examined for several artificial rain events (un-spiked and metal-spiked). In general, the vegetated green roof assemblies generated better-quality runoff with less conductivity and total metal ion concentration compared to un-vegetated assemblies. Of the different green roof configurations examined, P. grandiflora planted on green roof substrate acted as sink for various metals and showed the potential to generate better runoff. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Land cover controls on summer discharge and runoff solution chemistry of semi-arid urban catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Erika L.; Brooks, Paul D.; Lohse, Kathleen A.; McLain, Jean E. T.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryRecharge of urban runoff to groundwater as a stormwater management practice has gained importance in semi-arid regions where water resources are scarce and urban centers are growing. Despite this trend, the importance of land cover in controlling semi-arid catchment runoff quantity and quality remains unclear. Here we address the question: How do land cover characteristics control the amount and quality of storm runoff in semi-arid urban catchments? We monitored summertime runoff quantity and quality from five catchments dominated by distinct urban land uses: low, medium, and high density residential, mixed use, and commercial. Increasing urban land cover increased runoff duration and the likelihood that a rainfall event would result in runoff, but did not increase the time to peak discharge of episodic runoff. The effect of urban land cover on hydrologic responses was tightly coupled to the magnitude of rainfall. At distinct rainfall thresholds, roads, percent impervious cover and the stormwater drainage network controlled runoff frequency, runoff depth and runoff ratios. Contrary to initial expectations, runoff quality did not vary in repose to impervious cover or land use. We identified four major mechanisms controlling runoff quality: (1) variable solute sourcing due to land use heterogeneity and above ground catchment connectivity; (2) the spatial extent of pervious and biogeochemically active areas; (3) the efficiency of overland flow and runoff mobilization; and (4) solute flushing and dilution. Our study highlights the importance of the stormwater drainage systems characteristics in controlling urban runoff quantity and quality; and suggests that enhanced wetting and in-stream processes may control solute sourcing and retention. Finally, we suggest that the characteristics of the stormwater drainage system should be integrated into stormwater management approaches.

  1. How does imperviousness develop and affect runoff generation in an urbanizing watershed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Krebs

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Imperviousness associated with urbanization remains one of the biggest challenges in sustainable urban design. The replacement of forests, marshlands, buffers, and wetlands with impervious surfaces, strongly influences hydrological processes in urbanizing areas. This study analyzed the contribution of four constructed surfaces types – roofs, yards, roads, and an international airport – to surface runoff within a 21 km2 watershed, and presents the development over five decades (1977−2030. The land-cover model, used to assess watershed imperviousness in 2030, utilized coefficients between impervious areas generating surface runoff and the floor area, developed during the study. The conducted imperviousness analysis allowed the evaluation of land-use development impacts on the stream network, and the identification of hydrologically active areas for urban planning and stormwater management. Research revealed the importance of yard imperviousness related to suburban residential housing for stormwater runoff generation, and the impacts of transport-related imperviousness on stormwater runoff.

  2. Multiple time scale analysis of sediment and runoff changes in the Lower Yellow River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sediment and runoff changes of seven hydrological stations along the Lower Yellow River (LYR (Huayuankou Station, Jiahetan Station, Gaocun Station, Sunkou Station, Ai Shan Station, Qikou Station and Lijin Station from 1980 to 2003 were alanyzed at multiple time scale. The maximum value of monthly, daily and hourly sediment load and runoff conservations were also analyzed with the annually mean value. Mann–Kendall non-parametric mathematics correlation test and Hurst coefficient method were adopted in the study. Research results indicate that (1 the runoff of seven hydrological stations was significantly reduced in the study period at different time scales. However, the trends of sediment load in these stations were not obvious. The sediment load of Huayuankou, Jiahetan and Aishan stations even slightly increased with the runoff decrease. (2 The trends of the sediment load with different time scale showed differences at Luokou and Lijin stations. Although the annually and monthly sediment load were broadly flat, the maximum hourly sediment load showed decrease trend. (3 According to the Hurst coefficients, the trend of sediment and runoff will be continue without taking measures, which proved the necessary of runoff-sediment regulation scheme.

  3. The Idiosyncrasies of Storage and Implications for Catchment Runoff (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, C.

    2010-12-01

    Because water goes into storage when it rains, perhaps the entire concept of a direct rainfall-runoff process is erroneous and misleading. Perhaps the runoff generation process is merely the conversion of storage to runoff. Using this perspective as a foundation, it then becomes important to understand how catchments retain water, where this storage is distributed and what controls the distribution of this storage. There is a growing body of observational evidence that the idiosyncrasies of storage in the catchment are crucial for runoff generation. These idiosyncrasies are important enough that some hydrologists are questioning assumptions of steady state, linearity, and topographic control in existing theories and algorithms of runoff generation. For instance, thresholds that control the release of water have been identified at many scales and in many landscapes. Hysteresis in storage-runoff relationships at all scales manifest because of these thresholds. Because storage thresholds at a range of scales are now known to be important for runoff response, connectivity has become an important concept crucial to interpreting catchment runoff response. There appears to be growing acceptance of such ideas as thresholds, hysteresis and connectivity in the hydrological literature. Theoretical development and model parameterization have begun, but there remains much work to resolve these field observations. In particular, our community should strive to investigate the relevance of storage-runoff relationships partly through innovative measurement techniques and the development of model structures appropriate for the requisite testing of these theories in a diversity of landscapes.

  4. Peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peripheral; Neuritis - peripheral; Nerve disease; Polyneuropathy; Chronic pain - peripheral neuropathy ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 107. Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  5. Variation of runoff and precipitation in the Hekou-Longmen region of the Yellow River based on elasticity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erhui; Mu, Xingmin; Zhao, Guangju; Gao, Peng; Shao, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation is very important to the formation of runoff, and studying of runoff variation and its response to precipitation has practical significance to sustainable utilization of water resources. The study used Mann-Kendall test, anomaly accumulation method, and precipitation elasticity of runoff method to analyze the changes in the relation of precipitation and runoff and the contribution of precipitation to runoff change in the Hekou-Longmen region (from 1957 to 2010), Huangfuchuan watershed (from 1954 to 2010), and Yanhe watershed (from 1952 to 2010) in the middle reaches of the Yellow River. The results showed that runoff appeared a significant decreasing trend (P = 0.01) while it was not significant in precipitation in all study areas. In particular, the reductions of average annual runoff in the Hekou-Longmen region, Huangfuchuan watershed, and Yanhe watershed were 72.7%, 87.5%, and 32.2%, respectively, during 2000-2010 compared to the 1950s. There existed two abrupt change points of the runoff in the Hekou-Longmen region and Huangfuchuan watershed, which were detected in 1979 and 1998. But in the Yanhe watershed only one abrupt change point was found in 1996. The precipitation elasticities of runoff were 1.11, 1.09, and 1.26, respectively, and the contributions of precipitation on runoff reduction were 26.4%, 17.9%, and 31.6%, respectively, in the Hekou-Longmen region, Huangfuchuan watershed, and Yanhe watershed.

  6. Methodology for Analyzing and Predicting the Runoff and Sediment into a Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Feng Hao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid economic growth in China, a large number of hydropower projects have been planned and constructed. The sediment deposition of the reservoirs is one of the most important disputes during the construction and operation, because there are many heavy sediment-laden rivers. The analysis and prediction of the runoff and sediment into a reservoir is of great significance for reservoir operation. With knowledge of the incoming runoff and sediment characteristics, the regulator can adjust the reservoir discharge to guarantee the water supply, and flush more sediment at appropriate times. In this study, the long-term characteristics of runoff and sediment, including trend, jump point, and change cycle, are analyzed using various statistical approaches, such as accumulated anomaly analysis, the Fisher ordered clustering method, and Maximum Entropy Spectral Analysis (MESA. Based on the characteristics, a prediction model is established using the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARIMA method. The whole analysis and prediction system is applied to The Three Gorges Project (TGP, one of the biggest hydropower-complex projects in the world. Taking hydrologic series from 1955 to 2010 as the research objectives, the results show that both the runoff and the sediment are decreasing, and the reduction rate of sediment is much higher. Runoff and sediment into the TGP display cyclic variations over time, with a cycle of about a decade, but catastrophe points for runoff and sediment appear in 1991 and 2001, respectively. Prediction models are thus built based on monthly average hydrologic series from 2003 to 2010. ARIMA (1, 1, 1 × (1, 1, 112 and ARIMA (0, 1, 1 × (0, 1, 112 are selected for the runoff and sediment predictions, respectively, and the parameters of the models are also calibrated. The analysis of autocorrelation coefficients and partial autocorrelation coefficients of the residuals indicates that the models built in this study are feasible

  7. Enrichment behavior and transport mechanism of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yi; Luo Xiaolin; Zhang Wei; Wu Bin; Han Feng; Lin Zhongrong; Wang Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) transported by surface runoff result in nonpoint source pollution and jeopardize aquatic ecosystems. The transport mechanism of PAHs during rainfall-runoff events has been rarely studied regarding pervious areas. An experimental system was setup to simulate the runoff pollution process on PAHs-contaminated soil. The enrichment behavior of soil-bound PAHs was investigated. The results show that soil organic matters (SOM), rather than clay particles, seem to be the main carrier of PAHs. The enrichment is highly conditioned on runoff and erosion processes, and its magnitude varies among PAH compounds. It is not feasible to build a simple and universal relationship between enrichment ratio and sediment discharge following the traditional enrichment theory. To estimate the flux of PAHs from pervious areas, soil erosion process has to be clearly understood, and both organic carbon content and composition of SOM should be factored into the calculation. - Highlights: ► Significant enrichment of particle-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events. ► Organic matters as the direct carrier of PAHs in runoff from contaminated soil. ► The traditional enrichment theory is not fully valid for PAHs. - The traditional enrichment theory is not fully valid for PAHs, and soil organic matters have a significant impact on the transport of PAHs during rainfall-runoff events.

  8. The Effect of Water Harvesting Techniques on Runoff, Sedimentation, and Soil Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seekh, Saleh H.; Mohammad, Ayed G.

    2009-07-01

    This study addressed the hydrological processes of runoff and sedimentation, soil moisture content, and properties under the effect of different water harvesting techniques (treatments). The study was conducted at three sites, representing environmental condition gradients, located in the southern part of the West Bank. For each treatment, the study evaluated soil chemical and physical properties, soil moisture at 30 cm depth, surface runoff and sedimentation at each site. Results showed that runoff is reduced by 65-85% and sedimentation by 58-69% in stone terraces and semi-circle bunds compared to the control at the semi-humid site. In addition, stone terraces and contour ridges significantly reduced the amount of total runoff by 80% and 73%, respectively, at the arid site. Soil moisture content was significantly increased by water harvesting techniques compared to the control in all treatments at the three study sites. In addition, the difference between the control and the water harvesting structures were higher in the arid and semi-arid areas than in the semi-humid area. Soil and water conservation, via utilization of water harvesting structures, is an effective principle for reducing the negative impact of high runoff intensity and subsequently increasing soil moisture storage from rainfall. Jessour systems in the valley and stone terraces were effective in increasing soil moisture storage, prolonging the growing season for natural vegetation, and decreasing the amount of supplemental irrigation required for growing fruit trees.

  9. The effect of water harvesting techniques on runoff, sedimentation, and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seekh, Saleh H; Mohammad, Ayed G

    2009-07-01

    This study addressed the hydrological processes of runoff and sedimentation, soil moisture content, and properties under the effect of different water harvesting techniques (treatments). The study was conducted at three sites, representing environmental condition gradients, located in the southern part of the West Bank. For each treatment, the study evaluated soil chemical and physical properties, soil moisture at 30 cm depth, surface runoff and sedimentation at each site. Results showed that runoff is reduced by 65-85% and sedimentation by 58-69% in stone terraces and semi-circle bunds compared to the control at the semi-humid site. In addition, stone terraces and contour ridges significantly reduced the amount of total runoff by 80% and 73%, respectively, at the arid site. Soil moisture content was significantly increased by water harvesting techniques compared to the control in all treatments at the three study sites. In addition, the difference between the control and the water harvesting structures were higher in the arid and semi-arid areas than in the semi-humid area. Soil and water conservation, via utilization of water harvesting structures, is an effective principle for reducing the negative impact of high runoff intensity and subsequently increasing soil moisture storage from rainfall. Jessour systems in the valley and stone terraces were effective in increasing soil moisture storage, prolonging the growing season for natural vegetation, and decreasing the amount of supplemental irrigation required for growing fruit trees.

  10. Fluometuron and pendimethalin runoff from strip and conventionally tilled cotton in the southern atlantic coastal plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Thomas L; Truman, Clint C; Bosch, David D; Bednarz, Craig

    2004-01-01

    In the Atlantic Coastal Plain region of southern Georgia (USA), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) acreage increased threefold in the past decade. To more effectively protect water quality in the region, best management practices are needed that reduce pesticide runoff from fields in cotton production. This study compared runoff of two herbicides, fluometuron [N,N-dimethyl-N'-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl]-urea] and pendimethalin [N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitro-benzenamine], from plots in strip-tillage (ST) and conventional-tillage (CT) management near Tifton, GA. Rainfall simulations were conducted one day after preemergence herbicide applications to 0.0006-ha plots and runoff from 0.15-ha plots due to natural rainfall following preemergence pendimethalin and fluometuron and postemergence fluometuron use was monitored. Pendimethalin runoff was greater under CT than ST due to strong pendimethalin soil sorption and higher erosion and runoff under CT. The highest losses, 1.3% of applied in CT and 0.22% of applied in ST, were observed during rainfall simulations conducted 1 DAT. Fluometuron runoff from natural rainfall was substantially lower from ST than from CT plots but the trend was reversed in rainfall simulations. In all studies, fluometuron runoff was also relatively low (<1% of applied), and on plots under natural rainfall, desmethylfluometuron (DMF) represented about 50% of total fluometuron runoff. Fluometuron's relatively low runoff rate appeared linked to its rapid leaching, and high DMF detection rates in runoff support DMF inclusion in fluometuron risk assessments. Results showed that ST has the potential to reduce runoff of both herbicides, but fluometuron leaching may be a ground water quality concern.

  11. Snowmelt runoff from northern alpine tundra hillslopes: major processes and methods of simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Quinton

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In northern alpine tundra, large slope gradients, late-lying snow drifts and shallow soils overlying impermeable substrates all contribute to large hillslope runoff volumes during the spring freshet. Understanding the processes and pathways of hillslope runoff in this environment is, therefore, critical to understanding the water cycle within northern alpine tundra ecosystems. This study: (a presents the results of a field study on runoff from a sub-alpine tundra hillslope with a large snow drift during the spring melt period; (b identifies the major runoff processes that must be represented in simulations of snowmelt runoff from sub-alpine tundra hillslopes; (c describes how these processes can be represented in a numerical simulation model; and d compares field measurements with modelled output to validate or refute the conceptual understanding of runoff generation embodied in the process simulations. The study was conducted at Granger Creek catchment, 15 km south of Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Canada, on a north-facing slope below a late-lying snow drift. For the freshet period, the major processes to be represented in a runoff model include the rate of meltwater release from the late-lying snowdrift, the elevation and thickness of the saturated layer, the magnitude of the soil permeability and its variation with depth. The daily cycle of net all-wave radiation was observed to drive the diurnal pulses of melt water from the drift; this, in turn, was found to control the daily pulses of flow through the hillslope subsurface and in the stream channel. The computed rate of frost table lowering fell within the observed values; however, there was wide variation among the measured frost table depths. Spatial variability in frost table depth would result in spatial variabilities in saturated layer depth and thickness, which would, in turn, produce variations in subsurface flow rates over the slope, including preferential flowpaths. Keywords

  12. Assessment of suspended solids concentration in highway runoff and its treatment implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, M; Renman, G

    2006-09-01

    It is understood that the major pollution from storm water is related to the content of particulate matter. One treatment practice is based on the first flush, i.e. detention of the initial part of the runoff that is considered to contain the highest concentrations of pollutants. This study has evaluated the concentration of total suspended solids in 30 consecutive runoff events during the winter season for an area of 6.7 hectares. A six-lane highway (E4) that has an annual average daily traffic load of 120,000 dominates the area and road de-icing salt (NaCl) and studded tires were in regular use during the studied period. The effluent standard for wastewater of 60 mg TSS per litre applied in EU was used to assess the treatment requirement of storm water. In only two of the events the event mean concentration was below 60 mg 1(-1). In four runoff events a partial event mean concentration below 60 mg 1(-1) was found, in 26 %, 12 %, 11 %, and 2 % respectively of the runoff volume. This would suggest that a capture of the initial part of the runoff for subsequent treatment is less applicable in this type of urban watershed.

  13. The effect of poultry manure application rate and AlCl(3) treatment on bacterial fecal indicators in runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J P; Adeli, A; McLaughlin, M R; Miles, D M

    2012-12-01

    Increasing costs associated with inorganic fertilizer have led to widespread use of broiler litter. Proper land application, typically limiting nutrient loss, is essential to protect surface water. This study was designed to evaluate litter-borne microbial runoff (heterotrophic plate count bacteria, staphylococci, Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Clostridium perfringens) while applying typical nutrient-control methods. Field studies were conducted in which plots with high and low litter rates, inorganic fertilizer, AlCl(3)-treated litter, and controls were rained on five times using a rain generator. Overall, microbial runoff from poultry litter applied plots was consistently greater (2-5 log(10) plot(-1)) than controls. No appreciable effect on microbial runoff was noted from variable litter application rate or AlCl(3) treatments, though rain event, not time, significantly affected runoff load. C. perfringens and staphylococci runoff were consistently associated with poultry litter application, during early rain events, while other indicators were unreliable. Large microbial runoff pulses were observed, ranging from 10(2) to 10(10) CFU plot(-1); however, only a small fraction of litter-borne microbes were recoverable in runoff. This study indicated that microbial runoff from litter-applied plots can be substantial, and that methods intended to reduce nutrient losses do not necessarily reduce microbial runoff.

  14. Evaluation of Three Models for Simulating Pesticide Runoff from Irrigated Agricultural Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuyang; Goh, Kean S

    2015-11-01

    Three models were evaluated for their accuracy in simulating pesticide runoff at the edge of agricultural fields: Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), and OpusCZ. Modeling results on runoff volume, sediment erosion, and pesticide loss were compared with measurements taken from field studies. Models were also compared on their theoretical foundations and ease of use. For runoff events generated by sprinkler irrigation and rainfall, all models performed equally well with small errors in simulating water, sediment, and pesticide runoff. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) were between 3 and 161%. For flood irrigation, OpusCZ simulated runoff and pesticide mass with the highest accuracy, followed by RZWQM and PRZM, likely owning to its unique hydrological algorithm for runoff simulations during flood irrigation. Simulation results from cold model runs by OpusCZ and RZWQM using measured values for model inputs matched closely to the observed values. The MAPE ranged from 28 to 384 and 42 to 168% for OpusCZ and RZWQM, respectively. These satisfactory model outputs showed the models' abilities in mimicking reality. Theoretical evaluations indicated that OpusCZ and RZWQM use mechanistic approaches for hydrology simulation, output data on a subdaily time-step, and were able to simulate management practices and subsurface flow via tile drainage. In contrast, PRZM operates at daily time-step and simulates surface runoff using the USDA Soil Conservation Service's curve number method. Among the three models, OpusCZ and RZWQM were suitable for simulating pesticide runoff in semiarid areas where agriculture is heavily dependent on irrigation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Mid- and long-term runoff predictions by an improved phase-space reconstruction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Mei; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yuankun; Zeng, Xiankui; Ge, Shanshan; Yan, Hengqian; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the phase-space reconstruction method has usually been used for mid- and long-term runoff predictions. However, the traditional phase-space reconstruction method is still needs to be improved. Using the genetic algorithm to improve the phase-space reconstruction method, a new nonlinear model of monthly runoff is constructed. The new model does not rely heavily on embedding dimensions. Recognizing that the rainfall–runoff process is complex, affected by a number of factors, more variables (e.g. temperature and rainfall) are incorporated in the model. In order to detect the possible presence of chaos in the runoff dynamics, chaotic characteristics of the model are also analyzed, which shows the model can represent the nonlinear and chaotic characteristics of the runoff. The model is tested for its forecasting performance in four types of experiments using data from six hydrological stations on the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. Results show that the medium-and long-term runoff is satisfactorily forecasted at the hydrological stations. Not only is the forecasting trend accurate, but also the mean absolute percentage error is no more than 15%. Moreover, the forecast results of wet years and dry years are both good, which means that the improved model can overcome the traditional ‘‘wet years and dry years predictability barrier,’’ to some extent. The model forecasts for different regions are all good, showing the universality of the approach. Compared with selected conceptual and empirical methods, the model exhibits greater reliability and stability in the long-term runoff prediction. Our study provides a new thinking for research on the association between the monthly runoff and other hydrological factors, and also provides a new method for the prediction of the monthly runoff. - Highlights: • The improved phase-space reconstruction model of monthly runoff is established. • Two variables (temperature and rainfall) are incorporated

  16. Mid- and long-term runoff predictions by an improved phase-space reconstruction model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Mei [Research Center of Ocean Environment Numerical Simulation, Institute of Meteorology and oceanography, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China); Wang, Dong, E-mail: wangdong@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Surficial Geochemistry, Ministry of Education, Department of Hydrosciences, School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of South China Sea Studies, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Yuankun; Zeng, Xiankui [Key Laboratory of Surficial Geochemistry, Ministry of Education, Department of Hydrosciences, School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of South China Sea Studies, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ge, Shanshan; Yan, Hengqian [Research Center of Ocean Environment Numerical Simulation, Institute of Meteorology and oceanography, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China); Singh, Vijay P. [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    In recent years, the phase-space reconstruction method has usually been used for mid- and long-term runoff predictions. However, the traditional phase-space reconstruction method is still needs to be improved. Using the genetic algorithm to improve the phase-space reconstruction method, a new nonlinear model of monthly runoff is constructed. The new model does not rely heavily on embedding dimensions. Recognizing that the rainfall–runoff process is complex, affected by a number of factors, more variables (e.g. temperature and rainfall) are incorporated in the model. In order to detect the possible presence of chaos in the runoff dynamics, chaotic characteristics of the model are also analyzed, which shows the model can represent the nonlinear and chaotic characteristics of the runoff. The model is tested for its forecasting performance in four types of experiments using data from six hydrological stations on the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. Results show that the medium-and long-term runoff is satisfactorily forecasted at the hydrological stations. Not only is the forecasting trend accurate, but also the mean absolute percentage error is no more than 15%. Moreover, the forecast results of wet years and dry years are both good, which means that the improved model can overcome the traditional ‘‘wet years and dry years predictability barrier,’’ to some extent. The model forecasts for different regions are all good, showing the universality of the approach. Compared with selected conceptual and empirical methods, the model exhibits greater reliability and stability in the long-term runoff prediction. Our study provides a new thinking for research on the association between the monthly runoff and other hydrological factors, and also provides a new method for the prediction of the monthly runoff. - Highlights: • The improved phase-space reconstruction model of monthly runoff is established. • Two variables (temperature and rainfall) are incorporated

  17. Nitrogen and phosphorus associating with different size suspended solids in roof and road runoff in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junliang; Ren, Yufen; Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Xiaoke; Chen, Liding; Liu, Gangcai

    2015-10-01

    Roofs and roads, accounting for a large portion of the urban impervious land surface, have contributed significantly to urban nonpoint pollution. In this study, in Beijing, China, roof and road runoff are sampled to measure the suspended solids (SS), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) contained in particles with different sizes. The SS content in the road runoff (151.59 mg/L) was sevenfold that in the roof runoff (21.13 mg/L, p runoff than in road runoff. The small particulates in the range of 0.45-50 μm consisted of 59 % SS in the roof runoff and 94 % SS in the road runoff. P was mainly attached to particle sizes of 10-50 μm in the roof (73 %) and road (48 %) runoffs, while N was mainly in a dissolved phase state in both runoffs. So, the different associations of N and P raise a challenge in preventing stormwater pollution in urban environments.

  18. [Regulation effect of forest vegetation on watershed runoff in the Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingbin; Liu, Xianzhao

    2002-09-01

    The runoff and rainfall data of typical forested and non-forested watersheds in Ziwuling region, which is located in the hinterland of the Loess Plateau, were used to analyze their annual runoff variation comparatively. The result showed that the annual distribution of runoff in forested watersheds was uniform, compared with that in non-forested watersheds. The total runoff in flood season decreased by 8.88 mm and 7.1 mm. Regression analyses between runoff in dried-up season and rainfall in flood season or in dried-up season showed that the rainfall in flood season in forested watersheds could be changed into underground runoff by forest vegetation, and increased the runoff in dried-up season. The annual variation of runoff also indicated that the total effect of forest vegetation on dried-up runoff complement from October to December was 1.69 mm and 0.5 mm, and that from January to May was not significant.

  19. Runoff, sediment transport, and landform modifications near Sheffield, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.R.; deVries, M.P.

    1984-01-01

    Relations among precipitation, runoff, sediment transport, and landform modifications are being evaluated at an 8.1-hectare, low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Sheffield, IL. Rainfall, runoff, and sediment discharge are measured in three basins comprising two-thirds of the site area and in a 1.10-hectare basin in undisturbed terrain 0.5 kilometer south of the site. The effects of slope, land use, and the physical characteristics of surficial material on runoff and sediment transport are evaluated at four 0.001-hectare plots - two on site and two on the undisturbed watershed. Preliminary results indicate that 890 millimeters of precipitation from July 1, 1982, through June 30, 1983, produced 230 millimeters of runoff from the site, compared to 50 millimeters of runoff from the undisturbed basin. Storm-sediment yields from the site consistently exceed yields from the undisturbed area. Runoff and sediment yields from burial-trench covers are consistently lower than yields from the site. Over 110 collapse holes were documented at the site from December 1978 through December 1982. More than 70% of these collapses formed along the periphery of trenches

  20. Runoff, sediment transport, and landform modifications near Sheffield, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Relations among runoff, sediment transport, landform modifications, and precipitation are being evaluated at a 20-acre, low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Ill. Rainfall, runoff, and sediment discharge are measured in three basins comprising two-thirds of the site area and in a 3.5-acre basin in undisturbed terrain 0.3 mile south of the site. The effects of slope, land use, and the physical characteristics of surficial material on runoff and sediment transport are evaluated at four 110-square-foot plots - two on site and two on the undisturbed basin. Preliminary results indicate the mean annual precipitation of 35 in. from July 1, 1982, through June 30, 1984, produced a mean of 8 in. of runoff annually from the site, compared to less than 2 in. of runoff annually from the undisturbed basin. Storm-sediment yields from the site consistently exceed yields from the undisturbed basin. Runoff and sediment yields from burial-trench covers are consistently lower than yields from the site. Two hundred and forty-four collapse holes were documented at the site from November 7, 1978, through June 7, 1984. More than 70% of these collapses formed along the periphery of trenches

  1. [Runoff loss of soil mineral nitrogen and its relationship with grass coverage on Loess slope land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yali; Li, Huai'en; Zhang, Xingchang; Xiao, Bo

    2006-12-01

    In a simulated rainfall experiment on Loess slope land, this paper determined the rainfall, surface runoff and the effective depth of interaction (EDI) between rainfall and soil mineral nitrogen, and studied the effects of grass coverage on the EDI and the runoff loss of soil mineral nitrogen. The results showed that with the increase of EDI, soil nitrogen in deeper layers could be released into surface runoff through dissolution and desorption. The higher the grass coverage, the deeper the EDI was. Grass coverage promoted the interaction between surface runoff and surface soil. On the slope land with 60%, 80% and 100% of grass coverage, the mean content of runoff mineral nitrogen increased by 34.52%, 32.67% and 6.00%, while surface runoff decreased by 4.72%, 9.84% and 12.89%, and eroded sediment decreased by 83.55%, 87.11% and 89.01%, respectively, compared with bare slope land. The total runoff loss of soil mineral nitrogen on the lands with 60%, 80%, and 100% of grass coverage was 95.73%, 109.04%, and 84.05% of that on bare land, respectively. Grass cover had dual effects on the surface runoff of soil mineral nitrogen. On one hand, it enhanced the influx of soil mineral nitrogen to surface runoff, and on the other hand, it markedly decreased the runoff, resulting in the decrease of soil mineral nitrogen loss through runoff and sediment. These two distinct factors codetermined the total runoff loss of soil mineral nitrogen.

  2. A CN-Based Ensembled Hydrological Model for Enhanced Watershed Runoff Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ajmal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A major structural inconsistency of the traditional curve number (CN model is its dependence on an unstable fixed initial abstraction, which normally results in sudden jumps in runoff estimation. Likewise, the lack of pre-storm soil moisture accounting (PSMA procedure is another inherent limitation of the model. To circumvent those problems, we used a variable initial abstraction after ensembling the traditional CN model and a French four-parameter (GR4J model to better quantify direct runoff from ungauged watersheds. To mimic the natural rainfall-runoff transformation at the watershed scale, our new parameterization designates intrinsic parameters and uses a simple structure. It exhibited more accurate and consistent results than earlier methods in evaluating data from 39 forest-dominated watersheds, both for small and large watersheds. In addition, based on different performance evaluation indicators, the runoff reproduction results show that the proposed model produced more consistent results for dry, normal, and wet watershed conditions than the other models used in this study.

  3. The development of an ecological approach to manage the pollution risk from highway runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, B; Dempsey, P; Johnson, I; Whitehead, M

    2009-01-01

    In the UK, the Highways Agency is responsible for operating, maintaining and improving the strategic road network in England. One focus of the Highways Agency's ongoing research into the nature and impact of highway runoff is aimed at ensuring that the Highways Agency will meet the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive. A research programme, undertaken in partnership with the Environment Agency, is in progress to develop a better understanding of pollutants in highway runoff and their ecological impact. The paper presents the outcome of a study to: (1) monitor pollutants in highway runoff under different climate and traffic conditions; (2) develop standards to assess potential ecological risks from soluble pollutants in highway runoff; and (3) develop a model to predict pollutant concentrations in highway runoff. The model has been embedded in a design tool incorporating risk assessment procedures and receiving water standards for soluble and insoluble pollutants--the latter has been developed elsewhere in another project within the research programme. The design tool will be used to support improved guidance on where, and to what level, treatment of runoff is required for highway designers to manage the risk of ecological impact from highway runoff.

  4. [Research on stormwater runoff quality of mountain city by source area monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Shan, Bao-Qing; Zhao, Jian-Wei; Guo, Shu-Gang; Gao, Yong

    2012-10-01

    Stormwater runoff samples were collected from 10 source areas in Mountain City, Chongqing, during five rain events in an attempt to investigate the characteristics of runoff quality and influencing factors. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance of sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results indicated that the stormwater runoff of Mountain City presented a strong first flush for almost all events and constituents. The runoff quality indices were also influenced by the rainfall intensity. The concentration of TSS, COD, TN and TP decreased as the rainfall intensity increased. The concentrations of COD and TP in stormwater runoff were highly correlated with TSS concentrations. Suspended solid matter were not only the main pollutant of stormwater runoff but also served as the vehicle for transport of organic matter and phosphorus. Organic matter and phosphorus in stormwatrer runoff were mainly bound to particles, whereas nitrogen was predominantly dissolved, with ammonia and nitrate. A significant difference of stormwater runoff quality was observed among the ten monitored source areas. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the commercial area and the first trunk road, followed by the minor road, residential area, parking lot and roof. Urban surface function, traffic volume, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. Commercial area, the first trunk road and residential area with high population density are the critical sources areas of urban stormwater runoff pollution.

  5. Impact of different parts of unpaved forest roads on runoff and sediment yield in a Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán-López, Antonio; Martínez-Zavala, Lorena; Bellinfante, Nicolás

    2009-01-01

    Surface runoff and sediment production on unpaved forest roads in a humid Mediterranean mountainous area has been studied using a simple portable rainfall simulator at an intensity of 90 mm h(-1). Thirty six rainfall simulations were carried out on road plots: on the roadbank (12), on the sidecast fill (12), and on the roadbed (12). On the roadbanks, the steady-state runoff coefficient was 85.9% and runoff flow appeared after 63 s on average. On the sidecast fills, the steady-state runoff coefficient was 58.6% and mean time to runoff was 48 s. Finally, on the roadbeds, the steady-state runoff coefficient was 21.5% and mean time to runoff was 41 s. The highest soil loss rate was found on the roadbanks (486.7 g m(-2)), mainly due to low plant cover, soil texture and rock fragments. The total soil erosion on the roadbanks was 3 and 18 times higher than those from the roadbeds and the sidecast fills, respectively. As a consequence, roadbanks can be considered the main source of sediments on the studied sites, but the function of unpaved forest roads as source points for runoff generation is more important.

  6. Variation of Runoff and Precipitation in the Hekou-Longmen Region of the Yellow River Based on Elasticity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation is very important to the formation of runoff, and studying of runoff variation and its response to precipitation has practical significance to sustainable utilization of water resources. The study used Mann-Kendall test, anomaly accumulation method, and precipitation elasticity of runoff method to analyze the changes in the relation of precipitation and runoff and the contribution of precipitation to runoff change in the Hekou-Longmen region (from 1957 to 2010, Huangfuchuan watershed (from 1954 to 2010, and Yanhe watershed (from 1952 to 2010 in the middle reaches of the Yellow River. The results showed that runoff appeared a significant decreasing trend (P=0.01 while it was not significant in precipitation in all study areas. In particular, the reductions of average annual runoff in the Hekou-Longmen region, Huangfuchuan watershed, and Yanhe watershed were 72.7%, 87.5%, and 32.2%, respectively, during 2000–2010 compared to the 1950s. There existed two abrupt change points of the runoff in the Hekou-Longmen region and Huangfuchuan watershed, which were detected in 1979 and 1998. But in the Yanhe watershed only one abrupt change point was found in 1996. The precipitation elasticities of runoff were 1.11, 1.09, and 1.26, respectively, and the contributions of precipitation on runoff reduction were 26.4%, 17.9%, and 31.6%, respectively, in the Hekou-Longmen region, Huangfuchuan watershed, and Yanhe watershed.

  7. Variation of Runoff and Precipitation in the Hekou-Longmen Region of the Yellow River Based on Elasticity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erhui; Mu, Xingmin; Zhao, Guangju; Gao, Peng; Shao, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation is very important to the formation of runoff, and studying of runoff variation and its response to precipitation has practical significance to sustainable utilization of water resources. The study used Mann-Kendall test, anomaly accumulation method, and precipitation elasticity of runoff method to analyze the changes in the relation of precipitation and runoff and the contribution of precipitation to runoff change in the Hekou-Longmen region (from 1957 to 2010), Huangfuchuan watershed (from 1954 to 2010), and Yanhe watershed (from 1952 to 2010) in the middle reaches of the Yellow River. The results showed that runoff appeared a significant decreasing trend (P = 0.01) while it was not significant in precipitation in all study areas. In particular, the reductions of average annual runoff in the Hekou-Longmen region, Huangfuchuan watershed, and Yanhe watershed were 72.7%, 87.5%, and 32.2%, respectively, during 2000–2010 compared to the 1950s. There existed two abrupt change points of the runoff in the Hekou-Longmen region and Huangfuchuan watershed, which were detected in 1979 and 1998. But in the Yanhe watershed only one abrupt change point was found in 1996. The precipitation elasticities of runoff were 1.11, 1.09, and 1.26, respectively, and the contributions of precipitation on runoff reduction were 26.4%, 17.9%, and 31.6%, respectively, in the Hekou-Longmen region, Huangfuchuan watershed, and Yanhe watershed. PMID:24955424

  8. Runoff as a factor in USLE/RUSLE technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnell, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Modelling erosion for prediction purposes started with the development of the Universal Soil Loss Equation the focus of which was the prediction of long term (~20) average annul soil loss from field sized areas. That purpose has been maintained in the subsequent revision RUSLE, the most widely used erosion prediction model in the world. The lack of ability to predict short term soil loss saw the development of so-called process based models like WEPP and EUROSEM which focussed on predicting event erosion but failed to improve the prediction of long term erosion where the RUSLE worked well. One of the features of erosion recognised in the so-called process based modes is the fact that runoff is a primary factor in rainfall erosion and some modifications of USLE/RUSLE model have been proposed have included runoff as in independent factor in determining event erosivity. However, these models have ignored fundamental mathematical rules. The USLE-M which replaces the EI30 index by the product of the runoff ratio and EI30 was developed from the concept that soil loss is the product of runoff and sediment concentration and operates in a way that obeys the mathematical rules upon which the USLE/RUSLE model was based. In accounts for event soil loss better that the EI30 index where runoff values are known or predicted adequately. RUSLE2 now includes a capacity to model runoff driven erosion.

  9. A Synopsis of Technical Issues for Monitoring Sediment in Highway and Urban Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Gardner C.; Gray, John R.; Smith, Kirk P.; Glysson, G. Douglas

    2000-01-01

    Accurate and representative sediment data are critical for assessing the potential effects of highway and urban runoff on receiving waters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency identified sediment as the most widespread pollutant in the Nation's rivers and streams, affecting aquatic habitat, drinking water treatment processes, and recreational uses of rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Representative sediment data are also necessary for quantifying and interpreting concentrations, loads, and effects of trace elements and organic constituents associated with highway and urban runoff. Many technical issues associated with the collecting, processing, and analyzing of samples must be addressed to produce valid (useful for intended purposes), current, complete, and technically defensible data for local, regional, and national information needs. All aspects of sediment data-collection programs need to be evaluated, and adequate quality-control data must be collected and documented so that the comparability and representativeness of data obtained for highway- and urban-runoff studies may be assessed. Collection of representative samples for the measurement of sediment in highway and urban runoff involves a number of interrelated issues. Temporal and spatial variability in runoff result from a combination of factors, including volume and intensity of precipitation, rate of snowmelt, and features of the drainage basin such as area, slope, infiltration capacity, channel roughness, and storage characteristics. In small drainage basins such as those found in many highway and urban settings, automatic samplers are often the most suitable method for collecting samples of runoff for a variety of reasons. Indirect sediment-measurement methods are also useful as supplementary and(or) surrogate means for monitoring sediment in runoff. All of these methods have limitations in addition to benefits, which must be identified and quantified to produce representative data. Methods for

  10. Prediction of hydrological reduction factor and initial loss in urban surface runoff from small ungauged catchments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K.; Harremoës, P.

    1996-01-01

    An advanced runoff model is compared to a simple one employing only a runoff coefficient and a regression parameter allowing for initial loss. The present study shows that the more detailed description of the runoff processes cannot be justified due to the uncertainty from using only one gauge...... in the evaluation of the yearly discharges. In the case of extreme events, the uncertainty of the predicted runoff of the single event should also be taken into account....

  11. Event-based rainfall-runoff modelling of the Kelantan River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basarudin, Z.; Adnan, N. A.; Latif, A. R. A.; Tahir, W.; Syafiqah, N.

    2014-02-01

    Flood is one of the most common natural disasters in Malaysia. According to hydrologists there are many causes that contribute to flood events. The two most dominant factors are the meteorology factor (i.e climate change) and change in land use. These two factors contributed to floods in recent decade especially in the monsoonal catchment such as Malaysia. This paper intends to quantify the influence of rainfall during extreme rainfall events on the hydrological model in the Kelantan River catchment. Therefore, two dynamic inputs were used in the study: rainfall and river discharge. The extreme flood events in 2008 and 2004 were compared based on rainfall data for both years. The events were modeled via a semi-distributed HEC-HMS hydrological model. Land use change was not incorporated in the study because the study only tries to quantify rainfall changes during these two events to simulate the discharge and runoff value. Therefore, the land use data representing the year 2004 were used as inputs in the 2008 runoff model. The study managed to demonstrate that rainfall change has a significant impact to determine the peak discharge and runoff depth for the study area.

  12. Event-based rainfall-runoff modelling of the Kelantan River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basarudin, Z; Adnan, N A; Latif, A R A; Syafiqah, N; Tahir, W

    2014-01-01

    Flood is one of the most common natural disasters in Malaysia. According to hydrologists there are many causes that contribute to flood events. The two most dominant factors are the meteorology factor (i.e climate change) and change in land use. These two factors contributed to floods in recent decade especially in the monsoonal catchment such as Malaysia. This paper intends to quantify the influence of rainfall during extreme rainfall events on the hydrological model in the Kelantan River catchment. Therefore, two dynamic inputs were used in the study: rainfall and river discharge. The extreme flood events in 2008 and 2004 were compared based on rainfall data for both years. The events were modeled via a semi-distributed HEC-HMS hydrological model. Land use change was not incorporated in the study because the study only tries to quantify rainfall changes during these two events to simulate the discharge and runoff value. Therefore, the land use data representing the year 2004 were used as inputs in the 2008 runoff model. The study managed to demonstrate that rainfall change has a significant impact to determine the peak discharge and runoff depth for the study area

  13. Bioretention storm water control measures decrease the toxicity of copper roof runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBarre, William J; Ownby, David R; Rader, Kevin J; Lev, Steven M; Casey, Ryan E

    2017-06-01

    The present study evaluated the ability of 2 different bioretention storm water control measures (SCMs), planter boxes and swales, to decrease the toxicity of sheet copper (Cu) roofing runoff to Daphnia magna. The present study quantified changes in storm water chemistry as it passed through the bioretention systems and utilized the biotic ligand model (BLM) to assess whether the observed D. magna toxicity could be predicted by variations found in water chemistry. Laboratory toxicity tests were performed using select storm samples with D. magna cultured under low ionic strength conditions that were appropriate for the low ionic strength of the storm water samples being tested. The SCMs decreased toxicity of Cu roof runoff in both the BLM results and the storm water bioassays. Water exiting the SCMs was substantially higher than influent runoff in pH, ions, alkalinity, and dissolved organic carbon and substantially lower in total and dissolved Cu. Daphnids experienced complete mortality in untreated runoff from the Cu roof (the SCM influent); however, for planter and swale effluents, survival averaged 86% and 95%, respectively. The present study demonstrated that conventional bioretention practices, including planter boxes and swales, are capable of decreasing the risk of adverse effects from sheet Cu roof runoff to receiving systems, even before considering dilution of effluents in those receiving systems and associated further reductions in copper bioavailability. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1680-1688. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  14. Catchment Morphing (CM): A Novel Approach for Runoff Modeling in Ungauged Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Han, Dawei

    2017-12-01

    Runoff prediction in ungauged catchments has been one of the major challenges in the past decades. However, due to the tremendous heterogeneity of the catchments, obstacles exist in deducing model parameters for ungauged catchments from gauged ones. We propose a novel approach to predict ungauged runoff with Catchment Morphing (CM) using a fully distributed model. CM is defined as by changing the catchment characteristics (area and slope here) from the baseline model built with a gauged catchment to model the ungauged ones. As a proof of concept, a case study on seven catchments in the UK has been used to demonstrate the proposed scheme. Comparing the predicted with measured runoff, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) varies from 0.03 to 0.69 in six catchments. Moreover, NSEs are significantly improved (up to 0.81) when considering the discrepancy of percentage runoff between the target and baseline catchments. A distinct advantage has been experienced by comparing the CM with a traditional method for ungauged catchments. The advantages are: (a) less demand of the similarity between the baseline catchment and the ungauged catchment, (b) less demand of available data, and (c) potentially widely applicable in varied catchments. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed scheme as a potentially powerful alternative to the conventional methods in runoff predictions of ungauged catchments. Clearly, more work beyond this pilot study is needed to explore and develop this new approach further to maturity by the hydrological community.

  15. Runoff measurement and prediction for a watershed under natural vegetation in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Silva

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to measure and analyze total rainfall (P, rainfall intensity and five-day antecedent rainfall effects on runoff (R; to compare measured and simulated R values using the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method (CN for each rainfall event; and to establish average R/P ratios for observed R values. A one-year (07/01/96 to 06/30/97 rainfall-runoff data study was carried out in the Capetinga watershed (962.4 ha, located at the Federal District of Brazil, 47° 52' longitude West and 15° 52' latitude South. Soils of the watershed were predominantly covered by natural vegetation. Total rainfall and runoff for the period were 1,744 and 52.5 mm, respectively, providing R/P of 3% and suggesting that watershed physical characteristics favored water infiltration into the soil. A multivariate regression analysis for 31 main rainfall-runoff events totaling 781.9 and 51.0 mm, respectively, indicated that the amount of runoff was only dependent upon rainfall volume. Simulated values of total runoff were underestimated about 15% when using CN method and an area-weighted average of the CN based on published values. On the other hand, when average values of CN were calculated for the watershed, total runoff was overestimated about 39%, suggesting that CN method shoud be used with care in areas under natural vegetation.

  16. Precipitation and runoff water quality from an urban parking lot and implications for tree growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. H. Pham; H. G. Halverson; G. M. Heisler

    1978-01-01

    The water quality of precipitation and runoff from a large parking lot in New Brunswick, New Jersey was studied during the early growing season, from March to June 1976. Precipitation and runoff from 10 storms were analyzed. The runoff was higher in all constituents considered except for P, Pb, and Cu. Compared with published values for natural waters, sewage effluent...

  17. First stages of zinc runoff in humid tropical climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meraz, E.; Veleva, L.; Acosta, M.

    2007-01-01

    Frequently used metals in building application are Zinc and hot dip galvanized steel. The zinc has a relatively good atmospheric resistance, due to its oxidation in air and formation of protective layer. However, some of the zinc corrosion products can be dissolved by pluvial precipitations and water condensed on the metal surface. This process is called metal runoff. In order to estimate el zinc runoff in humid tropical climate, since its firs stages, samples of pure zinc and hot dip galvanized steel have been exposed during 2 years in outdoor atmosphere (rural and urban). The data reveal high annual values of zinc runoff (8,20-12,40±0.30 g/m''2 ano), being this process 80% of total mass loss of corroded zinc. The runoff and corrosion processes are more accelerated for zinc, than that of galvanized steel. The principal factors that control the runoff process are discussed. (Author) 48 refs

  18. Export Mechanisms of Persistent Toxic Substances (PTSs) in Urban Land Uses during Rainfall-Runoff Events: Experimental and Modeling Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Luo, X.; Lin, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The urban environment has a variety of Persistent Toxic Substances (PTS), such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mercury. Soil in pervious lands and dust deposited on impervious surfaces are two major sinks of PTSs in urbanized areas, which could contribute significant nonpoint source loadings of PTSs to adjacent waterbodies during rainfall-runoff events and therefore jeopardize aquatic ecosystems. However, PTSs have been much less understood regarding their export mechanisms in urban land uses, and efforts to model nonpoint source pollution processes of PTSs have been rare. We designed and performed in-lab rainfall-runoff simulation experiments to investigate transport of PAHs and mercury by runoff from urban soils. Organic petrology analysis (OPA) techniques were introduced to analyze the soil and sediment compositions. Our study revealed the limitation of the classic enrichment theory which attributes enrichment of pollutants in eroded sediment solely to the sediment's particle size distribution and adopts simple relationships between enrichment ratio and sediment flux. We found that carbonaceous materials (CMs) in soil are the direct and major sorbents for PAHs and mercury, and highly different in content, mobility and adsorption capacity for the PTSs. Anthropogenic CMs like black carbon components largely control the transport of soil PAHs, while humic substances have a dominant influence on the transport of soil mercury. A model was further developed to estimate the enrichment ratio of PAHs, which innovatively applies the fugacity concept.We also conducted field studies on export of PAHs by runoff from urban roads. A variable time-step model was developed to simulate the continuous cycles of PAH buildup and washoff on urban roads. The dependence of the pollution level on antecedent weather conditions was investigated and embodied in the model. The applicability of this approach and its value to environmental management was demonstrated by a case

  19. Characterization of chromium species in urban runoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the presence of the element Cr in its toxic hexavalent form Cr(VI) in stormwater runoff from urban areas. Most studies report only total Cr concentration, i.e., including also the nontoxic Cr(III) molecular form. The objective of this study was to evaluate a field method bas...

  20. Short review of runoff and erosion physically based models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrić Ognjen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Processes of runoff and erosion are one of the main research subjects in hydrological science. Based on the field and laboratory measurements, and analogous with development of computational techniques, runoff and erosion models based on equations which describe the physics of the process are also developed. Several models of runoff and erosion which describes entire process of genesis and sediment transport on the catchment are described and compared.

  1. Critical review: Copper runoff from outdoor copper surfaces at atmospheric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Hedberg, Jonas F; Herting, Gunilla; Goidanich, Sara; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2014-01-01

    This review on copper runoff dispersed from unsheltered naturally patinated copper used for roofing and facades summarizes and discusses influencing factors, available literature, and predictive models, and the importance of fate and speciation for environmental risk assessment. Copper runoff from outdoor surfaces is predominantly governed by electrochemical and chemical reactions and is highly dependent on given exposure conditions (size, inclination, geometry, degree of sheltering, and orientation), surface parameters (age, patina composition, and thickness), and site-specific environmental conditions (gaseous pollutants, chlorides, rainfall characteristics (amount, intensity, pH), wind direction, temperature, time of wetness, season). The corrosion rate cannot be used to assess the runoff rate. The extent of released copper varies largely between different rain events and is related to dry and wet periods, dry deposition prior to the rain event and prevailing rain and patina characteristics. Interpretation and use of copper runoff data for environmental risk assessment and management need therefore to consider site-specific factors and focus on average data of long-term studies (several years). Risk assessments require furthermore that changes in copper speciation, bioavailability aspects, and potential irreversible retention on solid surfaces are considered, factors that determine the environmental fate of copper runoff from outdoor surfaces.

  2. Colloidal mobilization of arsenic from mining-affected soils by surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Voegelin, Andreas; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Bolea, Eduardo; Laborda, Francisco; Garrido, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Scorodite-rich wastes left as a legacy of mining and smelting operations pose a threat to environmental health. Colloids formed by the weathering of processing wastes may control the release of arsenic (As) into surface waters. At a former mine site in Madrid (Spain), we investigated the mobilization of colloidal As by surface runoff from weathered processing wastes and from sediments in the bed of a draining creek and a downstream sedimentation-pond. Colloids mobilized by surface runoff during simulated rain events were characterized for their composition, structure and mode of As uptake using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively plasma mass spectrometry (AF4-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the As and Fe K-edges. Colloidal scorodite mobilized in surface runoff from the waste pile is acting as a mobile As carrier. In surface runoff from the river bed and the sedimentation pond, ferrihydrite was identified as the dominant As-bearing colloidal phase. The results from this study suggest that mobilization of As-bearing colloids by surface runoff may play an important role in the dispersion of As from metallurgical wastes deposited above ground and needs to be considered in risk assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrological changes impacts on annual runoff distribution in seasonally dry basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, F.; Caracciolo, D.; Feng, X.

    2017-12-01

    Runoff is expected to be modified in the next future by climate change as well as by land use change. Given its importance for water supply and ecosystem functioning, it is therefore imperative to develop adaptation strategies and new policies for regional water resources management and planning. To do so, the identification and attribution of natural flow regime shifts as a result of climate and land use changes are of crucial importance. In this context, the Budyko's curve has begun to be widely adopted to separate the contributions of climate and land use changes to the variation of runoff over long-term periods by using the multi-year averages of hydrological variables. In this study, a framework based on Fu's equation is proposed and applied to separate the impacts of climate and land use changes on the future annual runoff distribution in seasonally dry basins, such as those in Mediterranean climates. In particular, this framework improves a recently developed method to obtain annual runoff probability density function (pdf) in seasonally dry basins from annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration statistics, and from knowledge of the Fu's equation parameter ω. The effect of climate change has been taken into account through the variation of the first order statistics of annual rainfall and potential evapotranspiration, consistent with general circulation models' outputs, while the Fu's equation parameter ω has been changed to represent land use change. The effects of the two factors of change (i.e., climate and land use) on the annual runoff pdf have been first independently and then jointly analyzed, by reconstructing the annual runoff pdfs for the current period and, based on likely scenarios, within the next 100 years. The results show that, for large basins, climate change is the dominant driver of the decline in annual runoff, while land use change is a secondary but important factor.

  4. Effects of tillage on runoff from a bare clayey soil on a semi-arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    arid areas. However, by adopting appropriate soil management practices, the runoff can be harnessed for improving crop yields. The main objective of this study was to quantify rainfall-runoff relationships under in-field rainwater harvesting ...

  5. Peripheral biomarkers revisited: integrative profiling of peripheral samples for psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi-Takagi, Akiko; Vawter, Marquis P; Iwamoto, Kazuya

    2014-06-15

    Peripheral samples, such as blood and skin, have been used for decades in psychiatric research as surrogates for central nervous system samples. Although the validity of the data obtained from peripheral samples has been questioned and other state-of-the-art techniques, such as human brain imaging, genomics, and induced pluripotent stem cells, seem to reduce the value of peripheral cells, accumulating evidence has suggested that revisiting peripheral samples is worthwhile. Here, we re-evaluate the utility of peripheral samples and argue that establishing an understanding of the common signaling and biological processes in the brain and peripheral samples is required for the validity of such models. First, we present an overview of the available types of peripheral cells and describe their advantages and disadvantages. We then briefly summarize the main achievements of omics studies, including epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome analyses, as well as the main findings of functional cellular assays, the results of which imply that alterations in neurotransmission, metabolism, the cell cycle, and the immune system may be partially responsible for the pathophysiology of major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Finally, we discuss the future utility of peripheral samples for the development of biomarkers and tailor-made therapies, such as multimodal assays that are used as a battery of disease and trait pathways and that might be potent and complimentary tools for use in psychiatric research. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  6. Runoff sensitivity to climate change in the Nile River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Emad; Tarhule, Aondover; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Clark, Race; Hong, Yang

    2018-06-01

    In data scarce basins, such as the Nile River Basin (NRB) in Africa, constraints related to data availability, quality, and access often complicate attempts to estimate runoff sensitivity using conventional methods. In this paper, we show that by integrating the concept of the aridity index (AI) (derived from the Budyko curve) and climate elasticity, we can obtain the first order response of the runoff sensitivity using minimal data input and modeling expertise or experience. The concept of runoff elasticity relies on the fact that the energy available for evapotranspiration plays a major role in determining whether the precipitation received within a drainage basin generates runoff. The approach does not account for human impacts on runoff modification and or diversions. By making use of freely available gauge-corrected satellite data for precipitation, temperature, runoff, and potential evapotranspiration, we derived the sensitivity indicator (β) to determine the runoff response to changes in precipitation and temperature for four climatic zones in the NRB, namely, tropical, subtropical, semiarid and arid zones. The proposed sensitivity indicator can be partitioned into different elasticity components i.e: precipitation (εp), potential evapotranspiration (εETp), temperature (εT) and the total elasticity (εtot) . These elasticities allow robust quantification of the runoff response to the potential changes in precipitation and temperature with a high degree of accuracy. Results indicate that the tropical zone is energy-constrained with low sensitivity, (β 1.0) . The subtropical-highland zone moves between energy-limited to water-limited conditions during periods of wet and dry spells with varying sensitivity. The semiarid and arid zones are water limited, with high sensitivity, (β > 1.0) . The calculated runoff elasticities show that a 10% decrease in precipitation leads to a decrease in runoff of between 19% in the tropical zone and 30% in the arid zones

  7. Urban Runoff: Getting to the Nonpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Pendall, Rolf

    1994-01-01

    Mandates for water-quality improvement have forced regulators and planners to confront the problem of urban runoff, still an important source of water pollution. This ar­ticle discusses those mandates and how to meet them, and provides examples of ongoing nonpoint water pollution control programs in the San Francisco Bay Area. These examples suggest that cleanup of urban runoff may require more comprehensive regional planning to encourage a de­velopment pattern conducive to pollution control.

  8. The chemical composition of precipitation and runoff water on an arid limestone hillside, northern Negev, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Aaron; Karnieli, Arnon; Issar, Arie

    1991-12-01

    The study deals with the chemistry of precipitation and runoff water on an arid limestone hillside (467 m 2) the upper part of which is rocky and the lower part soil covered. Rainfall was measured with a rain recorder and sampled with a sequential collector which samples consecutive fractions of 2 mm. Runoff rate was measured with a stage recorder and runoff water was collected immediately after each flow from a collecting tank. Rain and runoff samples were analysed for their major constituents: Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Cl -, SO 2-4 and HCO -3. Rainfall during the study year (1981/1982) amounted to 75 mm. The salt input by rainfall was 8 g m -2. The salt output by runoff was 1.2 g m -2 for the rocky area and 0.5 g m -2 for the soil-covered area, indicating a substantial net gain for the different areas. Both rainwater and runoff water have a calcium bicarbonate composition. These two ions represent some 55% of the dissolved ions. Runoff water is enriched by a factor of 2 in comparison with rainwater. Finally, the chemistry of runoff water from very small hillslope areas is quite similar to that of flood waters in the major channels of the Negev, pointing to a very limited chemical enrichment with increasing drainage area.

  9. Annual runoff and erosion in a recently burn Mediterranean forest - The effects of plowing and time-since-fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, D. C. S.; Malvar, M. C.; Fernández, C.; Serpa, D.; Keizer, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    The impacts of forest fires on runoff and soil erosion have been assessed by many studies, so the effects of fires on the hydrological and geomorphological processes of burnt forest areas, globally and in the Mediterranean region, are well established. Few studies, however, have assessed post-fire runoff and erosion on large time scales. In addition, a limited number of studies are available that consider the effect of pre-fire land management practices on post-fire runoff and erosion. This study evaluated annual runoff and sediment losses, at micro plot scale, for 4 years after a wildfire in three eucalypt plantations with different pre-fire land management practices (i.e., plowed and unplowed). During the four years following the fire, runoff amounts and coefficients at the downslope plowed (1257 mm, 26%) and contour plowed eucalypt sites (1915 mm, 40%) were higher than at the unplowed site (865 mm, 14%). Sediment losses over the 4 years of study were also consistently higher at the two plowed sites (respectively, 0.47 and 0.83 Mg ha- 1 y- 1 at the downslope and contour plowed eucalypt site) than at the unplowed site (0.11 Mg ha- 1 y- 1). Aside from pre-fire land management, time-since-fire also seemed to significantly affect post-fire annual runoff and erosion. In general, annual runoff amounts and erosion rates followed the rainfall pattern. Runoff amounts presented a peak during the third year of monitoring while erosion rates reached their maximum one year earlier, in the second year. Runoff coefficients increased over the 4 years of monitoring, in disagreement to the window of disturbance post-fire recovery model, but sediment concentrations decreased over the study period. When compared with other long-term post-fire studies and with studies evaluating the effects of pre- and post-fire management practices, the results of the present work suggest that an ecosystem's recovery after fire is highly dependent on the background of disturbances of each site, as

  10. Missing (in-situ) snow cover data hampers climate change and runoff studies in the Greater Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Mario; Salzmann, Nadine; Stoffel, Markus; Kulkarni, Anil V

    2013-12-01

    The Himalayas are presently holding the largest ice masses outside the polar regions and thus (temporarily) store important freshwater resources. In contrast to the contemplation of glaciers, the role of runoff from snow cover has received comparably little attention in the past, although (i) its contribution is thought to be at least equally or even more important than that of ice melt in many Himalayan catchments and (ii) climate change is expected to have widespread and significant consequences on snowmelt runoff. Here, we show that change assessment of snowmelt runoff and its timing is not as straightforward as often postulated, mainly as larger partial pressure of H2O, CO2, CH4, and other greenhouse gases might increase net long-wave input for snowmelt quite significantly in a future atmosphere. In addition, changes in the short-wave energy balance - such as the pollution of the snow cover through black carbon - or the sensible or latent heat contribution to snowmelt are likely to alter future snowmelt and runoff characteristics as well. For the assessment of snow cover extent and depletion, but also for its monitoring over the extremely large areas of the Himalayas, remote sensing has been used in the past and is likely to become even more important in the future. However, for the calibration and validation of remotely-sensed data, and even more so in light of possible changes in snow-cover energy balance, we strongly call for more in-situ measurements across the Himalayas, in particular for daily data on new snow and snow cover water equivalent, or the respective energy balance components. Moreover, data should be made accessible to the scientific community, so that the latter can more accurately estimate climate change impacts on Himalayan snow cover and possible consequences thereof on runoff. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Observed magnified runoff response to rainfall intensification under global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jr-Chuan; Lee, Tsung-Yu; Lee, Jun-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Runoff response to rainfall intensification under global warming is crucial, but is poorly discussed due to the limited data length and human alteration. Historical rainfall and runoff records in pristine catchments in Taiwan were investigated through trend analysis and cross temperature difference analysis. Trend analysis showed that both rainfall and runoff in the 99.9-percentile have been significantly increasing in terms of frequency and intensity over the past four decades. Cross temperature difference analysis quantified that the rainfall and runoff extremes (including the 99.0–99.9-percentiles) may increase by 69.5% and 99.8%, respectively, under a future scenario of 1  ° C increase in temperature. This increase in intensity resembles the increase in intensity observed between 1971–1990 and 1991–2010. The amplified runoff response can be related to the limited catchment storage capacity being preoccupied by rainfall extremes. The quantified temperature effect on rainfall and runoff intensification can be a strong basis for designing scenarios, confirming and fusing GCMs’ results. In addition, the runoff amplification should be a warning for other regions with significant rainfall intensification. Appropriate strategies are indispensable and urgently needed to maintain and protect the development of societies. (paper)

  12. [Characterization and source apportionment of pollutants in urban roadway runoff in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Hao, Li-Ling; Hou, Pei-Qiang; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun

    2012-01-01

    By investigating surface runoff from urban roadway in Chongqing, we assessed the characteristics of surface runoff pollution and the effect of rainfall intensity and antecedent dry weather period on water quality. Using multivariate statistical analysis of data of runoff quality, potential pollutants discharged from urban roadway runoff were identified. The results show that the roadway runoff has high levels of COD, TP and TN, the EMC were 60.83-208.03 mg x L(-1), 0.47-1.01 mg x L(-1) and 2.07-5.00 mg x L(-1) respectively, being the main pollutants; The peaks of pollutant concentration are ahead of or synchronous with the peak of runoff volume; the peaks of pollutant concentrations are mostly occurred within 10 minutes of rainfall. The heavy metal concentrations fluctuate dentately during runoff proceeding. Two potential pollution sources to urban roadway runoff apportioned by using principal component analysis are: vehicle's traffic loss and atmospheric dry and wet deposition, and municipal wastes.

  13. Multiannual runoff variability in the upper Danube region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekarova, P.

    2009-05-01

    The development of mankind has depended on availability of water resources. Already the first agricultural civilizations noticed the temporal variability of water resources and oscillation of the multi-annual dry and wet periods. The presented thesis summarizes results of more than fifteen years research activities of the author in the field of long-term runoff prediction. Statistical analysis of the runoff oscillations depends on availability of long time series of data. Systematic measurements of discharge in modern era started relatively late. The longest time series are available in Europe, but they do not exceed 200 years. Such long series are exceptional and in most parts of the world only much shorter series exist. Since studies dealing with the natural runoff oscillation and NAO phenomenon recently absent in Slovakia, there is the one aim of the thesis to fill in the gap in the long-term runoff fluctuation analysis and long-term discharge prediction methods development. The thesis focuses on the natural runoff cyclicity identification. In stochastic models, the climate changes scenarios caused by atmosphere warming are not involved however the runoff tele-connection around the Earth is studied. Scientific objectives of the thesis: 1. To reconstruct the Danube daily discharge series at Bratislava (1876-1890) based upon the Bratislava gauge daily water level observations; 2. to analyze variability and long term trends of the selected discharge Danube series characteristics for its Bratislava gauge; 3. to propose and develop the combined periodogram method for more exact spectral density identification in discharge time series; to analyze trends and periodicity in discharge long term series; to identify occurrence of the wet and dry periods over the world, to identify the influence of the NAO/AO/ENSO/QBO phenomena and the Sun activity on the runoff variability. 4. to present some long term stochastic prediction methods; to use two of them, the classical

  14. Improved rainfall-runoff approach using lumped and conceptual modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Durán Barroso, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall-runoff quantification is one of the most important tasks in both engineering and watershed management as it allows to identify, forecast and explain watershed response. The division of the rainfall depth between infiltration and runoff has a high level of complexity due to the spatial heterogeneity in real catchments and the temporal precipitation variability, which provide scale effects on the overall runoff volumes. The Natural Resources Conservation Service Curve Number (NRCS CN) ...

  15. Urban Run-off Volumes Dependency on Rainfall Measurement Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.; Jensen, N. E.; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    Urban run-off is characterized with fast response since the large surface run-off in the catchments responds immediately to variations in the rainfall. Modeling such type of catchments is most often done with the input from very few rain gauges, but the large variation in rainfall over small areas...... resolutions and single gauge rainfall was fed to a MOUSE run-off model. The flow and total volume over the event is evaluated....

  16. Ponds' water balance and runoff of endorheic watersheds in the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Laetitia; Grippa, Manuela; Kergoat, Laurent; Hiernaux, Pierre; Mougin, Eric; Peugeot, Christophe

    2015-04-01

    The Sahel has been characterized by a severe rainfall deficit since the mid-twentieth century, with extreme droughts in the early seventies and again in the early eighties. These droughts have strongly impacted ecosystems, water availability, fodder resources, and populations living in these areas. However, an increase of surface runoff has been observed during the same period, such as higher "summer discharge" of Sahelian's rivers generating local floods, and a general increase in pond's surface in pastoral areas of central and northern Sahel. This behavior, less rain but more surface runoff is generally referred to as the "Sahelian paradox". Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain this paradoxical situation. The leading role of increase in cropped areas, often cited for cultivated Sahel, does not hold for pastoral areas in central and northern Sahel. Processes such as degradation of vegetation subsequent to the most severe drought events, soils erosion and runoff concentration on shallow soils, which generate most of the water ending up in ponds, seem to play an important role. This still needs to be fully understood and quantified. Our study focuses on a model-based approach to better understand the hydrological changes that affected the Agoufou watershed (Gourma, Mali), typical of the central, non-cultivated Sahel. Like most of the Sahelian basins, the Agoufou watershed is ungauged. Therefore we used indirect data to provide the information required to validate a rainfall-runoff model approach. The pond volume was calculated by combining in-situ water level measurements with pond's surface estimations derived by remote sensing. Using the pond's water balance equation, the variations of pond volume combined to estimates of open water bodies' evaporation and infiltration determined an estimation for the runoff supplying the pond. This estimation highlights a spectacular runoff increase over the last sixty years on the Agoufou watershed. The runoff

  17. Future Changes in Surface Runoff over Korea Projected by a Regional Climate Model under A1B Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Woo Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses future change of surface runoff due to climate change over Korea using a regional climate model (RCM, namely, the Global/Regional Integrated Model System (GRIMs, Regional Model Program (RMP. The RMP is forced by future climate scenario, namely, A1B of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4. The RMP satisfactorily reproduces the observed seasonal mean and variation of surface runoff for the current climate simulation. The distribution of monsoonal precipitation-related runoff is adequately captured by the RMP. In the future (2040–2070 simulation, it is shown that the increasing trend of temperature has significant impacts on the intra-annual runoff variation. The variability of runoff is increased in summer; moreover, the strengthened possibility of extreme occurrence is detected in the future climate. This study indicates that future climate projection, including surface runoff and its variability over Korea, can be adequately addressed on the RMP testbed. Furthermore, this study reflects that global warming affects local hydrological cycle by changing major water budget components. This study adduces that the importance of runoff should not be overlooked in regional climate studies, and more elaborate presentation of fresh-water cycle is needed to close hydrological circulation in RCMs.

  18. Hydrologic conditions controlling runoff generation immediately after wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Brian A.; Moody, John A.; Martin, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the control of postwildfire runoff by physical and hydraulic properties of soil, hydrologic states, and an ash layer immediately following wildfire. The field site is within the area burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in Colorado, USA. Physical and hydraulic property characterization included ash thickness, particle size distribution, hydraulic conductivity, and soil water retention curves. Soil water content and matric potential were measured indirectly at several depths below the soil surface to document hydrologic states underneath the ash layer in the unsaturated zone, whereas precipitation and surface runoff were measured directly. Measurements of soil water content showed that almost no water infiltrated below the ash layer into the near-surface soil in the burned site at the storm time scale (i.e., minutes to hours). Runoff generation processes were controlled by and highly sensitive to ash thickness and ash hydraulic properties. The ash layer stored from 97% to 99% of rainfall, which was critical for reducing runoff amounts. The hydrologic response to two rain storms with different rainfall amounts, rainfall intensity, and durations, only ten days apart, indicated that runoff generation was predominantly by the saturation-excess mechanism perched at the ash-soil interface during the first storm and predominantly by the infiltration-excess mechanism at the ash surface during the second storm. Contributing area was not static for the two storms and was 4% (saturation excess) to 68% (infiltration excess) of the catchment area. Our results showed the importance of including hydrologic conditions and hydraulic properties of the ash layer in postwildfire runoff generation models.

  19. Simulation and assessment of urbanization impacts on runoff metrics: insights from landuse changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Xia, Jun; Yu, Jingjie; Randall, Mark; Zhang, Yichi; Zhao, Tongtiegang; Pan, Xingyao; Zhai, Xiaoyan; Shao, Quanxi

    2018-05-01

    Urbanization-induced landuse changes alter runoff regimes in complex ways. In this study, a detailed investigation of the urbanization impacts on runoff regimes is provided by using multiple runoff metrics and with consideration of landuse dynamics. A catchment hydrological model is modified by coupling a simplified flow routing module of the urban drainage system and landuse dynamics to improve long-term urban runoff simulations. Moreover, multivariate statistical approach is adopted to mine the spatial variations of runoff metrics so as to further identify critical impact factors of landuse changes. The Qing River catchment as a peri-urban catchment in the Beijing metropolitan area is selected as our study region. Results show that: (1) the dryland agriculture is decreased from 13.9% to 1.5% of the total catchment area in the years 2000-2015, while the percentages of impervious surface, forest and grass are increased from 63.5% to 72.4%, 13.5% to 16.6% and 5.1% to 6.5%, respectively. The most dramatic landuse changes occur in the middle and downstream regions; (2) The combined landuse changes do not alter the average flow metrics obviously at the catchment outlet, but slightly increase the high flow metrics, particularly the extreme high flows; (3) The impacts on runoff metrics in the sub-catchments are more obvious than those at the catchment outlet. For the average flow metrics, the most impacted metric is the runoff depth in the dry season (October ∼ May) with a relative change from -10.9% to 11.6%, and the critical impact factors are the impervious surface and grass. For the high flow metrics, the extreme high flow depth is increased most significantly with a relative change from -0.6% to 10.5%, and the critical impact factors are the impervious surface and dryland agriculture; (4) The runoff depth metrics in the sub-catchments are increased because of the landuse changes from dryland agriculture to impervious surface, but are decreased because of the

  20. Statistical determination of rainfall-runoff erosivity indices for single storms in the Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingguo Zheng

    Full Text Available Correlation analysis is popular in erosion- or earth-related studies, however, few studies compare correlations on a basis of statistical testing, which should be conducted to determine the statistical significance of the observed sample difference. This study aims to statistically determine the erosivity index of single storms, which requires comparison of a large number of dependent correlations between rainfall-runoff factors and soil loss, in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Data observed at four gauging stations and five runoff experimental plots were presented. Based on the Meng's tests, which is widely used for comparing correlations between a dependent variable and a set of independent variables, two methods were proposed. The first method removes factors that are poorly correlated with soil loss from consideration in a stepwise way, while the second method performs pairwise comparisons that are adjusted using the Bonferroni correction. Among 12 rainfall factors, I30 (the maximum 30-minute rainfall intensity has been suggested for use as the rainfall erosivity index, although I30 is equally correlated with soil loss as factors of I20, EI10 (the product of the rainfall kinetic energy, E, and I10, EI20 and EI30 are. Runoff depth (total runoff volume normalized to drainage area is more correlated with soil loss than all other examined rainfall-runoff factors, including I30, peak discharge and many combined factors. Moreover, sediment concentrations of major sediment-producing events are independent of all examined rainfall-runoff factors. As a result, introducing additional factors adds little to the prediction accuracy of the single factor of runoff depth. Hence, runoff depth should be the best erosivity index at scales from plots to watersheds. Our findings can facilitate predictions of soil erosion in the Loess Plateau. Our methods provide a valuable tool while determining the predictor among a number of variables in terms of correlations.

  1. Statistical Determination of Rainfall-Runoff Erosivity Indices for Single Storms in the Chinese Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mingguo; Chen, Xiaoan

    2015-01-01

    Correlation analysis is popular in erosion- or earth-related studies, however, few studies compare correlations on a basis of statistical testing, which should be conducted to determine the statistical significance of the observed sample difference. This study aims to statistically determine the erosivity index of single storms, which requires comparison of a large number of dependent correlations between rainfall-runoff factors and soil loss, in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Data observed at four gauging stations and five runoff experimental plots were presented. Based on the Meng’s tests, which is widely used for comparing correlations between a dependent variable and a set of independent variables, two methods were proposed. The first method removes factors that are poorly correlated with soil loss from consideration in a stepwise way, while the second method performs pairwise comparisons that are adjusted using the Bonferroni correction. Among 12 rainfall factors, I 30 (the maximum 30-minute rainfall intensity) has been suggested for use as the rainfall erosivity index, although I 30 is equally correlated with soil loss as factors of I 20, EI 10 (the product of the rainfall kinetic energy, E, and I 10), EI 20 and EI 30 are. Runoff depth (total runoff volume normalized to drainage area) is more correlated with soil loss than all other examined rainfall-runoff factors, including I 30, peak discharge and many combined factors. Moreover, sediment concentrations of major sediment-producing events are independent of all examined rainfall-runoff factors. As a result, introducing additional factors adds little to the prediction accuracy of the single factor of runoff depth. Hence, runoff depth should be the best erosivity index at scales from plots to watersheds. Our findings can facilitate predictions of soil erosion in the Loess Plateau. Our methods provide a valuable tool while determining the predictor among a number of variables in terms of correlations. PMID

  2. Study of the CT peripheral dose variation in a head phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, Arnaldo P.

    2009-01-01

    The computed tomography is frequently used for the brain diagnosis and it is responsible for the largest doses in the head among the X-ray examinations. Established indexes define a reference dose value for a scan routine; however the dose value has a longitudinal variation in the scan. The purpose of this study is to investigate the variation of the peripheral doses in the head scan using a polymethylmethacrylate head phantom. The studies were performed using two different computed tomography scanners in the option single slice with a routine of a head adult protocol (i.e. default protocol in the scanner software). Radiation doses were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeter (LiF - TLD) rod model, distributed inside the PMMA head phantom in periphery and central area. The results allowed registering the variation dose curve, longitudinally the scan, for the peripheral area and to determine the MSAD value. The peripheral maximum dose value measured can be compared with the maximum dose value in the center of the phantom in each different routine (author)

  3. Depuration of highway runoff water into grass-covered embankments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, P; Saadé, M; Pfeiffer, H R; Hammecker, C; Degoumois, Y

    2008-06-01

    The management of polluted road runoff water is an important issue in environmental protection. A strategy could be to perform local depuration by infiltration into the soils of the embankment, but knowledge for designing such systems is lacking. This study aims at discussing the relevant soil properties, by estimating the long-term depuration of road runoff water infiltrating into the sandy soil embankment of the A9 highway in Wallis, Switzerland. This was done by estimating the heavy metals (HM) mass balance of two sites 23 and 12 years old, respectively. The accumulated HM were estimated by soil and GB analyses. The HM input was estimated by average water quality and traffic. The results were discussed using two-dimensional simulation of infiltration and a 14 months in situ monitoring of the runoff from the pavement to the embankment and at the bottom of the embankment. The soil properties were appropriate for both small particle adsorption and filtration. A good match between input and stored pollutant charges was found, and the HM profiles accorded well with infiltration simulation and monitoring results, which showed that 80-100% of the runoff water infiltrated into the embankment. Replacement of the cracked concrete gutters by an infiltration channel made of similar soil is recommended. These results oppose the Swiss guidelines for road-polluted water infiltration, as much more clayey soils are recommended. These later soils are difficult to find in Switzerland, and may allow for preferential flow through macro pores, in contrast to the studied site.

  4. Statistical attribution analysis of the nonstationarity of the annual runoff series of the Weihe River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lihua; Jiang, Cong; Du, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Time-varying moments models based on Pearson Type III and normal distributions respectively are built under the generalized additive model in location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) framework to analyze the nonstationarity of the annual runoff series of the Weihe River, the largest tributary of the Yellow River. The detection of nonstationarities in hydrological time series (annual runoff, precipitation and temperature) from 1960 to 2009 is carried out using a GAMLSS model, and then the covariate analysis for the annual runoff series is implemented with GAMLSS. Finally, the attribution of each covariate to the nonstationarity of annual runoff is analyzed quantitatively. The results demonstrate that (1) obvious change-points exist in all three hydrological series, (2) precipitation, temperature and irrigated area are all significant covariates of the annual runoff series, and (3) temperature increase plays the main role in leading to the reduction of the annual runoff series in the study basin, followed by the decrease of precipitation and the increase of irrigated area.

  5. Run-off from roofing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to find the runn-off from roof material, a roof has been constructed with two different slopes (30 deg. and 45 deg.). 7 Be and 137 Cs have been used as tracers. Considering new roof material, the pollution removed by run-off processes has been shown to be very different for various roof materials. The pollution is much more easily removed from silicon-treated material than from porous red-tile roof material. Cesium is removed more easily than beryllium. The content of cesium in old roof materials is greater in red-tile than in other less porous roof materials. However, the measured removal from new material does not correspond to the amount accumulated in the old. This could be explained by weathering and by saturation effects. The last effect is probably the more important. The measurements on old material indicate a removal of 44-86% of cesium pollution by run-off, whereas the measurement on new material showed a removal of only 31-50%. It has been demonstrated that the pollution concentration in run-off water could be very different from that in rainwater

  6. Climatic impacts on the runoff generation processes in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Loukas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of future climate change on runoff generation processes in two southern British Columbia catchments was explored using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling Analysis General Circulation Model (CGCMa1 to estimate future changes in precipitation, temperature and cloud cover while the U.B.C. Watershed Model was used to simulate discharges and quantify the separate runoff components, i.e. rainfall, snowmelt, glacier melt and groundwater. Changes, not only in precipitation and temperature but also in the spatial distribution of precipitation with elevation, cloud cover, glacier extension, altitude distribution of vegetation, vegetation biomass production and plant physiology were considered. The future climate of the catchments would be wetter and warmer than the present. In the maritime rain-fed catchment of the Upper Campbell, runoff from rainfall is the most significant source of flow for present and future climatic conditions in the autumn and winter whereas runoff from groundwater generates the flow in spring and summer, especially for the future climate scenario. The total runoff, under the future climatic conditions, would increase in the autumn and winter and decrease in spring and summer. In contrast, in the interior snow-covered Illecillewaet catchment, groundwater is the most significant runoff generation mechanism in the autumn and winter although, at present, significant flow is generated from snowmelt in spring and from glacier runoff in summer. In the future scenario, the contribution to flow from snowmelt would increase in winter and diminish in spring while the runoff from the glacier would remain unchanged; groundwater would then become the most significant source of runoff, which would peak earlier in the season. Keywords: climatic change, hydrological simulation, rainfall, snowmelt, runoff processes

  7. Analyzing temporal changes in maximum runoff volume series of the Danube River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halmova, Dana; Pekarova, Pavla; Onderka, Milan; Pekar, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Several hypotheses claim that more extremes in climatic and hydrologic phenomena are anticipated. In order to verify such hypotheses it is inevitable to examine the past periods by thoroughly analyzing historical data. In the present study, the annual maximum runoff volumes with t-day durations were calculated for a 130-year series of mean daily discharge of Danube River at Bratislava gauge (Slovakia). Statistical methods were used to clarify how the maximum runoff volumes of the Danube River changed over two historical periods (1876-1940 and 1941-2005). The conclusion is that the runoff volume regime during floods has not changed significantly during the last 130 years.

  8. Buffer strip effect on terbuthylazine, desethyl-terbuthylazine and S-metolachlor runoff from maize fields in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Marco; Vidotto, Francesco; Piano, Serenella; Negre, Michèle; Ferrero, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 6 m wide vegetative buffer strip for reducing runoff of S-metolachlor, terbuthylazine and desethyl-terbuthylazine was studied in 2007-2008 in Northern Italy. Two cultivated fields, with and without the buffer strip, were compared. Residues of the chemicals were investigated in runoff water collected after runoff events and their dissipation in the soil was studied. The highest concentration of the chemicals in water occurred in samples collected from the unbuffered field at the first runoff events. Losses of terbuthylazine and S-metolachlor in runoff waters were particularly high in 2007 (2.6% and 0.9% of the amount applied, respectively). Soil half-life of terbuthylazine and S-metolachlor ranged between 12.1 and 8.9 days and 16 and 7 days, respectively. The presence of desethyl-terbuthylazine was related to parent compound degradation. The buffer strip allowed an important reduction of chemical content in water (> 90%), in particular during the first runoff events.

  9. Study of peripheral circulation in non-pregnant, pregnant and pre-eclamptic women using applied potential tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Badreldeen

    2004-08-01

    Profound changes are known to occur in the cardiovascular system during pregnancy, involving an increase in cardiac output and a fall in peripheral resistance. In some women these adaptations may be inappropriate and this may result in pregnancy-induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia. The aims of the study were to evaluate the relatively new, non-invasive technique of applied potential tomography (APT) in measurements of peripheral blood flow, to study peripheral blood flow in a sample of non-pregnant, pregnant and pre-eclamptic women, and to investigate whether the adaptive changes in the peripheral circulation are different in pre-eclampsia compared with normal pregnancy. Applied potential tomography was used to assess peripheral vascular reactivity, by monitoring fluid distribution in calf muscles during postural change. The APT technique was able to detect peripheral vasoconstriction in response to an increase in intramural pressure brought about by passive lowering of the leg (peripheral mechanisms). The peripheral vasoconstriction response was found to be more prominent in woman with pre-eclampsia. The presence of a local reflex in the lower limb had been postulated and the effect of this reflex on the peripheral circulation could be detected using APT, regardless of how it was initiated. In normal pregnant women this reflex was diminished when compared to non-pregnant women, which might contribute to the reduction in peripheral vascular resistance seen in normal pregnancy. This reflex was defective in pre-eclampsia and this lack of adaptation may be a local reflex contributing to the raised peripheral resistance, which in turn may be a factor in high blood pressure in pre-eclampsia.

  10. RAINWATER MANAGEMENT AIMING TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF URBAN SURFACE RUNOFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. HAIDU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rainwater Management Aiming to Improve the Quality of Urban Surface Runoff. Currently many urban areas experience the quality degradation of rooftop runoff and accumulated rainwater. The present study aims to estimate the volume of water draining from rooftops within an area of 0.68 km² in the municipality of Cluj-Napoca. The volume of water flowing from rooftops presents a beneficial alternative not only for collecting rainwater for later use, but also for reducing the volume of water and for improving surface runoff quality in urban areas. The procedure was based on the Michel Simplified SCS-CN model, a derived variant of the most popular hydrological model, the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN. The results of the applied method reveal that the highest rooftop runoff water values correspond to the summer months, these being based on daily rainfall data. Estimating the volume of water draining from rooftops for future harvesting is an important step in the sustainable management of rainwater in urban areas and in improving water quality.

  11. Effects of roof and rainwater characteristics on copper concentrations in roof runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielmyer, Gretchen K; Arnold, W Ray; Tomasso, Joseph R; Isely, Jeff J; Klaine, Stephen J

    2012-05-01

    Copper sheeting is a common roofing material used in many parts of the world. However, copper dissolved from roof sheeting represents a source of copper ions to watersheds. Researchers have studied and recently developed a simple and efficient model to predict copper runoff rates. Important input parameters include precipitation amount, rain pH, and roof angle. We hypothesized that the length of a roof also positively correlates with copper concentration (thus, runoff rates) on the basis that runoff concentrations should positively correlate with contact time between acidic rain and the copper sheet. In this study, a novel system was designed to test and model the effects of roof length (length of roof from crown to the drip edge) on runoff copper concentrations relative to rain pH and roof angle. The system consisted of a flat-bottom copper trough mounted on an apparatus that allowed run length and slope to be varied. Water of known chemistry was trickled down the trough at a constant rate and sampled at the bottom. Consistent with other studies, as pH of the synthetic rainwater decreased, runoff copper concentrations increased. At all pH values tested, these results indicated that run length was more important in explaining variability in copper concentrations than was the roof slope. The regression equation with log-transformed data (R(2) = 0.873) accounted for slightly more variability than the equation with untransformed data (R(2) = 0.834). In log-transformed data, roof angle was not significant in predicting copper concentrations.

  12. The Hachioji Experimental Basin Study — Storm runoff processes and the mechanism of its generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T.; Yasuhara, M.; Sakai, H.; Marui, A.

    1988-09-01

    The study discusses storm runoff processes and the mechanism of its generation in relation to dynamic responses of subsurface water in a small forested drainage basin located in the western suburbs of Tokyo, Japan. Intensive field observations were carried out for the period 1980-1983. In the drainage basin overland flow occurred from restricted areas on the valley floor. No significant overland flow was produced on the steep hillside slopes even during a heavy storm event. The maximum extent of the saturated area occupied only 1-4% of the total basin area. The main source of storm runoff was groundwater flow. More than 90% of the total discharge was due to groundwater flow and the surface flow component contributed less than 10%. The rapid and large amounts of groundwater discharge during a storm event could not be explained solely by the traditional concept of Darcian matrix flow. These phenomena were mainly attributed to rapid flow such as pipe flow which has velocities about as high as those of surface flows. The pulsating flow phenomenon was observed as a characteristic of pipe flow.

  13. Assessing the Impact of Urbanization on Direct Runoff Using Improved Composite CN Method in a Large Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlin; Liu, Miao; Hu, Yuanman; Shi, Tuo; Zong, Min; Walter, M. Todd

    2018-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the most widespread anthropogenic activities, which brings a range of physical and biochemical changes to hydrological system and processes. Increasing direct runoff caused by land use change has become a major challenge for urban ecological security. Reliable prediction of the quantity and rate of surface runoff is an inherently difficult and time-consuming task for large ungauged urban areas. In this study, we combined Geographic Information System and remote sensing technology with an improved Soil Conservation Service curve number model to evaluate the effects of land use change on direct runoff volume of the four-ring area in Shenyang, China, and analyzed trends of direct runoff at different scales. Through analyzing trends of direct runoff from 1984 to 2015 at different scales, we explored how urbanization and other potential factors affect direct runoff changes. Total direct runoff volume increased over time, and trends varied from the inner urban area to suburban area. Zones 1 and 2 had a tendency toward decreasing direct runoff volume and risks, while Zones 3 and 4 showed gradual increases at both regional and pixel scales. The most important influence on direct runoff change was urban surface change caused by urbanization. This study presents a framework for identifying hotspots of runoff increase, which can provide important guidance to urban managers in future green infrastructure planning, in the hopes of improving the security of urban water ecological patterns. PMID:29673182

  14. Assessing the Impact of Urbanization on Direct Runoff Using Improved Composite CN Method in a Large Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlin; Liu, Miao; Hu, Yuanman; Shi, Tuo; Zong, Min; Walter, M Todd

    2018-04-17

    Urbanization is one of the most widespread anthropogenic activities, which brings a range of physical and biochemical changes to hydrological system and processes. Increasing direct runoff caused by land use change has become a major challenge for urban ecological security. Reliable prediction of the quantity and rate of surface runoff is an inherently difficult and time-consuming task for large ungauged urban areas. In this study, we combined Geographic Information System and remote sensing technology with an improved Soil Conservation Service curve number model to evaluate the effects of land use change on direct runoff volume of the four-ring area in Shenyang, China, and analyzed trends of direct runoff at different scales. Through analyzing trends of direct runoff from 1984 to 2015 at different scales, we explored how urbanization and other potential factors affect direct runoff changes. Total direct runoff volume increased over time, and trends varied from the inner urban area to suburban area. Zones 1 and 2 had a tendency toward decreasing direct runoff volume and risks, while Zones 3 and 4 showed gradual increases at both regional and pixel scales. The most important influence on direct runoff change was urban surface change caused by urbanization. This study presents a framework for identifying hotspots of runoff increase, which can provide important guidance to urban managers in future green infrastructure planning, in the hopes of improving the security of urban water ecological patterns.

  15. Runoff projection under climate change over Yarlung Zangbo River, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Weidong; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2017-04-01

    The Yarlung Zangbo River is located in southwest of China, one of the major source of "Asian water tower". The river has great hydropower potential and provides vital water resource for local and downstream agricultural production and livestock husbandry. Compared to its drainage area, gauge observation is sometimes not enough for good hydrological modeling in order to project future runoff. In this study, we employ a semi-distributed hydrologic model SWAT to simulate hydrological process of the river with rainfall observation and TRMM 3B4V7 respectively and the hydrological model performance is evaluated based on not only total runoff but snowmelt, precipitation and groundwater components. Firstly, calibration and validation of the hydrological model are executed to find behavioral parameter sets for both gauge observation and TRMM data respectively. Then, behavioral parameter sets with diverse efficiency coefficient (NS) values are selected and corresponding runoff components are analyzed. Robust parameter sets are further employed in SWAT coupled with CMIP5 GCMs to project future runoff. The final results show that precipitation is the dominating contributor nearly all year around, while snowmelt and groundwater are important in the summer and winter alternatively. Also sufficient robust parameter sets help reduce uncertainty in hydrological modeling. Finally, future possible runoff changes will have major consequences for water and flood security.

  16. Selection of an appropriately simple storm runoff model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. J. M. van Dijk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An appropriately simple event runoff model for catchment hydrological studies was derived. The model was selected from several variants as having the optimum balance between simplicity and the ability to explain daily observations of streamflow from 260 Australian catchments (23–1902 km2. Event rainfall and runoff were estimated from the observations through a combination of baseflow separation and storm flow recession analysis, producing a storm flow recession coefficient (kQF. Various model structures with up to six free parameters were investigated, covering most of the equations applied in existing lumped catchment models. The performance of alternative structures and free parameters were expressed in Aikake's Final Prediction Error Criterion (FPEC and corresponding Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiencies (NSME for event runoff totals. For each model variant, the number of free parameters was reduced in steps based on calculated parameter sensitivity. The resulting optimal model structure had two or three free parameters; the first describing the non-linear relationship between event rainfall and runoff (Smax, the second relating runoff to antecedent groundwater storage (CSg, and a third that described initial rainfall losses (Li, but which could be set at 8 mm without affecting model performance too much. The best three parameter model produced a median NSME of 0.64 and outperformed, for example, the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number technique (median NSME 0.30–0.41. Parameter estimation in ungauged catchments is likely to be challenging: 64% of the variance in kQF among stations could be explained by catchment climate indicators and spatial correlation, but corresponding numbers were a modest 45% for CSg, 21% for Smax and none for Li, respectively. In gauged catchments, better

  17. Investigation on the pollution of road rainwater runoff in Shijiazhuang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongjun GUAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To protect groundwater and urban ecological environment, much more sponge cities have been built in China. The sponge road is an important part of a sponge city. In recent years, Shijiazhuang Municipal Design Institute proposes a new sponge road structure, namely planting soil and crushed stone green belt, and it has been extensively used in Shijiazhuang City. In the design of the road structure, it is a key issue whether the infiltration rainwater quality pollutes the groundwater. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the pollution of road rainwater runoff in Shijiazhuang City for the design of sponge road and the construction of sponge city. To obtain the characteristics of rainwater runoff pollution in Shijiazhuang City, four investigation points are chosen at the intersection of the Nanerhuan Road and Yuxiang Street, the east gate of Hebei University of Science and Technology, the site under the Xierhuan Road and Zhongshan Road overpass, and the catch-basin along the roadside in Shijiazhuang City. The investigating points are located in the main road of Shijiazhuang urban area, which covers Shijiazhuang City, and can represent the pollution characteristics of road runoff in Shijiazhuang City. Six rainfalls are collected from March to June in 2017. The rainfall on 3, May is viewed as typical middle and light one which is studied in this paper. The concentration of COD, TP, TN, NH3-N and SS in road runoff is tested by potassium dichromate method, ammonium molybdate spectrophotometry, potassium persulfate digestion-UV spectrophotometry and Nessler’s reagent spectrophotometry and filter paper filtration, respectively. The concentrations of Zn ions and Pb ions are tested by inductively coupled plasma method. According to the test results, the concentration evolutions of COD, TP, TN, NH3-N, SS, Zn and Pb ion in runoff during rainfall are studied. The results show that the contaminant concentration approximately decreases during the rainfall

  18. Runoff Calculation by Neural Networks Using Radar Rainfall Data

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 晋作; 四俵, 正俊

    1997-01-01

    Neural networks, are used to calculate runoff from weather radar data and ground rain gauge data. Compared to usual runoff models, it is easier to use radar data in neural network runoff calculation. Basically you can use the radar data directly, or without transforming them into rainfall, as the input of the neural network. A situation with the difficulty of ground measurement is supposed. To cover the area lacking ground rain gauge, radar data are used. In case that the distribution of grou...

  19. Coupling machine learning with mechanistic models to study runoff production and river flow at the hillslope scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marçais, J.; Gupta, H. V.; De Dreuzy, J. R.; Troch, P. A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Geomorphological structure and geological heterogeneity of hillslopes are major controls on runoff responses. The diversity of hillslopes (morphological shapes and geological structures) on one hand, and the highly non linear runoff mechanism response on the other hand, make it difficult to transpose what has been learnt at one specific hillslope to another. Therefore, making reliable predictions on runoff appearance or river flow for a given hillslope is a challenge. Applying a classic model calibration (based on inverse problems technique) requires doing it for each specific hillslope and having some data available for calibration. When applied to thousands of cases it cannot always be promoted. Here we propose a novel modeling framework based on coupling process based models with data based approach. First we develop a mechanistic model, based on hillslope storage Boussinesq equations (Troch et al. 2003), able to model non linear runoff responses to rainfall at the hillslope scale. Second we set up a model database, representing thousands of non calibrated simulations. These simulations investigate different hillslope shapes (real ones obtained by analyzing 5m digital elevation model of Brittany and synthetic ones), different hillslope geological structures (i.e. different parametrizations) and different hydrologic forcing terms (i.e. different infiltration chronicles). Then, we use this model library to train a machine learning model on this physically based database. Machine learning model performance is then assessed by a classic validating phase (testing it on new hillslopes and comparing machine learning with mechanistic outputs). Finally we use this machine learning model to learn what are the hillslope properties controlling runoffs. This methodology will be further tested combining synthetic datasets with real ones.

  20. Rainfall and runoff characteristics of Namman Basin in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Wagdany, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Namman basin is an arid mountainous basin located in the western region of Saudi Arabia and has drainage area of about 650 km2. Namman unconfined groundwater aquifer is the source of water to the historic underground galleries known as Ain Zubaidah. The galleries became dry due to the fall of groundwater levels dramatically in the last few decades. The galleries can only be restored only if a proper water resources management is utilized in the basin. The aim of this research is to investigate two major hydrological components, namely rainfall and runoff, which are essential for a proper management of the water resources of the basin. Rainfall and runoff records for ten rain gauge stations and one runoff gauge station are used to investigate major characteristics of rainfall and runoff in Namman basin. Rainfall records are analyzed to derive conclusion about rainfall occurrence, depth duration, temporal distribution and extreme values. The relation between rainfall depth and elevation is also investigated. Runoff records are utilized to investigate seasonal variation of runoff. Values of runoff coefficient for all runoff events are computed and the relation between rainfall and runoff for the basin are discussed. The results show that there are more than 30 rainstorms per year and only about two runoff events are usually observed. The temporal analysis of rainfall and runoff indicates that there are two rainy seasons, one is during fall and winter season and other is during spring seasons while runoff is mainly observed in the winter season and the other is during spring seasons while runoff is mainly observed in the winter season. Values of runoff coefficient were very low with mean value of 0.013, which indicate that most rainfall infiltrate through the alluvial channels of the basin. (author)

  1. Comparison of planted soil infiltration systems for treatment of log yard runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedmark, Asa; Scholz, Miklas; Aronsson, Par; Elowson, Torbjorn

    2010-07-01

    Treatment of log yard runoff is required to avoid contamination of receiving watercourses. The research aim was to assess if infiltration of log yard runoff through planted soil systems is successful and if different plant species affect the treatment performance at a field-scale experimental site in Sweden (2005 to 2007). Contaminated runoff from the log yard of a sawmill was infiltrated through soil planted with Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gärtner (common alder), Salix schwerinii X viminalis (willow variety "Gudrun"), Lolium perenne (L.) (rye grass), and Phalaris arundinacea (L.) (reed canary grass). The study concluded that there were no treatment differences when comparing the four different plants with each other, and there also were no differences between the tree and the grass species. Furthermore, the infiltration treatment was effective in reducing total organic carbon (55%) and total phosphorus (45%) concentrations in the runoff, even when the loads on the infiltration system increased from year to year.

  2. Assessment of snow-glacier melt and rainfall contribution to stream runoff in Baspa Basin, Indian Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Vinay Kumar; Kulkarni, Anil V; Gupta, Anil Kumar

    2018-02-20

    Hydrological regimes of most of the Himalayan river catchments are poorly studied due to sparse hydro-meteorological data. Hence, stream runoff assessment becomes difficult for various socio-industrial activities in the Himalaya. Therefore, an attempt is made in this study to assess the stream runoff of Baspa River in Himachal Pradesh, India, by evaluating the contribution from snow-ice melt and rainfall runoff. The total volume of flow was computed for a period of 15 years, from 2000 to 2014, and validated with the long-term field discharge measurements, obtained from Jaipee Hydropower station (31° 32' 35.53″ N, 78° 00' 54.80″ E), at Kuppa barrage in the basin. The observations suggest (1) a good correlation (r 2  > 0.80) between the modeled runoff and field discharge measurements, and (2) out of the total runoff, 81.2% are produced by snowmelt, 11.4% by rainfall, and 7.4% from ice melt. The catchment receives ~75% of its total runoff in the ablation period (i.e., from May to September). In addition, an early snowmelt is observed in accumulation season during study period, indicating the significant influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on high-altitude areas.

  3. Runoff and Sediment Response to Cascade Hydropower Exploitation in the Middle and Lower Han River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of hydropower exploitation in China, changes in runoff and sediment transport have become a significant issue that cannot be neglected. In this study, the Han River was selected as a study case, where the runoff variation and changes in sediment load at the Baihe, Huangjiagang, Huangzhuang, and Xiantao stations were analyzed in different time periods. The results indicate that impact of cascade hydropower exploitation on runoff and sediment transport is significantly different even during the same time periods. After reservoir regulation, the decreasing of sediment load is faster than that of runoff. Strong positive correlation between runoff and sediment load exists during different time periods, while reservoir operation leads to different turning points at the Baihe, Huangjiagang, Huangzhuang, and Xiantao stations in the middle and lower Han River. As a key driving factor, runoff variation contributed to sediment transport with different impact index CR. The impact index CR before and after the first change point at the Baihe, Huangjiagang, Huangzhuang, and Xiantao stations is 43.35%, −3.68%, 11.17%, and 30.12%, respectively. This study helps us understand and evaluate the hydrological changes under cascade hydropower exploitation in the middle and lower Han River.

  4. Contribution and loading estimation of organochlorine pesticides from rain and canopy throughfall to runoff in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Tong, Yindong; Ou, Langbo; Hu, Dan; Wang, Xuejun

    2011-01-30

    Concentrations of OCPs in rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff water were measured in the Beijing metropolitan area during the rainy seasons from 2006 to 2007. This study was conducted to calculate the fluxes of OCPs in rain and canopy throughfall, as well as their contributions to runoff. At urban sites, the contribution of HCB and ΣHCHs from rainfall accounted for approximately 50% of the mass in runoff. At the site with significant coverage of landscaping trees, the HCB, ΣHCHs, and ΣDDTs from the net canopy throughfall accounted for approximately 10% of the mass in the runoff. Based on the data obtained in this study, loadings of OCPs (in μg) in rain, net canopy throughfall, and runoff water were calculated. The input of OCPs from rain and canopy throughfall water accounted for a significant portion of urban runoff. In cities undergoing rapid urban sprawl, monitoring and control of the transport of OCPs in urban runoff are essential for effective control of environmental hazards in surface water bodies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Peripheral neuropathy in genetically characterized patients with mitochondrial disorders: A study from south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Govindaraju, Chikanna; Sonam, Kothari; Nagappa, Madhu; Chiplunkar, Shwetha; Kumar, Rakesh; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Bharath, M M Srinivas; Arvinda, Hanumanthapura R; Sinha, Sanjib; Khan, Nahid Akthar; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Nunia, Vandana; Paramasivam, Arumugam; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Taly, Arun B

    2016-03-01

    There are relatively few studies, which focus on peripheral neuropathy in large cohorts of genetically characterized patients with mitochondrial disorders. This study sought to analyze the pattern of peripheral neuropathy in a cohort of patients with mitochondrial disorders. The study subjects were derived from a cohort of 52 patients with a genetic diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders seen over a period of 8 years (2006-2013). All patients underwent nerve conduction studies and those patients with abnormalities suggestive of peripheral neuropathy were included in the study. Their phenotypic features, genotype, pattern of peripheral neuropathy and nerve conduction abnormalities were analyzed retrospectively. The study cohort included 18 patients (age range: 18 months-50 years, M:F- 1.2:1).The genotype included mitochondrial DNA point mutations (n=11), SURF1 mutations (n=4) and POLG1(n=3). Axonal neuropathy was noted in 12 patients (sensori-motor:n=4; sensory:n=4; motor:n=4) and demyelinating neuropathy in 6. Phenotype-genotype correlations revealed predominant axonal neuropathy in mtDNA point mutations and demyelinating neuropathy in SURF1. Patients with POLG related disorders had both sensory ataxic neuropathy and axonal neuropathy. A careful analysis of the family history, clinical presentation, biochemical, histochemical and structural analysis may help to bring out the mitochondrial etiology in patients with peripheral neuropathy and may facilitate targeted gene testing. Presence of demyelinating neuropathy in Leigh's syndrome may suggest underlying SURF1 mutations. Sensory ataxic neuropathy with other mitochondrial signatures should raise the possibility of POLG related disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Integrating Artificial Neural Networks into the VIC Model for Rainfall-Runoff Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Meng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid rainfall-runoff model was developed in this study by integrating the variable infiltration capacity (VIC model with artificial neural networks (ANNs. In the proposed model, the prediction interval of the ANN replaces separate, individual simulation (i.e., single simulation. The spatial heterogeneity of horizontal resolution, subgrid-scale features and their influence on the streamflow can be assessed according to the VIC model. In the routing module, instead of a simple linear superposition of the streamflow generated from each subbasin, ANNs facilitate nonlinear mappings of the streamflow produced from each subbasin into the total streamflow at the basin outlet. A total of three subbasins were delineated and calibrated independently via the VIC model; daily runoff errors were simulated for each subbasin, then corrected by an ANN bias-correction model. The initial streamflow and corrected runoff from the simulation for individual subbasins serve as inputs to the ANN routing model. The feasibility of this proposed method was confirmed according to the performance of its application to a case study on rainfall-runoff prediction in the Jinshajiang River Basin, the headwater area of the Yangtze River.

  7. Impervious surfaces and sewer pipe effects on stormwater runoff temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, F.; Gharabaghi, B.; Mahboubi, A. A.; McBean, E. A.

    2013-10-01

    The warming effect of the impervious surfaces in urban catchment areas and the cooling effect of underground storm sewer pipes on stormwater runoff temperature are assessed. Four urban residential catchment areas in the Cities of Guelph and Kitchener, Ontario, Canada were evaluated using a combination of runoff monitoring and modelling. The stormwater level and water temperature were monitored at 10 min interval at the inlet of the stormwater management ponds for three summers 2009, 2010 and 2011. The warming effect of the ponds is also studied, however discussed in detail in a separate paper. An artificial neural network (ANN) model for stormwater temperature was trained and validated using monitoring data. Stormwater runoff temperature was most sensitive to event mean temperature of the rainfall (EMTR) with a normalized sensitivity coefficient (Sn) of 1.257. Subsequent levels of sensitivity corresponded to the longest sewer pipe length (LPL), maximum rainfall intensity (MI), percent impervious cover (IMP), rainfall depth (R), initial asphalt temperature (AspT), pipe network density (PND), and rainfall duration (D), respectively. Percent impervious cover of the catchment area (IMP) was the key parameter that represented the warming effect of the paved surfaces; sensitivity analysis showed IMP increase from 20% to 50% resulted in runoff temperature increase by 3 °C. The longest storm sewer pipe length (LPL) and the storm sewer pipe network density (PND) are the two key parameters that control the cooling effect of the underground sewer system; sensitivity analysis showed LPL increase from 345 to 966 m, resulted in runoff temperature drop by 2.5 °C.

  8. Geometric dependency of Tibetan lakes on glacial runoff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan Hien, V.; Lindenbergh, R.C.; Menenti, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is an essential source of water for Southeast Asia. The runoff from its ~34 000 glaciers, which occupy an area of ~50 000 km2, feeds Tibetan lakes and major Asian rivers like the Indus and Brahmaputra. Reported glacial shrinkage likely has an impact on the runoff. Unfortunately,

  9. Rainfall-runoff and hydraulic modelling integration in the Blatina River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timko, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the use and integration of rainfall-runoff modelling and hydrologic modelling of Blatina river catchment. Characteristics of physical-geographical sphere and its components were created within the model, enhancing the robustness of input data for the mathematical modelling of landscape runoff. Rainfall-runoff model HEC-HMS utilised in this research allows using a wide range of methodologies to determine the movement of water in the riverbed, water losses in the basin, hydraulic and hydrological methods of transformation and base-flow. Loss and transformation of water in the basin were modeled with curve numbers method SCS-CN. The simulated hydrograph was calibrated using rainfall-runoff event from June 2009. The same event was also modelled after the deforestation of the focus area. Using hydraulic model MIKE 21, a flood of focus rainfall-runoff area was simulated under both current real and changed land cover scenarios. (authors)

  10. Parameter importance and uncertainty in predicting runoff pesticide reduction with filter strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Fox, Garey A; Sabbagh, George J

    2010-01-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are an environmental management tool used to reduce sediment and pesticide transport from surface runoff. Numerical models of VFS such as the Vegetative Filter Strip Modeling System (VFSMOD-W) are capable of predicting runoff, sediment, and pesticide reduction and can be useful tools to understand the effectiveness of VFS and environmental conditions under which they may be ineffective. However, as part of the modeling process, it is critical to identify input factor importance and quantify uncertainty in predicted runoff, sediment, and pesticide reductions. This research used state-of-the-art global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis tools, a screening method (Morris) and a variance-based method (extended Fourier Analysis Sensitivity Test), to evaluate VFSMOD-W under a range of field scenarios. The three VFS studies analyzed were conducted on silty clay loam and silt loam soils under uniform, sheet flow conditions and included atrazine, chlorpyrifos, cyanazine, metolachlor, pendimethalin, and terbuthylazine data. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was the most important input factor for predicting infiltration and runoff, explaining >75% of the total output variance for studies with smaller hydraulic loading rates ( approximately 100-150 mm equivalent depths) and approximately 50% for the higher loading rate ( approximately 280-mm equivalent depth). Important input factors for predicting sedimentation included hydraulic conductivity, average particle size, and the filter's Manning's roughness coefficient. Input factor importance for pesticide trapping was controlled by infiltration and, therefore, hydraulic conductivity. Global uncertainty analyses suggested a wide range of reductions for runoff (95% confidence intervals of 7-93%), sediment (84-100%), and pesticide (43-100%) . Pesticide trapping probability distributions fell between runoff and sediment reduction distributions as a function of the pesticides' sorption. Seemingly

  11. Water quality of storm runoff and comparison of procedures for estimating storm-runoff loads, volume, event-mean concentrations, and the mean load for a storm for selected properties and constituents for Colorado Springs, southeastern Colorado, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Guerard, Paul; Weiss, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires that municipalities that have a population of 100,000 or greater obtain National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits to characterize the quality of their storm runoff. In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Springs City Engineering Division, began a study to characterize the water quality of storm runoff and to evaluate procedures for the estimation of storm-runoff loads, volume and event-mean concentrations for selected properties and constituents. Precipitation, streamflow, and water-quality data were collected during 1992 at five sites in Colorado Springs. Thirty-five samples were collected, seven at each of the five sites. At each site, three samples were collected for permitting purposes; two of the samples were collected during rainfall runoff, and one sample was collected during snowmelt runoff. Four additional samples were collected at each site to obtain a large enough sample size to estimate storm-runoff loads, volume, and event-mean concentrations for selected properties and constituents using linear-regression procedures developed using data from the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program (NURP). Storm-water samples were analyzed for as many as 186 properties and constituents. The constituents measured include total-recoverable metals, vola-tile-organic compounds, acid-base/neutral organic compounds, and pesticides. Storm runoff sampled had large concentrations of chemical oxygen demand and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand. Chemical oxygen demand ranged from 100 to 830 milligrams per liter, and 5.-day biochemical oxygen demand ranged from 14 to 260 milligrams per liter. Total-organic carbon concentrations ranged from 18 to 240 milligrams per liter. The total-recoverable metals lead and zinc had the largest concentrations of the total-recoverable metals analyzed. Concentrations of lead ranged from 23 to 350 micrograms per liter, and concentrations of zinc ranged from 110

  12. Rainfall-runoff of anthropogenic waste indicators from agricultural fields applied with municipal biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, James L; Borch, Thomas; Furlong, Edward T; Davis, Jessica G; Yager, Tracy J; Yang, Yun-Ya; Kolpin, Dana W

    2017-02-15

    The presence of anthropogenic contaminants such as antimicrobials, flame-retardants, and plasticizers in runoff from agricultural fields applied with municipal biosolids may pose a potential threat to the environment. This study assesses the potential for rainfall-induced runoff of 69 anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs), widely found in household and industrial products, from biosolids amended field plots. The agricultural field containing the test plots was treated with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. AWIs present in soil and biosolids were isolated by continuous liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by full-scan gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results for 18 AWIs were not evaluated due to their presence in field blank QC samples, and another 34 did not have sufficient detection frequency in samples to analyze trends in data. A total of 17 AWIs, including 4-nonylphenol, triclosan, and tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, were present in runoff with acceptable data quality and frequency for subsequent interpretation. Runoff samples were collected 5days prior to and 1, 9, and 35days after biosolids application. Of the 17 AWIs considered, 14 were not detected in pre-application samples, or their concentrations were much smaller than in the sample collected one day after application. A range of trends was observed for individual AWI concentrations (typically from 0.1 to 10μg/L) over the course of the study, depending on the combination of partitioning and degradation mechanisms affecting each compound most strongly. Overall, these results indicate that rainfall can mobilize anthropogenic contaminants from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters and redistribute them to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. For 14 of 17 compounds examined, the potential for runoff remobilization during rainstorms persists even after three 100-year rainstorm-equivalent simulations and the passage of a

  13. Rainfall-runoff of anthropogenic waste indicators from agricultural fields applied with municipal biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, James L.; Borch, Thomas; Furlong, Edward T.; Davis, Jessica; Yager, Tracy; Yang, Yun-Ya; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2017-01-01

    The presence of anthropogenic contaminants such as antimicrobials, flame-retardants, and plasticizers in runoff from agricultural fields applied with municipal biosolids may pose a potential threat to the environment. This study assesses the potential for rainfall-induced runoff of 69 anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs), widely found in household and industrial products, from biosolids amended field plots. The agricultural field containing the test plots was treated with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. AWIs present in soil and biosolids were isolated by continuous liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by full-scan gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results for 18 AWIs were not evaluated due to their presence in field blank QC samples, and another 34 did not have sufficient detection frequency in samples to analyze trends in data. A total of 17 AWIs, including 4-nonylphenol, triclosan, and tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, were present in runoff with acceptable data quality and frequency for subsequent interpretation. Runoff samples were collected 5 days prior to and 1, 9, and 35 days after biosolids application. Of the 17 AWIs considered, 14 were not detected in pre-application samples, or their concentrations were much smaller than in the sample collected one day after application. A range of trends was observed for individual AWI concentrations (typically from 0.1 to 10 μg/L) over the course of the study, depending on the combination of partitioning and degradation mechanisms affecting each compound most strongly. Overall, these results indicate that rainfall can mobilize anthropogenic contaminants from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters and redistribute them to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. For 14 of 17 compounds examined, the potential for runoff remobilization during rainstorms persists even after three 100-year rainstorm-equivalent simulations and the

  14. Transport of Three Antimicrobials in Runoff from Windrows of Composting Beef Cattle Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sura, Srinivas; Degenhardt, Dani; Cessna, Allan J; Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; McAllister, Tim A

    2016-03-01

    Rain runoff from windrowed or stockpiled manure may contain antimicrobials with the potential to contaminate surface and ground water. To quantify the concentration of antimicrobials transported in runoff from windrowed manure, antimicrobials were administered continuously in feed to beef cattle () as follows: 44 mg of chlortetracycline kg feed (dry weight), a 1:1 mixture of 44 mg of chlortetracycline and 44 mg sulfamethazine kg feed, and 11 mg of tylosin kg feed. Cattle in a fourth treatment group received no antimicrobials (control). Manure from the cattle was used to construct two windrows per treatment. On Days 2 and 21 of composting, a portable Guelph Rainfall Simulator II was used to apply deionized water at an intensity of 127 mm h to each windrow, and the runoff was collected. Manure samples were collected before rain simulations on Days 2 and 21 of composting for antimicrobial analysis. On Day 2, average concentrations of chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin in manure were 2580, 450, and 120 μg kg, respectively, with maximum concentrations in runoff of 2740, 3600, and 4930 μg L, respectively. Concentrations of all three antimicrobials in runoff were higher ( runoff from a windrow (3 m long, 2.5 m wide, 1.5 m high) were approximately 0.87 to 0.94, 1.57, and 1.23 g, respectively. This study demonstrates the importance of windrow composting in reducing antimicrobial concentrations in manure. The runoff from windrows can be a source of antimicrobials and demonstrates the need for containment of runoff from composting facilities to mitigate antimicrobial contamination of surface and groundwater resources. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Evaluating MODIS snow products for modelling snowmelt runoff: Case study of the Rio Grande headwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Caitriana; Dialesandro, John; James, Darren; Elias, Emile; Rango, Albert; Bleiweiss, Max

    2017-12-01

    Snow-covered area (SCA) is a key variable in the Snowmelt-Runoff Model (SRM) and in other models for simulating discharge from snowmelt. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM +) or Operational Land Imager (OLI) provide remotely sensed data at an appropriate spatial resolution for mapping SCA in small headwater basins, but the temporal resolution of the data is low and may not always provide sufficient cloud-free dates. The coarser spatial resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers better temporal resolution and in cloudy years, MODIS data offer the best alternative for mapping snow cover when finer spatial resolution data are unavailable. However, MODIS' coarse spatial resolution (500 m) can obscure fine spatial patterning in snow cover and some MODIS products are not sensitive to end-of-season snow cover. In this study, we aimed to test MODIS snow products for use in simulating snowmelt runoff from smaller headwater basins by a) comparing maps of TM and MODIS-based SCA and b) determining how SRM streamflow simulations are changed by the different estimates of seasonal snow depletion. We compared gridded MODIS snow products (Collection 5 MOD10A1 fractional and binary SCA; SCA derived from Collection 6 MOD10A1 Normalised Difference Snow Index (NDSI) Snow Cover), and the MODIS Snow Covered-Area and Grain size retrieval (MODSCAG) canopy-corrected fractional SCA (SCAMG), with reference SCA maps (SCAREF) generated from binary classification of TM imagery. SCAMG showed strong agreement with SCAREF; excluding true negatives (where both methods agreed no snow was present) the median percent difference between SCAREF and SCAMG ranged between -2.4% and 4.7%. We simulated runoff for each of the four study years using SRM populated with and calibrated for snow depletion curves derived from SCAREF. We then substituted in each of the MODIS-derived depletion curves. With efficiency coefficients ranging between 0.73 and 0.93, SRM

  16. Bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy: an electrophysiological, behavioral, morphological and mechanistic study in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A Carozzi

    Full Text Available Bortezomib is the first proteasome inhibitor with significant antineoplastic activity for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma as well as other hematological and solid neoplasms. Peripheral neurological complications manifesting with paresthesias, burning sensations, dysesthesias, numbness, sensory loss, reduced proprioception and vibratory sensitivity are among the major limiting side effects associated with bortezomib therapy. Although bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy is clinically easy to diagnose and reliable models are available, its pathophysiology remains partly unclear. In this study we used well-characterized immune-competent and immune-compromised mouse models of bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy. To characterize the drug-induced pathological changes in the peripheral nervous system, we examined the involvement of spinal cord neuronal function in the development of neuropathic pain and investigated the relevance of the immune response in painful peripheral neuropathy induced by bortezomib. We found that bortezomib treatment induced morphological changes in the spinal cord, dorsal roots, dorsal root ganglia (DRG and peripheral nerves. Neurophysiological abnormalities and specific functional alterations in Aδ and C fibers were also observed in peripheral nerve fibers. Mice developed mechanical allodynia and functional abnormalities of wide dynamic range neurons in the dorsal horn of spinal cord. Bortezomib induced increased expression of the neuronal stress marker activating transcription factor-3 in most DRG. Moreover, the immunodeficient animals treated with bortezomib developed a painful peripheral neuropathy with the same features observed in the immunocompetent mice. In conclusion, this study extends the knowledge of the sites of damage induced in the nervous system by bortezomib administration. Moreover, a selective functional vulnerability of peripheral nerve fiber subpopulations

  17. [Analysis of first flush effect of typical underlying surface runoff in Beijing urban city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yu-Fen; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Hou, Pei-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Rapid increase of the urban impervious underlying surfaces causes a great increase of urban runoff and the accumulation of pollutants on the roof and road surfaces brings many pollutants into the drainage system with the runoff, and it thus becomes a great threat to the urban water environment. To know the runoff pollution process and to build scientific basis for pollutant control, runoff processes from the roof and road surfaces were monitored and analyzed from 2004 to 2006, and the runoff EMC (Event Mean Concentration) was calculated. It was found that two types of runoff were seriously polluted by COD and TN. The COD and TN of roof runoff exceeded the fifth level of the surface water environmental quality standard (GB 3838-2002) by 3.64 and 4.80 times, respectively, and the COD and TN of road runoff exceeded by 3.73 and 1.07 times, respectively. M (V) curve was used to determine the relation between runoff volume and runoff pollution load. Various degrees of the first flush phenomenon were found for TSS, COD, TN and TP in roof runoff. But this phenomenon occurred only for TSS and TP of the road runoff, and on the whole it was not obvious. Properties of the underlying surfaces, rainfall intensity, and pollutant accumulation are all important factors affecting the roof and road runoff pollutant emission characteristics.

  18. Dairy diet phosphorus and rainfall timing effects on runoff phosphorus from land-applied manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Laura P; Jokela, William E; Knapp, Joanne R

    2009-01-01

    Surface-applied dairy manure can increase P concentrations in runoff, which may contribute to eutrophication of lakes and streams. The amount of dietary P fed to dairy cows (Bos taurus) and the timing of a rain event after manure application may further affect runoff P losses. The objective of this study was to examine dietary P supplementation effects on manure and runoff P concentrations from rain events occurring at different time intervals after manure application. Manure from dairy cows fed an unsupplemented low P diet (LP; 3.6 g P kg(-1)) or a diet supplemented with either an inorganic (HIP; 4.4 g P kg(-1)) or an organic (HOP; 4.6 g P kg(-1)) source was hand-applied onto soil-packed pans at 56 wet Mg ha(-1). Thirty min of runoff was collected from simulated rain events (30 mm h(-1)) 2, 5, or 9 d after manure application. Total P (TP) concentrations in runoff from HIP and HOP diet manure from the 2-d rain were 46 and 31% greater than that of the LP diet. Runoff P concentrations from high P diets were numerically higher than that of the LP diet at 5 and 9 d after application, but differences were significant only for dissolved reactive P (DRP) at 5 d. Large decreases in runoff TP (89%) and DRP (65%) concentrations occurred with delay of rainfall from 2 d until 5 d. The proportion of TP as DRP increased as the time between manure application and runoff increased. Results showed that reducing dietary P and extending the time between manure application and a rain event can significantly reduce concentrations of TP and DRP in runoff.

  19. The use of simulated rainfall to study the discharge process and the influence factors of urban surface runoff pollution loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinqin, Li; Qiao, Chen; Jiancai, Deng; Weiping, Hu

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of the characteristics of pollutants on impervious surfaces is essential to estimate pollution loads and to design methods to minimize the impacts of pollutants on the environment. In this study, simulated rainfall equipment was constructed to investigate the pollutant discharge process and the influence factors of urban surface runoff (USR). The results indicated that concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) appeared to be higher in the early period and then decreased gradually with rainfall duration until finally stabilized. The capacity and particle size of surface dust, rainfall intensity and urban surface slopes affected runoff pollution loads to a variable extent. The loads of TP, TN and COD showed a positive relationship with the surface dust capacity, whereas the maximum TSS load appeared when the surface dust was 0.0317 g·cm⁻². Smaller particle sizes (pollution carrying capacity of runoff, leading to higher pollution loads. Knowledge of the influence factors could assist in the management of USR pollution loads.

  20. Nutrient losses from manure and fertilizer applications as impacted by time to first runoff event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Owens, P.R.; Leytem, A.B.; Warnemuende, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient losses to surface waters following fertilization contribute to eutrophication. This study was conducted to compare the impacts of fertilization with inorganic fertilizer, swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure or poultry (Gallus domesticus) litter on runoff water quality, and how the duration between application and the first runoff event affects resulting water quality. Fertilizers were applied at 35 kg P ha -1 , and the duration between application and the first runoff event varied between 1 and 29 days. Swine manure was the greatest risk to water quality 1 day after fertilization due to elevated phosphorus (8.4 mg P L -1 ) and ammonium (10.3 mg NH 4 -N L -1 ) concentrations; however, this risk decreased rapidly. Phosphorus concentrations were 2.6 mg L -1 29 days after fertilization with inorganic fertilizer. This research demonstrates that manures might be more environmentally sustainable than inorganic fertilizers, provided runoff events do not occur soon after application. - Fertilization with manures results in lower nutrient runoff than inorganic fertilizers, especially if at least one week passes between fertilization and runoff

  1. Contrasting runoff trends between dry and wet parts of eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yongqiang; Chiew, Francis H S; McVicar, Tim R; Zhang, Lu; Li, Hongxia; Qin, Guanghua

    2017-11-13

    As the "Asian Water Tower", the Tibetan Plateau (TP) provides water resources for more than 1.4 billion people, but suffers from climatic and environmental changes, followed by the changes in water balance components. We used state-of-the-art satellite-based products to estimate spatial and temporal variations and trends in annual precipitation, evapotranspiration and total water storage change across eastern TP, which were then used to reconstruct an annual runoff variability series for 2003-2014. The basin-scale reconstructed streamflow variability matched well with gauge observations for five large rivers. Annual runoff increased strongly in dry part because of increases in precipitation, but decreased in wet part because of decreases in precipitation, aggravated by noticeable increases in evapotranspiration in the north of wet part. Although precipitation primarily governed temporal-spatial pattern of runoff, total water storage change contributed greatly to runoff variation in regions with wide-spread permanent snow/ice or permafrost. Our study indicates that the contrasting runoff trends between the dry and wet parts of eastern TP requires a change in water security strategy, and attention should be paid to the negative water resources impacts detected for southwestern part which has undergone vast glacier retreat and decreasing precipitation.

  2. Urban rainwater runoff quantity and quality - A potential endogenous resource in cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrill, Sara; Petit-Boix, Anna; Morales-Pinzón, Tito; Josa, Alejandro; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2017-03-15

    Rainwater harvesting might help to achieve self-sufficiency, but it must comply with health standards. We studied the runoff quantity and quality harvested from seven urban surfaces in a university campus in Barcelona according to their use (pedestrian or motorized mobility) and materials (concrete, asphalt and slabs). An experimental rainwater harvesting system was used to collect the runoff resulting from a set of rainfall events. We estimated the runoff coefficient and initial abstraction of each surface and analyzed the physicochemical and microbiological properties, and hydrocarbon and metal content of the samples. Rainfall intensity, surface material and state of conservation were essential parameters. Because of low rainfall intensity and surface degradation, the runoff coefficient was variable, with a minimum of 0.41. Concrete had the best quality, whereas weathering and particulate matter deposition led to worse quality in asphalt areas. Physicochemical runoff quality was outstanding when compared to superficial and underground water. Microorganisms were identified in the samples (>1 CFU/100 mL) and treatment is required to meet human consumption standards. Motorized traffic mostly affects the presence of metals such as zinc (31.7 μg/L). In the future, sustainable mobility patterns might result in improved rainwater quality standards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Runoff Analysis Considering Orographical Features Using Dual Polarization Radar Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hui-seong; Shin, Hyun-seok; Kang, Na-rae; Lee, Choong-Ke; Kim, Hung-soo

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the necessity for rainfall estimation and forecasting using the radar is being highlighted, due to the frequent occurrence of torrential rainfall resulting from abnormal changes of weather. Radar rainfall data represents temporal and spatial distributions properly and replace the existing rain gauge networks. It is also frequently applied in many hydrologic field researches. However, the radar rainfall data has an accuracy limitation since it estimates rainfall, by monitoring clouds and precipitation particles formed around the surface of the earth(1.5-3km above the surface) or the atmosphere. In a condition like Korea where nearly 70% of the land is covered by mountainous areas, there are lots of restrictions to use rainfall radar, because of the occurrence of beam blocking areas by topography. This study is aiming at analyzing runoff and examining the applicability of (R(Z), R(ZDR) and R(KDP)) provided by the Han River Flood Control Office(HRFCO) based on the basin elevation of Nakdong river watershed. For this purpose, the amount of radar rainfall of each rainfall event was estimated according to three sub-basins of Nakdong river watershed with the average basin elevation above 400m which are Namgang dam, Andong dam and Hapcheon dam and also another three sub-basins with the average basin elevation below 150m which are Waegwan, Changryeong and Goryeong. After runoff analysis using a distribution model, Vflo model, the results were reviewed and compared with the observed runoff. This study estimated the rainfall by using the radar-rainfall transform formulas, (R(Z), R(Z,ZDR) and R(Z,ZDR,KDP) for four stormwater events and compared the results with the point rainfall of the rain gauge. As the result, it was overestimated or underestimated, depending on rainfall events. Also, calculation indicates that the values from R(Z,ZDR) and R(Z,ZDR,KDP) relatively showed the most similar results. Moreover the runoff analysis using the estimated radar rainfall is

  4. Interception of rainfall and surface runoff in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarso Oliveira, Paulo; Wendland, Edson; Nearing, Mark; Perea Martins, João

    2014-05-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado plays a fundamental role in water resources dynamics because it distributes fresh water to the largest basins in Brazil and South America. In recent decades, the native Cerrado vegetation has increasingly been replaced by agricultural crops and pasture. These land cover and land use changes have altered the hydrological processes. Meanwhile, little is known about the components of the water balance in the Brazilian Cerrado, mainly because the experimental field studies in this region are scarce or nonexistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate two hydrological processes under native Cerrado vegetation, the canopy interception (CI) and the surface runoff (R). The Cerrado physiognomy was classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" with an absolute density of 15,278 trees ha-1, and a basal area of 11.44 m2 ha-1. We measured the gross rainfall (P) from an automated tipping bucket rain gauge (model TB4) located in a tower with 11 m of height on the Cerrado. Throughfall (TF) was obtained from 15 automated tipping bucket rain gauges (model Davis) spread below the Cerrado vegetation and randomly relocated every month during the wet season. Stemflow (SF) was measured on 12 trees using a plastic hose wrapped around the trees trunks, sealed with neutral silicone sealant, and a bucket to store the water. The canopy interception was computed by the difference between P and the sum of TF and SF. Surface runoff under undisturbed Cerrado was collected in three plots of 100 m2(5 x 20 m) in size and slope steepness of approximately 0.09 m m-1. The experimental study was conducted between January 2012 and November 2013. We found TF of 81.0% of P and SF of 1.6% of P, i.e. the canopy interception was calculated at 17.4% of P. There was a statistically significant correlation (p 0.8. Our results suggest that the rainfall intensity, the characteristics of the trees trunks (crooked and twisted) and stand structure are the main factors that have influenced

  5. Prediction of hydrographs and flow-duration curves in almost ungauged catchments: Which runoff measurements are most informative for model calibration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Sandra; Viviroli, Daniel; Seibert, Jan

    2017-11-01

    Applications of runoff models usually rely on long and continuous runoff time series for model calibration. However, many catchments around the world are ungauged and estimating runoff for these catchments is challenging. One approach is to perform a few runoff measurements in a previously fully ungauged catchment and to constrain a runoff model by these measurements. In this study we investigated the value of such individual runoff measurements when taken at strategic points in time for applying a bucket-type runoff model (HBV) in ungauged catchments. Based on the assumption that a limited number of runoff measurements can be taken, we sought the optimal sampling strategy (i.e. when to measure the streamflow) to obtain the most informative data for constraining the runoff model. We used twenty gauged catchments across the eastern US, made the assumption that these catchments were ungauged, and applied different runoff sampling strategies. All tested strategies consisted of twelve runoff measurements within one year and ranged from simply using monthly flow maxima to a more complex selection of observation times. In each case the twelve runoff measurements were used to select 100 best parameter sets using a Monte Carlo calibration approach. Runoff simulations using these 'informed' parameter sets were then evaluated for an independent validation period in terms of the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of the hydrograph and the mean absolute relative error of the flow-duration curve. Model performance measures were normalized by relating them to an upper and a lower benchmark representing a well-informed and an uninformed model calibration. The hydrographs were best simulated with strategies including high runoff magnitudes as opposed to the flow-duration curves that were generally better estimated with strategies that captured low and mean flows. The choice of a sampling strategy covering the full range of runoff magnitudes enabled hydrograph and flow-duration curve

  6. Toxicity assessment of simulated urban runoff containing polycyclic musks and cadmium in Carassius auratus using oxidative stress biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fang; Gao Jie; Zhou Qixing

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess potential toxic effects of simulated urban runoff on Carassius auratus using oxidative stress biomarkers. The activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver of C. auratus were analyzed after a 7-, 14- and 21-day exposure to simulated urban runoff containing galaxolide (HHCB) and cadmium (Cd). The results showed that the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of MDA increased significantly exposed to the simulated urban runoff containing HHCB alone or mixture of HHCB and Cd. The activity of the investigated enzymes and the content of MDA then returned to the blank level over a longer period of exposure. The oxidative stress could be obviously caused in the liver of C. auratus under the experimental conditions. This could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff. - Highlights: ► We assessed potential toxicity of urban runoff containing HHCB and Cd. ► Exposure of simulated urban runoff can caused oxidative stress in C. auratus liver. ► SOD and CAT are more sensitive than POD and more suitable for indicating the toxicity of urban runoff. ► The present study using oxidative stress biomarkers could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff. - Simulated urban runoff containing HHCB and Cd could cause oxidative stress on the liver of Carassius auratus, which could provide useful information for toxic risk assessment of urban runoff.

  7. The hierarchy of controls on snowmelt-runoff generation over seasonally-frozen hillslopes

    OpenAIRE

    Coles, Anna E.; Appels, Willemijn M.; McConkey, Brian G.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and modeling snowmelt-runoff generation in seasonally-frozen regions is a major challenge in hydrology. Partly, this is because the controls on hillslope-scale snowmelt-runoff generation are potentially extensive and their hierarchy is poorly understood. Understanding the relative importance of controls (e.g. topography, vegetation, land use, soil characteristics, and precipitation dynamics) on runoff response is necessary for model development, spatial extrapolation, and runoff...

  8. Pan-Arctic distributions of continental runoff in the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichot, Cédric G; Kaiser, Karl; Hooker, Stanford B; Amon, Rainer M W; Babin, Marcel; Bélanger, Simon; Walker, Sally A; Benner, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Continental runoff is a major source of freshwater, nutrients and terrigenous material to the Arctic Ocean. As such, it influences water column stratification, light attenuation, surface heating, gas exchange, biological productivity and carbon sequestration. Increasing river discharge and thawing permafrost suggest that the impacts of continental runoff on these processes are changing. Here, a new optical proxy was developed and implemented with remote sensing to determine the first pan-Arctic distribution of terrigenous dissolved organic matter (tDOM) and continental runoff in the surface Arctic Ocean. Retrospective analyses revealed connections between the routing of North American runoff and the recent freshening of the Canada Basin, and indicated a correspondence between climate-driven changes in river discharge and tDOM inventories in the Kara Sea. By facilitating the real-time, synoptic monitoring of tDOM and freshwater runoff in surface polar waters, this novel approach will help understand the manifestations of climate change in this remote region.

  9. Analyse on changes of runoff generation and confluence of the Luohe River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiming Si; Xiaowei Liu

    2004-01-01

    The change trend of water cycle factors such as rainfall, runoff and flood events etc. in the Luohe River basin are analysed based on hydrological data since 1950s. The analysis shows that rainfall has been decreasing, but not much, while runoff has been decreasing remarkably. Under the same rainfall conditions, runoff and peak discharge have dropped considerably, runoff coefficient has become much smaller, and the frequency of flood occurrence has been decreasing. It is considered that environmental variation caused by human activities accounts for the change, in characteristics of runoff generation and confluence in the basin.(Author)

  10. Modelling surface run-off and trends analysis over India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    exponential model was developed between the rainfall and the run-off that predicted the run-off with an R2 of ... precipitation and other climate parameters is well documented ...... Sen P K 1968 Estimates of the regression coefficient based.

  11. Treatment conditions for the removal of contaminants from road runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Hallberg, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    The pollutant load in road runoff is related to traffic densities and road maintenance activities. Inurbanised areas treatment of road runoff is common and often considered necessary. The pollutantsare partitioned between the particulate and dissolved matter. However, the contaminantstend to have an affinity to the particulate material. Sedimentation, the predominant treatmentmethod for road runoff uses various types of ponds. Design tools used for stormwater treatmentsystems are based on ext...

  12. Relationship between Organic Carbon Runoff to River and Land Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G. S.; Lee, S. G.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, W.; Yoo, S.; Kim, S. J.; Heo, S.; Lee, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon is an important unit in understanding the ecosystem and energy circulation. Each ecosystem, land, water, and atmosphere, is interconnected through the exchange of energy and organic carbon. In the rivers, primary producers utilize the organic carbon from the land. Understanding the organic carbon uptake into the river is important for understanding the mechanism of river ecosystems. The main organic carbon source of the river is land. However, it is difficult to observe the amount of organic carbon runoff to the river. Therefore, an indirect method should be used to estimate the amount of organic carbon runoff to the river. The organic carbon inflow is caused by the runoff of organic carbon dissolved in water or the inflow of organic carbon particles by soil loss. Therefore, the hydrological model was used to estimate organic carbon runoff through the flow of water. The land cover correlates with soil respiration, soil loss, and so on, and the organic carbon runoff coefficient will be estimated to the river by land cover. Using the organic carbon concentration from water quality data observed at each point in the river, we estimate the amount of organic carbon released from the land. The reason is that the runoff from the watershed converges into the rivers in the watershed, the watershed simulation is conducted based on the water quality data observation point. This defines a watershed that affects organic carbon observation sites. The flow rate of each watershed is calculated by the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), and the total organic carbon runoff is calculated by using flow rate and organic carbon concentration. This is compared with the factors related to the amount of organic carbon such as land cover, soil loss, and soil organic carbon, and spatial analysis is carried out to estimate the organic carbon runoff coefficient per land cover.

  13. Runoff inundation hazard cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineux, N.; Degré, A.

    2012-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2004, Europe suffered from more than hundred major inundations, responsible for some 700 deaths, for the moving of about half a million of people and the economic losses of at least 25 billions Euros covered by the insurance policies. Within this context, EU launched the 2007/60/CE directive. The inundations are natural phenomenon. They cannot be avoided. Nevertheless this directive permits to better evaluate the risks and to coordinate the management measures taken at member states level. In most countries, inundation maps only include rivers' overflowing. In Wallonia, overland flows and mudflows also cause huge damages, and must be included in the flood hazard map. Indeed, the cleaning operations for a village can lead to an estimated cost of 11 000 €. Average construction cost of retention dams to control off-site damage caused by floods and muddy flows was valued at 380 000€, and yearly dredging costs associated with these retention ponds at 15 000€. For a small city for which a study was done in a more specific way (Gembloux), the mean annual cost for the damages that can generate the runoff is about 20 000€. This cost consists of the physical damages caused to the real estate and movable properties of the residents as well as the emergency operations of the firemen and the city. On top of damages to public infrastructure (clogging of trenches, silting up of retention ponds) and to private property by muddy flows, runoff generates a significant loss of arable land. Yet, the soil resource is not an unlimited commodity. Moreover, sediments' transfer to watercourses alters their physical and chemical quality. And that is not to mention the increased psychological stress for people. But to map overland flood and mud flow hazard is a real challenge. This poster will present the methodology used to in Wallonia. The methodology is based on 3 project rainfalls: 25, 50 and 100 years return period (consistency with the cartography of the

  14. Runoff and soil erosion plot-scale studies under natural rainfall: A meta-analysis of the Brazilian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research to measure soil erosion rates in the United States from natural rainfall runoff plots began in the early 1900’s. In Brazil, the first experimental study at the plot-scale was conducted in the 1940’s; however, the monitoring process and the creation of new experimental field plots have not c...

  15. A system-theory-based model for monthly river runoff forecasting: model calibration and optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jianhua

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available River runoff is not only a crucial part of the global water cycle, but it is also an important source for hydropower and an essential element of water balance. This study presents a system-theory-based model for river runoff forecasting taking the Hailiutu River as a case study. The forecasting model, designed for the Hailiutu watershed, was calibrated and verified by long-term precipitation observation data and groundwater exploitation data from the study area. Additionally, frequency analysis, taken as an optimization technique, was applied to improve prediction accuracy. Following model optimization, the overall relative prediction errors are below 10%. The system-theory-based prediction model is applicable to river runoff forecasting, and following optimization by frequency analysis, the prediction error is acceptable.

  16. [Fuzzing pattern recognition study on Raman spectrum of tumor peripheral tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lei; Zhao, Yuan-li; Ge, Xiang-hong; Zhang, Xiao-dong; Hao, Zhi-fang; Lü, Jing

    2006-06-01

    On the basis of some theories about fuzzing pattern recognition, the present article studied the data preprocessing of the Raman spectrum of tumor peripheral tissue, and feature extraction and selection. According to these features the authors improved the leaning towards the bigger membership function of trapezoidal distribution. The authors built the membership function of Raman spectrum of tumor peripheral tissue which belongs to malignant tumor on the basis of 40 specimens, and designed the classifier. The test of other 40 specimens showed that the discrimination of malignant tumor is 82.4%, while that of beginning tumor is 73.9%.

  17. Position of peripheral venous cannulae and the incidence of thrombophlebitis: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicolini, Giancarlo; Bonghi, Antonia Pollidoro; Di Labio, Luisa; Di Mascio, Rocco

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to investigate the most suitable location of peripheral venous cannulae to reduce the incidence of thrombophlebitis. Peripheral intravenous cannulae are used for vascular access, but the site of insertion and size of the cannula could expose patients to local and systemic infectious complications. Small cannula size is an important factor in reducing the incidence of thrombophlebitis, but cannula location has not yet been studied. Evidence-based knowledge on how to prevent these complications is needed. An observational survey carried out was carried out in 2007 with 427 patients in one Italian hospital. A structured observation protocol was used to survey the frequency of thrombophlebitis and the relationship of location and size of peripheral intravenous cannulae. The variables evaluated were age, gender, cannula size and site of cannula location. Chi-square or Student t tests were used, and the adjusted odds ratios and relative 95% confidence intervals are reported. The frequency of peripheral intravenous cannulae thrombophlebitis was higher in females (OR:1.91;CI:1.20-3.03;P < 0.006). The highest incidence was found in patients with cannulae inserted in the dorsal side of the hand veins compared to those with cannulae inserted in cubital fossa veins (OR:3.33;CI:1.37-8.07; P < 0.001). The use of cubital fossa veins rather than forearm and hand veins should be encouraged to reduce the risk of thrombophlebitis in patients with peripheral intravenous cannulae.

  18. Use of Fuzzy rainfall-runoff predictions for claypan watersheds with conservation buffers in Northeast Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anomaa Senaviratne, G. M. M. M.; Udawatta, Ranjith P.; Anderson, Stephen H.; Baffaut, Claire; Thompson, Allen

    2014-09-01

    Fuzzy rainfall-runoff models are often used to forecast flood or water supply in large catchments and applications at small/field scale agricultural watersheds are limited. The study objectives were to develop, calibrate, and validate a fuzzy rainfall-runoff model using long-term data of three adjacent field scale row crop watersheds (1.65-4.44 ha) with intermittent discharge in the claypan soils of Northeast Missouri. The watersheds were monitored for a six-year calibration period starting 1991 (pre-buffer period). Thereafter, two of them were treated with upland contour grass and agroforestry (tree + grass) buffers (4.5 m wide, 36.5 m apart) to study water quality benefits. The fuzzy system was based on Mamdani method using MATLAB 7.10.0. The model predicted event-based runoff with model performance coefficients of r2 and Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient (NSC) values greater than 0.65 for calibration and validation. The pre-buffer fuzzy system predicted event-based runoff for 30-50 times larger corn/soybean watersheds with r2 values of 0.82 and 0.68 and NSC values of 0.77 and 0.53, respectively. The runoff predicted by the fuzzy system closely agreed with values predicted by physically-based Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender model (APEX) for the pre-buffer watersheds. The fuzzy rainfall-runoff model has the potential for runoff predictions at field-scale watersheds with minimum input. It also could up-scale the predictions for large-scale watersheds to evaluate the benefits of conservation practices.

  19. Burn-related peripheral neuropathy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yiji; Lineaweaver, William C; Zheng, Xianyou; Chen, Zenggan; Mullins, Fred; Zhang, Feng

    2017-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent disabling neuromuscular complication of burns. However, the insidious and progressive onset of burn neuropathy makes it often undiagnosed or overlooked. In our study, we reviewed the current studies on the burn-related peripheral neuropathy to summarize the morbidity, mechanism, detecting method and management of peripheral neuropathy in burn patients. Of the 1533 burn patients included in our study, 98 cases (6.39%) were presented with peripheral neuropathy. Thermal and electrical burns were the most common etiologies. Surgical procedures, especially nerve decompression, showed good effect on functional recovery of both acute and delayed peripheral neuropathy in burn patients. It is noteworthy that, for early detection and prevention of peripheral neuropathy, electrodiagnostic examinations should be performed on burn patients independent of symptoms. Still, the underlying mechanisms of burn-related peripheral neuropathy remain to be clarified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Rainfall Runoff Mitigation by Retrofitted Permeable Pavement in an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shafique

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Permeable pavement is an effective low impact development (LID practice that can play an important role in reducing rainfall runoff amount in urban areas. Permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP was retrofitted in a tremendously developed area of Seoul, Korea and the data was monitored to evaluate its effect on the hydrology and stormwater quality performance for four months. Rainfall runoff was first absorbed by different layers of the PICP system and then contributed to the sewage system. This not only helps to reduce the runoff volume, but also increase the time of concentration. In this experiment, different real rain events were observed and the field results were investigated to check the effectiveness of the PICP system for controlling the rainfall runoff in Songpa, Korea. From the analysis of data, results showed that the PCIP system was very effective in controlling rainfall runoff. Overall runoff reduction performance from the PCIP was found to be around 30–65% during various storm events. In addition, PICP significantly reduced peak flows in different storm events which is very helpful in reducing the chances of water-logging in an urbanized area. Research results also allow us to sum up that retrofitted PICP is a very effective approach for rainfall runoff management in urban areas.

  1. Adhesion of and to soil in runoff as influenced by polyacrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Tina B; Sbodio, Adrian; Jacobsen, Carsten S; Suslow, Trevor

    2014-11-01

    Polyacrylamide (PAM) is used in agriculture to reduce soil erosion and has been reported to reduce turbidity, nutrients, and pollutants in surface runoff water. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of PAM on the concentration of enteric bacteria in surface runoff by comparing four enteric bacteria representing phenotypically different motility and hydrophobicity from three soils. Results demonstrated that bacterial surface runoff was differentially influenced by the PAM treatment. Polyacrylamide treatment increased surface runoff for adhered and planktonic cells from a clay soil; significantly decreased surface runoff of adhered bacteria, while no difference was observed for planktonic bacteria from the sandy loam; and significantly decreased the surface runoff of planktonic cells, while no difference was observed for adhered bacteria from the clay loam. Comparing strains from a final water sample collected after 48 h showed a greater loss of while serovar Poona was almost not detected. Thus, (i) the PAM efficiency in reducing the concentration of enteric bacteria in surface runoff was influenced by soil type and (ii) variation in the loss of enteric bacteria highlights the importance of strain-specific properties that may not be captured with general fecal indicator bacteria. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. An application of artificial intelligence for rainfall–runoff modeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study proposes an application of two techniques of artificial intelligence (AI) ... (2006) applied rainfall–runoff modeling using ANN ... in artificial intelligence, engineering and science .... usually be estimated from a sample of observations.

  3. [Effect of antecedent dry period on water quality of urban storm runoff pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo

    2009-12-01

    Identified the main factor influencing urban rainfall-runoff pollution provides a scientific basis for urban rainfall-runoff pollution control and management. Therefore, starting in May 2006, a study was conducted to characterize water quality from representative land uses types in Zhenjiang to analyse the effect of antecedent dry period on stormwater runoff quality. The results show that the beginning of rainfall, with the increase of antecedent dry periods, the percentages of less than 40 microm is increased, the correlation of the water quality parameters (TN, TP, Zn, Pb, Cu, TSS and COD) and antecedent dry period shows a significant positive correlation, dissolved pollutants in the initial period surface runoff is increased. These findings show that facilitating the recognition of antecedent dry periods is the main factor influencing the change in concentration and partitioning of pollutants to provide the scientific basis for non-point source pollution control and management.

  4. Compatibility analysis of precipitation and runoff trends over the large Siberian watersheds

    OpenAIRE

    Berezovskaya, Svetlana; Yang, Daqing; Kane, Douglas L.

    2004-01-01

    The consistency of long-term yearly precipitation and runoff trends over the largest Arctic watersheds (Ob, Yenisei and Lena Rivers) is examined. Three gridded precipitation datasets (Climatic Research Unit, University of Delaware, NCEP) are used for comparative analyses with runoff data collected at basin outlets. The results generally demonstrate inconsistency in long-term changes of basin precipitation and runoff. The Yenisei River runoff increases significantly, while precipitation data s...

  5. Trend and concentrations of legacy lead (Pb) in highway runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhanian, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the results of lead (Pb) concentrations from both highway runoff and contaminated soil along 32 and 23 highway sites, respectively. In general, the Pb concentration on topsoil (0-15 cm) along highways was much higher than the Pb concentration in subsurface soil (15-60 cm). The Pb deposited on soil appears to be anthropogenic and a strong correlation was found between the Pb concentration in surface soil and highway runoff in urban areas. The concentration of Pb measured during 1980s from highways runoff throughout the world was up to 11 times higher than the measured values in mid 1990 s and 2000s. The current Pb deposited on soil near highways appears to be a mixture of paint, tire weight balance and old leaded gasoline combustion. Overall, the Pb phase-out regulation reduced the Pb deposits in the environment and consequently lowered Pb loading into receiving waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Curve Number Estimation for a Small Urban Catchment from Recorded Rainfall-Runoff Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banasik Kazimierz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Runoff estimation is a key component in various hydrological considerations. Estimation of storm runoff is especially important for the effective design of hydraulic and road structures, for the flood flow management, as well as for the analysis of land use changes, i.e. urbanization or low impact development of urban areas. The curve number (CN method, developed by Soil Conservation Service (SCS of the U.S. Department of Agriculture for predicting the flood runoff depth from ungauged catchments, has been in continuous use for ca. 60 years. This method has not been extensively tested in Poland, especially in small urban catchments, because of lack of data. In this study, 39 rainfall-runoff events, collected during four years (2009–2012 in a small (A=28.7 km2, urban catchment of Służew Creek in southwest part of Warsaw were used, with the aim of determining the CNs and to check its applicability to ungauged urban areas. The parameters CN, estimated empirically, vary from 65.1 to 95.0, decreasing with rainfall size and, when sorted rainfall and runoff separately, reaching the value from 67 to 74 for large rainfall events.

  7. Modeling time-dependent toxicity to aquatic organisms from pulsed exposure of PAHs in urban road runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Ye Youbin; Tong Yindong; Ou Langbo; Hu Dan; Wang Xuejun

    2011-01-01

    Understanding of the magnitude of urban runoff toxicity to aquatic organisms is important for effective management of runoff quality. In this paper, the aquatic toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban road runoff was evaluated through a damage assessment model. Mortality probability of the organisms representative in aquatic environment was calculated using the monitored PAHs concentration in road runoff. The result showed that the toxicity of runoff in spring was higher than those in summer. Analysis of the time-dependent toxicity of series of runoff water samples illustrated that the toxicity of runoff water in the final phase of a runoff event may be as high as those in the initial phase. Therefore, the storm runoff treatment systems or strategies designed for capture and treatment of the initial portion of runoff may be inappropriate for control of runoff toxicity. - Research highlights: → Toxicity resulting from realistic exposure patterns of urban runoff is evaluated. → Toxicity of runoff water in the final phase is as high as the initial phase. → Treatment of the initial runoff portion is inappropriate to abate runoff toxicity. - Toxicity to aquatic organisms after sequential pulsed exposure to PAHs in urban road runoff is evaluated.

  8. Markov-switching model for nonstationary runoff conditioned on El Nino information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelati, Emiliano; Madsen, H.; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2010-01-01

    We define a Markov-modulated autoregressive model with exogenous input (MARX) to generate runoff scenarios using climatic information. Runoff parameterization is assumed to be conditioned on a hidden climate state following a Markov chain, where state transition probabilities are functions...... of the climatic input. MARX allows stochastic modeling of nonstationary runoff, as runoff anomalies are described by a mixture of autoregressive models with exogenous input, each one corresponding to a climate state. We apply MARX to inflow time series of the Daule Peripa reservoir (Ecuador). El Nino Southern...... Oscillation (ENSO) information is used to condition runoff parameterization. Among the investigated ENSO indexes, the NINO 1+2 sea surface temperature anomalies and the trans-Nino index perform best as predictors. In the perspective of reservoir optimization at various time scales, MARX produces realistic...

  9. Modelling monthly runoff generation processes following land use changes: groundwater-surface runoff interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, M.; Smettem, K. R. J.

    A conceptual water balance model is presented to represent changes in monthly water balance following land use changes. Monthly rainfall-runoff, groundwater and soil moisture data from four experimental catchments in Western Australia have been analysed. Two of these catchments, "Ernies" (control, fully forested) and "Lemon" (54% cleared) are in a zone of mean annual rainfall of 725 mm, while "Salmon" (control, fully forested) and "Wights" (100% cleared) are in a zone with mean annual rainfall of 1125 mm. At the Salmon forested control catchment, streamflow comprises surface runoff, base flow and interflow components. In the Wights catchment, cleared of native forest for pasture development, all three components increased, groundwater levels rose significantly and stream zone saturated area increased from 1% to 15% of the catchment area. It took seven years after clearing for the rainfall-runoff generation process to stabilise in 1984. At the Ernies forested control catchment, the permanent groundwater system is 20 m below the stream bed and so does not contribute to streamflow. Following partial clearing of forest in the Lemon catchment, groundwater rose steadily and reached the stream bed by 1987. The streamflow increased in two phases: (i) immediately after clearing due to reduced evapotranspiration, and (ii) through an increase in the groundwater-induced stream zone saturated area after 1987. After analysing all the data available, a conceptual monthly model was created, comprising four inter-connecting stores: (i) an upper zone unsaturated store, (ii) a transient stream zone store, (ii) a lower zone unsaturated store and (iv) a saturated groundwater store. Data such as rooting depth, Leaf Area Index, soil porosity, profile thickness, depth to groundwater, stream length and surface slope were incorporated into the model as a priori defined attributes. The catchment average values for different stores were determined through matching observed and predicted

  10. Modelling monthly runoff generation processes following land use changes: groundwater–surface runoff interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bari

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual water balance model is presented to represent changes in monthly water balance following land use changes. Monthly rainfall–runoff, groundwater and soil moisture data from four experimental catchments in Western Australia have been analysed. Two of these catchments, 'Ernies' (control, fully forested and 'Lemon' (54% cleared are in a zone of mean annual rainfall of 725 mm, while 'Salmon' (control, fully forested and 'Wights' (100% cleared are in a zone with mean annual rainfall of 1125 mm. At the Salmon forested control catchment, streamflow comprises surface runoff, base flow and interflow components. In the Wights catchment, cleared of native forest for pasture development, all three components increased, groundwater levels rose significantly and stream zone saturated area increased from 1% to 15% of the catchment area. It took seven years after clearing for the rainfall–runoff generation process to stabilise in 1984. At the Ernies forested control catchment, the permanent groundwater system is 20 m below the stream bed and so does not contribute to streamflow. Following partial clearing of forest in the Lemon catchment, groundwater rose steadily and reached the stream bed by 1987. The streamflow increased in two phases: (i immediately after clearing due to reduced evapotranspiration, and (ii through an increase in the groundwater-induced stream zone saturated area after 1987. After analysing all the data available, a conceptual monthly model was created, comprising four inter-connecting stores: (i an upper zone unsaturated store, (ii a transient stream zone store, (ii a lower zone unsaturated store and (iv a saturated groundwater store. Data such as rooting depth, Leaf Area Index, soil porosity, profile thickness, depth to groundwater, stream length and surface slope were incorporated into the model as a priori defined attributes. The catchment average values for different stores were determined through matching observed and

  11. Snowmelt Runoff: A New Focus of Urban Nonpoint Source Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Jiunian Guan; Baixing Yan; Hui Zhu; Yingying Xu

    2012-01-01

    Irregular precipitation associated with global climate change had been causing various problems in urban regions. Besides the runoff due to rainfall in summer, the snowmelt runoff in early spring could also play an important role in deteriorating the water quality of the receiving waters. Due to global climate change, the snowfall has increased gradually in individual regions, and snowstorms occur more frequently, which leads to an enhancement of snowmelt runoff flow during the melting season...

  12. Effects of runoff sensitivity and catchment characteristics on regional actual evapotranspiration trends in the conterminous US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Il Won; Chang, Heejun; Risley, John

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the role of hydro-climatic and geographic regimes on regional actual evapotranspiration (AET) change is essential to improving our knowledge on predicting water availability in a changing climate. This study investigates the relationship between AET change for a 60 year period (1951–2010) and the runoff sensitivity in 255 undisturbed catchments over the US. The runoff sensitivity to climate change is simply defined as the relative magnitude between runoff and precipitation changes with time. Runoff sensitivity can readily explain the conflicting directions of AET changes under similar precipitation change. Under increasing precipitation, AET decreases when runoff is increasing more rapidly than precipitation based on the water balance. Conversely, AET increases when runoff is decreasing more rapidly than precipitation. This result indicates that runoff sensitivity to climate change is a key factor for understanding regional water availability change at the catchment scale. In addition, a stepwise multiple regression analysis and a geographically weighted regression analysis show that the portion of evergreen forest and the mean elevation of a catchment may play a secondary role in the spatial pattern of the AET change, and the relative importance of such explanatory variables may change over space. (letter)

  13. Runoff and Sediment Yield Variations in Response to Precipitation Changes: A Case Study of Xichuan Watershed in the Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on hydrological cycles and water resource distribution is particularly concerned with environmentally vulnerable areas, such as the Loess Plateau, where precipitation scarcity leads to or intensifies serious water related problems including water resource shortages, land degradation, and serious soil erosion. Based on a geographical information system (GIS, and using gauged hydrological data from 2001 to 2010, digital land-use and soil maps from 2005, a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Xichuan Watershed, a typical hilly-gullied area in the Loess Plateau, China. The relative error, coefficient of determination, and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient were used to analyze the accuracy of runoffs and sediment yields simulated by the model. Runoff and sediment yield variations were analyzed under different precipitation scenarios. The increases in runoff and sediment with increased precipitation were greater than their decreases with reduced precipitation, and runoff was more sensitive to the variations of precipitation than was sediment yield. The coefficients of variation (CVs of the runoff and sediment yield increased with increasing precipitation, and the CV of the sediment yield was more sensitive to small rainfall. The annual runoff and sediment yield fluctuated greatly, and their variation ranges and CVs were large when precipitation increased by 20%. The results provide local decision makers with scientific references for water resource utilization and soil and water conservation.

  14. How runoff begins (and ends): characterizing hydrologic response at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Loague, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Improved understanding of the complex dynamics associated with spatially and temporally variable runoff response is needed to better understand the hydrology component of interdisciplinary problems. The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterize the environmental controls on runoff generation for the range of different streamflow-generation mechanisms illustrated in the classic Dunne diagram. The comprehensive physics-based model of coupled surface-subsurface flow, InHM, is employed in a heuristic mode. InHM has been employed previously to successfully simulate the observed hydrologic response at four diverse, well-characterized catchments, which provides the foundation for this study. The C3 and CB catchments are located within steep, forested terrain; the TW and R5 catchments are located in gently sloping rangeland. The InHM boundary-value problems for these four catchments provide the corner-stones for alternative simulation scenarios designed to address the question of how runoff begins (and ends). Simulated rainfall-runoff events are used to systematically explore the impact of soil-hydraulic properties and rainfall characteristics. This approach facilitates quantitative analysis of both integrated and distributed hydrologic responses at high-spatial and temporal resolution over the wide range of environmental conditions represented by the four catchments. The results from 140 unique simulation scenarios illustrate how rainfall intensity/depth, subsurface permeability contrasts, characteristic curve shapes, and topography provide important controls on the hydrologic-response dynamics. The processes by which runoff begins (and ends) are shown, in large part, to be defined by the relative rates of rainfall, infiltration, lateral flow convergence, and storage dynamics within the variably saturated soil layers.

  15. Reducing phosphorus runoff and leaching from poultry litter with alum: Twenty-year small plot and paired-watershed studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treating poultry litter with alum is a best management practice (BMP) for lowering ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) runoff losses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term (20 year) effects of alum-treated and untreated poultry litter applications on P availability, leachi...

  16. Herbicide volatilization trumps runoff losses, a multi-year investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface runoff and volatilization are two processes critical to herbicide off-site transport. To determine the relevance of these off-site transport mechanisms, runoff and turbulent vapor fluxes were simultaneously monitored on the same site for eight years. Site location, herbicide formulations, ...

  17. Importance of moisture determination in studies of infiltration and surface runoff for long periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Fulginiti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the natural soil moisture is essential to solve problems related to irrigation water requirements, environmental considerations, and determination of surplus water. For the determination of runoff one can adopt models that consider exclusively the infiltration as a loss or one could use computational models of infiltration to model the infiltrated water. Models based on the infiltration calculation consider well the interaction between infiltration - runoff processes and provide additional information on the phenomenon of infiltration which establishes the existing conditions of moisture in the soil before the occurrence of a new event (simulation for long periods. These models require solving Richards’s equation and for this purpose it is necessary to determine the relation between the soil moisture - suction and hydraulic conductivity - suction which require the determination of the hydraulic properties that can be obtained by measuring the water content by moisture profiles. The aim of this study was the verification of these moisture curves in loessic soils in the south of the city of Cordoba, Argentina. To do this, measurements were done and compared with results of infiltration models based on the determined hydraulic functions. The measurements were done using three probes installed at different depths. The results showed that the values obtained with NETRAIN adequately represent the behavior of wetting and drying conditions of the studied soil.The determination of these curves provided a basis for future studies that include the advancement of agricultural chemicals in the soil and its potential capacity to pollute groundwater, fundamental issue to define environmental management policies.

  18. The effect of the runoff size on the pesticide concentration in runoff water and in FOCUS streams simulated by PRZM and TOXSWA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, Pauline; Leerdam, van R.C.; Boesten, Jos J.T.I.

    2017-01-01

    Within the European Union the exposure of aquatic organisms to pesticides is assessed by simulations with the so-called FOCUS Surface Water Scenarios. Runoff plays an important role in these scenarios. As little is known about the effect of runoff size on the exposure, we investigated the effect of

  19. Characteristics of Phosphorus Runoff Losses from Typical Paddy Fields in Guangdong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NING Jian-feng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Three experimental paddy fields located in the city of Zengcheng, Qingyuan and Gaozhou in Guangdong Province were selected to monitor the runoff losses of phosphorus from the year of 2008 to 2012. The results showed that runoff event in paddy field occurred mainly in the early rice season. The runoff concentration of total phosphorus(TP under conventional fertilization treatment was in the range of 0.02~1.56 mg·L-1. It was recorded that TP concentration in 11%~18% of the total runoff samples exceeded the grade Ⅴ of the national surface water environmental quality(0.4 mg·L-1. Peak concentration of different phosphorus forms[TP, dissolved total P(DTP and particulate P(PP] were observed within 14 days after fertilization, which indicated the high environmental pollution risk of phosphorus during this period. Application of phosphorus fertilizer increased runoff load of DTP in paddy field and showed no effect on that of PP and TP. The annual runoff loads of 0.63~4.05, 0.33~2.91 kg·hm-2 and 1.10~6.68 kg·hm-2 for DTP, PP and TP, respectively, were recorded under conventional fertilizer model. Runoff load of phosphorus exhibited wide spatial and temporal variation during experimental period. Runoff coefficient of 0.06%~6.81% of phosphorus was recorded. It was observed that DTP dominated the phosphorus runoff load. Phosphorus runoff losses from paddy field was affected by a variety of natural and human factors, and fertilization, precipitation and runoff volume were identified as the main factors.

  20. Beyond the SCS-CN method: A theoretical framework for spatially lumped rainfall-runoff response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, M. S.; Parolari, A. J.; McDonnell, J. J.; Porporato, A.

    2016-06-01

    Since its introduction in 1954, the Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) method has become the standard tool, in practice, for estimating an event-based rainfall-runoff response. However, because of its empirical origins, the SCS-CN method is restricted to certain geographic regions and land use types. Moreover, it does not describe the spatial variability of runoff. To move beyond these limitations, we present a new theoretical framework for spatially lumped, event-based rainfall-runoff modeling. In this framework, we describe the spatially lumped runoff model as a point description of runoff that is upscaled to a watershed area based on probability distributions that are representative of watershed heterogeneities. The framework accommodates different runoff concepts and distributions of heterogeneities, and in doing so, it provides an implicit spatial description of runoff variability. Heterogeneity in storage capacity and soil moisture are the basis for upscaling a point runoff response and linking ecohydrological processes to runoff modeling. For the framework, we consider two different runoff responses for fractions of the watershed area: "prethreshold" and "threshold-excess" runoff. These occur before and after infiltration exceeds a storage capacity threshold. Our application of the framework results in a new model (called SCS-CNx) that extends the SCS-CN method with the prethreshold and threshold-excess runoff mechanisms and an implicit spatial description of runoff. We show proof of concept in four forested watersheds and further that the resulting model may better represent geographic regions and site types that previously have been beyond the scope of the traditional SCS-CN method.

  1. Novel risk factors for premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease in non-diabetic patients: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M Bérard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of genetic and environmental vascular risk factors in non diabetic patients with premature peripheral arterial disease, either peripheral arterial occlusive disease or thromboangiitis obliterans, the two main entities of peripheral arterial disease, and to established whether some of them are specifically associated with one or another of the premature peripheral arterial disease subgroups. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study included 113 non diabetic patients with premature peripheral arterial disease (diagnosis <45-year old presenting either a peripheral arterial occlusive disease (N = 64 or a thromboangiitis obliterans (N = 49, and 241 controls matched for age and gender. Both patient groups demonstrated common traits including cigarette smoking, low physical activity, decreased levels of HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (active form of B6 vitamin and zinc. Premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease was characterized by the presence of a family history of peripheral arterial and carotid artery diseases (OR 2.3 and 5.8 respectively, 95% CI, high lipoprotein (a levels above 300 mg/L (OR 2.3, 95% CI, the presence of the factor V Leiden (OR 5.1, 95% CI and the glycoprotein Ia(807T,837T,873A allele (OR 2.3, 95% CI. In thromboangiitis obliterans group, more patients were regular consumers of cannabis (OR 3.5, 95% CI and higher levels in plasma copper has been shown (OR 6.5, 95% CI. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results from a non exhaustive list of study parameters, we might hypothesize for 1 a genetic basis for premature peripheral arterial occlusive disease development and 2 the prevalence of environmental factors in the development of thromboangiitis obliterans (tobacco and cannabis. Moreover, for the first time, we demonstrated that the 807T/837T/873A allele of platelet glycoprotein Ia may confer an additional risk for development of peripheral

  2. Functional approach to exploring climatic and landscape controls of runoff generation: 1. Behavioral constraints on runoff volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Yi; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Tian, Fuqiang; Harman, Ciaran

    2014-12-01

    Inspired by the Dunne diagram, the climatic and landscape controls on the partitioning of annual runoff into its various components (Hortonian and Dunne overland flow and subsurface stormflow) are assessed quantitatively, from a purely theoretical perspective. A simple distributed hydrologic model has been built sufficient to simulate the effects of different combinations of climate, soil, and topography on the runoff generation processes. The model is driven by a sequence of simple hypothetical precipitation events, for a large combination of climate and landscape properties, and hydrologic responses at the catchment scale are obtained through aggregation of grid-scale responses. It is found, first, that the water balance responses, including relative contributions of different runoff generation mechanisms, could be related to a small set of dimensionless similarity parameters. These capture the competition between the wetting, drying, storage, and drainage functions underlying the catchment responses, and in this way, provide a quantitative approximation of the conceptual Dunne diagram. Second, only a subset of all hypothetical catchment/climate combinations is found to be "behavioral," in terms of falling sufficiently close to the Budyko curve, describing mean annual runoff as a function of climate aridity. Furthermore, these behavioral combinations are mostly consistent with the qualitative picture presented in the Dunne diagram, indicating clearly the commonality between the Budyko curve and the Dunne diagram. These analyses also suggest clear interrelationships amongst the "behavioral" climate, soil, and topography parameter combinations, implying these catchment properties may be constrained to be codependent in order to satisfy the Budyko curve.

  3. Peripheral Circulatory Features during High-Frequency Jet Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kontorovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of a study of peripheral circulatory features during high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV. The main specific features of peripheral circulation and oxygen transport during HFJV are formulated on the basis of a study of cardiac output (impedance cardiography, peripheral vascular resistance, peripheral vascular blood filling (photoplethysmogram analysis, adaptive peripheral blood flow reactions (spectral analysis of peripheral vascular pulsation. HFJV gives rise to the peculiar pattern of peripheral hemodynamics and tissue gas exchange, which is characterized by higher oxygen uptake without a decrease in mixed venous blood saturation, with normal extraction coefficient and preserved low peripheral vascular resistance. During HFJV, unlike traditional ventilation, the main peripheral hemodynamic feature is the increased capillary bed blood volume caused by the blood flow involvement of reserve capillaries under control of volume (parasympathetic regulation of adaptive peripheral hemodynamic reactions. Key words: high-frequency jet ventilation, oxygen transport, peripheral hemodynamics.

  4. Treatment of contaminated roadway runoff using vegetated filter strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The overall goal of this field study was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of vegetated highway embankments as a stormwater runoff best management practice (BMP) for retention of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and particulates...

  5. Estimation of potential runoff-contributing areas in Kansas using topographic and soil information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    1999-01-01

    Digital topographic and soil information was used to estimate potential runoff-contributing areas throughout Kansas. The results then were used to compare 91 selected subbasins representing soil, slope, and runoff variability. Potential runoff-contributing areas were estimated collectively for the processes of infiltration-excess and saturation-excess overland flow using a set of environmental conditions that represented very high, high, moderate, low, very low, and extremely low potential runoff. For infiltration-excess overland flow, various rainfall-intensity and soil-permeability values were used. For saturation-excess overland flow, antecedent soil-moisture conditions and a topographic wetness index were used. Results indicated that very low potential-runoff conditions provided the best ability to distinguish the 91 selected subbasins as having relatively high or low potential runoff. The majority of the subbasins with relatively high potential runoff are located in the eastern half of the State where soil permeability generally is less and precipitation typically is greater. The ability to distinguish the subbasins as having relatively high or low potential runoff was possible mostly due to the variability of soil permeability across the State.

  6. Large-scale runoff generation - parsimonious parameterisation using high-resolution topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L.; Halldin, S.; Xu, C.-Y.

    2011-08-01

    World water resources have primarily been analysed by global-scale hydrological models in the last decades. Runoff generation in many of these models are based on process formulations developed at catchments scales. The division between slow runoff (baseflow) and fast runoff is primarily governed by slope and spatial distribution of effective water storage capacity, both acting at very small scales. Many hydrological models, e.g. VIC, account for the spatial storage variability in terms of statistical distributions; such models are generally proven to perform well. The statistical approaches, however, use the same runoff-generation parameters everywhere in a basin. The TOPMODEL concept, on the other hand, links the effective maximum storage capacity with real-world topography. Recent availability of global high-quality, high-resolution topographic data makes TOPMODEL attractive as a basis for a physically-based runoff-generation algorithm at large scales, even if its assumptions are not valid in flat terrain or for deep groundwater systems. We present a new runoff-generation algorithm for large-scale hydrology based on TOPMODEL concepts intended to overcome these problems. The TRG (topography-derived runoff generation) algorithm relaxes the TOPMODEL equilibrium assumption so baseflow generation is not tied to topography. TRG only uses the topographic index to distribute average storage to each topographic index class. The maximum storage capacity is proportional to the range of topographic index and is scaled by one parameter. The distribution of storage capacity within large-scale grid cells is obtained numerically through topographic analysis. The new topography-derived distribution function is then inserted into a runoff-generation framework similar VIC's. Different basin parts are parameterised by different storage capacities, and different shapes of the storage-distribution curves depend on their topographic characteristics. The TRG algorithm is driven by the

  7. Peripheral visual performance enhancement by neurofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenya; Wan, Feng; Lou, Chin Ian; Vai, Mang I; Rosa, Agostinho

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral visual performance is an important ability for everyone, and a positive inter-individual correlation is found between the peripheral visual performance and the alpha amplitude during the performance test. This study investigated the effect of alpha neurofeedback training on the peripheral visual performance. A neurofeedback group of 13 subjects finished 20 sessions of alpha enhancement feedback within 20 days. The peripheral visual performance was assessed by a new dynamic peripheral visual test on the first and last training day. The results revealed that the neurofeedback group showed significant enhancement of the peripheral visual performance as well as the relative alpha amplitude during the peripheral visual test. It was not the case in the non-neurofeedback control group, which performed the tests within the same time frame as the neurofeedback group but without any training sessions. These findings suggest that alpha neurofeedback training was effective in improving peripheral visual performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show evidence for performance improvement in peripheral vision via alpha neurofeedback training.

  8. Analysis and Modeling of Time-Correlated Characteristics of Rainfall-Runoff Similarity in the Upstream Red River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Sang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a similarity model (based on Euclidean distance between rainfall and runoff to study time-correlated characteristics of rainfall-runoff similar patterns in the upstream Red River Basin and presented a detailed evaluation of the time correlation of rainfall-runoff similarity. The rainfall-runoff similarity was used to determine the optimum similarity. The results showed that a time-correlated model was found to be capable of predicting the rainfall-runoff similarity in the upstream Red River Basin in a satisfactory way. Both noised and denoised time series by thresholding the wavelet coefficients were applied to verify the accuracy of model. And the corresponding optimum similar sets obtained as the equation solution conditions showed an interesting and stable trend. On the whole, the annual mean similarity presented a gradually rising trend, for quantitatively estimating comprehensive influence of climate change and of human activities on rainfall-runoff similarity.

  9. Mitchell's influence on European studies of peripheral nerve injuries during World War I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Peter J; Lanska, Douglas J

    2004-12-01

    Describe the influence of S. Weir Mitchell's (1829-1914) work, and in particular his ideas on causalgia, on European physicians who treated peripheral nerve injuries during World War I (WWI). During the American Civil War (1861-1865), Mitchell studied peripheral nerve injuries with colleagues George Read Morehouse and William Williams Keen. Three monographs resulted from this work. All were important landmarks in the evolution of knowledge of peripheral nerve injuries. A subsequent occasion to improve knowledge came in WWI. The most important European monographs or series on peripheral nerve injuries from WWI were studied with special interest in references to causalgia and Mitchell's works on peripheral nerve injuries. We included works by Tinel, Athanassio-Benisty, Purves-Stewart & Evans and Carter, Foerster and Oppenheim. Tinel and Athanassio-Benisty provided the most detailed information on peripheral nerve injuries and causalgia and often referred to Mitchell. Both mentioned a possible sympathetic origin. Athanassio-Benisty described tremor and other movement disorders in relation to causalgia. Purves-Stewart and Evans mentioned Mitchell and causalgia in the second edition of their book. They advocated the term "thermalgia." Carter, who had access to data of many cases, concentrated his work on causalgia, referring to Mitchell. Foerster provided data of a great number of peripheral nerve injuries, but did not refer to Mitchell. However, he described the symptoms of causalgia cursorily, applying the term Reflexschmerz (reflexpain). Oppenheim was particularly interested in muscle innervation and referred to Mitchell with respect to hypertrichosis and glossy skin. Oppenheim did not use the term causalgia, although he described the syndrome in some of his patients. It wasn't until around 1920 that German physicians devoted significant attention to causalgia and began using the term. Knowledge of peripheral nerve injuries was greatly advanced during and after WWI

  10. Modeling urban storm rainfall runoff from diverse underlying surfaces and application for control design in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Guo, Bobo; Hao, Fanghua; Huang, Haobo; Li, Junqi; Gong, Yongwei

    2012-12-30

    Managing storm rainfall runoff is paramount in semi-arid regions with urban development. In Beijing, pollution prevention in urban storm runoff and storm water utilization has been identified as the primary strategy for urban water management. In this paper, we sampled runoff during storm rainfall events and analyzed the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) in the runoff. Furthermore, the first flush effect of storm rainfall from diverse underlying surfaces was also analyzed. With the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), the different impervious rates of underlying surfaces during the storm runoff process were expressed. The removal rates of three typical pollutants and their interactions with precipitation and underlying surfaces were identified. From these rates, the scenarios regarding the urban storm runoff pollution loading from different designs of underlying previous rates were assessed with the SWMM. First flush effect analysis showed that the first 20% of the storm runoff should be discarded, which can help in utilizing the storm water resource. The results of this study suggest that the SWMM can express in detail the storm water pollution patterns from diverse underlying surfaces in Beijing, which significantly affected water quality. The scenario analysis demonstrated that impervious rate adjustment has the potential to reduce runoff peak and decrease pollution loading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Ten Year Analysis of Fatal Peripheral Vascular Injuries Autopsy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Tuncer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Peripheral vascular injuries are usually associated with fatal injuries. Early diagnosis and intervention are so vital for improving a favorable outcome for traumatic vascular injuries. As a preventable cause of death, we aimed to evaluate peripheral vascular injuries in overall deaths in ten year period, 2003-2012. Material and Method: A retrospective evaluation was made of 2845 death cases which had post-mortem examination and autopsy from the 10-year period of 2003-2012 in Eskisehir, Turkey. The mean age of the cases included in the study was 32.5±7.9 years with the highest rate of cases occurring in the 30-39 years age group. Males constituted 89.2% of the victims. The most frequent manner of death was homicide 83.8%.The femoral artery was the most commonly injured vessel 29 cases (78.4%. In this study it was identified that, 33 patients (89.3% died before any medical intervention could be performed. Discussion: Our study shows that, peripheral vascular injuries most commonly caused by sharp objects. The injuries have a low mortality rate when early intervention is made. Autopsies are conducted is very important to explain not only the cause of death but also the treatment process, which would clear the cases of any potential malpractice or negligence claims.

  12. Robust Initial Wetness Condition Framework of an Event-Based Rainfall–Runoff Model Using Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooyeon Sunwoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Runoff prediction in limited-data areas is vital for hydrological applications, such as the design of infrastructure and flood defenses, runoff forecasting, and water management. Rainfall–runoff models may be useful for simulation of runoff generation, particularly event-based models, which offer a practical modeling scheme because of their simplicity. However, there is a need to reduce the uncertainties related to the estimation of the initial wetness condition (IWC prior to a rainfall event. Soil moisture is one of the most important variables in rainfall–runoff modeling, and remotely sensed soil moisture is recognized as an effective way to improve the accuracy of runoff prediction. In this study, the IWC was evaluated based on remotely sensed soil moisture by using the Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN method, which is one of the representative event-based models used for reducing the uncertainty of runoff prediction. Four proxy variables for the IWC were determined from the measurements of total rainfall depth (API5, ground-based soil moisture (SSMinsitu, remotely sensed surface soil moisture (SSM, and soil water index (SWI provided by the advanced scatterometer (ASCAT. To obtain a robust IWC framework, this study consists of two main parts: the validation of remotely sensed soil moisture, and the evaluation of runoff prediction using four proxy variables with a set of rainfall–runoff events in the East Asian monsoon region. The results showed an acceptable agreement between remotely sensed soil moisture (SSM and SWI and ground based soil moisture data (SSMinsitu. In the proxy variable analysis, the SWI indicated the optimal value among the proposed proxy variables. In the runoff prediction analysis considering various infiltration conditions, the SSM and SWI proxy variables significantly reduced the runoff prediction error as compared with API5 by 60% and 66%, respectively. Moreover, the proposed IWC framework with

  13. [Runoff Pollution Experiments of Paddy Fields Under Different Irrigation Patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing-wen; Su, Bao-lin; Huang, Ning-bo; Guan, Yu-tang; Zhao, Kun

    2016-03-15

    To study runoff and non-point source pollution of paddy fields and to provide a scientific basis for agricultural water management of paddy fields, paddy plots in the Jintan City and the Liyang City were chosen for experiments on non-point source pollution, and flood irrigation and intermittent irrigation patterns were adopted in this research. The surface water level and rainfall were observed during the growing season of paddies, and the runoff amount from paddy plots and loads of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were calculated by different methods. The results showed that only five rain events of totally 27 rainfalls and one artificially drainage formed non-point source pollution from flood irrigated paddy plot, which resulted in a TN export coefficient of 49.4 kg · hm⁻² and a TP export coefficient of 1.0 kg · hm⁻². No any runoff event occurred from the paddy plot with intermittent irrigation even in the case of maximum rainfall of 95.1 mm. Runoff from paddy fields was affected by water demands of paddies and irrigation or drainage management, which was directly correlated to surface water level, rainfall amount and the lowest ridge height of outlets. Compared with the flood irrigation, intermittent irrigation could significantly reduce non-point source pollution caused by rainfall or artificial drainage.

  14. Diffuse emission and control of copper in urban surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, M A; Steiner, M

    2002-01-01

    Copper washed off from roofs and roads is considered to be a major contribution to diffuse copper pollution of urban environments. In order to guarantee sustainable protection of soils and water, the long-term strategy is to avoid or replace copper containing materials on roofs and fagades. Until achievement of this goal, a special adsorber system is suggested to control the diffuse copper fluxes by retention of copper by a mixture of granulated iron-hydroxide (GEH) and calcium carbonate. Since future stormwater runoff concepts are based on decentralised runoff infiltration into the underground, solutions are proposed which provide for copper retention in infiltration sites using GEH adsorption layers. The example of a large copper façade of which the runoff is treated in an adsorption trench reveals the first full-scale data on façade runoff and adsorber performance. During the first year of investigation average façade runoff concentrations in the range of 1-10 mg Cu/l are reduced by 96-99% in the adsorption ditch.

  15. Osmotically driven membrane process for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    An osmotic detention pond was proposed for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions. Forward osmosis was employed as a bridge to utilize natural osmotic energy from seawater for concentrating and reusing urban runoff water, and as a barrier to reject runoff-derived contaminants. The process was demonstrated by a lab scale testing using synthetic urban runoff (as the feed solution) and synthetic seawater (as the draw solution). The submerged forward osmosis process was conducted under neutral, acidic and natural organic matter fouling condition, respectively. Forward osmosis flux decline was mainly attributed to the dilution of seawater during a semi-batch process in lab scale testing. However, it is possible to minimize flux decrease by maintaining a constant salinity at the draw solution side. Various changes in urban runoff water quality, including acidic conditions (acid rain) and natural organic matter presence, did not show significant effects on the rejection of trace metals and phosphorus, but influenced salt leakage and the rejection of nitrate and total nitrogen. Rejection of trace metals varied from 98% to 100%, phosphorus varied from 97% to 100, nitrate varied from 52% to 94% and total nitrogen varied from 65% to 85% under different feed water conditions. The work described in this study contributes to an integrated system of urban runoff management, seawater desalination and possible power generation in coastal regions to achieve a sustainable solution to the water-energy nexus. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Osmotically driven membrane process for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenyu; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Abu-Ghdaib, Muhannad; Zhan, Tong; Yangali-Quintanilla, Victor; Amy, Gary

    2014-01-01

    An osmotic detention pond was proposed for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions. Forward osmosis was employed as a bridge to utilize natural osmotic energy from seawater for concentrating and reusing urban runoff water, and as a barrier to reject runoff-derived contaminants. The process was demonstrated by a lab scale testing using synthetic urban runoff (as the feed solution) and synthetic seawater (as the draw solution). The submerged forward osmosis process was conducted under neutral, acidic and natural organic matter fouling condition, respectively. Forward osmosis flux decline was mainly attributed to the dilution of seawater during a semi-batch process in lab scale testing. However, it is possible to minimize flux decrease by maintaining a constant salinity at the draw solution side. Various changes in urban runoff water quality, including acidic conditions (acid rain) and natural organic matter presence, did not show significant effects on the rejection of trace metals and phosphorus, but influenced salt leakage and the rejection of nitrate and total nitrogen. Rejection of trace metals varied from 98% to 100%, phosphorus varied from 97% to 100, nitrate varied from 52% to 94% and total nitrogen varied from 65% to 85% under different feed water conditions. The work described in this study contributes to an integrated system of urban runoff management, seawater desalination and possible power generation in coastal regions to achieve a sustainable solution to the water-energy nexus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Case study: design, operation, maintenance and water quality management of sustainable storm water ponds for roof runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Miklas

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this case study was to optimise design, operation and maintenance guidelines, and to assess the water treatment potential of a storm water pond system after 15 months of operation. The system was based on a combined silt trap, attenuation pond and vegetated infiltration basin. This combination was used as the basis for construction of a roof water runoff system from a single domestic property. United Kingdom Building Research Establishment and Construction Industry Research and Information Association, and German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste design guidelines were tested. These design guidelines failed because they did not consider local conditions. The infiltration function for the infiltration basin was logarithmic. Algal control techniques were successfully applied, and treatment of rainwater runoff from roofs was found to be largely unnecessary for recycling (e.g., watering plants). However, seasonal and diurnal variations of biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen and pH were recorded.

  18. Enrichment behavior and transport mechanism of soil-bound PAHs during rainfall-runoff events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Luo, Xiaolin; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Bin; Han, Feng; Lin, Zhongrong; Wang, Xuejun

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) transported by surface runoff result in nonpoint source pollution and jeopardize aquatic ecosystems. The transport mechanism of PAHs during rainfall-runoff events has been rarely studied regarding pervious areas. An experimental system was setup to simulate the runoff pollution process on PAHs-contaminated soil. The enrichment behavior of soil-bound PAHs was investigated. The results show that soil organic matters (SOM), rather than clay particles, seem to be the main carrier of PAHs. The enrichment is highly conditioned on runoff and erosion processes, and its magnitude varies among PAH compounds. It is not feasible to build a simple and universal relationship between enrichment ratio and sediment discharge following the traditional enrichment theory. To estimate the flux of PAHs from pervious areas, soil erosion process has to be clearly understood, and both organic carbon content and composition of SOM should be factored into the calculation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Estrogenic activity, estrogens, and calcium in runoff post-layer litter application from rainfall simulated events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrogens in runoff from fields fertilized with animal wastes have been implicated as endocrine disruptors of fish in recipient surface waters. The goal of this study was to measure estrogenic activity in runoff post-application of animal waste with the greatest potential for estrogenic activity - ...

  20. Quality of stormwater runoff discharged from Massachusetts highways, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration and the Massachusetts Department of Transportation, conducted a field study from September 2005 through September 2007 to characterize the quality of highway runoff for a wide range of constituents. The highways studied had annual average daily traffic (AADT) volumes from about 3,000 to more than 190,000 vehicles per day. Highway-monitoring stations were installed at 12 locations in Massachusetts on 8 highways. The 12 monitoring stations were subdivided into 4 primary, 4 secondary, and 4 test stations. Each site contained a 100-percent impervious drainage area that included two or more catch basins sharing a common outflow pipe. Paired primary and secondary stations were located within a few miles of each other on a limited-access section of the same highway. Most of the data were collected at the primary and secondary stations, which were located on four principal highways (Route 119, Route 2, Interstate 495, and Interstate 95). The secondary stations were operated simultaneously with the primary stations for at least a year. Data from the four test stations (Route 8, Interstate 195, Interstate 190, and Interstate 93) were used to determine the transferability of the data collected from the principal highways to other highways characterized by different construction techniques, land use, and geography. Automatic-monitoring techniques were used to collect composite samples of highway runoff and make continuous measurements of several physical characteristics. Flowweighted samples of highway runoff were collected automatically during approximately 140 rain and mixed rain, sleet, and snowstorms. These samples were analyzed for physical characteristics and concentrations of 6 dissolved major ions, total nutrients, 8 total-recoverable metals, suspended sediment, and 85 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), which include priority polyaromatic

  1. Initial conditions of urban permeable surfaces in rainfall-runoff models using Horton’s infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Steffen; Löwe, Roland; Høegh Ravn, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    Infiltration is a key process controlling runoff, but varies depending on antecedent conditions. This study provides estimates on initial conditions for urban permeable surfaces via continuous simulation of the infiltration capacity using historical rain data. An analysis of historical rainfall...... records show that accumulated rainfall prior to large rain events does not depend on the return period of the event. Using an infiltration-runoff model we found that for a typical large rain storm, antecedent conditions in general lead to reduced infiltration capacity both for sandy and clayey soils...... and that there is substantial runoff for return periods above 1–10 years....

  2. Modelling rainfall runoff relations using HEC-HMS in a semi-arid region: Case study in Ain Sefra watershed, Ksour Mountains (SW Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derdour Abdessamed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ain Sefra is one of the Algerian cities that had been experienced several devastating floods during the past 100 years. The purpose of this study is to simulate runoff in the semi-arid region of Ain Sefra watershed through the employing of the Hydrologic Engineering Center – Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS. In this paper, the frequency storm is used for the meteorological model, the Soil Conservation Service – curve number (SCS-CN is selected to calculate the loss rate and Soil Conservation Service unit hydrograph method have been applied to simulate the runoff rate. After calibration and validation, the simulated peak discharges were very close with observed values. The Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient was 0.95, indicates that the hydrological modeling results are satisfactory and accepted for simulation of rainfall-runoff. The peak discharges obtained for the 10, 50, 100 and 1000 year storms are respectively 425.8, 750.5, 904.3 and 1328.3 m3∙s−1.

  3. Hydrology in a mediterranean mountain environment. The Vallcebre research catchment (north eastern Spain) II. Rainfall-runoff relationships and runoff processes; Hidrologia de un ambiente Mediterraneo de montana. Las cuencas de Vallcebre (Pirineo Oriental) II. Relaciones precipitacion-escorrentia y procesos hidrologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latron, J.; Solar, M.; Nord, G.; Llorens, P.; Gallart, F.

    2009-07-01

    Hydrological response and runoff processes have been studied in the Vallcebre research basins (North Eastern Spain) for almost 20 years. Results obtained allowed to build a more complete perceptual model of the hydrological functioning of Mediterranean mountains basins. On a seasonal and monthly scale, there was no simple relationship between rainfall and runoff depths. Monthly rainfall and runoff values revealed the existence of a threshold in the relationship between rainfall and runoff depths. At the event scale, the storm-flow coefficient had a clear seasonal pattern. The effect of the water table position on how rainfall and runoff volumes relate was observed. Examination of soil water potential and water table dynamics during representative floods helped to identify 3 types of characteristic hydrological behaviour during the year. Under dry conditions, runoff was generated essentially as infiltration excess runoff in low permeable areas, whereas saturation excess runoff dominated during wetting-up and wet conditions. During wetting-up transition, saturated areas resulted from the development of scattered perched water tables, whereas in wet conditions they were linked to the rise of the shallow water table. (Author) 8 refs.

  4. Improving runoff prediction using agronomical information in a cropped, loess covered catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lefrancq, Marie; Van Dijk, Paul; Jetten, Victor; Schwob, Matthieu; Payraudeau, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Predicting runoff hot spots and hot-moments within a headwater crop-catchment is of the utmost importance to reduce adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems by adapting land use management to control runoff. Reliable predictions of runoff patterns during a crop growing season remain challenging. This

  5. [Monitoring and analysis on evolution process of rainfall runoff water quality in urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen; Li, Huai-En; Li, Jia-Ke

    2013-02-01

    In order to find the water quality evolution law and pollution characteristics of the rainfall runoff from undisturbed to the neighborhood exit, 6 times evolution process of rainfall runoff water quality were monitored and analyzed from July to October in 2011, and contrasted the clarification efficiency of the grassland to the roof runoff rudimentarily at the same time. The research showed: 1. the results of the comparison from "undisturbed, rainfall-roof, rainfall runoff-road, rainfall-runoff the neighborhood exit runoff " showed that the water quality of the undisturbed rain was better than that from the roof and the neighborhood exist, but the road rainfall runoff water quality was the worst; 2. the average concentrations of the parameters such as COD, ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen all exceeded the Fifth Class of the Surface Water Quality Standard except for the soluble total phosphorus from undisturbed rainfall to the neighborhood exit; 3. the runoff water quality of the short early fine days was better than that of long early fine days, and the last runoff water quality was better than that of the initial runoff in the same rainfall process; 4. the concentration reduction of the grassland was notable, and the reduction rate of the grassland which is 1.0 meter wide of the roof runoff pollutants such as COD and nitrogen reached 30%.

  6. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in patients with peripheral vertigo: a prospective controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, Isa; Kahraman, Cuneyt; Balikci, Hasan Huseyin; Kucur, Cuneyt; Kahraman, Nilufer Kuzeyli; Ozkaya, Derya Pınar; Oghan, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between peripheral vertigo and inflammation by using the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as an inflammatory marker. We recruited 103 patients with peripheral vertigo (71 women, 32 men; mean age, 39.8 ± 14.7 years) who presented to the Otolaryngology Department of Dumlupinar University Hospital. Vertigo patients with systemic diseases, neurological disorders, malignancy or any inflammatory disease that could alter the NLR were excluded from the study. We also enrolled 103 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (controls; 82 women, 21 men; mean age, 36.7 ± 13.5 years) who underwent routine checkups in our hospital. The vertigo patients underwent full otolaryngologic and neurologic examinations and audiometric tests to rule out any other pathology causing the peripheral vertigo. NLR was calculated in all subjects and was compared between the patient and control groups. There were no significant differences between the study and control groups in terms of lipid profiles, liver-function tests, white blood cell (WBC) count, hemoglobin level, mean platelet volume, and vitamin B12 and folate levels. The mean NLR was significantly higher in the patients than in the controls (Pvertigo, found that the NLR is significantly higher among peripheral vertigo patients than among healthy controls. This result suggests that the NLR is a novel potential marker of stress in peripheral vertigo patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impacts of forest management on runoff and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Elliot; Brandon D. Glaza

    2009-01-01

    In a parallel study, ten small watersheds (about 5 ha) were installed in the Priest River Experimental Forest (PREF) in northern Idaho, and another ten were installed in the Boise Basin Experimental Forest (BBEF) in central Idaho. The long-term objective of the study is to compare the effects of different forest management activities on runoff and...

  8. Quantification of chemical transport processes from the soil to surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Kun; Huang, Chi-Hua; Wang, Guang-Qian; Fu, Xu-Dong; Parker, Gary

    2013-01-01

    There is a good conceptual understanding of the processes that govern chemical transport from the soil to surface runoff, but few studies have actually quantified these processes separately. Thus, we designed a laboratory flow cell and experimental procedures to quantify the chemical transport from soil to runoff water in the following individual processes: (i) convection with a vertical hydraulic gradient, (ii) convection via surface flow or the Bernoulli effect, (iii) diffusion, and (iv) soil loss. We applied different vertical hydraulic gradients by setting the flow cell to generate different seepage or drainage conditions. Our data confirmed the general form of the convection-diffusion equation. However, we now have additional quantitative data that describe the contribution of each individual chemical loading process in different surface runoff and soil hydrological conditions. The results of this study will be useful for enhancing our understanding of different geochemical processes in the surface soil mixing zone. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Untreated runoff quality from roof and road surfaces in a low intensity rainfall climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charters, Frances J; Cochrane, Thomas A; O'Sullivan, Aisling D

    2016-04-15

    Sediment and heavy metals in stormwater runoff are key pollutants of urban waterways, and their presence in stormwater is driven by climatic factors such as rainfall intensity. This study describes the total suspended solids (TSS) and heavy metal concentrations found in runoff from four different urban surfaces within a residential/institutional catchment, in a climate where rainfall is typically of low intensity (runoff quality from a compilation of international studies. The road runoff had the highest TSS concentrations, while copper and galvanized roof runoff had the highest copper and zinc concentrations, respectively. Pollutant concentrations were found to be significantly different between surfaces; quantification and prediction of pollutant contributions from urban surfaces should thus take account of the different surface materials, instead of being aggregated into more generalized categories such as land use. The TSS and heavy metal concentrations were found to be at the low to medium end of ranges observed internationally, except for total copper and zinc concentrations generated by dissolution of copper and galvanized roofing material respectively; these concentrations were at least as high as those reported internationally. TSS wash-off from the roofs was seen to be a source-limited process, where all available TSS is washed off during the rain event despite the low intensity rainfall, whereas both road TSS and heavy metals wash-off from roof and road surfaces appeared to all be transport-limited and therefore some carryover of pollutants occurs between rain events. A first flush effect was seen from most surfaces for TSS, but not for heavy metals. This study demonstrates that in low intensity rainfall climates, quantification of untreated runoff quality from key individual surface types in a catchment are needed to enable development of targeted and appropriately sized stormwater treatment systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rainfall, runoff and sediment transport in a Mediterranean mountainous catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuset, J; Vericat, D; Batalla, R J

    2016-01-01

    The relation between rainfall, runoff, erosion and sediment transport is highly variable in Mediterranean catchments. Their relation can be modified by land use changes and climate oscillations that, ultimately, will control water and sediment yields. This paper analyses rainfall, runoff and sediment transport relations in a meso-scale Mediterranean mountain catchment, the Ribera Salada (NE Iberian Peninsula). A total of 73 floods recorded between November 2005 and November 2008 at the Inglabaga Sediment Transport Station (114.5 km(2)) have been analysed. Suspended sediment transport and flow discharge were measured continuously. Rainfall data was obtained by means of direct rain gauges and daily rainfall reconstructions from radar information. Results indicate that the annual sediment yield (2.3 t km(-1) y(-1) on average) and the flood-based runoff coefficients (4.1% on average) are low. The Ribera Salada presents a low geomorphological and hydrological activity compared with other Mediterranean mountain catchments. Pearson correlations between rainfall, runoff and sediment transport variables were obtained. The hydrological response of the catchment is controlled by the base flows. The magnitude of suspended sediment concentrations is largely correlated with flood magnitude, while sediment load is correlated with the amount of direct runoff. Multivariate analysis shows that total suspended load can be predicted by integrating rainfall and runoff variables. The total direct runoff is the variable with more weight in the equation. Finally, three main hydro-sedimentary phases within the hydrological year are defined in this catchment: (a) Winter, where the catchment produces only water and very little sediment; (b) Spring, where the majority of water and sediment is produced; and (c) Summer-Autumn, when little runoff is produced but significant amount of sediments is exported out of the catchment. Results show as land use and climate change may have an important

  11. Ice volume distribution and implications on runoff projections in a glacierized catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gabbi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A dense network of helicopter-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR measurements was used to determine the ice-thickness distribution in the Mauvoisin region. The comprehensive set of ice-thickness measurements was combined with an ice-thickness estimation approach for an accurate determination of the bedrock. A total ice volume of 3.69 ± 0.31 km3 and a maximum ice thickness of 290 m were found. The ice-thickness values were then employed as input for a combined glacio-hydrological model forced by most recent regional climate scenarios. This model provided glacier evolution and runoff projections for the period 2010–2100. Runoff projections of the measured initial ice volume distribution show an increase in annual runoff of 4% in the next two decades, followed by a persistent runoff decrease until 2100. Finally, we checked the influence of the ice-thickness distribution on runoff projections. Our analyses revealed that reliable estimates of the ice volume are essential for modelling future glacier and runoff evolution. Wrong estimations of the total ice volume might even lead to deviations of the predicted general runoff trend.

  12. Missing (in-situ) snow cover data hampers climate change and runoff studies in the Greater Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrer, Mario; Salzmann, Nadine; Stoffel, Markus; Kulkarni, Anil V.

    2013-01-01

    The Himalayas are presently holding the largest ice masses outside the polar regions and thus (temporarily) store important freshwater resources. In contrast to the contemplation of glaciers, the role of runoff from snow cover has received comparably little attention in the past, although (i) its contribution is thought to be at least equally or even more important than that of ice melt in many Himalayan catchments and (ii) climate change is expected to have widespread and significant consequences on snowmelt runoff. Here, we show that change assessment of snowmelt runoff and its timing is not as straightforward as often postulated, mainly as larger partial pressure of H 2 O, CO 2 , CH 4 , and other greenhouse gases might increase net long-wave input for snowmelt quite significantly in a future atmosphere. In addition, changes in the short-wave energy balance – such as the pollution of the snow cover through black carbon – or the sensible or latent heat contribution to snowmelt are likely to alter future snowmelt and runoff characteristics as well. For the assessment of snow cover extent and depletion, but also for its monitoring over the extremely large areas of the Himalayas, remote sensing has been used in the past and is likely to become even more important in the future. However, for the calibration and validation of remotely-sensed data, and even more so in light of possible changes in snow-cover energy balance, we strongly call for more in-situ measurements across the Himalayas, in particular for daily data on new snow and snow cover water equivalent, or the respective energy balance components. Moreover, data should be made accessible to the scientific community, so that the latter can more accurately estimate climate change impacts on Himalayan snow cover and possible consequences thereof on runoff. - Highlights: • Remotely sensed snow-cover data need to be validated by in-situ measurements. • More in-situ snow measurement programs are needed along

  13. Missing (in-situ) snow cover data hampers climate change and runoff studies in the Greater Himalayas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Mario [Meteodat GmbH, Technoparkstrasse 1, CH-8005 Zurich (Switzerland); Salzmann, Nadine [Department of Geosciences, Geography, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musée 4, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Stoffel, Markus, E-mail: markus.stoffel@unige.ch [Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Geneva, Chemin de Drize 7, CH-1227 Carouge, Geneva (Switzerland); Dendrolab.ch, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 1+3, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Kulkarni, Anil V. [Divecha Center for Climate Change, Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2013-12-01

    The Himalayas are presently holding the largest ice masses outside the polar regions and thus (temporarily) store important freshwater resources. In contrast to the contemplation of glaciers, the role of runoff from snow cover has received comparably little attention in the past, although (i) its contribution is thought to be at least equally or even more important than that of ice melt in many Himalayan catchments and (ii) climate change is expected to have widespread and significant consequences on snowmelt runoff. Here, we show that change assessment of snowmelt runoff and its timing is not as straightforward as often postulated, mainly as larger partial pressure of H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and other greenhouse gases might increase net long-wave input for snowmelt quite significantly in a future atmosphere. In addition, changes in the short-wave energy balance – such as the pollution of the snow cover through black carbon – or the sensible or latent heat contribution to snowmelt are likely to alter future snowmelt and runoff characteristics as well. For the assessment of snow cover extent and depletion, but also for its monitoring over the extremely large areas of the Himalayas, remote sensing has been used in the past and is likely to become even more important in the future. However, for the calibration and validation of remotely-sensed data, and even more so in light of possible changes in snow-cover energy balance, we strongly call for more in-situ measurements across the Himalayas, in particular for daily data on new snow and snow cover water equivalent, or the respective energy balance components. Moreover, data should be made accessible to the scientific community, so that the latter can more accurately estimate climate change impacts on Himalayan snow cover and possible consequences thereof on runoff. - Highlights: • Remotely sensed snow-cover data need to be validated by in-situ measurements. • More in-situ snow measurement programs are

  14. Decrease of non-point zinc runoff using porous concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shigeki; Komuro, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    The use of porous concrete columns to decrease the amount of zinc in stormwater runoff is examined. The concentration of zinc in a simulated stormwater fluid (zinc acetate solution), fed through concrete columns (slashed circle10x10cm) decreased by 50-81%, suggesting physical adsorption of zinc by the porous concrete. We propose the use of porous concrete columns (slashed circle50x10cm) as the base of sewage traps. Longer-term, high-zinc concentration monitoring revealed that porous concrete blocks adsorb 38.6mgcm(-3) of zinc. A period of no significant zinc runoff (with an acceptable concentration of zinc in runoff of 0.03mgL(-1), a zinc concentration equal to the Japanese Environmental Standard) is estimated for 41years using a 1-ha catchment area with 20 porous concrete sewage traps. Scanning electron microscopy of the porous concrete used in this study indicates that the needle-like particles formed by hydration action significantly increase zinc adsorption. Evidence suggests that the hydrant is ettringite and has an important role in zinc adsorption, the resulting immobilization of zinc and the subsequent effects on groundwater quality. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessment of pollution in road runoff using a Bufo viridis biological assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorchin, A.; Shanas, U.

    2010-01-01

    Road runoff is a major source of environmental pollution, significantly threatening nearby aquatic habitats. Chemical analyses indicate high pollutant concentrations in the road's 'first flush', but bioassays are more advantageous for addressing the cumulative effects of the numerous pollutants within the runoff. We used Bufo viridis embryos and larvae to assess the toxicity of road runoff from two major highways in Israel. We show, for the first time, that exposure to midseason runoff not only has an adverse effect on growth and development rates of B. viridis larvae but can also lead to increased rates of morphological deformations. Seasonal first flushes, despite having higher metal concentrations, did not adversely affect the toad larvae, apparently due to a counter effect of organic matter that potentially served as a supplementary energy resource. Road runoff can be a major cause for a qualitative decrease in the quality of aquatic habitats threatening amphibians in Israel. - Highway runoff has detrimental effects on the development of B. viridis larvae.

  16. Roofing Materials Assessment: Investigation of Five Metals in Runoff from Roofing Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Nancy; Granuke, Kyle; McCall, Melissa

    2015-09-01

    To assess the contribution of five toxic metals from new roofing materials to stormwater, runoff was collected from 14 types of roofing materials and controls during 20 rain events and analyzed for metals. Many of the new roofing materials evaluated did not show elevated metals concentrations in the runoff. Runoff from several other roofing materials was significantly higher than the controls for arsenic, copper, and zinc. Notably, treated wood shakes released arsenic and copper, copper roofing released copper, PVC roofing released arsenic, and Zincalume® and EPDM roofing released zinc. For the runoff from some of the roofing materials, metals concentrations decreased significantly over an approximately one-year period of aging. Metals concentrations in runoff were demonstrated to depend on a number of factors, such as roofing materials, age of the materials, and climatic conditions. Thus, application of runoff concentrations from roofing materials to estimate basin-wide releases should be undertaken cautiously.

  17. Runoff generation and routing on artificial slopes in a Mediterranean-continental environment: the Teruel coalfield, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolau, J.M. [Universidad de Alcala de Henares, Alcala de Henares (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the mechanisms of runoff generation and routing and their controlling factors at the hillslope scale, on artificial slopes derived from surface coal mining reclamation in a Mediterranean-continental area. Rainfall and runoff at interrill and microcatchment scales were recorded for a year on two slopes with different substrata: topsoil cover and overburden cover. Runoff coefficient and runoff routing from interrill areas to microcatchment outlets were higher in the overburden substratum than in topsoil, and greater in the most developed rill network. Rainfall volume is the major parameter responsible for runoff response on overburden, suggesting that this substratum is very impermeable - at least during the main rainfall periods of the year (late spring and autumn) when the soil surface is sealed. In such conditions, most rainfall input is converted into runoff, regardless of its intensity. Results from artificial rainfall experiments, conducted 3 and 7 years after seeding, confirm the low infiltration capacity of overburden when sealed. The hydrological response shows great seasonal variability on the overburden slope in accordance with soil surface changes over the year. Rainfall volume and intensities explain runoff at the inter-rill scale on the topsoil slope, where rainfall experiments demonstrated a typical Hortonian infiltration curve. However, no correlation was found at the microcatchment level, probably because of the loss of functionality of the only rill as ecological succession proceeded. The runoff generation mechanism on the topsoil slope is more homogeneous throughout the year. The dense rill networks of the overburden slope guarantee very effective runoff drainage, regardless of rainfall magnitude. Runoff generation and routing on topsoil slopes are controlled by grass cover and soil moisture content, whereas on overburden slopes rill network density and soil moisture content are the main controlling factors.

  18. Effects of urban grass coverage on rainfall-induced runoff in Xi'an loess region in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, laboratory rainfall simulation experiments were conducted to investigate the regulatory effects of grass coverage on rainfall-runoff processes. A total of 80 grass blocks planted with well-grown manilagrass, together with their root systems, were sampled from an eastern suburban area of Xi'an City in the northwest arid area of China and sent to a laboratory for rainfall simulation experiments. The runoff and infiltration processes of a slope with different grass coverage ratios and vegetation patterns were analyzed. The results show that the runoff coefficient decreases with the increase of the grass coverage ratio, and the influence of grass coverage on the reduction of runoff shows a high degree of spatial variation. At a constant grass coverage ratio, as the area of grass coverage moves downward, the runoff coefficient, total runoff, and flood peak discharge gradually decrease, and the flood peak occurs later. With the increase of the grass coverage ratio, the flood peak discharge gradually decreases, and the flood peak occurs later as well. In conclusion, a high grass coverage ratio with the area of grass coverage located at the lower part of the slope will lead to satisfactory regulatory effects on rainfall-induced runoff.

  19. The effect of polyacrylamide (PAM) applications on infiltration, runoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) application to soils is an effective soil conservation practice for reducing runoff and soil losses caused by erosion. It also increases the infiltration rate of soils. The objective of this study was conducted to ...

  20. [Research on spatial differentiation of urban stormwater runoff quality by source area monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Zhu, Ren-Xiao; Guo, Shu-Gang; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Runoff samples were collected from 14 source areas in Hanyang district during four rain events in an attempt to investigate the spatial differentiation and influencing factors of urban stormwater runoff quality. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance in sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results revealed that particle-bound proportion of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in stormwater runoff were 58% +/- 17%, 65% +/- 13% and 92% +/- 6%, respectively. The fractions of ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen were homogeneous in dissolved nitrogen composition. Urban surface function, traffic volume, land use, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the old urban residential area, followed by general residential with restaurants, commercial and transport area, new developments and green land. In addition, the magnitude of road stormwater runoff pollution is positively correlated to traffic volume, in the following order: the first trunk road > the second trunk road > minor road. Street sweeping and critical source areas controls should be implemented to mitigate the adverse effects of urban stormwater runoff on receive waters.

  1. Runoff modeling of the Amazon basin using 18 O as a conservative tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortatti, Jefferson; Victoria, Reynaldo L.; Moraes, Jorge M.; Rodrigues Junior, Jose C.; Matsumoto, Otavio M.

    1997-01-01

    Using the δO 18 O content of natural waters as a conservative tracer, a runoff modelling of the Amazon river basin was carried out in order to study the hydrological characteristics of the precipitation-runoff relationship. Measurements of the δ 18 O in rainfall waters made in the high Solimoes region at Benjamin Constant, in the central part of basin at Manaus, and at the mouth near the Marajo Island, while the river waters were measured at Obidos only, as a proxy for the mouth, during the 1973-1974 hydrological years. The hydrography separation of the Amazon river was performed using the isotopic method to estimate the contributions of the surface runoff (event water) and baseflow (pre-event water) components to the total river flow. At peak discharge, the average contribution of the baseflow was 57% of the total river flow. The annual average contributions for surface runoff and baseflow were 30.3 and 69.7%, respectively. The residence time of the subsurface water in the basin was estimated as being 7 months, by fitting a sinusoidal function to the isotopic values of rainfall and river waters. The low values of the amplitude damping in the basin suggest high mixing waters during the runoff process. (author). 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. A multi-stakeholder framework for urban runoff quality management: Application of social choice and bargaining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Seyed Hamed; Kerachian, Reza; Zahmatkesh, Zahra

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, an integrated framework is proposed for urban runoff management. To control and improve runoff quality and quantity, Low Impact Development (LID) practices are utilized. In order to determine the LIDs' areas and locations, the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II), which considers three objective functions of minimizing runoff volume, runoff pollution and implementation cost of LIDs, is utilized. In this framework, the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is used for stream flow simulation. The non-dominated solutions provided by the NSGA-II are considered as management scenarios. To select the most preferred scenario, interactions among the main stakeholders in the study area with conflicting utilities are incorporated by utilizing bargaining models including a non-cooperative game, Nash model and social choice procedures of Borda count and approval voting. Moreover, a new social choice procedure, named pairwise voting method, is proposed and applied. Based on each conflict resolution approach, a scenario is identified as the ideal solution providing the LIDs' areas, locations and implementation cost. The proposed framework is applied for urban water quality and quantity management in the northern part of Tehran metropolitan city, Iran. Results show that the proposed pairwise voting method tends to select a scenario with a higher percentage of reduction in TSS (Total Suspended Solid) load and runoff volume, in comparison with the Borda count and approval voting methods. Besides, the Nash method presents a management scenario with the highest cost for LIDs' implementation and the maximum values for percentage of runoff volume reduction and TSS removal. The results also signify that selection of an appropriate management scenario by stakeholders in the study area depends on the available financial resources and the relative importance of runoff quality improvement in comparison with reducing the runoff volume. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  3. Source tracing of natural organic matter bound mercury in boreal forest runoff with mercury stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiskra, Martin; Wiederhold, Jan G; Skyllberg, Ulf; Kronberg, Rose-Marie; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2017-10-18

    Terrestrial runoff represents a major source of mercury (Hg) to aquatic ecosystems. In boreal forest catchments, such as the one in northern Sweden studied here, mercury bound to natural organic matter (NOM) represents a large fraction of mercury in the runoff. We present a method to measure Hg stable isotope signatures of colloidal Hg, mainly complexed by high molecular weight or colloidal natural organic matter (NOM) in natural waters based on pre-enrichment by ultrafiltration, followed by freeze-drying and combustion. We report that Hg associated with high molecular weight NOM in the boreal forest runoff has very similar Hg isotope signatures as compared to the organic soil horizons of the catchment area. The mass-independent fractionation (MIF) signatures (Δ 199 Hg and Δ 200 Hg) measured in soils and runoff were in agreement with typical values reported for atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) and distinctly different from reported Hg isotope signatures in precipitation. We therefore suggest that most Hg in the boreal terrestrial ecosystem originated from the deposition of Hg 0 through foliar uptake rather than precipitation. Using a mixing model we calculated the contribution of soil horizons to the Hg in the runoff. At moderate to high flow runoff conditions, that prevailed during sampling, the uppermost part of the organic horizon (Oe/He) contributed 50-70% of the Hg in the runoff, while the underlying more humified organic Oa/Ha and the mineral soil horizons displayed a lower mobility of Hg. The good agreement of the Hg isotope results with other source tracing approaches using radiocarbon signatures and Hg : C ratios provides additional support for the strong coupling between Hg and NOM. The exploratory results from this study illustrate the potential of Hg stable isotopes to trace the source of Hg from atmospheric deposition through the terrestrial ecosystem to soil runoff, and provide a basis for more in-depth studies investigating the

  4. DETERMINATION OF CHARACTERISTICS MAXIMAL RUNOFF MOUNTAIN RIVERS IN CRIMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ovcharuk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article has been examined maximum runoff of the rivers of theCrimeanMountains. The rivers flow through the western and eastern part of the northern slope Crimean Mountains, and on its southern coast. The largest of them: Belbek, Alma, Salgir, Su-Indol and others. To characterize the maximum runoff of rain floods (the layers of rain floods and maximum discharge of water on the rivers of the Crimean Mountains were used materials of observations for long-term period (from the beginning of observations to 2010 inclusive on 54 of streamflow station with using a the so-called «operator» model for maximum runoff formation.

  5. Effects of pasture renovation on hydrology, nutrient runoff, and forage yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koff, J P; Moore, P A; Formica, J; Van Eps, M; DeLaune, P B

    2011-01-01

    Proper pasture management is important in promoting optimal forage growth and reducing runoff and nutrient loss. Pasture renovation is a management tool that improves aeration by mechanically creating holes or pockets within the soil. Pasture renovation was performed before manure application (poultry litter or swine slurry) on different pasture soils and rainfall simulations were conducted to identify the effects of pasture renovation on nutrient runoff and forage growth. Renovation of small plots resulted in significant and beneficial hydrological changes. During the first rainfall simulation, runoff volumes were 45 to 74% lower for seven out of eight renovated treatments, and infiltration rates increased by 3 to 87% for all renovated treatments as compared with nonrenovated treatments. Renovation of pasture soils fertilized with poultry litter led to significant reductions in dissolved reactive P (DRP) (74-87%), total P (TP) (76-85%), and total nitrogen (TN) (72-80%) loads in two of the three soils studied during the first rainfall simulation. Renovation did not result in any significant differences in forage yields. Overall, beneficial impacts of renovation lasted up to 3 mo, the most critical period for nutrient runoff following manure application. Therefore, renovation could be an important best management practice in these areas.

  6. Estimation of Runoff for Ozat Catchment using RS and GIS Based SCS-CN Method

    OpenAIRE

    Dipesh B. Chavda1,; Jaydip J. Makwana*2,; Hitesh V. Parmar3; Arvind N. Kunapara2; Girish V. Prajapati

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of runoff in a watershed is a prerequisite for design of hydraulic structures, reservoir operation and for soil erosion control measures. Water resource planning and management is important and critical issue in arid and semi-arid regions. Runoff from a watershed affected by several geo-morphological parameters and for a particular watershed land use change can affect the runoff volume and runoff rate significantly. Several methods are investigated to estimate the surface runoff fr...

  7. A 3-step framework for understanding the added value of surface soil moisture measurements for large-scale runoff prediction via data assimilation - a synthetic study in the Arkansas-Red River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Y.; Crow, W. T.; Nijssen, B.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture (SM) plays an important role in runoff generation both by partitioning infiltration and surface runoff during rainfall events and by controlling the rate of subsurface flow during inter-storm periods. Therefore, more accurate SM state estimation in hydrologic models is potentially beneficial for streamflow prediction. Various previous studies have explored the potential of assimilating SM data into hydrologic models for streamflow improvement. These studies have drawn inconsistent conclusions, ranging from significantly improved runoff via SM data assimilation (DA) to limited or degraded runoff. These studies commonly treat the whole assimilation procedure as a black box without separating the contribution of each step in the procedure, making it difficult to attribute the underlying causes of runoff improvement (or the lack thereof). In this study, we decompose the overall DA process into three steps by answering the following questions (3-step framework): 1) how much can assimilation of surface SM measurements improve surface SM state in a hydrologic model? 2) how much does surface SM improvement propagate to deeper layers? 3) How much does (surface and deeper-layer) SM improvement propagate into runoff improvement? A synthetic twin experiment is carried out in the Arkansas-Red River basin ( 600,000 km2) where a synthetic "truth" run, an open-loop run (without DA) and a DA run (where synthetic surface SM measurements are assimilated) are generated. All model runs are performed at 1/8 degree resolution and over a 10-year period using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model at a 3-hourly time step. For the DA run, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) method is applied. The updated surface and deeper-layer SM states with DA are compared to the open-loop SM to quantitatively evaluate the first two steps in the framework. To quantify the third step, a set of perfect-state runs are generated where the "true" SM states are directly inserted

  8. Urban runoff forecasting with ensemble weather predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonas Wied; Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas; Vezzaro, Luca

    This research shows how ensemble weather forecasts can be used to generate urban runoff forecasts up to 53 hours into the future. The results highlight systematic differences between ensemble members that needs to be accounted for when these forecasts are used in practice.......This research shows how ensemble weather forecasts can be used to generate urban runoff forecasts up to 53 hours into the future. The results highlight systematic differences between ensemble members that needs to be accounted for when these forecasts are used in practice....

  9. Sorghum-cowpea intercropping : an effective technique against runoff and soil erosion in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zougmore, R.; Kambou, F.N.; Ouattara, K.; Guillobez, S.

    2000-01-01

    In the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso, runoff on bare soil amounts to 40␘f annual rainfall and soil losses reach 4 to 8 Mg ha-? a-?, despite slopes of under 3ÐSeveral studies have shown that mulching the soil surface can reduce runoff by over 60ÐHowever, the scarcity of straw and the

  10. Evaluation of Livestock Runoff as a Source of Water Polution in Northern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Wieneke, Stephen T.; George, Dennis B.; Filip, Daniel S.; Finney, Brad

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to predict the impact of dairy and beef cattle feedlot runoff on receiving streams. The mathematical expressions used in the model describing runoff quantity and quality were not only a function of single rain or snow precipitation events but also consecutive events prior to the runoff occurrence. The runoff quantity and quality were also a function of feedlot surface. Computer s...

  11. Study of heavy metals in urban runoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabizadeh, R.; Mahvi, A.; Mardani, G.; Yunesian, M.

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted through Tehran city and a field study was conducted to prepare main and accessory drainage channels map. Three main drainage channels were identified for this research and some sampling stations were chosen. Three stations selected in south of Tehran. The reason for selecting these stations is that all urban surface run off completely pass through these points and samples taken from these points are representative of all kinds of pollutants that transit from city surface. Another three stations were selected in center and further three stations were selected at north of Tehran. Surface runoff flow in three main channels, from north of south of Tehran, converge at south of Rey city and finally end up to Ghom Salt lake. The stations were chosen at three trajectories Sorkhe Hesar, Emad Avard, Kan. At each month two samples were from nine different stations. After collection of samples with respect to standard methods, they were dissolved in nitric acid and then analyzed by atomic absorption device. The results show that the concentrations of pollutants increased from north to south. For instance, Zinc had most concentration with monthly average of 0.98 mg/l and Nickel had the lowest amount with 0.02 mg/l in southern stations. Average concentration of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni were: 0.638, 0.97, 0.04 and 0.035 mg/l respectively. Total average concentrations of heavy metals at three main channels were of 0.177, 0.176 and 0.145 mg/l. Emad Avard was the most polluted channel

  12. WEPP and ANN models for simulating soil loss and runoff in a semi-arid Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaradeyia, Issa; Hani, Azzedine; Shahrour, Isam

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the use of both the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) and the artificial neural network (ANN) for the prediction of runoff and soil loss in the central highland mountainous of the Palestinian territories. Analyses show that the soil erosion is highly dependent on both the rainfall depth and the rainfall event duration rather than on the rainfall intensity as mostly mentioned in the literature. The results obtained from the WEPP model for the soil loss and runoff disagree with the field data. The WEPP underestimates both the runoff and soil loss. Analyses conducted with the ANN agree well with the observation. In addition, the global network models developed using the data of all the land use type show a relatively unbiased estimation for both runoff and soil loss. The study showed that the ANN model could be used as a management tool for predicting runoff and soil loss.

  13. Century-scale variability in global annual runoff examined using a water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    A monthly water balance model (WB model) is used with CRUTS2.1 monthly temperature and precipitation data to generate time series of monthly runoff for all land areas of the globe for the period 1905 through 2002. Even though annual precipitation accounts for most of the temporal and spatial variability in annual runoff, increases in temperature have had an increasingly negative effect on annual runoff after 1980. Although the effects of increasing temperature on runoff became more apparent after 1980, the relative magnitude of these effects are small compared to the effects of precipitation on global runoff. ?? 2010 Royal Meteorological Society.

  14. Modeling Rainfall-Runoff Response to Land Use and Land Cover Change in Rwanda (1990–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Karamage

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stormwater runoff poses serious environmental problems and public health issues in Rwanda, a tropical country that is increasingly suffering from severe floods, landslides, soil erosion and water pollution. Using the WetSpa Extension model, this study assessed the changes in rainfall runoff depth in Rwanda from 1990 to 2016 in response to precipitation and land use changes. Our results show that Rwanda has experienced a significant conversion of natural forest and grassland to cropland and built-up areas. During the period 1990–2016, 7090.02 km2 (64.5% and 1715.26 km2 (32.1% of forest and grassland covers were lost, respectively, while the cropland and built-up areas increased by 135.3% (8503.75 km2 and 304.3% (355.02 km2, respectively. According to our estimates, the land use change effect resulted in a national mean runoff depth increase of 2.33 mm/year (0.38%. Although precipitation change affected the inter-annual fluctuation of runoff, the long-term trend of runoff was dominated by land use change. The top five districts that experienced the annual runoff depth increase (all >3.8 mm/year are Rubavu, Nyabihu, Ngororero, Gakenke, and Musanze. Their annual runoff depths increased at a rate of >3.8 mm/year during the past 27 years, due to severe deforestation (ranging from 62% to 85% and cropland expansion (ranging from 123% to 293%. These areas require high priority in runoff control using terracing in croplands and rainwater harvesting systems such as dam/reservoirs, percolation tanks, storage tanks, etc. The wet season runoff was three times higher than the dry season runoff in Rwanda; appropriate rainwater management and reservation could provide valuable irrigation water for the dry season or drought years (late rainfall onsets or early rainfall cessations. It was estimated that a reservation of 30.5% (3.99 km3 of the runoff in the wet season could meet the cropland irrigation water gap during the dry season in 2016.

  15. Runoff and Sediment load of the Yan River, China: changes over the last 60 yr

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, F.; Mu, X.; Hessel, R.; Zhang, W.; Ritsema, C.J.; Li, R.

    2013-01-01

    Runoff and sediment load changes are affected by climate change and human activities in an integrated way. Historical insight into these effects can not only improve the knowledge of river processes, but also promote more effective land and water management. In this study, we looked at runoff and

  16. Urban Runoff: National Management Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    This helps citizens and municipalities in urban areas protect bodies of water from polluted runoff . These scientifically sound techniques are the best practices known today. The guidance helps states to implement their nonpoint source control program.

  17. Influence of land development on stormwater runoff from a mixed land use and land cover catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paule-Mercado, M A; Lee, B Y; Memon, S A; Umer, S R; Salim, I; Lee, C-H

    2017-12-01

    Mitigating for the negative impacts of stormwater runoff is becoming a concern due to increased land development. Understanding how land development influences stormwater runoff is essential for sustainably managing water resources. In recent years, aggregate low impact development-best management practices (LID-BMPs) have been implemented to reduce the negative impacts of stormwater runoff on receiving water bodies. This study used an integrated approach to determine the influence of land development and assess the ecological benefits of four aggregate LID-BMPs in stormwater runoff from a mixed land use and land cover (LULC) catchment with ongoing land development. It used data from 2011 to 2015 that monitored 41 storm events and monthly LULC, and a Personalized Computer Storm Water Management Model (PCSWMM). The four aggregate LID-BMPs are: ecological (S1), utilizing pervious covers (S2), and multi-control (S3) and (S4). These LID-BMPs were designed and distributed in the study area based on catchment characteristics, cost, and effectiveness. PCSWMM was used to simulate the monitored storm events from 2014 (calibration: R 2 and NSE>0.5; RMSE 0.5; RMSE runoff data and LULC change patterns (only 2015 for LID-BMPs) were used. Results show that the expansion of bare land and impervious cover, soil alteration, and high amount of precipitation influenced the stormwater runoff variability during different phases of land development. The four aggregate LID-BMPs reduced runoff volume (34%-61%), peak flow (6%-19%), and pollutant concentrations (53%-83%). The results of this study, in addition to supporting local LULC planning and land development activities, also could be applied to input data for empirical modeling, and designing sustainable stormwater management guidelines and monitoring strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Studying extremely peripheral collisions of relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatyga, M.

    1990-01-01

    Relativistic heavy ion facilities have been proposed (and in some cases constructed) with an intent to search for a new state of matter, a quark gluon plasma. As with all tools in the experimental physics, one should always search for ways in which relativistic heavy ions can be used to study physical phenomena beyond this original goal. New possibilities for a study of higher order photonuclear excitations in extremely peripheral collisions of relativistic heavy ions are discussed in this contribution. Data on the electromagnetic and nuclear fragmentation of a 14.6Gev/nucleon 28 Si projectile are presented

  19. Impact of Soil and Water Conservation Interventions on Watershed Runoff Response in a Tropical Humid Highland of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Dagnenet; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Haregeweyn, Nigussie; Adgo, Enyew; Tsubo, Mitsuru; Meshesha, Derege Tsegaye; Masunaga, Tsugiyuki; Aklog, Dagnachew; Fenta, Ayele Almaw; Ebabu, Kindiye

    2018-05-01

    Various soil and water conservation measures (SWC) have been widely implemented to reduce surface runoff in degraded and drought-prone watersheds. But little quantitative study has been done on to what extent such measures can reduce watershed-scale runoff, particularly from typical humid tropical highlands of Ethiopia. The overall goal of this study is to analyze the impact of SWC interventions on the runoff response by integrating field measurement with a hydrological CN model which gives a quantitative analysis future thought. Firstly, a paired-watershed approach was employed to quantify the relative difference in runoff response for the Kasiry (treated) and Akusty (untreated) watersheds. Secondly, a calibrated curve number hydrological modeling was applied to investigate the effect of various SWC management scenarios for the Kasiry watershed alone. The paired-watershed approach showed a distinct runoff response between the two watersheds however the effect of SWC measures was not clearly discerned being masked by other factors. On the other hand, the model predicts that, under the current SWC coverage at Kasiry, the seasonal runoff yield is being reduced by 5.2%. However, runoff yields from Kasiry watershed could be decreased by as much as 34% if soil bunds were installed on cultivated land and trenches were installed on grazing and plantation lands. In contrast, implementation of SWC measures on bush land and natural forest would have little effect on reducing runoff. The results on the magnitude of runoff reduction under optimal combinations of SWC measures and land use will support decision-makers in selection and promotion of valid management practices that are suited to particular biophysical niches in the tropical humid highlands of Ethiopia.

  20. Residential runoff as a source of pyrethroid pesticides to urban creeks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weston, D.P. [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Building, Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States)], E-mail: dweston@berkeley.edu; Holmes, R.W. [Water Branch, California Department of Fish and Game, 830 S Street, Sacramento, CA 95811 (United States)], E-mail: rholmes@dfg.ca.gov; Lydy, M.J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center, Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, 171 Life Sciences II, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)], E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu

    2009-01-15

    Pyrethroid pesticides occur in urban creek sediments at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive aquatic life. To better understand the source of these residues, runoff from residential neighborhoods around Sacramento, California was monitored over the course of a year. Pyrethroids were present in every sample. Bifenthrin, found at up to 73 ng/L in the water and 1211 ng/g on suspended sediment, was the pyrethroid of greatest toxicological concern, with cypermethrin and cyfluthrin of secondary concern. The bifenthrin could have originated either from use by consumers or professional pest controllers, though the seasonal pattern of discharge from the drain was more consistent with professional use as the dominant source. Stormwater runoff was more important than dry season irrigation runoff in transporting pyrethroids to urban creeks. A single intense storm was capable of discharging as much bifenthrin to an urban creek in 3 h as that discharged over 6 months of irrigation runoff. - Pyrethroid insecticides regularly detected in residential runoff at toxicologically significant concentrations.

  1. Residential runoff as a source of pyrethroid pesticides to urban creeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, D.P.; Holmes, R.W.; Lydy, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Pyrethroid pesticides occur in urban creek sediments at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive aquatic life. To better understand the source of these residues, runoff from residential neighborhoods around Sacramento, California was monitored over the course of a year. Pyrethroids were present in every sample. Bifenthrin, found at up to 73 ng/L in the water and 1211 ng/g on suspended sediment, was the pyrethroid of greatest toxicological concern, with cypermethrin and cyfluthrin of secondary concern. The bifenthrin could have originated either from use by consumers or professional pest controllers, though the seasonal pattern of discharge from the drain was more consistent with professional use as the dominant source. Stormwater runoff was more important than dry season irrigation runoff in transporting pyrethroids to urban creeks. A single intense storm was capable of discharging as much bifenthrin to an urban creek in 3 h as that discharged over 6 months of irrigation runoff. - Pyrethroid insecticides regularly detected in residential runoff at toxicologically significant concentrations

  2. Planning Framework for Mesolevel Optimization of Urban Runoff Control Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Blohm, Andrew; Liu, Bo

    2017-04-01

    A planning framework is developed to optimize runoff control schemes at scales relevant for regional planning at an early stage. The framework employs less sophisticated modeling approaches to allow a practical application in developing regions with limited data sources and computing capability. The methodology contains three interrelated modules: (1)the geographic information system (GIS)-based hydrological module, which aims at assessing local hydrological constraints and potential for runoff control according to regional land-use descriptions; (2)the grading module, which is built upon the method of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. It is used to establish a priority ranking system to assist the allocation of runoff control targets at the subdivision level; and (3)the genetic algorithm-based optimization module, which is included to derive Pareto-based optimal solutions for mesolevel allocation with multiple competing objectives. The optimization approach describes the trade-off between different allocation plans and simultaneously ensures that all allocation schemes satisfy the minimum requirement on runoff control. Our results highlight the importance of considering the mesolevel allocation strategy in addition to measures at macrolevels and microlevels in urban runoff management. (C) 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  3. ICUD-0061 Field station to quantify overland runoff from urban green areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristoffer; Duus, L. B.; Møldrup, Per

    2017-01-01

    A hydrological field station is established to measure storm water runoff from a 4300 m2 pervious catchment in an urban landscape. The objective is to explore potential flood early warning indicators and assess the consequences of runoff from pervious surfaces to urban drainage systems in addition...... to runoff from impermeable surfaces. Soil volumetric water content and soil-water matric potential are measured in several sensor clusters in the catchment. It is found that measured surface runoff and soil volumetric water content are well correlated while matric potential is an on-off indicator...

  4. Assessment of the effect of land use /land cover changes on total runoff from Ofu River catchment in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshach Ileanwa Alfa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The total runoff from a catchment is dependednt on both the soil characteristics and the land use/land cover (LULC type. This study was conducted to examine the effect of changes in land cover on the total runoff from Ofu River Catchment in Nigeria. Classified Landsat imageries of 1987, 2001 and 2016 in combination with the soil map extracted from the Digital Soil Map of the World was used to estimate the runoff curve number for 1987, 2001 and 2016. The runoff depth for 35 years daily rainfall data was estimated using Natura Resource Conservation Services Curve Number (NRCS-CN method. The runoff depths obtained for the respective years were subjected to a one-way analysis of variance at 95% level of significance. P-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Runoff curve numbers obtained for 1987, 2001 and 2016 were 61.83, 63.26 and 62.79 respectively. The effects of the changes in LULC for 1987-2001, 2001-2016 and 1987-2016 were statistically significant (P<0.001 at 95% confident interval.  The average change in runoff depths were 79.81%, -11.10% and 48.09% respectively for 1987-2001, 2001-2016 and 1987-2016. The study concluded that the changes in LULC of the catchment had significant effect on the runoff from the catchment.

  5. Hydrological scenarios of future seasonal runoff distribution in Central Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlavcova, K; Szolgay, J; Kohnova, S; Balint, G

    2008-01-01

    The hydrological scenarios of future seasonal distributions of runoff in the upper Hron River basin, which was chosen as a representative mountainous region in Central Slovakia, were evaluated. Changes in the future climate were expressed by three different climate change scenarios developed within the framework of the Central and Eastern Europe Climate Change Impact and Vulnerability Assessment Project (CECILIA). The climate change scenarios were constructed using the pattern scaling method from the outputs of transient simulations made by 3 GCMs - ECHAM4/OPYC3, HadCM2 and NCAR DOE-PCM. A conceptual hydrological balance model calibrated with data from the period 1971-2000 was used for modelling changes in runoff with monthly time steps. The runoff change scenarios for the selected basin in the future time horizons of 2025, 2050 and 2100 show changes in the seasonal runoff distribution.

  6. Improving risk estimates of runoff producing areas: formulating variable source areas as a bivariate process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoya; Shaw, Stephen B; Marjerison, Rebecca D; Yearick, Christopher D; DeGloria, Stephen D; Walter, M Todd

    2014-05-01

    Predicting runoff producing areas and their corresponding risks of generating storm runoff is important for developing watershed management strategies to mitigate non-point source pollution. However, few methods for making these predictions have been proposed, especially operational approaches that would be useful in areas where variable source area (VSA) hydrology dominates storm runoff. The objective of this study is to develop a simple approach to estimate spatially-distributed risks of runoff production. By considering the development of overland flow as a bivariate process, we incorporated both rainfall and antecedent soil moisture conditions into a method for predicting VSAs based on the Natural Resource Conservation Service-Curve Number equation. We used base-flow immediately preceding storm events as an index of antecedent soil wetness status. Using nine sub-basins of the Upper Susquehanna River Basin, we demonstrated that our estimated runoff volumes and extent of VSAs agreed with observations. We further demonstrated a method for mapping these areas in a Geographic Information System using a Soil Topographic Index. The proposed methodology provides a new tool for watershed planners for quantifying runoff risks across watersheds, which can be used to target water quality protection strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Climate Change and Human Activities on Surface Runoff in the Luan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidong Zeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the effects of climate change and human activities on runoff changes is the focus of climate change and hydrological research. This paper presents an integrated method employing the Budyko-based Fu model, hydrological modeling, and climate elasticity approaches to separate the effects of the two driving factors on surface runoff in the Luan River basin, China. The Budyko-based Fu model and the double mass curve method are used to analyze runoff changes during the period 1958~2009. Then two types of hydrological models (the distributed Soil and Water Assessment Tool model and the lumped SIMHYD model and seven climate elasticity methods (including a nonparametric method and six Budyko-based methods are applied to estimate the contributions of climate change and human activities to runoff change. The results show that all quantification methods are effective, and the results obtained by the nine methods are generally consistent. During the study period, the effects of climate change on runoff change accounted for 28.3~46.8% while those of human activities contributed with 53.2~71.7%, indicating that both factors have significant effects on the runoff decline in the basin, and that the effects of human activities are relatively stronger than those of climate change.

  8. Continental-Scale Estimates of Runoff Using Future Climate Storm Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent runoff events have had serious repercussions to both natural ecosystems and human infrastructure. Understanding how shifts in storm event intensities are expected to change runoff responses are valuable for local, regional, and landscape planning. To address this challenge...

  9. The study of contamination of discharged runoff from surface water disposal channels of Bushehr city in 2012-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaheid Noroozi-Karbasdehi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In coastal cities, wastewater discharge into the sea is one of the options for sewage disposal that in case of non-compliance with health standards  in wastewater disposal will be led to the spread of infection and disease. On the other hand, water resources preservation and using them efficiently are the principles of sustainable development of each country. This study was aimed to investigate the contamination of discharged runoff from the surface water disposal channels of Bushehr city in 2012 - 13. Materials and Methods: In this study, Sampling was conducted by composite sampling method from output of the five main surface water disposal channels leading to the Persian Gulf located in the coastal region of Bushehr city during two seasons including wet (winter and dry (summer in 2012- 13. Then, experimental tests of BOD5, total coliform and fecal coliform were done on any of the 96 samples according to the standard method. Results: Analysis of the data showed that the BOD5, total coliform and fecal coliform of effluent runoff of the channels were more than the national standard output of disposal wastewaters into the surface waters, and the highest and lowest amount of BOD5 which obtained were 160 mg/L and 28 mg/L, respectively. Conclusion: considering the fact that discharged runoff from surface water disposal channels link from shoreline to sea in close distance and they often are as natural swimming sites and even fishing sites of Bushehr city, and also according to high level of organic and bacterial load of these channels, it is urgently required to be considered by the authorities.

  10. Inflammation and peripheral venous disease. The San Diego Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, M; Callas, P W; Allison, M A; Criqui, M H

    2014-09-02

    The inflammatory response to healing in venous thrombosis might cause vein damage and post-thrombotic syndrome. Inflammation may also be involved in venous insufficiency apart from deep-vein thrombosis. We studied the association of inflammation markers with venous insufficiency in a general population sample. We characterised 2,404 men and women in a general population cohort for peripheral venous disease and its severity using physical exam, symptom assessment, and venous ultrasound. Inflammation markers, C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin 1-beta (IL-1-beta), IL-8, IL-10, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, monocyte chemoattractant-1 (MCP-1) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) were compared in 352 case participants with peripheral venous disease and 352 controls with no venous abnormalities frequency matched to cases by age, sex and race. Associations were also evaluated including a subset of 108 cases of severe venous disease, as previously defined. Odds ratios (95% CI), for peripheral venous disease for biomarkers in the top quartile (adjusting for age, race, sex, body mass index and history of venous thrombosis) were 1.8 (1.1-3.0), 1.6 (1.0-2.5) and 1.5 (0.9-2.3) for CRP, fibrinogen and IL-10, respectively. Associations were larger considering cases of severe venous disease, with odds ratios for these three analytes of 2.6 (1.2-5.9), 3.1 (1.3-7.3) and 2.2 (1.1-4.4), and for IL-8: 2.4 (1.1-5.2). There was no association of IL-1-beta, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, MCP-1 or VEGF with overall cases or severe venous disease. In conclusion, a subset of inflammation markers were associated with increased risk of peripheral venous disease, suggesting potential therapeutic targets for treatment.

  11. Phosphorus mitigation during springtime runoff by amendments applied to grassed soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusi-Kämppä, J; Turtola, E; Närvänen, A; Jauhiainen, L; Uusitalo, R

    2012-01-01

    Permanent grass vegetation on sloping soils is an option to protect fields from erosion, but decaying grass may liberate considerable amounts of dissolved reactive P (DRP) in springtime runoff. We studied the effects of freezing and thawing of grassed soil on surface runoff P concentrations by indoor rainfall simulations and tested whether the peak P concentrations could be reduced by amending the soil with P-binding materials containing Ca or Fe. Forty grass-vegetated soil blocks (surface area 0.045 m, depth 0.07 m) were retrieved from two permanent buffer zones on a clay and loam soil in southwest Finland. Four replicates were amended with either: (i) gypsum from phosphoric acid processing (CaSO × 2HO, 6 t ha), (ii) chalk powder (CaCO, 3.3 t ha), (iii) Fe-gypsum (6 t ha) from TiO processing, or (iv) granulated ferric sulfate (Fe[SO], 0.7 t ha), with four replicates serving as untreated controls. Rainfall (3.3 h × 5 mm h) was applied on presaturated samples set at a slope of 5% and the surface runoff was analyzed for DRP, total dissolved P (TDP), total P (TP), and suspended solids. Rainfall simulation was repeated twice after the samples were frozen. Freezing and thawing of the samples increased the surface runoff DRP concentration of the control treatment from 0.19 to 0.46 mg L, up to 2.6-3.7 mg L, with DRP being the main P form in surface runoff. Compared with the controls, surface runoff from soils amended with Fe compounds had 57 to 80% and 47 to 72% lower concentrations of DRP and TP, respectively, but the gypsum and chalk powder did not affect the P concentrations. Thus, amendments containing Fe might be an option to improve DRP retention in, e.g., buffer zones. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. An at-grade stabilization structure impact on runoff and suspended sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minks, Kyle R.; Lowery, Birl; Madison, Fred W.; Ruark, Matthew; Frame, Dennis R.; Stuntebeck, Todd D.; Komiskey, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, agricultural runoff has received more attention as a major contributor to surface water pollution. This is especially true for the unglaciated area of Wisconsin, given this area's steep topography, which makes it highly susceptible to runoff and soil loss. We evaluated the ability of an at-grade stabilization structure (AGSS), designed as a conservation practice to reduce the amount of overland runoff and suspended sediment transported to the surface waters of an agricultural watershed. Eight years of storm and baseflow data collected by the US Geological Survey–Wisconsin Water Science Center on a farm in west central Wisconsin were analyzed for changes in precipitation, storm runoff volume, and suspended sediment concentration before and after installation of an AGSS. The agricultural research site was designed as a paired watershed study in which monitoring stations were installed on the perennial streams draining both control and treatment watersheds. Linear mixed effects model analyses were conducted to determine if any statistically significant changes occurred in the water quality parameters before and after the AGSS was installed. Results indicated no significant changes (p = 0.51) in average event precipitation and runoff volumes before and after installation of the AGSS in either the treatment (NW) or control (SW) watersheds. However, the AGSS did significantly reduce the average suspended sediment concentration in the event runoff water (p = 0.02) in the NW from 972 to 263 mg L–1. In addition, particle size analyses, using light diffraction techniques, were conducted on soil samples taken from within the AGSS and adjacent valley and ridge top to determine if suspended sediments were being retained within the structure. Statistical analysis revealed a significantly (p clay inside the AGSS (37%) than outside (30%). These results indicate that the AGSS was successful in reducing the amount of suspended sediment transported to nearby

  13. Stormwater runoff drives viral community composition changes in inland freshwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kurt E.; Harris, Jamie V.; Green, Jasmin C.; Rahman, Faraz; Chambers, Randolph M.

    2014-01-01

    Storm events impact freshwater microbial communities by transporting terrestrial viruses and other microbes to freshwater systems, and by potentially resuspending microbes from bottom sediments. The magnitude of these impacts on freshwater ecosystems is unknown and largely unexplored. Field studies carried out at two discrete sites in coastal Virginia (USA) were used to characterize the viral load carried by runoff and to test the hypothesis that terrestrial viruses introduced through stormwater runoff change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Field data gathered from an agricultural watershed indicated that primary runoff can contain viral densities approximating those of receiving waters. Furthermore, viruses attached to suspended colloids made up a large fraction of the total load, particularly in early stages of the storm. At a second field site (stormwater retention pond), RAPD-PCR profiling showed that the viral community of the pond changed dramatically over the course of two intense storms while relatively little change was observed over similar time scales in the absence of disturbance. Comparisons of planktonic and particle-associated viral communities revealed two completely distinct communities, suggesting that particle-associated viruses represent a potentially large and overlooked portion of aquatic viral abundance and diversity. Our findings show that stormwater runoff can quickly change the composition of freshwater microbial communities. Based on these findings, increased storms in the coastal mid-Atlantic region predicted by most climate change models will likely have important impacts on the structure and function of local freshwater microbial communities. PMID:24672520

  14. [Urban non-point source pollution control by runoff retention and filtration pilot system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yao; Zuo, Jian-E; Gan, Li-Li; Low, Thong Soon; Miao, Heng-Feng; Ruan, Wen-Quan; Huang, Xia

    2011-09-01

    A runoff retention and filtration pilot system was designed and the long-term purification effect of the runoff was monitored. Runoff pollution characters in 2 typical events and treatment effect of the pilot system were analyzed. The results showed that the runoff was severely polluted. Event mean concentrations (EMCs) of SS, COD, TN and TP in the runoff were 361, 135, 7.88 and 0.62 mg/L respectively. The runoff formed by long rain presented an obvious first flush effect. The first 25% flow contributed more than 50% of the total pollutants loading of SS, TP, DTP and PO4(3-). The pilot system could reduce 100% of the non-point source pollution if the volume of the runoff was less than the retention tank. Otherwise the overflow will be purification by the filtration pilot system and the removal rates of SS, COD, TN, TP, DTP and PO4(3-) reached 97.4% , 61.8%, 22.6%, 85.1%, 72.1%, and 85.2% respectively. The system was stable and the removal rate of SS, COD, TN, and TP were 98.6%, 65.4%, 55.1% and 92.6%. The whole system could effectively remove the non-point source pollution caused by runoff.

  15. Characteristics of PAHs in farmland soil and rainfall runoff in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Rongguang; Xu, Mengmeng; Liu, Aifeng; Tian, Yong; Zhao, Zongshan

    2017-10-14

    Rainfall runoff can remove certain amounts of pollutants from contaminated farmland soil and result in a decline in water quality. However, the leaching behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with rainfall have been rarely reported due to wide variations in the soil compositions, rainfall conditions, and sources of soil PAHs in complex farmland ecosystems. In this paper, the levels, spatial distributions, and composition profiles of PAHs in 30 farmland soil samples and 49 rainfall-runoff samples from the Tianjin region in 2012 were studied to investigate their leaching behaviors caused by rainfall runoff. The contents of the Σ 16 PAHs ranged from 58.53 to 3137.90 μg/kg in the soil and 146.58 to 3636.59 μg/L in the runoff. In total, most of the soil sampling sites (23 of 30) were contaminated, and biomass and petroleum combustion were proposed as the main sources of the soil PAHs. Both the spatial distributions of the soil and the runoff PAHs show a decreasing trend moving away from the downtown, which suggested that the leaching behaviors of PAHs in a larger region during rainfall may be mainly affected by the compounds themselves. In addition, 4- and 5-ring PAHs are the dominant components in farmland soil and 3- and 4-ring PAHs dominate the runoff. Comparisons of the PAH pairs and enrichment ratios showed that acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and fluoranthene were more easily transferred into water systems from soil than benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and indeno[123-cd]pyrene, which indicated that PAHs with low molecular weight are preferentially dissolved due to their higher solubility compared to those with high molecular weight.

  16. Modeling spray drift and runoff-related inputs of pesticides to receiving water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuyang; Luo, Yuzhou; Goh, Kean S

    2018-03-01

    Pesticides move to surface water via various pathways including surface runoff, spray drift and subsurface flow. Little is known about the relative contributions of surface runoff and spray drift in agricultural watersheds. This study develops a modeling framework to address the contribution of spray drift to the total loadings of pesticides in receiving water bodies. The modeling framework consists of a GIS module for identifying drift potential, the AgDRIFT model for simulating spray drift, and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for simulating various hydrological and landscape processes including surface runoff and transport of pesticides. The modeling framework was applied on the Orestimba Creek Watershed, California. Monitoring data collected from daily samples were used for model evaluation. Pesticide mass deposition on the Orestimba Creek ranged from 0.08 to 6.09% of applied mass. Monitoring data suggests that surface runoff was the major pathway for pesticide entering water bodies, accounting for 76% of the annual loading; the rest 24% from spray drift. The results from the modeling framework showed 81 and 19%, respectively, for runoff and spray drift. Spray drift contributed over half of the mass loading during summer months. The slightly lower spray drift contribution as predicted by the modeling framework was mainly due to SWAT's under-prediction of pesticide mass loading during summer and over-prediction of the loading during winter. Although model simulations were associated with various sources of uncertainties, the overall performance of the modeling framework was satisfactory as evaluated by multiple statistics: for simulation of daily flow, the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency Coefficient (NSE) ranged from 0.61 to 0.74 and the percent bias (PBIAS) runoff in receiving waters and the design of management practices for mitigating pesticide exposure within a watershed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Source diagnostics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban road runoff, dust, rain and canopy throughfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Zhang Shucai; Wan Chao; Yue Dapan; Ye Youbin; Wang Xuejun

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic ratios and multivariate analysis were utilized to apportion polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sources for road runoff, road dust, rain and canopy throughfall based on samples collected in an urban area of Beijing, China. Three sampling sites representing vehicle lane, bicycle lane and branch road were selected. For road runoff and road dust, vehicular emission and coal combustion were identified as major sources, and the source contributions varied among the sampling sites. For rain, three principal components were apportioned representing coal/oil combustion (54%), vehicular emission (34%) and coking (12%). For canopy throughfall, vehicular emission (56%), coal combustion (30%) and oil combustion (14%) were identified as major sources. Overall, the PAH's source for road runoff mainly reflected that for road dust. Despite site-specific sources, the findings at the study area provided a general picture of PAHs sources for the road runoff system in urban area of Beijing. - Urban road runoff and road dust, canopy throughfall and rain were considered as a system for diagnostics of PAH sources

  18. Factors affecting the runoff response of watersheds to precipitation

    OpenAIRE

    DROZDOVÁ, Martina

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on the factors that affect the drainage basin of the response. It contains a literature review, which deals with the hydrological cycle characteristics of precipitation, surface runoff and flood and erosion protection. The aim of the work is to evaluate the factors that adversely affect the runoff from the catchment.

  19. Unconsciously perceived fear in peripheral vision alerts the limbic system: a MEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri J Bayle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In ecological situations, threatening stimuli often come out from the peripheral vision. Such aggressive messages must trigger rapid attention to the periphery to allow a fast and adapted motor reaction. Several clues converge to hypothesize that peripheral danger presentation can trigger off a fast arousal network potentially independent of the consciousness spot. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present MEG study, spatio-temporal dynamics of the neural processing of danger related stimuli were explored as a function of the stimuli position in the visual field. Fearful and neutral faces were briefly presented in the central or peripheral visual field, and were followed by target faces stimuli. An event-related beamformer source analysis model was applied in three time windows following the first face presentations: 80 to 130 ms, 140 to 190 ms, and 210 to 260 ms. The frontal lobe and the right internal temporal lobe part, including the amygdala, reacted as soon as 80 ms of latency to fear occurring in the peripheral vision. For central presentation, fearful faces evoked the classical neuronal activity along the occipito-temporal visual pathway between 140 and 190 ms. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the high spatio-temporal resolution of MEG allowed disclosing a fast response of a network involving medial temporal and frontal structures in the processing of fear related stimuli occurring unconsciously in the peripheral visual field. Whereas centrally presented stimuli are precisely processed by the ventral occipito-temporal cortex, the related-to-danger stimuli appearing in the peripheral visual field are more efficient to produce a fast automatic alert response possibly conveyed by subcortical structures.

  20. Seasonality of runoff and precipitation regimes along transects in Peru and Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudry Maria M. Cárdenas; Gutknecht Dieter; Parajka Juraj; Perdigão Rui A.P.; Blöschl Günter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the seasonalities of runoff and precipitation and their controls along two transects in Peru and one transect in Austria. The analysis is based on daily precipitation data at 111 and 61 stations in Peru and Austria, respectively, and daily discharge data at 51 and 110 stations. The maximum Pardé coefficient is used to quantify the strength of the seasonalities of monthly precipitation and runoff. Circular statistics are used to quantify the seasonalities...

  1. Rainfall-runoff modelling of the Okavango River catchment to assess impacts of land use change on runoff and downstream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milzow, Christian; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2010-05-01

    The competition between human water use and ecosystem water use is one of the major challenges for water resources management at the global scale. We analyse the situation for the Okavango River basin of southern Africa. The Okavango River is representative for many large rivers throughout the developing world in that it is ungauged and poorly studied. The Okavango basin - spanning over Angola, Namibia and Botswana - represents a multi-objective problem in an international setting. Economic benefits of agricultural development and conservation of ecosystem services call for opposed actions. A semi-distributed rainfall-runoff model of the Okavango catchment is set up using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The model is sufficiently physically based to simulate the impact on runoff of extent of agricultural use, crop types and management practices. Precipitation and temperature inputs are taken from datasets covering large parts of the globe. The methodology can thus easily be applied for other ungauged catchments. For temperature we use the ERA-Interim reanalysis product of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and for precipitation the Famine Early Warning Systems Network data (FEWS-Net). Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) data resulted in poor model performance compared to the FEWS-Net data. Presently, the upstream catchment in Angola is largely pristine and agriculture is basically restricted to dry land subsistence farming. But economic growth in Angola is likely to result in agricultural development and consequent impacts on catchment runoff. Land use scenarios that are simulated include large scale irrigated agriculture with water extractions from the river and the shallow aquifer. Climate change impacts are also studied and compared to land use change impacts. The downstream part of the basin consists of the large Okavango Wetlands, which are a biodiversity hotspot of global importance and, through tourism, an important

  2. Agricultural runoff pollution control by a grassed swales coupled with wetland detention ponds system: a case study in Taihu Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinhui; Zhao, Yaqian; Zhao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    The performance of a field grassed swales (GSs) coupled with wetland detention ponds (WDPs) system was monitored under four typical rainfall events to assess its effectiveness on agricultural runoff pollution control in Taihu Basin, China. The results indicated that suspended solids (SS) derived from the flush process has significant influence on pollution loads in agricultural runoff. Determination of first flush effect (FFE) indicated that total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) exhibited moderate FFE, while chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) showed weak FFE. Average removal efficiencies of 83.5 ± 4.5, 65.3 ± 6.8, 91.6 ± 3.8, and 81.3 ± 5.8 % for TSS, COD, TN, and TP were achieved, respectively. The GSs played an important role in removing TSS and TP and acted as a pre-treatment process to prevent clogging of the subsequent WDPs. Particle size distributions (PSDs) analysis indicated that coarse particles larger than 75 μm accounted for 80 % by weight of the total particles in the runoff. GSs can effectively reduce coarse particles (≥75 μm) in runoff, while its removal efficiency for fine particles (runoff pollution control.

  3. Regime Shift Identification of Runoff and Sediment Loads in the Yellow River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Runoff and sediment loads have exhibited significant changes over the past six decades in the Yellow River Basin, China. The current study evaluates the changing trends and regime shifts in runoff and sediment loads at both the annual and monthly time scales. The associated spatial and temporal variations are analyzed by a sequential t-test analysis of the regime shifts (STARS approach and the “breaks for additive seasonal and trend” (BFAST model using hydrological data at eight stations from the 1950s to 2011. Both runoff and sediment loads exhibit significant declines (p < 0.05, except in the upper reaches of the river near the Tangnaihai station. The regime shifts detected by the STARS approach are not completely consistent with the results from the BFAST method. In most cases, the regime shifts occurred in 1969 and 1986, due to the construction of large reservoirs. Climate change and other human activities, such as large-scale soil and water conservation measures, can result in abrupt changes in hydrological series at some stations. The trapping effects of reservoirs not only cause regime shifts of runoff and sediment loads, but also adjust their inter-annual and seasonal distributions. Various soil and water conservation measures are responsible for the significant reduction in runoff and sediment loads in the mid-lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin. In addition, water withdrawals from both river runoff and ground water play a critical role in the changing trends in runoff and indirectly alter the sediment loads. The findings provide a good reference for the effective promotion of climate change adaptation, water resources planning and river basin management.

  4. The Spatiotemporal Variations of Runoff in the Yangtze River Basin under Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Ziwei; Shi, Peng; Jiang, Peng; Hu, Jianwei; Qu, Simin; Chen, Xingyu; Chen, Yingbing; Dai, Yunqiu; Wang, Jianjin

    2018-01-01

    A better understanding of the runoff variations contributes to a better utilization of water resources and water conservancy planning. In this paper, we analyzed the runoff changes in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB) including the spatiotemporal characteristics of intra-annual variation, the trend, the mutation point, and the period of annual runoff using various statistical methods. We also investigated how changes in the precipitation and temperature could impact on runoff. We found that the i...

  5. Calibration and verification of numerical runoff and erosion model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrić Ognjen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the field and laboratory measurements, and analogous with development of computational techniques, runoff and erosion models based on equations which describe the physics of the process are also developed. Based on the KINEROS2 model, this paper presents basic modelling principles of runoff and erosion processes based on the St. Venant's equations. Alternative equations for friction calculation, calculation of source and deposition elements and transport capacity are also shown. Numerical models based on original and alternative equations are calibrated and verified on laboratory scale model. According to the results, friction calculation based on the analytic solution of laminar flow must be included in all runoff and erosion models.

  6. Runoff water quality from broiler litter-amended tall fescue in response to natural precipitation in the Ozark Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menjoulet, B C; Brye, K R; Pirani, A L; Haggard, B E; Gbur, E E

    2009-01-01

    The Arkansas poultry industry produced more than 1.2 billion broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and generated approximately 1.3 million Mg of broiler litter in 2002. High transportation costs of relocating broiler litter have led to annual land applications near poultry houses, increasing concern for potential surface water contamination from runoff. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of broiler litter application rate on runoff water quality in response to natural precipitation. Six plots (1.5 by 6.0 m), located on a Captina silt loam (finesilty, siliceous, active, mesic Typic Fragiudult), were amended with fresh broiler litter at 0, 5.6, and 11.2 Mg ha(-1) (control, low, and high litter treatments, respectively) once annually for 4 yr (May 2003 through April 2007). Runoff collected after each runoff-producing event was analyzed for soluble nutrients and metals. Cumulative runoff did not differ among litter treatments over the 4-yr study. At times, flow-weighted mean (FWM) concentrations of As from all litter treatments exceeded the maximum contaminant level for drinking water (0.01 mg As L(-1)). Four-year FWM Fe concentrations and runoff losses were greater (P precipitation is temporally variable, evaluating runoff water quality in response to natural precipitation over several years is key to ascertaining the long-term impacts of surface-applied soil amendments like broiler litter.

  7. Large-scale runoff generation – parsimonious parameterisation using high-resolution topography

    OpenAIRE

    L. Gong; S. Halldin; C.-Y. Xu

    2010-01-01

    World water resources have primarily been analysed by global-scale hydrological models in the last decades. Runoff generation in many of these models are based on process formulations developed at catchments scales. The division between slow runoff (baseflow) and fast runoff is primarily governed by slope and spatial distribution of effective water storage capacity, both acting a very small scales. Many hydrological models, e.g. VIC, account for the spatial storage variability in terms...

  8. HYSOGs250m, global gridded hydrologic soil groups for curve-number-based runoff modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, C Wade; Prihodko, Lara; Anchang, Julius; Kumar, Sanath; Ji, Wenjie; Hanan, Niall P

    2018-05-15

    Hydrologic soil groups (HSGs) are a fundamental component of the USDA curve-number (CN) method for estimation of rainfall runoff; yet these data are not readily available in a format or spatial-resolution suitable for regional- and global-scale modeling applications. We developed a globally consistent, gridded dataset defining HSGs from soil texture, bedrock depth, and groundwater. The resulting data product-HYSOGs250m-represents runoff potential at 250 m spatial resolution. Our analysis indicates that the global distribution of soil is dominated by moderately high runoff potential, followed by moderately low, high, and low runoff potential. Low runoff potential, sandy soils are found primarily in parts of the Sahara and Arabian Deserts. High runoff potential soils occur predominantly within tropical and sub-tropical regions. No clear pattern could be discerned for moderately low runoff potential soils, as they occur in arid and humid environments and at both high and low elevations. Potential applications of this data include CN-based runoff modeling, flood risk assessment, and as a covariate for biogeographical analysis of vegetation distributions.

  9. The effect of leaf litter cover on surface runoff and soil erosion in Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    Full Text Available The role of leaf litter in hydrological processes and soil erosion of forest ecosystems is poorly understood. A field experiment was conducted under simulated rainfall in runoff plots with a slope of 10%. Two common types of litter in North China (from Quercus variabilis, representing broadleaf litter, and Pinus tabulaeformis, representing needle leaf litter, four amounts of litter, and five rainfall intensities were tested. Results revealed that the litter reduced runoff and delayed the beginning of runoff, but significantly reduced soil loss (p<0.05. Average runoff yield was 29.5% and 31.3% less than bare-soil plot, and for Q. variabilis and P. tabulaeformis, respectively, and average sediment yield was 85.1% and 79.9% lower. Rainfall intensity significantly affected runoff (R = 0.99, p<0.05, and the efficiency in runoff reduction by litter decreased considerably. Runoff yield and the runoff coefficient increased dramatically by 72.9 and 5.4 times, respectively. The period of time before runoff appeared decreased approximately 96.7% when rainfall intensity increased from 5.7 to 75.6 mm h-1. Broadleaf and needle leaf litter showed similarly relevant effects on runoff and soil erosion control, since no significant differences (p≤0.05 were observed in runoff and sediment variables between two litter-covered plots. In contrast, litter mass was probably not a main factor in determining runoff and sediment because a significant correlation was found only with sediment in Q. variabilis litter plot. Finally, runoff yield was significantly correlated (p<0.05 with sediment yield. These results suggest that the protective role of leaf litter in runoff and erosion processes was crucial, and both rainfall intensity and litter characteristics had an impact on these processes.

  10. Pollution characteristics of surface runoff under different restoration types in manganese tailing wasteland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Cheng, Qingyu; Xue, Shengguo; Rajendran, Manikandan; Wu, Chuan; Liao, Jiaxin

    2018-04-01

    A great deal of manganese and associated heavy metals (such as Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, etc.) was produced in manganese mining, smelting, and other processes and weathering and leaching of waste slag, which entered rainwater runoff by different means under the action of rainfall runoff. It caused heavy metal pollution in water environment to surrounding areas, and then environmental and human health risks were becoming increasingly serious. In the Xiangtan manganese mine, we studied the characteristics of nutritional pollutants and heavy metals by using the method of bounded runoff plots on the manganese tailing wasteland after carrying out some site treatments using three different approaches, such as (1) exposed tailings, the control treatment (ET), (2) external-soil amelioration and colonization of Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers. turf (EC), and (3) external-soil amelioration and seedling seeding propagation of Cynodon dactylon (Linn.) Pers. (ES). The research showed that the maximum runoff occurred in 20,140,712 rainfall events, and the basic law of runoff was EC area > ET area > ES area in the same rainfall event. The concentration of total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of three ecological restoration areas adopted the following rule: ET area > EC area > ES area. Nitrogen (N) existed mainly in the form of water soluble while phosphorus (P) was particulate. The highest concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were 11.57 ± 2.99 mg/L in the EC area and 1.42 ± 0.56 mg/L in the ET area, respectively. Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Cu in surface runoff from three restoration types all exceeded the class V level of the environmental quality standard for surface water except Cu in EC and ES areas. Pollution levels of heavy metals in surface runoff from three restoration areas are shown as follows: ET area > EC area > ES area. There was a significant positive correlation between TSS and runoff, COD, and TP. And this

  11. Peripheral Retinal Changes Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2: Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Report Number 12 by the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Optos PEripheral RetinA (OPERA) Study Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domalpally, Amitha; Clemons, Traci E; Danis, Ronald P; Sadda, SriniVas R; Cukras, Catherine A; Toth, Cynthia A; Friberg, Thomas R; Chew, Emily Y

    2017-04-01

    To compare rates of peripheral retinal changes in Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) participants with at least intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with control subjects without intermediate age-related changes (large drusen). Cross-sectional evaluation of clinic-based patients enrolled in AREDS2 and a prospective study. Participants from prospective studies. The 200° pseudocolor and fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images were captured on the Optos 200 Tx Ultrawide-field device (Optos, Dunfermline, Scotland) by centering on the fovea and then steering superiorly and inferiorly. The montaged images were graded at a reading center with the images divided into 3 zones (zone 1 [posterior pole], zone 2 [midperiphery], and zone 3 [far periphery]) to document the presence of peripheral lesions. Peripheral retinal lesions: drusen, hypopigmentary/hyperpigmentary changes, reticular pseudodrusen, senile reticular pigmentary changes, cobblestone degeneration, and FAF abnormalities. A total of 484 (951 eyes) AREDS2 participants with AMD (cases) and 89 (163 eyes) controls without AMD had gradable color and FAF images. In zones 2 and 3, neovascularization and geographic atrophy (GA) were present, ranging from 0.4% to 6% in eyes of cases, respectively, and GA was present in 1% of eyes of controls. Drusen were detected in 97%, 78%, and 64% of eyes of cases and 48%, 21%, and 9% of eyes of controls in zones 2 and 3 superior and 3 inferior, respectively (P < 0.001 for all). Peripheral reticular pseudodrusen were seen in 15%. Senile reticular pigmentary change was the predominant peripheral change seen in 48% of cases and 16% of controls in zone 2 (P < 0.001). Nonreticular pigment changes were less frequent in the periphery than in the posterior pole (46% vs. 76%) and negligible in controls. Peripheral retinal changes are more prevalent in eyes with AMD than in control eyes. Drusen are seen in a majority of eyes with AMD in both the mid and far periphery, whereas

  12. Control of fjordic deep water renewal by runoff modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, A; Edelsten, D J

    1976-09-01

    Loch Etive is a Scottish fjord subject to fresh-water run off which renders it markedly brackish. This paper considers the frequency of deep water renewal, developing a model which relates the timing of all such renewals to runoff records. Using the model one can examine the effect of changes caused by interference with the natural runoff pattern.

  13. Statistical analysis and modelling of surface runoff from arable fields in central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fiener

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface runoff generation on arable fields is an important driver of flooding, on-site and off-site damages by erosion, and of nutrient and agrochemical transport. In general, three different processes generate surface runoff (Hortonian runoff, saturation excess runoff, and return of subsurface flow. Despite the developments in our understanding of these processes it remains difficult to predict which processes govern runoff generation during the course of an event or throughout the year, when soil and vegetation on arable land are passing many states. We analysed the results from 317 rainfall simulations on 209 soils from different landscapes with a resolution of 14 286 runoff measurements to determine temporal and spatial differences in variables governing surface runoff, and to derive and test a statistical model of surface runoff generation independent from an a priori selection of modelled process types. Measured runoff was related to 20 time-invariant soil properties, three variable soil properties, four rain properties, three land use properties and many derived variables describing interactions and curvilinear behaviour. In an iterative multiple regression procedure, six of these properties/variables best described initial abstraction and the hydrograph. To estimate initial abstraction, the percentages of stone cover above 10% and of sand content in the bulk soil were needed, while the hydrograph could be predicted best from rain depth exceeding initial abstraction, rainfall intensity, soil organic carbon content, and time since last tillage. Combining the multiple regressions to estimate initial abstraction and surface runoff allowed modelling of event-specific hydrographs without an a priori assumption of the underlying process. The statistical model described the measured data well and performed equally well during validation. In both cases, the model explained 71 and 58% of variability in accumulated runoff volume and instantaneous

  14. Infiltration and Runoff Measurements on Steep Burned Hillslopes Using a Rainfall Simulator with Variable Rain Intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, David A.; Moody, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple rainfall intensities were used in rainfall-simulation experiments designed to investigate the infiltration and runoff from 1-square-meter plots on burned hillslopes covered by an ash layer of varying thickness. The 1-square-meter plots were on north- and south-facing hillslopes in an area burned by the Overland fire northwest of Boulder near Jamestown on the Front Range of Colorado. A single-nozzle, wide-angle, multi-intensity rain simulator was developed to investigate the infiltration and runoff on steep (30- to 40-percent gradient) burned hillslopes covered with ash. The simulated rainfall was evaluated for spatial variability, drop size, and kinetic energy. Fourteen rainfall simulations, at three intensities (about 20 millimeters per hour [mm/h], 35 mm/h, and 50 mm/h), were conducted on four plots. Measurements during and after the simulations included runoff, rainfall, suspended-sediment concentrations, surface ash layer thickness, soil moisture, soil grain size, soil lost on ignition, and plot topography. Runoff discharge reached a steady state within 7 to 26 minutes. Steady infiltration rates with the 50-mm/h application rainfall intensity approached 20?35 mm/h. If these rates are projected to rainfall application intensities used in many studies of burned area runoff production (about 80 mm/h), the steady discharge rates are on the lower end of measurements from other studies. Experiments using multiple rainfall intensities (three) suggest that runoff begins at rainfall intensities around 20 mm/h at the 1-square-meter scale, an observation consistent with a 10-mm/h rainfall intensity threshold needed for runoff initiation that has been reported in the literature.

  15. Applicability of Doppler weather radar based rainfall data for runoff ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Radar-based hydrological studies in various countries have proven that ... in view of topographical and terrain constraints, cost restrictions and maintenance- .... SCS Unit Hydrograph (SCS UH) method converts surplus rainfall into runoff at the.

  16. Quantifying the effects of climate variability and human activities on runoff for Kaidu River Basin in arid region of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongsheng; Chen, Yaning; Li, Baofu

    2013-02-01

    Much attention has recently been focused on the effects that climate variability and human activities have had on runoff. In this study, data from the Kaidu River Basin in the arid region of northwest China were analyzed to investigate changes in annual runoff during the period of 1960-2009. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and the Mann-Kendall-Sneyers test were used to identify trend and step change point in the annual runoff. It was found that the basin had a significant increasing trend in annual runoff. Step change point in annual runoff was identified in the basin, which occurred in the year around 1993 dividing the long-term runoff series into a natural period (1960-1993) and a human-induced period (1994-2009). Then, the hydrologic sensitivity analysis method was employed to evaluate the effects of climate variability and human activities on mean annual runoff for the human-induced period based on precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. In 1994-2009, climate variability was the main factor that increased runoff with contribution of 90.5 %, while the increasing percentage due to human activities only accounted for 9.5 %, showing that runoff in the Kaidu River Basin is more sensitive to climate variability than human activities. This study quantitatively distinguishes the effects between climate variability and human activities on runoff, which can do duty for a reference for regional water resources assessment and management.

  17. 40 CFR 411.30 - Applicability; description of the materials storage piles runoff subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... materials storage piles runoff subcategory. 411.30 Section 411.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Materials Storage Piles Runoff Subcategory § 411.30 Applicability; description of the materials storage piles runoff subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  18. Partial Least Squares Regression for Determining the Control Factors for Runoff and Suspended Sediment Yield during Rainfall Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nufang Fang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistics are commonly used to identify the factors that control the dynamics of runoff or sediment yields during hydrological processes. However, one issue with the use of conventional statistical methods to address relationships between variables and runoff or sediment yield is multicollinearity. The main objectives of this study were to apply a method for effectively identifying runoff and sediment control factors during hydrological processes and apply that method to a case study. The method combines the clustering approach and partial least squares regression (PLSR models. The case study was conducted in a mountainous watershed in the Three Gorges Area. A total of 29 flood events in three hydrological years in areas with different land uses were obtained. In total, fourteen related variables were separated from hydrographs using the classical hydrograph separation method. Twenty-nine rainfall events were classified into two rainfall regimes (heavy Rainfall Regime I and moderate Rainfall Regime II based on rainfall characteristics and K-means clustering. Four separate PLSR models were constructed to identify the main variables that control runoff and sediment yield for the two rainfall regimes. For Rainfall Regime I, the dominant first-order factors affecting the changes in sediment yield in our study were all of the four rainfall-related variables, flood peak discharge, maximum flood suspended sediment concentration, runoff, and the percentages of forest and farmland. For Rainfall Regime II, antecedent condition-related variables have more effects on both runoff and sediment yield than in Rainfall Regime I. The results suggest that the different control factors of the two rainfall regimes are determined by the rainfall characteristics and thus different runoff mechanisms.

  19. Automated Measurement for Sensitivity Analysis of Runoff-Sediment Load at Varying Surface Gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imanogor P.A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct measurement of surface runoff is often associated with errors and inaccuracies which results to unreliable hydrological data. An automatic Runoff-meter using tipping buckets arrangement calibrated to tip 0.14 liter of runoff water per tip with an accuracy of ± 0.001 litre was used to measure surface runoff from a steel bounded soil tray of dimension (1200 mm X 900 mm X 260 mm filled with sand loamy to the depth of 130 mm and inclined at angle (0 0 , 5 0 ,12 0 and 15 0 horizontal to the instrument. The effect of varying angles of inclination on runoff intensity, sediment loss rate and sediment loss is significant at 5 % confidence level, while surface runoff is not significant at 5 % confidence level. Total highest sediment loss of 458.2 g and 313.4 g were observed at angle 15 0 and 12 0 respectively. Total surface runoff of 361.5 mm and 445.8 mm were generated at inclined angle of 0 0 and 5 0 , while at angle 12 0 and 15 0 , 564.3 mm and 590.0 mm of surface runoff were generated. In addition, runoff intensity and sediment loss rate were highest at angle 15 0 , while the lowest values of 1.5mm/min and 5.43 g/min were obtained at angle of inclination 5 0 . The results showed that strong relationship existed among the hydrological variables as a result of subjecting the steel bounded soil tray to different angles of inclination. Such results would provide useful data for the running of physics-based deterministic model of surface runoff and erosion which will be useful for the design of hydrological structures, land use planning and management.

  20. A Data Stream Model For Runoff Simulation In A Changing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Shao, J.; Zhang, H.; Wang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Runoff simulation is of great significance for water engineering design, water disaster control, water resources planning and management in a catchment or region. A large number of methods including concept-based process-driven models and statistic-based data-driven models, have been proposed and widely used in worldwide during past decades. Most existing models assume that the relationship among runoff and its impacting factors is stationary. However, in the changing environment (e.g., climate change, human disturbance), their relationship usually evolves over time. In this study, we propose a data stream model for runoff simulation in a changing environment. Specifically, the proposed model works in three steps: learning a rule set, expansion of a rule, and simulation. The first step is to initialize a rule set. When a new observation arrives, the model will check which rule covers it and then use the rule for simulation. Meanwhile, Page-Hinckley (PH) change detection test is used to monitor the online simulation error of each rule. If a change is detected, the corresponding rule is removed from the rule set. In the second step, for each rule, if it covers more than a given number of instance, the rule is expected to expand. In the third step, a simulation model of each leaf node is learnt with a perceptron without activation function, and is updated with adding a newly incoming observation. Taking Fuxi River catchment as a case study, we applied the model to simulate the monthly runoff in the catchment. Results show that abrupt change is detected in the year of 1997 by using the Page-Hinckley change detection test method, which is consistent with the historic record of flooding. In addition, the model achieves good simulation results with the RMSE of 13.326, and outperforms many established methods. The findings demonstrated that the proposed data stream model provides a promising way to simulate runoff in a changing environment.

  1. Large-scale runoff generation – parsimonious parameterisation using high-resolution topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available World water resources have primarily been analysed by global-scale hydrological models in the last decades. Runoff generation in many of these models are based on process formulations developed at catchments scales. The division between slow runoff (baseflow and fast runoff is primarily governed by slope and spatial distribution of effective water storage capacity, both acting at very small scales. Many hydrological models, e.g. VIC, account for the spatial storage variability in terms of statistical distributions; such models are generally proven to perform well. The statistical approaches, however, use the same runoff-generation parameters everywhere in a basin. The TOPMODEL concept, on the other hand, links the effective maximum storage capacity with real-world topography. Recent availability of global high-quality, high-resolution topographic data makes TOPMODEL attractive as a basis for a physically-based runoff-generation algorithm at large scales, even if its assumptions are not valid in flat terrain or for deep groundwater systems. We present a new runoff-generation algorithm for large-scale hydrology based on TOPMODEL concepts intended to overcome these problems. The TRG (topography-derived runoff generation algorithm relaxes the TOPMODEL equilibrium assumption so baseflow generation is not tied to topography. TRG only uses the topographic index to distribute average storage to each topographic index class. The maximum storage capacity is proportional to the range of topographic index and is scaled by one parameter. The distribution of storage capacity within large-scale grid cells is obtained numerically through topographic analysis. The new topography-derived distribution function is then inserted into a runoff-generation framework similar VIC's. Different basin parts are parameterised by different storage capacities, and different shapes of the storage-distribution curves depend on their topographic characteristics. The TRG algorithm

  2. Impact of Cryosphere Hydrological Changes on the River Runoff in the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Yang, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau is the headwaters of many major rivers in Asia, the change in streamflow is significant for social and economic development and natural ecology in the middle and lower reaches. Located in the alpine region, streamflow in the plateau is mainly affected by the cryosphere hydrological processes. Due to global warming in recent decades, the Tibetan Plateau is experiencing glaciers shrinking and permafrost degradation. Accelerated glacier melt led to the increasing meltwater, thus affecting the streamflow. Permafrost is an important factor in stabilizing the water cycle and streamflow, the ecological degradation and the significant changes of rivers, lakes, swamps, wetlands and other hydrological environment in recent decades in the Tibetan plateau is closely related to permafrost degradation. Therefore, it is important to explore the impact of cryosphere hydrological changes on the streamflow for the future water management. This study uses a method of base flow separation and a stepwise multiple regression model to investigate the reasons for the runoff changes in different regions of the Tibetan Plateau during 1960-2000. The contribution of glacier melt to annual runoff is particularly estimated to explore the possible influences of soil freezing and thawing on annual runoff changes. The results show an increasing trend of the annual runoff in the upstream of Nujiang River, Lancang River and Qilian Mountains, dominated by the increasing of base flow; and a decreasing trend of the runoff in the upper reach of the Yarlung Zangbo River, Yellow River and Yangtze River, dominated by the reduction of quick flow. Change in the amount of runoff was mainly due to change in precipitation. Rising temperature accelerates the melting of glaciers and increases the summer quick flow. In addition, rising temperature may reduce the quick flow and increase the base flow due to change of the active permafrost layers, which leads to the increase of soil water storage

  3. [Correlation between typing of peripheral neuroblastic tumors and prognosis: a clinicopathologic study of 135 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    YIN, Min-zhi; ZHANG, Zhong-de; MA, Jing; SHEN, Ping; CHEN, Jie-feng; ZHANG, Hui-zhen

    2011-03-01

    To study the clinicopathologic characteristics of peripheral neuroblastic tumors and to investigate the prognostic significance of International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classi