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Sample records for peripheral kisspeptin administration

  1. Comparison of the effects of peripherally administered kisspeptins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Jens D; Bentsen, Agnete H; Ansel, Laura

    2008-01-01

    examined the acute effect on serum levels of free testosterone in the adult male mouse after systemic administration of kisspeptins with different lengths of both human and mouse origin. Mouse kisspeptin-10 and -52 dose-dependently increased serum testosterone, and both peptides showed similar potency...... and efficacy. Human kisspeptin-10 and kisspeptin-54 evoked robust increase in serum testosterone, with the same potency as for mouse kisspeptins. Other members of the RFRP family of peptides, i.e. RFRP-1 and -3 were inactive. Time-course experiments revealed that the longer forms had a slower onset of action...

  2. Subcutaneous injection of kisspeptin-54 acutely stimulates gonadotropin secretion in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea, but chronic administration causes tachyphylaxis.

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    Jayasena, Channa N; Nijher, Gurjinder M K; Chaudhri, Owais B; Murphy, Kevin G; Ranger, Amita; Lim, Adrian; Patel, Daksha; Mehta, Amrish; Todd, Catriona; Ramachandran, Radha; Salem, Victoria; Stamp, Gordon W; Donaldson, Mandy; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2009-11-01

    Kisspeptin is a critical regulator of normal reproductive function. A single injection of kisspeptin in healthy human volunteers potently stimulates gonadotropin release. However, the effects of kisspeptin on gonadotropin release in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA) and the effects of repeated administration of kisspeptin to humans are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of acute and chronic kisspeptin administration on gonadotropin release in women with HA. We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, parallel design study. Women with HA received twice-daily sc injections of kisspeptin (6.4 nmol/kg) or 0.9% saline (n = 5 per group) for 2 wk. Changes in serum gonadotropin and estradiol levels, LH pulsatility, and ultrasound measurements of reproductive activity were assessed. On the first injection day, potent increases in serum LH and FSH were observed after sc kisspeptin injection in women with HA (mean maximal increment from baseline within 4 h after injection: LH, 24.0 +/- 3.5 IU/liter; FSH, 9.1 +/- 2.5 IU/liter). These responses were significantly reduced on the 14th injection day (mean maximal increment from baseline within 4 h postinjection: LH, 2.5 +/- 2.2 IU/liter, P < 0.05; FSH, 0.5 +/- 0.5 IU/liter, P < 0.05). Subjects remained responsive to GnRH after kisspeptin treatment. No significant changes in LH pulsatility or ultrasound measurements of reproductive activity were observed. Acute administration of kisspeptin to women with infertility due to HA potently stimulates gonadotropin release, but chronic administration of kisspeptin results in desensitization to its effects on gonadotropin release. These data have important implications for the development of kisspeptin as a novel therapy for reproductive disorders in humans.

  3. Peripheral kisspeptin reverses short photoperiod-induced gonadal regression in Syrian hamsters by promoting GNRH release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansel, L; Bentsen, A H; Ancel, C

    2011-01-01

    In seasonal breeders, reproduction is synchronised by day length via the pineal hormone melatonin. In short winter days (short day, SD), the Syrian hamster displays a complete gonadal atrophy together with a marked reduction in expression of kisspeptins (Kp), a family of potent hypothalamic stimu...

  4. Twice-weekly administration of kisspeptin-54 for 8 weeks stimulates release of reproductive hormones in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea.

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    Jayasena, C N; Nijher, G M K; Abbara, A; Murphy, K G; Lim, A; Patel, D; Mehta, A; Todd, C; Donaldson, M; Trew, G H; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Dhillo, W S

    2010-12-01

    Kisspeptin is a novel therapeutic target for infertility. A single kisspeptin-54 (KP-54) injection acutely stimulates the release of reproductive hormones in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea (HA), a commonly occurring condition characterized by absence of menstruation; however, twice-daily administration of KP-54 results in tachyphylaxis. We determined the time course of desensitization to twice-daily KP-54 injections, compared the effects of twice-daily and twice-weekly administration regimens of KP-54, and studied the effects of long-term twice-weekly administration of KP-54 on the release of reproductive hormones in women with HA. When KP-54 was administered twice daily, responsiveness to luteinizing hormone (LH) diminished gradually, whereas responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was nearly abolished by day 2. Twice-weekly KP-54 administration resulted in only partial desensitization, in contrast to the complete tolerance achieved with twice-daily administration. Women with HA who were treated with twice-weekly KP-54 injections had significantly elevated levels of reproductive hormones after 8 weeks as compared with treatment with saline. No adverse effects were observed. This study provides novel pharmacological data on the effects of KP-54 on the release of reproductive hormones in women with HA.

  5. Hyperalgesic activity of kisspeptin in mice

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    Spampinato Simona

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide known for its role in the hypothalamic regulation of the reproductive axis. Following the recent description of kisspeptin and its 7-TM receptor, GPR54, in the dorsal root ganglia and dorsal horns of the spinal cord, we examined the role of kisspeptin in the regulation of pain sensitivity in mice. Results Immunofluorescent staining in the mouse skin showed the presence of GPR54 receptors in PGP9.5-positive sensory fibers. Intraplantar injection of kisspeptin (1 or 3 nmol/5 μl induced a small nocifensive response in naive mice, and lowered thermal pain threshold in the hot plate test. Both intraplantar and intrathecal (0.5 or 1 nmol/3 μl injection of kisspeptin caused hyperalgesia in the first and second phases of the formalin test, whereas the GPR54 antagonist, p234 (0.1 or 1 nmol, caused a robust analgesia. Intraplantar injection of kisspeptin combined with formalin enhanced TRPV1 phosphorylation at Ser800 at the injection site, and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the ipsilateral dorsal horn as compared to naive mice and mice treated with formalin alone. Conclusion These data demonstrate for the first time that kisspeptin regulates pain sensitivity in rodents and suggest that peripheral GPR54 receptors could be targeted by novel drugs in the treatment of inflammatory pain.

  6. Plasma kisspeptin levels in male cases with hypogonadism.

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    Kotani, Masato; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hirai, Tsuyoshi; Kagawa, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic hormone kisspeptin (metastin) regulates human reproduction by modulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. Kisspeptin is detected in peripheral blood, although GnRH is not. In this study, we measured plasma kisspeptin levels in four male cases with hypogonadism and seven normal male controls using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to elucidate the clinical implications of kisspeptin levels in male hypogonadism. The results showed a variety of plasma kisspeptin levels: 6.0 fmol/mL in a male with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), 43.2 fmol/mL in a male with Kallmann's syndrome, 40.7 fmol/mL in a male with azoospermia, 323.2 fmol/mL in a male with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and 12.3 ± 2.5 fmol/mL (mean ± SD) in seven normal controls. Except for the case with IHH, the plasma kisspetin levels were elevated in the three cases with Kallmann's syndrome, azoospermia, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. The reason why the three cases had high values was their lesions were downstream of the kisspeptin neuron in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, suggesting that elevated kisspeptin levels were implicated in hypothalamic kisspeptin secretion under decreased negative feedback of gonadal steroids. The result that the plasma kisspeptin levels were decreased by gonadotropin therapy in the case with Kallmann's syndrome supported this hypothesis. In conclusion, to measure plasma kisspeptin levels could be useful for better understanding of male hypogonadism.

  7. The Emerging Role(s for Kisspeptin in Metabolism in Mammals

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    Andrew Wolfe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Kisspeptin was initially identified as a metastasis suppressor. Shortly after the initial discovery, a key physiologic role for kisspeptin emerged in the regulation of fertility, with kisspeptin acting as a neurotransmitter via the kisspeptin receptor, its cognate receptor, to regulate hypothalamic GnRH neurons, thereby affecting pituitary–gonadal function. Recent work has demonstrated a more expansive role for kisspeptin signaling in a variety of organ systems. Kisspeptin has been revealed as a significant player in regulating glucose homeostasis, feeding behavior, body composition as well as cardiac function. The direct impact of kisspeptin on peripheral metabolic tissues has only recently been recognized. Here, we review the emerging endocrine role of kisspeptin in regulating metabolic function. Controversies and current limitations in the field as well as areas of future studies toward kisspeptin’s diverse array of functions will be highlighted.

  8. Kisspeptin modulates sexual and emotional brain processing in humans.

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    Comninos, Alexander N; Wall, Matthew B; Demetriou, Lysia; Shah, Amar J; Clarke, Sophie A; Narayanaswamy, Shakunthala; Nesbitt, Alexander; Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Prague, Julia K; Abbara, Ali; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Salem, Victoria; Nijher, Gurjinder M; Jayasena, Channa N; Tanner, Mark; Bassett, Paul; Mehta, Amrish; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Hönigsperger, Christoph; Silva, Meire Ribeiro; Brandtzaeg, Ole Kristian; Lundanes, Elsa; Wilson, Steven Ray; Brown, Rachel C; Thomas, Sarah A; Bloom, Stephen R; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2017-02-01

    Sex, emotion, and reproduction are fundamental and tightly entwined aspects of human behavior. At a population level in humans, both the desire for sexual stimulation and the desire to bond with a partner are important precursors to reproduction. However, the relationships between these processes are incompletely understood. The limbic brain system has key roles in sexual and emotional behaviors, and is a likely candidate system for the integration of behavior with the hormonal reproductive axis. We investigated the effects of kisspeptin, a recently identified key reproductive hormone, on limbic brain activity and behavior. Using a combination of functional neuroimaging and hormonal and psychometric analyses, we compared the effects of kisspeptin versus vehicle administration in 29 healthy heterosexual young men. We demonstrated that kisspeptin administration enhanced limbic brain activity specifically in response to sexual and couple-bonding stimuli. Furthermore, kisspeptin's enhancement of limbic brain structures correlated with psychometric measures of reward, drive, mood, and sexual aversion, providing functional significance. In addition, kisspeptin administration attenuated negative mood. Collectively, our data provide evidence of an undescribed role for kisspeptin in integrating sexual and emotional brain processing with reproduction in humans. These results have important implications for our understanding of reproductive biology and are highly relevant to the current pharmacological development of kisspeptin as a potential therapeutic agent for patients with common disorders of reproductive function. National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Wellcome Trust (Ref 080268), and the Medical Research Council (MRC).

  9. Kisspeptin/Kisspeptin Receptor System in the Ovary

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    Kai-Lun Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kisspeptins are a family of neuropeptides that are critical for initiating puberty and regulating ovulation in sexually mature females via the central control of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. Recent studies have shown that kisspeptin and its receptor kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R are expressed in the mammalian ovary. Convincing evidence indicates that kisspeptins can activate a wide variety of signals via its binding to KISS1R. Experimental data gathered recently suggest a putative role of kisspeptin signaling in the direct control of ovarian function, including follicular development, oocyte maturation, steroidogenesis, and ovulation. Dysregulation or naturally occurring mutations of the kisspeptin/KISS1R system may negatively affect the ovarian function, leading to reproductive pathology or female infertility. A comprehensive understanding of the expression, actions, and underlying molecular mechanisms of this system in the human ovary is essential for novel approaches to therapeutic and diagnostic interventions in reproductive diseases and infertility.

  10. Kisspeptin system in ovariectomized mice: Estradiol and progesterone regulation.

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    Marraudino, Marilena; Martini, Mariangela; Trova, Sara; Farinetti, Alice; Ponti, Giovanna; Gotti, Stefano; Panzica, GianCarlo

    2018-06-01

    The kisspeptin system is clustered in two main groups of cell bodies (the periventricular region, RP3V and the arcuate nucleus, ARC) that send fibers mainly to the GnRH neurons and in a few other locations, including the paraventricular nucleus, PVN. In physiological conditions, gonadal hormones modulate the kisspeptin system with expression changes according to different phases of the estrous cycle: the highest being in estrus phase in RP3V and PVN (positive feedback), and in ARC during the diestrus phase (negative feedback). In this work we wanted to study these hormonal fluctuations during the estrous cycle, investigating the role played by progesterone (P) or estradiol (E 2 ), alone or together, on the kisspeptin system. Gonadectomized CD1 female mice were treated with P, E 2 or both (E 2  + P), following a timing of administration that emulates the different phases of estrous cycle, for two cycles of 4 days. As expected, the two cell groups were differentially affected by E 2 ; the RP3V group was positively influenced by E 2 (alone or with the P), whereas in the ARC the administration of E 2 did not affect the system. However P (alone) induced a rise in the kisspeptin immunoreactivity. All the treatments significantly affected the kisspeptin innervation of the PVN, with regional differences, suggesting that these fibers arrive from both RP3V and ARC nuclei. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Kisspeptin and Puberty in Mammals

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    Terasawa, Ei; Guerriero, Kathryn A.; Plant, Tony M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of the G-protein coupled receptor (kisspeptin receptor) and its ligand, kisspeptin, our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms that govern the pituitary-gonadal axis has evolved dramatically. In this chapter, we have reviewed progress regarding the relationship between kisspeptin and puberty, and have proposed a novel hypothesis for the role of kisspeptin signaling in the onset of this crucial developmental event. According to this hypothesis, although kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) are critical for puberty, this is simply because these cells are an integral component of the hypothalamic GnRH pulse generating mechanism that drives intermittent release of the decapeptide, as an increase in GnRH is obligatory for the onset of puberty. In our model, ARC kisspeptin neurons play no “regulatory” role in controlling the timing of puberty. Rather, as a component of the neural network responsible for GnRH pulse generation, they subserve upstream regulatory mechanisms that are responsible for the timing of puberty. PMID:23550010

  12. Kisspeptin and energy balance in reproduction.

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    De Bond, Julie-Ann P; Smith, Jeremy T

    2014-03-01

    Kisspeptin is vital for the neuroendocrine regulation of GNRH secretion. Kisspeptin neurons are now recognized as a central pathway responsible for conveying key homeostatic information to GNRH neurons. This pathway is likely to mediate the well-established link between energy balance and reproductive function. Thus, in states of severely altered energy balance (either negative or positive), fertility is compromised, as is Kiss1 expression in the arcuate nucleus. A number of metabolic modulators have been proposed as regulators of kisspeptin neurons including leptin, ghrelin, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Whether these regulate kisspeptin neurons directly or indirectly will be discussed. Moreover, whether the stimulatory role of leptin on reproduction is mediated by kisspeptin directly will be questioned. Furthermore, in addition to being expressed in GNRH neurons, the kisspeptin receptor (Kiss1r) is also expressed in other areas of the brain, as well as in the periphery, suggesting alternative roles for kisspeptin signaling outside of reproduction. Interestingly, kisspeptin neurons are anatomically linked to, and can directly excite, anorexigenic POMC neurons and indirectly inhibit orexigenic NPY neurons. Thus, kisspeptin may have a direct role in regulating energy balance. Although data from Kiss1r knockout and WT mice found no differences in body weight, recent data indicate that kisspeptin may still play a role in food intake and glucose homeostasis. Thus, in addition to regulating reproduction, and mediating the effect of energy balance on reproductive function, kisspeptin signaling may also be a direct regulator of metabolism.

  13. Peripheral administration of lactate produces antidepressant-like effects

    KAUST Repository

    Carrard, A; Elsayed, M; Margineanu, Michael B.; Boury-Jamot, B; Fragniè re, L; Meylan, E M; Petit, J-M; Fiumelli, Hubert; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Martin, J-L

    2016-01-01

    In addition to its role as metabolic substrate that can sustain neuronal function and viability, emerging evidence supports a role for l-lactate as an intercellular signaling molecule involved in synaptic plasticity. Clinical and basic research studies have shown that major depression and chronic stress are associated with alterations in structural and functional plasticity. These findings led us to investigate the role of l-lactate as a potential novel antidepressant. Here we show that peripheral administration of l-lactate produces antidepressant-like effects in different animal models of depression that respond to acute and chronic antidepressant treatment. The antidepressant-like effects of l-lactate are associated with increases in hippocampal lactate levels and with changes in the expression of target genes involved in serotonin receptor trafficking, astrocyte functions, neurogenesis, nitric oxide synthesis and cAMP signaling. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of l-lactate may help to identify novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of depression.

  14. Peripheral administration of lactate produces antidepressant-like effects

    KAUST Repository

    Carrard, A

    2016-10-18

    In addition to its role as metabolic substrate that can sustain neuronal function and viability, emerging evidence supports a role for l-lactate as an intercellular signaling molecule involved in synaptic plasticity. Clinical and basic research studies have shown that major depression and chronic stress are associated with alterations in structural and functional plasticity. These findings led us to investigate the role of l-lactate as a potential novel antidepressant. Here we show that peripheral administration of l-lactate produces antidepressant-like effects in different animal models of depression that respond to acute and chronic antidepressant treatment. The antidepressant-like effects of l-lactate are associated with increases in hippocampal lactate levels and with changes in the expression of target genes involved in serotonin receptor trafficking, astrocyte functions, neurogenesis, nitric oxide synthesis and cAMP signaling. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of l-lactate may help to identify novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of depression.

  15. Kisspeptin and Metabolism: The Brain and Beyond

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    Monika Dudek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Apart from the well-established role of kisspeptin (Kp in the regulation of reproductive functions, recent data described its action in the control of metabolism. Of particular interest for the review is the population of Kp neurons localized in the arcuate nucleus (ARC of the hypothalamus, the site of the brain where reproductive and metabolic cross talk occurs. However, within the hypothalamus Kp does not work alone, but rather interacts with other neuropeptides, e.g., neurokinin B, dynorphin A, proopiomelanocortin, the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, agouti-related peptide, and neuropeptide Y. Beyond the brain, Kp is expressed in peripheral tissues involved in metabolic functions. In this review, we will mainly focus on the local action of this peptide in peripheral organs such as the pancreas, liver, and the adipose tissue. We will concentrate on dysregulation of the Kp system in cases of metabolic imbalance, e.g., obesity and diabetes. Importantly, these patients besides metabolic health problems often suffer from disruptions of the reproductive system, manifested by abnormalities in menstrual cycles, premature child birth, miscarriages in women, decreased testosterone levels and spermatogenesis in men, hypogonadism, and infertility. We will review the evidence from animal models and clinical data indicating that Kp could serve as a promising agent with clinical applications in regulation of reproductive problems in individuals with obesity and diabetes. Finally, emerging data indicate a role of Kp in regulation of insulin secretion, potentially leading to development of further therapeutic uses of this peptide to treat metabolic problems in patients with these lifestyle diseases.

  16. Kisspeptin and Metabolism: The Brain and Beyond.

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    Dudek, Monika; Ziarniak, Kamil; Sliwowska, Joanna H

    2018-01-01

    Apart from the well-established role of kisspeptin (Kp) in the regulation of reproductive functions, recent data described its action in the control of metabolism. Of particular interest for the review is the population of Kp neurons localized in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus, the site of the brain where reproductive and metabolic cross talk occurs. However, within the hypothalamus Kp does not work alone, but rather interacts with other neuropeptides, e.g., neurokinin B, dynorphin A, proopiomelanocortin, the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, agouti-related peptide, and neuropeptide Y. Beyond the brain, Kp is expressed in peripheral tissues involved in metabolic functions. In this review, we will mainly focus on the local action of this peptide in peripheral organs such as the pancreas, liver, and the adipose tissue. We will concentrate on dysregulation of the Kp system in cases of metabolic imbalance, e.g., obesity and diabetes. Importantly, these patients besides metabolic health problems often suffer from disruptions of the reproductive system, manifested by abnormalities in menstrual cycles, premature child birth, miscarriages in women, decreased testosterone levels and spermatogenesis in men, hypogonadism, and infertility. We will review the evidence from animal models and clinical data indicating that Kp could serve as a promising agent with clinical applications in regulation of reproductive problems in individuals with obesity and diabetes. Finally, emerging data indicate a role of Kp in regulation of insulin secretion, potentially leading to development of further therapeutic uses of this peptide to treat metabolic problems in patients with these lifestyle diseases.

  17. Kisspeptin Antagonists Reveal Kisspeptin 1 and Kisspeptin 2 Differential Regulation of Reproduction in the Teleost, Morone saxatilis.

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    Zmora, Nilli; Stubblefield, John David; Wong, Ten-Tsao; Levavi-Sivan, Berta; Millar, Robert Peter; Zohar, Yonathan

    2015-09-01

    The importance of kisspeptin in regulating vertebrate reproduction has been well established, but the exact mechanism continues to unfold. Unlike mammals, many lower vertebrates possess a dual kisspeptin system, Kiss1 and Kiss2. To decipher the roles of the kisspeptins in fish, we identified two potential kisspeptin antagonists, pep 234 and pep 359, by screening analogs for their ability to inactivate striped bass Kiss1 and Kiss2 receptors expressed in COS7 cells. Pep 234 (a mammalian KISS1 antagonist) antagonizes Kiss1r signaling activated by Kiss1 and Kiss2, and pep 359 (a novel analog) antagonizes Kiss2 activation of both receptors. In vitro studies using brain slices demonstrated that only Kiss2 can upregulate the expression of the hypophysiotropic gnrh1, which was subsequently diminished by pep 234 and pep 359. In primary pituitary cell cultures, the two antagonists revealed a complex network of putative endogenous and exogenous regulation by kisspeptin. While both kisspeptins stimulate Fsh expression and secretion, Kiss2 predominately induces Lh secretion. Pep 234 and 359 treatment of spawning males hindered sperm production. This effect was accompanied with decreased brain gnrh1 and gnrh2 mRNA levels and peptide content in the pituitary, and increased levels of pituitary Lh, probably due to attenuation of Lh release. Strikingly, the mRNA levels of arginine-vasotocin, the neurons of which in the preoptic area coexpress kiss2r, were dramatically reduced by the antagonists. Our results demonstrate differential actions of Kiss1 and Kiss2 systems along the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and interactions with other neuropeptides, and further reinforce the importance of kisspeptin in the execution of spawning. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  18. Neuroendocrine control by kisspeptins: role in metabolic regulation of fertility.

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    Navarro, Victor M; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2011-09-13

    The neurohormonal control of reproduction involves a hierarchical network of central and peripheral signals in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Development and function of this neuroendocrine system is the result of a lifelong delicate balance between endogenous regulators and environmental cues, including nutritional and metabolic factors. Kisspeptins are the peptide products of KISS1, which operate via the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54 (also known as Kiss1R). These peptides have emerged as essential upstream regulators of neurons secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the major hypothalamic node for the stimulatory control of the HPG axis. They are potent elicitors of gonadotropin secretion in various species and physiological settings. Moreover, Kiss1 neurons in the hypothalamus participate in crucial features of reproductive maturation and function, such as brain-level sex differentiation, puberty onset and the neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin secretion and ovulation. Cotransmitters of Kiss1 neurons, such as neurokinin B, with roles in controlling the HPG axis have been identified by genetic, neuroanatomical and physiological studies. In addition, a putative role has been proposed for Kiss1 neurons in transmitting metabolic information to GnRH neurons, although the precise mechanisms are as yet unclear. In this Review, we present the major reproductive features of kisspeptins, especially their interplay with neurokinin B and potential roles in the metabolic control of puberty and fertility, and suggest new avenues for research.

  19. Kisspeptin, unexplained infertility and embryo implantation

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    Aaida Mumtaz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Kisspeptin (KP is a neuropeptide that causes the release of the gonadotropin releasing hormone, which controls hypothalamo pituitary ovarian axis and exerts a number of peripheral effects on reproductive organs. The primary objective of this study was to compare baseline KP levels in females with different types of infertility and identify possible correlations with risk of failure to conceive, preclinical abortion and pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Materials and Methods A longitudinal cohort study was carried out from August 2014 until May 2015 by recruiting 124 female patients undergoing ICSI, after obtaining ethical approval from the Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center. Cause of infertility due to male, female and unexplained factors was at a frequency of 32 (24%, 33 (31% and 59 (45% among the individuals respectively. KP levels were measured by ELISA assay before the initiation of the ICSI treatment protocol. Outcome of ICSI was categorized into three groups of non-pregnant with beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG25 mIU/ml and no cardiac activity, and clinical pregnancy declared upon confirmation of cardiac activity. Results based on cause of infertility and outcome groups were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results Females with unexplained infertility had significantly lower levels of KP when compared with those with male factor infertility (176.69 ± 5.03 vs. 397.6 ± 58.2, P=0.001. Clinical pregnancy was observed in 28 (23% females of which 17 (71% had a female cause of infertility. In the non-pregnant group of 66 (53% females, common cause of infertility was unexplained 56(85%. A weak positive correlation of KP levels with fertilized oocytes and endometrial thickness was observed (P=0.04 and 0.01 respectively. Conclusion Deficiency of KP in females with unexplained infertility was associated with reduced chances of implantation after ICSI.

  20. Kisspeptin and LH pulsatile temporal coupling in PCOS patients.

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    Katulski, Krzysztof; Podfigurna, Agnieszka; Czyzyk, Adam; Meczekalski, Blazej; Genazzani, Alessandro D

    2018-05-04

    To evaluate the temporal coupling between spontaneous kisspeptin and luteinizing hormone (LH) pulsatile releases in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. We examined 71 patients diagnosed with PCOS. A 2 h pulsatility study was performed to evaluate serum kisspeptin and LH pulse frequency and concentration, sampled every 10 min; baseline follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), cortisol, 17-hydroksy-progesterone (17OHP), testosterone (T), free testosterone index (FTI, and insulin levels were also measured. Detect and Specific Concordance (SC) algorithms were used to evaluate the temporal coupling associations between spontaneous episodic secretion of kisspeptin and LH. All PCOS patients demonstrated LH and kisspeptin pulsatile secretions. When the SC index was calculated across the sample of PCOS patients (n = 71), no temporal coupling was observed between kisspeptin and LH pulses. When PCOS patients were subdivided according to their menstrual cyclicity, oligomenorrheic patients demonstrated elevated kisspeptin pulse frequency. Additionally, the SC index reveled a temporal coupling between kisspeptin and LH secretory peaks only in eumenorrheic patients (n = 30, intermenstrual interval PCOS patients (intermenstrual interval > 45 days) did not demonstrate temporal coupling between kisspeptin and LH secretory peaks. The study of the endogenous kisspeptin and LH pulsatile release revealed the temporal coupling of kisspeptin with LH secretory pulses only in eumenorrheic. This data supports the hypothesis that neuroendocrine impairments in PCOS affect the coupling of kisspeptin with LH pulses and potentially worsen as the disease progresses, becoming unequivocally evident in oligomenorrheic PCOS patients.

  1. A second dose of kisspeptin-54 improves oocyte maturation in women at high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a Phase 2 randomized controlled trial.

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    Abbara, Ali; Clarke, Sophie; Islam, Rumana; Prague, Julia K; Comninos, Alexander N; Narayanaswamy, Shakunthala; Papadopoulou, Deborah; Roberts, Rachel; Izzi-Engbeaya, Chioma; Ratnasabapathy, Risheka; Nesbitt, Alexander; Vimalesvaran, Sunitha; Salim, Rehan; Lavery, Stuart A; Bloom, Stephen R; Huson, Les; Trew, Geoffrey H; Dhillo, Waljit S

    2017-09-01

    Can increasing the duration of LH-exposure with a second dose of kisspeptin-54 improve oocyte maturation in women at high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)? A second dose of kisspeptin-54 at 10 h following the first improves oocyte yield in women at high risk of OHSS. Kisspeptin acts at the hypothalamus to stimulate the release of an endogenous pool of GnRH from the hypothalamus. We have previously reported that a single dose of kisspeptin-54 results in an LH-surge of ~12-14 h duration, which safely triggers oocyte maturation in women at high risk of OHSS. Phase-2 randomized placebo-controlled trial of 62 women at high risk of OHSS recruited between August 2015 and May 2016. Following controlled ovarian stimulation, all patients (n = 62) received a subcutaneous injection of kisspeptin-54 (9.6 nmol/kg) 36 h prior to oocyte retrieval. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either a second dose of kisspeptin-54 (D; Double, n = 31), or saline (S; Single, n = 31) 10 h thereafter. Patients, embryologists, and IVF clinicians remained blinded to the dosing allocation. Study participants: Sixty-two women aged 18-34 years at high risk of OHSS (antral follicle count ≥23 or anti-Mullerian hormone level ≥40 pmol/L). Setting: Single centre study carried out at Hammersmith Hospital IVF unit, London, UK. Primary outcome: Proportion of patients achieving an oocyte yield (percentage of mature oocytes retrieved from follicles ≥14 mm on morning of first kisspeptin-54 trigger administration) of at least 60%. Secondary outcomes: Reproductive hormone levels, implantation rate and OHSS occurrence. A second dose of kisspeptin-54 at 10 h following the first induced further LH-secretion at 4 h after administration. A higher proportion of patients achieved an oocyte yield ≥60% following a second dose of kisspeptin-54 (Single: 14/31, 45%, Double: 21/31, 71%; absolute difference +26%, CI 2-50%, P = 0.042). Patients receiving two doses of kisspeptin-54 had a variable LH

  2. Distinct BOLD activation profiles following central and peripheral oxytocin administration in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig F Ferris

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature has suggested that intranasal oxytocin (OT or other systemic routes of administration can alter prosocial behavior, presumably by directly activating OT sensitive neural circuits in the brain. Yet there is no clear evidence that OT given peripherally can cross the blood-brain-barrier at levels sufficient to engage the OT receptor. To address this issue we examined changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal intensity in response to peripheral OT injections (0.1, 0.5 or 2.5 mg/kg during functional magnetic resonance (fMRI in awake rats imaged at 7.0 tesla. These data were compared to OT (1ug/5 µl given directly to the brain via the lateral cerebroventricle. Using a 3D annotated MRI atlas of the rat brain segmented into 171 brain areas and computational analysis we reconstructed the distributed integrated neural circuits identified with BOLD fMRI following central and peripheral OT. Both routes of administration caused significant changes in BOLD signal within the first 10 min of administration. As expected, central OT activated a majority of brain areas known to express a high density of OT receptors e.g., lateral septum, subiculum, shell of the accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This profile of activation was not matched by peripheral OT. The change in BOLD signal to peripheral OT did not show any discernible dose-response. Interestingly, peripheral OT affected all subdivisions of the olfactory bulb, in addition to the cerebellum and several brainstem areas relevant to the autonomic nervous system, including the solitary tract nucleus. The results from this imaging study do not support a direct central action of peripheral OT on the brain. Instead, the patterns of brain activity suggest that peripheral OT may interact at the level of the olfactory bulb and through sensory afferents from the autonomic nervous system to influence brain activity.

  3. Rapid intracerebroventricular delivery of Cu-DOTA-etanercept after peripheral administration demonstrated by PET imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaoyuan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytokines interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF, and the cytokine blocker interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, all have been demonstrated to enter the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF following peripheral administration. Recent reports of rapid clinical improvement in patients with Alzheimer's disease and related forms of dementia following perispinal administration of etanercept, a TNF antagonist, suggest that etanercept also has the ability to reach the brain CSF. To investigate, etanercept was labeled with a positron emitter to enable visualization of its intracranial distribution following peripheral administration by PET in an animal model. Findings Radiolabeling of etanercept with the PET emitter 64Cu was performed by DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazadodecane-N,N',N",N"'-tetraacetic acid conjugation of etanercept, followed by column purification and 64Cu labeling. MicroPET imaging revealed accumulation of 64Cu-DOTA-etanercept within the lateral and third cerebral ventricles within minutes of peripheral perispinal administration in a normal rat anesthesized with isoflurane anesthesia, with concentration within the choroid plexus and into the CSF. Conclusion Synthesis of 64Cu-DOTA-etanercept enabled visualization of its intracranial distribution by microPET imaging. MicroPET imaging documented rapid accumulation of 64Cu-DOTA-etanercept within the choroid plexus and the cerebrospinal fluid within the cerebral ventricles of a living rat after peripheral administration. Further study of the effects of etanercept and TNF at the level of the choroid plexus may yield valuable insights into the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Kisspeptins: bridging energy homeostasis and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, Juan M; Bentsen, Agnete H; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2010-01-01

    RH neurons. This review recapitulates the experimental evidence obtained to date, mostly in laboratory rodents, supporting the function of kisspeptins in bridging energy balance and reproduction, with special emphasis on recent developments in this field, such as the recognition of mTOR (mammalian target...

  5. Catheter indwell time and phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasalioglu, Kadriye Burcu; Kaya, Hatice

    2014-07-01

    Intravenous catheters have been indispensable tools of modern medicine. Although intravenous applications can be used for a multitude of purposes, these applications may cause complications, some of which have serious effects. Of these complications, the most commonly observed is phlebitis. This study was conducted to determine the effect of catheter indwell time on phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration. This study determined the effect of catheter indwell time on phlebitis development during peripheral intravenous catheter administration. The study included a total of 103 individuals who were administered 439 catheters and satisfied the study enrollment criteria at one infectious diseases clinic in Istanbul/Turkey. Data were compiled from Patient Information Forms, Peripheral Intravenous Catheter and Therapy Information Forms, reported grades based on the Visual Infusion Phlebitis Assessment Scale, and Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Nurse Observation Forms. The data were analyzed using SPSS. Results : The mean patient age was 53.75±15.54 (standard deviation) years, and 59.2% of the study participants were men. Phlebitis was detected in 41.2% of peripheral intravenous catheters, and the rate decreased with increased catheter indwell time. Analyses showed that catheter indwell time, antibiotic usage, sex, and catheterization sites were significantly associated with development of phlebitis. The results of this study show that catheters can be used for longer periods of time when administered under optimal conditions and with appropriate surveillance.

  6. The neuroanatomy of the kisspeptin system in the mammalian brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Jens D; Simonneaux, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    , little data are available about the localization of kisspeptin neurons in the brain, and in particular the projection patterns of kisspeptin containing axons implicated in regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis. This review covers the current information about the localization of kisspeptin...... neurons in the mammalian brain and discusses the facts and artifacts of the methods of their detection. The available data suggest that kisspeptins are synthesized in neurons in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus and the arcuate nucleus. Both populations are considered to be involved in control...

  7. Saliva oxytocin measures do not reflect peripheral plasma concentrations after intranasal oxytocin administration in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Westlye, Lars T; Smerud, Knut T; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Andreassen, Ole A; Djupesland, Per G

    2018-05-16

    Oxytocin plays an important role in social behavior. Thus, there has been significant research interest for the role of the oxytocin system in several psychiatric disorders, and the potential of intranasal oxytocin administration to treat social dysfunction. Measurement of oxytocin concentrations in saliva are sometimes used to approximate peripheral levels of oxytocin; however, the validity of this approach is unclear. In this study, saliva and plasma oxytocin was assessed after two doses of Exhalation Delivery System delivered intranasal oxytocin (8 IU and 24 IU), intravenous oxytocin (1 IU) and placebo in a double-dummy, within-subjects design with men. We found that intranasal oxytocin (8 IU and 24 IU) administration increased saliva oxytocin concentrations in comparison to saliva oxytocin concentration levels after intravenous and placebo administration. Additionally, we found that saliva oxytocin concentrations were not significantly associated with plasma oxytocin concentrations after either intranasal or intravenous oxytocin administration. Altogether, we suggest that saliva oxytocin concentrations do not accurately index peripheral oxytocin after intranasal or intravenous oxytocin administration, at least in men. The data indicates that elevated oxytocin saliva levels after nasal delivery primarily reflect exogenous administered oxytocin that is cleared from the nasal cavity to the oropharynx, and is therefore a weak surrogate for peripheral blood measurements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Distinct BOLD Activation Profiles Following Central and Peripheral Oxytocin Administration in Awake Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Craig F; Yee, Jason R; Kenkel, William M; Dumais, Kelly Marie; Moore, Kelsey; Veenema, Alexa H; Kulkarni, Praveen; Perkybile, Allison M; Carter, C Sue

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature has suggested that intranasal oxytocin (OT) or other systemic routes of administration can alter prosocial behavior, presumably by directly activating OT sensitive neural circuits in the brain. Yet there is no clear evidence that OT given peripherally can cross the blood-brain barrier at levels sufficient to engage the OT receptor. To address this issue we examined changes in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity in response to peripheral OT injections (0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/kg) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake rats imaged at 7.0 T. These data were compared to OT (1 μg/5 μl) given directly to the brain via the lateral cerebroventricle. Using a 3D annotated MRI atlas of the rat brain segmented into 171 brain areas and computational analysis, we reconstructed the distributed integrated neural circuits identified with BOLD fMRI following central and peripheral OT. Both routes of administration caused significant changes in BOLD signal within the first 10 min of administration. As expected, central OT activated a majority of brain areas known to express a high density of OT receptors, e.g., lateral septum, subiculum, shell of the accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This profile of activation was not matched by peripheral OT. The change in BOLD signal to peripheral OT did not show any discernible dose-response. Interestingly, peripheral OT affected all subdivisions of the olfactory bulb, in addition to the cerebellum and several brainstem areas relevant to the autonomic nervous system, including the solitary tract nucleus. The results from this imaging study do not support a direct central action of peripheral OT on the brain. Instead, the patterns of brain activity suggest that peripheral OT may interact at the level of the olfactory bulb and through sensory afferents from the autonomic nervous system to influence brain activity.

  9. Kisspeptins and RFRP-3 act in concert to synchronize rodent reproduction with seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie eSimonneaux

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal mammals use the photoperiodic variation in the nocturnal production of the pineal hormone melatonin to synchronize their reproductive activity with seasons. In rodents, the short day profile of melatonin secretion has long been proven to inhibit reproductive activity. Lately, we demonstrated that melatonin regulates the expression of the hypothalamic peptides kisspeptins (Kp and RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3, recently discovered as potent regulators of GnRH neuron activity. In the male Syrian hamster, Kp expression in the arcuate nucleus is down-regulated by melatonin independently of the inhibitory feedback of testosterone. A central or peripheral administration of Kp induces an increase in pituitary gonadotropins and gonadal hormone secretion, but most importantly a chronic infusion of the peptide reactivates the photoinhibited reproductive axis of Syrian hamsters kept in short day conditions. RFRP-3 expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus is also strongly inhibited by melatonin in a short day photoperiod. Although RFRP-3 is usually considered as an inhibitory component of the gonadotropic axis, a central acute administration of RFRP-3 in the male Syrian hamster induces a marked increase in gonadotropin secretion and testosterone production. Furthermore, a chronic central infusion of RFRP-3 in short day-adapted hamsters reactivates the reproductive axis, in the same manner as Kp. Both Kp and RFRP-3 neurons project onto GnRH neurons and both neuropeptides regulate GnRH neuron activity. In addition, central RFRP-3 infusion was associated with a significant increase in arcuate Kp expression. However, the actual sites of action of both peptides in the Syrian hamster brain are still unknown. Altogether our findings indicate that Kp and RFRP neurons are pivotal relays for the seasonal regulation of reproduction, and also suggest that RFRP neurons might be the primary target of the melatoninergic message.

  10. Metabolic control of puberty: roles of leptin and kisspeptins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Garrido, Miguel A; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Reproduction is an energy-demanding function. Accordingly, puberty is metabolically gated, as a means to prevent fertility in conditions of energy insufficiency. In addition, obesity has been shown to impact the timing of puberty and may be among the causes for the earlier trends of pubertal age reported in various countries. The metabolic control of puberty in such a spectrum of situations, ranging from energy deficit to extreme overweight, is the result of the concerted action of different peripheral hormones and central transmitters that sense the metabolic state of the organism and transmit this information to the various elements of the reproductive axis, mainly the GnRH neurons. Among the peripheral signals involved, the adipose hormone, leptin, is known to play an essential role in the regulation of puberty, especially in females. Yet, although it is clear that the effects of leptin on puberty onset are predominantly permissive and mainly conducted at central (hypothalamic) levels, the primary sites and mechanisms of action of leptin within the reproductive brain remain unsolved. In this context, neurons expressing kisspeptins, the products of the Kiss1 gene that have emerged recently as essential upstream regulators of GnRH neurons, operate as key sensors of the metabolic state and funnel of the reproductive effects of leptin. Yet, much debate has arisen recently on whether the putative actions of leptin on the Kiss1 system are actually indirect and/or may primarily target Kiss1-independent pathways, such as those originating from the ventral premmamilary nucleus. Moreover, evidence has been presented for extra-hypothalamic or peripheral actions of leptin, including direct gonadal effects, which may contribute to the metabolic control of reproduction in extreme body weight conditions. In this work, we will critically review the experimental evidence supporting a role of leptin, kisspeptin

  11. [Advances in the study of neuroendocrinological regulation of kisspeptin in fish reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Qi

    2013-10-01

    Kisspeptin, a key factor in the neuroendocrinological regulation of animal reproduction, is a peptide product encoded by kiss genes, which act as the natural ligand of GPR54. Over the last decade, multiple functional molecular forms of kisspeptin have been found in vertebrate species. In fish, the major molecular structural form is kisspeptin-10. The kisspeptin/GPR54 system has multiple important functions in reproduction. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge on kisspeptin and its role in regulating fish reproductive, including the distribution and location of kisspeptin neurons in the brain, the molecular polymorphism of fish kisspeptin, functional diversity, the molecular mechanism of fish reproductive regulation, and the molecular evolution of kisspeptin as well as the co-regulation of fish reproduction by kisspeptin and other functional molecules. Perspectives on the future of kisspeptin regulation in fish reproduction are also highlighted.

  12. Development and aging of the Kisspeptin-GPR54 system in the mammalian brain: what are the impacts on female reproductive function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eFranceschini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The prominent role of the G protein coupled receptor GPR54 and its peptide ligand kisspeptin in the progression of puberty has been extensively documented in many mammalian species including humans. Kisspeptins are very potent GnRH secretagogues produced by two main populations of neurons located in two ventral forebrain regions, the preoptic area and the arcuate nucleus (ARC. Within the last two years a substantial amount of data has accumulated concerning the development of these neuronal populations and their timely regulation by central and peripheral factors during fetal, neonatal and peripubertal stages of development. This review focuses on the development of the Kisspeptin-GPR54 system in the brain of female mouse, rat, sheep, monkey and humans. The notion that this system represents a major target through which signals from the environment early in life can re-program reproductive function will also be discussed.

  13. Intranasal administration of insulin to the brain impacts cognitive function and peripheral metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, V; Benedict, C; Schultes, B; Born, J; Hallschmid, M

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, the central nervous system (CNS) has emerged as a principal site of insulin action. This notion is supported by studies in animals relying on intracerebroventricular insulin infusion and by experiments in humans that make use of the intranasal pathway of insulin administration to the brain. Employing neurobehavioural and metabolic measurements as well as functional imaging techniques, these studies have provided insight into a broad range of central and peripheral effects of brain insulin. The present review focuses on CNS effects of insulin administered via the intranasal route on cognition, in particular memory function, and whole-body energy homeostasis including glucose metabolism. Furthermore, evidence is reviewed that suggests a pathophysiological role of impaired brain insulin signaling in obesity and type 2 diabetes, which are hallmarked by peripheral and possibly central nervous insulin resistance, as well as in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease where CNS insulin resistance might contribute to cognitive dysfunction. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Evidence That Dopamine Acts via Kisspeptin to Hold GnRH Pulse Frequency in Check in Anestrous Ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Matthew J.; Millar, Robert P.; Hileman, Stanley M.; Nestor, Casey C; Whited, Brant; Tseng, Ashlie S.; Coolen, Lique M.; Lehman, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has implicated stimulatory kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) as important for seasonal changes in reproductive function in sheep, but earlier studies support a role for inhibitory A15 dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the suppression of GnRH (and LH) pulse frequency in the nonbreeding (anestrous) season. Because A15 neurons project to the ARC, we performed three experiments to test the hypothesis that A15 neurons act via ARC kisspeptin neurons to inhibit LH in anestrus: 1) we used dual immunocytochemistry to determine whether these ARC neurons contain D2 dopamine receptor (D2-R), the receptor responsible for inhibition of LH in anestrus; 2) we tested the ability of local administration of sulpiride, a D2-R antagonist, into the ARC to increase LH secretion in anestrus; and 3) we determined whether an antagonist to the kisspeptin receptor could block the increase in LH secretion induced by sulpiride in anestrus. In experiment 1, 40% of this ARC neuronal subpopulation contained D2-R in breeding season ewes, but this increased to approximately 80% in anestrus. In experiment 2, local microinjection of the two highest doses (10 and 50 nmol) of sulpiride into the ARC significantly increased LH pulse frequency to levels 3 times that seen with vehicle injections. Finally, intracerebroventricular infusion of a kisspeptin receptor antagonist completely blocked the increase in LH pulse frequency induced by systemic administration of sulpiride to anestrous ewes. These results support the hypothesis that DA acts to inhibit GnRH (and LH) secretion in anestrus by suppressing the activity of ARC kisspeptin neurons. PMID:23038740

  15. Kisspeptins: bridging energy homeostasis and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, Juan M; Bentsen, Agnete H; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2010-01-01

    and reproduction have been the subject of considerable attention; however, our understanding of the neurobiological basis for this phenomenon is still incomplete. In mid 1990s, the adipose-hormone, leptin, was proven as an essential signal for transmitting metabolic information onto the centers governing puberty......RH neurons. This review recapitulates the experimental evidence obtained to date, mostly in laboratory rodents, supporting the function of kisspeptins in bridging energy balance and reproduction, with special emphasis on recent developments in this field, such as the recognition of mTOR (mammalian target...

  16. Impact of Triclosan on Female Reproduction through Reducing Thyroid Hormones to Suppress Hypothalamic Kisspeptin Neurons in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Yuan Cao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Triclosan (TCS, a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, is widely used in clinical settings and various personal care products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of TCS on reproductive endocrine and function. Here, we show that the exposure of adult female mice to 10 or 100 mg/kg/day TCS caused prolongation of diestrus, and decreases in antral follicles and corpora lutea within 2 weeks. TCS mice showed decreases in the levels of serum luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and progesterone, and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH mRNA with the lack of LH surge and elevation of prolactin (PRL. TCS mice had lower kisspeptin immunoreactivity and kiss1 mRNA in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV and arcuate nucleus (ARC. Moreover, the estrogen (E2-enhanced AVPV-kisspeptin expression was reduced in TCS mice. In addition, the serum thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 in TCS mice were reduced with increases in levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and thyroid releasing hormone (TRH. In TCS mice, the treatment with Levothyroxine (L-T4 corrected the increases in PRL, TSH and TRH; the administration of L-T4 or type-2 dopamine receptors agonist quinpirole inhibiting PRL release could rescue the decline of kisspeptin expression in AVPV and ARC; the treatment with L-T4, quinpirole or the GPR45 agonist kisspeptin-10 recovered the levels of serum LH and FSH and progesterone, and GnRH mRNA. Furthermore, TCS mice treated with L-T4 or quinpirole resumed regular estrous cycling, follicular development and ovulation. Together, these results indicate that exposing adult female mice to TCS (≥10 mg/kg reduces thyroid hormones causing hyperprolactinemia that then suppresses hypothalamic kisspeptin expression, leading to deficits in reproductive endocrine and function.

  17. Peripheral blood eosinophilia associated with gastrointestinal administration of iodinated contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavsic, Branko M; Newman, Alan C; Reuther, Warren L; Terry, James A; Drnovsek, Valerie H

    2003-03-01

    This study was designed to assess whether gastrointestinal administration of iodinated contrast media results in peripheral blood eosinophilia. We studied 110 patients in a retrospective review. Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium for abdominal CT were administered to 98 of these patients; 22 of the 98 had also been given the same contrast medium administered by enema. The remaining 12 patients were given diatrizoate sodium for gastrointestinal fluoroscopy. A control group of 65 patients underwent single-contrast barium upper gastrointestinal or enema examinations. WBC and eosinophil counts were determined approximately 24 hr before the examination and every 24 hr thereafter, through the ninth day. Eosinophilia was detected in 17 (15.5%) of 110 patients after gastrointestinal administration of iodinated contrast media. The prevalence of eosinophilia after administration of iodinated contrast media was statistically significantly different compared with that in the control group, in which none of the 65 patients had eosinophilia (p contrast agents and lasted through the sixth day, with a peak on the fifth day. The prevalence of eosinophilia was independent of route of application, dose, or type of iodinated contrast medium. Eosinophilia in all cases was clinically asymptomatic. Eosinophilia that is caused by gastrointestinal administration of iodinated contrast media is a transient, clinically silent phenomenon. It may lead to unnecessary workup for known conditions associated with eosinophilia.

  18. Kisspeptin Expression in the Human Infundibular Nucleus in Relation to Sex, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taziaux, Melanie; Staphorsius, Annemieke S; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Swaab, Dick F; Bakker, Julie

    CONTEXT: Since the discovery of its central role in reproduction, our functional neuroanatomical knowledge of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system is predominantly based on animal studies. Although sex differences in kisspeptin expression have been shown in humans in adulthood, the developmental

  19. Phlebitis as a consequence of peripheral intravenous administration of cisatracurium besylate in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeder, Annelijn M; van der Steen, Marijke S; Rozendaal, Annemieke; van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2016-10-03

    This case report series describes 3 cases of cisatracurium besylate associated phlebitis after an infusion period of 14-20 hours. No similar cases have been reported in the literature. Association of phlebitis with another neuromuscular blocking agent, atracurium, has been described in the literature. The acidity of atracurium is thought to be the main cause. It is recommended that atracurium is administered only via central venous catheters when indicated to infuse over prolonged periods of time due to the acidity. Cisatracurium is a stereoisomer of atracurium and as such has the same molecular weight. Although cisatracurium also has a similar acidity as atracurium, a recommendation concerning infusion via a central venous catheter is lacking. We suggest prolonged administration of cisatracurium besylate only via centrally placed venous catheters or if not possible to careful monitor relevant peripheral intravenous sites to diminish the risks of phlebitis and associated complications or other cutaneous reactions. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Association between plasma kisspeptin levels and adolescent gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluclu, Mustafa Arif; Sen, Selcuk; Cevik, Muazez

    2016-01-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as benign proliferation of male breast glandular tissue. To date, the pathophysiology of adolescent gynecomastia (AG) remains unclear. Kisspeptin is a polypeptide that plays an important role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis. In this study, we investigated whether there is a relationship between kisspeptin and AG. This study included 40 males between 9 and 18 years of age diagnosed with gynecomastia. The control group consisted of 30 young healthy males in the same age range. The participants were evaluated with respect to anthropometric measurements (age, height, body weight, body mass index, breast and pubic stages and testicular volume). The levels of kisspeptin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and ratio of E2 to T were measured in both groups. The mean age was 13.8 years. There were no differences between the groups in terms of anthropometric parameters, plasma gonadotropin levels, estrogen levels, and E2/T (P > 0.05). Plasma kisspeptin (0.77 and 0.54 ng/mL, P < 0.05) and T (253.9 ng/dL and 117.9 ng/dL) levels were significantly higher in the AG group than in the control group (P < 0.001). Kisspeptin levels are an important factor in AG.

  1. Association between plasma kisspeptin levels and adolescent gynecomastia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Arif Aluclu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gynecomastia is defined as benign proliferation of male breast glandular tissue. To date, the pathophysiology of adolescent gynecomastia (AG remains unclear. Kisspeptin is a polypeptide that plays an important role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis. In this study, we investigated whether there is a relationship between kisspeptin and AG. Materials and Methods: This study included 40 males between 9 and 18 years of age diagnosed with gynecomastia. The control group consisted of 30 young healthy males in the same age range. The participants were evaluated with respect to anthropometric measurements (age, height, body weight, body mass index, breast and pubic stages and testicular volume. The levels of kisspeptin, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, and ratio of E2 to T were measured in both groups. Results: The mean age was 13.8 years. There were no differences between the groups in terms of anthropometric parameters, plasma gonadotropin levels, estrogen levels, and E2/T (P > 0.05. Plasma kisspeptin (0.77 and 0.54 ng/mL, P < 0.05 and T (253.9 ng/dL and 117.9 ng/dL levels were significantly higher in the AG group than in the control group (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Kisspeptin levels are an important factor in AG.

  2. Banding or Burdizzo castration and carprofen administration on peripheral leukocyte inflammatory cytokine transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, W Y; Earley, B; Murray, M; Sweeney, T; Gath, V; Crowe, M A

    2011-02-01

    The objective was to investigate if Banding or Burdizzo castration of bulls would alter the gene expression profile of a range of peripheral leukocyte inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α) and to determine if the administration of carprofen (C) before castration would affect the expression of these genes. Thirty Holstein-Friesian bulls (5.5 months; Mean 191±(SEM) 3.7 kg) were blocked by weight and randomly assigned to one of five treatments: (1) untreated control (CON); (2) Banding castration at 0 min (BAND); (3) BAND following an i.v. injection of 1.4 mg/kg BW of carprofen (C) at -20 min (BAND+C); (4) Burdizzo castration at 0 min (BURD); or (5) BURD following 1.4 mg/kg BW of carprofen at -20 min (BURD+C). Blood samples were collected at 1 h before castration and 6, 24 and 48 h post-castration for routine hematology and quantitative real-time PCR analysis of cytokine gene expression analysis. Generally, there were no differences (P>0.05) among treatment groups in hematological variables following castration. Cortisol concentrations were unchanged throughout the experimental period in CON bulls. BURD animals had greater cortisol concentrations than BAND and CON animals at 6 h post treatment. Transitory effects were observed only in the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. The relative expression of IL-6 was greater in the BURD than in the BAND treatment (Pcarprofen administration can affect IL-6 gene expression levels in BURD castrated animals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of intranasal and peripheral oxytocin or gastrin-releasing peptide administration on social interaction and corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Pamela; Awadia, Alisha; Zhao, Leah; Ensan, Donna; Silva, Dinuka; Cayer, Christian; James, Jonathan S; Anisman, Hymie; Merali, Zul

    2016-02-01

    The intranasal route of drug administration has gained increased popularity as it is thought to allow large molecules, such as peptide hormones, more direct access to the brain, while limiting systemic exposure. Several studies have investigated the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in humans as this peptide is associated with prosocial behavior. There are, however, few preclinical studies investigating the effects of intranasal oxytocin administration in rodents. Oxytocin modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and it has been suggested that oxytocin's ability to increase sociability may occur through a reduction in stress reactivity. Another peptide that appears to influence both social behavior and HPA axis activity is gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), but it is not known if these GRP-induced effects are related. With this in mind, in the present study, we assessed the effects of intranasal and intraperitoneal oxytocin and GRP administration on social interaction and release of corticosterone in rats. Intranasal and intraperitoneal administration of 20, but not 5 μg, of oxytocin significantly increased social interaction, whereas intranasal and peripheral administration of GRP (20 but not 5 μg) significantly decreased levels of social interaction. In addition, while intranasal oxytocin (20 μg) had no effect on blood corticosterone levels, a marked increase in blood corticosterone levels was observed following intraperitoneal oxytocin administration. With GRP, intranasal (20 μg) but not peripheral administration increased corticosterone levels. These findings provide further evidence that intranasal peptide delivery can induce behavioral alterations in rodents which is consistent with findings from human studies. In addition, the peptide-induced changes in social interaction were not linked to fluctuations in corticosterone levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Kisspeptin Expression in the Human Infundibular Nucleus in Relation to Sex, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation.

    OpenAIRE

    Taziaux, Mélanie; Staphorsius, Annemieke S.; Ghatei, Mohammad A.; Bloom, Stephen R.; Swaab, Dick F.; Bakker, Julie

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Since the discovery of its central role in reproduction, our functional neuroanatomical knowledge of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system is predominantly based on animal studies. Although sex differences in kisspeptin expression have been shown in humans in adulthood, the developmental origin of this sex difference is unknown. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine the following: 1) when during development the sex difference in kisspeptin expression in the infundibular nucleus w...

  5. Role of Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B in Puberty in Female Non-Human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ei Terasawa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In human patients, loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding kisspeptin (KISS1 and neurokinin B (NKB and their receptors (KISS1R and NK3R, respectively result in an abnormal timing of puberty or the absence of puberty. To understand the neuroendocrine mechanism of puberty, we investigated the contribution of kisspeptin and NKB signaling to the pubertal increase in GnRH release using rhesus monkeys as a model. Direct measurements of GnRH and kisspeptin in the median eminence of the hypothalamus with infusion of agonists and antagonists for kisspeptin and NKB reveal that kisspeptin and NKB signaling stimulate GnRH release independently or collaboratively by forming kisspeptin and NKB neuronal networks depending on the developmental age. For example, while in prepubertal females, kisspeptin and NKB signaling independently stimulate GnRH release, in pubertal females, the formation of a collaborative kisspeptin and NKB network further accelerates the pubertal increase in GnRH release. It is speculated that the collaborative mechanism between kisspeptin and NKB signaling to GnRH neurons is necessary for the complex reproductive function in females.

  6. Kisspeptin Expression in the Human Infundibular Nucleus in Relation to Sex, Gender Identity, and Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taziaux, Melanie; Staphorsius, Annemieke S; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Swaab, Dick F; Bakker, Julie

    2016-06-01

    Since the discovery of its central role in reproduction, our functional neuroanatomical knowledge of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system is predominantly based on animal studies. Although sex differences in kisspeptin expression have been shown in humans in adulthood, the developmental origin of this sex difference is unknown. Our objectives were to determine the following: 1) when during development the sex difference in kisspeptin expression in the infundibular nucleus would emerge and 2) whether this sex difference is related to sexual orientation or transsexuality. Postmortem hypothalamic tissues were collected by The Netherlands Brain Bank, and sections were stained for kisspeptin by immunohistochemistry. Hypothalami of 43 control subjects were categorized into three periods: infant/prepubertal (six girls, seven boys), adult (11 women, seven men), and elderly (six aged women, six aged men). Eight male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals, three HIV(+) heterosexual men, and five HIV(+) homosexual men were also analyzed. We estimated the total number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons within the infundibular nucleus. Quantitative analysis confirmed that the human infundibular kisspeptin system exhibits a female-dominant sex difference. The number of kisspeptin neurons is significantly greater in the infant/prepubertal and elderly periods compared with the adult period. Finally, in MTF transsexuals, but not homosexual men, a female-typical kisspeptin expression was observed. These findings suggest that infundibular kisspeptin neurons are sensitive to circulating sex steroid hormones throughout life and that the sex reversal observed in MTF transsexuals might reflect, at least partially, an atypical brain sexual differentiation.

  7. Kisspeptin stimulates growth hormone release by utilizing Neuropeptide Y pathways and is dependent on the presence of ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although kisspeptin is the primary stimulator of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion and therefore the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis, new findings suggest kisspeptin can also regulate additional neuroendocrine processes including release of growth hormone (GH). Central delivery of kisspep...

  8. [The comparison of blood levels between peripheral vein and tooth extraction wound after the oral administration of antibiotics (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, T; Ookawa, H; Morishita, M; Takeyasu, K; Shiiki, K; Imoto, T

    1981-06-01

    The oral administration of 300 mg of clindamycin was undertaken on 23 patients, of 500 mg of cefadroxil on 11 patients and of 250 mg of talampicillin on 12 patients, and then tooth extraction was performed under local anesthesia. Blood samples were taken from the extraction wound and the peripheral vein at the same time and assayed by the bioassay method. The blood levels of clindamycin and cefadroxil indicated a similar pattern between the extraction wound and the peripheral vein, but the blood level of talampicillin reached peek level rapider than clindamycin and cefadroxil. The blood levels of the extraction wound were 60 - 80% as compared with the venous blood levels with each antimicrobial agent.

  9. The effect of heparin administration on the FT4-levels and on an unspecific peripheral thyroid parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eber, B.; Borkenstein, J.; Leb, G.

    1984-01-01

    Heparin produces changes in FT 4 -levels both in vivo and in vitro as determined by commercial kits. Methods utilising the principle of equilibrium dialysis show significant increases whereas methods using T 4 -tracer analogue techniques reveal marked decreases in FT 4 -values. Possible clinical side-effects of heparin administration such as heparin-induced hyperthyroidism and tachyarrhythmias are discussed. The present results confirm the FT 4 -decreasing effect of in vivo and in vitro administration of heparin with FT 4 -RIAs based on the tracer analogue technique; however, the unspecific peripheral thyroid parameter of systolic time-intervals did not reveal any tendency towards hyperthyroidism. Also the discrepant results dependent on the method used, indicate that, following heparin administration FT 4 -levels do not reflect that hormone concentration is relevant to the metabolism of the whole body. (orig.) [de

  10. A systematic review of extravasation and local tissue injury from administration of vasopressors through peripheral intravenous catheters and central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubani, Osama M; Green, Robert S

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to collect and describe all published reports of local tissue injury or extravasation from vasopressor administration via either peripheral intravenous (IV) or central venous catheter. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases was performed from inception through January 2014 for reports of adults who received vasopressor intravenously via peripheral IV or central venous catheter for a therapeutic purpose. We included primary studies or case reports of vasopressor administration that resulted in local tissue injury or extravasation of vasopressor solution. Eighty-five articles with 270 patients met all inclusion criteria. A total of 325 separate local tissue injury and extravasation events were identified, with 318 events resulting from peripheral vasopressor administration and 7 events resulting from central administration. There were 204 local tissue injury events from peripheral administration of vasopressors, with an average duration of infusion of 55.9 hours (±68.1), median time of 24 hours, and range of 0.08 to 528 hours. In most of these events (174/204, 85.3%), the infusion site was located distal to the antecubital or popliteal fossae. Published data on tissue injury or extravasation from vasopressor administration via peripheral IVs are derived mainly from case reports. Further study is warranted to clarify the safety of vasopressor administration via peripheral IVs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Valuation of the effectiveness of the nitrous oxide administration to the paediatric patient during channelling a peripheral venous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Margenta Gutiérrez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To valuate if the administration of nitrous oxide (Kalinox® during the technique of channelling a peripheral venous level decreases pain, improves the child´s behavior and facilitates the realization of the technique for the nurse. Experimental, randomized clinical trial. Population: children between 6-12 years old with an indication of peripheral venous channeling and medical approbation for administration of Kalinox to the Pediatric ICU unit of the Hospital in Toledo. Sample: 54 subjects in each group (alpha error of 0.05, with a study power of 90% and expecting a mean effect d/s = 0.5 for reducing pain in the experimental group. Main variables: the administration of nitrous oxide (independent variable and level of pain, motor behavior, degree of difficulty in performing the technique, and complications (dependent variables, besides, sociodemographic and clinical variables will be measured. It was used differents validated scales (Oucher, VAS y Frankl and one performed by us. Data will be analyze by SPSS software programme.

  12. Proscillaridin activity in portal and peripheral venous blood after oral administration to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.E.; Bergdahl, B.; Dencker, H.; Wettrell, G.; Linkoeping Univ.

    1977-01-01

    The absorption of proscillaridin A was studied in four patients undergoing catheterization of the portal vein for diagnostic purposes. Proscillaridin 1.5 mg was given as a single oral dose and plasma glycoside activity was analyzed by the 86 Rb-uptake inhibition technique. Proscillaridin appeared rapidly in the portal blood, peak activity being found after 15 min in three and after 30 min in one patient. In peripheral blood the peak activity occurred after approximately 35 min. Despite rapid passage across the gut wall, porto-peripheral differences in glycoside activity were small; they were zero after 4h. The mean amount absorbed as active proscillaridin during the first 4h after the dose was calculated to be only 7.1% of the given amount. Late porto-peripheral differences, probably due to enterohepatic recycling, appeared after 6h in three patients. The results suggest that proscillaridin undergoes first pass inactivation in the gut wall. Enterohepatic recirculation may contribute to the amounts of active glycoside that reach the systemic circulation. (orig.) [de

  13. Role of amygdala kisspeptin in pubertal timing in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Adekunbi

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanism by which maternal obesity disrupts reproductive function in offspring, we examined Kiss1 expression in the hypothalamic arcuate (ARC and anteroventral periventricular (AVPV nuclei, and posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD of pre-pubertal and young adult offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a standard or energy-dense diet for six weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation. Male and female offspring were weaned onto normal diet on postnatal day (pnd 21. Brains were collected on pnd 30 or 100 for qRT-PCR to determine Kiss1 mRNA levels. Maternal obesity increased Kiss1 mRNA expression in the MePD of pre-pubertal male and female offspring, whereas Kiss1 expression was not affected in the ARC or AVPV at this age. Maternal obesity reduced Kiss1 expression in all three brain regions of 3 month old female offspring, but only in MePD of males. The role of MePD kisspeptin on puberty, estrous cyclicity and preovulatory LH surges was assessed directly in a separate group of post-weanling and young adult female rats exposed to a normal diet throughout their life course. Bilateral intra-MePD cannulae connected to osmotic mini-pumps for delivery of kisspeptin receptor antagonist (Peptide 234 for 14 days were chronically implanted on pnd 21 or 100. Antagonism of MePD kisspeptin delayed puberty onset, disrupted estrous cyclicity and reduced the incidence of LH surges. These data show that the MePD plays a key role in pubertal timing and ovulation and that maternal obesity may act via amygdala kisspeptin signaling to influence reproductive function in the offspring.

  14. Acute inflammation reduces kisspeptin immunoreactivity at the arcuate nucleus and decreases responsiveness to kisspeptin independently of its anorectic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, J M; Bentsen, A H; Romero, M

    2010-01-01

    -IR in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) that was not observed under conditions of metabolic stress induced by 48-h fasting. In addition, absolute responses to kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10), in terms of LH and testosterone secretion, were significantly attenuated in LPS-treated males that also displayed a decrease in food intake...... and body weight. Yet pair-fed males did not show similar alterations in LH and testosterone secretory responses to Kp-10, whose magnitude was preserved, if not augmented, during food restriction. In summary, our data document the impact of acute inflammation on kisspeptin content at the ARC as key center......Severe inflammatory challenges are frequently coupled to decreased food intake and disruption of reproductive function, the latter via deregulation of different signaling pathways that impinge onto GnRH neurons. Recently, the hypothalamic Kiss1 system, a major gatekeeper of GnRH function...

  15. Acute inflammation reduces kisspeptin immunoreactivity at the arcuate nucleus and decreases responsiveness to kisspeptin independently of its anorectic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, J M; Bentsen, A H; Romero, M

    2010-01-01

    , was suggested as potential target for transmitting immune-mediated repression of the gonadotropic axis during acute inflammation, and yet key facets of such a phenomenon remain ill defined. Using lipopolysaccharide S (LPS)-treated male rats as model of inflammation, we document herein the pattern......-IR in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) that was not observed under conditions of metabolic stress induced by 48-h fasting. In addition, absolute responses to kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10), in terms of LH and testosterone secretion, were significantly attenuated in LPS-treated males that also displayed a decrease in food intake...... and body weight. Yet pair-fed males did not show similar alterations in LH and testosterone secretory responses to Kp-10, whose magnitude was preserved, if not augmented, during food restriction. In summary, our data document the impact of acute inflammation on kisspeptin content at the ARC as key center...

  16. Mapping of kisspeptin fibres in the brain of the pro-oestrus rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desroziers, E; Mikkelsen, J; Simonneaux, V

    2010-01-01

    rat brain by comparing precisely the immunoreactive pattern obtained with two antibodies: one specifically directed against kisspeptin-52 (Kp-52), the longest isoform, and the other directed against kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10) whose sequence is common to all putative mature isoforms. With both antibodies......, immunoreactive cell bodies were exclusively observed in the arcuate nucleus, and immunoreactive fibres were confined to the septo-preoptico-hypothalamic continuum of the brain. Fibres were observed in the preoptic area, the diagonal band of Broca, the septohypothalamic area, the anteroventral periventricular...... terminalis were only recognised by antibody anti-Kp-10, suggesting that anti-Kp-10 may recognise a wider range of kisspeptin isoforms than anti-Kp-52 or cross-react with molecules other than kisspeptin in rat tissue. Overall, these results illustrate the variety of projection sites of kisspeptin neurones...

  17. High plasma triglyceride levels strongly correlate with low kisspeptin in the arcuate nucleus of male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, A; Axel, A M; Lie, M E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is well known that reproductive capacity is lower in obese individuals, but what mediators and signals are involved is unclear. Kisspeptin is a potent stimulator of GnRH release, and it has been suggested that kisspeptin neurons located in the arcuate nucleus transmit metabolic...... signals to the GnRH neurons. METHODS: In this study, we measured body weight and plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, testosterone, and triglycerides after high fat diet exposure and correlated these parameters with the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons in the arcuate nucleus of male rats...... with increased fat in the diet. Kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells are not correlated with body weight, testosterone, leptin or insulin. However, we find that the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells is strongly and negatively correlated with the level of plasma triglycerides (R2=0.49, p=0.004). CONCLUSION: We...

  18. Plasma kisspeptin levels are associated with insulin secretion in nondiabetic individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Andreozzi

    Full Text Available To evaluate if plasma kisspeptin concentrations are associated with insulin secretion, as suggested by recent in vitro studies, independently of confounders. 261 nondiabetic subjects were stratified into tertiles according to kisspeptin values. Insulin secretion was assessed using indexes derived from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. After adjusting for age, gender, and BMI, subjects in the highest (tertile 3 kisspeptin group exhibited significantly lower values of insulinogenic index, corrected insulin response (CIR30, and Stumvoll indexes for first-phase and second-phase insulin release as compared with low (tertile 1 or intermediate (tertile 2 kisspeptin groups. Univariate correlations between kisspeptin concentration and metabolic variables showed that kisspeptin concentration was significantly and positively correlated with age, blood pressure, and 2-h post-load glucose, and inversely correlated with BMI, and waist circumference. There was an inverse relationship between kisspeptin levels and OGTT-derived indexes of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. A multivariable regression analysis in a model including all the variables significantly correlated with kisspeptin concentration showed thar age (β = -0.338, P<0.0001, BMI (β = 0.272, P<0.0001, 2-h post-load glucose (β = -0.229, P<0.0001, and kisspeptin (β = -0.105, P = 0.03 remained associated with insulinogenic index. These factors explained 34.6% of the variance of the insulinogenic index. In conclusion, kisspeptin concentrations are associated with insulin secretion independently of important determinants of glucose homeostasis such as gender, age, adiposity, 2-h post-load glucose, and insulin sensitivity.

  19. Kisspeptin Activates Ankrd 26 Gene Expression in Migrating Embryonic GnRH Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eSoga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kisspeptin, a newly discovered neuropeptide regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH. Kisspeptins are a large RF-amide family of peptides. The kisspeptin coded by kiss1 gene is a 145-amino acid- protein that is cleaved to C-terminal peptide kisspeptin-10. G-protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54 has been identified as a kisspeptin receptor, and it is expressed in GnRH neurons and in a variety of cancer cells. In this study, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP labelled GnRH cells with migratory properties, which express GPR54, served as a model to study the effects of kisspeptin on cell migration. We monitored EGFP–GnRH neuronal migration in brain slide culture of embryonic day 14 transgenic rat by live cell imaging system and studied the effects of kisspeptin-10 (1nM treatment for 36h on GnRH migration. Furthermore to determine kisspeptin-induced molecular pathways related with apoptosis, and cytoskeletal changes during neuronal migration, we studied the expression levels of candidate genes in laser captured EGFP–GnRH neurons by real time PCR. We found that there was no change in the expression level of genes related to cell proliferation and apoptosis. The expression of ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein (ankrd 26 in EGFP–GnRH neurons was up-regulated by the exposure to kisspeptin. These studies suggest that ankrd26 gene plays an unidentified role in regulating neuronal movement mediated by kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling, which could be a potential pathway to suppress cell migration.

  20. Daily vs every other day administration of G-CSF following autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Hasan Atilla; Ozer, Ufuk Guney; Bal, Cengiz; Gulbas, Zafer

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether every other day administration of G-CSF was as safe and efficient as daily administration of G-CSF on neutrophil engraftment following autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation (APSCT). Duration of G-CSF administration, incidence of blood stream infections, duration of febrile neutropenia, duration of non-prophylactic antibiotic therapy, transfusion requirements, duration of hospitalization and G-CSF costs were also studied. Forty-seven patients with diagnosis of lymphoma and multiple myeloma undergoing APSCT were randomized to receive post-transplant daily or every other day G-CSF therapy both beginning on day +1. Both groups were comparable with regard to patient characteristics. There was no significant difference in time to neutrophil engraftment (p=0.31). The duration of G-CSF administration was significantly less in the every other day group (pdays, duration of non-prophylactic antibiotics, the incidence of blood stream infections, transfusion requirements and the duration of hospitalization. There was a trend towards a faster platelet recovery in the every other day group, although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.059). The number of doses of G-CSF used per transplant is significantly reduced, resulting in a significant reduction in drug costs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Kisspeptin as a master player in the central control of reproduction in mammals: an overview of kisspeptin research in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Hiroaki; Yamamura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Yoshihiro

    2013-05-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is the regulatory system for reproduction in mammals. Because secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) into the portal vessels is the final step at which the brain controls gonadal activities, the GnRH neuronal system had been thought to be central to the HPG axis. A newly discovered neural peptide, kisspeptin, has opened a new era in reproductive neuroendocrinology. As shown in a variety of mammals, kisspeptin is a potent endogenous secretagogue of GnRH, and the kisspeptin neuronal system governs both the pulsatile GnRH secretion that drives folliculogenesis, spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis, and the GnRH surge that triggers ovulation in females. The kisspeptin neuronal system is therefore considered a master player in the central control of mammalian reproduction, and kisspeptin and related substances could therefore be valuable for the development of novel strategies for the management of fertility in farm animals. To this end, the present review aimed to summarize the current research on kisspeptin signaling with a focus on domestic animals such as sheep, goats, cattle, pigs and horses. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Role of Kisspeptin and Neurokinin B in Puberty in Female Non-Human Primates

    OpenAIRE

    Ei Terasawa; Ei Terasawa; James P. Garcia; Stephanie B. Seminara; Kim L. Keen

    2018-01-01

    In human patients, loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding kisspeptin (KISS1) and neurokinin B (NKB) and their receptors (KISS1R and NK3R, respectively) result in an abnormal timing of puberty or the absence of puberty. To understand the neuroendocrine mechanism of puberty, we investigated the contribution of kisspeptin and NKB signaling to the pubertal increase in GnRH release using rhesus monkeys as a model. Direct measurements of GnRH and kisspeptin in the median eminence of the h...

  3. Fenofibrate Administration Reduces Alcohol and Saccharin Intake in Rats: Possible Effects at Peripheral and Central Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rivera-Meza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the administration of fenofibrate to high-drinker UChB rats markedly reduces voluntary ethanol intake. Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα agonist, which induces the proliferation of peroxisomes in the liver, leading to increases in catalase levels that result in acetaldehyde accumulation at aversive levels in the blood when animals consume ethanol. In these new studies, we aimed to investigate if the effect of fenofibrate on ethanol intake is produced exclusively in the liver (increasing catalase and systemic levels of acetaldehyde or there might be additional effects at central level. High drinker rats (UChB were allowed to voluntary drink 10% ethanol for 2 months. Afterward, a daily dose of fenofibrate (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day or vehicle (as control was administered orally for 14 days. Voluntary ethanol intake was recorded daily. After that time, animals were deprived of ethanol access for 24 h and administered with an oral dose of ethanol (1 g/kg for acetaldehyde determination in blood. Fenofibrate reduced ethanol voluntary intake by 60%, in chronically drinking rats, at the three doses tested. Acetaldehyde in the blood rose up to between 80 μM and 100 μM. Considering the reduction of ethanol consumption, blood acetaldehyde levels and body weight evolution, the better results were obtained at a dose of 50 mg fenofibrate/kg/day. This dose of fenofibrate also reduced the voluntary intake of 0.2% saccharin by 35% and increased catalase levels 2.5-fold in the liver but showed no effects on catalase levels in the brain. To further study if fenofibrate administration changes the motivational properties of ethanol, a conditioned-place preference experiment was carried out. Animals treated with fenofibrate (50 mg/kg/day did not develop ethanol-conditioned place preference (CPP.In an additional experiment, chronically ethanol-drinking rats underwent two cycles of ethanol

  4. Interactions between prolactin and kisspeptin to control reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Jose; Frazão, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Prolactin is best known for its effects of stimulating mammary gland development and lactogenesis. However, prolactin is a pleiotropic hormone that is able to affect several physiological functions, including fertility. Prolactin receptors (PRLRs) are widely expressed in several tissues, including several brain regions and reproductive tract organs. Upon activation, PRLRs may exert prolactin's functions through several signaling pathways, although the recruitment of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 causes most of the known effects of prolactin. Pathological hyperprolactinemia is mainly due to the presence of a prolactinoma or pharmacological effects induced by drugs that interact with the dopamine system. Notably, hyperprolactinemia is a frequent cause of reproductive dysfunction and may lead to infertility in males and females. Recently, several studies have indicated that prolactin may modulate the reproductive axis by acting on specific populations of hypothalamic neurons that express the Kiss1 gene. The Kiss1 gene encodes neuropeptides known as kisspeptins, which are powerful activators of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. In the present review, we will summarize the current knowledge about prolactin's actions on reproduction. Among other aspects, we will discuss whether the interaction between prolactin and the Kiss1-expressing neurons can affect reproduction and how kisspeptins may become a novel therapeutic approach to treat prolactin-induced infertility.

  5. Kisspeptin Expression in Guinea Pig Hypothalamus: Effects of 17β-Estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Martha A.; Xue, Changhui; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin is essential for reproductive functions in humans. As a model for the human we have used the female guinea pig, which has a long ovulatory cycle similar to that of primates. Initially, we cloned a guinea pig kisspeptin cDNA sequence and subsequently explored the distribution and 17β-estradiol (E2) regulation of kisspeptin mRNA (Kiss1) and protein (kisspeptin) by using in situ hybridization, real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. In ovariectomized females, Kiss1 neurons were scattered throughout the preoptic periventricular areas (PV), but the vast majority of Kiss1 neurons were localized in the arcuate nucleus (Arc). An E2 treatment that first inhibits (negative feedback) and then augments (positive feedback) serum luteinizing hormone (LH) increased Kiss1 mRNA density and number of cells expressing Kiss1 in the PV at both time points. Within the Arc, Kiss1 mRNA density was reduced at both time points. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the in situ hybridization results during positive feedback. E2 reduced the number of immunoreactive kisspeptin cells in the PV at both time points, perhaps an indication of increased release. Within the Arc, the kisspeptin immunoreactivity was decreased during negative feedback but increased during positive feedback. Therefore, it appears that in guinea pig both the PV and the Arc kisspeptin neurons act cooperatively to excite gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons during positive feedback. We conclude that E2 regulation of negative and positive feedback may reflect a complex interaction of the kisspeptin circuitry, and both the PV and the Arc respond to hormone signals to encode excitation of GnRH neurons during the ovulatory cycle. PMID:22173890

  6. Circadian control of kisspeptin and a gated GnRH response mediate the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Wilbur P; Jarjisian, Stephan G; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    In spontaneously ovulating rodents, the preovulatory LH surge is initiated on the day of proestrus by a timed, stimulatory signal originating from the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The present studies explored whether kisspeptin is part of the essential neural circuit...... linking the SCN to the GnRH system to stimulate ovulation in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Kisspeptin neurons exhibit an estrogen-dependent, daily pattern of cellular activity consistent with a role in the circadian control of the LH surge. The SCN targets kisspeptin neurons via vasopressinergic...... of ovulatory control with interactions among the circadian system, kisspeptin signaling, and a GnRH gating mechanism of control....

  7. Kisspeptin-mediated regulation of testicular activity of rats under the effect of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Kalynovskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There are a variety of biomedical applications of nanoparticles. They can be used as drug carriers, anti-tumor agents, biosensors and modulators of immune response. But full-scale real clinical application of nanomaterials requires a great deal of information on their safety and biotoxicity. Even traditionally harmless materials, like gold, can obtain toxic features when scaled to the nanosize. In vitro studies showed that nanoparticles can be geno- and cytotoxic, but their effects on the body as a whole remain largely a mystery. To shed some light on this, our study focused on the reproductive toxicity of nanomaterials. We synthesized 10–15 nm gold nanoparticles through the reduction of sodium tetrachloroaurate (III in an alkaline medium with the addition of sodium polyphosphate as a stabilizing agent. Next, these particles were administered intraperitoneally to young and old rats for 10 days. To test functional capabilities of the testes, we injected kisspeptin-10 or its antagonist peptide-234 intracerebroventricularly. These substances are known to stimulate or inhibit the central component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis respectively. After the routine histological procedures, we measured the diameter of seminiferous tubules and the nuclear cross-sectional area of Sertoli cells as markers of testicular spermatogenic activity and a cross-sectional area of the Leydig cells’ nuclei as a marker of testicular steroidogenesis. We found that injections of nanogold caused no significant changes in the young animals. At the same time, morphometric parameters of adult animals were significantly lower compared to control, although we observed no pathological changes in the tissue. Combined administration of gold nanoparticles and kisspeptin showed that the stimulatory effect of the latter was not observed at all. This is a specific feature of toxicants called “endocrine disruptors”. Moreover, we found morphological signs of

  8. Kisspeptin and the seasonal control of reproduction in hamsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonneaux, Valérie; Ansel, Laura; Revel, Florent G

    2008-01-01

    -expressing neurons, which were recently shown to be implicated in the regulation of GnRH release. Hamsters are seasonal rodents which are sexually active in long photoperiod and quiescent in short photoperiod. The photoperiodic information is transmitted to the reproductive system by melatonin, a pineal...... hormone whose secretion is adjusted to night length. The photoperiodic variation in circulating melatonin has been shown to synchronize reproductive activity with seasons, but the mechanisms involved in this effect of melatonin were so far unknown. Recently we have observed that Kiss1 mRNA level...... in the arcuate nucleus of the Syrian hamster is lower in short photoperiod, when animals are sexually quiescent. Notably, intracerebroventricular infusion of Kiss1 gene product, kisspeptin, in hamsters kept in short photoperiod is able to override the inhibitory photoperiod and to reactivate sexual activity...

  9. Kisspeptins modulate the biology of multiple populations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during embryogenesis and adulthood in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yali; Lin, Meng-Chin A; Mock, Allan; Yang, Ming; Wayne, Nancy L

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin1 (product of the Kiss1 gene) is the key neuropeptide that gates puberty and maintains fertility by regulating the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system in mammals. Inactivating mutations in Kiss1 and the kisspeptin receptor (GPR54/Kiss1r) are associated with pubertal failure and infertility. Kiss2, a paralogous gene for kiss1, has been recently identified in several vertebrates including zebrafish. Using our transgenic zebrafish model system in which the GnRH3 promoter drives expression of emerald green fluorescent protein, we investigated the effects of kisspeptins on development of the GnRH neuronal system during embryogenesis and on electrical activity during adulthood. Quantitative PCR showed detectable levels of kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA by 1 day post fertilization, increasing throughout embryonic and larval development. Early treatment with Kiss1 or Kiss2 showed that both kisspeptins stimulated proliferation of trigeminal GnRH3 neurons located in the peripheral nervous system. However, only Kiss1, but not Kiss2, stimulated proliferation of terminal nerve and hypothalamic populations of GnRH3 neurons in the central nervous system. Immunohistochemical analysis of synaptic vesicle protein 2 suggested that Kiss1, but not Kiss2, increased synaptic contacts on the cell body and along the terminal nerve-GnRH3 neuronal processes during embryogenesis. In intact brain of adult zebrafish, whole-cell patch clamp recordings of GnRH3 neurons from the preoptic area and hypothalamus revealed opposite effects of Kiss1 and Kiss2 on spontaneous action potential firing frequency and membrane potential. Kiss1 increased spike frequency and depolarized membrane potential, whereas Kiss2 suppressed spike frequency and hyperpolarized membrane potential. We conclude that in zebrafish, Kiss1 is the primary stimulator of GnRH3 neuronal development in the embryo and an activator of stimulating hypophysiotropic neuron activities in the adult, while Kiss2 plays an

  10. Kisspeptins modulate the biology of multiple populations of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during embryogenesis and adulthood in zebrafish (Danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Zhao

    Full Text Available Kisspeptin1 (product of the Kiss1 gene is the key neuropeptide that gates puberty and maintains fertility by regulating the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neuronal system in mammals. Inactivating mutations in Kiss1 and the kisspeptin receptor (GPR54/Kiss1r are associated with pubertal failure and infertility. Kiss2, a paralogous gene for kiss1, has been recently identified in several vertebrates including zebrafish. Using our transgenic zebrafish model system in which the GnRH3 promoter drives expression of emerald green fluorescent protein, we investigated the effects of kisspeptins on development of the GnRH neuronal system during embryogenesis and on electrical activity during adulthood. Quantitative PCR showed detectable levels of kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA by 1 day post fertilization, increasing throughout embryonic and larval development. Early treatment with Kiss1 or Kiss2 showed that both kisspeptins stimulated proliferation of trigeminal GnRH3 neurons located in the peripheral nervous system. However, only Kiss1, but not Kiss2, stimulated proliferation of terminal nerve and hypothalamic populations of GnRH3 neurons in the central nervous system. Immunohistochemical analysis of synaptic vesicle protein 2 suggested that Kiss1, but not Kiss2, increased synaptic contacts on the cell body and along the terminal nerve-GnRH3 neuronal processes during embryogenesis. In intact brain of adult zebrafish, whole-cell patch clamp recordings of GnRH3 neurons from the preoptic area and hypothalamus revealed opposite effects of Kiss1 and Kiss2 on spontaneous action potential firing frequency and membrane potential. Kiss1 increased spike frequency and depolarized membrane potential, whereas Kiss2 suppressed spike frequency and hyperpolarized membrane potential. We conclude that in zebrafish, Kiss1 is the primary stimulator of GnRH3 neuronal development in the embryo and an activator of stimulating hypophysiotropic neuron activities in the adult, while

  11. c-Fos immunoreactivity in prefrontal, basal ganglia and limbic areas of the rat brain after central and peripheral administration of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen N. Segovia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Considerable evidence indicates that the metabolite of ethanol (EtOH, acetaldehyde, is biologically active. Acetaldehyde can be formed from EtOH peripherally mainly by alcohol dehydrogenase, and also centrally by catalase. EtOH and acetaldehyde show differences in their behavioral effects depending upon the route of administration. In terms of their effects on motor activity and motivated behaviors, when administered peripherally acetaldehyde tends to be more potent than EtOH but shows very similar potency administered centrally. Since dopamine (DA rich areas have an important role in regulating both motor activity and motivation, the present studies were undertaken to compare the effects of central (intraventricular, ICV and peripheral (intraperitoneal, IP administration of EtOH and acetaldehyde on a cellular marker of brain activity, c-Fos immunoreactivity, in DA innervated areas. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received an IP injection of vehicle, EtOH (0.5 or 2.5 g/kg or acetaldehyde (0.1 or 0.5 g/kg or an ICV injection of vehicle, EtOH or acetaldehyde (2.8 or 14.0 µmoles. IP administration of EtOH minimally induced c-Fos in some regions of the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, mainly at the low dose (0.5 g/kg, while IP acetaldehyde induced c-Fos in virtually all the structures studied at both doses. Acetaldehyde administered centrally increased c-Fos in all areas studied, a pattern that was very similar to EtOH. Thus, IP administered acetaldehyde was more efficacious than EtOH at inducing c-Fos expression. However, the general pattern of c-Fos induction promoted by ICV EtOH and acetaldehyde was similar. These results are consistent with the pattern observed in behavioral studies in which both substances produced the same magnitude of effect when injected centrally, and produced differences in potency after peripheral administration.

  12. Comparative analysis of kisspeptin-immunoreactivity reveals genuine differences in the hypothalamic Kiss1 systems between rats and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Franceschini, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    cells, only after axonal transport inhibition. Interestingly, the density of kisspeptin innervation in the anterior periventricular area was higher in female compared to male in both species. Species differences in the ARC were evident, with the mouse ARC containing dense fibers, while the rat ARC......-immunoreactivity in the mouse compared to the rat, independently of brain region and gender. In the female mouse AVPV high numbers of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons were present, while in the rat, the female AVPV displays a similar number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons compared to the level of Kiss1 mRNA expressing...... contains clearly discernable cells. In addition, we show a marked sex difference in the ARC, with higher kisspeptin levels in females. These findings show that the translation of Kiss1 mRNA and/or the degradation/transportation/release of kisspeptins are different in mice and rats....

  13. Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine administration prevents peripheral neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emril DR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dessy R Emril,1 Samekto Wibowo,2 Lucas Meliala,2 Rina Susilowati3 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, IndonesiaBackground: Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine (citicoline has been shown to have beneficial effects in central nervous system injury as well as in motoric functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. This study aimed to examine the effect of citicoline on prevention of neuropathic pain in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury.Methods: Forty experimental rats were divided into four groups. In three groups, the right sciatic nerves were crushed in the mid-thigh region, and a gelatin sponge moistened with 0.4 or 0.8 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline, or saline 0.4 mL in the control group, was applied. The fourth group of rats was sham-operated, ie the sciatic nerve was exposed with no crush. Functional assessments were performed 4 weeks after crush injury. von Frey filaments (100 g threshold were used to assess neuropathic pain. In addition, the sciatic functional index and extensor postural thrust (EPT tests were used to assess motoric function.Results: The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group had a lower percentage of pain (23.53%, n=17 compared with the crush/saline group (53.33%, n=15, P<0.005. The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group also showed better motoric recovery, as seen in stronger EPT results (P<0.001. However, the sciatic functional index analysis did not show significant differences between groups (P=0.35. The crush/citicoline 0.8 mL group showed a higher percentage of pain (66.67%, n=18 and less EPT recovery. These results may be explained by more severe nerve injury due to compression with a larger administered volume.Conclusion: In situ administration of 0.4 mL of 100 μmol/L citicoline prevents the occurrence of neuropathic pain and induces motoric recovery

  14. Peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peripheral; Neuritis - peripheral; Nerve disease; Polyneuropathy; Chronic pain - peripheral neuropathy ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 107. Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  15. Type-I interferon receptor expression: its circadian rhythm and downregulation after interferon-alpha administration in peripheral blood cells from renal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Masahiro; Nonomura, Norio; Nakai, Yasutomo; Nakayama, Masashi; Takayama, Hitoshi; Inoue, Hitoshi; Tsujimura, Akira; Nishimura, Kazuo; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the regulation of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) receptor expression in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after IFN-alpha administration. Blood sampling was carried out in eight patients with metastatic RCC and six healthy volunteers. Flow-cytometric analysis using a monoclonal antibody against the active subunit of the type-I IFN-alpha receptor (IFNAR2) was carried out to examine the circadian rhythm of IFNAR2 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as its downregulation after IFN-alpha administration. According to its circadian rhythm IFNAR2 in PBMC had a peak expression at night. Once IFN-alpha is administered, IFNAR2 levels in PBMC showed downregulation within 48 h and recovered within another 48 h. Our findings might support the establishment of an optimal schedule for IFN-alpha administration.

  16. In vitro and in vivo effects of kisspeptin antagonists p234, p271, p354, and p356 on GPR54 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C H J Albers-Wolthers

    Full Text Available Kisspeptins (KPs and their receptor (GPR54 or KiSS1R play a key-role in regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are therefore interesting targets for therapeutic interventions in the field of reproductive endocrinology. As dogs show a rapid and robust LH response after the administration of KP10, they can serve as a good animal model for research concerning KP signaling. The aims of the present study were to test the antagonistic properties of KP analogs p234, p271, p354, and p356 in vitro, by determining the intracellular Ca2+ response of CHEM1 cells that stably express human GPR54, and to study the in vivo effects of these peptides on basal plasma LH concentration and the KP10-induced LH response in female dogs. Exposure of the CHEM1 cells to KP-10 resulted in a clear Ca2+ response. P234, p271, p354, and p356 did not prevent or lower the KP10-induced Ca2+ response. Moreover, the in vivo studies in the dogs showed that none of these supposed antagonists lowered the basal plasma LH concentration and none of the peptides lowered the KP10-induced LH response. In conclusion, p234, p271, p354, and p356 had no antagonistic effects in vitro nor any effect on basal and kisspeptin-stimulated plasma LH concentration in female dogs.

  17. beta-Sheet aggregation of kisspeptin-10 is stimulated by heparin but inhibited by amphiphiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bang; Franzmann, Magnus; Basaiawmoit, Rajiv V

    2010-01-01

    The murine 10-residue neurohormone kisspeptin (YNWNSFGLRY) is an important regulator of reproductive behavior and gonadotrophin secretion. It is known to form a random coil in solution, but undergoes a structural change in the presence of membranes although the nature of this change is not fully...

  18. Multiple kisspeptin receptors in early Osteichthyans provide new insights into the evolution of this receptor family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasquier, J.; Lafont, A._G.; Jeng, S.-R.

    2012-01-01

    Deorphanization of GPR54 receptor a decade ago led to the characterization of the kisspeptin receptor (Kissr) in mammals and the discovery of its major role in the brain control of reproduction. While a single gene encodes for Kissr in eutherian mammals including human, other vertebrates present ...

  19. Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen handler om den praksis, vi kalder administration. Vi er i den offentlige sektor i Danmark hos kontorfolkene med deres sagsmapper, computere, telefoner,, lovsamlinger,, retningslinier og regneark. I bogen udfoldes en mangfoldighed af konkrete historier om det administrative arbejde fra...... forskellige områder i den offentlige sektor. Hensigten er at forstå den praksis og faglighed der knytter sig til det administrative arbejde...

  20. Defining a novel leptin–melanocortin–kisspeptin pathway involved in the metabolic control of puberty

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    Maria Manfredi-Lozano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Puberty is a key developmental phenomenon highly sensitive to metabolic modulation. Worrying trends of changes in the timing of puberty have been reported in humans. These might be linked to the escalating prevalence of childhood obesity and could have deleterious impacts on later (cardio-metabolic health, but their underlying mechanisms remain unsolved. The neuropeptide α-MSH, made by POMC neurons, plays a key role in energy homeostasis by mediating the actions of leptin and likely participates in the control of reproduction. However, its role in the metabolic regulation of puberty and interplay with kisspeptin, an essential puberty-regulating neuropeptide encoded by Kiss1, remain largely unknown. We aim here to unveil the potential contribution of central α-MSH signaling in the metabolic control of puberty by addressing its role in mediating the pubertal effects of leptin and its potential interaction with kisspeptin. Methods: Using wild type and genetically modified rodent models, we implemented pharmacological studies, expression analyses, electrophysiological recordings, and virogenetic approaches involving DREADD technology to selectively inhibit Kiss1 neurons, in order to interrogate the physiological role of a putative leptin→α-MSH→kisspeptin pathway in the metabolic control of puberty. Results: Stimulation of central α-MSH signaling robustly activated the reproductive axis in pubertal rats, whereas chronic inhibition of melanocortin receptors MC3/4R, delayed puberty, and prevented the permissive effect of leptin on puberty onset. Central blockade of MC3/4R or genetic elimination of kisspeptin receptors from POMC neurons did not affect kisspeptin effects. Conversely, congenital ablation of kisspeptin receptors or inducible, DREADD-mediated inhibition of arcuate nucleus (ARC Kiss1 neurons resulted in markedly attenuated gonadotropic responses to MC3/4R activation. Furthermore, close appositions were observed between

  1. Peripheral lipopolysaccharide administration transiently affects expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, corticotropin and proopiomelanocortin in mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnydrig, Sabine; Korner, Lukas; Landweer, Svenja; Ernst, Beat; Walker, Gaby; Otten, Uwe; Kunz, Dieter

    2007-12-11

    Peripheral inflammation induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to cause functional impairments in the brain affecting memory and learning. One of mechanisms may be the interference with neurotrophin (NT) expression and function. In the current study we administered a single, high dose of LPS (3mg/kg, i.p.) into mice and investigated changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression within 1-6 days after LPS injection. Crude synaptosomes were isolated from brain tissue and subjected to Western-blot analyses. We found transient reductions in synaptosomal proBDNF- and BDNF protein expression, with a maximal decrease at day 3 as compared to saline injected controls. The time course of reduction of BDNF mRNA in whole brain extracts parallels the decrease in protein levels in synaptosomes. LPS effects in the central nervous system (CNS) are known to crucially involve the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We analysed the time course of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)- and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression. As observed for BDNF-, CRH- and POMC mRNA levels are also significantly reduced on day 3 indicating a comparable time course. These results suggest that peripheral inflammation causes a reduction of trophic supply in the brain, including BDNF at synaptic sites. The mechanisms involved could be a negative feedback of the activated HPA axis.

  2. The role of the kisspeptin system in regulation of the reproductive endocrine axis and territorial behavior in male side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman-Lee, Lorin; Greives, Timothy; Hopkins, Gareth R; French, Susannah S

    2017-03-01

    The neuropeptide kisspeptin and its receptor are essential for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and regulating reproduction. While the role of kisspeptin in regulating the HPG axis in mammals has been well established, little is known about the functional ability of kisspeptins to activate the HPG axis and associated behavior in non-mammalian species. Here we experimentally examined the effects of kisspeptin on downstream release of testosterone and associated aggression and display behaviors in the side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana). We found that exogenous treatment with kisspeptin resulted in an increase in circulating testosterone levels, castration blocked the kisspeptin-induced increase in testosterone, and testosterone levels in kisspeptin-treated animals were positively related to frequency of aggressive behaviors. This evidence provides a clear link between kisspeptin, testosterone, and aggressive behavior in lizards. Thus, it is likely that kisspeptin plays an important role more broadly in non-mammalian systems in the regulation of reproductive physiology and related behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Peripheral Etanercept Administration Normalizes Behavior, Hippocampal Neurogenesis, and Hippocampal Reelin and GABAA Receptor Expression in a Preclinical Model of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle J. Brymer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a serious psychiatric disorder frequently comorbid with autoimmune disorders. Previous work in our lab has demonstrated that repeated corticosterone (CORT injections in rats reliably increase depressive-like behavior, impair hippocampal-dependent memory, reduce the number and complexity of adult-generated neurons in the dentate gyrus, decrease hippocampal reelin expression, and alter markers of GABAergic function. We hypothesized that peripheral injections of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept could exert antidepressant effects through a restoration of many of these neurobiological changes. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of repeated CORT injections and concurrent injections of etanercept on measures of object-location and object-in-place memory, forced-swim test behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis, and reelin and GABA β2/3 immunohistochemistry. CORT increased immobility behavior in the forced swim test and impaired both object-location and object-in-place memory, and these effects were reversed by etanercept. CORT also decreased both the number and complexity of adult-generated neurons, but etanercept restored these measures back to control levels. Finally, CORT decreased the number of reelin and GABA β2/3-ir cells within the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, and etanercept restored these to control levels. These novel results demonstrate that peripheral etanercept has antidepressant effects that are accompanied by a restoration of cognitive function, hippocampal neurogenesis, and GABAergic plasticity, and suggest that a normalization of reelin expression in the dentate gyrus could be a key component underlying these novel antidepressant effects.

  4. Influence of sex and age on febrile responses to peripheral and central administration of pyrogens in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, J M; Ticknor, C B

    1979-10-01

    1. Intravenous injections of leucocytic pyrogen in doses of 15, 30 and 60 mul./kg caused febrile reactions in male rabbits that were related to age of the animal: rabbits under 2 yr of age developed fevers that were related to dose of pyrogen, while rabbits 2-3 yr old showed large febrile responses which were not dose-related.2. Female rabbits of comparable ages generally showed smaller febrile reactions to I.V. leucocytic pyrogen, and still older females (3-5 yr) developed fever only after the largest dose.3. Dose-related febrile responses to 2.5, 5 and 10 mul. leucocytic pyrogen given intracerebroventricularly (I.C.V.) were greater in male rabbits 1-3 yr old than in females of comparable age. Female rabbits 3-5 yr old showed dose-related fevers that were smaller than those of younger animals of both sexes.4. There were no major differences in response to 125, 250 and 500 ng PGE(2), given I.C.V., between male and female rabbits under 2 yr of age. Females 2-3 yr of age had greater responses to PGE(2) than males of comparable age whilst the oldest females showed smaller responses.5. It is concluded that the febrile response of the rabbit to peripheral and central leucocytic pyrogen varies with both age and sex. Differences in sensitivity of central fever controls to endogenous pyrogen in animals of different ages and sexes may account for the different responses to peripheral pyrogen.

  5. Kisspeptin neurones in the posterodorsal medial amygdala modulate sexual partner preference and anxiety in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunbi, D A; Li, X F; Lass, G; Shetty, K; Adegoke, O A; Yeo, S H; Colledge, W H; Lightman, S L; O'Byrne, K T

    2018-03-01

    The posterodorsal medial amygdala (MePD) is a neural site in the limbic brain involved in regulating emotional and sexual behaviours. There is, however, limited information available on the specific neuronal cell type in the MePD functionally mediating these behaviours in rodents. The recent discovery of a significant kisspeptin neurone population in the MePD has raised interest in the possible role of kisspeptin and its cognate receptor in sexual behaviour. The present study therefore tested the hypothesis that the MePD kisspeptin neurone population is involved in regulating attraction towards opposite sex conspecifics, sexual behaviour, social interaction and the anxiety response by selectively stimulating these neurones using the novel pharmacosynthetic DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) technique. Adult male Kiss-Cre mice received bilateral stereotaxic injections of a stimulatory DREADD viral construct (AAV-hSyn-DIO-hM 3 D(Gq)-mCherry) targeted to the MePD, with subsequent activation by i.p. injection of clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Socio-sexual behaviours were assessed in a counter-balanced fashion after i.p. injection of either saline or CNO (5 mg kg -1 ). Selective activation of MePD kisspeptin neurones by CNO significantly increased the time spent by male mice in investigating an oestrous female, as well as the duration of social interaction. Additionally, after CNO injection, the mice appeared less anxious, as indicated by a longer exploratory time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. However, levels of copulatory behaviour were comparable between CNO and saline-treated controls. These data indicate that DREADD-induced activation of MePD kisspeptin neurones enhances both sexual partner preference in males and social interaction and also decreases anxiety, suggesting a key role played by MePD kisspeptin in sexual motivation and social behaviour. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology published by John Wiley

  6. Conditional Viral Tract Tracing Delineates the Projections of the Distinct Kisspeptin Neuron Populations to Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Neurons in the Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Siew Hoong; Boehm, Ulrich; Herbison, Allan E; Campbell, Rebecca E

    2015-07-01

    Kisspeptin neurons play an essential role in the regulation of fertility through direct regulation of the GnRH neurons. However, the relative contributions of the two functionally distinct kisspeptin neuron subpopulations to this critical regulation are not fully understood. Here we analyzed the specific projection patterns of kisspeptin neurons originating from either the rostral periventricular nucleus of the third ventricle (RP3V) or the arcuate nucleus (ARN) using a cell-specific, viral-mediated tract-tracing approach. We stereotaxically injected a Cre-dependent recombinant adenovirus encoding farnesylated enhanced green fluorescent protein into the ARN or RP3V of adult male and female mice expressing Cre recombinase in kisspeptin neurons. Fibers from ARN kisspeptin neurons projected widely; however, we did not find any evidence for direct contact with GnRH neuron somata or proximal dendrites in either sex. In contrast, we identified RP3V kisspeptin fibers in close contact with GnRH neuron somata and dendrites in both sexes. Fibers originating from both the RP3V and ARN were observed in close contact with distal GnRH neuron processes in the ARN and in the lateral and internal aspects of the median eminence. Furthermore, GnRH nerve terminals were found in close contact with the proximal dendrites of ARN kisspeptin neurons in the ARN, and ARN kisspeptin fibers were found contacting RP3V kisspeptin neurons in both sexes. Together these data delineate selective zones of kisspeptin neuron inputs to GnRH neurons and demonstrate complex interconnections between the distinct kisspeptin populations and GnRH neurons.

  7. Male mice ultrasonic vocalizations enhance female sexual approach and hypothalamic kisspeptin neuron activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaba, Akari; Osakada, Takuya; Touhara, Kazushige; Kato, Masahiro; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2017-08-01

    Vocal communication in animals is important for ensuring reproductive success. Male mice emit song-like "ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs)" when they encounter female mice, and females show approach to the USVs. However, it is unclear whether USVs of male mice trigger female behavioral and endocrine responses in reproduction. In this study, we first investigated the relationship between the number of deliveries in breeding pairs for 4months and USVs syllables emitted from those paired males during 3min of sexual encounter with unfamiliar female mice. There was a positive correlation between these two indices, which suggests that breeding pairs in which males could emit USVs more frequently had more offspring. Further, we examined the effect of USVs of male mice on female sexual behavior. Female mice showed more approach behavior towards vocalizing males than devocalized males. Finally, to determine whether USVs of male mice could activate the neural system governing reproductive function in female mice, the activation of kisspeptin neurons, key neurons to drive gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the hypothalamus, was examined using dual-label immunocytochemistry with cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation (pCREB). In the arcuate nucleus (Arc), the number of kisspeptin neurons expressing pCREB significantly increased after exposure to USVs of male as compared with noise exposure group. In conclusion, our results suggest that USVs of male mice promote fertility in female mice by activating both their approaching behavior and central kisspeptin neurons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Kisspeptin levels in idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism diagnosed male patients and its relation with glucose-insulin dynamic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztin, Hasan; Çağıltay, Eylem; Çağlayan, Sinan; Kaplan, Mustafa; Akpak, Yaşam Kemal; Karaca, Nilay; Tığlıoğlu, Mesut

    2016-12-01

    Male hypogonadism is defined as the deficiency of testosterone or sperm production synthesized by testicles or the deficiency of both. The reasons for hypogonadism may be primary, meaning testicular or secondary, meaning hypothalamohypophyseal. In hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), there is indeficiency in gonadotropic hormones due to hypothalamic or hypophyseal reasons. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is an important stimulant in releasing follicular stimulant hormone (FSH), mainly luteinizing hormone (LH). GnRH omitted is under the effect of many hormonal or stimulating factors. Kisspeptin is present in many places of the body, mostly in hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular nucleus and arcuate nucleus. Kisspeptin has a suppressor effect on the metastasis of many tumors such as breast cancer and malign melanoma metastases, and is called "metastin" for this reason. Kisspeptin is a strong stimulant of GnRH. In idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) etiology, there is gonadotropic hormone release indeficiency which cannot be clearly described. A total of 30 male hypogonatropic hypogonadism diagnosed patients over 30 years of age who have applied to Haydarpasa Education Hospital Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases Service were included in the study. Compared to the control group, the effect of kisspeptin on male patients with hypogonatropic hypogonadism and on insulin resistance developing in hypogonadism patients was investigated in our study. A statistically significant difference was detected between average kisspeptin measurements of the groups (p hypogonadism and has less effect on insulin resistance.

  9. Sex differences in the effect of acute peripheral IL-1β administration on the brain and serum BDNF and VEGF expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchowicz, Ewa; Nowacka, Marta; Paul-Samojedny, Monika; Bielecka-Wajdman, Anna M; Małecki, Andrzej

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate, for the first time, the potential sex differences in BDNF and VEGF systems under normal conditions and in response to IL-1β given ip. Peripheral overproduction of this cytokine mediates the pathophysiology of various acute neuroinflammatory states. Until now, the effect of IL-1β on VEGF expression in rat brain structures and its serum level has not been examined. In male and female rats, the BDNF and VEGF mRNA expression, and BDNF level were evaluated in the amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary gland. The VEGF levels were determined in the pituitary. Serum BDNF and VEGF levels were also measured. The pituitary BDNF mRNA, and BDNF and VEGF levels were higher in females than in male rats whereas in males, the BDNF levels were higher in the other brain structures. The serum BDNF concentration was similar in both groups but VEGF levels were enhanced in females. Following IL-1β (50μg/kg ip.) administration, a higher serum IL-1β level was detected in females than in males. In male rats, IL-1β decreased BDNF mRNA in all the brain structures, except for the pituitary, and VEGF mRNA in the amygdala. In opposite, IL-1β challenge in females increased the pituitary VEGF mRNA and serum BDNF and VEGF levels. These results suggest that in females BDNF and VEGF may play a more important role in the pituitary function. In males, amygdala trophic system seems to be especially sensitive to the enhanced peripheral IL-1β production. Our findings point to the need to consider sex-related differences to be able to draw reliable conclusions about changes in BDNF and VEGF levels during inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of metastin (kisspeptin-54)-GPR54 signaling in the arcuate nucleus-median eminence region during lactation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Uenoyama, Y; Kinoshita, M; Iwata, K; Takase, K; Matsui, H; Adachi, S; Inoue, K; Maeda, K-I; Tsukamura, H

    2007-05-01

    Follicular development and ovulation are suppressed during lactation in various mammalian species, mainly due to the suppression of pulsatile GnRH/LH secretion. Metastin (kisspeptin-54), a KiSS-1 gene product, is an endogenous ligand for GPR54, a G-protein-coupled receptor, and suggested to play a critical role in regulating the gonadal axis. The present study therefore aims to determine whether metastin (kisspeptin-54)-GPR54 signaling in discrete brain areas is inhibited by the suckling stimulus that causes suppression of LH secretion in lactating rats. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the KiSS-1 mRNA level was significantly lower in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)-median eminence region in lactating ovariectomized (OVX) and estrogen-treated OVX rats than in nonlactating controls. KiSS-1 mRNA in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus was kept at a low level in both lactating and nonlactating rats despite estrogen treatment. GPR54 mRNA levels were significantly lower in lactating than nonlactating rats in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, but the levels in lactating mothers of the preoptic area and ARC-median eminence were comparable with nonlactating controls. Although KiSS-1 mRNA-expressing cells or metastin (kisspeptin-54) immunoreactivities were densely located in the ARC of nonlactating controls, few were found in the ARC of lactating OVX animals. Various doses of metastin (kisspeptin-54) (0.02, 0.2, and 2 nmol) injected into the third ventricle caused a significant increase in LH secretion in both lactating and nonlactating OVX rats, suggesting that lactating rats are responsive to metastin (kisspeptin-54) stimulus. Thus, the present study demonstrated that KiSS-1 mRNA/metastin (kisspeptin-54) expression is inhibited in the ARC by the suckling stimulus, suggesting that the inhibition is most probably involved in suppressing LH secretion in lactating rats.

  11. Analyses of the peripheral immunome following multiple administrations of avelumab, a human IgG1 anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Renee N; Lepone, Lauren M; Grenga, Italia; Jochems, Caroline; Fantini, Massimo; Madan, Ravi A; Heery, Christopher R; Gulley, James L; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Multiple anti-PD-L1/PD-1 checkpoint monoclonal antibodies (MAb) have shown clear evidence of clinical benefit. All except one have been designed or engineered to omit the possibility to mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) as a second potential mode of anti-tumor activity; the reason for this is the concern of lysis of PD-L1 positive immune cells. Avelumab is a fully human IgG1 MAb which has been shown in prior in vitro studies to mediate ADCC versus a range of human tumor cells, and clinical studies have demonstrated anti-tumor activity versus a range of human cancers. This study was designed to investigate the effect on immune cell subsets in the peripheral blood of cancer patients prior to and following multiple administrations of avelumab. One hundred twenty-three distinct immune cell subsets in the peripheral blood of cancer patients ( n  = 28) in a phase I trial were analyzed by flow cytometry prior to and following one, three, and nine cycles of avelumab. Changes in soluble (s) CD27 and sCD40L in plasma were also evaluated. In vitro studies were also performed to determine if avelumab would mediate ADCC of PBMC. No statistically significant changes in any of the 123 immune cell subsets analyzed were observed at any dose level, or number of doses, of avelumab. Increases in the ratio of sCD27:sCD40L were observed, suggesting potential immune activation. Controlled in vitro studies also showed lysis of tumor cells by avelumab versus no lysis of PBMC from five donors. These studies demonstrate the lack of any significant effect on multiple immune cell subsets, even those expressing PD-L1, following multiple cycles of avelumab. These results complement prior studies showing anti-tumor effects of avelumab and comparable levels of adverse events with avelumab versus other anti-PD-1/PD-L1 MAbs. These studies provide the rationale to further exploit the potential ADCC mechanism of action of avelumab as well as other human IgG1 checkpoint

  12. Cocaine action on peripheral, non-monoamine neural substrates as a trigger of electroencephalographic desynchronization and electromyographic activation following i.v. administration in freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, M S; Kiyatkin, E A

    2010-01-20

    Many important physiological, behavioral and subjective effects of i.v. cocaine (COC) are exceptionally rapid and transient, suggesting a possible involvement of peripheral neural substrates in their triggering. In the present study, we used high-speed electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings (4-s resolution) in freely moving rats to characterize the central electrophysiological effects of i.v. COC at low doses within a self-administration range (0.25-1.0 mg/kg). We found that COC induces rapid, strong, and prolonged desynchronization of cortical EEG (decrease in alpha and increase in beta and gamma activity) and activation of the neck EMG that begin within 2-6 s following the start of a 10-s injection; immediate components of both effects were dose-independent. The rapid effects of COC were mimicked by i.v. COC methiodide (COC-MET), a derivative that cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. At equimolar doses (0.33-1.33 mg/kg), COC-MET had equally fast and strong effects on EEG and EMG total powers, decreasing alpha and increasing beta and gamma activities. Rapid EEG desynchronization and EMG activation was also induced by i.v. procaine, a structurally similar, short-acting local anesthetic with virtually no effects on monoamine uptake; at equipotential doses (1.25-5.0 mg/kg), these effects were weaker and shorter in duration than those of COC. Surprisingly, i.v. saline injection delivered during slow-wave sleep (but not during quiet wakefulness) also induced a transient EEG desynchronization but without changes in EMG and motor activity; these effects were significantly weaker and much shorter than those induced by all tested drugs. These data suggest that in awake animals, i.v. COC induces rapid cortical activation and a subsequent motor response via its action on peripheral non-monoamine neural elements, involving neural transmission via visceral sensory pathways. By providing a rapid neural signal and triggering neural activation, such

  13. Plasma kisspeptin and ghrelin levels are independently correlated with physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Tobias; Elbelt, Ulf; Haas, Verena; Ahnis, Anne; Klapp, Burghard F; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    While physical hyperactivity represents a frequent symptom of anorexia nervosa and may have a deleterious impact on the course of the disease, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Since several food intake-regulatory hormones affect physical activity, the aim of the study was to investigate the association of physical activity with novel candidate hormones (kisspeptin, ghrelin, oxyntomodulin, orexin-A, FGF-21, R-spondin-1) possibly involved in patients with anorexia nervosa. Associations with psychometric parameters and body composition were also assessed. We included 38 female anorexia nervosa inpatients (body mass index, BMI, mean ± SD: 14.8 ± 1.7 kg/m 2 ). Physical activity was evaluated using portable armband devices, body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Blood withdrawal (hormones measured by ELISA) and psychometric assessment of depressiveness (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), perceived stress (PSQ-20) and disordered eating (EDI-2) were performed at the same time. Patients displayed a broad spectrum of physical activity (2479-26,047 steps/day) which showed a negative correlation with kisspeptin (r = -0.41, p = 0.01) and a positive association with ghrelin (r = 0.42, p = 0.01). The negative correlation with oxyntomodulin (r = -0.37, p = 0.03) was lost after consideration of potential confounders by regression analysis. No correlations were observed between physical activity and orexin-A, FGF-21 and R-spondin-1 (p > 0.05). Kisspeptin was positively correlated with BMI and body fat mass and negatively associated with the interpersonal distrust subscale of the EDI-2 (p  0.05). In conclusion, kisspeptin is inversely and ghrelin positively associated with physical activity as measured by daily step counts in anorexia nervosa patients suggesting an implication of these peptide hormones in the regulation of physical activity in anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of the Camelid's Seminal Plasma Ovulation-Inducing Factor/β-NGF: A Kisspeptin Target Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Allali, Khalid; El Bousmaki, Najlae; Ainani, Hassan; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents) occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids), ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory, and mechanic stimuli. However, other studies have identified a biochemical component in the semen of induced ovulators responsible for the induction of ovulation and named accordingly ovulation-inducing factor (OIF). In camelids, intramuscular or intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (SP) was shown to induce the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge followed by ovulation and subsequent formation of corpus luteum. Recently, this OIF has been identified from SP as a neurotrophin, the β subunit of nerve growth factor (β-NGF). β-NGF is well known as promoting neuron survival and growth, but in this case, it appears to induce ovulation through an endocrine mode of action. Indeed, β-NGF may be absorbed through the endometrium to be conveyed, via the blood stream, to the central structures regulating the LH preovulatory surge. In this review, we provide a summary of the most relevant results obtained in the field, and we propose a working hypothesis for the central action of β-NGF based on our recent demonstration of the presence of neurons expressing kisspeptin, a potent stimulator of GnRH/LH, in the camel hypothalamus.

  15. Effect of the Camelid’s Seminal Plasma Ovulation-Inducing Factor/β-NGF: A Kisspeptin Target Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Allali, Khalid; El Bousmaki, Najlae; Ainani, Hassan; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents) occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids), ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory, and mechanic stimuli. However, other studies have identified a biochemical component in the semen of induced ovulators responsible for the induction of ovulation and named accordingly ovulation-inducing factor (OIF). In camelids, intramuscular or intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (SP) was shown to induce the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge followed by ovulation and subsequent formation of corpus luteum. Recently, this OIF has been identified from SP as a neurotrophin, the β subunit of nerve growth factor (β-NGF). β-NGF is well known as promoting neuron survival and growth, but in this case, it appears to induce ovulation through an endocrine mode of action. Indeed, β-NGF may be absorbed through the endometrium to be conveyed, via the blood stream, to the central structures regulating the LH preovulatory surge. In this review, we provide a summary of the most relevant results obtained in the field, and we propose a working hypothesis for the central action of β-NGF based on our recent demonstration of the presence of neurons expressing kisspeptin, a potent stimulator of GnRH/LH, in the camel hypothalamus. PMID:28713816

  16. Effect of the Camelid’s Seminal Plasma Ovulation-Inducing Factor/β-NGF: A Kisspeptin Target Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid El Allali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Female mammals are classified into spontaneous and induced ovulators based on the mechanism eliciting ovulation. Ovulation in spontaneous species (e.g., human, sheep, cattle, horse, pigs, and most rodents occurs at regular intervals and depends upon the circulating estradiol. However, in induced ovulators (e.g., rabbits, ferrets, cats, and camelids, ovulation is associated with coitus. In the later, various factors have been proposed to trigger ovulation, including auditory, visual, olfactory, and mechanic stimuli. However, other studies have identified a biochemical component in the semen of induced ovulators responsible for the induction of ovulation and named accordingly ovulation-inducing factor (OIF. In camelids, intramuscular or intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (SP was shown to induce the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH surge followed by ovulation and subsequent formation of corpus luteum. Recently, this OIF has been identified from SP as a neurotrophin, the β subunit of nerve growth factor (β-NGF. β-NGF is well known as promoting neuron survival and growth, but in this case, it appears to induce ovulation through an endocrine mode of action. Indeed, β-NGF may be absorbed through the endometrium to be conveyed, via the blood stream, to the central structures regulating the LH preovulatory surge. In this review, we provide a summary of the most relevant results obtained in the field, and we propose a working hypothesis for the central action of β-NGF based on our recent demonstration of the presence of neurons expressing kisspeptin, a potent stimulator of GnRH/LH, in the camel hypothalamus.

  17. Effect of progesterone on kisspeptin and neurokinin B cell numbers in the arcuate nucleus of the female pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progesterone acts at the hypothalamus to inhibit LH secretion in the pig, but the mechanism for this is unknown. Kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) have both been shown to influence GnRH/LH secretion and mediate steroid negative feedback in several species and to be critical for normal reproductive f...

  18. Melanin-concentrating hormone directly inhibits GnRH neurons and blocks kisspeptin activation, linking energy balance to reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Dumalska, Iryna; Morozova, Elena; van den Pol, Anthony; Alreja, Meenakshi

    2009-10-06

    A link between energy balance and reproduction is critical for the survival of all species. Energy-consuming reproductive processes need to be aborted in the face of a negative energy balance, yet knowledge of the pathways mediating this link remains limited. Fasting and food restriction that inhibit fertility also upregulate the hypothalamic melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system that promotes feeding and decreases energy expenditure; MCH knockout mice are lean and have a higher metabolism but remain fertile. MCH also modulates sleep, drug abuse behavior, and mood, and MCH receptor antagonists are currently being developed as antiobesity and antidepressant drugs. Despite the clinical implications of MCH, the direct postsynaptic effects of MCH have never been reported in CNS neurons. Using patch-clamp recordings in brain slices from multiple lines of transgenic GFP mice, we demonstrate a strong inhibitory effect of MCH on an exclusive population of septal vGluT2-GnRH neurons that is activated by the puberty-triggering and preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge-mediating peptide, kisspeptin. MCH has no effect on kisspeptin-insensitive GnRH, vGluT2, cholinergic, or GABAergic neurons located within the same nucleus. The inhibitory effects of MCH are reproducible and nondesensitizing and are mediated via a direct postsynaptic Ba(2+)-sensitive K(+) channel mechanism involving the MCHR1 receptor. MCH immunoreactive fibers are in close proximity to vGluT2-GFP and GnRH-GFP neurons. Importantly, MCH blocks the excitatory effect of kisspeptin on vGluT2-GnRH neurons. Considering the role of MCH in regulating energy balance and of GnRH and kisspeptin in triggering puberty and maintaining fertility, MCH may provide a critical link between energy balance and reproduction directly at the level of the kisspeptin-activated vGluT2-GnRH neuron.

  19. Hypothalamic expression of KiSS-1 system and gonadotropin-releasing effects of kisspeptin in different reproductive states of the female Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, J; Vigo, E; Castellano, J M; Navarro, V M; Fernández-Fernández, R; Casanueva, F F; Dieguez, C; Aguilar, E; Pinilla, L; Tena-Sempere, M

    2006-06-01

    Kisspeptins, products of the KiSS-1 gene with ability to bind G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54), have been recently identified as major gatekeepers of reproductive function with ability to potently activate the GnRH/LH axis. Yet, despite the diversity of functional states of the female gonadotropic axis, pharmacological characterization of this effect has been mostly conducted in pubertal animals or adult male rodents, whereas similar studies have not been thoroughly conducted in the adult female. In this work, we evaluated maximal LH and FSH secretory responses to kisspeptin-10, as well as changes in sensitivity and hypothalamic expression of KiSS-1 and GPR54 genes, in different physiological and experimental models in the adult female rat. Kisspeptin-10 (1 nmol, intracerebroventricular) was able to elicit robust LH bursts at all phases of the estrous cycle, with maximal responses at estrus; yet, in diestrus LH, responses to kisspeptin were detected at doses as low as 0.1 pmol. In contrast, high doses of kisspeptin only stimulated FSH secretion at diestrus. Removal of ovarian sex steroids did not blunt the ability of kisspeptin to further elicit stimulated LH and FSH secretion, but restoration of maximal responses required replacement with estradiol and progesterone. Finally, despite suppressed basal levels, LH and FSH secretory responses to kisspeptin were preserved in pregnant and lactating females, although the magnitude of LH bursts and the sensitivity to kisspeptin were much higher in pregnant dams. Interestingly, hypothalamic KiSS-1 gene expression significantly increased during pregnancy, whereas GPR54 mRNA levels remained unaltered. In summary, our current data document for the first time the changes in hypothalamic expression of KiSS-1 system and the gonadotropic effects (maximal responses and sensitivity) of kisspeptin in different functional states of the female reproductive axis. The present data may pose interesting implications in light of the

  20. Pubertal Escape From Estradiol Negative Feedback in Ewe Lambs Is Not Accounted for by Decreased ESR1 mRNA or Protein in Kisspeptin Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenbaugh, Michelle N; D'Oliveira, Marcella; Cardoso, Rodolfo C; Hileman, Stanley M; Williams, Gary L; Amstalden, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether decreased sensitivity to estradiol negative feedback is associated with reduced estrogen receptor α (ESR1) expression in kisspeptin neurons as ewe lambs approach puberty. Lambs were ovariectomized and received no implant (OVX) or an implant containing estradiol (OVX+E). In the middle arcuate nucleus (mARC), ESR1 messenger RNA (mRNA) was greater in OVX than OVX+E lambs but did not differ elsewhere. Post hoc analysis of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from OVX+E lambs revealed three patterns of LH pulsatility: low [1 to 2 pulses per 12 hours; low frequency (LF), n = 3], moderate [6 to 7 pulses per 12 hours; moderate frequency (MF), n = 6], and high [>10 pulses per 12 hours; high frequency (HF), n = 5]. The percentage of kisspeptin neurons containing ESR1 mRNA in the preoptic area did not differ among HF, MF, or LF groups. However, the percentage of kisspeptin neurons containing ESR1 mRNA in the mARC was greater in HF (57%) than in MF (36%) or LF (27%) lambs and did not differ from OVX (50%) lambs. A higher percentage of kisspeptin neurons contained ESR1 protein in all regions of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) in OVX compared with OVX+E lambs. There were no differences in ESR1 protein among the HF, MF, or LF groups in the preoptic area or ARC. Contrary to our hypothesis, increases in LH pulsatility were associated with enhanced ESR1 mRNA abundance in kisspeptin neurons in the ARC, and absence of estradiol increased the percentage of kisspeptin neurons containing ESR1 protein in the ARC. Therefore, changes in the expression of ESR1, particularly in kisspeptin neurons in the ARC, do not explain the pubertal escape from estradiol negative feedback in ewe lambs. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  1. Kisspeptin Signaling Is Required for the Luteinizing Hormone Response in Anestrous Ewes following the Introduction of Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bond, Julie-Ann P.; Li, Qun; Millar, Robert P.; Clarke, Iain J.; Smith, Jeremy T.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of a novel male stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of female sheep during seasonal anestrus, leading to the resumption of follicle maturation and ovulation. How this pheromone cue activates pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) is unknown. We hypothesised that pheromones activate kisspeptin neurons, the product of which is critical for the stimulation of GnRH neurons and fertility. During the non-breeding season, female sheep were exposed to novel males and blood samples collected for analysis of plasma LH profiles. Females without exposure to males served as controls. In addition, one hour before male exposure, a kisspeptin antagonist (P-271) or vehicle was infused into the lateral ventricle and continued for the entire period of male exposure. Introduction of a male led to elevated mean LH levels, due to increased LH pulse amplitude and pulse frequency in females, when compared to females not exposed to a male. Infusion of P-271 abolished this effect of male exposure. Brains were collected after the male effect stimulus and we observed an increase in the percentage of kisspeptin neurons co-expressing Fos, by immunohistochemistry. In addition, the per-cell expression of Kiss1 mRNA was increased in the rostral and mid (but not the caudal) arcuate nucleus (ARC) after male exposure in both aCSF and P-271 treated ewes, but the per-cell content of neurokinin B mRNA was decreased. There was also a generalized increase in Fos positive cells in the rostral and mid ARC as well as the ventromedial hypothalamus of females exposed to males. We conclude that introduction of male sheep to seasonally anestrous female sheep activates kisspeptin neurons and other cells in the hypothalamus, leading to increased GnRH/LH secretion. PMID:23469121

  2. Eel Kisspeptins: Identification, Functional Activity, and Inhibition on both Pituitary LH and GnRH Receptor Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Pasquier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The European eel (Anguilla anguilla presents a blockade of sexual maturation at a prepubertal stage due to a deficient production of gonadotropins. We previously initiated, in the eel, the investigation of the kisspeptin system, one of the major gatekeepers of puberty in mammals, and we predicted the sequence of two Kiss genes. In the present study, we cloned and sequenced Kiss1 and Kiss2 cDNAs from the eel brain. The tissue distributions of Kiss1 and Kiss2 transcripts, as investigated by quantitative real-time PCR, showed that both genes are primarily expressed in the eel brain and pituitary. The two 10-residue long sequences characteristic of kisspeptin, eel Kp1(10 and Kp2(10, as well as two longer sequences, predicted as mature peptides, eel Kp1(15 and Kp2(12, were synthesized and functionally analyzed. Using rat Kiss1 receptor-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells, we found that the four synthesized eel peptides were able to induce [Ca2+]i responses, indicating their ability to bind mammalian KissR-1 and to activate second messenger pathways. In primary culture of eel pituitary cells, all four peptides were able to specifically and dose-dependently inhibit lhβ expression, without any effect on fshβ, confirming our previous data with heterologous kisspeptins. Furthermore, in this eel in vitro system, all four peptides inhibited the expression of the type 2 GnRH receptor (gnrh-r2. Our data revealed a dual inhibitory effect of homologous kisspeptins on both pituitary lhβ and gnrh-r2 expression in the European eel.

  3. Peripheral reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.

    1978-01-01

    Peripheral collisions, that is, collisions involving a small amount of overlap of nuclear matter, are discussed including inclusive interactions, the magnitude of the peripheral cross section, fragmentation, a compilation of experiments and available data, limiting fragmentation, factorization, some models, fragment momentum distributions, and future research directions

  4. Hypothalamic transcriptional expression of the kisspeptin system and sex steroid receptors differs among polycystic ovary syndrome rat models with different endocrine phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Carvalho, Kátia Cândido; Giannocco, Gisele; Duarte, Daniele Coelho; Garcia, Natália; Soares-Junior, José Maria; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; Maliqueo, Manuel; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Maciel, Gustavo Arantes Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder that affects reproductive-age women. The mechanisms underlying the endocrine heterogeneity and neuroendocrinology of polycystic ovary syndrome are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of the kisspeptin system and gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse regulators in the hypothalamus as well as factors related to luteinizing hormone secretion in the pituitary of polycystic ovary syndrome rat models induced by testosterone or estradiol. A single injection of testosterone propionate (1.25 mg) (n=10) or estradiol benzoate (0.5 mg) (n=10) was administered to female rats at 2 days of age to induce experimental polycystic ovary syndrome. Controls were injected with a vehicle (n=10). Animals were euthanized at 90-94 days of age, and the hypothalamus and pituitary gland were used for gene expression analysis. Rats exposed to testosterone exhibited increased transcriptional expression of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor-β and reduced expression of kisspeptin in the hypothalamus. However, rats exposed to estradiol did not show any significant changes in hormone levels relative to controls but exhibited hypothalamic downregulation of kisspeptin, tachykinin 3 and estrogen receptor-α genes and upregulation of the gene that encodes the kisspeptin receptor. Testosterone- and estradiol-exposed rats with different endocrine phenotypes showed differential transcriptional expression of members of the kisspeptin system and sex steroid receptors in the hypothalamus. These differences might account for the different endocrine phenotypes found in testosterone- and estradiol-induced polycystic ovary syndrome rats.

  5. Effect of a postnatal high-fat diet exposure on puberty onset, estrous cycle regularity, and kisspeptin expression in female rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Maria Elena Klibo; Overgaard, Agnete; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin, encoded by Kiss1, plays a key role in pubertal maturation and reproduction as a positive upstream regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. To examine the role of high-fat diet (HFD) on puberty onset, estrous cycle regularity, and kisspeptin expression, female rats...... were exposed to HFD in distinct postnatal periods. Three groups of rats were exposed to HFD containing 60% energy from fat during the pre-weaning period (postnatal day (PND) 1-16, HFD PND 1-16), post-weaning period (HFD PND 21-34), or during both periods (HFD PND 1-34). Puberty onset, evaluated...... that postnatal HFD exposure induced irregular estrous cycles, but had no effect on puberty onset or kisspeptin....

  6. Natrium dischargement from peripheral blood as a predominant factor influenced by the administration of banana (Musa paradisiaca) on elderly female hypertensive patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Noriko, N.; Komara, S. B.

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension is more common in eldery female that triggered by diet and lifestyle changes. Bananas were not only useful for the food, but also for hypertension therapy and preserving life. Administration of bananas decreased blood pressure in hypertensive patients. This study aims to identify of factors that influenced by the administration of banana (Musa paradisiaca) on elderly female hypertensive patient. Twenty of eldery female patient were divided into 2 respondents group: control (11 patients) and treatment (9 patients). The treatment groups received banana twice a day during 2 weeks, but the control group didn’t. Here, we showed the administration of banana significantly decreased blood pressure on elderly female hypertensive patient (p = 0.00) in both systole and diastole. There was a significant decrease in sodium levels (p = 0.037) in the blood, but potassium levels remained the same. Erythrocyte sedimentation level (p = 0.136) and trombocyte count (p = 0.176) in treatment group, were not affected by banana administration. Taken together, banana administration on elderly female hypertensive patient decreased the blood pressure significantly, greatly affected by the natrium dischargement from the blood. Thus, our findings contribute to preliminary comprehension of banana effect on hypertension reduction.

  7. A population of kisspeptin/neurokinin B neurons in the arcuate nucleus may be the central target of the male effect phenomenon in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kohei; Wakabayashi, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takashi; Tanaka, Tomomi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji; Okamura, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of females to a male pheromone accelerates pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in goats. Recent evidence has suggested that neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) containing kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) play a pivotal role in the control of GnRH secretion. Therefore, we hypothesized that these neurons may be the central target of the male pheromone. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether NKB signaling is involved in the pheromone action, and whether ARC kisspeptin/NKB neurons receive input from the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA)--the nucleus suggested to relay pheromone signals. Ovariectomized goats were implanted with a recording electrode aimed at a population of ARC kisspeptin/NKB neurons, and GnRH pulse generator activity, represented by characteristic increases in multiple-unit activity (MUA) volleys, was measured. Pheromone exposure induced an MUA volley and luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse in control animals, whereas the MUA and LH responses to the pheromone were completely suppressed by the treatment with an NKB receptor antagonist. These results indicate that NKB signaling is a prerequisite for pheromone action. In ovariectomized goats, an anterograde tracer was injected into the MeA, and possible connections between the MeA and ARC kisspeptin/NKB neurons were examined. Histochemical observations demonstrated that a subset of ARC kisspeptin/NKB neurons receive efferent projections from the MeA. These results suggest that the male pheromone signal is conveyed via the MeA to ARC kisspeptin neurons, wherein the signal stimulates GnRH pulse generator activity through an NKB signaling-mediated mechanism in goats.

  8. Effects of kisspeptin1 on electrical activity of an extrahypothalamic population of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yali; Wayne, Nancy L

    2012-01-01

    Kisspeptin (product of the kiss1 gene) is the most potent known activator of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Both kiss1 and the kisspeptin receptor are highly expressed in the hypothalamus of vertebrates, and low doses of kisspeptin have a robust and long-lasting stimulatory effect on the rate of action potential firing of hypophysiotropic gonadotropin releasing hormone-1 (GnRH1) neurons in mice. Fish have multiple populations of GnRH neurons distinguished by their location in the brain and the GnRH gene that they express. GnRH3 neurons located in the terminal nerve (TN) associated with the olfactory bulb are neuromodulatory and do not play a direct role in regulating pituitary-gonadal function. In medaka fish, the electrical activity of TN-GnRH3 neurons is modulated by visual cues from conspecifics, and is thought to act as a transmitter of information from the external environment to the central nervous system. TN-GnRH3 neurons also play a role in sexual motivation and arousal states, making them an important population of neurons to study for understanding coordination of complex behaviors. We investigated the role of kisspeptin in regulating electrical activity of TN-GnRH3 neurons in adult medaka. Using electrophysiology in an intact brain preparation, we show that a relatively brief treatment with 100 nM of kisspeptin had a long-lasting stimulatory effect on the electrical activity of an extrahypothalamic population of GnRH neurons. Dose-response analysis suggests a relatively narrow activational range of this neuropeptide. Further, blocking action potential firing with tetrodotoxin and blocking synaptic transmission with a low Ca(2+)/high Mg(2+) solution inhibited the stimulatory action of kisspeptin on electrical activity, indicating that kisspeptin is acting indirectly through synaptic regulation to excite TN-GnRH3 neurons. Our findings provide a new perspective on kisspeptin's broader functions within the central nervous system, through its

  9. Kisspeptin regulates ovarian steroidogenesis during delayed embryonic development in the fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha; Krishna, Amitabh

    2017-11-01

    Cynopterus sphinx, a fruit bat, undergoes delayed embryonic development during the winter months, a period that corresponds to low levels of progesterone and estradiol synthesis by the ovary. Kisspeptins (KPs) are a group of neuropeptide hormones that act via G-protein coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) to stimulate hypothalamic secretion of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, thereby regulating ovarian steroidogenesis, folliculogenesis, and ovulation. GPR54 is also expressed in the ovary, suggesting a direct role for KPs in ovarian steroidogenesis. The aim of present study was to determine if a low serum level of KP is responsible for reduced progesterone and estradiol levels during the period of delayed embryonic development in C. sphinx. Indeed, low serum KP abundance corresponded to reduced expression of GPR54 in ovarian luteal cells during the period of delayed development compared to normal development. In vitro and in vivo treatment with KP increased GPR54 abundance, via Extracellular signal regulated kinase and its downstream mediators, leading to increased progesterone synthesis in the ovary during delayed embryonic development. KP treatment also increased cholesterol uptake and elevated expression of Luteinizing hormone receptor and Steroid acute regulatory protein in the ovary, suggesting that elevation in circulating KP during delayed embryonic development may reactivate luteal activity. KPs may also enhance cell survival (BCL-2, reduced Caspase 3 activity) and angiogenesis (Vascular endothelium growth factor) during this period. The findings of this study thus demonstrate a regulatory role for KPs in the maintenance of luteal steroidogenesis during pregnancy in C. sphinx. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Neuropeptide co-expression in hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons of laboratory animals and the human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin eSkrapits

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic peptidergic neurons using kisspeptin (KP and its co-transmitters for communication are critically involved in the regulation of mammalian reproduction and puberty. This article provides an overview of neuropeptides present in KP neurons, with a focus on the human species. Immunohistochemical studies reveal that large subsets of human KP neurons synthesize neurokinin B, as also shown in laboratory species. In contrast, dynorphin described in KP neurons of rodents and sheep is found rarely in KP cells of human males and postmenopausal females. Similarly, galanin is detectable in mouse, but not human, KP cells, whereas substance P, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and proenkephalin-derived opioids are expressed in varying subsets of KP neurons in humans, but not reported in ARC of other species. Human KP neurons do not contain neurotensin, cholecystokinin, proopiomelanocortin-derivatives, agouti-related protein, neuropeptide Y, somatostatin or tyrosine hydroxylase (dopamine. These data identify the possible co-transmitters of human KP cells. Neurochemical properties distinct from those of laboratory species indicate that humans use considerably different neurotransmitter mechanisms to regulate fertility.

  11. Relationship of glucocorticoid receptor expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the cochlea of guinea pigs and effects of dexamethasone administration.

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    Ling Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids (GCs are widely used to treat sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL and significantly improve hearing. However, GC insensitivity has been observed in some patients of SSNHL. OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between GR expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and in the cochlea of guinea pigs at mRNA and protein levels. METHODS: One group of guinea pigs received dexamethasone (10 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 7 consecutive days (dexamethasone group, and another group of guinea pigs received normal saline (control group. Real time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the expression of GR mRNA and GR protein in PBMCs and the cochleae. RESULTS: The GR mRNA and GR protein were detected in both PBMCs and the cochlear tissue of guinea pigs. GR mRNA and GR protein levels in PBMCs were positively correlated with those in the cochlea. The expression of GR mRNA and GR protein was significantly increased in the dexamethasone group compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of GR mRNA and GR protein in the PBMCs were positively correlated with those in the cochlea of guinea pigs. Systemic dexamethasone treatment can significantly up-regulate GR expression in PBMCs and in the cochlea. Measurement of the GR level in PBMCs could be used as an indicator of GR level in the cochlea.

  12. Effect of flavonoid-containing extracts on the growth of transplanted sarcoma 45, peripheral blood and bone marrow condition after oral and intramuscular administration in rats

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    Nikita A. Navolokin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective — Discovery of the apoptosis-inducing effects of flavonoid vagonin allowed to make an assumption of existence of similar effect in others flavonoids. This study of the effects of extracts from Gratīola officinālis, Helichrýsum arenárium and diploid forms of Zea mays on bone marrow and blood leucocytes at intramuscular and oral administration was carried out on rats bearing sarcoma 45. Earlier, the apoptosis-inducing effects were detected for these extracts but the toxic effects of extracts on blood and bone marrow have not been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these extracts on white blood cell count and bone marrow morphology. Material and Methods — The experiments were carried out on 48 male Wistar albino rats according to University's Animal Ethics Committee (Protocol № 13, 2011, Saratov, Russia and the relevant national agency regulating experiments on animals. We evaluated white blood cell count and bone marrow morphology in animals after oral and intramuscular administration of extracts. A growth rate of tumor was also ranked. Results — Oral and intramuscular administration of extracts from flavonoid-containing plants Zea mays and Gratīola officinālis causes normalization of myelocytic germ parameters in bone marrow of tumor-bearing rats and increase of lymphocyte percent in white blood cell count of blood and myelogram. Conclusion — Absence of toxic effects and normalization of myelocytic germ parameters in bone marrow of tumor-bearing rats after oral and intramuscular administration of extracts from flavonoid-containing plants Zea mays and Gratīola officinālis allows to recommend further study of the antitumor effect of these extracts.

  13. Phase I Trial of Intratumoral Administration of NIS-Expressing Strain of Measles Virus in Unresectable or Recurrent Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0115 TITLE: Phase I Trial of Intratumoral Administration of NIS-Expressing Strain of Measles Virus in Unresectable or...Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form...Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time

  14. Accumulation of radioactivity in rat brain and peripheral tissues including salivary gland after intravenous administration of 14C-D-aspartic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Kazuhiro; Fukushima, Takeshi; Santa, Tomofumi; Homma, Hiroshi; Sugihara, Juko; Kodama, Hirohiko; Yoshikawa, Masayoshi.

    1997-01-01

    After the intravenous administration of 14 C-D-aspartic acid (Asp) into Sprague-Dawley rats (male, 7-week-old), the distribution and elimination of radioactivity was investigated by the whole body autoradiography. High radioactivities were detected in pineal gland, pituitary gland and salivary gland at 30 min after administration. The other tissues detected were liver, lung, adrenal gland, pancreas and spleen where D-Asp was reported to occur naturally. After 24 hr, the radioactivities were still detected at high levels in the pineal, pituitary and salivary glands. The data suggested the natural occurrence of D-Asp in salivary gland. After careful examination utilizing fluorescent derivatization and chiral separation by high-performance liquid chromatography, the presence of D-Asp was, for the first time, demonstrated in salivary gland in situ, the concentration of which was 7.85 ± 1.0 nmol/g. The administration of 14 C-L-Asp was also carried out. The data suggested that D-Asp in the circulating blood is one of the sources of the tissue D-Asp. (author)

  15. Prevention of dimethylsulfoxide-related nausea and vomiting by prophylactic administration of ondansetron for patients receiving autologous cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cells.

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    Eisenberg, Seth; Wickline, Mihkaila; Linenberger, Michael; Gooley, Ted; Holmberg, Leona

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ondansetron for the prevention of nausea and vomiting from dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) during autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) infusion. Nonrandomized cohort using historical control. Comprehensive cancer center outpatient infusion department. 50 patients receiving ASCT in the outpatient setting. Patients were assessed for nausea and vomiting on their infusion day using the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer Antiemesis Tool (MAT) at arrival, pre-ASCT infusion, pre-ondansetron administration, prior to the first bag, and after each bag of stem cells. A standard script was used to ensure consistency. Ondansetron, 16 mg IV, was administered 30-90 minutes prior to each ASCT infusion. Number and volume of stem cells bags, as well as infusion rate and emesis episodes, were recorded. Nausea scores and vomiting episodes were compared to historical data. Subjectivity of nausea, potential Hawthorne Effect. Forty-five percent of patients had an MAT score greater than 2 on arrival, decreasing to 18% after receiving ondansetron before the first bag. Twenty-four percent had MAT increases of more than two points by infusion end compared to 58% in the historic control group. Eighteen percent of patients vomited compared to 28% of historic controls. The administration of 16 mg of IV ondansetron significantly reduced DMSO-related nausea and episodes of vomiting in patients receiving ASCT. Prophylactic administration of ondansetron had a positive effect on reducing nausea symptoms and episodes of vomiting during ASCT infusions. These results prompted a change in clinical practice. More research is required to determine whether the inclusion of other antiemetic agents would provide even greater benefit. To date, no other published studies have explored the benefits of premedicating patients with ondansetron prior to ASCT infusions. This study is the first to establish efficacy of ondansetron for an unlabeled indication. These

  16. Continuous infusion versus intermittent flushing to prevent loss of function of peripheral intravenous catheters used for drug administration in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, A; McIntosh, D; Davies, M W

    2005-10-19

    The use of peripheral intravenous cannulae is common in newborn babies. Many of them require an intravenous line only for medications and not for fluid. Currently there is little uniformity in methods used to maintain cannula patency. The object of this review was to determine which method was better for maintaining intravenous lines used in neonates for intravenous medication only: intermittent flushing or continuous infusion We searched The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2004), CINAHL (from 1982 to June 2004) and MEDLINE (from 1966 to June 2004) . Randomised controlled trials comparing continuous infusion to intermittent flushing to maintain patency of intravenous cannulas. Units of randomisation might include individual catheters or individual babies. Three reviewers independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Two studies were eligible for inclusion. In one study only one of our primary outcomes was available: the duration of cannula patency for the first cannula used per infant was slightly longer in the continuous infusion group, but not significantly so, with a mean difference of -4.3 hours (95% CI -18.2 to 9.7). In the second study, only one of our primary outcomes was available: the mean (SD) number cannulas used per infant in the first 48 hours was less in the intermittent flush group with a mean difference of -0.76 cannulas (95% CI -1.37 to -0.15). No results were available for any of our other primary outcomes: in the published report, results were reported per catheter rather than per infant, a number of infants received more than one intravenous catheter (39 infants received an unknown number of catheters). The overall duration of cannula patency was significantly longer in the intermittent flush group with a mean duration of patency in the intermittent flush group of 2.1 days (SD 1.0) compared with the continuous infusion group where the mean duration of patency was 1.0 days (SD 0

  17. Effects of Kisspeptin-10 on Lipid Metabolism in Cultured Chicken Hepatocytes

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    J. Wu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies showed that kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10 injected in vivo can markedly increase lipid anabolism in liver of quails. In order to investigate the direct effect of Kp-10 on lipid metabolism of hepatocytes in birds, cells were separated from embryos livers and cultured in vitro with 0, 100 and 1,000 nM Kp-10, respectively. The results showed that after 24 h treatment, cells viability was not affected by 100 nM Kp-10, but showed a mild decrease with 1,000 nM Kp-10 compared to the control cells. Based on the results of the cell viability, 100 nM dosage of Kp-10 was selected for the further study and analysis. Compared with control cells, total cholesterol (Tch contents in 100 nM treated cells were increased by 51.23%, but did not reach statistical significance, while the level of triglyceride (TG, high density of lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and low density of lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C were significantly increased. Real-time PCR results showed that ApoVLDL-II mRNA expression had a tendency to increase, genes including sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase α (ACCα, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1, 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductases (HMGCR and stearyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase-1 (SCD1 mRNA in hepatocytes were significantly down-regulated by 100 nM Kp-10. However, contrary to its gene expression, SREBP-1 protein expression was significantly up-regulated by 100 nM Kp-10. Some of the significant correlations in mRNA expression were found between genes encoding hepatic factors or enzymes involved in lipid metabolism in liver of birds. These results indicate that Kp-10 stimulates lipid synthesis directly in primary cultured hepatocytes of chickens.

  18. Temperature differentially regulates the two kisspeptin systems in the brain of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Md; Kitahashi, Takashi; Ogawa, Satoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2013-11-01

    Kisspeptins encoded by the kiss1 and kiss2 genes play an important role in reproduction through the stimulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion by activating their receptors (KissR1 EU047918 and KissR2 EU047917). To understand the mechanism through which temperature affects reproduction, we examined kiss1 and kiss2 and their respective receptor (kissr1 and kissr2) gene expression in the brain of male zebrafish exposed to a low temperature (15°C), normal temperature (27°C), and high temperature (35°C) for 7-days. kiss1 mRNA levels in the brain were significantly increased (2.9-fold) in the low temperature compared to the control (27°C), while no noticeable change was observed in the high temperature conditions. Similarly, kissr1 mRNA levels were significantly increased (1.5-2.2-folds) in the low temperature conditions in the habenula, the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fascicle, oculomotor nucleus, and the interpeduncular nucleus. kiss2 mRNA levels were significantly decreased (0.5-fold) in the low and high temperature conditions, concomitant with kissr2 mRNA levels (0.5-fold) in the caudal zone of the periventricular hypothalamus and the posterior tuberal nucleus. gnrh3 but not gnrh2 mRNA levels were also decreased (0.5-fold) in the low and high temperature conditions. These findings suggest that while the kiss1/kissr1 system is sensitive to low temperature, the kiss2/kissr2 system is sensitive to both extremes of temperature, which leads to failure in reproduction. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Metabolic Impact on the Hypothalamic Kisspeptin-Kiss1r Signaling Pathway

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    Fazal Wahab

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A large body of data has established the hypothalamic kisspeptin (KP and its receptor, KISS1R, as major players in the activation of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis at the time of puberty and maintenance of reproductive capacity in the adult. Due to its strategic location, this ligand-receptor pair acts as an integrator of cues from gonadal steroids as well as of circadian and seasonal variation-related information on the reproductive axis. Besides these cues, the activity of the hypothalamic KP signaling is very sensitive to the current metabolic status of the body. In conditions of energy imbalance, either positive or negative, a number of alterations in the hypothalamic KP signaling pathway have been documented in different mammalian models including nonhuman primates and human. Deficiency of metabolic fuels during fasting causes a marked reduction of Kiss1 gene transcript levels in the hypothalamus and, hence, decreases the output of KP-containing neurons. Food intake or exogenous supply of metabolic cues, such as leptin, reverses metabolic insufficiency-related changes in the hypothalamic KP signaling. Likewise, alterations in Kiss1 expression have also been reported in other situations of energy imbalance like diabetes and obesity. Information related to the body’s current metabolic status reaches to KP neurons both directly as well as indirectly via a complex network of other neurons. In this review article, we have provided an updated summary of the available literature on the regulation of the hypothalamic KP-Kiss1r signaling by metabolic cues. In particular, the potential mechanisms of metabolic impact on the hypothalamic KP-Kiss1r signaling, in light of available evidence, are discussed.

  20. Crosstalks between kisspeptin neurons and somatostatin neurons are not photoperiod dependent in the ewe hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufourny, Laurence; Lomet, Didier

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal reproduction is under the control of gonadal steroid feedback, itself synchronized by day-length or photoperiod. As steroid action on GnRH neurons is mostly indirect and therefore exerted through interneurons, we looked for neuroanatomical interactions between kisspeptin (KP) neurons and somatostatin (SOM) neurons, two populations targeted by sex steroids, in three diencephalic areas involved in the central control of ovulation and/or sexual behavior: the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the preoptic area (POA) and the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl). KP is the most potent secretagogue of GnRH secretion while SOM has been shown to centrally inhibit LH pulsatile release. Notably, hypothalamic contents of these two neuropeptides vary with photoperiod in specific seasonal species. Our hypothesis is that SOM inhibits KP neuron activity and therefore indirectly modulate GnRH release and that this effect may be seasonally regulated. We used sections from ovariectomized estradiol-replaced ewes killed after photoperiodic treatment mimicking breeding or anestrus season. We performed triple immunofluorescent labeling to simultaneously detect KP, SOM and synapsin, a marker for synaptic vesicles. Sections from the POA and from the mediobasal hypothalamus were examined using a confocal microscope. Randomly selected KP or SOM neurons were observed in the POA and ARC. SOM neurons were also observed in the VMHvl. In both the ARC and POA, nearly all KP neurons presented numerous SOM contacts. SOM neurons presented KP terminals more frequently in the ARC than in the POA and VMHvl. Quantitative analysis failed to demonstrate major seasonal variations of KP and SOM interactions. Our data suggest a possible inhibitory action of SOM on all KP neurons in both photoperiodic statuses. On the other hand, the physiological significance of KP modulation of SOM neuron activity and vice versa remain to be determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Kisspeptin on the Developmental Competence and Early Transcript Expression in Porcine Oocytes Parthenogenetically Activated with Different Methods

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    Islam M. Saadeldin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies showed the modulatory effect of kisspeptin (KP on calcium waves through the cell membrane and inside the cell. Spermatozoon can induce similar ooplasmic calcium oscillations at fertilization to trigger meiosis II. Here, we evaluated the effect of KP supplementation with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP for 4 h on embryonic development after oocyte activation with single electric pulse, 5 µM ionomycin, or 8% ethanol. Compared to control nonsupplemented groups, KP significantly improved embryo developmental competence electric- and ethanol-activated oocytes in terms of cleavage (75.3% and 58.6% versus 64% and 48%, respectively, p<0.05 and blastocyst development (31.3% and 10% versus 19.3% and 4%, respectively, p<0.05. MOS expression was increased in electrically activated oocytes in presence of KP while it significantly reduced CCNB1 expression. In ionomycin treated group, both MOS and CCNB1 showed significant increase with no difference between KP and control groups. In ethanol-treated group, KP significantly reduced CCNB1 but no effect was observed on MOS expression. The early alterations in MOS and CCNB1 mRNA transcripts caused by KP may explain the significant differences in the developmental competence between the experimental groups. Kisspeptin supplementation may be adopted in protocols for porcine oocyte activation through electric current and ethanol to improve embryonic developmental competence.

  2. High-frequency stimulation-induced peptide release synchronizes arcuate kisspeptin neurons and excites GnRH neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jian; Nestor, Casey C; Zhang, Chunguang; Padilla, Stephanie L; Palmiter, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss1) and neurokinin B (NKB) neurocircuits are essential for pubertal development and fertility. Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Kiss1ARH) co-express Kiss1, NKB, dynorphin and glutamate and are postulated to provide an episodic, excitatory drive to gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH) neurons, the synaptic mechanisms of which are unknown. We characterized the cellular basis for synchronized Kiss1ARH neuronal activity using optogenetics, whole-cell electrophysiology, molecular pharmacology and single cell RT-PCR in mice. High-frequency photostimulation of Kiss1ARH neurons evoked local release of excitatory (NKB) and inhibitory (dynorphin) neuropeptides, which were found to synchronize the Kiss1ARH neuronal firing. The light-evoked synchronous activity caused robust excitation of GnRH neurons by a synaptic mechanism that also involved glutamatergic input to preoptic Kiss1 neurons from Kiss1ARH neurons. We propose that Kiss1ARH neurons play a dual role of driving episodic secretion of GnRH through the differential release of peptide and amino acid neurotransmitters to coordinate reproductive function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16246.001 PMID:27549338

  3. Periodic regulation of expression of genes for kisspeptin, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone and their receptors in the grass puffer: Implications in seasonal, daily and lunar rhythms of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Hironori; Shahjahan, Md; Kitahashi, Takashi

    2018-04-03

    The seasonal, daily and lunar control of reproduction involves photoperiodic, circadian and lunar changes in the activity of kisspeptin, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. These changes are brought through complex networks of light-, time- and non-photic signal-dependent control mechanisms, which are mostly unknown at present. The grass puffer, Takifugu alboplumbeus, a semilunar spawner, provides a unique and excellent animal model to assess this question because its spawning is synchronized with seasonal, daily and lunar cycles. In the diencephalon, the genes for kisspeptin, GnIH and their receptors showed similar expression patterns with clear seasonal and daily oscillations, suggesting that they are regulated by common mechanisms involving melatonin, circadian clock and water temperature. For implications in semilunar-synchronized spawning rhythm, melatonin receptor genes showed ultradian oscillations in expression with the period of 14.0-15.4 h in the pineal gland. This unique ultradian rhythm might be driven by circatidal clock. The possible circatidal clock and circadian clock in the pineal gland may cooperate to drive circasemilunar rhythm to regulate the expression of the kisspeptin, GnIH and their receptor genes. On the other hand, high temperature (over 28 °C) conditions, under which the expression of the kisspeptin and its receptor genes is markedly suppressed, may provide an environmental signal that terminates reproduction at the end of breeding period. Taken together, the periodic regulation of the kisspeptin, GnIH and their receptor genes by melatonin, circadian clock and water temperature may be important in the precisely-timed spawning of the grass puffer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) cell population of the arcuate nucleus: sex differences and effects of prenatal testosterone in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guanliang; Coolen, Lique M; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Goodman, Robert L; Lehman, Michael N

    2010-01-01

    Recent work in sheep has identified a neuronal subpopulation in the arcuate nucleus that coexpresses kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (referred to here as KNDy cells) and that mediate the negative feedback influence of progesterone on GnRH secretion. We hypothesized that sex differences in progesterone negative feedback are due to sexual dimorphism of KNDy cells and compared neuropeptide and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in this subpopulation between male and female sheep. In addition, because sex differences in progesterone negative feedback and neurokinin B are due to the influence of testosterone (T) during fetal life, we determined whether prenatal T exposure would mimic sex differences in KNDy cells. Adult rams had nearly half the number of kisspeptin, neurokinin B, dynorphin, and progesterone receptor-positive cells in the arcuate nucleus as did females, but the percentage of KNDy cells colocalizing progesterone receptors remained high in both sexes. Prenatal T treatment also reduced the number of dynorphin, neurokinin B, and progesterone receptor-positive cells in the female arcuate nucleus; however, the number of kisspeptin cells remained high and at levels comparable to control females. Thus, sex differences in kisspeptin in the arcuate nucleus, unlike that of dynorphin and neurokinin B, are not due solely to exposure to prenatal T, suggesting the existence of different critical periods for multiple peptides coexpressed within the same neuron. In addition, the imbalance between inhibitory (dynorphin) and stimulatory (kisspeptin) neuropeptides in this subpopulation provides a potential explanation for the decreased ability of progesterone to inhibit GnRH neurons in prenatal T-treated ewes.

  5. Socially regulated reproductive development: analysis of GnRH-1 and kisspeptin neuronal systems in cooperatively breeding naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuzhi; Holmes, Melissa M; Forger, Nancy G; Goldman, Bruce D; Lovern, Matthew B; Caraty, Alain; Kalló, Imre; Faulkes, Christopher G; Coen, Clive W

    2013-09-01

    In naked mole-rat (NMR) colonies, breeding is monopolized by the queen and her consorts. Subordinates experience gonadal development if separated from the queen. To elucidate the neuroendocrine factors underlying reproductive suppression/development in NMRs, we quantified plasma gonadal steroids and GnRH-1- and kisspeptin-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in subordinate adults and in those allowed to develop into breeders, with or without subsequent gonadectomy. In males and females, respectively, plasma testosterone and progesterone are higher in breeders than in subordinates. No such distinction occurs for plasma estradiol; its presence after gonadectomy and its positive correlation with adrenal estradiol suggest an adrenal source. Numbers of GnRH-1-ir cell bodies do not differ between gonad-intact breeders and subordinates within or between the sexes. As in phylogenetically related guinea pigs, kisspeptin-ir processes pervade the internal and external zones of the median eminence. Their distribution is consistent with actions on GnRH-1 neurons at perikaryal and/or terminal levels. In previously investigated species, numbers of kisspeptin-ir cell bodies vary from substantial to negligible according to sex and/or reproductive state. NMRs are exceptional: irrespective of sex, reproductive state, or presence of gonads, substantial numbers of kisspeptin-ir cell bodies are detected in the rostral periventricular region of the third ventricle (RP3V) and in the anterior periventricular (PVa), arcuate, and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei. Nevertheless, the greater number in the RP3V/PVa of female breeders compared with female subordinates or male breeders suggests that emergence from a hypogonadotrophic state in females may involve kisspeptin-related mechanisms similar to those underlying puberty or seasonal breeding in other species. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Impact on postpartum hemorrhage of prophylactic administration of oxytocin 10 IU via UnijectTM by peripheral health care providers at home births: design of a community-based cluster-randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton Cynthia K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemorrhage is the leading direct cause of maternal death globally. While oxytocin is the drug of choice for postpartum hemorrhage prevention, its use has generally been limited to health facilities. This trial assesses the effectiveness, safety, and feasibility of expanding the use of prophylactic intramuscular oxytocin to peripheral health care providers at home births in four predominantly rural districts in central Ghana. Methods This study is designed as a community-based cluster-randomized trial in which Community Health Officers are randomized to provide (or not provide an injection of oxytocin 10 IU via the UnijectTM injection system within one minute of delivery of the baby to women who request their presence at home at the onset of labor. The primary aim is to determine if administration of prophylactic oxytocin via Uniject™ by this cadre will reduce the risk of postpartum hemorrhage by 50 % relative to deliveries which do not receive the prophylactic intervention. Postpartum hemorrhage is examined under three sequential definitions: 1 blood loss ≥500 ml (BL; 2 treatment for bleeding (TX and/or BL; 3 hospital referral for bleeding and/or TX and/or BL. Secondary outcomes address safety and feasibility of the intervention and include adverse maternal and fetal outcomes and logistical concerns regarding assistance at home births and the storage and handling of oxytocin, respectively. Discussion Results from this trial will build evidence for the effectiveness of expanding the delivery of this established prophylactic intervention to peripheral settings. Complementary data on safety and logistical issues related to this intervention will assist policymakers in low-income countries in selecting both the best uterotonic and service delivery strategy for postpartum hemorrhage prevention. Results of this trial are expected in mid-2013. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01108289.

  7. Impact on postpartum hemorrhage of prophylactic administration of oxytocin 10 IU via Uniject™ by peripheral health care providers at home births: design of a community-based cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Cynthia K; Newton, Samuel; Mullany, Luke C; Cofie, Patience; Agyemang, Charlotte Tawiah; Adiibokah, Edward; Darcy, Niamh; Khan, Sadaf; Levisay, Alice; Gyapong, John; Armbruster, Deborah; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2012-06-07

    Hemorrhage is the leading direct cause of maternal death globally. While oxytocin is the drug of choice for postpartum hemorrhage prevention, its use has generally been limited to health facilities. This trial assesses the effectiveness, safety, and feasibility of expanding the use of prophylactic intramuscular oxytocin to peripheral health care providers at home births in four predominantly rural districts in central Ghana. This study is designed as a community-based cluster-randomized trial in which Community Health Officers are randomized to provide (or not provide) an injection of oxytocin 10 IU via the Uniject™ injection system within one minute of delivery of the baby to women who request their presence at home at the onset of labor. The primary aim is to determine if administration of prophylactic oxytocin via Uniject™ by this cadre will reduce the risk of postpartum hemorrhage by 50 % relative to deliveries which do not receive the prophylactic intervention. Postpartum hemorrhage is examined under three sequential definitions: 1) blood loss ≥500 ml (BL); 2) treatment for bleeding (TX) and/or BL; 3) hospital referral for bleeding and/or TX and/or BL. Secondary outcomes address safety and feasibility of the intervention and include adverse maternal and fetal outcomes and logistical concerns regarding assistance at home births and the storage and handling of oxytocin, respectively. Results from this trial will build evidence for the effectiveness of expanding the delivery of this established prophylactic intervention to peripheral settings. Complementary data on safety and logistical issues related to this intervention will assist policymakers in low-income countries in selecting both the best uterotonic and service delivery strategy for postpartum hemorrhage prevention. Results of this trial are expected in mid-2013. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01108289.

  8. Kisspeptin-10 Enhanced Egg Production in Quails Associated with the Increase of Triglyceride Synthesis in Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Our previous results showed that kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10 injections via intraperitoneal (i.p. once daily for three weeks notably promoted the egg laying rate in quails. In order to investigate the mechanism behind the effects of Kp-10 on enhancing the egg laying rate in birds, this study focused on the alternations of lipids synthesis in liver after Kp-10 injections. 75 female quails (22 d of age were allocated to three groups randomly, and subjected to 0 (control, Con, 10 nmol (low dosage, L and 100 nmol (high dosage, H Kp-10 injections via i.p. once daily for three weeks, respectively. At d 52, quails were sacrificed and sampled for further analyses. Serum E2 concentration was increased by Kp-10 injections, and reached statistical significance in H group. Serum triglyceride (TG concentrations were increased by 46.7% in L group and 36.8% in H group, respectively, but did not reach statistical significance, and TG contents in liver were significantly elevated by Kp-10 injections in a dose-dependent manner. Serum total cholesterol (Tch concentrations significantly decreased in H group, while in H group the hepatic Tch content was markedly increased. The level of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA, apolipoprotein A1 and B (apoA1 and apoB were not altered by Kp-10 injections. The genes expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1, fatty acid synthetase (FAS, apolipoprotein VLDL-II (apoVLDL-II, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1 and vitellogenin II (VTG-II were significantly up-regulated by high but not low dosage of Kp-10 injection compared to the control group. However, the expression of SREBP-2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCα, malic enzyme (ME, stearoyl-CoA (Δ9 desaturase 1 (SCD1, apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1, fatty acid binding protein 2 (FABP2, 3-hydroxyl-3-methyl glutaryl-coenzyme A reductases (HMGCR, estrogen receptor α, β (ERα and β mRNA were not affected by Kp-10 treatment. In line with hepatic mRNA abundance, hepatic SREBP

  9. Early metabolic programming of puberty onset: impact of changes in postnatal feeding and rearing conditions on the timing of puberty and development of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, Juan M; Bentsen, Agnete H; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    the timing of puberty; however, the potential underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we report how changes in the pattern of postnatal feeding affect the onset of puberty and evaluate key hormonal and neuropeptide [Kiss1/kisspeptin (Kp)] alterations linked to these early nutritional manipulations...... of puberty, together with higher levels of leptin and hypothalamic Kiss1 mRNA. Conversely, postnatal underfeeding caused a persistent reduction in body weight, lower ovarian and uterus weights, and delayed vaginal opening, changes that were paralleled by a decrease in leptin and Kiss1 mRNA levels. Kisspeptin...... at puberty were similar in all groups, except for enhanced responsiveness to low doses of Kp-10 in postnatally underfed rats. In conclusion, our data document that the timing of puberty is sensitive to both overfeeding and subnutrition during early (postnatal) periods and suggest that alterations...

  10. The Kisspeptin/Neurokinin B/Dynorphin (KNDy) Cell Population of the Arcuate Nucleus: Sex Differences and Effects of Prenatal Testosterone in Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Guanliang; Coolen, Lique M.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Goodman, Robert L.; Lehman, Michael N.

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in sheep has identified a neuronal subpopulation in the arcuate nucleus that coexpresses kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (referred to here as KNDy cells) and that mediate the negative feedback influence of progesterone on GnRH secretion. We hypothesized that sex differences in progesterone negative feedback are due to sexual dimorphism of KNDy cells and compared neuropeptide and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in this subpopulation between male and female sheep. In ...

  11. Basal CD34+ Cell Count Predicts Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Mobilization in Healthy Donors after Administration of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A Longitudinal, Prospective, Observational, Single-Center, Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Massimo; Gori, Mercedes; Pitino, Annalisa; Gentile, Massimo; Dattola, Antonia; Pontari, Antonella; Vigna, Ernesto; Moscato, Tiziana; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Barilla', Santina; Tripepi, Giovanni; Morabito, Fortunato

    2017-07-01

    A longitudinal, prospective, observational, single-center, cohort study on healthy donors (HDs) was designed to identify predictors of CD34 + cells on day 5 with emphasis on the predictive value of the basal CD34 + cell count. As potential predictors of mobilization, age, sex, body weight, height, blood volume as well as white blood cell count, peripheral blood (PB) mononuclear cells, platelet count, hematocrit, and hemoglobin levels were considered. Two different evaluations of CD34 + cell counts were determined for each donor: baseline (before granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF] administration) and in PB after G-CSF administration on the morning of the fifth day (day 5). A total of 128 consecutive HDs (66 males) with a median age of 43 years were enrolled. CD34 + levels on day 5 displayed a non-normal distribution, with a median value of 75.5 cells/µL. To account for the non-normal distribution of the dependent variable, a quantile regression analysis to predict CD34 + on day 5 using the baseline value of CD34 + as the key predictor was performed. On crude analysis, a baseline value of CD34 + ranging from .5 cells/µL to 1 cells/µL predicts a median value of 50 cells/µL on day 5; a value of 2 cells/µL predicts a median value of 70.7 cells/µL; a value of 3 cells/µL to 4 cells/µL predicts a median value of 91.3 cells/µL, and a value ≥ 5 predicts a median value of 112 cells/µL. In conclusion, the baseline PB CD34 + cell count correlates with the effectiveness of allogeneic PB stem cell mobilization and could be useful to plan the collection. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vascular access in neonatology: peripherally inserted central catheter and peripheral venous catheter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Lienemann

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to present aspects of peripherally inserted central catheter and peripheral venous catheter, highlighting important points in choosing the type of access. For the passage of peripherally inserted central catheter is previously performing specific course necessary, while the primary indication occurs when it is necessary to access the patient's stay for a long period of time. Whereas peripheral venipuncture is the most appropriate in cases of needing an IV line quickly and safely, for the administration of fluids, blood collection, blood transfusion and other.

  13. Photoperiodic Co-Regulation of Kisspeptin, Neurokinin B and Dynorphin in the Hypothalamus of a Seasonal Rodent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartzen-Sprauer, J; Klosen, P; Ciofi, P

    2014-01-01

    In many species, sexual activity varies on a seasonal basis. Kisspeptin (Kp), a hypothalamic neuropeptide acting as a strong activator of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones, plays a critical role in this adaptive process. Recent studies report that two other neuropeptides, namely neurokinin...... (NKB) and dynorphin (DYN), are co-expressed with Kp (and therefore termed KNDy neurones) in the arcuate nucleus and that these peptides are also considered to influence GnRH secretion. The present study aimed to establish whether hypothalamic NKB and DYN expression is photoperiod......-dependent in a seasonal rodent, the Syrian hamster, which exhibits robust seasonal rhythms in reproductive activity. The majority of Kp neurones in the arcuate nucleus co-express NKB and DYN and the expression of all three peptides is decreased under a short (compared to long) photoperiod, leading to a 60% decrease......-localise with RFRP-immunoreactive neurones, and the expression of both NKB and DYN is higher under a short photoperiod, which is opposite to the short-day inhibition of RFRP expression. In conclusion, the present study shows that NKB and DYN display different photoperiodic variations in the Syrian hamster...

  14. [Expression and clinical significance of kisspeptin-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor in tissue of colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhui; Qi, Yuanling; Xu, Qian; Ren, Haipeng

    2016-03-01

    To detect the expression of kisspeptin-1 (KISS-1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tissue of colon cancer, and analyze the relativity between KISS-1, MMP-2, VEGF and pathological characteristics of colon cancer. A total of 60 colon cancer patients and 60 patients with benign colorectal disease who received surgical treatment in our hospital from January 2009 to June 2010 were selected as observation group and control group respectively. The cancer tissue samples and excision samples collected from them were used to detect KISS-1, MMP-2 and VEGF with immunohistochemistry. The positive rates of KISS-1, MMP-2 and VEGF were 31.7%, 58.3% and 78.3% in observation group, and 73.3%, 16.7% and 33.3% in control group. The positive rate of KISS-1 in observation group was lower than that in control group (χ(2)=23.489, Pcolon cancer (χ(2)=8.997, P=0.011; χ(2)=6.163, P=0.013; χ(2)=8.519, P=0.014; χ(2)=9.160, P=0.002; χ(2)=16.577, Pclinical stage of colon cancer and provide evidence for clinical diagnosis and prognosis prediction by detecting KISS-1, MMP-2 and VEGF.

  15. Propylthiouracil and peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Van Boekel

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy is a rare manifestation in hyperthyroidism. We describe the neurological manifestations of a 38 year old female with Graves' disease who developed peripheral neuropathy in the course of her treatment with propylthiouracil. After the drug was tapered off, the neurological signs disappeared. Therefore, we call attention for a possible toxic effect on peripheral nervous system caused by this drug.

  16. Exposure to a complex cocktail of environmental endocrine-disrupting compounds disturbs the kisspeptin/GPR54 system in ovine hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingham, Michelle; Fowler, Paul A; Amezaga, Maria R; Rhind, Stewart M; Cotinot, Corinne; Mandon-Pepin, Beatrice; Sharpe, Richard M; Evans, Neil P

    2009-10-01

    Ubiquitous environmental chemicals, including endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), are associated with declining human reproductive health, as well as an increasing incidence of cancers of the reproductive system. Verifying such links requires animal models exposed to "real-life," environmentally relevant concentrations/mixtures of EDC, particularly in utero, when sensitivity to EDC exposure is maximal. We evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to a pollutant cocktail (sewage sludge) on the ovine fetal reproductive neuroendocrine axes, particularly the kisspeptin (KiSS-1)/GPR54 (G-protein-coupled receptor 54) system. KiSS-1, GPR54, and ERalpha (estrogen receptor alpha) mRNA expression was quantified in control (C) and treated (T) maternal and fetal (110-day) hypothalami and pituitary glands using semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and colocalization of kisspeptin with LHbeta (luteinizing hormone beta) and ERalpha in C and T fetal pituitary glands quantified using dual-labeling immunohistochemistry. Fetuses exposed in utero to the EDC mixture showed reduced KiSS-1 mRNA expression across three hypothalamic regions examined (rostral, mid, and caudal) and had fewer kisspetin immunopositive cells colocalized with both LHbeta and ERalpha in the pituitary gland. In contrast, treatment had no effect on parameters measured in the adult ewe hypothalamus or pituitary. This study demonstrates that the developing fetus is sensitive to real-world mixtures of environmental chemicals, which cause significant neuroendocrine alterations. The important role of kisspeptin/GPR54 in regulating puberty and adult reproduction means that in utero disruption of this system is likely to have long-term consequences in adulthood and represents a novel, additional pathway through which environmental chemicals perturb human reproduction.

  17. Actions of sex steroids on kisspeptin expression and other reproduction-related genes in the brain of the teleost fish European sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, M V; Servili, A; Molés, G; Gueguen, M M; Carrillo, M; Kah, O; Felip, A

    2016-11-01

    Kisspeptins are well known as mediators of the coordinated communication between the brain-pituitary axis and the gonads in many vertebrates. To test the hypothesis that gonadal steroids regulate kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression in European sea bass (a teleost fish), we examined the brains of gonad-intact (control) and castrated animals, as well as castrated males (GDX) and ovariectomized females (OVX) that received testosterone (T) and estradiol (E 2 ) replacement, respectively, during recrudescence. In GDX males, low expression of kiss1 mRNA is observed by in situ hybridization in the caudal hypothalamus (CH) and the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), although hypothalamic changes in kiss1 mRNA levels were not statistically different among the groups, as revealed by real-time PCR. However, T strongly decreased kiss2 expression levels in the hypothalamus, which was documented in the MBH and the nucleus of the lateral recess (NRLd) in GDX T-treated sea bass males. Conversely, it appears that E 2 evokes low kiss1 mRNA in the CH, while there were cells expressing kiss2 in the MBH and NRLd in these OVX females. These results demonstrate that kisspeptin neurons are presumably sensitive to the feedback actions of sex steroids in the sea bass, suggesting that the MBH represents a major site for sex steroid actions on kisspeptins in this species. Also, recent data provide evidence that both positive and negative actions occur in key factors involved in sea bass reproductive function, including changes in the expression of gnrh-1/gonadotropin, cyp19b, er and ar genes and sex steroid and gonadotropin plasma levels in this teleost fish. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. Is the kisspeptin system involved in responses to food restriction in order to preserve reproduction in pubertal male sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Sebastián; Felip, Alicia; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Previous works on European sea bass have determined that long-term exposure to restrictive feeding diets alters the rhythms of some reproductive/metabolic hormones, delaying maturation and increasing apoptosis during gametogenesis. However, exactly how these diets affect key genes and hormones on the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis to trigger puberty is still largely unknown. We may hypothesize that all these signals could be integrated, at least in part, by the kisspeptin system. In order to capture a glimpse of these regulatory mechanisms, kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression levels and those of their kiss receptors (kiss1r, kiss2r) were analyzed in different areas of the brain and in the pituitary of pubertal male sea bass during gametogenesis. Furthermore, other reproductive hormones and factors as well as the percentage of males showing full spermiation were also analyzed. Treated fish fed maintenance diets provided evidence of overexpression of the kisspeptin system in the main hypophysiotropic regions of the brain throughout the entire sexual cycle. Conversely, Gnrh1 and gonadotropin pituitary content and plasma sexual steroid levels were downregulated, except for Fsh levels, which were shown to increase during spermiation. Treated fish exhibited lower rates of spermiation as compared to control group and a delay in its accomplishment. These results demonstrate how the kisspeptin system and plasma Fsh levels are differentially affected by maintenance diets, causing a retardation, but not a full blockage of the reproductive process in the teleost fish European sea bass. This suggests that a hormonal adaptive strategy may be operating in order to preserve reproductive function in this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset ... 10 percent disabling by VA's rating regulations. About peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition of the peripheral ...

  20. The effect of perinatal exposure to ethinyl oestradiol or a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides on kisspeptin neurons in the rat hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Holst, Klaus; Mandrup, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Early life exposure to endocrine disruptors is considered to disturb normal development of hormone sensitive parameters and contribute to advanced puberty and reduced fecundity in humans. Kisspeptin is a positive regulator of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, and plays a key role in the in......Early life exposure to endocrine disruptors is considered to disturb normal development of hormone sensitive parameters and contribute to advanced puberty and reduced fecundity in humans. Kisspeptin is a positive regulator of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, and plays a key role.......We find that perinatal EE2 exposure did not affect Kiss1 mRNA expression in this study designed to model human exposure to estrogenic compounds, and we find only minor effects on puberty onset. Further, the Kiss1 system does not exhibit persistent changes and puberty onset is not affected after perinatal...... exposure to a pesticide mixture in this experimental setting. However, we find that the pesticide mancozeb tends to increase Kiss1 expression in the ARC, presumably through neurotoxic mechanisms rather than via classical endocrine disruption, calling for increased awareness that Kiss1 expression can...

  1. JMJD3 Is Crucial for the Female AVPV RIP-Cre Neuron-Controlled Kisspeptin-Estrogen Feedback Loop and Reproductive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anying; Jiang, Shujun; Wang, Qinghua; Zou, Jianghuan; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2017-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis controls development, reproduction, and metabolism. Although most studies have focused on the hierarchy from the brain to the gonad, many questions remain unresolved concerning the feedback from the gonad to the central nervous system, especially regarding the potential epigenetic modifications in hypothalamic neurons. In the present report, we generated genetically modified mice lacking histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylase Jumonji domain-containing 3 (JMJD3) in hypothalamic rat-insulin-promoter-expressing neurons (RIP-Cre neurons). The female mutant mice displayed late-onset obesity owing to reduced locomotor activity and decreased energy expenditure. JMJD3 deficiency in RIP-Cre neurons also results in delayed pubertal onset, an irregular estrous cycle, impaired fertility, and accelerated ovarian failure in female mice owing to the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-ovarian axis. We found that JMJD3 directly regulates Kiss1 gene expression by binding to the Kiss1 promoter and triggering H3K27me3 demethylation in the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus. Further study confirmed that the aberrations arose from impaired kisspeptin signaling in the hypothalamic AVPV nucleus and subsequent estrogen deficiency. Estrogen replacement therapy can reverse obesity in mutant mice. Moreover, we demonstrated that Jmjd3 is an estrogen target gene in the hypothalamus. These results provide direct genetic and molecular evidence that JMJD3 is a key mediator for the kisspeptin-estrogen feedback loop. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  2. Vasculitic peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Amini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary systemic vasculitis in pre-capillary arteries is associated with peripheral neuropathy. In some types of systematic vasculitis about 60 % of patients have peripheral nervous system (PNS involvement. In vasculitic peripheral neuropathies (VPN a necrotizing and inflammatory process leads to narrowing of vasa nervorum lumen and eventually the appearance of ischemic lesions in peripheral nerves. Some features might be suggestive of VPN, like: axonal nerve degeneration, wallerian-like degeneration, and diameter irregularity of nerve. Peripheral nervous system (PNS destruction during systemic vasculitides should be considered, due to its frequency and early occurrence in vasculitis progression. The first line treatment of non systematic VPNs is corticosteroid agents, but these drugs might worsen the VPNs or systemic vasculitis.

  3. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print this page My Cart Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... Donating bone marrow Donor experiences videos Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...

  4. Peripheral Neuropathy: Symptoms and Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Utah Research News Make a Difference Symptoms of Peripheral Neuropathy Print This Page Peripheral Neuropathy symptoms usually start ... more slowly over many years. The symptoms of peripheral neuropathy often include: A sensation of wearing an invisible “ ...

  5. The Two Populations of Kisspeptin Neurons Are Involved in the Ram-Induced LH Pulsatile Secretion and LH Surge in Anestrous Ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre-Nys, Claude; Cognié, Juliette; Dufourny, Laurence; Ghenim, Meriem; Martinet, Stephanie; Lasserre, Olivier; Lomet, Didier; Millar, Robert P; Ohkura, Satoshi; Suetomi, Yuta

    2017-11-01

    Exposure to a ram during spring stimulates luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and can induce ovulation in sexually quiescent ewes ("ram effect"). Kisspeptin (Kiss) present in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the preoptic area (POA) is a potent stimulators of LH secretion. Our aim was to investigate whether Kiss neurons mediate the increase in LH secretion during the ram effect. With double immunofluorescent detection, we identified Kiss neurons (Kiss IR) activated (Fos IR) by exposure to a ram for 2 hours (M2) or 12 hours (M12) or to ewes for 2 hours (C). The density of cells Kiss + Fos IR and the proportion of Kiss IR cells that were also Fos IR cells were higher in M2 and M12 than in C in ARC (P populations of Kiss neurons are involved in the ram-induced pulsatile LH secretion and in the LH surge. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  6. Peripheral Ulcerative Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oval in shape. Diagnosis A doctor's evaluation Sometimes culture The diagnosis of peripheral ulcerative keratitis is suspected when the doctor sees the affected cornea in a person who also has a severe and/or long- ...

  7. Tumors of peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Michael; Lutz, Amelie M.

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation between malignant and benign tumors of peripheral nerves in the early stages is challenging; however, due to the unfavorable prognosis of malignant tumors early identification is required. To show the possibilities for detection, differential diagnosis and clinical management of peripheral nerve tumors by imaging appearance in magnetic resonance (MR) neurography. Review of current literature available in PubMed and MEDLINE, supplemented by the authors' own observations in clinical practice. Although not pathognomonic, several imaging features have been reported for a differentiation between distinct peripheral nerve tumors. The use of MR neurography enables detection and initial differential diagnosis in tumors of peripheral nerves. Furthermore, it plays an important role in clinical follow-up, targeted biopsy and surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  8. Differential Effects of Continuous Exposure to the Investigational Metastin/Kisspeptin Analog TAK-683 on Pulsatile and Surge Mode Secretion of Luteinizing Hormone in Ovariectomized Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANAKA, Tomomi; OHKURA, Satoshi; WAKABAYASHI, Yoshihiro; KUROIWA, Takenobu; NAGAI, Kiyosuke; ENDO, Natsumi; TANAKA, Akira; MATSUI, Hisanori; KUSAKA, Masami; OKAMURA, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to determine if the estradiol-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is influenced by the constant exposure to TAK-683, an investigational metastin/kisspeptin analog, that had been established to depress the pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and LH secretion in goats. Ovariectomized goats subcutaneously received TAK-683 (TAK-683 group, n=6) or vehicle (control group, n=6) constantly via subcutaneous implantation of an osmotic pump. Five days after the start of the treatment, estradiol was infused intravenously in both groups to evaluate the effects on the LH surge. Blood samples were collected at 6-min intervals for 4 h prior to the initiation of either the TAK-683 treatment or the estradiol infusion, to determine the profiles of pulsatile LH secretion. They were also collected at 2-h intervals from –4 h to 32 h after the start of estradiol infusion for analysis of LH surges. The frequency and mean concentrations of LH pulses in the TAK-683 group were remarkably suppressed 5 days after the start of TAK-683 treatment compared with those of the control group (P<0.05). On the other hand, a clear LH surge was observed in all animals of both groups. There were no significant differences in the LH concentrations for surge peak and the peak time of the LH surge between the TAK-683 and control groups. These findings suggest that the effects of continuous exposure to kisspeptin or its analog on the mechanism(s) that regulates the pulsatile and surge mode secretion of GnRH/LH are different in goats. PMID:24047956

  9. Promoting peripheral myelin repair

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Ye; Notterpek, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nerves have a remarkable ability to regenerate and remyelinate. This regenerative capacity to a large extent is dependent on and supported by Schwann cells, the myelin-forming glial cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In a variety of paradigms, Schwann cells are critical in the removal of the degenerated tissue, which is followed by remyelination of newly-regenerated axons. This unique plasticity of Schwann cells has been the ...

  10. [Refractory CD20-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma showing loss of CD20 expression after rituximab therapy and gain of CD20 expression after administration of vorinostat and gemcitabine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Kazuaki; Ohyagi, Hideaki; Kume, Masaaki; Takahashi, Satsuki; Saito, Masahiro; Takahashi, Naoto

    A 79-year-old male patient presented with systemic lymphadenopathy. A lymph node biopsy revealed effacement of the normal nodal architecture with diffuse proliferation of medium-sized atypical lymphoid cells. Southern blot analyses demonstrated rearrangement of the T-cell receptor gene but not the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene. He was diagnosed with CD20-positive peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), NOS. Although he achieved partial remission after six cycles of R-CHOP, he relapse occurred after 2 months. CD20-negative conversion was confirmed in the lymph node, which was positive for CCR4, and the skin at the time of relapse. The patient received the GDP regimen as salvage therapy with the addition of vorinostat for skin involvement; however, he failed to respond, and the disease systemically progressed. Furthermore, he also exhibited progression in the skin after stopping vorinostat due to hematologic toxicity. A lymph node biopsy at progression revealed CD20 re-expression by immunohistochemistry. At progression, the patient received mogamulizumab but failed to respond, and he died owing to disease progression 8 months after relapse. In this case, we demonstrated CD20-negative conversion following rituximab and CD20-positive reversion after using vorinostat and gemcitabine.

  11. Peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carzoglio, J.; Tancredi, N.; Capurro, S.; Ravecca, T.; Scarrone, P.

    2006-01-01

    A new case of peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) is reported. It is localized in the superior right gingival region, a less frequent site, and has the histopathological features previously reported. Immunochemical studies were performed, revealing a differential positive stain to cytokeratins in tumor cells deeply seated in the tumor mass, probably related to tumoral cell heterogeneity.Interestingly, in this particular case S-100 protein positive reactivity was also detected in arborescent cells intermingled with tumoral cells, resembling Langerhans cells. Even though referred in the literature in central Pindborg tumors, no references were found about their presence in peripheral tumors, like the one that is presented here

  12. Peripheral Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure High blood cholesterol Coronary heart disease Stroke Metabolic syndrome Screening and Prevention Taking action to control your risk factors can help prevent or delay peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.) and its complications. Know your family history of health problems related to P.A. ...

  13. Promoting peripheral myelin repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ye; Notterpek, Lucia

    2016-09-01

    Compared to the central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nerves have a remarkable ability to regenerate and remyelinate. This regenerative capacity to a large extent is dependent on and supported by Schwann cells, the myelin-forming glial cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In a variety of paradigms, Schwann cells are critical in the removal of the degenerated tissue, which is followed by remyelination of newly-regenerated axons. This unique plasticity of Schwann cells has been the target of myelin repair strategies in acute injuries and chronic diseases, such as hereditary demyelinating neuropathies. In one approach, the endogenous regenerative capacity of Schwann cells is enhanced through interventions such as exercise, electrical stimulation or pharmacological means. Alternatively, Schwann cells derived from healthy nerves, or engineered from different tissue sources have been transplanted into the PNS to support remyelination. These transplant approaches can then be further enhanced by exercise and/or electrical stimulation, as well as by the inclusion of biomaterial engineered to support glial cell viability and neurite extension. Advances in our basic understanding of peripheral nerve biology, as well as biomaterial engineering, will further improve the functional repair of myelinated peripheral nerves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The regulation of pituitary-thyroid abnormalities by peripheral administration of levothyroxine increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reelin protein expression in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Sahreh; Farbood, Yaghoob; Mard, Seyyed Ali; Sarkaki, Alireza; Ahangarpour, Akram; Khorsandi, Layasadat

    2018-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with decreased serum levels of thyroid hormones (THs), increased levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and decreased protein expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and reelin in the hippocampus. In this study, we have evaluated the effect of subcutaneous administration of levothyroxine (L-T 4 ) on levels of THs and TSH as well as protein expression of BDNF and reelin in AD rats. To make an animal model of AD, amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) plus ibotenic acid were infused intrahippocampally, and rats were treated with L-T 4 and (or) saline for 10 days. The levels of THs and TSH were measured by ELISA kits. Protein synthesis was detected by Western blotting method. Results have been shown that serum level of THs, BDNF, and reelin protein expression in the hippocampus were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in AD animals and elevated significantly in AD rats treated with L-T 4 (P < 0.01). Data showed that TSH level significantly decreased in AD rats treated with L-T 4 (P < 0.05). These findings indicated that L-T 4 increased BDNF and reelin protein expression by regulation of serum THs and TSH level in Aβ-induced AD rats.

  15. Environmental obesogen tributyltin chloride leads to abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function by disruption in kisspeptin/leptin signaling in female rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, Gabriela C.; Freitas-Lima, Leandro C.; Merlo, Eduardo; Podratz, Priscila L.; Araújo, Julia F.P. de [Department of Morphology, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Brazil); Brandão, Poliane A.A.; Carneiro, Maria T.W.D. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Brazil); Zicker, Marina C. [Department of Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Minas Gerais (Brazil); Ferreira, Adaliene V.M. [Department of Basic Nursing, Nursing School, Federal University of Minas Gerais (Brazil); Takiya, Christina M.; Lemos Barbosa, Carolina M. de; Morales, Marcelo M. [Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santos-Silva, Ana Paula [Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Experimental Endocrinology Research, Development and Innovation Group, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Postgraduate Program in Endocrinology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miranda-Alves, Leandro [Experimental Endocrinology Research, Development and Innovation Group, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Postgraduate Program in Endocrinology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva, Ian V. [Department of Morphology, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Brazil); Graceli, Jones B., E-mail: jbgraceli@gmail.com [Department of Morphology, Federal University of Espírito Santo (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is a xenobiotic used as a biocide in antifouling paints that has been demonstrated to induce endocrine-disrupting effects, such as obesity and reproductive abnormalities. An integrative metabolic control in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis was exerted by leptin. However, studies that have investigated the obesogenic TBT effects on the HPG axis are especially rare. We investigated whether metabolic disorders as a result of TBT are correlated with abnormal hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function, as well as kisspeptin (Kiss) action. Female Wistar rats were administered vehicle and TBT (100 ng/kg/day) for 15 days via gavage. We analyzed their effects on the tin serum and ovary accumulation (as biomarker of TBT exposure), estrous cyclicity, surge LH levels, GnRH expression, Kiss action, fertility, testosterone levels, ovarian apoptosis, uterine inflammation, fibrosis, estrogen negative feedback, body weight gain, insulin, leptin, adiponectin levels, as well as the glucose tolerance (GTT) and insulin sensitivity tests (IST). TBT led to increased serum and ovary tin levels, irregular estrous cyclicity, and decreased surge LH levels, GnRH expression and Kiss responsiveness. A strong negative correlation between the serum and ovary tin levels with lower Kiss responsiveness and GnRH mRNA expression was observed in TBT rats. An increase in the testosterone levels, ovarian and uterine fibrosis, ovarian apoptosis, and uterine inflammation and a decrease in fertility and estrogen negative feedback were demonstrated in the TBT rats. We also identified an increase in the body weight gain and abnormal GTT and IST tests, which were associated with hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia and hypoadiponectinemia, in the TBT rats. TBT disrupted proper functioning of the HPG axis as a result of abnormal Kiss action. The metabolic dysfunctions co-occur with the HPG axis abnormalities. Hyperleptinemia as a result of obesity induced by TBT may

  16. Environmental obesogen tributyltin chloride leads to abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function by disruption in kisspeptin/leptin signaling in female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, Gabriela C.; Freitas-Lima, Leandro C.; Merlo, Eduardo; Podratz, Priscila L.; Araújo, Julia F.P. de; Brandão, Poliane A.A.; Carneiro, Maria T.W.D.; Zicker, Marina C.; Ferreira, Adaliene V.M.; Takiya, Christina M.; Lemos Barbosa, Carolina M. de; Morales, Marcelo M.; Santos-Silva, Ana Paula; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Silva, Ian V.; Graceli, Jones B.

    2017-01-01

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is a xenobiotic used as a biocide in antifouling paints that has been demonstrated to induce endocrine-disrupting effects, such as obesity and reproductive abnormalities. An integrative metabolic control in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis was exerted by leptin. However, studies that have investigated the obesogenic TBT effects on the HPG axis are especially rare. We investigated whether metabolic disorders as a result of TBT are correlated with abnormal hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function, as well as kisspeptin (Kiss) action. Female Wistar rats were administered vehicle and TBT (100 ng/kg/day) for 15 days via gavage. We analyzed their effects on the tin serum and ovary accumulation (as biomarker of TBT exposure), estrous cyclicity, surge LH levels, GnRH expression, Kiss action, fertility, testosterone levels, ovarian apoptosis, uterine inflammation, fibrosis, estrogen negative feedback, body weight gain, insulin, leptin, adiponectin levels, as well as the glucose tolerance (GTT) and insulin sensitivity tests (IST). TBT led to increased serum and ovary tin levels, irregular estrous cyclicity, and decreased surge LH levels, GnRH expression and Kiss responsiveness. A strong negative correlation between the serum and ovary tin levels with lower Kiss responsiveness and GnRH mRNA expression was observed in TBT rats. An increase in the testosterone levels, ovarian and uterine fibrosis, ovarian apoptosis, and uterine inflammation and a decrease in fertility and estrogen negative feedback were demonstrated in the TBT rats. We also identified an increase in the body weight gain and abnormal GTT and IST tests, which were associated with hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia and hypoadiponectinemia, in the TBT rats. TBT disrupted proper functioning of the HPG axis as a result of abnormal Kiss action. The metabolic dysfunctions co-occur with the HPG axis abnormalities. Hyperleptinemia as a result of obesity induced by TBT may

  17. Peripheral orbit model

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, Yasuo

    1975-01-01

    Peripheral orbit model, in which an incoming hadron is assumed to revolve in a peripheral orbit around a target hadron, is discussed. The non-diffractive parts of two-body reaction amplitudes of hadrons are expressed in terms of the radius, width an absorptivity of the orbit. The radius of the orbit is about 1 fm and the width of the orbit is determined by the range of the interaction between the hadrons. The model reproduces all available experimental data on differential cross-sections and polarizations of $K^{-}p\\to K^{-}p$ and $\\bar K^{\\circ}n$ reactions for all angles successfully. This contribution is not included in the proceedings since it will appear in Progress of Theoretical Physics Vol. 51 (1974) No 2. Any person interested in the subject may apply for reprints to the author.

  18. Mechanisms of Disease: the first kiss-a crucial role for kisspeptin-1 and its receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor 54, in puberty and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminara, Stephanie B

    2006-06-01

    Although the hypothalamic secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the defining hormonal event of puberty, the physiologic mechanisms that drive secretion of GnRH at the time of sexual maturation have been difficult to identify. After puberty is initiated, the factors that modulate the frequency and amplitude of GnRH secretion in rapidly changing sex-steroid environments (i.e. the female menstrual cycle) also remain unknown. The discovery that, in both humans and mouse models, loss-of-function mutations in the gene that encodes G-protein-coupled receptor 54 result in phenotypes of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with an absence of pubertal development has unearthed a novel pathway regulating GnRH secretion. Ligands for G-protein-coupled receptor 54 (KiSS-1R), including metastin (derived from the parent compound, kisspeptin-1) and metastin's C-terminal peptide fragments, have been shown to be powerful stimulants for GnRH release in vivo via their stimulation of G-protein-coupled receptor 54. This article reviews the discovery of the GPR54 gene, places it into the appropriate biological context, and explores the data from in vitro and in vivo studies that point to this ligand-receptor system as a major driver of GnRH secretion.

  19. [Peripheral intravenous catheter-related phlebitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sar-van der Brugge, Simone; Posthuma, E F M Ward

    2011-01-01

    Phlebitis is a very common complication of the use of intravenous catheters. Two patients with an i.v. catheter complicated by thrombophlebitis are described. Patient A was immunocompromised due to chronic lymphatic leukaemia and developed septic thrombophlebitis with positive blood cultures for S. Aureus. Patient B was being treated with flucloxacillin because of an S. Aureus infection and developed chemical phlebitis. Septic phlebitis is rare, but potentially serious. Chemical or mechanical types of thrombophlebitis are usually less severe, but happen very frequently. Risk factors include: female sex, previous episode of phlebitis, insertion at (ventral) forearm, emergency placement and administration of antibiotics. Until recently, routine replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters after 72-96 h was recommended, but randomised controlled trials have not shown any benefit of this routine. A recent Cochrane Review recommends replacement of peripheral intravenous catheters when clinically indicated only.

  20. Daspsone Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P A Sarojini

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24 year old lady being treated with 300 mg of dapsone daily for dermatitits herpetiformis, developed weakness and wasting of muscles of feet with claw hand deformity and t drop, 2 months tater. Neurological examination and nerve conduction studies conformed the presence of a peripheral motor neuropathy. Dapsone was discontinued and the patient was treated with cotrimatoxazole, gluten-free diet and supportive therapy. This satisfactorily controlled the dermatological lesion without adversely affecting the resolution of her neuropthy. Symptomatic improvement reported by the patient was confirmed by EMG and nerve conduction studies.

  1. Peripheral ossifying fibroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameet Mani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The peripheral ossifying fibroma (POF is an exophytic gingival mass of fibrous connective tissue covered with a surface epithelium associated with the formation of randomly dispersed foci of a mineralized product consisting of bone, cementum-like tissue, or dystrophic calcifications having a recurrent rate of nearly 20%. It is one of the most common reactive gingival lesions, which have often been called by the generic term "epulis." This case report describes the clinical and histopathological findings of POF, its differential diagnosis, and treatment.

  2. Administrating Solr

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    A fast-paced, example-based guide to learning how to administrate, monitor, and optimize Apache Solr.""Administrating Solr"" is for developers and Solr administrators who have a basic knowledge of Solr and who are looking for ways to keep their Solr server healthy and well maintained. A basic working knowledge of Apache Lucene is recommended, but this is not mandatory.

  3. Administrative Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  4. Administrative Circulars

    CERN Document Server

    Département des Ressources humaines

    2004-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...

  5. Drug-induced peripheral neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilholm, Ole Jakob; Christensen, Alex Alban; Zedan, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy can be caused by medication, and various descriptions have been applied for this condition. In this MiniReview, the term 'drug-induced peripheral neuropathy' (DIPN) is used with the suggested definition: Damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system caused by a chemical...... substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention or diagnosis of a disease. Optic neuropathy is included in this definition. A distinction between DIPN and other aetiologies of peripheral neuropathy is often quite difficult and thus, the aim of this MiniReview is to discuss the major agents associated...

  6. BDNF gene delivery mediated by neuron-targeted nanoparticles is neuroprotective in peripheral nerve injury

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, CDF; Gonçalves, NP; Gomes, CP; Saraiva, MJ; Pêgo, AP

    2017-01-01

    Neuron-targeted gene delivery is a promising strategy to treat peripheral neuropathies. Here we propose the use of polymeric nanoparticles based on thiolated trimethyl chitosan (TMCSH) to mediate targeted gene delivery to peripheral neurons upon a peripheral and minimally invasive intramuscular administration. Nanoparticles were grafted with the non-toxic carboxylic fragment of the tetanus neurotoxin (HC) to allow neuron targeting and were explored to deliver a plasmid DNA encoding for the br...

  7. Modelling Framework and Assistive Device for Peripheral Intravenous Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Kin F.; Robinson, Martin P.; Gilbert, Mathew A.; Pelah, Adar

    2016-02-01

    Intravenous access for blood sampling or drug administration that requires peripheral venepuncture is perhaps the most common invasive procedure practiced in hospitals, clinics and general practice surgeries.We describe an idealised mathematical framework for modelling the dynamics of the peripheral venepuncture process. Basic assumptions of the model are confirmed through motion analysis of needle trajectories during venepuncture, taken from video recordings of a skilled practitioner injecting into a practice kit. The framework is also applied to the design and construction of a proposed device for accurate needle guidance during venepuncture administration, assessed as consistent and repeatable in application and does not lead to over puncture. The study provides insights into the ubiquitous peripheral venepuncture process and may contribute to applications in training and in the design of new devices, including for use in robotic automation.

  8. Peripheral degenerative joint diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilzio Antonio da Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease, is the most commonrheumatic disorder mainly in a geriatric population. Manifestationsare pain, stiffness and functional loss in the affected joint.According to etiology it is classifi ed as primary (or idiopathicand secondary. Some risk factors for disease development aregenetics, race, age, sex, obesity, occupational activities andarticular biomechanics. Pathogenesis is the same for any cause orlocalization, being catabolic alterations, with synthesis, inhibitionand reparing intent of the cartilage matrix. Metalloproteinases andcytokines (IL-1,IL-6,TNF-α actions promote infl ammatory reactionand cartilage degradation. Pain, the most important symptom,does not correlate with radiologic fi ndings. Peripheral osteoarthritisoccurs predominantly in the knee, hip and hand. Diagnosis is basedon clinical features, laboratorial tests and radiological changes.Rheumatological associations’ guidelines for treatment includenon-pharmacologic (education, physiotherapy, assistive devices,and pharmacologic (analgesics, anti-infl ammatory drugs therapyand surgery. Arthroplasty seems to work better than medicines, butshould be used if other treatments have failed.

  9. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  10. α-Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors Modulate Kisspeptin Effects on Prolactin: Role in Estradiol-Induced Prolactin Surge in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Nayara S S; Araujo-Lopes, Roberta; Henriques, Patricia C; Lopes, Felipe E F; Gusmao, Daniela O; Coimbra, Candido C; Franci, Celso R; Reis, Adelina M; Szawka, Raphael E

    2017-06-01

    Kisspeptin (Kp) regulates prolactin (PRL) in an estradiol-dependent manner. We investigated the interaction between ovarian steroid receptors and Kp in the control of PRL secretion. Intracerebroventricular injections of Kp-10 or Kp-234 were performed in ovariectomized (OVX) rats under different hormonal treatments. Kp-10 increased PRL release and decreased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in the median eminence (ME) of OVX rats treated with estradiol (OVX+E), which was prevented by tamoxifen. Whereas these effects of Kp-10 were absent in OVX rats, they were replicated in OVX rats treated with selective agonist of estrogen receptor (ER)α, propylpyrazole triol, but not of ERβ, diarylpropionitrile. Furthermore, the Kp-10-induced increase in PRL was two times higher in OVX+E rats also treated with progesterone (OVX+EP), which was associated with a reduced expression of both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and Ser40-phosphorylated TH in the ME. Kp-10 also reduced dopamine levels in the ME of OVX+EP rats, an effect blocked by the progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist RU486. We also determined the effect of Kp antagonism with Kp-234 on the estradiol-induced surges of PRL and luteinizing hormone (LH), using tail-tip blood sampling combined with ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Kp-234 impaired the early phase of the PRL surge and prevented the LH surge in OVX+E rats. Thus, we provide evidence that Kp stimulation of PRL release requires ERα and is potentiated by progesterone via PR activation. Moreover, alongside its essential role in the LH surge, Kp seems to play a role in the peak phase of the estradiol-induced PRL surge. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  11. Long-Term Recordings of Arcuate Nucleus Kisspeptin Neurons Reveal Patterned Activity That Is Modulated by Gonadal Steroids in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Charlotte; Moya, Manuel Ricu; DeFazio, R Anthony; Johnson, Michael L; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2017-10-01

    Pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is key to fertility. Pulse frequency is modulated by gonadal steroids and likely arises subsequent to coordination of GnRH neuron firing activity. The source of rhythm generation and the site of steroid feedback remain critical unanswered questions. Arcuate neurons that synthesize kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (KNDy) may be involved in both of these processes. We tested the hypotheses that action potential firing in KNDy neurons is episodic and that gonadal steroids regulate this pattern. Targeted extracellular recordings were made of green fluorescent protein-identified KNDy neurons in brain slices from adult male mice that were intact, castrated, or castrated and treated with estradiol or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). KNDy neurons exhibited marked peaks and nadirs in action potential firing activity during recordings lasting 1 to 3.5 hours. Peaks, identified by Cluster analysis, occurred more frequently in castrated than intact mice, and either estradiol or DHT in vivo or blocking neurokinin type 3 receptor in vitro restored peak frequency to intact levels. The frequency of peaks in firing rate and estradiol regulation of this frequency is similar to that observed for GnRH neurons, whereas DHT suppressed firing in KNDy but not GnRH neurons. We further examined the patterning of action potentials to identify bursts that may be associated with increased neuromodulator release. Burst frequency and duration are increased in castrated compared with intact and steroid-treated mice. The observation that KNDy neurons fire in an episodic manner that is regulated by steroid feedback is consistent with a role for these neurons in GnRH pulse generation and regulation. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  12. Regulation of Kisspeptin Synthesis and Release in the Preoptic/Anterior Hypothalamic Region of Prepubertal Female Rats: Actions of IGF-1 and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiney, Jill K; Srivastava, Vinod K; Vaden Anderson, Danielle N; Hartzoge, Nicole L; Dees, William L

    2018-01-01

    Alcohol (ALC) causes suppressed secretion of prepubertal luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH). Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and kisspeptin (Kp) are major regulators of LHRH and are critical for puberty. IGF-1 may be an upstream mediator of Kp in the preoptic area and rostral hypothalamic area (POA/RHA) of the rat brain, a region containing both Kp and LHRH neurons. We investigated the ability of IGF-1 to stimulate prepubertal Kp synthesis and release in POA/RHA, and the potential inhibitory effects of ALC. Immature female rats were administered either ALC (3 g/kg) or water via gastric gavage at 0730 hours. At 0900 hours, both groups were subdivided where half received either saline or IGF-1 into the brain third ventricle. A second dose of ALC (2 g/kg) or water was administered at 1130 hours. Rats were killed 6 hours after injection and POA/RHA region collected. IGF-1 stimulated Kp, an action blocked by ALC. Upstream to Kp, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) activation, as demonstrated by the increase in insulin receptor substrate 1, resulted in activation of Akt, tuberous sclerosis 2, ras homologue enriched in brain, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). ALC blocked the central action of IGF-1 to induce their respective phosphorylation. IGF-1 specificity and ALC specificity for the Akt-activated mTOR pathway were demonstrated by the absence of effects on PRAS40. Furthermore, IGF-1 stimulated Kp release from POA/RHA incubated in vitro. IGF-1 stimulates prepubertal Kp synthesis and release following activation of a mTOR signaling pathway, and ALC blocks this pathway at the level of IGF-1R. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  13. 75 FR 12768 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  14. 76 FR 44595 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee...

  15. 78 FR 20328 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  16. 78 FR 63478 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  17. 75 FR 36428 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  18. 77 FR 20037 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  19. 76 FR 3912 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  20. 75 FR 17417 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  1. 78 FR 63481 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide...

  2. Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices (RAPID): Registry assessment of peripheral interventional devices core data elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W Schuyler; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Morales, Pablo; Wilgus, Rebecca W; Heath, Anne H; Williams, Mary F; Tcheng, James E; Marinac-Dabic, J Danica; Malone, Misti L; Reed, Terrie L; Fukaya, Rie; Lookstein, Robert A; Handa, Nobuhiro; Aronow, Herbert D; Bertges, Daniel J; Jaff, Michael R; Tsai, Thomas T; Smale, Joshua A; Zaugg, Margo J; Thatcher, Robert J; Cronenwett, Jack L

    2018-02-01

    The current state of evaluating patients with peripheral artery disease and more specifically of evaluating medical devices used for peripheral vascular intervention (PVI) remains challenging because of the heterogeneity of the disease process, the multiple physician specialties that perform PVI, the multitude of devices available to treat peripheral artery disease, and the lack of consensus about the best treatment approaches. Because PVI core data elements are not standardized across clinical care, clinical trials, and registries, aggregation of data across different data sources and physician specialties is currently not feasible. Under the auspices of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Medical Device Epidemiology Network initiative-and its PASSION (Predictable and Sustainable Implementation of the National Registries) program, in conjunction with other efforts to align clinical data standards-the Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices (RAPID) workgroup was convened. RAPID is a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to develop a consensus lexicon and to promote interoperability across clinical care, clinical trials, and national and international registries of PVI. The current manuscript presents the initial work from RAPID to standardize clinical data elements and definitions, to establish a framework within electronic health records and health information technology procedural reporting systems, and to implement an informatics-based approach to promote the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials and registry efforts in PVI. Ultimately, we hope this work will facilitate and improve device evaluation and surveillance for patients, clinicians, health outcomes researchers, industry, policymakers, and regulators. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. All rights reserved.

  3. Odontogenic keratocyst: a peripheral variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, H; Vij, R; Gupta, V; Sengupta, S

    2011-01-01

    Odontogenic keratocyst, which is developmental in nature, is an intraosseous lesion though on rare occasions it may occur in an extraosseous location. The extraosseous variant is referred to as peripheral odontogenic keratocyst. Though, clinically, peripheral odontogenic keratocyst resembles the gingival cyst of adults, it has histologic features that are pathognomonic of odontogenic keratocyst. This article presents a case of this uncommon entity.

  4. Radioimmunological progesteron determination in peripheral bovine blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ender, M.

    1974-01-01

    A radioimmunological method of determination of the progesterone level in peripheral bovine blood is described which enables a monitoring of the corpus luteum function under varying conditions. There is no dependence of the corpus luteum function on the pituitary gland after endogenous prolactin inhibition with a synthetic prolactin inhibitor in the oestrus cycle and in the end-phase of gravidity. In hysterectomized animals, however, the inhibition of endogenous LH leads to luteolysis. The release of endogenous LH, induced by the administration of an LH release hormone, causes a short increase in progesterone production in the middle phase of the cycle only. The administration of exogenous glucocorticoids during the oestrus cycle did not influence the corpus luteum function. The method described is used in a field test to determine the right time for artificial insemination. There is a significant difference between the progesterone values of impregnated and non-pregnant animals at 16-18 days after insemination. (BSC/AK) [de

  5. Peripheral dentinogenic ghost cell tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant S Kamat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentinogenic ghost cell tumors (DGCT are uncommon lesions mainly with rare peripheral types. This report presents a case of peripheral DGCT on the left side of the mandibular alveolar ridge of a heavy smoker, a 68-year-old man, with main presenting feature as a mild pain. Submandibular lymphadenopathy and radiological "saucerization" were evident. Differential diagnosis included fibroma, neurofibroma, peripheral ameloblastoma, peripheral odontogenic fibroma, and peripheral giant cell granuloma. Histologically, ameloblastoma-like epithelial elements were seen in association with grouped ghost cells. Proliferating polyhedral cells and stellate reticulum-like cells with various densities were spread over a wide range of the field. The lesion was curetted and after 2 years of follow up, it did not recur.

  6. Gene expression in human peripheral blood 48 hours after exposure to ionizing radiation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Analysis of human peripheral blood 48 hours after irradiation ex vivo with graded doses of gamma rays. Results have been used in building and testing classifiers to...

  7. microRNA expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes cultured in modeled microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the present study we analyzed miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) incubated in microgravity condition simulated by a...

  8. Gene expression profiling of human peripheral blood lymphocytes cultured in modeled microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the present study we analyzed miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) incubated in microgravity condition simulated by a...

  9. Peripheral Auditory Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, J; Hubbard, A; Neely, S; Tubis, A

    1986-01-01

    How weIl can we model experimental observations of the peripheral auditory system'? What theoretical predictions can we make that might be tested'? It was with these questions in mind that we organized the 1985 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop, to bring together auditory researchers to compare models with experimental observations. Tbe workshop forum was inspired by the very successful 1983 Mechanics of Hearing Workshop in Delft [1]. Boston University was chosen as the site of our meeting because of the Boston area's role as a center for hearing research in this country. We made a special effort at this meeting to attract students from around the world, because without students this field will not progress. Financial support for the workshop was provided in part by grant BNS- 8412878 from the National Science Foundation. Modeling is a traditional strategy in science and plays an important role in the scientific method. Models are the bridge between theory and experiment. Tbey test the assumptions made in experim...

  10. Offentlig administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elof Nellemann; Rehr, Preben René

    En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer.......En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer....

  11. SAT administrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havas, A.

    1998-01-01

    SAT Administrator is the Information System for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training Program Design. It supports the design of training programs in the following phases: job analysis; task analysis; competency analysis; task competency association; definition of learning objectives to competencies; training program design; definition of test items. The general structure of the database and management software supports application of the SAT Administrator in any nuclear power installation

  12. Imaging of a glioma using peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starosta-Rubinstein, S.; Ciliax, B.J.; Penney, J.B.; McKeever, P.; Young, A.B.

    1987-02-01

    Two types of benzodiazepine receptors have been demonstrated in mammalian tissues, one which is localized on neuronal elements in brain and the other, on glial cells and in peripheral tissues such as kidney. In vivo administration of /sup 3/H-labeled PK 11195 (1-(2-chlorophenyl-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinoline carboxamide) or (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam with 5 mg of clonazepam per kg to rats with intracranial C6 gliomas resulted in high levels of tritiated-drug binding to the tumor as shown by quantitative autoradiography. Pharmacological studies indicated that the bound drugs labeled the peripheral benzodiazepine binding site. Binding to the peripheral benzodiazepine site was confirmed primarily to malignant cells with little binding to adjacent normal brain tissue or to necrotic tissue. Tumor cell binding was completely inhibited by preadministration of the peripheral benzodiazepine blocking agent PK 11195 at 5 mg/kg. The centrally selective benzodiazepine ligand clonazepam had no effect on PK 11195 binding to the tumor cells. When binding to other tumor cell lines grown in nude mice and nude athymic rats was evaluated, little or no peripheral benzodiazepine binding was detected on human pheochromocytoma (RN1) and neuroblastoma (SK-N-MC, SK-N-SH) tumor cells, respectively. However, high densities of peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites were observed on tumors derived from a human glioma cell line (ATCC HTB 14, U-87 MG). The presence of high concentrations of specific peripheral benzodiazepine receptors on glial tumors suggests that human primary central nervous system tumors could be imaged and diagnosed using peripheral benzodiazepine ligands labeled with positron- or gamma-emitting isotopes.

  13. Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma T-Cell Lymphoma Transformed Mycosis Fungoides Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia Young Adult Lymphoma Overview Treatment Options Relapsed/Refractory Long-term ...

  14. Network node for peripheral sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobbitt, J.; Johnson, M.

    1977-01-01

    A module which enables several independent computer systems to share the peripherals (graphics display and line printer) of a PDP-11 computer is described. The module requires no software support in the PDP-11

  15. Environmental obesogen tributyltin chloride leads to abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function by disruption in kisspeptin/leptin signaling in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Gabriela C; Freitas-Lima, Leandro C; Merlo, Eduardo; Podratz, Priscila L; de Araújo, Julia F P; Brandão, Poliane A A; Carneiro, Maria T W D; Zicker, Marina C; Ferreira, Adaliene V M; Takiya, Christina M; de Lemos Barbosa, Carolina M; Morales, Marcelo M; Santos-Silva, Ana Paula; Miranda-Alves, Leandro; Silva, Ian V; Graceli, Jones B

    2017-03-15

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is a xenobiotic used as a biocide in antifouling paints that has been demonstrated to induce endocrine-disrupting effects, such as obesity and reproductive abnormalities. An integrative metabolic control in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis was exerted by leptin. However, studies that have investigated the obesogenic TBT effects on the HPG axis are especially rare. We investigated whether metabolic disorders as a result of TBT are correlated with abnormal hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function, as well as kisspeptin (Kiss) action. Female Wistar rats were administered vehicle and TBT (100ng/kg/day) for 15days via gavage. We analyzed their effects on the tin serum and ovary accumulation (as biomarker of TBT exposure), estrous cyclicity, surge LH levels, GnRH expression, Kiss action, fertility, testosterone levels, ovarian apoptosis, uterine inflammation, fibrosis, estrogen negative feedback, body weight gain, insulin, leptin, adiponectin levels, as well as the glucose tolerance (GTT) and insulin sensitivity tests (IST). TBT led to increased serum and ovary tin levels, irregular estrous cyclicity, and decreased surge LH levels, GnRH expression and Kiss responsiveness. A strong negative correlation between the serum and ovary tin levels with lower Kiss responsiveness and GnRH mRNA expression was observed in TBT rats. An increase in the testosterone levels, ovarian and uterine fibrosis, ovarian apoptosis, and uterine inflammation and a decrease in fertility and estrogen negative feedback were demonstrated in the TBT rats. We also identified an increase in the body weight gain and abnormal GTT and IST tests, which were associated with hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia and hypoadiponectinemia, in the TBT rats. TBT disrupted proper functioning of the HPG axis as a result of abnormal Kiss action. The metabolic dysfunctions co-occur with the HPG axis abnormalities. Hyperleptinemia as a result of obesity induced by TBT may be

  16. The correlation between birth weight and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), kisspeptin-1 (KISS-1), and three-dimensional fetal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimyon Comert, Gunsu; Esin, Sertac; Caglar, Gamze Sinem; Yirci, Bulent; Ozdemir, Sedat; Demirtas, Selda; Kandemir, Omer

    2018-01-24

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between birth weight, and maternal serum insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and kisspeptin-1 (KISS-1) levels, and first-trimester fetal volume (FV) based on three-dimensional ultrasonography. The study included 142 pregnant women at gestational week 11°-13 6 . All fetuses were imaged ultrasonographically by the same physician. Maternal blood samples were collected at the time of ultrasonographic evaluation and analyzed for IGFBP-1 and KISS-1 levels via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Maternal and neonatal weights were recorded at birth. Birth weight ≤10th and the >90th percentiles was defined as small and large for gestational age (SGA and LGA), respectively. Median crown-rump length (CRL), FV, and maternal serum IGFBP-1 and KISS-1 levels were 58.2 mm (35.3-79.2 mm), 16.3 cm 3 (3.8-34.4 cm 3 ), 68.1 ng mL -1 (3.8-377.9 mL -1 ), and 99.7 ng L -1 (42.1-965.3 ng L -1 ), respectively. First-trimester IGFBP-1 levels were significantly lower in the mothers with LGA neonates (p KISS-1 levels. IGFBP-1 levels and maternal weight at delivery were negatively correlated with neonatal birth weight. There was no correlation between CRL or FV and maternal IGFBP-1 or KISS1 levels (p > .05). The maternal IGFBP-1 level during the first trimester was a significant independent factor for SGA and LGA neonates (Odds ratio (OR): 0.011, 95%CI: 1.005-1.018, p KISS-1 level. As compared to the maternal KISS-1 level, the maternal IGFBP-1 level during the first trimester might be a better biomarker of fetal growth. Additional larger scale studies are needed to further delineate the utility of IGFBP-1 as a marker of abnormal birth weight.

  17. Peripheral Insulin Doesn’t Alter Appetite of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline. The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05. Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p0.05. All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks.

  18. Administrative circular

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    • N° 21 - August 2003 Special leave This circular has been amended. Copies of this circular are available in the Divisional Secretariats. In addition, administrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation on the Web at: http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/admin_services/admincirc/listadmincirc.asp Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  19. Database Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  20. Administrative IT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  1. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantunali, D; Dursun, T; Yucel, D; Hasirci, N; Hasirci, V

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers) and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type) are being presented. PMID:25489251

  2. Peripheral Atherectomy: Applications and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittleider, Derek; Russell, Erich

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral atherectomy is a class of procedures that is rapidly increasing in volume. Multiple classes of devices exist, and newer variants are added to the market annually. The devices see wide application for de novo lesions, in-stent restenosis, and adjunctive therapy for drug-coated balloons. The body of evidence supporting atherectomy is less robust than for many other peripheral therapies. The frequency and severity of complications from atherectomy can be significant compared with angioplasty and stenting, and familiarity with preventative and bailout techniques is essential for the interventionalist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Atherectomy for peripheral arterial disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Louise Skovgaard; Høgh, Annette Langager; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2015-04-13

    Symptomatic peripheral arterial disease is managed according to national and international guidelines and the number of vascular reconstructions performed each year has increased over the past decade mainly due to an increasing frequency of endovascular procedures. Atherectomy as an alternative to the established treatment of symptomatic peripheral arterial disease has recently been analysed in a Cochrane review. In Denmark, atherectomy is not performed and so far the evidence is poor as the method is not an alternative to the established treatment in this country.

  4. Imaging of the peripheral retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Kernt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical progress of the recent years has revolutionized imaging in ophthalmology. Scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO, digital angiography, optical coherence tomography (OCT, and detection of fundus autofluorescence (FAF have fundamentally changed our understanding of numerous retinal and choroidal diseases. Besides the tremendous advances in macular diagnostics, there is more and more evidence that central pathologies are often directly linked to changes in the peripheral retina. This review provides a brief overview on current posterior segment imaging techniques with a special focus on the peripheral retina.

  5. Administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete understanding of the importance and essence of this institution as well as the need for its complete legal regulation.

  6. Administrative contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete u...

  7. Peripheral facial weakness (Bell's palsy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basić-Kes, Vanja; Dobrota, Vesna Dermanović; Cesarik, Marijan; Matovina, Lucija Zadro; Madzar, Zrinko; Zavoreo, Iris; Demarin, Vida

    2013-06-01

    Peripheral facial weakness is a facial nerve damage that results in muscle weakness on one side of the face. It may be idiopathic (Bell's palsy) or may have a detectable cause. Almost 80% of peripheral facial weakness cases are primary and the rest of them are secondary. The most frequent causes of secondary peripheral facial weakness are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immune disorders, drugs, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, etc. The diagnosis relies upon the presence of typical signs and symptoms, blood chemistry tests, cerebrospinal fluid investigations, nerve conduction studies and neuroimaging methods (cerebral MRI, x-ray of the skull and mastoid). Treatment of secondary peripheral facial weakness is based on therapy for the underlying disorder, unlike the treatment of Bell's palsy that is controversial due to the lack of large, randomized, controlled, prospective studies. There are some indications that steroids or antiviral agents are beneficial but there are also studies that show no beneficial effect. Additional treatments include eye protection, physiotherapy, acupuncture, botulinum toxin, or surgery. Bell's palsy has a benign prognosis with complete recovery in about 80% of patients, 15% experience some mode of permanent nerve damage and severe consequences remain in 5% of patients.

  8. MEGACARYOCYTES IN THE PERIPHERAL CIRCULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minot, George R.

    1922-01-01

    A megacaryocyte is seen commonly as an occasional cell in the peripheral blood of patients with myelogenous leucemia. Less commonly they appear in relatively large numbers. These giant cells also may occur in the blood under other conditions. Their presence is indicative of a bone marrow under intense strain. PMID:19868650

  9. [Ultrasound-guided peripheral catheterization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleras-Duran, Laia; Fuentes-Pumarola, Concepció

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral catheterization is a technique that can be difficult in some patients. Some studies have recently described the use of ultrasound to guide the venous catheterization. To describe the success rate, time required, complications of ultrasound-guided peripheral venous catheterization. and patients and professionals satisfaction The search was performed in databases (Medline-PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and Cuiden Plus) for studies published about ultrasound-guided peripheral venous catheterization performed on patients that provided results on the success of the technique, complications, time used, patient satisfaction and the type of professional who performed the technique. A total of 21 studies were included. Most of them get a higher success rate 80% in the catheterization ecoguide and time it is not higher than the traditional technique. The Technical complications analyzed were arterial puncture rates and lower nerve 10%. In all studies measuring and comparing patient satisfaction in the art ecoguide is greater. Various professional groups perform the technique. The use of ultrasound for peripheral pipes has a high success rate, complications are rare and the time used is similar to that of the traditional technique. The technique of inserting catheters through ultrasound may be learned by any professional group performing venipuncture. Finally, it gets underscores the high patient satisfaction with the use of this technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Bias in Peripheral Depression Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, André F; Köhler, Cristiano A; Brunoni, André R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To aid in the differentiation of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) from healthy controls, numerous peripheral biomarkers have been proposed. To date, no comprehensive evaluation of the existence of bias favoring the publication of significant results or inflating effect...

  11. What Is Peripheral Artery Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or bluish color to the skin A lower temperature in one leg compared to the other leg Poor nail growth on the toes and decreased hair growth on the legs Erectile dysfunction, especially among men who have diabetes Diagnosis Peripheral artery disease (P.A.D.) is diagnosed based ...

  12. Liposomes to target peripheral neurons and Schwann cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooyeon Lee

    Full Text Available While a wealth of literature for tissue-specific liposomes is emerging, optimal formulations to target the cells of the peripheral nervous system (PNS are lacking. In this study, we asked whether a novel formulation of phospholipid-based liposomes could be optimized for preferential uptake by microvascular endothelia, peripheral neurons and Schwann cells. Here, we report a unique formulation consisting of a phospholipid, a polymer surfactant and cholesterol that result in enhanced uptake by targeted cells. Using fluorescently labeled liposomes, we followed particle internalization and trafficking through a distinct route from dextran and escape from degradative compartments, such as lysosomes. In cultures of non-myelinating Schwann cells, liposomes associate with the lipid raft marker Cholera toxin, and their internalization is inhibited by disruption of lipid rafts or actin polymerization. In contrast, pharmacological inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis does not significantly impact liposome entry. To evaluate the efficacy of liposome targeting in tissues, we utilized myelinating explant cultures of dorsal root ganglia and isolated diaphragm preparations, both of which contain peripheral neurons and myelinating Schwann cells. In these models, we detected preferential liposome uptake into neurons and glial cells in comparison to surrounding muscle tissue. Furthermore, in vivo liposome administration by intramuscular or intravenous injection confirmed that the particles were delivered to myelinated peripheral nerves. Within the CNS, we detected the liposomes in choroid epithelium, but not in myelinated white matter regions or in brain parenchyma. The described nanoparticles represent a novel neurophilic delivery vehicle for targeting small therapeutic compounds, biological molecules, or imaging reagents into peripheral neurons and Schwann cells, and provide a major advancement toward developing effective therapies for peripheral

  13. ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULARS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff membersN° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000Staff members contractsN° 16 (Rev. 2) - January 2000TrainingN° 30 (Rev. 1) - January 2000Indemnities and reimbursements upon taking up appointment and termination of contractN° 32 - February 2000Principles and procedures governing complaints of harassmentThese circular have been amended (No 2, N° 9, N° 16 and N° 30) or drawn up (N° 32).Copies are available in the Divisional Secretariats.Note:\tAdministrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation in the server SRV4_Home in the Appletalk zone NOVELL (as GUEST or using your Novell username and password), volume PE Division Data Disk.The Word files are available in the folder COM, folder Public, folder ADM.CIRC.docHuman Resources DivisionTel. 74128

  14. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000234.htm Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries - discharge To use the sharing ... peripheral artery). You may have also had a stent placed. To perform the procedure: Your doctor inserted ...

  15. Hypothyroidism: Can It Cause Peripheral Neuropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypothyroidism: Can it cause peripheral neuropathy? Can hypothyroidism cause peripheral neuropathy and, if so, how is it treated? Answers from Todd B. Nippoldt, M.D. Hypothyroidism — a condition in which your ...

  16. Effect of peripheral morphine in a human model of acute inflammatory pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillesø, J; Hammer, N A; Pedersen, J L

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the presence of opioid inducible receptors on peripheral nerves and peripheral antinociceptive effects of opioids. However, the effects of peripheral opioid administration in man are controversial. Our study used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, th......Several studies have demonstrated the presence of opioid inducible receptors on peripheral nerves and peripheral antinociceptive effects of opioids. However, the effects of peripheral opioid administration in man are controversial. Our study used a randomized, double-blind, placebo......-controlled, three-way crossover design in a human model of acute inflammatory pain (heat injury). We studied 18 healthy volunteers who each received morphine locally (2 mg), morphine systemically (2 mg), or placebo on three separate study days. The subjects received morphine infiltration subcutaneously (s.c.). 1 h......, but local morphine infiltration neither reduced pain during the burn, nor primary or secondary hyperalgesia to mechanical and heat stimuli after the burn. In conclusion, peripherally applied morphine had no acute antinociceptive effects in this human model of acute inflammatory pain....

  17. Coaching Peripheral Vision Training for Soccer Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Nelson Kautzner, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Brazilian Soccer began developing its current emphasis on peripheral vision in the late 1950s, by initiative of coach of the Canto do Rio Football Club, in Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, a pioneer in the development of peripheral vision training in soccer players. Peripheral vision training gained world relevance when a young talent from Canto do Rio,…

  18. Peripheral Neuropathy – Clinical and Electrophysiological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae; Prasad, Kalpana; Lloyd, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a primer on the pathophysiology and clinical evaluation of peripheral neuropathy for the radiologist. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) has utility in the diagnosis of many focal peripheral nerve lesions. When combined with history, examination, electrophysiology, and laboratory data, future advancements in high-field MRN may play an increasingly important role in the evaluation of patients with peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24210312

  19. Trichloropropane and dichlorohydrin associated with painful peripheral neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaobing; Yu, Shengyuan

    2013-10-01

    Trichloropropane (TCP) and dichlorohydrin are widely used in industrial production; however, TCP and dichlorohydrin poisoning are rarely encountered in clinical practice. There have been no cases of peripheral neurotoxicity previously reported. A cluster of 23 patients who had been exposed to high levels of TCP and dichlorohydrin presented with painful peripheral neuropathy, and the pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Nerve conduction studies (NCS) were performed in all patients. All patients demonstrated symmetrical pin-prick pain in a stocking distribution in the lower limbs, with VAS scores between 3 and 10, with an average score of 6.8. NCS showed a mild mixture of axonal and demyelinating sensorimotor polyneuropathy in 14 of the 23 patients. After administration of standard neuropathic pain medication, pain was relieved in most patients. Painful peripheral neuropathy was the primary symptom observed in our patients, which differs from clinical and animal model reports of TCP or dichlorohydrin poisoning. However, the pathogenesis remains unidentified. TCP may be added to the list of industrial products that are toxic to the peripheral sensory nerves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Monitoring sweep in peripheral waterflood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouser, B.J.; Al-Askar, Y.A.; Hassoun, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the techniques used and the results obtained in monitoring the water advance in a peripheral waterflood of a carbonate reservoir. The peripheral pattern used in the subject reservoir gives a water advanced similar to that obtained in a water drive reservoir. However, monitoring this particular reservoir is complicated by the use of a low salinity brine for flooding and the areal shape of the reservoir. The use of pulsed neutron capture logging in conjunction with production logging has been effective in differentiating between oil and water in porous zones in existing producers. The use of the two logs has been successful despite the problems normally encountered when logging open hole completions in a reservoir being flooded with a low salinity brine. Results have been confirmed and enhanced by open hole logs of new wells being drilled in the water invaded areas

  1. Peripheral nerve conduits: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslantunali D

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available D Arslantunali,1–3,* T Dursun,1,2,* D Yucel,1,4,5 N Hasirci,1,2,6 V Hasirci,1,2,7 1BIOMATEN, Center of Excellence in Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU, Ankara, Turkey; 2Department of Biotechnology, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 3Department of Bioengineering, Gumushane University, Gumushane, Turkey; 4Faculty of Engineering, Department of Medical Engineering, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 5School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Acibadem University, Istanbul, Turkey; 6Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey; 7Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, METU, Ankara, Turkey *These authors have contributed equally to this work Abstract: Peripheral nerve injury is a worldwide clinical problem which could lead to loss of neuronal communication along sensory and motor nerves between the central nervous system (CNS and the peripheral organs and impairs the quality of life of a patient. The primary requirement for the treatment of complete lesions is a tension-free, end-to-end repair. When end-to-end repair is not possible, peripheral nerve grafts or nerve conduits are used. The limited availability of autografts, and drawbacks of the allografts and xenografts like immunological reactions, forced the researchers to investigate and develop alternative approaches, mainly nerve conduits. In this review, recent information on the various types of conduit materials (made of biological and synthetic polymers and designs (tubular, fibrous, and matrix type are being presented. Keywords: peripheral nerve injury, natural biomaterials, synthetic biomaterials

  2. Large Extremity Peripheral Nerve Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    LM, de Crombrugghe B. Some recent advances in the chemistry and biology of trans- forming growth factor-beta. J Cell Biol 1987;105:1039e45. 12. Hao Y...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT In current war trauma, 20-30% of all extremity injuries and >80% of penetrating injuries being associated with peripheral nerve...through both axonal advance and in revascularization of the graft following placement. We are confident that this technology may allow us to

  3. Communication, Consumption and Peripheral Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÍZIA VILLAÇA

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyses central/peripheral dynamics and its new semantics in the big scenario of globalization. The processes of hybridization between the local and the global spaces are discussed focusing the strategies of inclusion and exclusion through some examples from media and cultural industry. The methodology helps to reflect about the theme using elements of epistemology communication, consumer society and cultural studies.

  4. Peripheral facial palsy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Yılmaz, Tuba Sevim; Akıncı, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Peripheral Ammonia as a Mediator of Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Laura E.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia is metabolized by the liver and has established neurological effects. The current study examined the possibility that ammonia contributes to the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine (METH). The results show that a binge dosing regimen of METH to the rat increased plasma and brain ammonia concentrations that were paralleled by evidence of hepatotoxicity. The role of peripheral ammonia in the neurotoxic effects of METH was further substantiated by the demonstration that the enhancement of peripheral ammonia excretion blocked the increases in brain and plasma ammonia and attenuated the long term depletions of dopamine and serotonin typically produced by METH. Conversely, the localized perfusion of ammonia in combination with METH, but not METH alone or ammonia alone, into the striatum recapitulated the neuronal damage produced by the systemic administration of METH. Furthermore, this damage produced by the local administration of ammonia and METH was blocked by the GYKI 52466, an AMPA receptor antagonist. These findings highlight the importance of ammonia derived from the periphery as a small molecule mediator of METH neurotoxicity and more broadly emphasize the importance of peripheral organ damage as a possible mechanism that mediates the neuropathology produced by drugs of abuse and other neuroactive molecules. PMID:22993432

  6. Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices (RAPID) - Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices Core Data Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W Schuyler; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Morales, Pablo; Wilgus, Rebecca W; Heath, Anne H; Williams, Mary F; Tcheng, James E; Marinac-Dabic, J Danica; Malone, Misti L; Reed, Terrie L; Fukaya, Rie; Lookstein, Robert; Handa, Nobuhiro; Aronow, Herbert D; Bertges, Daniel J; Jaff, Michael R; Tsai, Thomas T; Smale, Joshua A; Zaugg, Margo J; Thatcher, Robert J; Cronenwett, Jack L; Nc, Durham; Md, Silver Spring; Japan, Tokyo; Ny, New York; Ri, Providence; Vt, Burlington; Mass, Newton; Colo, Denver; Ariz, Tempe; Calif, Santa Clara; Minn, Minneapolis; Nh, Lebanon

    2018-01-25

    The current state of evaluating patients with peripheral artery disease and more specifically of evaluating medical devices used for peripheral vascular intervention (PVI) remains challenging because of the heterogeneity of the disease process, the multiple physician specialties that perform PVI, the multitude of devices available to treat peripheral artery disease, and the lack of consensus about the best treatment approaches. Because PVI core data elements are not standardized across clinical care, clinical trials, and registries, aggregation of data across different data sources and physician specialties is currently not feasible.Methods and Results:Under the auspices of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Medical Device Epidemiology Network initiative-and its PASSION (Predictable and Sustainable Implementation of the National Registries) program, in conjunction with other efforts to align clinical data standards-the Registry Assessment of Peripheral Interventional Devices (RAPID) workgroup was convened. RAPID is a collaborative, multidisciplinary effort to develop a consensus lexicon and to promote interoperability across clinical care, clinical trials, and national and international registries of PVI. The current manuscript presents the initial work from RAPID to standardize clinical data elements and definitions, to establish a framework within electronic health records and health information technology procedural reporting systems, and to implement an informatics-based approach to promote the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials and registry efforts in PVI. Ultimately, we hope this work will facilitate and improve device evaluation and surveillance for patients, clinicians, health outcomes researchers, industry, policymakers, and regulators.

  7. Analysis of infusion-site reactions in renal transplant recipients receiving peripherally administered rabbit antithymocyte globulin as compared with basiliximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Abbie L; Roberts, Keri; Malek, Sayeed K; Chandraker, Anil K; Tullius, Stefan G; Gabardi, Steven

    2010-06-01

    Antithymocyte globulin rabbit (r-ATG) has been used for the treatment and prevention of acute rejection in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Current manufacturer recommendations for r-ATG dictate the need for administration through a high-flow vein (central line). Previous studies have shown peripheral administration of r-ATG to be safe; however, these studies suggest the co-administration of heparin and hydrocortisone and did not compare the infusion-site reaction rates to a control group. A retrospective analysis was conducted of adult RTR receiving r-ATG or basiliximab between January 2004 and October 2006. Each agent was administered through a dedicated peripheral line. The primary endpoint was the incidence of infusion-site reactions. Other endpoints included the need to replace the intravenous catheter and the incidence of systemic thrombosis within 1 month of transplantation. During the study period, 152 peripheral infusions of r-ATG and 92 peripheral infusions of basiliximab were administered. No difference in infusion-site reactions was noted between the groups. There was also no difference either in the need for peripheral line replacement or the rates of systemic thrombosis. Peripheral administration of r-ATG is safe and can be infused without concomitant heparin and hydrocortisone. This method of r-ATG infusion was shown to be as safe as peripherally administered basiliximab.

  8. Peripheral doses from pediatric IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Eric E.; Maserang, Beth; Wood, Roy; Mansur, David

    2006-01-01

    Peripheral dose (PD) data exist for conventional fields (≥10 cm) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery to standard adult-sized phantoms. Pediatric peripheral dose reports are limited to conventional therapy and are model based. Our goal was to ascertain whether data acquired from full phantom studies and/or pediatric models, with IMRT treatment times, could predict Organ at Risk (OAR) dose for pediatric IMRT. As monitor units (MUs) are greater for IMRT, it is expected IMRT PD will be higher; potentially compounded by decreased patient size (absorption). Baseline slab phantom peripheral dose measurements were conducted for very small field sizes (from 2 to 10 cm). Data were collected at distances ranging from 5 to 72 cm away from the field edges. Collimation was either with the collimating jaws or the multileaf collimator (MLC) oriented either perpendicular or along the peripheral dose measurement plane. For the clinical tests, five patients with intracranial or base of skull lesions were chosen. IMRT and conventional three-dimensional (3D) plans for the same patient/target/dose (180 cGy), were optimized without limitation to the number of fields or wedge use. Six MV, 120-leaf MLC Varian axial beams were used. A phantom mimicking a 3-year-old was configured per Center for Disease Control data. Micro (0.125 cc) and cylindrical (0.6 cc) ionization chambers were appropriated for the thyroid, breast, ovaries, and testes. The PD was recorded by electrometers set to the 10 -10 scale. Each system set was uniquely calibrated. For the slab phantom studies, close peripheral points were found to have a higher dose for low energy and larger field size and when MLC was not deployed. For points more distant from the field edge, the PD was higher for high-energy beams. MLC orientation was found to be inconsequential for the small fields tested. The thyroid dose was lower for IMRT delivery than that predicted for conventional (ratio of IMRT/cnventional ranged from

  9. Effects of dihydrotestosterone administration on the expression of reproductive and body weight regulatory factors in ovariectomized and estradiol-treated female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Yano, Kiyohito; Mayila, Yiliyasi; Irahara, Minoru

    2018-01-01

    To clarify the direct effects of androgens, the changes in the hypothalamic levels of reproductive and appetite regulatory factors induced by chronic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) administration were evaluated in female rats. DHT treatment increased the BW and food intake of the ovariectomized rats, but not the estradiol (E2)-treated rats. DHT administration suppressed the expression of a hypothalamic anorexigenic factor. Although the kisspeptin (Kiss1) mRNA levels of the anterior hypothalamic block (the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, AVPV) were increased in the E2-treated rats, DHT administration did not affect the Kiss1 mRNA levels of the AVPV in the ovariectomized or E2-treated rats. Conversely, DHT administration reduced the Kiss1 mRNA levels of the posterior hypothalamic block (the arcuate nucleus, ARC) in the ovariectomized rats. Although the Kiss1 mRNA levels of the posterior hypothalamic block (ARC) were decreased in the E2-treated rats, DHT administration did not affect the Kiss1 mRNA levels of the ARC in these rats. Serum luteinizing hormone levels of these groups exhibited similar patterns to the Kiss1 mRNA levels of the ARC. These results showed that DHT affects the production of hypothalamic reproductive and appetite regulatory factors, and that these effects of DHT differ according to the estrogen milieu.

  10. The surgery of peripheral nerves (including tumors)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugleholm, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    Surgical pathology of the peripheral nervous system includes traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, and tumors. The recent significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and cellular biology of peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration has yet to be translated into improved...... surgical techniques and better outcome after peripheral nerve injury. Decision making in peripheral nerve surgery continues to be a complex challenge, where the mechanism of injury, repeated clinical evaluation, neuroradiological and neurophysiological examination, and detailed knowledge of the peripheral...... nervous system response to injury are prerequisite to obtain the best possible outcome. Surgery continues to be the primary treatment modality for peripheral nerve tumors and advances in adjuvant oncological treatment has improved outcome after malignant peripheral nerve tumors. The present chapter...

  11. Hepatic abscess versus peripheral cholangiocarcinoma: Sonographic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hwan Hoon; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kang, Chang Ho; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Hee [Kunkuk University College of Medicine, Chung-Ju Hospital, Chung-Ju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    To find out the sonographic findings that are useful to differentiate hepatic abscess from peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Twenty-two hepatic abscesses and 22 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas which had been confirmed histologically were included in this study. Objective points were echo characteristics of the lesion, internal septation, presence of peripheral low echoic rim, demarcation from normal liver(well or poorly defined), posterior enhancement, multiplicity, dilatation of bile duct(obstructive or non-obstructive), intrahepatic duct stone, pleural effusion, and intra-abdominal fluid collection. Echo characteristics of the lesion were classified in-to four types. Type I; Predominantly echogenic with hypoechoic portion, type II; Echogenic without hypoechoic portion, type III; Predominantly hypoechoic with echogenic portion, type IV; Hypoechoic without echogenic portion. 1)Nine abscesses and 2 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type I(p=0.037), 2)One abscess and 18 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type II(p=0.001), 3)Seven abscesses and none of peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type III(p=0.001), 4)Five abscesses and 2 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were type IV(p=0.410). Only 7 abscesses showed internal septations(p=0.013). One abscess and 9 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas showed peripheral hypoechoic halos(p=0.012). Only 9 peripheral cholangiocarcinomas showed obstructive bile duct dilatation (p=0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between abscess and peripheral cholangiocarcinoma on other objective points. Predominantly echogenic with hypoechoic portion, predominantly hypoechoic with echogenic portion, and internal septation are the features suggestive of hepatic abscess, and echogenic without hypoechoic portion, peripheral hypoechoic halo, obstructive bile duct dilatation are suggestive of peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Therefore these sonographic findings are helpful to differentiate hepatic abscess from peripheral

  12. Peripheral T cell lymphoma: clinical utility of romidepsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawey K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Jasmine Zain, Kathryn SaweyNYU Langone Medical Center, New York, USAIntroduction: Direct therapeutic targets, such as aberrant tumor cell genes and tumor cell markers, have been the focus of cancer treatment for more than 50 years. The resulting damage to normal cells and emergence of drug-resistant tumor cells after exposure to conventional chemotherapy have led researchers to study indirect targets, like the tumor vasculature. A more recent indirect approach involves targeting the epigenetic modifiers, DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have been shown to be active cytotoxic agents in T cell lymphoma. The current treatments approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for relapsed cutaneous T cell lymphoma are vorinostat and romidepsin. The diversity and rarity of peripheral T cell lymphomas present a challenge for effective treatment. With their poor overall survival rate, new targeted therapies need to be developed.Keywords: peripheral T cell lymphoma, treatment, romidepsin

  13. Peripheral Mechanisms of Ischemic Myalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Queme

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal pain due to ischemia is present in a variety of clinical conditions including peripheral vascular disease (PVD, sickle cell disease (SCD, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS, and even fibromyalgia (FM. The clinical features associated with deep tissue ischemia are unique because although the subjective description of pain is common to other forms of myalgia, patients with ischemic muscle pain often respond poorly to conventional analgesic therapies. Moreover, these patients also display increased cardiovascular responses to muscle contraction, which often leads to exercise intolerance or exacerbation of underlying cardiovascular conditions. This suggests that the mechanisms of myalgia development and the role of altered cardiovascular function under conditions of ischemia may be distinct compared to other injuries/diseases of the muscles. It is widely accepted that group III and IV muscle afferents play an important role in the development of pain due to ischemia. These same muscle afferents also form the sensory component of the exercise pressor reflex (EPR, which is the increase in heart rate and blood pressure (BP experienced after muscle contraction. Studies suggest that afferent sensitization after ischemia depends on interactions between purinergic (P2X and P2Y receptors, transient receptor potential (TRP channels, and acid sensing ion channels (ASICs in individual populations of peripheral sensory neurons. Specific alterations in primary afferent function through these receptor mechanisms correlate with increased pain related behaviors and altered EPRs. Recent evidence suggests that factors within the muscles during ischemic conditions including upregulation of growth factors and cytokines, and microvascular changes may be linked to the overexpression of these different receptor molecules in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG that in turn modulate pain and sympathetic reflexes. In this review article, we will discuss the

  14. Isotopic diagnosis of peripheral thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornu, Pierre; Scalet, Michel

    1975-01-01

    Radio-isotope diagnosis of peripheral venous thrombosis, using tracer doses of iodine-labelled fibrinogen, provides an important contribution to the solution of the worrying problem of pulmonary embolism due to latent phlebitis. This elegant and precise technique permits early diagnosis of venous thrombosis of the lower limbs at a subclinical stage. It has permitted determination of the frequency, both after surgery and after myocardial infarction, and above all, it provides an objective criterion for assessment of the efficacy of prophylactic measures proposed [fr

  15. Brief debrisoquin administration to assess central dopaminergic function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, M A; Shaywitz, B A; Leckman, J F; Anderson, G M; Shaywitz, S E; Hardin, M T; Ort, S I; Cohen, D J

    1986-03-17

    Central dopaminergic (DA) function in children was assessed by monitoring plasma-free homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels after brief (18 hour) administration with debrisoquin sulfate, a peripherally active antihypertensive agent that blocks peripheral, but not central, HVA production. Brief debrisoquin administration resulted in marked reductions in pHVA in each of six patients studied. In five of the six patients, post-debrisoquin pHVA levels remained relatively stable over the six-hour period of observation. No significant cardiovascular or behavioral side effects of debrisoquin were observed. The brief debrisoquin administration method appears to be a safe, simple, and potentially valid peripheral technique for evaluating aspects of central dopaminergic function in children with neuropsychiatric disorders. Additional work is needed to further establish this method's validity and reliability.

  16. Bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy: an electrophysiological, behavioral, morphological and mechanistic study in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A Carozzi

    Full Text Available Bortezomib is the first proteasome inhibitor with significant antineoplastic activity for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma as well as other hematological and solid neoplasms. Peripheral neurological complications manifesting with paresthesias, burning sensations, dysesthesias, numbness, sensory loss, reduced proprioception and vibratory sensitivity are among the major limiting side effects associated with bortezomib therapy. Although bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy is clinically easy to diagnose and reliable models are available, its pathophysiology remains partly unclear. In this study we used well-characterized immune-competent and immune-compromised mouse models of bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy. To characterize the drug-induced pathological changes in the peripheral nervous system, we examined the involvement of spinal cord neuronal function in the development of neuropathic pain and investigated the relevance of the immune response in painful peripheral neuropathy induced by bortezomib. We found that bortezomib treatment induced morphological changes in the spinal cord, dorsal roots, dorsal root ganglia (DRG and peripheral nerves. Neurophysiological abnormalities and specific functional alterations in Aδ and C fibers were also observed in peripheral nerve fibers. Mice developed mechanical allodynia and functional abnormalities of wide dynamic range neurons in the dorsal horn of spinal cord. Bortezomib induced increased expression of the neuronal stress marker activating transcription factor-3 in most DRG. Moreover, the immunodeficient animals treated with bortezomib developed a painful peripheral neuropathy with the same features observed in the immunocompetent mice. In conclusion, this study extends the knowledge of the sites of damage induced in the nervous system by bortezomib administration. Moreover, a selective functional vulnerability of peripheral nerve fiber subpopulations

  17. Transdermal optogenetic peripheral nerve stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimon, Benjamin E.; Zorzos, Anthony N.; Bendell, Rhys; Harding, Alexander; Fahmi, Mina; Srinivasan, Shriya; Calvaresi, Peter; Herr, Hugh M.

    2017-06-01

    Objective: A fundamental limitation in both the scientific utility and clinical translation of peripheral nerve optogenetic technologies is the optical inaccessibility of the target nerve due to the significant scattering and absorption of light in biological tissues. To date, illuminating deep nerve targets has required implantable optical sources, including fiber-optic and LED-based systems, both of which have significant drawbacks. Approach: Here we report an alternative approach involving transdermal illumination. Utilizing an intramuscular injection of ultra-high concentration AAV6-hSyn-ChR2-EYFP in rats. Main results: We demonstrate transdermal stimulation of motor nerves at 4.4 mm and 1.9 mm depth with an incident laser power of 160 mW and 10 mW, respectively. Furthermore, we employ this technique to accurately control ankle position by modulating laser power or position on the skin surface. Significance: These results have the potential to enable future scientific optogenetic studies of pathologies implicated in the peripheral nervous system for awake, freely-moving animals, as well as a basis for future clinical studies.

  18. Diagnostic approach to peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra Usha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy refers to disorders of the peripheral nervous system. They have numerous causes and diverse presentations; hence, a systematic and logical approach is needed for cost-effective diagnosis, especially of treatable neuropathies. A detailed history of symptoms, family and occupational history should be obtained. General and systemic examinations provide valuable clues. Neurological examinations investigating sensory, motor and autonomic signs help to define the topography and nature of neuropathy. Large fiber neuropathy manifests with the loss of joint position and vibration sense and sensory ataxia, whereas small fiber neuropathy manifests with the impairment of pain, temperature and autonomic functions. Electrodiagnostic (EDx tests include sensory, motor nerve conduction, F response, H reflex and needle electromyography (EMG. EDx helps in documenting the extent of sensory motor deficits, categorizing demyelinating (prolonged terminal latency, slowing of nerve conduction velocity, dispersion and conduction block and axonal (marginal slowing of nerve conduction and small compound muscle or sensory action potential and dennervation on EMG. Uniform demyelinating features are suggestive of hereditary demyelination, whereas difference between nerves and segments of the same nerve favor acquired demyelination. Finally, neuropathy is classified into mononeuropathy commonly due to entrapment or trauma; mononeuropathy multiplex commonly due to leprosy and vasculitis; and polyneuropathy due to systemic, metabolic or toxic etiology. Laboratory investigations are carried out as indicated and specialized tests such as biochemical, immunological, genetic studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination and nerve biopsy are carried out in selected patients. Approximately 20% patients with neuropathy remain undiagnosed but the prognosis is not bad in them.

  19. Effect of Vitamin E on Oxaliplatin-induced Peripheral Neuropathy Prevention: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Zeinab; Roayaei, Mahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most important limitations of oxaliplatin base regimen, which is the standard for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Evidence has shown that Vitamin E may be protective in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Vitamin E administration on prevention of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in patients with colorectal cancer. This was a prospective randomized, controlled clinical trial. Patients with colorectal cancer and scheduled to receive oxaliplatin-based regimens were enrolled in this study. Enrolled patients were randomized into two groups. The first group received Vitamin E at a dose of 400 mg daily and the second group observed, until after the sixth course of the oxaliplatin regimen. For oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy assessment, we used the symptom experience diary questionnaire that completed at baseline and after the sixth course of chemotherapy. Only patients with a score of zero at baseline were eligible for this study. Thirty-two patients were randomized to the Vitamin E group and 33 to the control group. There was no difference in the mean peripheral neuropathy score changes (after - before) between two groups, after sixth course of the oxaliplatin base regimen (mean difference [after - before] of Vitamin E group = 6.37 ± 2.85, control group = 6.57 ± 2.94; P = 0.78). Peripheral neuropathy scores were significantly increased after intervention compared with a base line in each group (P peripheral neuropathy.

  20. Administrative Appeals and ADR in Danish Administrative Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Inger Marie; Gøtze, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Administrative Appeals, review, administrative tribunals, ombudsman, alternative dispute resolution......Administrative Appeals, review, administrative tribunals, ombudsman, alternative dispute resolution...

  1. Intraoperative Ultrasound for Peripheral Nerve Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsey, Matthew; Wilson, Thomas J; Henning, Phillip Troy; Yang, Lynda J-S

    2017-10-01

    Offering real-time, high-resolution images via intraoperative ultrasound is advantageous for a variety of peripheral nerve applications. To highlight the advantages of ultrasound, its extraoperative uses are reviewed. The current intraoperative uses, including nerve localization, real-time evaluation of peripheral nerve tumors, and implantation of leads for peripheral nerve stimulation, are reviewed. Although intraoperative peripheral nerve localization has been performed previously using guide wires and surgical dyes, the authors' approach using ultrasound-guided instrument clamps helps guide surgical dissection to the target nerve, which could lead to more timely operations and shorter incisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Peripheral Vestibular System Disease in Vestibular Schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Hansen, Søren; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2015-01-01

    density of the peripheral vestibular nerve branches, and atrophy of the neuroepithelium of the vestibular end organs. In cases with small tumors, peripheral disease occurred only in the tissue structures innervated by the specific nerve from which the tumor originated. CONCLUSION: Vestibular schwannomas...... are associated with distinctive disease of the peripheral vestibular tissue structures, suggesting anterograde degeneration and that dizziness in these patients may be caused by deficient peripheral vestibular nerve fibers, neurons, and end organs. In smaller tumors, a highly localized disease occurs, which...

  3. Peripheral refractive correction and automated perimetric profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, J M; Wood, J M; Crews, S J

    1988-06-01

    The effect of peripheral refractive error correction on the automated perimetric sensitivity profile was investigated on a sample of 10 clinically normal, experienced observers. Peripheral refractive error was determined at eccentricities of 0 degree, 20 degrees and 40 degrees along the temporal meridian of the right eye using the Canon Autoref R-1, an infra-red automated refractor, under the parametric conditions of the Octopus automated perimeter. Perimetric sensitivity was then undertaken at these eccentricities (stimulus sizes 0 and III) with and without the appropriate peripheral refractive correction using the Octopus 201 automated perimeter. Within the measurement limits of the experimental procedures employed, perimetric sensitivity was not influenced by peripheral refractive correction.

  4. Peripheral visual performance enhancement by neurofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenya; Wan, Feng; Lou, Chin Ian; Vai, Mang I; Rosa, Agostinho

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral visual performance is an important ability for everyone, and a positive inter-individual correlation is found between the peripheral visual performance and the alpha amplitude during the performance test. This study investigated the effect of alpha neurofeedback training on the peripheral visual performance. A neurofeedback group of 13 subjects finished 20 sessions of alpha enhancement feedback within 20 days. The peripheral visual performance was assessed by a new dynamic peripheral visual test on the first and last training day. The results revealed that the neurofeedback group showed significant enhancement of the peripheral visual performance as well as the relative alpha amplitude during the peripheral visual test. It was not the case in the non-neurofeedback control group, which performed the tests within the same time frame as the neurofeedback group but without any training sessions. These findings suggest that alpha neurofeedback training was effective in improving peripheral visual performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show evidence for performance improvement in peripheral vision via alpha neurofeedback training.

  5. Peripheral iridotomy for pigmentary glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelessi, Manuele; Lindsley, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Background Glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy characterized by retinal ganglion cell death resulting in damage to the optic nerve head and the retinal nerve fiber layer. Pigment dispersion syndrome is characterized by a structural disturbance in the iris pigment epithelium (the densely pigmented posterior surface of the iris) that leads to dispersion of the pigment and its deposition on various structures within the eye. Pigmentary glaucoma is a specific form of open-angle glaucoma found in patients with pigment dispersion syndrome. Topcial medical therapy is usually the first-line treatment; however, peripheral laser iridotomy has been proposed as an alternate treatment. Peripheral laser iridotomy involves creating an opening in the iris tissue to allow drainage of fluid from the posterior chamber to the anterior chamber and vice versa. Equalizing the pressure within the eye may help to alleviate the friction that leads to pigment dispersion and prevent visual field deterioration. However, the effectiveness of peripheral laser iridotomy in reducing the development or progression of pigmentary glaucoma is unknown. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of peripheral laser iridotomy compared with other interventions, including medication, trabeculoplasty, and trabeculectomy, or no treatment, for pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Search methods We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE and clinical trials websites such as (mRCT) and ClinicalTrials.gov. We last searched the electronic databases on 2 November 2015. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that had compared peripheral laser iridotomy versus no treatment or other treatments for pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures for systematic reviews. Two review authors independently screened articles for eligibility

  6. Atherectomy for peripheral arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Graeme K; Radwan, Rami; Hayes, Paul D; Twine, Christopher P

    2014-03-17

    Symptomatic peripheral arterial disease may be treated by a number of options including exercise therapy, angioplasty, stenting and bypass surgery. Atherectomy is an alternative technique where atheroma is excised by a rotating cutting blade. The objective of this review was to analyse randomised controlled trials comparing atherectomy against any established treatment for peripheral arterial disease in order to evaluate the effectiveness of atherectomy. The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched November 2013) and CENTRAL (2013, Issue 10). Trials databases were searched for details of ongoing or unpublished studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing atherectomy and other established treatments were selected for inclusion. All participants had symptomatic peripheral arterial disease with either claudication or critical limb ischaemia and evidence of lower limb arterial disease. Two review authors (GA and CT) screened studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the quality of the trials. Any disagreements were resolved through discussion. Four trials were included with a total of 220 participants (118 treated with atherectomy, 102 treated with balloon angioplasty) and 259 treated vessels (129 treated with atherectomy, 130 treated with balloon angioplasty). All studies compared atherectomy with angioplasty. No study was properly powered or assessors blinded to the procedures and there was a high risk of selection, attrition, detection and reporting biases.The estimated risk of success was similar between the treatment modalities although the confidence interval (CI) was compatible with small benefits of either treatment for the initial procedural success rate (Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.91, P = 0.82), patency at six months (Mantel-Haenszel RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.66, P = 0.79) and patency at 12 months (Mantel-Haenszel RR 1.17, 95% CI 0

  7. Contrast-enhanced peripheral MRA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Yousef W; Thomsen, Henrik S

    2012-01-01

    MRI contrast agent is injected intravenously and T1-weighted images are acquired in the subsequent arterial first-pass phase. In order to achieve high quality MR angiograms without interfering venous contamination or artifacts, a number of factors need to be taken into account. This includes magnetic......-state MRA. Gadolinium(Gd)-based contrast agents are used for CE-MRA of the peripheral arteries. Extracellular Gd agents have a pharmacokinetic profile similar to iodinated contrast media. Accordingly, these agents are employed for first-pass MRA. Blood-pool Gd-based agents are characterized by prolonged...... intravascular stay, due to macromolecular structure or protein binding. These agents can be used for first-pass, as well as steady-state MRA. Some Gd-based contrast agents with low thermodynamic stability have been linked to development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in patients with severe renal...

  8. Taxane-Induced Peripheral Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser Velasco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Taxane-derived agents are chemotherapy drugs widely employed in cancer treatment. Among them, paclitaxel and docetaxel are most commonly administered, but newer formulations are being investigated. Taxane antineoplastic activity is mainly based on the ability of the drugs to promote microtubule assembly, leading to mitotic arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. Peripheral neurotoxicity is the major non-hematological adverse effect of taxane, often manifested as painful neuropathy experienced during treatment, and it is sometimes irreversible. Unfortunately, taxane-induced neurotoxicity is an uncertainty prior to the initiation of treatment. The present review aims to dissect current knowledge on real incidence, underlying pathophysiology, clinical features and predisposing factors related with the development of taxane-induced neuropathy.

  9. GRK2 Constitutively Governs Peripheral Delta Opioid Receptor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Doyle Brackley

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Opioids remain the standard for analgesic care; however, adverse effects of systemic treatments contraindicate long-term administration. While most clinical opioids target mu opioid receptors (MOR, those that target the delta class (DOR also demonstrate analgesic efficacy. Furthermore, peripherally restrictive opioids represent an attractive direction for analgesia. However, opioid receptors including DOR are analgesically incompetent in the absence of inflammation. Here, we report that G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2 naively associates with plasma membrane DOR in peripheral sensory neurons to inhibit analgesic agonist efficacy. This interaction prevents optimal Gβ subunit association with the receptor, thereby reducing DOR activity. Importantly, bradykinin stimulates GRK2 movement away from DOR and onto Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP. protein kinase C (PKC-dependent RKIP phosphorylation induces GRK2 sequestration, restoring DOR functionality in sensory neurons. Together, these results expand the known function of GRK2, identifying a non-internalizing role to maintain peripheral DOR in an analgesically incompetent state.

  10. Peripheral Developing Odontoma or Peripheral Ameloblastic Fibroodontoma: A Rare Challenging Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saede Atarbashi Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral odontogenic lesions are considered to be rare within the classification of odontogenic tumors. They share the same microscopic characteristics of their central counterparts. Here, we report an ulcerated mass of the maxillary gingiva that on histopathological examination was diagnosed as peripheral developing odontoma or peripheral ameloblastic fibroodontoma. The diagnosis of this tumor is challenging and may lead to unnecessary treatment.

  11. Imaging of the peripheral vascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, S.A.; Pond, G.D.; Pinsky, S.; Moss, G.S.; Srikantaswamy, S.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1984-01-01

    This book is limited neither to the peripheral vascular system nor to diagnostic imaging techniques. Its 18 chapters cover nonimaging blood-flow techniques (Doppler ultrasound, plethysmography) as well as noninvasive and invasive imaging techniques (ultrasound, computed tomography, radionuclide digital-subtraction angiography, and contrast angiography). These are applied not only to the peripheral vascular system but also to the aorta and vena cava

  12. Beauty and cuteness in peripheral vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuraguchi, Kana; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Guo et al. (2011) showed that attractiveness was detectable in peripheral vision. Since there are different types of attractiveness (Rhodes, 2006), we investigated how beauty and cuteness are detected in peripheral vision with a brief presentation. Participants (n = 45) observed two Japanese female faces for 100 ms, then were asked to respond which face was more beautiful (or cuter). The results indicated that both beauty and cuteness were detectable in peripheral vision, but not in the same manner. Discrimination rates for judging beauty were invariant in peripheral and central vision, while discrimination rates for judging cuteness declined in peripheral vision as compared with central vision. This was not explained by lower resolution in peripheral vision. In addition, for male participants, it was more difficult to judge cuteness than beauty in peripheral vision, thus suggesting that gender differences can have a certain effect when judging cuteness. Therefore, central vision might be suitable for judging cuteness while judging beauty might not be affected by either central or peripheral vision. This might be related with the functional difference between beauty and cuteness. PMID:25999883

  13. Optimal timing for intravenous administration set replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, D; O'Riordan, L; Wallen, M; Morrison, A; Rankin, K; Nagy, S

    2005-10-19

    Administration of intravenous therapy is a common occurrence within the hospital setting. Routine replacement of administration sets has been advocated to reduce intravenous infusion contamination. If decreasing the frequency of changing intravenous administration sets does not increase infection rates, a change in practice could result in considerable cost savings. The objective of this review was to identify the optimal interval for the routine replacement of intravenous administration sets when infusate or parenteral nutrition (lipid and non-lipid) solutions are administered to people in hospital via central or peripheral venous catheters. We searched The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE: all from inception to February 2004; reference lists of identified trials, and bibliographies of published reviews. We also contacted researchers in the field. We did not have a language restriction. We included all randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials addressing the frequency of replacing intravenous administration sets when parenteral nutrition (lipid and non-lipid containing solutions) or infusions (excluding blood) were administered to people in hospital via a central or peripheral catheter. Two authors assessed all potentially relevant studies. We resolved disagreements between the two authors by discussion with a third author. We collected data for the outcomes; infusate contamination; infusate-related bloodstream infection; catheter contamination; catheter-related bloodstream infection; all-cause bloodstream infection and all-cause mortality. We identified 23 references for review. We excluded eight of these studies; five because they did not fit the inclusion criteria and three because of inadequate data. We extracted data from the remaining 15 references (13 studies) with 4783 participants. We conclude that there is no evidence that changing intravenous administration sets more often than every 96 hours

  14. Vascularization of the dorsal root ganglia and peripheral nerve of the mouse: Implications for chemical-induced peripheral sensory neuropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melemedjian Ohannes K

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although a variety of industrial chemicals, as well as several chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer or HIV, preferentially induce a peripheral sensory neuropathy what remains unclear is why these agents induce a sensory vs. a motor or mixed neuropathy. Previous studies have shown that the endothelial cells that vascularize the dorsal root ganglion (DRG, which houses the primary afferent sensory neurons, are unique in that they have large fenestrations and are permeable to a variety of low and high molecular weight agents. In the present report we used whole-mount preparations, immunohistochemistry, and confocal laser scanning microscopy to show that the cell body-rich area of the L4 mouse DRG has a 7 fold higher density of CD31+ capillaries than cell fiber rich area of the DRG or the distal or proximal aspect of the sciatic nerve. This dense vascularization, coupled with the high permeability of these capillaries, may synergistically contribute, and in part explain, why many potentially neurotoxic agents preferentially accumulate and injure cells within the DRG. Currently, cancer survivors and HIV patients constitute the largest and most rapidly expanding groups that have chemically induced peripheral sensory neuropathy. Understanding the unique aspects of the vascularization of the DRG and closing the endothelial fenestrations of the rich vascular bed of capillaries that vascularize the DRG before intravenous administration of anti-neoplastic or anti-HIV therapies, may offer a mechanism based approach to attenuate these chemically induced peripheral neuropathies in these patients.

  15. alpha-MSH in systemic inflammation. Central and peripheral actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, A; Delgado, R; Airaghi, L; Cutuli, M; Garofalo, L; Carlin, A; Demitri, M T; Lipton, J M

    1999-10-20

    Until recently, inflammation was believed to arise from events taking place exclusively in the periphery. However, it is now clear that central neurogenic influences can either enhance or modulate peripheral inflammation. Therefore, it should be possible to improve treatment of inflammation by use of antiinflammatory agents that reduce peripheral host responses and inhibit proinflammatory signals in the central nervous system (CNS). One such strategy could be based on alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). Increases in circulating TNF-alpha and nitric oxide (NO), induced by intraperitoneal administration of endotoxin in mice, were modulated by central injection of a small concentration of alpha-MSH. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and iNOS mRNA in lungs and liver were likewise modulated by central alpha-MSH. Increase in lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was significantly less in lungs of mice treated with central alpha-MSH. Proinflammatory agents induced by endotoxin were significantly greater after blockade of central alpha-MSH. The results suggest that antiinflammatory influences of neural origin that are triggered by alpha-MSH could be used to treat systemic inflammation. In addition to its central influences, alpha-MSH has inhibitory effects on peripheral host cells, in which it reduces release of proinflammatory mediators. alpha-MSH reduces chemotaxis of human neutrophils and production of TNF-alpha, neopterin, and NO by monocytes. In research on septic patients, alpha-MSH inhibited release of TNF-alpha, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in whole blood samples in vitro. Combined central and peripheral influences can be beneficial in treatment of sepsis.

  16. Peripherally applied opioids for postoperative pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B N; Henneberg, S W; Schmiegelow, K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids applied peripherally at the site of surgery may produce postoperative analgesia with few side effects. We performed this systematic review to evaluate the analgesic effect of peripherally applied opioids for acute postoperative pain. METHODS: We searched PubMed (1966 to June...... 2013), Embase (1980 to June 2013), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 6). Randomized controlled trials investigating the postoperative analgesic effect of peripherally applied opioids vs. systemic opioids or placebo, measured by pain intensity...... difference -5 mm, 95% CI: -7 to -3) for peripherally applied opioids vs. placebo and statistically significant increased time to first analgesic (mean difference 153 min, 95% CI: 41-265). When preoperative inflammation was reported (five studies), peripherally applied opioids significantly improved...

  17. Immunodomination during peripheral vaccinia virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon C W Lin

    Full Text Available Immunodominance is a fundamental property of CD8(+ T cell responses to viruses and vaccines. It had been observed that route of administration alters immunodominance after vaccinia virus (VACV infection, but only a few epitopes were examined and no mechanism was provided. We re-visited this issue, examining a panel of 15 VACV epitopes and four routes, namely intradermal (i.d., subcutaneous (s.c., intraperitoneal (i.p. and intravenous (i.v. injection. We found that immunodominance is sharpened following peripheral routes of infection (i.d. and s.c. compared with those that allow systemic virus dissemination (i.p. and i.v.. This increased immunodominance was demonstrated with native epitopes of VACV and with herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B when expressed from VACV. Responses to some subdominant epitopes were altered by as much as fourfold. Tracking of virus, examination of priming sites, and experiments restricting virus spread showed that priming of CD8(+ T cells in the spleen was necessary, but not sufficient to broaden responses. Further, we directly demonstrated that immunodomination occurs more readily when priming is mainly in lymph nodes. Finally, we were able to reduce immunodominance after i.d., but not i.p. infection, using a VACV expressing the costimulators CD80 (B7-1 and CD86 (B7-2, which is notable because VACV-based vaccines incorporating these molecules are in clinical trials. Taken together, our data indicate that resources for CD8(+ T cell priming are limiting in local draining lymph nodes, leading to greater immunodomination. Further, we provide evidence that costimulation can be a limiting factor that contributes to immunodomination. These results shed light on a possible mechanism of immunodomination and highlight the need to consider multiple epitopes across the spectrum of immunogenicities in studies aimed at understanding CD8(+ T cell immunity to viruses.

  18. Ionic mechanisms in peripheral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransén, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain constitutes an important and growing problem in society with large unmet needs with respect to treatment and clear implications for quality of life. Computational modeling is used to complement experimental studies to elucidate mechanisms involved in pain states. Models representing the peripheral nerve ending often address questions related to sensitization or reduction in pain detection threshold. In models of the axon or the cell body of the unmyelinated C-fiber, a large body of work concerns the role of particular sodium channels and mutations of these. Furthermore, in central structures: spinal cord or higher structures, sensitization often refers not only to enhanced synaptic efficacy but also to elevated intrinsic neuronal excitability. One of the recent developments in computational neuroscience is the emergence of computational neuropharmacology. In this area, computational modeling is used to study mechanisms of pathology with the objective of finding the means of restoring healthy function. This research has received increased attention from the pharmaceutical industry as ion channels have gained increased interest as drug targets. Computational modeling has several advantages, notably the ability to provide mechanistic links between molecular and cellular levels on the one hand and functions at the systems level on the other hand. These characteristics make computational modeling an additional tool to be used in the process of selecting pharmaceutical targets. Furthermore, large-scale simulations can provide a framework to systematically study the effects of several interacting disease parameters or effects from combinations of drugs. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Administrative Data Repository (ADR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Administrative Data Repository (ADR) was established to provide support for the administrative data elements relative to multiple categories of a person entity...

  20. EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Administrative Enforcement Dockets database contains the electronic dockets for administrative penalty cases filed by EPA Regions and Headquarters. Visitors...

  1. Philippines - Revenue Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Challenge Account-Philippines' (MCA-P) implementation of the Revenue Administration Reform Project (RARP) is expected to improve tax administration,...

  2. BDNF gene delivery mediated by neuron-targeted nanoparticles is neuroprotective in peripheral nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Cátia D F; Gonçalves, Nádia P; Gomes, Carla P; Saraiva, Maria J; Pêgo, Ana P

    2017-03-01

    Neuron-targeted gene delivery is a promising strategy to treat peripheral neuropathies. Here we propose the use of polymeric nanoparticles based on thiolated trimethyl chitosan (TMCSH) to mediate targeted gene delivery to peripheral neurons upon a peripheral and minimally invasive intramuscular administration. Nanoparticles were grafted with the non-toxic carboxylic fragment of the tetanus neurotoxin (HC) to allow neuron targeting and were explored to deliver a plasmid DNA encoding for the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a peripheral nerve injury model. The TMCSH-HC/BDNF nanoparticle treatment promoted the release and significant expression of BDNF in neural tissues, which resulted in an enhanced functional recovery after injury as compared to control treatments (vehicle and non-targeted nanoparticles), associated with an improvement in key pro-regenerative events, namely, the increased expression of neurofilament and growth-associated protein GAP-43 in the injured nerves. Moreover, the targeted nanoparticle treatment was correlated with a significantly higher density of myelinated axons in the distal stump of injured nerves, as well as with preservation of unmyelinated axon density as compared with controls and a protective role in injury-denervated muscles, preventing them from denervation. These results highlight the potential of TMCSH-HC nanoparticles as non-viral gene carriers to deliver therapeutic genes into the peripheral neurons and thus, pave the way for their use as an effective therapeutic intervention for peripheral neuropathies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma of maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Ajmera, Neha; Singh, Amit

    2010-07-01

    Peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma is a reactive gingival overgrowth occurring frequently in anterior maxilla. It is a slow-growing benign tumor which may lead to pathologic migration and other periodontal problems, so it should be excised as soon as possible. The recurrence rate of peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma is reported to be 8% to 20%, so a close postoperative follow-up is required. Herein, we are reporting a similar case of peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma in the maxillary anterior region.

  4. CT characteristics of peripheral organizing pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Oh; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Myung Joon; Lee, Kyung Soo; Choi, Hyung Sik; Jun, Young Hwan; Park, Yong Koo

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostic dilemma of persistent mass-forming parenchymal opacity in the lung periphery occurs occasionally in the realm of diagnostic radiology. Until recently, literature on the role of computed tomography in peripheral organizing pneumonia, which is difficult to differentiate from malignancy, has little been published. We experienced one case of pathologically proven organizing pneumonia diagnosed preoperatively by chest CT. When it comes to solitary peripheral mass density in the lung, we think that CT can be proved useful in the diagnosis of benign organizing pneumonia by showing regular and smoothly corrugate margin, peripheral contrast enhancement with inner low density, and air-trapping by intervening normal lung parenchyma.

  5. Peripheral facial nerve dysfunction: CT evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Disbro, M.A.; Harnsberger, H.R.; Osborn, A.G.

    1985-06-01

    Peripheral facial nerve dysfunction may have a clinically apparent or occult cause. The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of 36 patients with peripheral facial nerve dysfunction to obtain information on the location of the suspected lesion and the number, sequence, and type of radiographic evaluations performed. Inadequate clinical evaluations before computed tomography (CT) was done and unnecessary CT examinations were also noted. They have suggested a practical clinical and radiographic scheme to evaluate progressive peripheral facial dysfunction with no apparent cause. If this scheme is applied, unnecessary radiologic tests and delays in diagnosis and treatment may be avoided.

  6. Central and peripheral des-acyl ghrelin regulates body temperature in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Nakahara, Keiko; Maruyama, Keisuke; Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Hayashi, Yujiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Murakami, Noboru

    2013-01-04

    In the present study using rats, we demonstrated that central and peripheral administration of des-acyl ghrelin induced a decrease in the surface temperature of the back, and an increase in the surface temperature of the tail, although the effect of peripheral administration was less marked than that of central administration. Furthermore, these effects of centrally administered des-acyl ghrelin could not be prevented by pretreatment with [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 GH secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) antagonists. Moreover, these actions of des-acyl ghrelin on body temperature were inhibited by the parasympathetic nerve blocker methylscopolamine but not by the sympathetic nerve blocker timolol. Using immunohistochemistry, we confirmed that des-acyl ghrelin induced an increase of cFos expression in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). Additionally, we found that des-acyl ghrelin dilated the aorta and tail artery in vitro. These results indicate that centrally administered des-acyl ghrelin regulates body temperature via the parasympathetic nervous system by activating neurons in the MnPO through interactions with a specific receptor distinct from the GHS-R1a, and that peripherally administered des-acyl ghrelin acts on the central nervous system by passing through the blood-brain barrier, whereas it exerts a direct action on the peripheral vascular system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The administrative contract asimilated to administrative acts in administrative litigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia GORIUC

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An administrative contract is the will between a public authority either a person empowe¬red by it, and one or more natural or legal persons, whether private or public, pursuing the realization of a public interest and to which a special scheme of administrative law applies. The typology of administrative contracts is very varied, depending on the evolution of the society’s needs. Thus, they are currently included in the category of administrative contracts: concession contracts and public procurement contracts, contracts for the use of public goods, public management contracts, public-private partnership contracts, public lending contracts and constitutive documents of the associative structures of public authorities.

  8. EDITORIAL MODERN TECHNOLOGY IN PERIPHERAL HEALTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-06-01

    Jun 1, 2004 ... new technology to peripheral health care systems in developing countries. ... and maintenance of medical equipment in Africa, citing information ... operating laboratory equipment, and for emergency lighting for operating ...

  9. Haemopoietic progenitor cells in human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, F.E.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation reported is to purify haemopoietic progenitor cells from human peripheral blood using density gradient centrifugation in order to isolate a progenitor cell fraction without immunocompetent cells. The purification technique of peripheral blood flow colony forming unit culture (CFU-c) by means of density gradient centrifugation and a combined depletion of various rosettes is described. The results of several 'in vitro' characteristics of purified CFU-c suspensions and of the plasma clot diffusion chamber culture technique are presented. Irradiation studies revealed that for both human bone marrow and peripheral blood the CFU-c were less radioresistant than clusters. Elimination of monocytes (and granulocytes) from the test suspensions induced an alteration in radiosensitivity pararmeters. The results obtained with the different techniques are described by analysing peripheral progenitor cell activity in myeloproliferative disorders. (Auth.)

  10. Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Harvest

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Harvest. Mobilization protocol. G-CSF 10 mcg/Kg / day for 5 days. Pheresis. Cobe Spectra; Haemonetics mcs+. Enumeration. CD34 counts; Cfu-GM assays.

  11. Side Effects: Nerve Problems (Peripheral Neuropathy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerve problems, such as peripheral neuropathy, can be caused by cancer treatment. Learn about signs and symptoms of nerve changes. Find out how to prevent or manage nerve problems during cancer treatment.

  12. Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007393.htm Angioplasty and stent placement - peripheral arteries To use the sharing features ... inside the arteries and block blood flow. A stent is a small, metal mesh tube that keeps ...

  13. Peripheral myelin protein 22 alters membrane architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorf, Kathleen F.; Marinko, Justin T.; Hampton, Cheri M.; Ke, Zunlong; Hadziselimovic, Arina; Schlebach, Jonathan P.; Law, Cheryl L.; Li, Jun; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Sanders, Charles R.; Ohi, Melanie D.

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is highly expressed in myelinating Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system. PMP22 genetic alterations cause the most common forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD), which is characterized by severe dysmyelination in the peripheral nerves. However, the functions of PMP22 in Schwann cell membranes remain unclear. We demonstrate that reconstitution of purified PMP22 into lipid vesicles results in the formation of compressed and cylindrically wrapped protein-lipid vesicles that share common organizational traits with compact myelin of peripheral nerves in vivo. The formation of these myelin-like assemblies depends on the lipid-to-PMP22 ratio, as well as on the PMP22 extracellular loops. Formation of the myelin-like assemblies is disrupted by a CMTD-causing mutation. This study provides both a biochemical assay for PMP22 function and evidence that PMP22 directly contributes to membrane organization in compact myelin. PMID:28695207

  14. Peripheral Arterial Disease Can Be a Killer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Peripheral Arterial Disease Can Be a Killer Past Issues / ... Color changes in skin, paleness, or blueness Lower temperature in one leg compared to the other leg ...

  15. FRACTAL PROPERTY OF ADMINISTRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatko Brnjas

    2014-01-01

    To understand the constant increase in administration, we need a new approach to the administration. For many years, the administration has intensified as a closed science, associated only with economics, law and political science. However, this approach did not bring anything good, because almost nothing in the administration has improved. Therefore, it is necessary to connect the administration with the natural sciences which give the best description of the world around us. Because of this...

  16. Management of peripheral facial nerve palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Finsterer, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) may (secondary FNP) or may not have a detectable cause (Bell?s palsy). Three quarters of peripheral FNP are primary and one quarter secondary. The most prevalent causes of secondary FNP are systemic viral infections, trauma, surgery, diabetes, local infections, tumor, immunological disorders, or drugs. The diagnosis of FNP relies upon the presence of typical symptoms and signs, blood chemical investigations, cerebro-spinal-fluid-investigations, X-ray of the...

  17. Atherectomy in Peripheral Artery Disease: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Tariq M; Afari, Maxwell E; Garcia, Lawrence A

    2017-04-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a clinical manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The physiological force and shear stress from angioplasty and stenting have made PAD treatment challenging. Atherectomy devices have continued to emerge as a major therapy in the management of peripheral vascular disease. This article presents a review of the current literature for the atherectomy devices used in PAD.

  18. Passive Scalar Evolution in Peripheral Region

    OpenAIRE

    Lebedev, V. V.; Turitsyn, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    We consider evolution of a passive scalar (concentration of pollutants or temperature) in a chaotic (turbulent) flow. A universal asymptotic behavior of the passive scalar decay (homogenization) related to peripheral regions (near walls) is established. The passive scalar moments and its pair correlation function in the peripheral region are analyzed. A special case investigated in our paper is the passive scalar decay along a pipe.

  19. Peripheral Circulatory Features during High-Frequency Jet Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kontorovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of a study of peripheral circulatory features during high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV. The main specific features of peripheral circulation and oxygen transport during HFJV are formulated on the basis of a study of cardiac output (impedance cardiography, peripheral vascular resistance, peripheral vascular blood filling (photoplethysmogram analysis, adaptive peripheral blood flow reactions (spectral analysis of peripheral vascular pulsation. HFJV gives rise to the peculiar pattern of peripheral hemodynamics and tissue gas exchange, which is characterized by higher oxygen uptake without a decrease in mixed venous blood saturation, with normal extraction coefficient and preserved low peripheral vascular resistance. During HFJV, unlike traditional ventilation, the main peripheral hemodynamic feature is the increased capillary bed blood volume caused by the blood flow involvement of reserve capillaries under control of volume (parasympathetic regulation of adaptive peripheral hemodynamic reactions. Key words: high-frequency jet ventilation, oxygen transport, peripheral hemodynamics.

  20. Case of administrative dispute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xhemazie Ibraimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The activity of administrative bodies includes big numbers of various acts and actions, through which the will of public administration is formed. The will of public administration bodies, expressed in administrative individual and normative acts, in administrative contracts and real acts, finds its reflection in the Constitution, laws and other provisions of legal character. All this activity is not inerrant and therefore, it is not uncontrollable. The supervision of executive activity is subject to political control of administrative acts through authorities designated for this purpose, as well as internal control and the judicial control. The institution of judicial control of administrative acts and actions appears as very important and widely treated in the legal doctrine. The protection of constitutional and legal rights of private persons is accomplished by subjecting administrative activity both to internal administrative control, as well as to the judicial control in accordance with legal provisions. The judicial control of administrative acts represents a constitutional guarantee for citizens to protect their rights through public and fair trial by an independent and impartial court. In this way, the Constitution empowers the common administrative court that invalidates an action or administrative act, but not all administrative acts may be subject to administrative dispute, with the exception of cases against which the administrative conflict cannot be carried out (negative enumeration.

  1. Mini-review: Far peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    The region of far peripheral vision, beyond 60 degrees of visual angle, is important to the evaluation of peripheral dark shadows (negative dysphotopsia) seen by some intraocular lens (IOL) patients. Theoretical calculations show that the limited diameter of an IOL affects ray paths at large angles, leading to a dimming of the main image for small pupils, and to peripheral illumination by light bypassing the IOL for larger pupils. These effects are rarely bothersome, and cataract surgery is highly successful, but there is a need to improve the characterization of far peripheral vision, for both pseudophakic and phakic eyes. Perimetry is the main quantitative test, but the purpose is to evaluate pathologies rather than characterize vision (and object and image regions are no longer uniquely related in the pseudophakic eye). The maximum visual angle is approximately 105 0 , but there is limited information about variations with age, race, or refractive error (in case there is an unexpected link with the development of myopia), or about how clear cornea, iris location, and the limiting retina are related. Also, the detection of peripheral motion is widely recognized to be important, yet rarely evaluated. Overall, people rarely complain specifically about this visual region, but with "normal" vision including an IOL for >5% of people, and increasing interest in virtual reality and augmented reality, there are new reasons to characterize peripheral vision more completely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Casandra J; Watson, James C

    2015-02-01

    Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy impairs quality of life and can be difficult to treat. To discuss current treatment recommendations for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Literature review. Systematic review of the literature discussing treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Existing treatment guidelines were studied and compared. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy occurs in about one in six people with diabetes. This condition impairs quality of life and increases healthcare costs. Treatment recommendations exist, but individual patient therapy can require a trial-and-error approach. Many treatment options have adjuvant benefits or side effects which should be considered prior to initiating therapy. Often, a combination of treatment modalities with various mechanisms of action is required for adequate pain control. Adequate medication titration and a reasonable trial period should be allowed. The treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy can be challenging, but effective management can improve patient's quality of life. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy impairs quality of life and can be difficult to treat. Many treatment options have adjuvant benefits or side effects which should be considered prior to initiating therapy. Often, a combination of treatment modalities with various mechanisms of action is required for adequate pain control. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  3. Behavioral Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2017-01-01

    on theories and methods from psychology and related fields and point to research in public administration that could benefit from further integration. An analysis of public administration topics through a psychological lens can be useful to confirm, add nuance to, or extend classical public administration...... theories. As such, behavioral public administration complements traditional public administration. Furthermore, it could be a two-way street for psychologists who want to test the external validity of their theories in a political-administrative setting. Finally, four principles are proposed to narrow......Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-level perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing on insights from psychology on the behavior of individuals and groups. The authors discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw...

  4. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTRACTS. DELIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Teodora PASCARIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Article examines whether all contracts of public persons are administrative contracts; in other words, if the administration may conclude contracts that, according to their legal nature, are not administrative. If we start from the definition of administrative contracts as it appears in Law no. 554/2004, these include contracts by public authorities which concern the enhancement of public property execution of works of public interest, public services, public procurement and other administrative contracts provided by special laws and subject to the jurisdiction of the administrative courts.

  5. Case report of a patient with peripheral facial nerve palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Rysová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Title of bachelor's thesis: Case report of a patient with peripheral facial nerve palsy Summary: Teoretical part of bachelor's thesis contains theoretical foundation of peripheral facial nerve palsy. Practical part of bachelor's thesis contains physiotherapeutic case report of patient with peripheral facial nerve palsy. Key words: peripheral facial nerve palsy, casuistry, rehabilitation

  6. Role of sigma 1 receptor in high fat diet-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tieying; Zhao, Jianhui; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhang, Zaiwang; Jiang, Bo; Yang, Yunliang

    2017-09-26

    The neurobiological mechanisms of obesity-induced peripheral neuropathy are poorly understood. We evaluated the role of Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) and NMDA receptor (NMDARs) in the spinal cord in peripheral neuropathy using an animal model of high fat diet-induced diabetes. We examined the expression of Sig-1R and NMDAR subunits GluN2A and GluN2B along with postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) in the spinal cord after 24-week HFD treatment in both wild-type and Sig-1R-/- mice. Finally, we examined the effects of repeated intrathecal administrations of selective Sig-1R antagonists BD1047 in HFD-fed wild-type mice on peripheral neuropathy. Wild-type mice developed tactile allodynia and thermal hypoalgesia after 24-week HFD treatment. HFD-induced peripheral neuropathy correlated with increased expression of GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of NMDARs, PDS-95, and Sig-1R, as well as increased Sig-1R-NMDAR interaction in the spinal cord. In contrast, Sig-1R-/- mice did not develop thermal hypoalgesia or tactile allodynia after 24-week HFD treatment, and the levels of GluN2A, GluN2B, and PSD-95 were not altered in the spinal cord of HFD-fed Sig-1R-/- mice. Finally, repeated intrathecal administrations of selective Sig-1R antagonists BD1047 in HFD-fed wild-type mice attenuated peripheral neuropathy. Our results suggest that obesity-associated peripheral neuropathy may involve Sig-1R-mediated enhancement of NMDAR expression in the spinal cord.

  7. Protective Effect of a Mitochondria-Targeted Peptide against the Development of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Satoshi; Shimoyama, Naohito; Szeto, Hazel H; Schiller, Peter W; Shimoyama, Megumi

    2018-04-18

    Several chemotherapeutic agents used for cancer treatment induce dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy that compromises patients' quality of life and limits cancer treatment. Recently, mitochondrial dysfunction has been shown to be involved in the mechanism of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. SS-20 is a mitochondria-targeted peptide that promotes mitochondrial respiration and restores mitochondrial bioenergetics. In the present study, we examined the protective effect of SS-20 against the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy utilizing a murine model of peripheral neuropathy induced by oxaliplatin, a first-line chemotherapy agent for colon cancer. Weekly administrations of oxaliplatin induced peripheral neuropathy as demonstrated by the development of neuropathic pain and loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers in the hind paw. Continuous administration of SS-20 protected against the development of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain and mitigated the loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers to normal levels. Our findings suggest that SS-20 may be a drug candidate for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

  8. Administration of Anesthesia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OMSs) are trained in all aspects of anesthesia administration. Following dental school, they complete at least four ... complications and emergencies that may arise during the administration of anesthesia. Before your surgery, your OMS will ...

  9. Administration of Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OMSs) are trained in all aspects of anesthesia administration. Following dental school, they complete at least four ... complications and emergencies that may arise during the administration of anesthesia. Before your surgery, your OMS will ...

  10. Drug Enforcement Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de informacin confidencial --> DEA NEWS The Drug Enforcement Administration and Discovery Education name grand winner of Operation ... JUN 15 (Washington) The United States Drug Enforcement Administration, DEA Educational Foundation and Discovery Education awarded Porter ...

  11. Peripheral Glutamate Receptors Are Required for Hyperalgesia Induced by Capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential vanilloid1 (TRPV1 and glutamate receptors (GluRs are located in small diameter primary afferent neurons (nociceptors, and it was speculated that glutamate released in the peripheral tissue in response to activation of TRPV1 might activate nociceptors retrogradely. But, it was not clear which types of GluRs are functioning in the nociceptive sensory transmission. In the present study, we examined the c-Fos expression in spinal cord dorsal horn following injection of drugs associated with glutamate receptors with/without capsaicin into the hindpaw. The subcutaneous injection of capsaicin or glutamate remarkably evoked c-Fos expression in ipsilateral sides of spinal cord dorsal horn. This capsaicin evoked increase of c-Fos expression was significantly prevented by concomitant administration of MK801, CNQX, and CPCCOEt. On the other hand, there were not any significant changes in coinjection of capsaicin and MCCG or MSOP. These results reveal that the activation of iGluRs and group I mGluR in peripheral afferent nerves play an important role in mechanisms whereby capsaicin evokes/maintains nociceptive responses.

  12. Metformin and phenformin block the peripheral antinociception induced by diclofenac and indomethacin on the formalin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Mario I

    2012-01-02

    Recent evidence has shown that systemic administration of sulfonylureas and biguanides block the diclofenac-induced antinociception, but not the effect produced by indomethacin. However, there are no reports about the peripheral interaction between analgesics and the biguanides metformin and phenformin. Therefore, this work was undertaken to determine whether glibenclamide and glipizide and the biguanides metformin and phenformin have any effect on the peripheral antinociception induced by diclofenac and indomethacin. Diclofenac and indomethacin were administered locally in the formalin-injured rat paw, and the antinociceptive effect was evaluated using the 1% formalin test. To determine whether peripheral antinociception induced by diclofenac or indomethacin was mediated by either the ATP-sensitive K(+) channels or biguanides-induced mechanisms, the effect of pretreatment with the appropriates vehicles or glibenclamide, glipizide, metformin and phenformin on the antinociceptive effect induced by local peripheral diclofenac and indomethacin was assessed. Local peripheral injections of diclofenac (50-200 μg/paw) and indomethacin (200-800 μg/paw) produced a dose-dependent antinociception during the second phase of the test. Local pretreatment with glibenclamide, glipizide, metformin and phenformin blocked the diclofenac-induced antinociception. On the other hand, the pretreatment with glibenclamide and glipizide did not prevent the local antinociception produced by indomethacin. Nonetheless, metformin and phenformin reversed the local antinociception induced by indomethacin. Data suggest that diclofenac could activate the K(+) channels and biguanides-dependent mechanisms to produce its peripheral antinociceptive effects in the formalin test. Likewise, a biguanides-dependent mechanism could be activated by indomethacin consecutively to generate its peripheral antinociceptive effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Peripheral biomarkers revisited: integrative profiling of peripheral samples for psychiatric research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi-Takagi, Akiko; Vawter, Marquis P; Iwamoto, Kazuya

    2014-06-15

    Peripheral samples, such as blood and skin, have been used for decades in psychiatric research as surrogates for central nervous system samples. Although the validity of the data obtained from peripheral samples has been questioned and other state-of-the-art techniques, such as human brain imaging, genomics, and induced pluripotent stem cells, seem to reduce the value of peripheral cells, accumulating evidence has suggested that revisiting peripheral samples is worthwhile. Here, we re-evaluate the utility of peripheral samples and argue that establishing an understanding of the common signaling and biological processes in the brain and peripheral samples is required for the validity of such models. First, we present an overview of the available types of peripheral cells and describe their advantages and disadvantages. We then briefly summarize the main achievements of omics studies, including epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome analyses, as well as the main findings of functional cellular assays, the results of which imply that alterations in neurotransmission, metabolism, the cell cycle, and the immune system may be partially responsible for the pathophysiology of major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Finally, we discuss the future utility of peripheral samples for the development of biomarkers and tailor-made therapies, such as multimodal assays that are used as a battery of disease and trait pathways and that might be potent and complimentary tools for use in psychiatric research. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  14. Cloudera administration handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow Apache Hadoop administrator's guide filled with practical screenshots and explanations for each step and configuration. This book is great for administrators interested in setting up and managing a large Hadoop cluster. If you are an administrator, or want to be an administrator, and you are ready to build and maintain a production-level cluster running CDH5, then this book is for you.

  15. NASA, NOAA administrators nominated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan recently said he intended to nominate James Montgomery Beggs as NASA Administrator and John V. Byrne as NOAA Administrator. These two positions are key scientific posts that have been vacant since the start of the Reagan administration on January 20. The President also said he intends to nominate Hans Mark as NASA Deputy Administrator. At press time, Reagan had not designated his nominee for the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  16. Regulatable Transgene Expression for Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kawata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN is a debilitating complication associated with drug treatment of cancer for which there are no effective strategies of prevention or treatment. In this study, we examined the effect of intermittent expression of neurotophin-3 (NT-3 or interleukin-10 (IL-10 from replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV-based regulatable vectors delivered by subcutaneous inoculation to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG on the development of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. We constructed two different tetracycline (tet-on-based regulatable HSV vectors, one expressing NT-3 and the other expressing IL-10, in which the transactivator expression in the tet-on system was under the control of HSV latency-associated promoter 2 (LAP-2, and expression of the transgene was controlled by doxycycline (DOX. We examined the therapeutic effect of intermittent expression of the transgene in animals with paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy modeled by intraperitoneal injection of paclitaxel (16 mg/kg once a week for 5 weeks. Intermittent expression of either NT-3 or IL-10 3 days before and 1 day after paclitaxel administration protected animals against paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy over the course of 5 weeks. These results suggest the potential of regulatable vectors for prevention of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

  17. Regulatable Transgene Expression for Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Daisuke; Wu, Zetang

    2017-09-15

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating complication associated with drug treatment of cancer for which there are no effective strategies of prevention or treatment. In this study, we examined the effect of intermittent expression of neurotophin-3 (NT-3) or interleukin-10 (IL-10) from replication-defective herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based regulatable vectors delivered by subcutaneous inoculation to the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) on the development of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. We constructed two different tetracycline (tet)-on-based regulatable HSV vectors, one expressing NT-3 and the other expressing IL-10, in which the transactivator expression in the tet-on system was under the control of HSV latency-associated promoter 2 (LAP-2), and expression of the transgene was controlled by doxycycline (DOX). We examined the therapeutic effect of intermittent expression of the transgene in animals with paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy modeled by intraperitoneal injection of paclitaxel (16 mg/kg) once a week for 5 weeks. Intermittent expression of either NT-3 or IL-10 3 days before and 1 day after paclitaxel administration protected animals against paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy over the course of 5 weeks. These results suggest the potential of regulatable vectors for prevention of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

  18. Peripheral dose outside applicators in electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, James C L; Grigorov, Grigor N

    2006-01-01

    The peripheral dose outside the applicators in electron beams was studied using a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator. To measure the peripheral dose profiles and point doses for the applicator, a solid water phantom was used with calibrated Kodak TL films. Peak dose spot was observed in the 4 MeV beam outside the applicator. The peripheral dose peak was very small in the 6 MeV beam and was ignorable at higher energies. Using the 10 x 10 cm 2 cutout and applicator, the dose peak for the 4 MeV beam was about 12 cm away from the field central beam axis (CAX) and the peripheral dose profiles did not change with depths measured at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 cm. The peripheral doses and profiles were further measured by varying the angle of obliquity, cutout and applicator size for the 4 MeV beam. The local peak dose was increased with about 3% per degree angle of obliquity, and was about 1% of the prescribed dose (angle of obliquity equals zero) at 1 cm depth in the phantom using the 10 x 10 cm 2 cutout and applicator. The peak dose position was also shifted 7 mm towards the CAX when the angle of obliquity was increased from 0 to 15 deg. (note)

  19. Central nervous system mast cells in peripheral inflammatory nociception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellmeier Wilfried

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional aspects of mast cell-neuronal interactions remain poorly understood. Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of powerful pro-inflammatory mediators such as histamine and cytokines. Cerebral dural mast cells have been proposed to modulate meningeal nociceptor activity and be involved in migraine pathophysiology. Little is known about the functional role of spinal cord dural mast cells. In this study, we examine their potential involvement in nociception and synaptic plasticity in superficial spinal dorsal horn. Changes of lower spinal cord dura mast cells and their contribution to hyperalgesia are examined in animal models of peripheral neurogenic and non-neurogenic inflammation. Results Spinal application of supernatant from activated cultured mast cells induces significant mechanical hyperalgesia and long-term potentiation (LTP at spinal synapses of C-fibers. Lumbar, thoracic and thalamic preparations are then examined for mast cell number and degranulation status after intraplantar capsaicin and carrageenan. Intradermal capsaicin induces a significant percent increase of lumbar dural mast cells at 3 hours post-administration. Peripheral carrageenan in female rats significantly increases mast cell density in the lumbar dura, but not in thoracic dura or thalamus. Intrathecal administration of the mast cell stabilizer sodium cromoglycate or the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk inhibitor BAY-613606 reduce the increased percent degranulation and degranulated cell density of lumbar dural mast cells after capsaicin and carrageenan respectively, without affecting hyperalgesia. Conclusion The results suggest that lumbar dural mast cells may be sufficient but are not necessary for capsaicin or carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia.

  20. MRI features of tuberculosis of peripheral joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawlani, V.; Chandra, T.; Mishra, R.N.; Aggarwal, A.; Jain, U.K.; Gujral, R.B. E-mail: gujralrb@sgpgi.ac.in

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this article is to present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of peripheral tubercular arthritis. The clinical presentation of peripheral tubercular arthritis is variable and simulates other chronic inflammatory arthritic disorders. MRI is a highly sensitive technique which demonstrates fine anatomical details and identifies the early changes of arthritis, which are not visible on radiographs. The MRI features of tubercular arthritis include synovitis, effusion, central and peripheral erosions, active and chronic pannus, abscess, bone chips and hypo-intense synovium. These imaging features in an appropriate clinical setting may help in the diagnosis of tubercular arthritis. Early diagnosis and treatment can effectively eliminate the long-term morbidity of joints affected by tuberculosis.

  1. MRI features of tuberculosis of peripheral joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawlani, V.; Chandra, T.; Mishra, R.N.; Aggarwal, A.; Jain, U.K.; Gujral, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of peripheral tubercular arthritis. The clinical presentation of peripheral tubercular arthritis is variable and simulates other chronic inflammatory arthritic disorders. MRI is a highly sensitive technique which demonstrates fine anatomical details and identifies the early changes of arthritis, which are not visible on radiographs. The MRI features of tubercular arthritis include synovitis, effusion, central and peripheral erosions, active and chronic pannus, abscess, bone chips and hypo-intense synovium. These imaging features in an appropriate clinical setting may help in the diagnosis of tubercular arthritis. Early diagnosis and treatment can effectively eliminate the long-term morbidity of joints affected by tuberculosis

  2. Intraoperative digital angiography: Peripheral vascular applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, K.; Reifsteck, J.E.; Binet, E.F.; Fleisher, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Intraoperative digital angiography is the procedure of choice for the peripheral vascular surgeon who wishes to evaluate his results before terminating anesthesia. Two operating suites at the John L. McClellan Memorial Veterans Hospital are equipped with permanent ceiling-mounted Philips C-arm fluoroscopes and share an ADAC 4100 digital angiographic system. In the last 18 months, 40 peripheral vascular intraoperative digital angiographic procedures have been performed, in all but two cases using direct arterial puncture. In 65% of cases, the intraoperative study showed no significant abnormality. In 12.5%, minor abnormalities not requiring reoperation were seen. In 22.5% of cases, the intraoperative digital angiogram revealed a significant abnormality requiring immediate operative revision. None of the patients who underwent reoperation experienced postoperative sequelae. Intraoperative digital angiography is useful in identifying complications of peripheral vascular operations

  3. Comprehensive management of presbycusis: central and peripheral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Kourosh; Lin, Frank R; Coelho, Daniel H; Sataloff, Robert T; Gates, George A

    2013-04-01

    The prevailing otolaryngologic approach to treatment of age-related hearing loss (ARHL), presbycusis, emphasizes compensation of peripheral functional deficits (ie, hearing aids and cochlear implants). This approach does not address adequately the needs of the geriatric population, 1 in 5 of whom is expected to consist of the "old old" in the coming decades. Aging affects both the peripheral and central auditory systems, and disorders of executive function become more prevalent with advancing age. Growing evidence supports an association between age-related hearing loss and cognitive decline. Thus, to facilitate optimal functional capacity in our geriatric patients, a more comprehensive management strategy of ARHL is needed. Diagnostic evaluation should go beyond standard audiometric testing and include measures of central auditory function, including dichotic tasks and speech-in-noise testing. Treatment should include not only appropriate means of peripheral compensation but also auditory rehabilitative training and counseling.

  4. [Peripheral retinal degenerations--treatment recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussen, A M; Kirchhof, B

    2004-10-01

    This report reviews the clinical appearance of degenerative diseases of the peripheral retina in relationship to the risk of developing a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. We present recommendations for preventive treatment in eyes at increased risk of developing retinal detachment. Retinal degenerations are common lesions involving the peripheral retina but most of them are clinically insignificant. Lattice degeneration, degenerative retinoschisis, cystic retinal tufts, and very rarely zonular traction tufts can result in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Therefore, these lesions have been considered for prophylactic treatment; however, adequate studies have not been performed to date. Most of the peripheral retinal degenerations may not require treatment except in rare, high-risk situations. According to current knowledge there is no higher incidence of secondary pucker or other side effects after laser coagulation. Therefore, generous laser indication is recommended if risk factors apply.

  5. Vitamin B supplementation for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, Bhavani; Low, Lian Leng

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with significant neurological pathology, especially peripheral neuropathy. This review aims to examine the existing evidence on the effectiveness of vitamin B12 supplementation for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A search of PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for all relevant randomised controlled trials was conducted in December 2014. Any type of therapy using vitamin B12 or its coenzyme forms was assessed for efficacy and safety in diabetics with peripheral neuropathy. Changes in vibration perception thresholds, neuropathic symptoms and nerve conduction velocities, as well as the adverse effects of vitamin B12 therapy, were assessed. Four studies comprising 363 patients met the inclusion criteria. This review found no evidence that the use of oral vitamin B12 supplements is associated with improvement in the clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. Furthermore, the majority of studies reported no improvement in the electrophysiological markers of nerve conduction. Copyright © Singapore Medical Association.

  6. Contrast media and pain during peripheral arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, B.; Clauss, W.

    1982-01-01

    Some contrast media (CM) were for inducing pain and heat by an intraindividual comparison in 60 patients with occlusive peripheral arterial disease. A dolorimeter and calorimeter (graduated scales) were employed to register and differentiate the subjective sensations experienced by the patient, while objective reactions (peripheral motoric reactions, circulatory parameters) were recorded by the trialist at the same time. Ioxaglate, an ionic dimer, was distinctly superior to Ioglicinate, an ionic CM. However, the differences were less marked in the comparison with a Ioglicinate-Lidocaine-mixture. Emphasis is given to the fact osmolality is the most important parameter in the development of pain. Potential points at which the intraarterially administered local anaesthetic could attack are discussed. The clinical conclusions include consideration of the cost-effectivity ratios of the tested CM's and a discussion of whether or not modern stanards still justify general anaesthesia for peripheral angiography. (orig.)

  7. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Prem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the fourth leading cause of death world-wide and a further increase in the prevalence as well as mortality of the disease is predicted for coming decades. There is now an increased appreciation for the need to build awareness regarding COPD and to help the thousands of people who suffer from this disease and die prematurely from COPD or its associated complication(s. Peripheral neuropathy in COPD has received scanty attention despite the fact that very often clinicians come across COPD patients having clinical features suggestive of peripheral neuropathy. Electrophysiological tests like nerve conduction studies are required to distinguish between axonal and demyelinating type of disorder that cannot be analyzed by clinical examination alone. However, various studies addressing peripheral neuropathy in COPD carried out so far have included patients with COPD having markedly varying baseline characteristics like severe hypoxemia, elderly patients, those with long duration of illness, etc. that are not uniform across the studies and make it difficult to interpret the results to a consistent conclusion. Almost one-third of COPD patients have clinical evidence of peripheral neuropathy and two-thirds have electrophysiological abnormalities. Some patients with no clinical indication of peripheral neuropathy do have electrophysiological deficit suggestive of peripheral neuropathy. The more frequent presentation consists of a polyneuropathy that is subclinical or with predominantly sensory signs, and the neurophysiological and pathological features of predominantly axonal neuropathy. The presumed etiopathogenic factors are multiple: chronic hypoxia, tobacco smoke, alcoholism, malnutrition and adverse effects of certain drugs.

  8. Classic Peripheral Signs of Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yooyoung Chong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old female patient with visual disturbances was referred for further evaluation of a heart murmur. Fundoscopy revealed a Roth spot in both eyes. A physical examination showed peripheral signs of infective endocarditis, including Osler nodes, Janeway lesions, and splinter hemorrhages. Our preoperative diagnosis was subacute bacterial endocarditis with severe aortic regurgitation. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement and was treated with intravenous antibiotics for 6 weeks postoperatively. The patient made a remarkable recovery and was discharged without complications. We report this case of subacute endocarditis with all 4 classic peripheral signs in a patient who presented with visual disturbance.

  9. Classic Peripheral Signs of Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yooyoung; Han, Sung Joon; Rhee, Youn Ju; Kang, Shin Kwang; Yu, Jae Hyeon; Na, Myung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old female patient with visual disturbances was referred for further evaluation of a heart murmur. Fundoscopy revealed a Roth spot in both eyes. A physical examination showed peripheral signs of infective endocarditis, including Osler nodes, Janeway lesions, and splinter hemorrhages. Our preoperative diagnosis was subacute bacterial endocarditis with severe aortic regurgitation. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement and was treated with intravenous antibiotics for 6 weeks postoperatively. The patient made a remarkable recovery and was discharged without complications. We report this case of subacute endocarditis with all 4 classic peripheral signs in a patient who presented with visual disturbance. PMID:27734006

  10. Peripheral phlebitis: a point-prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Georgita T; Barrett, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine the factors influencing peripheral phlebitis in the adult medical-surgical population. The authors would then be able to use those data to determine whether a change in practice was warranted. Data collection and analysis of 188 intravenous sites revealed that females with higher doses of medications in intravenous sites of longer dwell times and suboptimal nutrition were at greater risk of developing peripheral phlebitis. The point prevalence was greater than the recommended 5%, which led the authors to review their facility's patient care and documentation practices.

  11. Laser peripheral iridoplasty for angle-closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wai Siene; Ang, Ghee Soon; Azuara-Blanco, Augusto

    2012-02-15

    Angle-closure glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Treatment is aimed at opening the anterior chamber angle and lowering the IOP with medical and/or surgical treatment (e.g. trabeculectomy, lens extraction). Laser iridotomy works by eliminating pupillary block and widens the anterior chamber angle in the majority of patients. When laser iridotomy fails to open the anterior chamber angle, laser iridoplasty may be recommended as one of the options in current standard treatment for angle-closure. Laser peripheral iridoplasty works by shrinking and pulling the peripheral iris tissue away from the trabecular meshwork. Laser peripheral iridoplasty can be used for crisis of acute angle-closure and also in non-acute situations.   To assess the effectiveness of laser peripheral iridoplasty in the treatment of narrow angles (i.e. primary angle-closure suspect), primary angle-closure (PAC) or primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in non-acute situations when compared with any other intervention. In this review, angle-closure will refer to patients with narrow angles (PACs), PAC and PACG. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12), MEDLINE (January 1950 to January 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to January 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). There were no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 5 January 2012. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this review. Patients with narrow angles, PAC or PACG were eligible. We excluded studies that included only patients with acute presentations

  12. [Degenerative lesions of the peripheral retina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conart, J-B; Baron, D; Berrod, J-P

    2014-01-01

    Degenerative lesions of the peripheral retina are present from teenage years onwards and increase with age. These abnormabilities are frequent, some of them being benign while others predispose to retinal tears and detachment. In the latter case, the lesions are rhegmatogenous and may justify prophylactic treatment by laser photocoagulation. We distinguish congenital lesions of the peripheral retina and intraretinal, chorioretinal and vitreoretinal degenerations. The holes and tears observed in 2% of the population consist of round atrophic holes, "horseshoe" tears, oral dialyses and giant tears. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation injury to peripheral and cranial nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, W.L.; Kinsella, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the results of laboratory and clinical investigations regarding the radiosensitivity of peripheral nerve are presented. Before outlining this research the authors briefly review peripheral neuroanatomy and physiology and then discuss variables associated with injury. It is important to remember that radiation injury is multifactorial in nature, and that the relative importance of individual factors is not well understood. Reports up through the middle of this century were fraught with rudimentary dosimetry, primitive investigative methods, and arbitrary endpoints that resulted in widely conflicting conclusions that continue to date

  14. Peripheral Neuropathy Crippling Bronchial Asthma”: Two Rare Case Reports of Churg-Strauss Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Kishore Pandita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS is a rare cause of vasculitic neuropathy. Although rare and potentially fatal, Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS is easily diagnosable and treatable. The presence of bronchial asthma with peripheral neuropathy in a patient alerts a physician to this diagnosis. This is vividly illustrated by the presented two cases who had neuropathy associated with bronchial asthma, eosinophilia, sinusitis, and positive perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (p-ANCA test, which improved with administration of steroids.

  15. Recombinant Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 secretes a bioactive kisspeptin that inhibits proliferation and migration of human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Angdi; Zuo, Fanglei; Yu, Rui; Zeng, Zhu; Ma, Huiqin; Chen, Shangwu

    2016-06-10

    Proteinaceous bioactive substances and pharmaceuticals are most conveniently administered orally. However, the facing problems are the side effects of proteolytic degradation and denaturation in the gastrointestinal tract. In recent years, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been verified to be a promising delivery vector for susceptible functional proteins and drugs. KiSS-1 peptide, a cancer suppressor, plays a critical role in inhibiting cancer metastasis and its activity has been confirmed by direct administration. However, whether this peptide can be functionally expressed in LAB and exert activity on cancer cells, thus providing a potential alternative administration manner in the future, has not been demonstrated. A recombinant Lactococcus lactis strain NZ9000-401-kiss1 harboring a plasmid containing the gene of the tumor metastasis-inhibiting peptide KiSS1 was constructed. After optimization of the nisin induction conditions, the recombinant strain efficiently secreted KiSS1 with a maximum detectable amount of 27.9 μg/ml in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle medium. The 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and would healing assays, respectively, indicated that the secreted KiSS1 peptide remarkably inhibited HT-29 cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, the expressed KiSS1 was shown to induce HT-29 cell morphological changes, apoptosis and reduce the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) at both mRNA and protein levels. A recombinant L. lactis NZ9000-401-kiss1 successfully expressing the human kiss1 was constructed. The secreted KiSS1 peptide inhibited human HT-29 cells' proliferation and migration probably by invoking, or mediating the cell-apoptosis pathway and by down regulating MMP-9 expression, respectively. Our results suggest that L. lactis is an ideal cell factory for secretory expression of tumor metastasis-inhibiting peptide KiSS1, and the KiSS1-producing L. lactis strain may serve as a new tool for cancer therapy in

  16. 75 FR 56548 - Joint Meeting of the Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee and the Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Joint Meeting of the Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee and the Drug Safety... and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee and the Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory...

  17. Peripheral markers of oxidative stress in chronic mercuric chloride intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez L.L.P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the time course changes in peripheral markers of oxidative stress in a chronic HgCl2 intoxication model. Twenty male adult Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously daily for 30 days and divided into two groups of 10 animals each: Hg, which received HgCl2 (0.16 mg kg-1 day-1, and control, receiving the same volume of saline solution. Blood was collected at the first, second and fourth weeks of Hg administration to evaluate lipid peroxidation (LPO, total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP, and superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and catalase (CAT. HgCl2 administration induced a rise (by 26% in LPO compared to control (143 ± 10 cps/mg hemoglobin in the second week and no difference was found at the end of the treatment. At that time, GST and GPx were higher (14 and 24%, respectively in the Hg group, and Cu,Zn-SOD was lower (54% compared to control. At the end of the treatment, Cu,Zn-SOD and CAT were higher (43 and 10%, respectively in the Hg group compared to control (4.6 ± 0.3 U/mg protein; 37 ± 0.9 pmol/mg protein, respectively. TRAP was lower (69% in the first week compared to control (43.8 ± 1.9 mM Trolox. These data provide evidence that HgCl2 administration is accompanied by systemic oxidative damage in the initial phase of the process, which leads to adaptive changes in the antioxidant reserve, thus decreasing the oxidative injury at the end of 30 days of HgCl2 administration. These results suggest that a preventive treatment with antioxidants would help to avoid oxidative damage in subjects with chronic intoxication.

  18. Magnetoneurographic evaluation of peripheral nerve regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.D.L. Kuypers (Paul)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWhen a peripheral nerve is reconstructed after it has been damaged. it is important to assess, in an early stage, whether the nerve is regenerating across the lesion. However, at present for this purpose an adequate method is not available. In this study short term changes in the

  19. Peripheral Protein Unfolding Drives Membrane Bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaw, Hew Ming Helen; Raghunath, Gokul; Dyer, R Brian

    2018-06-20

    Dynamic modulation of lipid membrane curvature can be achieved by a number of peripheral protein binding mechanisms such as hy-drophobic insertion of amphipathic helices and membrane scaffolding. Recently, an alternative mechanism was proposed in which crowding of peripherally bound proteins induces membrane curvature through steric pressure generated by lateral collisions. This effect was enhanced using intrinsically disordered proteins that possess high hydrodynamic radii, prompting us to explore whether membrane bending can be triggered by the folding-unfolding transition of surface-bound proteins. We utilized histidine-tagged human serum albumin bound to Ni-NTA-DGS containing liposomes as our model system to test this hypothesis. We found that reduction of the disulfide bonds in the protein resulted in unfolding of HSA, which subsequently led to membrane tubule formation. The frequency of tubule formation was found to be significantly higher when the proteins were unfolded while being localized to a phase-separated domain as opposed to randomly distributed in fluid phase liposomes, indicating that the steric pressure generated from protein unfolding is directly responsible for membrane deformation. Our results are critical for the design of peripheral membrane protein-immobilization strategies and open new avenues for exploring mechanisms of membrane bending driven by conformational changes of peripheral membrane proteins.

  20. Creating social presence through peripheral awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruyter, de B.E.R.; Huijnen, C.A.G.J.; Markopoulos, P.; IJsselsteijn, W.A.; Stephanidis, C.; Jacko, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental assessment of affective user benefits that may result from peripheral awareness of a remote friend or group of friends during a shared viewing of a televised event. The experiment suggests that awareness supported through a visual display enhances the level of

  1. Habitual Physical Activity, Peripheral Neuropathy, Foot Deformities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Habitual physical activity index (3.2 ± 0.83) was highest in work-related activities; 69 (26.1 %) patients presented with peripheral neuropathy and 52 (19. 7%) had the lowest limb function. Pes planus was the most prevalent foot deformity (20.1%). Significant differences existed in physical activity indices across ...

  2. Non malignant peripheral lymphadenopathy in Nigerians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis should be suspected and ruled out in patients who present with PL, particularly in rural areas with no access to histopathology services. Keywords: Peripheral lymphadenopathy, Tuberculosis, Toxoplasmosis, Lymphadenitis. Résumé La lymphadenopathie périphérique persistante (PL) qui n'est pas associée ...

  3. Facilitating Cluster Evolution in Peripheral Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard; Störring, Dagmara

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility and dilemmas in stimulating high-tech clusters in peripheral regions. In recent years innovation and cluster policy to a large extend has been focused upon stimulating collective learning processes and building social capital. This has in turn accentuated a ne...

  4. Peripheral cold acclimatization in Antarctic scuba divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgman, S A

    1991-08-01

    Peripheral acclimatization to cold in scuba divers stationed at the British Antarctic Survey's Signy Station was investigated during a year in Antarctica. Five divers and five non-diver controls underwent monthly laboratory tests of index finger immersion in cold water for 30 min. Index finger pulp temperature and time of onset of cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) were measured. Pain was recorded with verbal and numerical psychophysical subjective pain ratings. Average finger temperatures and median finger pain from 6-30 min of immersion, maximum finger temperatures during the first CIVD cycle, and finger temperatures at the onset of CIVD were calculated. Comparison of the variables recorded from divers and non-divers were performed with analysis of variance. No significant differences were found among the variables recorded from divers and non-divers. From a review of the literature, divers have responses typical of non-cold-adapted Caucasians. There is, therefore, no evidence that Signy divers peripherally acclimatized to cold. We suggest that these findings occur because either the whole body cooling which divers undergo inhibits peripheral acclimatization or because of insufficiently frequent or severe cold exposure while diving. Further basic studies on the duration, frequency and severity of cold exposure necessary to induce peripheral cold acclimatization are required before this question can be satisfactorily answered.

  5. Peripheral blood flow control in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, Jannik

    1991-01-01

    Long term diabetes has a profound effect on the peripheral circulation. This has been demonstrated to be due to the presence of angiopathy and autonomic neuropathy, affecting autoregulation and distensibility of the vessels as well as local and central reflex regulation of the vascular resistance...

  6. PERIPHERAL BLOOD FILM - A REVIEW FEATURE ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be abreast with its clinical utility and proper application of the reports in the management of patients. Keywords: Peripheral blood smear, Preparation, Examination, Interpretation, Reporting, Blood cells morphology. FEATURE ARTICLES. Ann Ibd. Pg. Med 2014. Vol.12, No.2 71-79. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine.

  7. The Development of Peripheral Vision in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guez, Jean R.

    This study investigated the extent of infant peripheral vision, specifically the extent of infants' constricted field, or tunnel vision. Thirteen infants, 2 to 5 months old, were tested using a psychophysical procedure to obtain contrast sensitivity thresholds at four retinal loci (-40, -15, +15, +40 deg.). Infants were placed in an infant bed in…

  8. Habitual physical activity, peripheral neuropathy, foot deformities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    joint or leg pain), lack of equipment, and exercise partner(s).20. Yet, many of these ... peripheral neuropathy and lower limb functions among a group of Nigerian .... scale for inpatients of an orthopaedic rehabilitation ward found that interclass ...

  9. Lesotho - Land Administration Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Michigan State University was assigned to design the impact evaluation (IE) of the Land Administration Reform Project (LARP) funded under the Millennium Challenge...

  10. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...... in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...

  11. Security Administration Reports Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Contains SSA Security Reports that allow Information Security Officers (ISOs) to access, review and take appropriate action based on the information contained in the...

  12. Veterans Administration Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  13. Administrative Data Repository (ADR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — ADR provides an authoritative data store for shared administrative, demographic, enrollment, and eligibility information which is managed as a corporate asset. This...

  14. Long term clinical outcome of peripheral nerve stimulation in patients with chronic peripheral neuropathic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calenbergh, F. Van; Gybels, J.; Laere, K. Van

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic neuropathic pain after injury to a peripheral nerve is known to be resistant to treatment. Peripheral nerve stimulation is one of the possible treatment options, which is, however, not performed frequently. In recent years we have witnessed a renewed interest for PNS. The aim...... of the present study was to evaluate the long-term clinical efficacy of PNS in a group of patients with peripheral neuropathic pain treated with PNS since the 1980s. METHODS: Of an original series of 11 patients, 5 patients could be invited for clinical examination, detailed assessment of clinical pain and QST...... functioning) also showed positive effects. Quantitative Sensory Testing results did not show significant differences in cold pain and heat pain thresholds between the "ON" and "OFF" conditions. CONCLUSION: In selected patients with peripheral neuropathic pain PNS remains effective even after more than 20...

  15. Studies of peripheral sensory nerves in paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy: Evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Flatters, Sarah J.L.; Bennett, Gary J.

    2006-01-01

    Paclitaxel chemotherapy frequently induces neuropathic pain during and often persisting after therapy. The mechanisms responsible for this pain are unknown. Using a rat model of paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy, we have performed studies to search for peripheral nerve pathology. Paclitaxel-induced mechano-allodynia and mechano-hyperalgesia were evident after a short delay, peaked at day 27 and finally resolved on day 155. Paclitaxel- and vehicle-treated rats were perfused on d...

  16. Peripheral ameloblastic fibro-odontoma or peripheral developing complex odontoma: report of a case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibel, Jesper; Grønbæk, Anni Birgitte; Poulsen, Sven

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Peripheral (extraosseous) odontogenic tumors are rare. CASE REPORT. This report describes a case which illustrates the clinical and histopathological features of a lesion in an 8-year-old, healthy Caucasian girl that on purely morphological grounds would seem to be an ameloblastic fibro-odontoma......, but may represent a case of a peripheral developing complex odontoma. CONCLUSION. Conservative surgical enucleation of the lesion was followed by unbcomplicated healing and no recurrence was seen....

  17. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...

  18. ADMINISTRATIVE RULEMAKING IN ETHIOPIA:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MLR

    and the theoretical issues in relation to administrative legislation are discussed followed ..... that “laws properly so called” must be distinguished from morals and other ..... 44 William Wade, (1988), Administrative Law (Oxford University Press), p. .... 66 Rule 320, Rules of procedure and conduct of business in the Lok Sabha.

  19. Centos system administration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Mallett, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Linux administrator who is looking to gain knowledge that differentiates yourself from the crowd, then this is the book for you. Beginners who have a keen interest to learn more about Linux administration will also progress quickly with this resourceful learning guide.

  20. The Art of Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Frank L.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten guidelines for human relations skills that can help elevate the practice of student personnel administration to an art form. Administrators need to develop and perfect leadership skills including respect for individual differences, consistency, listening skills, instinct, being a role model, and establishment of realistic performance…

  1. Postmodern Public Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogason, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Discussion of the trends towards more uses of postmodern analysis within the discipline of public administration, particularly in the USA......Discussion of the trends towards more uses of postmodern analysis within the discipline of public administration, particularly in the USA...

  2. Alaska Administrative Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search the Division of Finance site DOF State of Alaska Finance Home Content Area Accounting Charge Cards Division of Finance is to provide accounting, payroll, and travel services for State government Top Department of Administration logo Alaska Department of Administration Division of Finance Search

  3. Webmin administrator's cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Karzynski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Written in a cookbook format with practical recipes this book helps you to perform various administrative tasks using Webmin and enables you to perform common jobs more efficiently.This book is perfect for System administrators who want to learn more advanced concepts of Webmin and how it can help to set up a server for development, testing or deployment.

  4. F wave index: A diagnostic tool for peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G R Sathya

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that F wave index in upper limb was significantly lower in patients with peripheral neuropathy than the healthy controls, and could be used for early detection of peripheral neuropathy.

  5. Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Land administration systems are the operational tool for conceptualizing rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRRs) in land. Each of the rights, restrictions and responsibilities encompasses a human rights dimension that relates to the overall national land policies and should be unfolded...... as more than just rhetoric. This paper attempts to analyse the aspects of human rights in relation to land administration systems with a special focus on developing countries struggling to build adequate systems for governing the rights, restrictions and responsibilities in land. Human rights....... This relates to national political arrangements and standards for good governance and land administration systems are highly instrumental in this regard. This paper introduces the relation between land administration and human rights. It is argued that human rights and land administration are closely linked...

  6. Computed tomographic findings of intrahepatic peripheral cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee

    1986-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is synonymous with bile duct carcinoma, and can originate in a small intrahepatic bile duct (peripheral type), a major intrahepatic duct including the hepatic hills, an extrahepatic duct, or near the papilla of Vater (central type). In a sense bile duct carcinoma of the peripheral type is cholangiocarcinoma of the liver; it has the same gross configuration as hepatocellular carcinoma, resulting in difficulty to differentiate on the CT. The authors studied CT findings of 14 cases of pathologically proven peripheral type cholangiocarcinoma of the liver during the last 4 years. The results were as follows: 1. Of 14 cases, 8 were female and 6 were male, and the age ranged from 5th to 7th decades. 2. Preoperative clinical diagnosis were as follows: hepatoma 8 cases, abscess 5 cases and metastasis 1 case in order of frequency. 3. Diagnosis were confirmed by hepatic lobectomy in 7 cases, wedge resection in 5 cases and needle biopsy in 2 case. 4. Laboratory findings were not specific, but there were only 2 cases with elevated alpha-fetoprotein level. 5. Associated diseases were gallstones in 1 case, intrahepatic duct stones in 1 case, extrahepatic duct stones in 2 cases, acute or chronic cholecystitis in 5 cases and CS in 3 cases. 6. Angiographic and scintigraphic findings were helpful in differential diagnosis from hepatoma but ultrasonography was non-specific. 7. The number of tumor were solitary in 12 cases and multiple in 2 cases. Among solitary cases, the site of involvement of the liver were right lobe in 8 cases and left lobe in 4 cases. 8. Common CT features of the intrahepatic peripheral cholangiocinoma of the liver were irregular, inhomogeneous, occasionally peripherally enhancing, low density liver mass, frequently accompanied by diffuse or segmental dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct. If there were normal alpha fetoprotein level, positive skin and/or stool examination for CS and diffuse or segmental dilatation of the intrahepatic duct

  7. Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woon Ju; Cho, June Sik; Shin, Kyung Sook; Jeong, Hyung Yong; Noh; Seung Moo; Song, Kyu Sang

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (peripheral PNETs) are very rare and highly aggressive soft tissue malignancies originating from the neural crest. To the best of our knowledge, only a few cases of peripheral PNETs of the stomach have been reported in the literature. We report a case of large peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the stomach with MDCT findings in a 22-year-old man presenting epigastric pain and vomiting

  8. Peripheral administration of GLP-2 to humans has no effect on gastric emptying or satiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Näslund, E; Grybäck, P

    2003-01-01

    ) and plasma concentrations of GLP-2 were studied during infusion of saline or GLP-2 (0.75 and 2.25 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) for a total of 180 min. Concentrations of GLP-2 were elevated to a maximum of 50 and 110 pmol l(-1) for 0.75 and 2.25 pmol kg(-1) min(-1) infusion of GLP-2, respectively. There was no effect...... rating after the meal to 180 min was also unaffected by infusion of GLP-2. GLP-2 does not seem to mediate the ileal brake mechanism....

  9. Improvement in the Function of rat Peripheral Blood Monocytes Following Oral Administration of Curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zirak Marangalu

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Collectively, it seems that curcumin is a natural source to intervene the monocytes functions especially in autoimmune diseases so that monocytes hyperactivity causes immunopathological conditions.

  10. Peripheral administration of oxytocin increases social affiliation in the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Skyler J; Douglas, Natasha R; Holmes, Melissa M

    2014-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin regulates a wide variety of social behaviors across diverse species. However, the types of behaviors that are influenced by this hormone are constrained by the species in question and the social organization that a particular species exhibits. Therefore, the present experiments investigated behaviors regulated by oxytocin in a eusocial mammalian species by using the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber). In Experiment 1, adult non-breeding mole-rats were given intraperitoneal injections of either oxytocin (1mg/kg or 10mg/kg) or saline on alternate days. Animals were then returned to their colony and behavior was recorded for minutes 15-30 post-injection. Both doses of oxytocin increased huddling behavior during this time period. In Experiment 2, animals received intraperitoneal injections of either oxytocin (1mg/kg), an oxytocin-receptor antagonist (0.1mg/kg), a cocktail of oxytocin and the antagonist, or saline across 4 testing days in a counterbalanced design. Animals were placed in either a 2-chamber arena with a familiar conspecific or in a small chamber with 1week old pups from their home colony and behaviors were recorded for minutes 15-30 post-injection. Oxytocin increased investigation of, and time spent in close proximity to, a familiar conspecific; these effects were blocked by the oxytocin antagonist. No effects were seen on pup-directed behavior. These data suggest that oxytocin is capable of modulating affiliative-like behavior in this eusocial species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Home - Defense Technology Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    by @dtsamil Defense Technology Security Administration Mission, Culture, and History Executive Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration OFFICE of the SECRETARY of DEFENSE Defense Technology Security Administration

  12. Impaired peripheral nerve regeneration in type-2 diabetic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Vuong M; Tu, Nguyen Huu; Katano, Tayo; Matsumura, Shinji; Saito, Akira; Yamada, Akihiro; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2018-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common and serious complications of type-2 diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy is characterized by a distal symmetrical sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and its incidence increases in patients 40 years of age or older. In spite of extensive research over decades, there are few effective treatments for diabetic neuropathy besides glucose control and improved lifestyle. The earliest changes in diabetic neuropathy occur in sensory nerve fibers, with initial degeneration and regeneration resulting in pain. To seek its effective treatment, here we prepared a type-2 diabetic mouse model by giving mice 2 injections of streptozotocin and nicotinamide and examining the ability for nerve regeneration by using a sciatic nerve transection-regeneration model previously established by us. Seventeen weeks after the last injection, the mice exhibited symptoms of type-2 diabetes, that is, impaired glucose tolerance, decreased insulin level, mechanical hyperalgesia, and impaired sensory nerve fibers in the plantar skin. These mice showed delayed functional recovery and nerve regeneration by 2 weeks compared with young healthy mice and by 1 week compared with age-matched non-diabetic mice after axotomy. Furthermore, type-2 diabetic mice displayed increased expression of PTEN in their DRG neurons. Administration of a PTEN inhibitor at the cutting site of the nerve for 4 weeks promoted the axonal transport and functional recovery remarkably. This study demonstrates that peripheral nerve regeneration was impaired in type-2 diabetic model and that its combination with sciatic nerve transection is suitable for the study of the pathogenesis and treatment of early diabetic neuropathy. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The choroid plexus response to a repeated peripheral inflammatory stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palha Joana A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic systemic inflammation triggers alterations in the central nervous system that may relate to the underlying inflammatory component reported in neurodegenerative disorders such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. However, it is far from being understood whether and how peripheral inflammation contributes to induce brain inflammatory response in such illnesses. As part of the barriers that separate the blood from the brain, the choroid plexus conveys inflammatory immune signals into the brain, largely through alterations in the composition of the cerebrospinal fluid. Results In the present study we investigated the mouse choroid plexus gene expression profile, using microarray analyses, in response to a repeated inflammatory stimulus induced by the intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide every two weeks for a period of three months; mice were sacrificed 3 and 15 days after the last lipopolysaccharide injection. The data show that the choroid plexus displays a sustained response to the repeated inflammatory stimuli by altering the expression profile of several genes. From a total of 24,000 probes, 369 are up-regulated and 167 are down-regulated 3 days after the last lipopolysaccharide injection, while at 15 days the number decreases to 98 and 128, respectively. The pathways displaying the most significant changes include those facilitating entry of cells into the cerebrospinal fluid, and those participating in the innate immune response to infection. Conclusion These observations contribute to a better understanding of the brain response to peripheral inflammation and pave the way to study their impact on the progression of several disorders of the central nervous system in which inflammation is known to be implicated.

  14. Duloxetine in the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boomershine CS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Michelle J Ormseth, Beth A Sholz, Chad S BoomershineDivision of Rheumatology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Diabetic neuropathy affects up to 70% of diabetics, and diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP is the most common and debilitating of the diabetic neuropathies. DPNP significantly reduces quality of life and increases management costs in affected patients. Despite the impact of DPNP, management is poor with one-quarter of patients receiving no treatment and many treated with medications having little or no efficacy in managing DPNP. Duloxetine is one of two drugs approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for DPNP management. Duloxetine is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI proven safe, effective, and cost-saving in reducing DPNP symptoms at a dose of 60 mg/day. Duloxetine doses greater than 60 mg/day for DPNP management are not recommended since they are no more efficacious and associated with more side effects; addition of pregabalin or gabapentin for these patients may be beneficial. Side effects of duloxetine are generally mild and typical for the SNRI class including nausea, dizziness, somnolence, fatigue, sweating, dry mouth, constipation, and diarrhea. Given its other indications, duloxetine is a particularly good choice for DPNP treatment in patients with coexisting depression, anxiety, fibromyalgia, or chronic musculoskeletal pain. Duloxetine treatment had no clinically significant effect on glycemic control and did not increase the risk of cardiovascular events in diabetes patients. However, duloxetine use should be avoided in patients with hepatic disease or severe renal impairment. Given its safety, efficacy, and tolerability, duloxetine is an excellent choice for DPNP treatment in many patients.Keywords: duloxetine, diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain, review, treatment

  15. The Role of Cholecystokinin in Peripheral Taste Signaling in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryusuke Yoshida

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cholecystokinin (CCK is a gut hormone released from enteroendocrine cells. CCK functions as an anorexigenic factor by acting on CCK receptors expressed on the vagal afferent nerve and hypothalamus with a synergistic interaction between leptin. In the gut, tastants such as amino acids and bitter compounds stimulate CCK release from enteroendocrine cells via activation of taste transduction pathways. CCK is also expressed in taste buds, suggesting potential roles of CCK in taste signaling in the peripheral taste organ. In the present study, we focused on the function of CCK in the initial responses to taste stimulation. CCK was coexpressed with type II taste cell markers such as Gα-gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2, and transient receptor potential channel M5. Furthermore, a small subset (~30% of CCK-expressing taste cells expressed a sweet/umami taste receptor component, taste receptor type 1 member 3, in taste buds. Because type II taste cells are sweet, umami or bitter taste cells, the majority of CCK-expressing taste cells may be bitter taste cells. CCK-A and -B receptors were expressed in both taste cells and gustatory neurons. CCK receptor knockout mice showed reduced neural responses to bitter compounds compared with wild-type mice. Consistently, intravenous injection of CCK-Ar antagonist lorglumide selectively suppressed gustatory nerve responses to bitter compounds. Intravenous injection of CCK-8 transiently increased gustatory nerve activities in a dose-dependent manner whereas administration of CCK-8 did not affect activities of bitter-sensitive taste cells. Collectively, CCK may be a functionally important neurotransmitter or neuromodulator to activate bitter nerve fibers in peripheral taste tissues.

  16. Peripheral and central mediators of lipopolysaccharide induced suppression of defensive rage behavior in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, S; Bhatt, R S; Zalcman, S S; Siegel, A

    2009-11-10

    Based upon recent findings in our laboratory that cytokines microinjected into the medial hypothalamus or periaqueductal gray (PAG) powerfully modulate defensive rage behavior in cat, the present study determined the effects of peripherally released cytokines following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge upon defensive rage. The study involved initial identification of the effects of peripheral administration of LPS upon defensive rage by electrical stimulation from PAG and subsequent determination of the peripheral and central mechanisms governing this process. The results revealed significant elevation in response latencies for defensive rage from 60 to 300 min, post LPS injection, with no detectable signs of sickness behavior present at 60 min. In contrast, head turning behavior elicited by stimulation of adjoining midbrain sites was not affected by LPS administration, suggesting a specificity of the effects of LPS upon defensive rage. Direct administration of LPS into the medial hypothalamus had no effect on defensive rage, suggesting that the effects of LPS were mediated by peripheral cytokines rather than by any direct actions upon hypothalamic neurons. Complete blockade of the suppressive effects of LPS by peripheral pretreatment with an Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) antibody but not with an anti- interleukin-1 (IL-1) antibody demonstrated that the effects of LPS were mediated through TNF-alpha rather than through an IL-1 mechanism. A determination of the central mechanisms governing LPS suppression revealed that pretreatment of the medial hypothalamus with PGE(2) or 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists each completely blocked the suppressive effects of LPS, while microinjections of a TNF-alpha antibody into the medial hypothalamus were ineffective. Microinjections of -Iodo-N-[2-[4-(methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl) benzamide monohydrochloride (p-MPPI) into lateral hypothalamus (to test for anatomical specificity) had no effect upon

  17. BRAZILIAN ADMINISTRATION, ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM AND THE NEW STATE: THE ROLE OF ADMINISTRATIVE APPARATUS IN VARGAS ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Moura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The role played by the administrative apparatus through the Department of Administrative Services in the Government policy Vargas is the object put in debate. Analyzes the theme from the the investigation of patrimonial, authoritarian and inefficient context which marks the formation and development of administrative bureaucracy, the tenders of professionalization and efficiency brought by the administrative reforms of the 1930s and 1940s with the contrast of the limitations of the import of the Weberian model in the Brazilian context and analysis of the establishment of the New State DASP and their assignments. Search the work demonstrate the control position he held directly and through the State Departments in the Brazilian Public Administration ensuring centralized and developmental policy of the government. For this is adopted as the research method of approach structuralism in order to identify the deconstruction of the phenomenon - of administrative reforms - in the superficial perception - the proposed impersonality and efficiency as the best way of achieving the public interest - its invariant structure - the search for the adequacy of the administrative apparatus and bureaucracy for pursuit of political ends pursued by the Government.

  18. Toxicity to sensory neurons and Schwann cells in experimental linezolid-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobylev, Ilja; Maru, Helina; Joshi, Abhijeet R; Lehmann, Helmar C

    2016-03-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common side effect of prolonged treatment with linezolid. This study aimed to explore injurious effects of linezolid on cells of the peripheral nervous system and to establish in vivo and in vitro models of linezolid-induced peripheral neuropathy. C57BL/6 mice were treated with linezolid or vehicle over a total period of 4 weeks. Animals were monitored by weight, nerve conduction studies and behavioural tests. Neuropathic changes were assessed by morphometry on sciatic nerves and epidermal nerve fibre density in skin sections. Rodent sensory neuron and Schwann cell cultures were exposed to linezolid in vitro and assessed for mitochondrial dysfunction. Prolonged treatment with linezolid induced a mild, predominantly small sensory fibre neuropathy in vivo. Exposure of Schwann cells and sensory neurons to linezolid in vitro caused mitochondrial dysfunction primarily in neurons (and less prominently in Schwann cells). Sensory axonopathy could be partially prevented by co-administration of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger blocker KB-R7943. Clinical and pathological features of linezolid-induced peripheral neuropathy can be replicated in in vivo and in vitro models. Mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to the axonal damage to sensory neurons that occurs after linezolid exposure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Longitudinal peripheral blood transcriptional analysis of a patient with severe Ebola virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, John C; Walters, Kathie-Anne; Kindrachuk, Jason; Baxter, David; Scherler, Kelsey; Janosko, Krisztina B; Adams, Rick D; Herbert, Andrew S; James, Rebekah M; Stonier, Spencer W; Memoli, Matthew J; Dye, John M; Davey, Richard T; Chertow, Daniel S; Taubenberger, Jeffery K

    2017-04-12

    The 2013-2015 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone was unprecedented in the number of documented cases, but there have been few published reports on immune responses in clinical cases and their relationships with the course of illness and severity of Ebola virus disease. Symptoms of Ebola virus disease can include severe headache, myalgia, asthenia, fever, fatigue, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and hemorrhage. Although experimental treatments are in development, there are no current U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapies. We report a detailed study of host gene expression as measured by microarray in daily peripheral blood samples collected from a patient with severe Ebola virus disease. This individual was provided with supportive care without experimental therapies at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center from before onset of critical illness to recovery. Pearson analysis of daily gene expression signatures revealed marked gene expression changes in peripheral blood leukocytes that correlated with changes in serum and peripheral blood leukocytes, viral load, antibody responses, coagulopathy, multiple organ dysfunction, and then recovery. This study revealed marked shifts in immune and antiviral responses that preceded changes in medical condition, indicating that clearance of replicating Ebola virus from peripheral blood leukocytes is likely important for systemic viral clearance. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Peripheral Immune Mediators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Steffen; Pipper, Christian; Skogstrand, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to examine if 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was related to the peripheral immunological and inflammatory signature both at birth, and in newly diagnosed patients with childhood type 1 diabetes (T1D) and their healthy controls; (2) Methods: The birth cohort consisted of 470...... patients and 500 healthy controls. Dried blood samples were collected from the neonates in the period 1981–1999. The newly diagnosed cohort consisted of 460 patients and 453 siblings. Serum samples were collected in the period 1997–2005. A variety of peripheral immune mediators were measured and compared...... to total 25(OH)D levels (25(OH)D2 + 25(OH)D3). For each immune mediator, the relative change (RC) in the mean level was modeled by robust log-normal regression and correction for multiple testing was performed; (3) Results: Two associations were identified; there was a negative association between 25(OH...

  1. Bridge-builders in the peripheral region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Birgit; Gretzinger, Susanne

    (Sotarauta and Pulkkinen 2011). In a similar vein, Burt (2005) argues that actors can drive networking and innovation through connecting a priori unconnected firms and thereby integrate diverse resources and knowledge for the sake of benefitting and developing a business network. Belso-Martinez et al. (2015...... development and, indirectly, local development in the periphery through enhancing networking and innovativeness. As a stylized fact, peripheral regions face important limitations to innovation-based economic development (Danson and De Souza 2012), which impair the potential for firm growth, notably of small......Maggio [1988] versus the concept of network brokers developed by Burt [2005]) into a comparative conceptual framework on innovation-based business networks in peripheral regions. We argue that agents who work for changing the firms’ behaviour towards a more collaborative stance and greater openness...

  2. Light emitting device having peripheral emissive region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-05-28

    Light emitting devices are provided that include one or more OLEDs disposed only on a peripheral region of the substrate. An OLED may be disposed only on a peripheral region of a substantially transparent substrate and configured to emit light into the substrate. Another surface of the substrate may be roughened or include other features to outcouple light from the substrate. The edges of the substrate may be beveled and/or reflective. The area of the OLED(s) may be relatively small compared to the substrate surface area through which light is emitted from the device. One or more OLEDs also or alternatively may be disposed on an edge of the substrate about perpendicular to the surface of the substrate through which light is emitted, such that they emit light into the substrate. A mode expanding region may be included between each such OLED and the substrate.

  3. Mast cell degranulation breaks peripheral tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, V C; Wasiuk, A; Bennett, K A; Benson, M J; Elgueta, R; Waldschmidt, T J; Noelle, R J

    2009-10-01

    Mast cells (MC) have been shown to mediate regulatory T-cell (T(reg))-dependent, peripheral allograft tolerance in both skin and cardiac transplants. Furthermore, T(reg) have been implicated in mitigating IgE-mediated MC degranulation, establishing a dynamic, reciprocal relationship between MC and T(reg) in controlling inflammation. In an allograft tolerance model, it is now shown that intragraft or systemic MC degranulation results in the transient loss of T(reg) suppressor activities with the acute, T-cell dependent rejection of established, tolerant allografts. Upon degranulation, MC mediators can be found in the skin, T(reg) rapidly leave the graft, MC accumulate in the regional lymph node and the T(reg) are impaired in the expression of suppressor molecules. Such a dramatic reversal of T(reg) function and tissue distribution by MC degranulation underscores how allergy may causes the transient breakdown of peripheral tolerance and episodes of acute T-cell inflammation.

  4. Multifragmentation in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trautmann, W.; Adloff, J.C.; Bouissou, P.; Hubele, J.; Imme, G.; Iori, I.; Kreutz, P.; Leray, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Liu, Z.; Lynen, U.; Meijer, R.J.; Milkau, U.; Moroni, A.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Ngo, C.; Ogilvie, C.A.; Pochodzalla, J.; Raciti, G.; Rudolf, G.; Schuettauf, A.; Stuttge, L.

    1993-10-01

    The complete fragmentation of highly excited nuclear systems into fragments of intermediate mass is observed in heavy-ion reactions at relativistic bombarding energies in the range of several hundreds of MeV per nucleon. Similar features are found for peripheral collisions between heavy nuclei and for more central collisions between a heavy and a light nucleus. The partition space explored in multifragment decays is well described by the statistical multifragmentation models. The expansion before breakup is confirmed by the analysis of the measured fragment energies of ternary events in their own rest frame. Collective radial flow is confined to rather small values in these peripheral-type reactions. Many conceptually different models seem to be capable of reproducing the charge correlations measured for the multifragment decays. (orig.)

  5. Radiothermometry indifferential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, L.I.; Kogan, E.A.; Yashunskaya, N.I.

    1991-01-01

    Methods of radiothermometry for differential diagnosis of peripheral lung formations using a radiometer operating within 10 cm-wave band were worked out. Altogether 59 patients (of them 45 men) were investigated. Temperature was measured on the chest surface in the area of a lung pathological formation projected on it. Placing its image on the heart and major vessel shadows was avoided. Mean temperature was calculated from 6-8 measurements. Temperature above a peripheral lung tumor was shown to be by 0.5 deg C higher than that of unchanged pulmonary tissue. Benign spheroidal formations (tuberculoma, hamartoma) were characterized by a decrease of 0.6-0.9 deg C as compared to unchanged pulmonary tissue. Comparison of operation of 2 radiometers (the second one operating in the 8 mm-wave band) has shown diagnostic advantages of the first one

  6. Peripheral Venous Access Ports: Outcomes Analysis in 109 Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodner, Leonard J.; Nosher, John L.; Patel, Kaushik M.; Siegel, Randall L.; Biswal, Rajiv; Gribbin, Christopher E.; Tokarz, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a retrospective outcomes analysis of central venous catheters with peripheral venous access ports, with comparison to published data.Methods: One hundred and twelve central venous catheters with peripherally placed access ports were placed under sonographic guidance in 109 patients over a 4-year period. Ports were placed for the administration of chemotherapy, hyperalimentation, long-term antibiotic therapy, gamma-globulin therapy, and frequent blood sampling. A vein in the upper arm was accessed in each case and the catheter was passed to the superior vena cava or right atrium. Povidone iodine skin preparation was used in the first 65 port insertions. A combination of Iodophor solution and povidone iodine solution was used in the last 47 port insertions. Forty patients received low-dose (1 mg) warfarin sodium beginning the day after port insertion. Three patients received higher doses of warfarin sodium for preexistent venous thrombosis. Catheter performance and complications were assessed and compared with published data.Results: Access into the basilic or brachial veins was obtained in all cases. Ports remained functional for a total of 28,936 patient days. The port functioned in 50% of patients until completion of therapy, or the patient's expiration. Ports were removed prior to completion of therapy in 18% of patients. Eleven patients (9.9% of ports placed) suffered an infectious complication (0.38 per thousand catheter-days)-in nine, at the port implantation site, in two along the catheter. In all 11 instances the port was removed. Port pocket infection in the early postoperative period occurred in three patients (4.7%) receiving a Betadine prep vs two patients (4.2%) receiving a standard O.R. prep. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.9). Venous thrombosis occurred in three patients (6.8%) receiving warfarin sodium and in two patients (3%) not receiving warfarin sodium. This difference was not statistically significant

  7. Neurophysiological approach to disorders of peripheral nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Clarissa; Krarup, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of the peripheral nerve system (PNS) are heterogeneous and may involve motor fibers, sensory fibers, small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers and autonomic nerve fibers, with variable anatomical distribution (single nerves, several different nerves, symmetrical affection of all nerves......, plexus, or root lesions). Furthermore pathological processes may result in either demyelination, axonal degeneration or both. In order to reach an exact diagnosis of any neuropathy electrophysiological studies are crucial to obtain information about these variables. Conventional electrophysiological...

  8. Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, Carlos G. [Uppsala University (Sweden); Weiss, Christian [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.

  9. Case of Unilateral Peripheral Cone Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Mochizuki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Peripheral cone dystrophy is a subgroup of cone dystrophy, and only 4 cases have been reported. We present a patient with unilateral peripheral cone dysfunction and report the functional changes determined by electrophysiological tests and ultrastructural changes determined by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Case: A 34-year-old woman complained of blurred vision in both eyes. Our examination showed that her visual acuity was 0.05 OD and 0.2 OS. A relative afferent pupillary defect was present in her right eye. The results of slit-lamp examination, ophthalmoscopy, and fluorescein angiography were normal except for pallor of the right optic disc. SD-OCT showed a diffuse thinning of the retina in the posterior pole of the right eye. A severe constriction of the visual fields was found in both eyes but more in the right eye. The photopic full-field electroretinograms (ERGs were reduced in the right eye but normal in the left eye. The multifocal ERGs were severely reduced throughout the visual field except in the central area of the right eye. The multifocal ERGs from the left eye were normal. The pattern visual evoked responses were within the normal range in both eyes. She had a 5-year history of sniffing paint thinner. Results: Although the visual dysfunction was initially suspected to be due to psychological problems from the results of subjective tests, objective tests indicated a peripheral cone dysfunction in the right eye. The pathophysiological mechanism and the relationship with thinner sniffing were not determined. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that peripheral cone dysfunction can occur unilaterally. Electrophysiology and SD-OCT are valuable tests to perform to determine the pathogenesis of unusual ocular findings objectively.

  10. Diagnostics of peripheric plasma in thermonuclear devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtsenya, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    Review of basic methods, applied or developed for peripheral plasma diagnostics is given, including electric probes of various types, collecting probes for studying impurity ion and main plasma component characteristics, spectroscopic and corpuscular-optical methods, laser fluorescence spectroscopy, mass-spectrometry, heavy ion and atom (lithium and hydrogen) beam methods. Ranges of plasma parameters their measurements being provided by the methods indicated are presented

  11. Pro Linux System Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, James

    2009-01-01

    We can all be Linux experts, provided we invest the time in learning the craft of Linux administration. Pro Linux System Administration makes it easy for small to medium--sized businesses to enter the world of zero--cost software running on Linux and covers all the distros you might want to use, including Red Hat, Ubuntu, Debian, and CentOS. Authors, and systems infrastructure experts James Turnbull, Peter Lieverdink, and Dennis Matotek take a layered, component--based approach to open source business systems, while training system administrators as the builders of business infrastructure. If

  12. Administration and Jurisdictional Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Hernando Nieto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available To what extent does studying jurisdictional politics need the knowledge of different administrative theories in general and the science of public administration in particular? This small text proposes such reflection and comes to the conclusion that it is impossible to propose a new approximation to this topic without considering the administrative theory, for that the specialists and thinkers will get more with the contact of this discipline from what it is called a multidisciplinary approach.

  13. Administration of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Current developments in atomic energy, and the administrative problems to which they give rise, were surveyed in a seminar on 'Atomic Energy for Atomic Energy Administrators' held at IAEA headquarters from 30 September to 4 October 1963. The ground covered included protection against radiation, isotopes and radiation sources, research reactors, nuclear power, legal matters, technical and scientific administration, the role of the universities, and the Agency's part in assistance to developing countries. The possibilities and limitations of radioisotope production from research reactors were discussed by Dr. G. B. Cook, of the Division of Research and Laboratories, IAEA in this paper.

  14. Administration of radioisotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-01-15

    Current developments in atomic energy, and the administrative problems to which they give rise, were surveyed in a seminar on 'Atomic Energy for Atomic Energy Administrators' held at IAEA headquarters from 30 September to 4 October 1963. The ground covered included protection against radiation, isotopes and radiation sources, research reactors, nuclear power, legal matters, technical and scientific administration, the role of the universities, and the Agency's part in assistance to developing countries. The possibilities and limitations of radioisotope production from research reactors were discussed by Dr. G. B. Cook, of the Division of Research and Laboratories, IAEA in this paper.

  15. Administrative Circulars Rev.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 19 (Rev. 3) - April 2003 Subsistence indemnity - Other expenses necessarily incurred in the course of duty travelAdministrative Circular N° 25 (Rev. 2) - April 2003 Shift work - Special provisions for the Fire and Rescue Service - These circulars have been revised. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128Copies of these circulars are available in the Divisional Secretariats. In addition, administrative and operational circulars, as well as the lists of those in force, are available for consultation on the Web at: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/internal/admin_services/admincirc/listadmincirc.asp

  16. Publication of administrative circular

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee on 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in Departmental Secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  17. PUBLICATION OF ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ADMINISTRATIVE CIRCULAR NO. 23 (REV. 2) – SPECIAL WORKING HOURS Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled "Special working hours", approved following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 9 December 2008, will be available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department as from 19 December 2008: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 1) entitled "Stand-by duty" of April 1988. A "Frequently Asked Questions" information document on special working hours will also be available on this site. Paper copies of this circular will shortly be available in departmental secretariats. Human Resources Department Tel. 78003

  18. Normal and sonographic anatomy of selected peripheral nerves. Part III: Peripheral nerves of the lower limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Berta; Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona

    2012-06-01

    The ultrasonographic examination is currently increasingly used in imaging peripheral nerves, serving to supplement the physical examination, electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging. As in the case of other USG imaging studies, the examination of peripheral nerves is non-invasive and well-tolerated by patients. The typical ultrasonographic picture of peripheral nerves as well as the examination technique have been discussed in part I of this article series, following the example of the median nerve. Part II of the series presented the normal anatomy and the technique for examining the peripheral nerves of the upper limb. This part of the article series focuses on the anatomy and technique for examining twelve normal peripheral nerves of the lower extremity: the iliohypogastric and ilioinguinal nerves, the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, the pudendal, sciatic, tibial, sural, medial plantar, lateral plantar, common peroneal, deep peroneal and superficial peroneal nerves. It includes diagrams showing the proper positioning of the sonographic probe, plus USG images of the successively discussed nerves and their surrounding structures. The ultrasonographic appearance of the peripheral nerves in the lower limb is identical to the nerves in the upper limb. However, when imaging the lower extremity, convex probes are more often utilized, to capture deeply-seated nerves. The examination technique, similarly to that used in visualizing the nerves of upper extremity, consists of locating the nerve at a characteristic anatomic reference point and tracking it using the "elevator technique". All 3 parts of the article series should serve as an introduction to a discussion of peripheral nerve pathologies, which will be presented in subsequent issues of the "Journal of Ultrasonography".

  19. Peripheral nerve involvement in Bell's palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Bueri

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A group of patients with Bell's palsy were studied in order to disclose the presence of subclinical peripheral nerve involvement. 20 patients, 8 male and 12 female, with recent Bell's palsy as their unique disease were examined, in all cases other causes of polyneuropathy were ruled out. Patients were investigated with CSF examination, facial nerve latencies in the affected and in the sound sides, and maximal motor nerve conduction velocities, as well as motor terminal latencies from the right median and peroneal nerves. CSF laboratory examination was normal in all cases. Facial nerve latencies were abnormal in all patients in the affected side, and they differed significantly from those of control group in the clinically sound side. Half of the patients showed abnormal values in the maximal motor nerve conduction velocities and motor terminal latencies of the right median and peroneal nerves. These results agree with previous reports which have pointed out that other cranial nerves may be affected in Bell's palsy. However, we have found a higher frequency of peripheral nerve involvement in this entity. These findings, support the hypothesis that in some patients Bell's palsy is the component of a more widespread disease, affecting other cranial and peripheral nerves.

  20. Central and peripheral control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, M M I

    2017-01-01

    The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

  1. Central and peripheral control of food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla M. M. I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of the body weight at a stable level is a major determinant in keeping the higher animals and mammals survive. Th e body weight depends on the balance between the energy intake and energy expenditure. Increased food intake over the energy expenditure of prolonged time period results in an obesity. Th e obesity has become an important worldwide health problem, even at low levels. The obesity has an evil effect on the health and is associated with a shorter life expectancy. A complex of central and peripheral physiological signals is involved in the control of the food intake. Centrally, the food intake is controlled by the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and endocannabinoids and peripherally by the satiety and adiposity signals. Comprehension of the signals that control food intake and energy balance may open a new therapeutic approaches directed against the obesity and its associated complications, as is the insulin resistance and others. In conclusion, the present review summarizes the current knowledge about the complex system of the peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of food intake and their potential therapeutic implications in the treatment of obesity.

  2. Control of peripheral units by satellite computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, K.T.

    1974-01-01

    A computer system was developed allowing the control of nuclear physics experiments, and use of the results by means of graphical and conversational assemblies. This system which is made of two computers, one IBM-370/135 and one Telemecanique Electrique T1600, controls the conventional IBM peripherals and also the special ones made in the laboratory, such as data acquisition display and graphics units. The visual display is implemented by a scanning-type television, equipped with a light-pen. These units in themselves are universal, but their specifications were established to meet the requirements of nuclear physics experiments. The input-output channels of the two computers have been connected together by an interface, designed and implemented in the Laboratory. This interface allows the exchange of control signals and data (the data are changed from bytes into word and vice-versa). The T1600 controls the peripherals mentionned above according to the commands of the IBM370. Hence the T1600 has here the part of a satellite computer which allows conversation with the main computer and also insures the control of its special peripheral units [fr

  3. Auditory attention activates peripheral visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D Cate

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed that putatively unimodal regions of visual cortex can be activated during auditory tasks in sighted as well as in blind subjects. However, the task determinants and functional significance of auditory occipital activations (AOAs remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined AOAs in an intermodal selective attention task to distinguish whether they were stimulus-bound or recruited by higher-level cognitive operations associated with auditory attention. Cortical surface mapping showed that auditory occipital activations were localized to retinotopic visual cortex subserving the far peripheral visual field. AOAs depended strictly on the sustained engagement of auditory attention and were enhanced in more difficult listening conditions. In contrast, unattended sounds produced no AOAs regardless of their intensity, spatial location, or frequency. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Auditory attention, but not passive exposure to sounds, routinely activated peripheral regions of visual cortex when subjects attended to sound sources outside the visual field. Functional connections between auditory cortex and visual cortex subserving the peripheral visual field appear to underlie the generation of AOAs, which may reflect the priming of visual regions to process soon-to-appear objects associated with unseen sound sources.

  4. Pathophysiology of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Starobova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy is a common, dose-dependent adverse effect of several antineoplastics. It can lead to detrimental dose reductions and discontinuation of treatment, and severely affects the quality of life of cancer survivors. Clinically, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy presents as deficits in sensory, motor, and autonomic function which develop in a glove and stocking distribution due to preferential effects on longer axons. The pathophysiological processes are multi-factorial and involve oxidative stress, apoptotic mechanisms, altered calcium homeostasis, axon degeneration and membrane remodeling as well as immune processes and neuroinflammation. This review focusses on the commonly used antineoplastic substances oxaliplatin, cisplatin, vincristine, docetaxel, and paclitaxel which interfere with the cancer cell cycle—leading to cell death and tumor degradation—and cause severe acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies. We discuss drug mechanism of action and pharmacokinetic disposition relevant to the development of peripheral neuropathy, the epidemiology and clinical presentation of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, emerging insight into genetic susceptibilities as well as current understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment approaches.

  5. Computer aided diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekh, Viktor; Soliz, Peter; McGrew, Elizabeth; Barriga, Simon; Burge, Mark; Luan, Shuang

    2014-03-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) refers to the nerve damage that can occur in diabetes patients. It most often affects the extremities, such as the feet, and can lead to peripheral vascular disease, deformity, infection, ulceration, and even amputation. The key to managing diabetic foot is prevention and early detection. Unfortunately, current existing diagnostic techniques are mostly based on patient sensations and exhibit significant inter- and intra-observer differences. We have developed a computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The thermal response of the feet of diabetic patients following cold stimulus is captured using an infrared camera. The plantar foot in the images from a thermal video are segmented and registered for tracking points or specific regions. The temperature recovery of each point on the plantar foot is extracted using our bio-thermal model and analyzed. The regions that exhibit abnormal ability to recover are automatically identified to aid the physicians to recognize problematic areas. The key to our CAD system is the segmentation of infrared video. The main challenges for segmenting infrared video compared to normal digital video are (1) as the foot warms up, it also warms up the surrounding, creating an ever changing contrast; and (2) there may be significant motion during imaging. To overcome this, a hybrid segmentation algorithm was developed based on a number of techniques such as continuous max-flow, model based segmentation, shape preservation, convex hull, and temperature normalization. Verifications of the automatic segmentation and registration using manual segmentation and markers show good agreement.

  6. Efficacy of benfotiamine versus thiamine on function and glycation products of peripheral nerves in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, H; Hammes, H P; Werkmann, D; Mavrakis, K; Bitsch, I; Netzel, M; Geyer, J; Köpcke, W; Sauerland, C; Bretzel, R G; Federlin, K F

    2001-01-01

    In rats with streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes the effect of (watersoluble) thiamine nitrate and of (lipidsoluble) benfotiamine on peripheral nerve function (motor nerve conduction velocity) as well as on the formation of advanced glycation end-products in peripheral nerve tissue was studied. In one group of animals drug administration was started immediately after diabetes induction (prevention study) and in another group two months after diabetes induction (treatment study). Motor nerve conduction velocity (NCV) dropped by 10.5% in diabetic animals, carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) rose to a 3.5fold concentration, deoxyglucosone (3DG)-type AGE formation was increased 5.1fold compared with controls. After three months preventive administration of both vitamin B(1) preparations NCV had increased substantially compared with results in diabetic controls. It was nearly normal after six months with benfotiamine, while the administration of thiamine nitrate resulted in no further amelioration. NCV was nearly normalized after six months of benfotiamine application but not with thiamine. Furthermore, benfotiamine induced a major inhibition of neural imidazole-type AGE formation and completely prevented diabetes induced glycoxidation products (CML). Treatment with thiamine did not significantly affect AGE or cmL levels. Unlike treatment with water-soluble thiamine nitrate timely administration of liposoluble prodrug benfotiamine was effective in the prevention of functional damage and of AGE and cmL formation in nerves of diabetic rats.

  7. Early cyclosporin A treatment retards axonal degeneration in an experimental peripheral nerve injection injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Erkutlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Injury to peripheral nerves during injections of therapeutic agents such as penicillin G potassium is common in developing countries. It has been shown that cyclosporin A, a powerful immunosuppressive agent, can retard Wallerian degeneration after peripheral nerve crush injury. However, few studies are reported on the effects of cyclosporin A on peripheral nerve drug injection injury. This study aimed to assess the time-dependent efficacy of cyclosporine-A as an immunosuppressant therapy in an experimental rat nerve injection injury model established by penicillin G potassium injection. The rats were randomly divided into three groups based on the length of time after nerve injury induced by penicillin G potassium administration (30 minutes, 8 or 24 hours. The compound muscle action potentials were recorded pre-injury, early post-injury (within 1 hour and 4 weeks after injury and compared statistically. Tissue samples were taken from each animal for histological analysis. Compared to the control group, a significant improvement of the compound muscle action potential amplitude value was observed only when cyclosporine-A was administered within 30 minutes of the injection injury (P < 0.05; at 8 or 24 hours after cyclosporine-A administration, compound muscle action potential amplitude was not changed compared with the control group. Thus, early immunosuppressant drug therapy may be a good alternative neuroprotective therapy option in experimental nerve injection injury induced by penicillin G potassium injection.

  8. Endogenous peripheral oxytocin measures can give insight into the dynamics of social relationships: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eCrockford

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide, oxytocin, receives increasing attention due to its role in stress regulation and promoting affiliative social behavior. Research across mammals points to a complex pattern whereby social context and individual differences moderate the endogenous release of oxytocin as well as moderate the effects that exogenous administration of oxytocin has on social behavior. In addition to measuring central release of oxytocin or exogenous administration of oxytocin on social behavior, for example via inhalation, it is becoming evident that measuring endogenous peripheral oxytocin levels is an additional, informative tool. This is particularly so when oxytocin can be measured from non-invasively collected samples, such as in urine. Although it is still debated as to whether peripheral measures of oxytocin relate to central measures of oxytocin, anatomical and functional evidence indicate a link between the two. We argue that non-invasive measures of peripheral oxytocin hold several research and potential therapeutic advantages. Principally, study subjects can be sampled repeatedly in different social contexts where social history between interaction partners can be taken into account. Several hormones can be measured simultaneously allowing examination of the influence of oxytocin interactions with other hormones on motivational states. Valence of relationships as well as changes in relationship quality over time can be measured through endocrine responses. Also, the approach of identifying natural social contexts that are associated with endogenous oxytocin release offers the potential of behavioral therapy as an addition or alternative to chemical therapy in the field of mental health.

  9. Administration of Anesthesia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anesthesia Evaluation Part V Broad Access to Care, Patient Safety and Comfort Oral and maxillofacial surgeons (OMSs) are trained in all aspects of anesthesia administration. Following dental ... evaluate patients for anesthesia, deliver the anesthetic and monitor post- ...

  10. Transportation Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index Blog What Can I ... Search form Search the Site Main menu Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  11. Administration of Anesthesia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OMSs) are trained in all aspects of anesthesia administration. Following dental school, they complete at least four years of training in a hospital-based surgical residency program alongside medical residents in ...

  12. Spatially enabled land administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    enabling of land administration systems managing tenure, valuation, planning, and development will allow the information generated by these activities to be much more useful. Also, the services available to private and public sectors and to community organisations should commensurably improve. Knowledge....... In other words: Good governance and sustainable development is not attainable without sound land administration or - more broadly – sound land management. The paper presents a land management vision that incorporates the benefits of ICT enabled land administration functions. The idea is that spatial...... the communication between administrative systems and also establish more reliable data due to the use the original data instead of copies. In Denmark, such governmental guidelines for a service-oriented ITarchitecture in support of e-government are recently adopted. Finally, the paper presents the role of FIG...

  13. Humanism, Administration and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    2012-01-01

    are not restricted to the administrative practices, but are part of education and its humanistic legacy as well. As such, the administrative demand of documentation becomes possible and recognisable through its reproductive elements. Elements that are constituted in a transformative conjunction in which......Abstract Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, this paper analyses the emergence of a new pedagogical desire related to administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Two arguments are made: first......, it is argued that the changes in administrative practices during the last decade constitute a transformation, but also a reproduction of relations between knowledge and governing that goes back to the big expansion of the welfare state. Second, it is argued that these relations between knowledge and governing...

  14. Scientists vs. the administration

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Article denouncing the supposed impartiality of signatories of a report released by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), which accused the Bush administration of systemically suborning objective science to a political agenda (1 page).

  15. Veterans Health Administration (VHA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSNs and other identifying information for the Department of Veterans Affairs, VHA. DVA will use the information...

  16. SELinux policy administration

    CERN Document Server

    Vermeulen, Sven

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step guide to learn how to set up security on Linux servers by taking SELinux policies into your own hands.Linux administrators will enjoy the various SELinux features that this book covers and the approach used to guide the admin into understanding how SELinux works. The book assumes that you have basic knowledge in Linux administration, especially Linux permission and user management.

  17. Learning Cassandra for administrators

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarathy, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide, taking the reader from the basics of using Cassandra though to the installation and the running.Learning Cassandra for Administrators is for administrators who manage a large deployment of Cassandra clusters, and support engineers who would like to install the monitoring tools and who are also in charge of making sure the cluster stays the same, ensuring that the service is always up and running.

  18. Peripheral Osteoma of the Mandibular Notch: Report of a Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Toshinori; Izumi, Toshiharu; Baba, Junichi; Maegawa, Jiro; Mitsudo, Kenji; Tohnai, Iwai

    2013-01-01

    Osteoma is a benign, slow-growing osteogenic tumor that sometimes arises from the craniomaxillofacial region, such as the sinus, temporal or jaw bones. Osteoma consists of compact or cancellous bone that may be peripheral, central or extraskeletal type. Peripheral osteoma arises from the periosteum and is commonly a unilateral, pedunculated mushroom-like mass. Peripheral osteoma of the mandible is relatively uncommon, and peripheral osteoma of the mandibular notch is extremely rare, although many cases arise from the mandibular body, angle, condyle, or coronoid process. We report here an unusual peripheral osteoma of the mandibular notch in a 78-year-old nonsyndromic female

  19. The challenges and beauty of peripheral nerve regrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochodne, Douglas W

    2012-03-01

    This review provides an overview of selected aspects of peripheral nerve regeneration and potential avenues to explore therapeutically. The overall coordinated and orchestrated pattern of recovery from peripheral nerve injury has a beauty of execution and progress that rivals all other forms of neurobiology. It involves changes at the level of the perikaryon, coordination with important peripheral glial partners, the Schwann cells, a controlled inflammatory response, and growth that overcomes surprising intrinsic roadblocks. Both regenerative axon growth and collateral sprouting encompass fascinating aspects of this story. Better understanding of peripheral nerve regeneration may also lead to enhanced central nervous system recovery. © 2012 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  20. Chinese herbal medicine for diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Li, Xinxue; Yang, Guoyan; Liu, Jian Ping

    2013-10-06

    Chinese herbal medicine is frequently used for treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy in China. Many controlled trials have been undertaken to investigate its efficacy.This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in the year 2011. To assess the beneficial effects and harms of Chinese herbal medicine for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. On 14 May 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register CENTRAL (2012, Issue 4 in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (January 1966 to May 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to May 2012), AMED (January 1985 to May 2012) and in October 2012, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1979 to October 2012), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI) (1979 to October 2012), and VIP Chinese Science and Technique Journals Database (1989 to October 2012). We searched for unpublished literature in the Chinese Conference Papers Database, and Chinese Dissertation Database (from inception to October 2012). There were no language or publication restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicine (with a minimum of four weeks treatment duration) for people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions. Trials of herbal medicine plus a conventional drug versus the drug alone were also included. Two authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. We contacted study authors for additional information. Forty-nine randomised trials involving 3639 participants were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Thirty-eight different herbal medicines were tested in these trials, including four single herbs (extracts from a single herb), eight traditional Chinese patent medicines, and 26 self concocted Chinese herbal compound prescriptions. The trials reported on global symptom improvement (including improvement in numbness or pain) and changes in nerve conduction

  1. Peripheral changes in endometriosis-associated pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotti, Matteo; Vincent, Katy; Brawn, Jennifer; Zondervan, Krina T.; Becker, Christian M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pain remains the cardinal symptom of endometriosis. However, to date, the underlying mechanisms are still only poorly understood. Increasing evidence points towards a close interaction between peripheral nerves, the peritoneal environment and the central nervous system in pain generation and processing. Recently, studies demonstrating nerve fibres and neurotrophic and angiogenic factors in endometriotic lesions and their vicinity have led to increased interest in peripheral changes in endometriosis-associated pain. This review focuses on the origin and function of these nerves and factors as well as possible peripheral mechanisms that may contribute to the generation and modulation of pain in women with endometriosis. METHODS We conducted a systematic search using several databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL) of publications from January 1977 to October 2013 to evaluate the possible roles of the peripheral nervous system in endometriosis pathophysiology and how it can contribute to endometriosis-associated pain. RESULTS Endometriotic lesions and peritoneal fluid from women with endometriosis had pronounced neuroangiogenic properties with increased expression of new nerve fibres, a shift in the distribution of sensory and autonomic fibres in some locations, and up-regulation of several neurotrophins. In women suffering from deep infiltrating endometriosis and bowel endometriosis, in which the anatomical distribution of lesions is generally more closely related to pelvic pain symptoms, endometriotic lesions and surrounding tissues present higher nerve fibre densities compared to peritoneal lesions and endometriomas. More data are needed to fully confirm a direct correlation between fibre density in these locations and the amount of perceived pain. A better correlation between the presence of nerve fibres and pain symptoms seems to exist for eutopic endometrium. However, this appears not to be exclusive to endometriosis. No correlation between

  2. Human factoring administrative procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grider, D.A.; Sturdivant, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    In nonnuclear business, administrative procedures bring to mind such mundane topics as filing correspondence and scheduling vacation time. In the nuclear industry, on the other hand, administrative procedures play a vital role in assuring the safe operation of a facility. For some time now, industry focus has been on improving technical procedures. Significant efforts are under way to produce technical procedure requires that a validated technical, regulatory, and administrative basis be developed and that the technical process be established for each procedure. Producing usable technical procedures requires that procedure presentation be engineered to the same human factors principles used in control room design. The vital safety role of administrative procedures requires that they be just as sound, just a rigorously formulated, and documented as technical procedures. Procedure programs at the Tennessee Valley Authority and at Boston Edison's Pilgrim Station demonstrate that human factors engineering techniques can be applied effectively to technical procedures. With a few modifications, those same techniques can be used to produce more effective administrative procedures. Efforts are under way at the US Department of Energy Nuclear Weapons Complex and at some utilities (Boston Edison, for instance) to apply human factors engineering to administrative procedures: The techniques being adapted include the following

  3. Burn-related peripheral neuropathy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yiji; Lineaweaver, William C; Zheng, Xianyou; Chen, Zenggan; Mullins, Fred; Zhang, Feng

    2017-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is the most frequent disabling neuromuscular complication of burns. However, the insidious and progressive onset of burn neuropathy makes it often undiagnosed or overlooked. In our study, we reviewed the current studies on the burn-related peripheral neuropathy to summarize the morbidity, mechanism, detecting method and management of peripheral neuropathy in burn patients. Of the 1533 burn patients included in our study, 98 cases (6.39%) were presented with peripheral neuropathy. Thermal and electrical burns were the most common etiologies. Surgical procedures, especially nerve decompression, showed good effect on functional recovery of both acute and delayed peripheral neuropathy in burn patients. It is noteworthy that, for early detection and prevention of peripheral neuropathy, electrodiagnostic examinations should be performed on burn patients independent of symptoms. Still, the underlying mechanisms of burn-related peripheral neuropathy remain to be clarified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Preservation of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors: differential effects of freezing on [3H]Ro 5-4864 and [3H]PK 11195 binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, A.S.; Ostrowski, N.L.; Skolnick, P.

    1987-01-01

    A statistically significant decrease in the density of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors was observed in renal membranes of rats beginning 2 weeks after adrenalectomy when compared with sham-operated controls. This decrease in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density was manifest as a decrease in the Bmax of two ligands [ 3 H]Ro 5-4864 and [ 3 H]PK 11195, without accompanying changes in their apparent affinity (Kd) for this site. Similar changes were not seen in another aldosterone-sensitive organ, the submandibular salivary gland. The decrease in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density in observed in adrenalectomized rat renal membranes was restored to control levels after 1 week of aldosterone administration using a dose (12.5 micrograms/kg/day) that had no effect on peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density in sham-operated animals. In contrast, dexamethasone administration (50 micrograms/kg/day, 1 week) had no effect on renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density when administered to either adrenalectomized or sham-operated rats. Further, adrenal demedullation had no effect on renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density or affinity. The decrease in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density was localized to the renal cortex and the outer stripe of the medulla by gross dissection of renal slices and renal tissue section autoradiography. The specific effect of adrenalectomy on renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density, the lack of direct effect of aldosterone on [ 3 H]Ro 5-4864 binding, and the localization of the change in peripheral benzodiazepine receptor density to the renal cortex and outer stripe suggests that these changes may reflect an adaptation of the renal nephron (possibly the distal convoluted tubule, intermediate tubule and/or the collecting duct) to the loss of mineralocorticoid hormones

  5. Educational Administration and the Social, Policy, and Administrative Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Samuel A.

    1983-01-01

    The politics of education has been ignored in educational administration programs; it has been not enough taught in American programs for educational administrators and not enough emphasized in discussions of administrative roles. Administration increasingly includes political as well as rational decisions. Thus, administrators need a unified…

  6. Heparinization of alimentation solutions administered through peripheral veins in premature infants: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpan, G; Eyal, F; Springer, C; Glick, B; Goder, K; Armon, J

    1984-09-01

    A randomized controlled study was done to determine whether the addition of heparin (1 U/mL) to peripheral intravenous alimentation solutions would affect the incidence of phlebitis and duration of patency of intravenous catheters in premature infants. Twenty-two-gauge Teflon catheters were uniformly used. One hundred five catheters infused with heparin were placed in 13 infants, and 122 catheters were placed in the control group of 13 infants. The time, nature, and incidence of complications were noted for each infusion site. Infusion of heparin was found to double the duration of patency of intravenous catheters and to reduce significantly the incidence of phlebitis. No complications related to the administration of heparin were noted. Heparinization of intravenous alimentation solutions should therefore be considered in premature infants as a means of reducing the work load and incidence of complications associated with peripheral lines.

  7. alpha-MSH and Org.2766 in peripheral nerve regeneration: different routes of delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Zee, C E; Brakkee, J H; Gispen, W H

    1988-03-15

    The efficacy of melanocortins (alpha-MSH and an ACTH-(4-9) analog, Org.2766) in accelerating functional recovery from sciatic nerve damage following various types of subcutaneous and oral administration was assessed in the rat. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the local delivery of melanocortins to the site of injury was examined. An accelerated recovery was evident following subcutaneous constant delivery of Org.2766 from an osmotic mini-pump and from biodegradable polymere microspheres, and was as effective as repeated subcutaneous injections of alpha-MSH or Org.2766. Oral administration of Org.2766 was ineffective. Local application of Org.2766, achieved by wrapping a peptide-impregnated biodegradable gelatine foam matrix around the site of injury, facilitated recovery as well. The biodegradable microspheres and gelatine foam matrix may be of importance in eventual clinical use as effective vehicles for administration of melanocortins in the treatment of peripheral nerve damage.

  8. Resistance of the peripheral nervous system to the effects of chronic canine hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmeisl, J H

    2010-01-01

    Hypothyroidism has been implicated in the development of multiple peripheral mono- and polyneuropathies in dogs. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the clinical and electrophysiologic effects of experimentally induced hypothyroidism on the peripheral nervous system of dogs. Chronic hypothyroidism will induce peripheral nerve sensorimotor dysfunction. Eighteen purpose-bred, female dogs. Prospective, longitudinal study: Hypothyroidism was induced by radioactive iodine administration in 9 dogs, and the remaining 9 served as untreated controls. Neurological examinations were performed monthly. Electrophysiologic testing consisting of electromyography (EMG); motor nerve conduction studies of the sciatic-tibial, radial, ulnar, and recurrent laryngeal nerves; sciatic-tibial and ulnar F-wave studies; sensory nerve conduction studies of the tibial, ulnar, and radial nerves; and evaluation of blink reflex and facial responses were performed before and 6, 12, and 18 months after induction of hypothyroidism and compared with controls. Clinical evidence of peripheral nervous dysfunction did not occur in any dog. At 6 month and subsequent evaluations, all hypothyroid dogs had EMG and histologic evidence of hypothyroid myopathy. Hypothyroid dogs had significant (Pmuscle action potentials over time, which were attributed to the concurrent myopathy. No significant differences between control and hypothyroid dogs were detected in electrophysiologic tests of motor (P>or=.1) or sensory nerve conduction velocity (P>or=.24) or nerve roots (P>or=.16) throughout the study period, with values remaining within reference ranges in all dogs. Chronic hypothyroidism induced by thyroid irradiation does not result in clinical or electrophysiologic evidence of peripheral neuropathy, but does cause subclinical myopathy.

  9. Influence of dosing times on cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Yoshihiro; Okazaki, Fumiyasu; Horikawa, Keiji; Zhang, Jing; Sasaki, Hitoshi; To, Hideto

    2016-01-01

    Although cis-diamminedichloro-platinum (CDDP) exhibits strong therapeutic effects in cancer chemotherapy, its adverse effects such as peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy, and vomiting are dose-limiting factors. Previous studies reported that chronotherapy decreased CDDP-induced nephropathy and vomiting. In the present study, we investigated the influence of dosing times on CDDP-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats. CDDP (4 mg/kg) was administered intravenously at 5:00 or 17:00 every 7 days for 4 weeks to male Sprague–Dawley rats, and saline was given to the control group. To assess the dosing time dependency of peripheral neuropathy, von-Frey test and hot-plate test were performed. In order to estimate hypoalgesia, the hot-plate test was performed in rats administered CDDP weekly for 4 weeks. On day 28, the withdrawal latency to thermal stimulation was significantly prolonged in the 17:00-treated group than in the control and 5:00-treated groups. When the von-Frey test was performed to assess mechanical allodynia, the withdrawal threshold was significantly lower in the 5:00 and 17:00-treated groups than in the control group on day 6 after the first CDDP dose. The 5:00-treated group maintained allodynia throughout the experiment with the repeated administration of CDDP, whereas the 17:00-treated group deteriorated from allodynia to hypoalgesia. It was revealed that the severe of CDDP-induced peripheral neuropathy was inhibited in the 5:00-treated group, whereas CDDP-treated groups exhibited mechanical allodynia. These results suggested that the selection of an optimal dosing time ameliorated CDDP-induced peripheral neuropathy. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2777-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  10. Modeling peripheral olfactory coding in Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Hoare

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva possesses just 21 unique and identifiable pairs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, enabling investigation of the contribution of individual OSN classes to the peripheral olfactory code. We combined electrophysiological and computational modeling to explore the nature of the peripheral olfactory code in situ. We recorded firing responses of 19/21 OSNs to a panel of 19 odors. This was achieved by creating larvae expressing just one functioning class of odorant receptor, and hence OSN. Odor response profiles of each OSN class were highly specific and unique. However many OSN-odor pairs yielded variable responses, some of which were statistically indistinguishable from background activity. We used these electrophysiological data, incorporating both responses and spontaneous firing activity, to develop a bayesian decoding model of olfactory processing. The model was able to accurately predict odor identity from raw OSN responses; prediction accuracy ranged from 12%-77% (mean for all odors 45.2% but was always significantly above chance (5.6%. However, there was no correlation between prediction accuracy for a given odor and the strength of responses of wild-type larvae to the same odor in a behavioral assay. We also used the model to predict the ability of the code to discriminate between pairs of odors. Some of these predictions were supported in a behavioral discrimination (masking assay but others were not. We conclude that our model of the peripheral code represents basic features of odor detection and discrimination, yielding insights into the information available to higher processing structures in the brain.

  11. Peripheral refraction in normal infant rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Li-Fang; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Huang, Juan; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Smith, Earl L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To characterize peripheral refractions in infant monkeys. Methods Cross-sectional data for horizontal refractions were obtained from 58 normal rhesus monkeys at 3 weeks of age. Longitudinal data were obtained for both the vertical and horizontal meridians from 17 monkeys. Refractive errors were measured by retinoscopy along the pupillary axis and at eccentricities of 15, 30, and 45 degrees. Axial dimensions and corneal power were measured by ultrasonography and keratometry, respectively. Results In infant monkeys, the degree of radial astigmatism increased symmetrically with eccentricity in all meridians. There were, however, initial nasal-temporal and superior-inferior asymmetries in the spherical-equivalent refractive errors. Specifically, the refractions in the temporal and superior fields were similar to the central ametropia, but the refractions in the nasal and inferior fields were more myopic than the central ametropia and the relative nasal field myopia increased with the degree of central hyperopia. With age, the degree of radial astigmatism decreased in all meridians and the refractions became more symmetrical along both the horizontal and vertical meridians; small degrees of relative myopia were evident in all fields. Conclusions As in adult humans, refractive error varied as a function of eccentricity in infant monkeys and the pattern of peripheral refraction varied with the central refractive error. With age, emmetropization occurred for both central and peripheral refractive errors resulting in similar refractions across the central 45 degrees of the visual field, which may reflect the actions of vision-dependent, growth-control mechanisms operating over a wide area of the posterior globe. PMID:18487366

  12. Tenascin-C in peripheral nerve morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquet, M; Wehrle-Haller, B

    1994-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) molecule tenascin/cytotactin (TN-C) is expressed at a high level by satellite (glial precursor) cells in developing peripheral nerves of the chick embryo; synthesis of its mRNA peaks at the time period when axonal growth is maximal. When offered as a substrate in vitro, TN-C mediates neurite outgrowth by both motor and sensory neurons. The ability to grow neurites on TN-C is developmentally regulated: sensory neurons from 4-day chick embryos (the stage at which peripheral nerves start to develop) grow immediately and rapidly, whereas neurons from older embryos respond with a long delay. A TN-C domain responsible for this activity is located within the C-terminal (distal) portion of TN-C subunits. Integrin receptors seem to be involved on peripheral neurites because their growth on TN-C is completely blocked by antibodies to beta 1 integrins. In striking contrast to neuronal processes, nerve satellite cells can attach to a TN-C substrate but are completely inhibited in their migratory activity. Artificial substrate borders between tenascin and fibronectin or laminin act as selective barriers that allow neurites to pass while holding up satellite cells. The repulsive action of TN-C on satellite cells is similar to that observed for other cell types and is likely to be mediated by additional TN-C domains. In view of these data, it is surprising that mice seem to develop normally without a functional TN-C gene. TN-C is likely to be redundant, that is, its dual action on cell adhesion is shared by other molecules.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Management of Peripheral and Truncal Venous Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triantafillos G. Giannakopoulos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Civilian injuries are increasing according to the World Health Organization, and this is attributed mainly to road traffic accidents and urban interpersonal violence. Vascular injuries are common in these scenarios and are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Associated peripheral venous trauma is less likely to lead to death and controversy remains whether ligation or repair should be the primary approach. Conversely, non-compressible truncal venous insult can be lethal due to exsanguination, thus a high index of suspicion is crucial. Operative management is demanding with fair results but recent endovascular adjuncts demonstrate promising results and seem to be the way forward for these serious conditions.

  14. Completion of the Heysham 2 peripheral manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipp, R.; Ewen, R.O.

    1996-01-01

    The in-service inspection strategy for the AGR power station at Heysham 2 envisaged a suite of five manipulators to be used for inserting TRIUMPH television cameras into the reactor vessel. Prior to power raising, four of the five had been successfully commissioned and have been in regular use during the subsequent statutory outages. The final device, the Peripheral Manipulator (PM), was eventually completed prior to the 1994 outage and has been successfully deployed on reactor for both the 1994 and 1995 outages. The paper describes the design of the manipulator, its operation and scope of use in the Heysham 2 reactors. (Author)

  15. Recurrent peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Treville; Shetty, Subraj; Shetty, Arvind; Pereira, Svylvy

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral cement-ossifying fibroma (PCOF) is a rare osteogenic neoplasm that ordinarily presents as an epulis-like growth. It frequently occurs in maxillary anterior region in teenagers and young adults. We report a case of PCOF in a 42-year-old male, which was previously surgically excised and recurred after a period of 2 years. PCOF should be considered in the differential diagnosis of reactive hyperplastic lesions originating from gingiva. Hence, early diagnosis with proper surgical excision and aggressive curettage of the adjacent tissues is essential for prevention of recurrence.

  16. Drug therapy for peripheral vestibular vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Antonenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of effective treatments for vestibular vertigo is one of the important problems, by taking into account the high prevalence of peripheral vestibular diseases. Different drugs, such as vestibular suppressants for the relief of acute vertigo attacks and vestibular compensation stimulants for rehabilitation treatment, are used to treat vestibular vertigo. Drug therapy in combination with vestibular exercises is effective in patients with vestibular neuronitis, Meniere's disease, so is that with therapeutic maneuvers in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. The high therapeutic efficacy and safety of betahistines permit their extensive use for the treatment of various vestibular disorders.

  17. Peripheral T cell lymphoma: Not otherwise specified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha H Pai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL is a heterogeneous group of hematological tumors originating from mature T cells, which constitutes less than 15% of all non-Hodgkins lymphomas in adults. Primary cutaneous PTCL-not otherwise specified (NOS represent a subgroup of PTCLs with no consistent immunophenotypic, genetic or clinical features. PTCL-NOS frequently has an aggressive course with a tendency for systemic involvement, however, a well-defined therapeutic and prognostic approach has not been outlined yet. We report a case of PTCL-NOS with multiple cutaneous lesions in a young adult male with an emphasis on the treatment modality used.

  18. Comparing modalities and feedback for peripheral interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hausen, Doris; Wagner, Christine; Boring, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    When executing one task on a computer, we are frequently confronted with secondary tasks (e.g., controlling an audio player or changing the IM state) that require shifting our attention away from the actual task, thus increasing our cognitive load. Peripheral interaction aims at reducing...... that cognitive load through the use of the periphery of our attention for interaction. In previous work, token- or tag-based systems alongside wearable and graspable devices were the dominant way of interacting in the periphery. We explore touch and freehand interaction in combination with several forms...

  19. Proposed protocols for peripheral and renal Doppler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Portuguez, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    A literature review was performed in order to prepare a summary of the important concepts of Doppler and applications in peripheral vascular evaluation and renal. The normal characteristics are summarized and explained in each vascular system and diagnostic criteria of the disorders frequently encountered in practice. Requested more studies have been identified and proposed protocols and report sheets have been developed to standardize the methodology of realization of several Doppler studies. The variability between operators has been treated to reduce as much as possible and follow-up studies have provided in patients who need. (author) [es

  20. Iohexol and ioxaglate in peripheral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiris, M.G.; Laerum, F.

    1987-01-01

    A double-blind, cross-over trial of the non-ionic, low-osmolar contrast medium iohexol (Omnipaque) and the ionic, low-osmolar medium ioxaglate (Hexabrix) at concentrations of 300 mg I/ml was carried out in 107 consecutive patients with arterial insufficiency of the lower limbs. The purpose of the study was to observe possible 'carry-over' effects from any of the contrast media, and to evaluate patient discomfort such as pain, adverse reactions, or effect on peripheral blood pressure. No carry-over effect was seen. Ioxaglate caused less injection pain and heat sensations than iohexol, and showed less effect on the systemic blood pressure. (orig.)

  1. Peripheral pin alignment system for fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    An alignment system is provided for nuclear fuel assemblies in a nuclear core. The core support structure of the nuclear reactor includes upwardly pointing alignment pins arranged in a square grid and engage peripheral depressions formed in the lateral periphery of the lower ends of each of the fuel assemblies of the core. In a preferred embodiment, the depressions are located at the corners of the fuel assemblies so that each depression includes one-quarter of a cylindrical void. Accordingly, each fuel assembly is positioned and aligned by one-quarter of four separate alignment pins which engage the fuel assemblies at their lower exterior corners. (author)

  2. Peripheral lymphocyte subpopulations in recurrent aphthous ulceration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A; Klausen, B; Hougen, H P

    1991-01-01

    Peripheral lymphocyte subsets--T-helper (CD4+), T-suppressor/cytotoxic (CD8+), and naive/virgin T cells/natural killer cells (CD45RA)--were studied quantitatively in 30 patients with recurrent aphthous ulceration (RAU) and 29 sex- and age-matched RAU-free control donors. The CD4+ percentage...... was significantly lower in the patients than in the control group (P less than 0.0001), whereas CD8+ and CD4/CD8 ratio figures did not differ significantly between patients and controls. The CD45RA+ counts were significantly higher in the patient group (P less than 0.01). The study supports previous investigations...

  3. Linux System Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Adelstein, Tom

    2007-01-01

    If you're an experienced system administrator looking to acquire Linux skills, or a seasoned Linux user facing a new challenge, Linux System Administration offers practical knowledge for managing a complete range of Linux systems and servers. The book summarizes the steps you need to build everything from standalone SOHO hubs, web servers, and LAN servers to load-balanced clusters and servers consolidated through virtualization. Along the way, you'll learn about all of the tools you need to set up and maintain these working environments. Linux is now a standard corporate platform with user

  4. Pro Python System Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Sileika, R

    2010-01-01

    As time goes on, system administrators are presented with increasingly complicated challenges. In the early days, a team of engineers might have had to look after one or two systems. These days, one engineer can administer hundreds or thousands of systems. System administrators are gradually replacing their tools with more advanced and flexible ones. One of the choices is Python. Structurally, Python is a modern, high-level language with a very clean syntax. Python comes with many built-in libraries that can make automation tasks easier. It also has extensive set of third-party libraries and a

  5. Computer hardware fault administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  6. Practical JIRA Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Doar, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    If you're familiar with JIRA for issue tracking, bug tracking, and other uses, you know it can sometimes be tricky to set up and manage. In this concise book, software toolsmith Matt Doar clarifies some of the more confusing aspects by answering difficult and frequently asked questions about JIRA administration. Practical JIRA Administration shows you how JIRA is intended to be used, making it an ideal supplement to the extensive documentation already available. The book's chapters are loosely connected, so you can go straight to the information that best serves your needs. Understand the di

  7. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  8. Nutraceuticals and chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Janet M; Colosimo, Maree; Airey, Caroline; Masci, Paul P; Linnane, Anthony W; Vitetta, Luis

    2013-12-01

    Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy [CIPN] is a common significant and debilitating side effect resulting from the administration of neurotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. These pharmaco-chemotherapeutics can include taxanes, vinca alkaloids and others. Moderate to severe CIPN significantly decreases the quality of life and physical abilities of cancer patients and current pharmacotherapy for CIPN e.g. Amifostine and antidepressants have had limited efficacy and may themselves induce adverse side effects. To determine the potential use of nutraceuticals i.e. vitamin E, acetyl-L-carnitine, glutamine, glutathione, vitamin B6, omega-3 fatty acids, magnesium, calcium, alpha lipoic acid and n-acetyl cysteine as adjuvants in cancer treatments a systematic literature review was conducted. Revised clinical studies comprised of randomized clinical trials that investigated the anti-CIPN effect of nutraceuticals as the adjuvant intervention in patients administered chemotherapy. Twenty-four studies were assessed on methodological quality and limitations identified. Studies were mixed in their recommendations for nutraceuticals. Currently no agent has shown solid beneficial evidence to be recommended for the treatment or prophylaxis of CIPN. The standard of care for CIPN includes dose reduction and/or discontinuation of chemotherapy treatment. The management of CIPN remains an important challenge and future studies are warranted before recommendations for the use of supplements can be made. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Peripherally inserted central catheters and upper extremity deep vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, B.; Gibbs, H.; Catchpole, I.; Hetherington, R.; Harper, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for venous thrombosis in patients with a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). A retrospective study of all upper extremity venous duplex scans was carried out in the Vascular Medicine department from year 2000 to 2002 inclusive. A chart review of positive scans was undertaken to identify possible thrombotic risk factors. Of 317 upper extremity venous duplex scans carried out, 115, or 32%, were positive for upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. Three main risk factors were identified - presence of a central line, malignancy and administration of chemotherapy. PICC were the most common central line present. Symptomatic thrombosis occurred in 7% of PICC inserted for chemotherapy compared with 1% of PICC inserted for other reasons. Ten per cent of the patients receiving chemotherapy through a PICC developed a thrombosis. The post-thrombotic syndrome was infrequent following upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. Patients receiving chemotherapy through a PICC are at increased risk of thrombosis. There may be a role for prophylactic low-dose anticoagulation in these high-risk patients

  10. Cytogenetic analysis of 153 Sm-EDTMP in peripheral lymphocytes from patients with bone cancer metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.A. da; Suzuki, M.F.; Rogero, J.R.; Okazaki, K.; Guimaraes, M.I.C.C.; Buchpiguel, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The 153 Sm-EDTMP is a radiopharmaceutical used in nuclear medicine with promising results for the relief of metastatic pain. Therefore, there are few knowledge about the effects of 153 Sm-EDTMP at cellular level. The present study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the cytogenetic effects of 153 Sm-EDTMP in peripheral lymphocytes from patients with bone metastasis (with and without previous radio and/or chemotherapy) by the chromosome aberration technique. For that, the blood samples were collected before and one hour after the endovenous administrations of 153 Sm-EDTMP (mean activity of 42.53 ± 5.31 MBq/kg body weight), taking into account the rapid blood clearance. The principal types of structural chromosome aberrations found gaps and breaks, acentric fragments centric rings, double minutes and dicentrics. The statistical analysis showed that the group submitted to previous radio and chemotherapy before 153 Sm-EDTMP administration showed significant difference in chromosome aberrations frequency one hour after the treatment. The analysis of the chromosome modal number and the kinetics of cellular cycle showed no statistical difference among the groups, suggesting that the treatment with 153 Sm-EDTMP, did not influence these parameters. The obtained data showed that the therapy with 153 Sm-EDTMP induced a few quantity of cytogenetic damages in peripheral lymphocytes one hour after its administration in patients, although, theoretically, a long term stochastic effect cannot be disregarded. (author)

  11. Educational Administration's Weber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronn, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Max Weber's importance in Greenfield's work, particularly in Greenfield and Ribbins'"Greenfield on Educational Administration" (1993). In concentrating on human actors' subjective understanding, Greenfield was a faithful Weberian. However, he deviated from Weber by disavowing structural explanations of social and organizational…

  12. Tax administration good governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Végh, Gyöngyi; Gribnau, Hans

    2018-01-01

    There is no doubt that tax administration is a complex matter. It is institutionalised by a governance framework which is strongly influenced by legal traditions, state governance approaches, historical developments, and norms and values of society. While there are many common aspects of national

  13. Ethics in Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Arjeta Hallunovi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to deal with some ethical causes in the public administration, that aim the avoidance of negative phenomenon’s as theft, corruption, etc. In this direction, the debates about ethics are becoming more and more a global tendency, as an implement through which would be found the way to get out of the crisis. The success in the reforms of the public administrations in major part depends, on the public functionaries and their willingness to make fundamental changes in the way they work. In this direction, the State should strengthen and modernize the public service, should realize an employment system, which should reflect more the merits on its service. For this reason, the government’s attempts should be concentrated on the construction of a positive image for the state and its administration as professional objective, which is oriented to the services. Being aware for the practical restrictions of this study, we firstly chose to concentrate on the local public administrations ethics. The study will be focused on the practical comparative analysis of the city of Shkodra and Durres by the realization of a questionnaire by each of these municipalities and the Agency of Legalization and Urbanization of Informal Zones (ALUIZNI in Shkodra.

  14. Hospital Library Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Anne

    The objectives of a hospital are to improve patient care, while the objectives of a hospital library are to improve services to the staff which will support their efforts. This handbook dealing with hospital administration is designed to aid the librarian in either implementing a hospital library, or improving services in an existing medical…

  15. Enterprise Mac administrators guide

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William

    2015-01-01

    IT departments everywhere will be integrating Macs and Mac OS X into their IT infrastructure and this book will tell them how to do it. It will serve as an authoritative, useful and frequently referenced book on Mac OS X administration.

  16. Administrative circular No. 12

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    On the recommendation of the Standing Concertation Committee, the Director-General has approved the amounts used for the reimbursements mentioned in Administrative Circular No. 12 as follows: The figures, effective from 1 September 2006, are: Paragraph 8a: 17 Swiss francs Paragraph 9a: 682 Swiss francs Paragraph 9b: 34 Swiss francs Human Resources Department Tel. 79257/72862

  17. A Treatise on Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Expands Henri Fayol's definition of the administrative process to include a humanistic approach involving planning, organizing, implementing, controlling, evaluating, and satisfying functions. This empirical definition differs from some theoretical approaches by looking beyond resource consumption to consider ecological effects on the environment…

  18. Administrators Confront Student "Sexting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Cellphone-savvy students have created instructional and disciplinary challenges for educators for years. But the recent emergence of "sexting" by adolescents over their mobile phones caught many school administrators off guard, and the practice is prompting efforts around the country to craft policy responses. Students' sharing of nude or…

  19. Refinement for administrative policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.; Jonker, W.; Petkovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    Flexibility of management is an important requisite for access control systems as it allows users to adapt the access control system in accordance with practical requirements. This paper builds on earlier work where we defined administrative policies for a general class of RBAC models. We present a

  20. Scaffolds for peripheral nerve repair and reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sheng; Xu, Lai; Gu, Xiaosong

    2018-06-02

    Trauma-associated peripheral nerve defect is a widespread clinical problem. Autologous nerve grafting, the current gold standard technique for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury, has many internal disadvantages. Emerging studies showed that tissue engineered nerve graft is an effective substitute to autologous nerves. Tissue engineered nerve graft is generally composed of neural scaffolds and incorporating cells and molecules. A variety of biomaterials have been used to construct neural scaffolds, the main component of tissue engineered nerve graft. Synthetic polymers (e.g. silicone, polyglycolic acid, and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) and natural materials (e.g. chitosan, silk fibroin, and extracellular matrix components) are commonly used along or together to build neural scaffolds. Many other materials, including the extracellular matrix, glass fabrics, ceramics, and metallic materials, have also been used to construct neural scaffolds. These biomaterials are fabricated to create specific structures and surface features. Seeding supporting cells and/or incorporating neurotrophic factors to neural scaffolds further improve restoration effects. Preliminary studies demonstrate that clinical applications of these neural scaffolds achieve satisfactory functional recovery. Therefore, tissue engineered nerve graft provides a good alternative to autologous nerve graft and represents a promising frontier in neural tissue engineering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Central and peripheral interactions of hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dremin, I.M. [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University ' ' MEPhI' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Nechitailo, V.A. [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); White, S.N. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-12-15

    Surprisingly enough, the ratio of elastic to inelastic cross sections of proton interactions increases with energy in the interval corresponding to ISR→LHC (i.e. from 10 to 10{sup 4} GeV). That leads to special features of their spatial interaction region at these and higher energies. Within the framework of some phenomenological models, we show how the particular ranges of the transferred momenta measured in elastic scattering experiments expose the spatial features of the inelastic interaction region according to the unitarity condition. The difference between their predictions at higher energies is discussed. The notion of central and peripheral collisions of hadrons is treated in terms of the impact-parameter description. It is shown that the shape of the differential cross section in the diffraction cone is mostly determined by collisions with intermediate impact parameters. Elastic scattering at very small transferred momenta is sensitive to peripheral processes with large impact parameters. The role of central collisions in the formation of the diffraction cone is less significant. (orig.)

  2. Circadian clocks are resounding in peripheral tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey A Ptitsyn

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms are prevalent in most organisms. Even the smallest disturbances in the orchestration of circadian gene expression patterns among different tissues can result in functional asynchrony, at the organism level, and may to contribute to a wide range of physiologic disorders. It has been reported that as many as 5%-10% of transcribed genes in peripheral tissues follow a circadian expression pattern. We have conducted a comprehensive study of circadian gene expression on a large dataset representing three different peripheral tissues. The data have been produced in a large-scale microarray experiment covering replicate daily cycles in murine white and brown adipose tissues as well as in liver. We have applied three alternative algorithmic approaches to identify circadian oscillation in time series expression profiles. Analyses of our own data indicate that the expression of at least 7% to 21% of active genes in mouse liver, and in white and brown adipose tissues follow a daily oscillatory pattern. Indeed, analysis of data from other laboratories suggests that the percentage of genes with an oscillatory pattern may approach 50% in the liver. For the rest of the genes, oscillation appears to be obscured by stochastic noise. Our phase classification and computer simulation studies based on multiple datasets indicate no detectable boundary between oscillating and non-oscillating fractions of genes. We conclude that greater attention should be given to the potential influence of circadian mechanisms on any biological pathway related to metabolism and obesity.

  3. Peripheral circulatory disorders in essential thrombocythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małecki, Rafał; Gacka, Małgorzata; Fiodorenko-Dumas, Żanna; Dumas, Ilias; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Adamiec, Rajmund; Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, Małgorzata

    2018-03-01

    A significant number of patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) complain of symptoms including distal parts of the extremities (e.g., paresthesias or Raynaud's phenomenon). The aim of the present study was to examine peripheral circulation in the upper extremities of individuals with ET. The study included 45 ET patients and 30 control subjects. All participants were subjected to thermography, photoplethysmography, impedance plethysmography, and applanation tonometry pulse wave analysis. The patients with ET differed significantly from the control subjects in terms of 3rd finger skin temperature (mean 31.04 vs. 32.45°C), skin temperature gradient (mean 1.82 vs. 0.11°C), photoplethysmographic amplitude (median 0.25 vs. 0.74%), and pulse waveform in the radial artery (more frequent occurrence of type B waveform). Pulse wave parameters correlated with the skin temperature gradient. The study findings imply the altered regulation of peripheral circulation in ET, including a decreased flow and an increased resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Peripheral ossifying fibroma. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nair Vallejos Duarte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peripheral ossifying fibroma, a pseudotumoral injury, considered within simple reactive hyperplasia, which in general has a definite cause and is often reversible. Objective: To present a case of an injury to a patient, which manifested as a radiolucent and asymptomatic injury lesion. Its differential diagnosis, which is based on clinical manifestations and conventional radiographic study, is controversial. Case Description: A case is presented in a male patient with 51-year-old with a lesion in the maxillary incisor-canine area, aspects of which were suggestive of granuloma telangiectasico. Previous clinical and radiographic evaluation, the patient underwent surgical resection of the lesion and was sent for histopathological examination, showing compact osteoid material revealing the peripheral final diagnosis, ossifying fibroma. Conclusion: The professional dentist must have knowledge and ability to clinical management of oral pathologies, to make a correct diagnosis and treatment, for it is essential to perform a biopsy, to avoid possible disputes between the clinical and histological diagnosis.

  5. Cutaneous manifestations of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogiparthi, S N; Muralidhar, K; Seshadri, K G; Rangarajan, S

    2017-01-01

    There is a rise in number of people diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus. The incidence is rising in modern Indian society because of Industrial development and drastically changing lifestyles. Diabetic neuropathies are microvascular disorders that are usually associated with the duration of Diabetes. Among the various forms, the most common is Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy. The disease if neglected leads to chronic ulcer formation leading to amputations frequently. Hence the aim of this study is to document the early cutaneous changes and create an early awareness in the importance of controlling Diabetes. The study consisted of 205 patients with Type 2 DM. Participant's neuropathy status was determined based on Neuropathy Disability Score and Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom Score. Among the Skin changes documented, the common changes seen were: Peripheral hair loss in 185 (90.2%), Xerosis in 168 (82%), Anhydrosis in 162 (79%), Plantar Fissures in 136 (66.3%), Plantar Ulcer in 80 (39%), common nail changes documented were Onychomycosis in 165 (80.5%) and Onychauxis in 53 (25.8%) patients in relation to the occupation and duration of Diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, it is important to control glycemic levels in the all stages of Diabetes and institute foot care measures to prevent the complications of neuropathy.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of peripheral neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiura, Yasumasa; Hara, Yuki; Yoshii, Yuichi; Kokubu, Yukihiro; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Niitsu, Mamoru

    2008-01-01

    Development of microscopy coil (MC) in MRI has accomplished high resolution imaging to observe small objects like the minute peripheral nerves and this paper describes authors' experience with the coil of peripheral neuropathy. Subjects are 15 hands of 13 female patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (mean age, 64.2 y) and 15 hands of 15 control healthy females (52.5 y). Imaging of extending and bending digits is done with Philips 1.5 T MRI machine using 47 mm MC fixed by a sandbag through modes of T1W, T2W and T2W-fast field echo to evaluate the morphology of flexor tendon and median nerve (and its diameters and area), extension of flexor retinaculum, and area of soft carpal tunnel. It is found the MRI is useful in diagnosis of anterior interosseous neuroparalysis by seeing the morphology above and by detecting fascicles with abnormal brightness and diameter in the median nerve. Future improvement of the MRI technology is promising for progress of the diagnosis and evaluation of the pathogenesis of the disease. (R.T.)

  7. Aberrant phenotypes in peripheral T cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, N; Ralfkiaer, E; Pallesen, G

    1989-01-01

    Seventy six peripheral T cell lymphomas were examined immunohistologically to test their reactivity with a panel of monoclonal antibodies against 11 T cell associated antigens (CD1-8, CD27, UCHL1, and the T cell antigen receptor). Sixty two (82%) lymphomas showed aberrant phenotypes, and four main categories were distinguished as follows: (i) lack of one or several pan-T cell antigens (49, 64% of the cases); (ii) loss of both the CD4 and CD8 antigens (11, 15% of the cases); (iii) coexpression of the CD4 and CD8 antigens (13, 17% of the cases); and (iv) expression of the CD1 antigen (eight, 11% of the cases). No correlation was seen between the occurrence of aberrant phenotypes and the histological subtype. It is concluded that the demonstration of an aberrant phenotype is a valuable supplement to histological assessment in the diagnosis of peripheral T cell lymphomas. It is recommended that the panel of monoclonal antibodies against T cell differentiation antigens should be fairly large, as apparently any antigen may be lost in the process of malignant transformation. Images Figure PMID:2469701

  8. Relationship between peripheral insertion site and catheter-related phlebitis in adult hospitalized patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparcini, Dania; Simonetti, Valentina; Blot, Stijn; Tomietto, Marco; Cicolini, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    To explore the relationship between the anatomical site of peripheral venous catheterization and risk of catheter-related phlebitis. Peripheral venous catheterization is frequently associated with phlebitis. Recent guidelines, recommend the use of an upper-extremity site for catheter insertion but no univocal consensus exists on the anatomical site with lower risk of phlebitis. Systematic review. We searched Medline (PubMed) and CINAHL (EBSCOhost) databases until the end of January 2017. We also reviewed the reference lists of retrieved articles and gray literature was excluded. Searches were limited to articles published in English with no restriction imposed to date of publication. The primary outcome was the incidence of phlebitis associated with anatomical site of peripheral catheterization. We included randomized controlled trials and observational studies on adult patients who required a peripheral catheter for the administration of medi- cation, intermittent or continuous fluid infusion. Antecubital fossa veins are associated with lower phlebitis rates, while hands veins are the most risky sites to develop phlebitis. There is no consensus regarding vein in forearm. Choosing the right anatomical site to insert a peripheral venous catheter is important to decrease phlebitis rate. Further studies should compare indwelling time in different anatomical sites with phlebitis rate. A more standardized approach in defining and assessing phlebitis among studies is recommended.

  9. Low-dose radiation (LDR) induces hematopoietic hormesis: LDR-induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells into peripheral blood circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Guanjun; Cui, Jiuwei; Xue, Lu; Cai, Lu

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the stimulating effect of low-dose radiation (LDR) on bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) proliferation and peripheral blood mobilization. Mice were exposed to 25- to 100-mGy x-rays. Bone marrow and peripheral blood HPCs (BFU-E, CFU-GM, and c-kit+ cells) were measured, and GM-CSF, G-CSF, and IL-3 protein and mRNA expression were detected using ELISA, slot blot hybridization, and Northern blot methods. To functionally evaluate LDR-stimulated and -mobilized HPCs, repopulation of peripheral blood cells in lethally irradiated recipients after transplantation of LDR-treated donor HPCs was examined by WBC counts, animal survival, and colony-forming units in the recipient spleens (CFUs-S). 75-mGy x-rays induced a maximal stimulation for bone marrow HPC proliferation (CFU-GM and BFU-E formation) 48 hours postirradiation, along with a significant increase in HPC mobilization into peripheral blood 48 to 72 hours postradiation, as shown by increases in CFU-GM formation and proportion of c-kit+ cells in the peripheral mononuclear cells. 75-mGy x-rays also maximally induced increases in G-CSF and GM-CSF mRNA expression in splenocytes and levels of serum GM-CSF. To define the critical role of these hematopoietic-stimulating factors in HPC peripheral mobilization, direct administration of G-CSF at a dose of 300 microg/kg/day or 150 microg/kg/day was applied and found to significantly stimulate GM-CFU formation and increase c-kit+ cells in the peripheral mononuclear cells. More importantly, 75-mGy x-rays plus 150 microg/kg/day G-CSF (LDR/150-G-CSF) produced a similar effect to that of 300 microg/kg/day G-CSF alone. Furthermore, the capability of LDR-mobilized donor HPCs to repopulate blood cells was confirmed in lethally irradiated recipient mice by counting peripheral WBC and CFUs-S. These results suggest that LDR induces hematopoietic hormesis, as demonstrated by HPC proliferation and peripheral mobilization, providing a

  10. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    COJOCARU, Inimioara Mihaela; COJOCARU, Manole; SILOSI, Isabela; VRABIE, Camelia Doina

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral nervous system refers to parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. Systemic autoimmune diseases can affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems in a myriad of ways and through a heterogeneous number of mechanisms leading to many different clinical manifestations. As a result, neurological complications of these disorders can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The most common complication of peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement ...

  11. Intravenous Lidocaine Infusion to Treat Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapetrou, Peter; Kumar, Aashish J; Muppuri, Rudram; Chakrabortty, Shushovan

    2015-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating side effect of chemotherapy, which manifests as paresthesias, dysesthesias, and numbness in the hands and feet. Numerous chemoprotective agents and treatments have been used with limited success to treat chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. We report a case in which a patient presenting with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy received an IV lidocaine infusion over the course of 60 minutes with complete symptomatic pain relief for a prolonged period of 2 weeks.

  12. Peripheral neuropathy in HIV: prevalence and risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Scott R.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Chen, Huichao; Yeh, Tzu-min; Lee, Anthony J.; Schifitto, Giovanni; Wu, Kunling; Bosch, Ronald J.; McArthur, Justin C.; Simpson, David M.; Clifford, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To estimate neuropathic sign/symptom rates with initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected ART-naive patients, and to investigate risk factors for: peripheral neuropathy and symptomatic peripheral neuropathy (SPN), recovery from peripheral neuropathy/SPN after neurotoxic ART (nART) discontinuation, and the absence of peripheral neuropathy/SPN while on nART. Design AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trial participants who initiated cART in randomized trials for ART-naive patients were annually screened for symptoms/signs of peripheral neuropathy. ART use and disease characteristics were collected longitudinally. Methods Peripheral neuropathy was defined as at least mild loss of vibration sensation in both great toes or absent/hypoactive ankle reflexes bilaterally. SPN was defined as peripheral neuropathy and bilateral symptoms. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression was used to estimate associations. Results Two thousand, one hundred and forty-one participants were followed from January 2000 to June 2007. Rates of peripheral neuropathy/SPN at 3 years were 32.1/8.6% despite 87.1% with HIV-1RNA 400 copies/ml or less and 70.3% with CD4 greater than 350 cells/µl. Associations with higher odds of peripheral neuropathy included older patient age and current nART use. Associations with higher odds of SPN included older patient age, nART use, and history of diabetes mellitus. Associations with lower odds of recovery after nART discontinuation included older patient age. Associations with higher odds of peripheral neuropathy while on nART included older patient age and current protease inhibitor use. Associations with higher odds of SPN while on nART included older patient age, history of diabetes, taller height, and protease inhibitor use. Conclusion Signs of peripheral neuropathy remain despite virologic/immunologic control but frequently occurs without symptoms. Aging is a risk factor for

  13. Optical coherent tomography in diagnoses of peripheral retinal degenarations

    OpenAIRE

    O. G. Pozdeyeva; T. B. Shaimov; A. Yu. Galin; R. B. Shaimov; T. A. Shaimova; A. V. Zolotova; A. V. Fomin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Studying the capabilities of optical coherence tomography (RTVue-100, OPTOVUE, USA) in evaluation of peripheral retinal degenerations, vitreoretinal adhesions, adjacent vitreous body as well as measurement of morphometric data.Methods: The study included 189 patients (239 eyes) with peripheral retinal degeneration. 77 men and 112 women aged 18 to 84 underwent an ophthalmologic examination since November 2012 until October 2013. The peripheral retina was visualized with the help of op...

  14. [Vertigo and peripheral ischemic cochleovestibular syndrome caused by circulatory insufficiency in the vertebrobasilar system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, N S; Kirichenko, I M

    2006-01-01

    We studied characteristics of vestibular and acoustic disorders in patients with arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis and vascular dystonia; correlation between peripheral cochleovestibular syndromes (PCVS) and circulation in the major and intracranial arteries, central hemodynamics, organic changes in the brain. We discovered that anomalies and asymmetry in vertebral arteries diameters, stenoses, reduced stroke and minute blood volumes play an essential role in development of PCVS. The latter are rarely accompanied with ischemic foci in the brain. Medication of vascular vertigo consists in administration of an adequate drug. We believe that betaserk is most effective.

  15. Influence of adrenaline on the activity of succinate dehydrogenase in peripheral blood lymphocytes of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroleva, L.V.; Vasin, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    In experiments with albino mongrel female rats, the influence of adrenaline on succinate dehydrogenase (SDG) activity in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of irradiated and intact animals has been investigated. Two minutes after the intraperitoneal administration of adrenaline (1 mg/kg) to intact rats SDG activity sharply rises and 3-4 min it drastically falls. In 6 to 8 min the second peak in the enzyme activity is registered. Twenty minutes after irradiation of rats in the crano-caudal direction with a dose of 75 Gy delivered to head, the reaction to adrenaline, manifested by the rise in SDG activity, is absent

  16. Pecularities of peripheral blood morphological content in rats in case of combined irradiation of lungs and thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikova, S.B.; Korzhavin, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    Indices of morphological content of peripheral blood were studied in male rats at 1, 3, 7, 14 days following intratracheal administration of oxide suspension of 147 Nd + 147 Pm and oral administration of 131 I. By 14 days the doses for lungs and thyroid were 5 Gy and 10 Gy respectively. It was shown that the doses of 134 I don't influence morphological indices of peripheral blood but combined effect of radioisotopes leads to moderate increase of leukocyte, lymphocytes and neutrophils. Manifestation of changes in white blood turned out to be less than in case of similar effect of stable isotope on the lungs. Minor shifts in white blood and severity of patholoanatomical picture of inflammatory process in the lungs in case of radioactive isotopes effect can be attributed to specific effect of ionizing radiation. 4 refs.; 2 tabs

  17. Peripheral ossifying fibroma of oral cavity: histopathologic differential diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral ossifying fibroma is a benign neoplasm that usuallydevelops from gingiva, presenting as an exophytic smooth surfaced pink or red nodular mass that is sessile or is less frequently seen on a pedicle. From the Indian perspective, it is usually noticed in 5th-6th decades of life with female predilection. Microscopically, the tumour shows stratified squamous epithelium and highly cellular fibrous stroma, sparse endothelial proliferation with fibroblasts and dystrophic calcifications. It has to be differentiated histopathologically from pyogenic granuloma, fibroma, peripheral giant cell granuloma, peripheral odontogenic fibroma and fibrous hyperplasia. A case of peripheral ossifying fibroma of maxillary gingiva in a 55-year-old Indian woman is reported.

  18. Ultrasound Guidance as a Rescue Technique for Peripheral Intravenous Cannulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pappas, Nancy L; Michaud, Terese E; Wolbers, Russell M; Steward, James C; Fevurly, Thomas A; Samolitis, Timothy J; Shoneboom, Bruce A; Watts, Dorraine D

    2006-01-01

    .... Ultrasound guidance has shown efficacy in expediting the cannulation of central veins, but there is limited information on its utility in facilitating cannulation in peripheral veins, particularly...

  19. Peripheral Neuropathy and Nerve Compression Syndromes in Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Amy L; Agarwal, Shailesh; Cederna, Paul S; Levi, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    Peripheral neuropathy and nerve compression syndromes lead to substantial morbidity following burn injury. Patients present with pain, paresthesias, or weakness along a specific nerve distribution or experience generalized peripheral neuropathy. The symptoms manifest at various times from within one week of hospitalization to many months after wound closure. Peripheral neuropathy may be caused by vascular occlusion of vasa nervorum, inflammation, neurotoxin production leading to apoptosis, and direct destruction of nerves from the burn injury. This article discusses the natural history, diagnosis, current treatments, and future directions for potential interventions for peripheral neuropathy and nerve compression syndromes related to burn injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinicopathological study of vasculitic peripheral neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-fang DONG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To summarize the clinical features and neuropathological characteristics in patients with vasculitic peripheral neuropathy (VPN. Methods Clinical manifestations, laboratory examination and neuromuscular biopsy characteristics of 11 patients with VPN were retrospectively analyzed. The lesion of nerve, muscle and skin was observed under optical and electron microscope. Immunohistochemical analyses were carried out to detect neurofilament (NF, myelin basic protein (MBP, peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22 and S-100 protein (S-100 and further observing the neuropathy of neuraxon, myelin sheath and Schwann cells, and to detect human leukocyte antigen DR (HLA-DR, CD68, CD3 and CD20 to observe inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect the deposition of IgA, IgM, IgG and addiment C3 on vascular wall. The staining of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS, NADH-tetrazolium reductase (NADH-TR and modified Gomori trichrome (MGT were used to judge the myopathy. Results 1 Angiopathies were mainly manifested by small vessels of epineurium and perineurium, and infiltrated inflammatory cells were mainly CD3 + T cells. Three patients had active vasculitis, and 8 patients had non-active vasculitis. Among these 8 patients, 4 patients mainly presented fibrous obliteration of blood vessel, with slight inflammatroy cell infiltration, and the other 4 patients mainly showed perivascular inflammation. 2 Neuropathy: 6 patients had axon degeneration, and 5 patients had axon degeneration associated with demyelination. All of them demonstrated a reduction in myelinated fibers, mainly large diameter myelinated fibers, even on end-stage. 3 Muscle biopsy showed neurogenic atrophy. 4 Clinicopathologic diagnosis: among these 11 patients, 8 patients were diagnosed as systemic vasculitic peripheral neuropathy (SVPN, among whom 5 patients were diagnosed as primary systemic vasculitis [including 1 patient as Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS, 2 patients as

  1. ICMS tributary administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Santana de Souza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the essential tools for the management of the ICMS (Value-Added Tax on Sales and Services. It was developed a calculation proce­dure of this tax which permits to demonstrate the importance of correctly perform fiscal and accounting entries. In order to demonstrate this calculation procedure, it was used Financial Mathematics concepts of simple interest and simple trade discount together with article 33, 1989 of ICMS Law of the State of São Paulo. It was concluded that it is essential to have a precise ICMS tributary administration, in order to firstly avoid contentious administrative tributary which would imply ad­ditional and unnecessary costs to the organization and secondly to use tax evasion correctly in order to avoid excessive taxes payment. Thus, the appropriate use of both instruments will reflect into a positive cash flow for the organization.

  2. ATLAS TDAQ System Administration:

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Christopher Jon; The ATLAS collaboration; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Ballestrero, Sergio; Contescu, Alexandru Cristian; Dubrov, Sergei; Fazio, Daniel; Korol, Aleksandr; Scannicchio, Diana; Twomey, Matthew Shaun; Voronkov, Artem

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system is responsible for the online processing of live data, streaming from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The online farm is composed of ̃3000 servers, processing the data readout from ̃100 million detector channels through multiple trigger levels. During the two years of the first Long Shutdown (LS1) there has been a tremendous amount of work done by the ATLAS TDAQ System Administrators, implementing numerous new software applications, upgrading the OS and the hardware, changing some design philosophies and exploiting the High Level Trigger farm with different purposes. During the data taking only critical security updates are applied and broken hardware is replaced to ensure a stable operational environment. The LS1 provided an excellent opportunity to look into new technologies and applications that would help to improve and streamline the daily tasks of not only the System Administrators, but also of the scientists who wil...

  3. A comparative study of peripheral to central circulation delivery times between intraosseous and intravenous injection using a radionuclide technique in normovolemic and hypovolemic canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.L.; Fontanarosa, P.B.; Passalaqua, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Intraosseous infusion is considered a useful technique for administration of medications and fluids in emergency situations when peripheral intravascular access is unobtainable. This study examined the effectiveness of intraosseous infusion for delivery of substances to the central circulation. Central deliveries of a radionuclide tracer administered by the intraosseous and intravenous routes were evaluated during normovolemic and hypovolemic states. Intraosseous infusion achieved peripheral to central circulation transit times comparable to those achieved by the intravenous route. Analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences between the peripheral to central delivery times comparing intraosseous and intravenous administration. The results demonstrate that intraosseous infusion is a rapid and effective method of delivery to the central circulation and is an alternative method for intravascular access. This study also suggests that a radionuclide tracer is useful for the evaluation of transit times following intraosseous injection

  4. [Expectations of hospital administrators about administrative functions of nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, M R; Fávero, N; Trevizan, M A; Hayashida, M

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate hospital administrator's expectations about the administrative role played by nurses, utilizing functions proposed by the Neoclassical Theory of Administration: planning, organization, direction, and control as theoretical references. An instrument established in TREVIZAN (1989) was applied to 11 hospital administrators. The results showed they expect the four functions to be done by nurses. Therefore, the interaction between nurses and hospital administrators is critical to improve the patient's assistance.

  5. Moodle administration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Henrick, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    If you are an experienced system administrator and know how to manage servers and set up web environments but now want to explore Moodle, this book is perfect for you. You'll get to grips with the basics and learn to manage Moodle quickly, focusing on essential tasks. Having prior knowledge of virtual learning environments would be beneficial, but is not mandatory to make the most of this book.

  6. Flexible Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Security of tenure is widely considered to be the missing piece of the puzzle when it comes to eradication of poverty. And, as explained in the previous issue of Geoinformatics, the European Union is now placing land rights at the heart of EU development policy. This article presents a way forwar...... in terms of building flexible and "fit-for-purpose" land administration systems in developing countries. This will ensure security of tenure for all and sustainable management of the use of land....

  7. IPv6 Network Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Niall Richard

    2009-01-01

    This essential guide explains what works, what doesn't, and most of all, what's practical about IPv6--the next-generation Internet standard. A must-have for network administrators everywhere looking to fix their network's scalability and management problems. Also covers other IPv6 benefits, such as routing, integrated auto-configuration, quality-of-services (QoS), enhanced mobility, and end-to-end security.

  8. Administrative Circular N° 12

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the Standing Concertation Committee, the Director-General has approved the amounts used for the reimbursements mentioned in Administrative Circular N° 12 as follows : The figures, effective from 1 September 2003, are : § 8a : 16.50 Swiss francs (previously 16.- Swiss francs) § 9a : 663 Swiss francs (previously 640.- Swiss francs) § 9b : 33 Swiss francs (previously 32.- Swiss francs) Human Resources Division Tel. 72862/74474

  9. Functional deficits in peripheral nerve mitochondria in rats with paclitaxel- and oxaliplatin-evoked painful peripheral neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Huaien; Xiao, Wen Hua; Bennett, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapeutics like paclitaxel and oxaliplatin produce a dose-limiting chronic sensory peripheral neuropathy that is often accompanied by neuropathic pain. The cause of the neuropathy and pain is unknown. In animal models, paclitaxel-evoked and oxaliplatin-evoked painful peripheral neuropathies are accompanied by an increase in the incidence of swollen and vacuolated mitochondria in peripheral nerve axons. It has been proposed that mitochondrial swelling and vacuolation are indicati...

  10. Contracts in Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka GRZESIOK-HOROSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present makes a contribution to the discussion on contracts in administration under Polish law. It concentrates on theoretical issues, but ones of considerable practical significance. Prior Work though relatively poorly explored, field. This paper is a result of academic considerations on the classical institution of civil law, namely a bilateral juridical act significance of this area may be demonstrated by the fact that one scientific conference and a collection of papers have been devoted to contracts in administration. as research method, the analysis of jurisprudence and doctrinal writings referring to law currently in force. The paper discusses as well the draft of the administrative law, and includes comparative remarks. put forward certain comments pertainin legislation. The authors formulate as well outline theses interesting but complicated matters. As a voice in the doctrinal dispute it can als useful for law students. Value composition. Starting from gener the binding law and proposed amendments. The functioning in foreign countries and proposals of regulatory solutions.

  11. 7. Administrative structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The basic systems of any society rarely can operate independently. Instead, they are dependent and often interdependent upon other entities. Such entities control the resources within their respective systems. Thus, coordination and control agencies require contracts or memoranda of understanding with these entities in order to assure access to the resources required during a crisis. These administrative structures include: (1) governmental institutions and agencies, including the military; (2) intergovernmental organisations; (3) nongovernmental organisations; (4) commercial private sector organisations; and (5) academic institutions. These dependencies create potential barriers to the provision of coordination and control including: (1) the complexity of the administrative structures with which coordination and control must interact; (2) the location of resources; (3) finding responsible person(s); (4) the competence and compatibility; (5) methods of access; (6) payment; (7) contracts and memoranda of understanding; (8) inventories of accessible resources; (9) competition for the mandate, power, and resources; and (10) jealousy. The need for potential interactions between administrative structures requires that agreements for the sharing of resources during crises be reached as part of planning and preparedness. Gaining an understanding of these relationships is an important area for research.

  12. Bilateral foveal retinoschisis accompanying unilateral peripheral retinoschisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilufer Kocak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked juvenile retinoschisis is a rare hereditary retinal disease characterized by a tangential splitting of the neurosensory retina which may cause early-onset visual impairment. Existence of the retinal neurosensory layer splitting on cross-sectional images of optical coherance tomography (OCT and the absence of leakage on fluorescein angiography (FA help confirming the diagnosis. Such diagnostic tests are also helpful in determining the management of the disease. However, most of the retinoschisis cavities remain stable and rarely extend to the posterior pole, many authors suggest laser prophylaxis to avoid the potential risk of retinal detachment due to holes in the outer retinal layer. Herein, we report a case with bilateral foveal retinoschisis accompanying unilateral peripheral retinoschisis who was evaluated with detailed ophthalmologic examination. Visual acuity, fundoscopy, OCT, and FA remained stable in the second year of follow-up after prophylactic argon laser treatment.

  13. Facilitating Cluster Evolution in Peripheral Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard; Stoerring, Dagmara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the feasibility and dilemmas in stimulating high-tech clusters in peripheral regions. In recent years innovation and cluster policy to a large extend has been focused upon stimulating collective learning processes and building social capital. This has in turn accentuated a need...... to focus on the carriers of the cluster policy. Despite this importance of the role of policy actors, research in cluster development and even cluster policy has generally not emphasized a more precise specification of this role. This paper contributes to this debate by substantiating the concept...... of “clusterpreneurs” defined as important actors in cluster formation. We illustrate the role of clusterpreneurs by the example of a biomedical technology cluster initiative in North Jutland, Denmark and point to the presence of different types of dilemmas connected with cluster policy. We show how the presence...

  14. RENAL INVOLVEMENT IN SUBJECTS WITH PERIPHERAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FAWZY, A.; IBRAHIM, S.

    2008-01-01

    Ischemic nephropathy is an important cause of renal failure.Sub-clinical renal function abnormalities may exist in patients with extra renal atherosclerosis and may precede the onset of overt ischemic nephropathy. To assess the impact of extrarenal atherosclerosis on the kidney, the study evaluated renal function in 50 subjects with differing degrees of peripheral atherosclerosis without manifest clinical or laboratory signs of ischemic nephropathy and renovascular hypertension.All laboratory testing including total LDL and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, ultrasonography with Doppler analysis for the localization of peripheral vascular disease (carotid and lower limb arteries), and non-invasive evaluation of renal function by radionuclide studies of renal plasma flow (MAG3 clearance) and glomerular filtration (DTPA clearance) were determined as well as smoking habit was recorded. By combining sonographic data on arterial tree stenosis (ATS), the subjects were grouped according to the atherosclerotic vascular damage (ATS involvement). The results showed no change in plasma creatinine while DTPA clearance was increased from 91.58±26.53 to 93.47±24.82 ml/min/1.73 m. MAG3 clearance was progressively declined with the severity of vascular damage from 244.86 ± 60.60 to 173.59±58.74 ml/min/1.73 m.Stepwise, multiple regression analysis indicated that MAG3 clearance was best explained by ATS involvement (standardized B coefficient -0.40; P< 0.001), smoking habit (-0.34;P=0.004) and serum LDL-cholesterol (-0.24; P<0.035).It could be concluded that the renal hemodynamic profile in atherosclerotic patients might constitute functional evidence of the silent phase of ischemic renal disease. The findings suggest that renal function should be carefully assessed in patients with extrarenal atherosclerosis, particularly in those with classic cardiovascular risk factors

  15. Peripheral blood signatures of lead exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather G LaBreche

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current evidence indicates that even low-level lead (Pb exposure can have detrimental effects, especially in children. We tested the hypothesis that Pb exposure alters gene expression patterns in peripheral blood cells and that these changes reflect dose-specific alterations in the activity of particular pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 arrays, we examined gene expression changes in the peripheral blood of female Balb/c mice following exposure to per os lead acetate trihydrate or plain drinking water for two weeks and after a two-week recovery period. Data sets were RMA-normalized and dose-specific signatures were generated using established methods of supervised classification and binary regression. Pathway activity was analyzed using the ScoreSignatures module from GenePattern. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The low-level Pb signature was 93% sensitive and 100% specific in classifying samples a leave-one-out crossvalidation. The high-level Pb signature demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity in the leave-one-out crossvalidation. These two signatures exhibited dose-specificity in their ability to predict Pb exposure and had little overlap in terms of constituent genes. The signatures also seemed to reflect current levels of Pb exposure rather than past exposure. Finally, the two doses showed differential activation of cellular pathways. Low-level Pb exposure increased activity of the interferon-gamma pathway, whereas high-level Pb exposure increased activity of the E2F1 pathway.

  16. Peripheral nerve blocks in pediatric anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Dejan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Most children undergoing surgery can benefit from regional anesthetic techniques, either as the sole anesthetic regimen or, as usual in pediatric practice, in combination with general anesthesia. The use of peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs in pediatric anesthesia is an effective way to decrease the side-effects and complications associated with central blocks. In spite of their many advantages, including easy performance end efficacy, peripheral nerve blocks are still underused. Objective This article discusses a general approach to PNBs in children and provides data concerning the practice of this regional technique in different age groups. Methods Data from 1,650 procedures were prospectively collected during the period from March 1, 2007 to February 29, 2008. The type of PNB, if any, as well as the patient age were noted. Our patients were divided into four groups: 0-3 years, 4-7 years, 8-12 years and 13-18 years. Results During the investigated period, PNBs as a sole technique or in anesthetized children were performed in 7.45% of cases. Ilioingunal/iliohypogastric nerve block and penile block were the most common (70% of all PNBs distributed mainly among the children between 4-7 years of age (p<0.05. In older children, extremity PNBs predominate in regard to other types of blocks. PNBs are most frequently performed under general anesthesia (85%, so the perineural approach requires a safe technique to avoid nerve damage. Conclusion The observed differences in PNB usage seem to be related to patient age and correlate with common pathology and also with technical availability of PNB performance.

  17. Incidence and severity of phlebitis in patients receiving peripherally infused amiodarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Brenda A Brady; Yee, Barbara Homer

    2012-08-01

    Nurses noted that the rate of phlebitis was high when intravenous amiodarone was infused via a peripheral site. Hospital policy recommends a central vascular catheter, but this method is often not feasible because the drug is administered in emergent situations for short periods. To determine the rate and severity of phlebitis in patients given peripherally infused amiodarone. The literature, policy, and procedures for administration of amiodarone were reviewed; the pharmacy was consulted; and a data collection tool was developed. The tool was pilot tested and revised, and face validation was established. Data were collected during a 6-month period. A convenience sample was used. The study included a total of 12 patients. Each new infusion of intravenous amiodarone was considered a separate occurrence, for a total of 24 infusions. Various grades of phlebitis developed in 8 patients (67%). Phlebitis developed at 12 of the 24 infusion sites (50%). Patients receiving peripherally infused amiodarone are at high risk for phlebitis. This complication may lead to infection, additional medical intervention, delay in treatment, and prolonged hospitalization.

  18. Peripheral involvement of the joint in seronegative spondylarthritis; Periphere Gelenkbeteiligung bei seronegativen Spondarthritiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingg, G.; Soltesz, I. [Rheumazentrum Bad Kreuznach (Germany). Zentrales Roentgeninstitut

    1997-10-01

    The subjects of this contributions have been restricted to the peripheral manifestations of seronegative spondylarthrosis, for reasons of conciseness and clearness. The most frequent occurrences discussed are psoriasis arthritis and, a little bit less frequent, peripheral involvement of the joint in ancylosing spondylitis and Reiter syndrome, as well as enteropathic spondylarthrosis. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Als Thema dieser Veroeffentlichung wurden aus Gruenden der Kuerze und der Uebersichtlichkeit aber nur die peripheren Manifestationen der seronegativen Spondarthropathien gewaehlt. Hier wiederum haben wir es am haeufigsten mit der Psoriasisarthritis und etwas seltener mit der peripheren Gelenkbeteiligung bei der Bechterew`schen Erkrankung und der Reiter`schen Erkrankung sowie der enteropathischen Spondarthritiden zu tun. (orig./AJ)

  19. Mouse forward genetics in the study of the peripheral nervous system and human peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Darlene S.; Popko, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Forward genetics, the phenotype-driven approach to investigating gene identity and function, has a long history in mouse genetics. Random mutations in the mouse transcend bias about gene function and provide avenues towards unique discoveries. The study of the peripheral nervous system is no exception; from historical strains such as the trembler mouse, which led to the identification of PMP22 as a human disease gene causing multiple forms of peripheral neuropathy, to the more recent identification of the claw paw and sprawling mutations, forward genetics has long been a tool for probing the physiology, pathogenesis, and genetics of the PNS. Even as spontaneous and mutagenized mice continue to enable the identification of novel genes, provide allelic series for detailed functional studies, and generate models useful for clinical research, new methods, such as the piggyBac transposon, are being developed to further harness the power of forward genetics. PMID:18481175

  20. Hyperacute peripheral neuropathy is a predictor of oxaliplatin-induced persistent peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanishima, Hiroyuki; Tominaga, Toshiji; Kimura, Masamichi; Maeda, Tsunehiro; Shirai, Yasutsugu; Horiuchi, Tetsuya

    2017-05-01

    Chronic peripheral neuropathy is a major adverse response to oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy regimens, but there are no established risk factors pertaining to it. We investigated the efficacy of hyperacute peripheral neuropathy (HAPN) as a predictor of oxaliplatin-induced persistent peripheral neuropathy (PPN). Forty-seven cases of stage III colorectal cancer who received adjuvant chemotherapy with oxaliplatin after curative surgery between January 2010 and August 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. HAPN was defined as acute peripheral neuropathy (APN) occurring on day 1 (≤24 h after oxaliplatin infusion) of the first cycle. PPN was defined as neuropathy lasting >1 year after oxaliplatin discontinuation. The average total dose of oxaliplatin was 625.8 mg/m 2 , and the average relative dose intensity was 66.7%. Twenty-two of the 47 patients (46.8%) had PPN and 13 (27.7%) had HAPN. Male sex, treatment for neuropathy, HAPN, and APN were significantly more frequent in patients with PPN (p = 0.013, 0.02, <0.001, and 0.023, respectively). There was no significant difference in the total oxaliplatin dose between patients with and without PPN (p = 0.061). Multivariate analyses revealed total dose of oxaliplatin and HAPN as independent predictors of PPN [p = 0.015; odds ratio (OR) = 1.005, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.001-1.009 and p = 0.001; OR = 75.307, 5.3-1070.123, respectively]. The total dose of oxaliplatin was relatively lower in patients with HAPN than that in those without HAPN in the PPN-positive group (not significant, p = 0.068). HAPN was found to be a predictor of oxaliplatin-induced PPN.

  1. The impact of stress on tumor growth: peripheral CRF mediates tumor-promoting effects of stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathopoulos Efstathios N

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Stress has been shown to be a tumor promoting factor. Both clinical and laboratory studies have shown that chronic stress is associated with tumor growth in several types of cancer. Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF is the major hypothalamic mediator of stress, but is also expressed in peripheral tissues. Earlier studies have shown that peripheral CRF affects breast cancer cell proliferation and motility. The aim of the present study was to assess the significance of peripheral CRF on tumor growth as a mediator of the response to stress in vivo. Methods For this purpose we used the 4T1 breast cancer cell line in cell culture and in vivo. Cells were treated with CRF in culture and gene specific arrays were performed to identify genes directly affected by CRF and involved in breast cancer cell growth. To assess the impact of peripheral CRF as a stress mediator in tumor growth, Balb/c mice were orthotopically injected with 4T1 cells in the mammary fat pad to induce breast tumors. Mice were subjected to repetitive immobilization stress as a model of chronic stress. To inhibit the action of CRF, the CRF antagonist antalarmin was injected intraperitoneally. Breast tissue samples were histologically analyzed and assessed for neoangiogenesis. Results Array analysis revealed among other genes that CRF induced the expression of SMAD2 and β-catenin, genes involved in breast cancer cell proliferation and cytoskeletal changes associated with metastasis. Cell transfection and luciferase assays confirmed the role of CRF in WNT- β-catenin signaling. CRF induced 4T1 cell proliferation and augmented the TGF-β action on proliferation confirming its impact on TGFβ/SMAD2 signaling. In addition, CRF promoted actin reorganization and cell migration, suggesting a direct tumor-promoting action. Chronic stress augmented tumor growth in 4T1 breast tumor bearing mice and peripheral administration of the CRF antagonist antalarmin suppressed this

  2. Rodent model for assessing the long term safety and performance of peripheral nerve recording electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Srikanth; Patel, Kunal; Welle, Cristin

    2017-02-01

    near the implanted electrode shanks, along with dense cellular accumulations near the implant site. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed alterations of the electrode insulation and deformation of electrode shanks. Significance. We describe a comprehensive testing platform with applicability to electrodes that record from the peripheral nerves. This study assesses the long term safety and performance of electrodes in the peripheral nerves using a rodent model. Under this animal test platform, FMA electrodes record single unit action potentials but have limited chronic reliability due to structural weaknesses. Future work will apply these methods to other commercially-available and novel peripheral electrode technologies. This research was carried out in the Division of Biomedical Physics, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratory, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, US Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA.

  3. Management of spastic hand by selective peripheral neurotomies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Selective peripheral neurotomies (SPN) are proposed when spasticity is focalized on muscles that are under the control of a single or few peripheral nerves. Objective: This study was done to evaluate the functional results of SPN of median and ulnar nerves in 10 patients who had spastic hyperflexion of the ...

  4. Selective peripheral denervation: comparison with pallidal stimulation and literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contarino, Maria Fiorella; van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; de Bie, Rob M. A.; Bosch, D. Andries; Schuurman, P. Richard; Speelman, Johannes D.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with cervical dystonia who are non-responders to Botulinum toxin qualify for surgery. Selective peripheral denervation (Bertrand's procedure, SPD) and deep brain stimulation of the globus pallidus (GPi-DBS) are available surgical options. Although peripheral denervation has potential

  5. Consequences of peripheral frequency selectivity for nonsimultaneous masking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, H.

    1973-01-01

    The frequency selectivity of the peripheral ear (e.g., at the VIIIth nerve level) is so acute that onset and offset transients in responses to short signals produce a nonnegligible extension of the signal duration. Thus, peripheral excitation patterns produced by signals which were separated in time

  6. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy : Impact on quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheel, A.; Beijers, A.J.M.; Mols, F.; Faber, C.G.; Vreugdenhil, G.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a frequently occurring side-effect of chemotherapy as a cancer treatment. The incidence of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is increasing as a consequence of better treatment of cancer becoming available and increasing use of chemotherapy, and because CIPN

  7. Peripheral retinal nonperfusion associated with chronic myeloid leukemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobacht, S.; Vandoninck, K.F.; Deutman, A.F.; Klevering, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report a case of peripheral retinal nonperfusion and chronic myeloid leukemia in a 23-year-old woman. DESIGN: Observational case report. METHODS: A complete ophthalmic and systemic evaluation was performed. RESULTS: Ophthalmic examination revealed peripheral retinal nonperfusion with

  8. Enterprise Mac Administrator's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Edge, Charles; Hunter, Beau

    2009-01-01

    Charles Edge, Zack Smith, and Beau Hunter provide detailed explanations of the technology required for large-scale Mac OS X deployments and show you how to integrate it with other operating systems and applications. Enterprise Mac Administrator's Guide addresses the growing size and spread of Mac OS X deployments in corporations and institutions worldwide. In some cases, this is due to the growth of traditional Mac environments, but for the most part it has to do with "switcher" campaigns, where Windows and/or Linux environments are migrating to Mac OS X. However, there is a steep cu

  9. [Mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells with plerixafor in poor mobilizer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Juan-Manuel; Duarte, Rafael; Medina, Laura; Querol, Sergi; Marín, Pedro; Sureda, Anna

    2016-09-02

    Poor mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells (CD34(+) cells) from bone marrow is a frequent reason for not reaching the autologous stem cell trasplantation (SCT) procedure in patients diagnosed with lymphoma or myeloma. Plerixafor, a reversible inhibitor of the binding of stromal cell-derived factor 1 to its cognate receptor CXCR4, has demonstrated a higher capacity for the mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells in combination with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) compared with G-CSF alone. For this reason, plerixafor is now indicated for poor mobilizer myeloma or lymphoma patients. Some studies have recently indicated that a pre-emptive strategy of plerixafor use during first mobilization, according to the number of CD34(+) mobilized cells in peripheral blood or to the harvested CD34(+) cells after first apheresis, could avoid mobilization failures and re-mobilizations, as well as the delay of autologous SCT. The aim of this consensus was to perform a review of published studies on pre-emptive strategy and to establish common recommendations for hospitals in Catalonia and Balearics on the use of pre-emptive plerixafor. For the Consensus, physicians from participant hospitals met to review previous studies as well as previous own data about plerixafor use. The GRADE system was used to qualify the available evidence and to establish recommendations on the use of pre-emptive plerixafor. After a review of the literature, the expert consensus recommended the administration of pre-emptive plerixafor for multiple myeloma or lymphoma patients with a CD34+ cell count lower than 10 cells/μL in peripheral blood (measured in the morning of day 4 of mobilization with G-CSF or after haematopietic recovery in the case of mobilization with chemotherapy plus G-CSF). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Multimodal assessment of painful peripheral neuropathy induced by chronic oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorsey Susan G

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major clinical issue affecting 10-40% of cancer patients treated with oxaliplatin is severe peripheral neuropathy with symptoms including cold sensitivity and neuropathic pain. Rat models have been used to describe the pathological features of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy; however, they are inadequate for parallel studies of oxaliplatin's antineoplastic activity and neurotoxicity because most cancer models are developed in mice. Thus, we characterized the effects of chronic, bi-weekly administration of oxaliplatin in BALB/c mice. We first studied oxaliplatin's effects on the peripheral nervous system by measuring caudal and digital nerve conduction velocities (NCV followed by ultrastructural and morphometric analyses of dorsal root ganglia (DRG and sciatic nerves. To further characterize the model, we examined nocifensive behavior and central nervous system excitability by in vivo electrophysiological recording of spinal dorsal horn (SDH wide dynamic range neurons in oxaliplatin-treated mice Results We found significantly decreased NCV and action potential amplitude after oxaliplatin treatment along with neuronal atrophy and multinucleolated DRG neurons that have eccentric nucleoli. Oxaliplatin also induced significant mechanical allodynia and cold hyperalgesia, starting from the first week of treatment, and a significant increase in the activity of wide dynamic range neurons in the SDH. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that chronic treatment with oxaliplatin produces neurotoxic changes in BALB/c mice, confirming that this model is a suitable tool to conduct further mechanistic studies of oxaliplatin-related antineoplastic activity, peripheral neurotoxicity and pain. Further, this model can be used for the preclinical discovery of new neuroprotective and analgesic compounds.

  11. Cytochalasin-b micronucleus test of peripheral blood lymphocytes of Kozloduy NPP workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekova, V.; Hristova, R.; Atanassova, P.; Stainova, A.; Popova, L.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes was applied to evaluate occupational radiation exposure of 65 nuclear power plant workers. Blood samples were collected from 43 workers aged between 32-54 years, mean age 41,7 years. The accumulated radiation doses for each subject varied between 7,9 - 766,4 mSv, mean level of the whole group is 237,78 mSv. Controls were 22 healthy individuals, (13 male and 9 female), aged between 27-52 years, mean age 38,8 years, selected from the administrative staff. All subjects participating in this study were interviewed concerning health status, professional history, smoking habit and other aspects relevant to the study. At least 1000 binucleated cells were analysed per person. The detected frequencies of micronuclei in the control group were ranged between 4.0 and 23.5 per 1000 binucleated cells, with the average incidence yield of 12.16 ±5.59 %. The mean group value of the frequency of micronuclei in peripheral lymphocytes of exposed workers was found to be 18.46±6.72 % in 1000 cells. The difference between the mean frequency of micronuclei in the group of exposed subjects and the control group was statistically significant (P<0,001). The correlation coefficient for duration of employment and accumulated doses is 0,30 (P<0,05). After 1,5 Gy in vitro irradiation of peripheral blood from investigated workers and controls a decreased radiosensitivity of NPP workers is detected using micronucleus assay. Decreased radiosensitivity of the professionally exposed workers could be due to the phenomenon of adaptive response. Micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes is useful approach in cytogenetic monitoring of occupationally exposed nuclear industry workers

  12. Radiosensitizing activity and pharmacokinetics of multiple dose administered KU-2285 in peripheral nerve tissue in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Hiroyuki; Matsuno, Etsuko; Sasai, Keisuke; Abe, Mitsuyuki; Shibamoto, Yuta

    1994-01-01

    In a clinical trial in which a 2-nitroimidazole radiosensitizer was administered repeatedly, the dose-limiting toxicity was found to be peripheral neuropathy. In the present study, the in vivo radiosensitizing activity of KU-2285 in combination with radiation dose fractionation, and the pharmacokinetics of cumulative dosing of KU-2285 in the peripheral nerves were examined. The ability of three nitroimidazoles, misonidazole (MISO), etanidazole (SR-2508) and KU-2285, to sensitize SCCVII tumors to radiation treatment has been compared for drug doses in the range 0-200 mg/kg. Single radiation doses or two different fractionation schedules (6 Gy/fractions x three fractions/48 h or 5 Gy/fractions x five fractions/48 h) were used; the tumor cell survival was determined using an in vivo/in vitro colony assay. The pharmacokinetics in the sciatic nerves were undertaken, when KU-2285 or etanidazole were injected at a dose of 200 mg/kg intravenously one, two, three, or four times at 2-h intervals. At less than 100 mg/kg, KU-2285 sensitized SCCVII tumors more than MISO and SR-2508 by fractionated irradiation. Evaluation of pharmacokinetics in the peripheral nerves showed that the apparent biological half-life of SR-2508 increased with the increases in the number of administrations, whereas that of KU-2285 became shorter. Since most clinical radiotherapy is given in small multiple fractions, KU-2285 appears to be a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer that could be useful in such regimens, and that poses no risk of chronic peripheral neurotoxicity. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Nerve conduction and excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Moldovan, Mihai

    2009-01-01

    counterparts in the peripheral nervous system, in some instances without peripheral nervous system symptoms. Both hereditary and acquired demyelinating neuropathies have been studied and the effects on nerve pathophysiology have been compared with degeneration and regeneration of axons. SUMMARY: Excitability......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review is aimed at providing information about the role of nerve excitability studies in peripheral nerve disorders. It has been known for many years that the insight into peripheral nerve pathophysiology provided by conventional nerve conduction studies is limited. Nerve...... excitability studies are relatively novel but are acquiring an increasingly important role in the study of peripheral nerves. RECENT FINDINGS: By measuring responses in nerve that are related to nodal function (strength-duration time constant, rheobase and recovery cycle) and internodal function (threshold...

  14. Assessment of central dopaminergic function using plasma-free homovanillic acid after debrisoquin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, M A; Leckman, J F; Cohen, D J; Anderson, M; Ort, S I; Caruso, K A; Shaywitz, B A

    1986-01-01

    Central dopaminergic (DA) function in children and adults was assessed by monitoring plasma-free levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (pHVA) before and after a single oral dose and chronic oral administration of debrisoquin. Debrisoquin inhibits peripheral metabolism of dopamine to HVA and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. By reducing peripheral formation of HVA through the use of debrisoquin, the remaining HVA in plasma more accurately reflects central DA activity. Debrisoquin administration resulted in marked reductions of pHVA in each of 12 patients studied. Eleven of the 12 subjects tolerated debrisoquin without physical or behavioral side effects. The debrisoquin administration method appears to be a safe and potentially valid technique for evaluating aspects of central dopaminergic function in children and adults.

  15. Effects of Flurbiprofen Axetil on Postoperative Analgesia and Cytokines in Peripheral Blood of Thoracotomy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Li, Beiping; Kong, Ming

    2015-06-01

    The objective is to study the effects of flurbiprofen axetil (FA) with fentanyl together in postoperative controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) on pain intensity, cytokine levels in peripheral blood and adverse reactions of thoracotomy patients. Fifty thoracotomy patients were divided into a FA and a control group, each with 25 cases. Postoperative analgesia was administered in the two groups using PCIA. The pressing times of analgesia pump, the visual analog scale (VAS) scores during resting and coughing at 2, 6, 24, 48, 72 h after surgery and the incidence of adverse drug reactions were recorded. Levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-2, and TNF-α in peripheral blood were determined before the administration of FA (T0), and at 24 h (T1), 48 h (T2), 72 h (T3) after surgery. The analgesia pump pressing times in the FA group was less than that of the control group. The VAS scores during resting and coughing at 2, 6, 24, 48, 72 h after surgery, were statistically less than those of control group. The incidence rate of nausea and vomiting was insignificantly different between the two groups. Administration of FA together with PCIA in thoracotomy patients can improve postoperative analgesia.

  16. Behavioral and pharmacological characteristics of bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Yamamoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bortezomib, an effective anticancer drug for multiple myeloma, often causes peripheral neuropathy which is mainly characterized by numbness and painful paresthesia. Nevertheless, there is no effective strategy to escape or treat bortezomib-induced peripheral neuropathy (BIPN, because we have understood few mechanism of this side effect. In this study, we evaluated behavioral and pathological characteristics of BIPN, and investigated pharmacological efficacy of various analgesic drugs and adjuvants on mechanical allodynia induced by bortezomib treatment in rats. The repeated administration of bortezomib induced mechanical and cold allodynia. There was axonal degeneration of sciatic nerve behind these neuropathic symptoms. Furthermore, the exposure to bortezomib shortened neurite length in PC12 cells. Finally, the result of evaluation of anti-allodynic potency, oral administration of tramadol (10 mg/kg, pregabalin (3 mg/kg, duloxetine (30 mg/kg or mexiletine (100 mg/kg, but not amitriptyline or diclofenac, transiently relieved the mechanical allodynia induced by bortezomib. These results suggest that axonal degeneration of the sciatic nerve is involved in BIPN and that some analgesic drugs and adjuvants are effective in the relief of painful neuropathy.

  17. Behavioral Public Administration : Combining Insights from Public Administration and Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405; Jilke, Sebastian; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Tummers, L.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341028274

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing upon insights from psychology on behavior of individuals and groups. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on theories and

  18. Entrance and peripheral dose measurements during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulieman, A.; Kappas, K.; Theodorou, K.

    2008-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry of entrance dose was performed using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) in order to evaluate the clinical application of the build up caps in patient dose measurements and for different treatment techniques. Peripheral dose (thyroid and skin) was measured for patients during breast radiotherapy to evaluate the probability of secondary cancer induction. TLD-100 chips were used with different Copper build up caps (for 6 MV and 15 MV photon beams from two linear accelerators. Entrance doses were measured for patients during radiotherapy course for breast, head and neck, abdomen and pelvis malignancies. The measured entrance dose for the different patients for 6 MV beams is found to be within the ±2.6% compared to the dose derived from theoretical estimation (normalized dose at D max ). The same measurements for 15 MV beams are found to be ±3 %. The perturbation value can reach up to 20% of the D max , which acts as a limitation for entrance dose measurements. An average thyroid skin dose of 3.7% of the prescribed dose was measured per treatment session while the mean skin dose breast treatment session is estimated to be 42% of D max , for both internal and external fields. These results are comparable in those of the in vivo of reported in literature. The risk of fatality due to thyroid cancer per treatment course is 3x10 -3

  19. Nuclear transfer in peripheral heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, K.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the whole thesis is to understand the experimental results of N. Frascaria et al. (1980), namely structures in the cross section as function of the excitation energy for the reaction 40 Ca + 40 Ca at 400 MeV incident energy. We present therefore in chapter 1 a simple model of two identical potentials with only two energy levels. On the base of statistically independent T-L excitations and by fitting a two parameters to the experiments it succeeds to reproduce sufficiently the experimental results. The next step is a microscopical treatment of these parameters for the understanding and the foundation of the fitted values. For this we develop in chapter 2 a theory of collective variables in the framework of TDHF which allows to perform in chapter 3 in a very transparent way microscopical calculations and especially to understand the transfer behaviour in peripheral heavy ion reactions. This transfer behaviour will also be the key for the understanding of the experimental structures. (orig.) [de

  20. Ethanol sclerotherapy of peripheral venous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimon, U. E-mail: rimonu@sheba.health.gov.il; Garniek, A.; Galili, Y.; Golan, G.; Bensaid, P.; Morag, B

    2004-12-01

    Background: venous malformations are congenital lesions that can cause pain, decreased range of movement, compression on adjacent structures, bleeding, consumptive coagulopathy and cosmetic deformity. Sclerotherapy alone or combined with surgical excision is the accepted treatment in symptomatic malformations after failed treatment attempts with tailored compression garments. Objectives: to report our experience with percutaneous sclerotherapy of peripheral venous malformations with ethanol 96%. Patients and methods: 41 sclerotherapy sessions were performed on 21 patients, aged 4-46 years, 15 females and 6 males. Fourteen patients were treated for painful extremity lesions, while five others with face and neck lesions and two with giant chest malformations had treatment for esthetic reasons. All patients had a pre-procedure magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. In all patients, 96% ethanol was used as the sclerosant by direct injection using general anesthesia. A minimum of 1-year clinical follow-up was performed. Follow-up imaging studies were performed if clinically indicated. Results: 17 patients showed complete or partial symptomatic improvement after one to nine therapeutic sessions. Four patients with lower extremity lesions continue to suffer from pain and they are considered as a treatment failure. Complications were encountered in five patients, including acute pulmonary hypertension with cardiovascular collapse, pulmonary embolus, skin ulcers (two) and skin blisters. All patients fully recovered. Conclusion: sclerotherapy with 96% ethanol for venous malformations was found to be effective for symptomatic improvement, but serious complications can occur.