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Sample records for periodontal disease-an analysis

  1. Maternal periodontal disease and risk of preeclampsia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xi; Wang, Juan; Liu, Jian; Hua, Li; Zhang, Dan; Hu, Ting; Ge, Zi-Li

    2014-10-01

    Research on the association between maternal periodontal disease and the risk of preeclampsia has generated inconsistent results. This meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between maternal periodontal disease and the risk of preeclampsia. A literature search of PubMed and Embase was performed to identify relevant papers published before March 2013. Only observational studies that assessed maternal periodontal disease and the risk of preeclampsia were selected. Patients' periodontal status was examined at different time points during pregnancy or after delivery (at 14-32 weeks of gestation, within 48 h prior to or within 5 days after delivery). Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for cases and controls. Cases were defined as women with concurrent hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Eleven studies involving 1118 women with preeclampsia and 2798 women without preeclampsia were identified and analyzed. Women with periodontal disease before 32 weeks of gestation had a 3.69-fold higher risk of developing preeclampsia than their counterparts without periodontal disease (OR=3.69; 95% CI=2.58-5.27). Periodontal disease within 48 h prior to delivery was associated with a 2.68-fold higher risk of preeclampsia (OR=2.68; 95% CI=1.39-5.18). Pregnant women with periodontal disease within 5 days after delivery had a 2.22-fold higher risk of preeclampsia than women without periodontal disease (OR=2.22; 95% CI=1.16-4.27). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that maternal periodontal disease is an independent predictor of preeclampsia.

  2. Periodontal disease is an independent predictor of intracardiac calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Gregg S; Qasim, Atif; Verma, Nitin; Miyamae, Masami; Arishiro, Kumiko; Notohara, Yasuhiro; Crudu, Vitalie; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2013-01-01

    Periodontitis is the most common chronic inflammatory condition worldwide and is associated with incident coronary disease. We hypothesized that periodontal disease would also be associated with cardiac calcification, a condition which shares many risk factors with atherosclerosis and is considered a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Cross-sectional study at two sites (USA and Japan) involving subjects with both clinical echocardiograms and detailed dental examinations. Semiquantitative scoring systems were used to assess severity of periodontal disease and echocardiographic calcification. Fifty-six of 73 subjects (77%) had cardiac calcifications, and 51% had moderate to severe periodontal disease (score > 2). In unadjusted analysis, a significant relationship between periodontal score and cardiac calcification (Spearman rho = 0.4, P = 0.001) was noted, with increases in mean calcification score seen across increasing levels of periodontal disease. On multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, race, glomerular filtration rate, and traditional risk factors, this association remained significant (P = 0.024). There was no significant interaction by study site, race, or gender. In a multiracial population, we found a significant association between the degree of periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory condition, and cardiac calcification. Further, higher periodontal scores were associated with greater degrees of calcification.

  3. Periodontal Disease Is an Independent Predictor of Intracardiac Calcification

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    Gregg S. Pressman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Periodontitis is the most common chronic inflammatory condition worldwide and is associated with incident coronary disease. Hypothesis. We hypothesized that periodontal disease would also be associated with cardiac calcification, a condition which shares many risk factors with atherosclerosis and is considered a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods. Cross-sectional study at two sites (USA and Japan involving subjects with both clinical echocardiograms and detailed dental examinations. Semiquantitative scoring systems were used to assess severity of periodontal disease and echocardiographic calcification. Results. Fifty-six of 73 subjects (77% had cardiac calcifications, and 51% had moderate to severe periodontal disease (score > 2. In unadjusted analysis, a significant relationship between periodontal score and cardiac calcification (Spearman rho = 0.4, P=0.001 was noted, with increases in mean calcification score seen across increasing levels of periodontal disease. On multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, race, glomerular filtration rate, and traditional risk factors, this association remained significant (P=0.024. There was no significant interaction by study site, race, or gender. Conclusions. In a multiracial population, we found a significant association between the degree of periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory condition, and cardiac calcification. Further, higher periodontal scores were associated with greater degrees of calcification.

  4. Periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis: A meta-analysis of 17,330 participants.

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    Zeng, Xian-Tao; Leng, Wei-Dong; Lam, Yat-Yin; Yan, Bryan P; Wei, Xue-Mei; Weng, Hong; Kwong, Joey S W

    2016-01-15

    The association between periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis has been evaluated primarily in single-center studies, and whether periodontal disease is an independent risk factor of carotid atherosclerosis remains uncertain. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between periodontal disease and carotid atherosclerosis. We searched PubMed and Embase for relevant observational studies up to February 20, 2015. Two authors independently extracted data from included studies, and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for overall and subgroup meta-analyses. Statistical heterogeneity was assessed by the chi-squared test (Pperiodontal disease was associated with carotid atherosclerosis (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.14-1.41; Pperiodontal disease was associated with carotid atherosclerosis; however, further large-scale, well-conducted clinical studies are needed to explore the precise risk of developing carotid atherosclerosis in patients with periodontal disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Herbs as an antioxidant arsenal for periodontal diseases

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    Asha Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines have long been used as a traditional mode of therapy for various ailments in India. They are being used increasingly as dietary supplements to ward off common diseases. Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent and can affect up to 90% of the world population. Gingivitis is the mild form whereas periodontitis results in an irreversible loss of supporting structures of the teeth. Even though periodontal pathogens form a crucial component in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting oxidative stress playing a pivotal role in the disease initiation and progression. Studies have shown a direct correlation between increased levels of biomarkers for tissue damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS to the severity of periodontal disease. Thus, the focus of attention has revolved back to herbal medicines due to their wide spectrum of biological and medicinal activities, lower costs, and higher safety margin. Internet databases Pubmed and Google Scholar were searched, and the most relevant articles were considered for review. This review briefly describes the various herbs with antioxidant capacity and their potency in the treating periodontal disease. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(1.000: 92-96

  6. Periodontal Disease Status in an Isolated Greek Adult Population

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    N. A. Chrysanthakopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the periodontal condition of an adult population in three isolated regions in Greece and to determine the association of periodontal disease with several demographic, behavioral and environmental factors.Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 640 individuals, aged 20to69 years from three isolated regions. The following indices were assessed: Pocket Depth (PD, Clinical Attachment Level (CAL, Dental Plaque, Calculus and Bleeding on Probing (BOP. Statistical analysis was accomplished by multiple linear regression model which was used to assess the association between the mean clinical attachment loss and clinical, demographic and behavioral parameters.Results: The samples of the study showed high levels of dental plaque, dental calculus and BOP. The final multivariate model showed that age (p=0.000, gender (p=0.016 and presence of calculus (p=0.000 were associated with the mean clinical attachment loss. Age (p=0.000, gender (p=0.000 and dental plaque (p=0.027 were associated with gingival recession, while age (p=0.018 and gender (p=0.000 were associated with probing depth. Bleeding on probing, dental plaque, toothbrush frequency, level of education, tobacco consumption and reasons for dental visits were not associated with the mean clinical attachment loss.Conclusion: Periodontal disease consists of a complicated destructive condition of the Periodontal tissue with a.multi-factorial etiology. Oral hygiene instructions and a regular dental follow-up could play a significant role in the prevention of periodontal disease.Key Words: Periodontal Disease; Epidemiology; Risk Factors

  7. Periodontal Disease and Systemic Diseases: An Update for the Clinician.

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    John, Vanchit; Alqallaf, Hawra; De Bedout, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    A link between periodontal disease and various systemic diseases has been investigated for several years. Interest in unearthing such a link has grown as the health care profession is looking for a better understanding of disease processes and their relationships to periodontal and other oral diseases. The article aims to provide recent information on the relationship between periodontal disease and systemic diseases such as; cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, musculoskeletal, and reproductive system related abnormalities.

  8. Study of Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontal diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Rafiei, Mohammad; Kiani, Faezeh; Sayehmiri, Fatemeh; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Sheikhi, Abdolkarim; Zamanian Azodi, Mona

    2017-01-01

    Background : The mouth cavity hosts various types of anaerobic bacteria including Porphyromonas gingivalis , which causes periodontal inflammatory diseases. P. gingivalis is a gram-negative oral anaerobe and is considered as a main etiological factor in periodontal diseases. Several studies have reported a relationship between P. gingivalis in individuals with periodontal diseases and a critical role of this bacterium in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. The present study aimed at estimating this probability using a meta-analysis. Methods : We searched several databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science to identify case-control studies addressing the relationship between P. gingivalis with periodontal diseases. A total of 49 reports published from different countries from 1993 to 2014 were included in this study. I² (heterogeneity index) statistics were calculated to examine heterogeneity. Data were analyzed using STATA Version 11. Results : After a detailed analysis of the selected articles, 49 case-control studies with 5924 individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The healthy controls included 2600 healthy individuals with a Mean±SD age of 36.56±7.45 years. The periodontal diseases group included 3356 patients with a mean age of 43.62±8.35 years. There was a statistically significant difference between P. gingivalis in periodontal patients and healthy controls; 9.24 (95% CI: 5.78 to 14.77; P = 0.000). In the other word, there was a significant relationship between the presence of P. gingivalis and periodontal diseases. Conclusion : Analyzing the results of the present study, we found a strong association between the presence of P. gingivalis and periodontal diseases. This result suggests that another research is needed to further assess this subject.

  9. Periodontal Disease and Incident Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xian-Tao; Xia, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Yong-Gang; Li, Sheng; Leng, Wei-Dong; Kwong, Joey S W

    2016-10-01

    Periodontal disease is linked to a number of systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Recent evidence has suggested periodontal disease might be associated with lung cancer. However, their precise relationship is yet to be explored. Hence, this study aims to investigate the association of periodontal disease and risk of incident lung cancer using a meta-analytic approach. PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect were searched up to June 10, 2015. Cohort and nested case-control studies investigating risk of lung cancer in patients with periodontal disease were included. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated, as were their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a fixed-effect inverse-variance model. Statistical heterogeneity was explored using the Q test as well as the I(2) statistic. Publication bias was assessed by visual inspection of funnel plots symmetry and Egger's test. Five cohort studies were included, involving 321,420 participants in this meta-analysis. Summary estimates based on adjusted data showed that periodontal disease was associated with a significant risk of lung cancer (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.36; I(2) = 30%). No publication bias was detected. Subgroup analysis indicated that the association of periodontal disease and lung cancer remained significant in the female population. Evidence from cohort studies suggests that patients with periodontal disease are at increased risk of developing lung cancer.

  10. Comorbidity of periodontal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Damgaard, Christian; Olsen, Ingar

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence has suggested an independent association between periodontitis and a range of comorbidities, for example cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, psoriasis, and respiratory infections. Shared....... The present article presents an overview of the evidence linking periodontitis with selected systemic diseases and calls for increased cooperation between dentists and medical doctors to provide optimal screening, treatment, and prevention of both periodontitis and its comorbidities....... inflammatory pathways are likely to contribute to this association, but distinct causal mechanisms remain to be defined. Some of these comorbid conditions may improve by periodontal treatment, and a bidirectional relationship may exist, where, for example, treatment of diabetes can improve periodontal status...

  11. Periodontal disease has an impact on patients' quality of life.

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    Reynolds, Ian; Duane, Brett

    2018-03-23

    Data sourcesMedline, Embase, OpenGrey, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Periodontology and a hand search of the bibliographies of retrieved publications.Study selectionTwo reviewers screened the title and abstract of 1134 studies from the literature and selected 37 suitable publications for inclusion following full text analysis of 109 papers and agreement between both reviewers. The search included observational, epidemiological studies and clinical trials that fufilled the inclusion criteria. The publications assessed contained a periodontal clinical examination and a validated OHRQoL questionnaire. There were no language restrictions and the review was performed according to the MOOSE statement.Data extraction and synthesisData were extracted from each study applying the PECO format. The quality of the observational studies was evaluated by the Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS) and clinical trials by the (MINORS) methodological index for non-randomised studies. The Strength of Grading Taxonomy (SORT) was utilised to assess the level of evidence and strength of recommendation of the included studies. A meta-analysis was not undertaken due the heterogeneity of the included studies, therefore results were synthesised by applying a vote counting method.ResultsThirty-seven studies included in the review were evaluated by the vote counting method. According to NOS and MINORS the risk of bias was identified as moderate with most studies assessing 50% to 83% of the parameters established. A level two for quality of evidence and a level B for strength of recommendation were applicable for the relationship between clinically diagnosed periodontal disease and OHRQoL. The evidence level was consistent across the studies. Nineteen of the studies examined a distinct population group with respect to diagnosis of systemic disease, socioeconomic status, demographic background or periodontal diagnosis. Twenty-eight of the included studies reported an association between

  12. Periodontal diseases of children and adolescents. An update.

    OpenAIRE

    Almas K; Paul T

    1996-01-01

    Plaque related periodontal diseases in children and adolescents have long been recognized, but recent studies have highlighted their prevalence and presentation. The aim of this article is to highlight the current classification of periodontal diseases of children and adolescents and to review the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. This will help dental practitioners to diagnose and treat their juvenile and young adult patients suffering from different types of periodontal diseases.

  13. Periodontal disease severity in subjects with dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Gusman, David Jonathan R; Mello-Neto, João M; Alves, Breno Edson S; Matheus, Henrique R; Ervolino, Edilson; Theodoro, Letícia H; de Almeida, Juliano M

    Despite clinical trials and reviews attempt to assess a possible relationship between dementia and periodontal disease, no meta-analysis has been performed and this issue remains undetermined. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess severity of periodontitis in subjects with dementia. The search was conducted in Pubmed, Embase/MEDLINE. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the risk bias (Newcastle-Ottawa scale). Meta-analyses were performed using the means of probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) in patients with or without dementia. The mean difference were analyzed (P ≤ 0.05). Fourteen studies were included in the systematic review. In the qualitative analysis, most studies reported higher prevalence of periodontal disease in dementia patients. The studies had low risk of bias and two meta-analyses were performed for each parameter, including or not a cross-sectional study. The meta-analyses including the cross-sectional study demonstrated significant association between dementia and periodontal disease (mean difference: PD = 1.41; CAL = 1.40, P periodontal conditions in dementia patients, due to different study types and the high heterogeneity among them, the meta-analysis does not support the association between dementia and severity of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 16S rDNA analysis of periodontal plaque in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and periodontitis patients.

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    Wu, Xingwen; Chen, Jiazhen; Xu, Meng; Zhu, Danting; Wang, Xuyang; Chen, Yulin; Wu, Jing; Cui, Chenghao; Zhang, Wenhong; Yu, Liying

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated if chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is correlated with periodontitis via periodontal microbiota and if certain bacteria affect periodontitis as well as COPD. Moreover, the study investigated whether suffering from COPD is associated with a decrease in the richness and diversity of periodontal microbiota. Subgingival plaque was obtained from 105 patients. Bacterial DNA was isolated from 55 COPD and 50 non-COPD participants (either with or without periodontitis). 16S rRNA gene metagenomic sequencing was used to characterize the microbiota and to determine taxonomic classification. In the non-periodontitis patients, suffering from COPD resulted in a decrease in bacteria richness and diversity in the periodontal microenvironment. An increase in the genera Dysgonomonas , Desulfobulbus , and Catonella and in four species ( Porphyromonas endodontalis , Dysgonomonas wimpennyi , Catonella morbi , and Prevotella intermedia ) in both COPD and periodontitis patients suggests that an increase in these periodontitis-associated microbiota may be related to COPD. Three genera ( Johnsonella , Campylobacter , and Oribacterium ) were associated with COPD but not with periodontitis. The decrease in the genera Arcanobacterium , Oribacterium , and Streptomyces in COPD patients implies that these genera may be health-associated genera, and the decrease in these genera may be related to disease. These data support the hypothesis that COPD is correlated with periodontitis via these significantly changed specific bacteria.

  15. The Relationship Between Fatty Liver Disease and Periodontal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-22

    Periodontitis is a highly prevalent and destructive chronic disease. Numerous studies support an association between periodontal disease and other...destruction seen in periodontal disease. The association between the two diseases has never been investigated. A reasonable mechanism in which periodontal ...disease may play a role in the destruction seen in NAFLD is the remote site infection of periodontal disease. Chewing and oral hygiene measures lead to

  16. Periodontal Diseases

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    ... diseases. The primary research focus was on oral bacteria. Periodontal diseases were thought to begin when chalky white ... tools to target their treatment specifically to the bacteria that trigger periodontal disease. At the same time, because biofilms form ...

  17. Pregnancy and periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sağlam, Ebru; Saruhan, Nesrin; Çanakçı, Cenk Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Some maternal immunological changes due to pregnancy increases susceptibility to infections. Periodontal disease, the main cause is plaque, is a common disease which is seen multifactorial and varying severity. There are many clinical criteria for diagnosis of periodontal disease. Correlation between pregnancy and periodontal inflammation is known for many years. Periodontal disease affects pregnant’s systemic condition and also has negative effects on fetus. Periodontal disease increases the...

  18. Periodontal disease and pregnancy hypertension: a clinical correlation.

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    Pralhad, Swati; Thomas, Betsy; Kushtagi, Pralhad

    2013-08-01

    Periodontal disease is thought to be associated with increased risk of systemic diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy hypertension (PH). The aim of the present study is to find the prevalence of periodontal disease in females with PH in a rural-based medical institute. The present case control study was performed with 200 females, 100 with PH and 100 without PH. Antenatal periodontal screening was performed within 72 hours of their hospital admission for delivery. The periodontal parameters assessed were oral hygiene index-simplified, gingival index, mean probing depth, and loss of attachment. Prevalence of periodontal disease was 65.5% and was significantly higher (P periodontal disease and PH on bivariate multiple logistic regression analysis. Nulliparous females were at higher odds to develop periodontal disease and PH (odds ratio = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.5 to 6.1). As the severity of periodontal disease increased from moderate to severe, the severity of hypertension also increased (r(2) = 0.8 and 0.5 for moderate and severe periodontal disease, respectively). Periodontal disease is more prevalent in females with PH.

  19. Treatment of oral malodor and periodontal disease using an antibiotic rinse.

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    Southward, Ken; Bosy, Anne

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an antibiotic rinse preparation, containing metronidazole and nystatin, in decreasing oral malodor and periodontal disease for individuals whose chief complaint was halitosis. This topical approach to oral biofilm control, by proactively managing the most pathogenic bacteria, differs from the traditional approach of reactively treating the symptoms by attempting to reduce all oral bacteria. The late Dr. Loesche, University of Michigan, School of Dentistry, had previously described these different paradigms as the specific plaque hypothesis and the non-specific plaque hypothesis, respectively. Patients in this study were measured before and after treatment for volatile sulphur compounds using a portable sulphide monitor, a digital gas chromatograph, and organoleptic assessment. The presence of periodontal disease was determined by 6-point periodontal probing, to assess pocket depth and bleeding points. Of the 1000 patient charts sent electronically to the University of Michigan for analysis, 649 participants were selected based on complete pre- and post-treatment data, and statistically analyzed by a statistician, who was an expert in case study analysis. The post-treatment reduction of oral malodor was 80% (P = 0.0001). The difference in bleeding points pre- and post-treatment was 87% (P = 0.0001). There was a decrease in the number of teeth with 6 and 7 mm pockets by 76% and teeth with 5 mm pockets decreased by 84% (P = 0.0001). Treatment with the antibiotic rinse had a positive change in the periodontal status and breath odor of these patients. These data indicate that there is considerable advantage to the use of topical antibiotic rinses. A substantial decrease in both halitosis and periodontal disease markers can be achieved without the risk of the systemic effects of an oral antibiotic.

  20. Strengthening the prevention of periodontal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the burden of periodontal disease in adult populations worldwide, to emphasize the essential risk factors common to periodontal disease and chronic diseases, to outline important new strategies for effective prevention of periodontal...... disease, and to inform about the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) in developing a national capacity for the prevention of disease. METHODS: Information about periodontal health status as measured by the Community Periodontal Index system is stored in the WHO Global Oral Health Data Bank....... Updated information concerning WHO standard age groups was used to describe the prevalence rates of signs of periodontal disease, i.e., gingival bleeding, periodontal pocketing, and loss of attachment. RESULTS: Gingival bleeding is highly prevalent among adult populations in all regions of the world...

  1. [Periodontal disease in pediatric rheumatic diseases].

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    Fabri, Gisele M C; Savioli, Cynthia; Siqueira, José T; Campos, Lucia M; Bonfá, Eloisa; Silva, Clovis A

    2014-01-01

    Gingivitis and periodontitis are immunoinflammatory periodontal diseases characterized by chronic localized infections usually associated with insidious inflammation This narrative review discusses periodontal diseases and mechanisms influencing the immune response and autoimmunity in pediatric rheumatic diseases (PRD), particularly juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (C-SLE) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). Gingivitis was more frequently observed in these diseases compared to health controls, whereas periodontitis was a rare finding. In JIA patients, gingivitis and periodontitis were related to mechanical factors, chronic arthritis with functional disability, dysregulation of the immunoinflammatory response, diet and drugs, mainly corticosteroids and cyclosporine. In C-SLE, gingivitis was associated with longer disease period, high doses of corticosteroids, B-cell hyperactivation and immunoglobulin G elevation. There are scarce data on periodontal diseases in JDM population, and a unique gingival pattern, characterized by gingival erythema, capillary dilation and bush-loop formation, was observed in active patients. In conclusion, gingivitis was the most common periodontal disease in PRD. The observed association with disease activity reinforces the need for future studies to determine if resolution of this complication will influence disease course or severity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Common periodontal diseases of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghutaimel, Hayat; Riba, Hisham; Al-Kahtani, Salem; Al-Duhaimi, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Background. Since 2000, studies, experiments, and clinical observations revealed high prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents. Therefore, this paper was designed to provide an update for dental practitioners on epidemiology, microbiology, pathology, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of periodontal diseases in children and adolescents. Methods. This paper reviews the current literature concerning periodontal diseases in pediatric dentistry. It includes MEDLINE database search using key terms: "periodontal diseases in children," "Periodontal diseasesin adolescents," "periodontal diseases risk factors," "microbiology of periodontal diseases," "classification of periodontal diseases," "epidemiology of periodontal diseases," and "treatment of periodontal diseases." Articles were evaluated by title and/or abstract and relevance to pediatric dentistry. Sixty-five citations were selected by this method and by the references within the chosen articles. A review of the comprehensive textbooks on pediatric dentistry and periodontology was done. Some recommendations were based on the opinions of experienced researchers and clinicians, when data were inconclusive.

  3. Association of peripheral arterial disease with periodontal disease: analysis of inflammatory cytokines and an acute phase protein in gingival crevicular fluid and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalapkorur, M Unlu; Alkan, B A; Tasdemir, Z; Akcali, Y; Saatçi, E

    2017-06-01

    Inflammation is a common feature of both peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PAD and periodontal disease by examining the levels of inflammatory cytokines (pentraxin 3 and interleukin 1β) and high sensitive C-reactive protein from gingival crevicular fluid and serum. A total of 60 patients were included in this cross-sectional study. Patients were divided into two groups based on ankle-brachial index values: with PAD (test group) and non-PAD (control group). Demographic evaluations, clinical periodontal examinations and biochemical analysis for pentraxin 3, interleukin 1β and high sensitive C-reactive protein were performed to compare the two groups. There were no significant differences with respect to gender, age, body mass index, or smoking history (duration, amount) between the two groups (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of clinical periodontal parameters (p > 0.05). Neither gingival crevicular fluid nor serum levels of the cytokines showed differences between the two groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that, after adjusting for confounding factors (age, gender, diabetes, hypertension and body mass index), periodontitis raised the odds ratio for having PAD to 5.842 (95% confidence interval: 1.558-21.909). Although there were no significant differences with respect to clinical periodontal parameters and biochemical analyses between the study group and control, periodontitis did raise the odds ratio for having PAD. To clarify this possible relationship, future prospective studies are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Development and validation of a self-reported periodontal disease measure among Jordanians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Yousef; Alhabashneh, Rola; Alhersh, Fadi

    2015-08-01

    The development of self-reported measures of periodontal disease would be of great benefit to facilitate epidemiological studies of periodontal disease on a larger scale, and to allow for surveillance of the periodontal condition of populations over time. To develop a culturally adapted self-reported measure of periodontal disease, test its predictive and discriminative validity and establish a cut-off value for this measure to diagnose periodontal disease. A total of 288 Jordanian adults completed the questionnaire assessing self-reported periodontal health (18 questions) and underwent periodontal examination. Of the 18 questions, six were significantly associated with at least one clinical definition of periodontitis and were used to constitute the self-reported periodontal disease measure. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses were used to examine the overall discriminatory power, sensitivity and specificity, and corresponding cut-off points of the self-reported periodontal disease measure. ROC analysis showed that the self-reported periodontal disease measure had an excellent performance to discriminate between those with and without periodontal disease, regardless of the clinical definition used. A score of 2, on a scale of 0 to 6, had the highest sensitivity and specificity to detect periodontal disease when defined by all study criteria. Significant associations were observed between self-reported periodontal disease measures and all clinical definitions in the regression analysis (the odds ratio ranged from 8.31 to 18.96), according to the clinical definition to be predicted. Self-reported periodontal disease measures have excellent predictive and discriminative validity when tested against clinical definitions, and severity and extent of periodontal disease. © 2015 FDI World Dental Federation.

  5. Contextual and individual determinants of periodontal disease: Multilevel analysis based on Andersen's model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Maria I B; Vettore, Mario V

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the relationship of contextual and individual factors with periodontal disease in dentate adults and older people using the Andersen's behavioural model. Secondary individual data from 6011 adults and 2369 older people from the Brazilian Oral Health Survey (2010) were combined with contextual data for 27 cities. Attachment loss (AL) categories for each sextant were coded and summed to obtain the periodontal disease measure. The association of predisposing, enabling and need characteristics at city and individual level with periodontal disease was assessed using an adapted version of the Andersen's behavioural model. Multilevel Poisson regression was used to estimate rate ratios (RR) and 95% CIs. Periodontal disease was associated with contextual predisposing (RR 0.93; 95% CI = 0.87-0.99) and enabling factors (RR 0.99; 95% CI = 0.98-0.99) in adults. Contextual predisposing was also associated with periodontal disease in older people (RR 0.82; 95% CI = 0.73-0.92). Individual predisposing (age, sex and schooling) and need characteristics (perceived treatment need) were common predictors of periodontal disease in adults and older people. Periodontal disease was also associated with behaviours in the latter age group. Contextual predisposing factors and individual characteristics influenced periodontal disease experience in adults and older people. Contextual enabling factors were also meaningful determinants of periodontal disease in the former age group. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Association between periodontal diseases and systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Weidlich

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Current evidence suggests that periodontal disease may be associated with systemic diseases. This paper reviewed the published data about the relationship between periodontal disease and cardiovascular diseases, adverse pregnancy outcomes, diabetes and respiratory diseases, focusing on studies conducted in the Brazilian population. Only a few studies were found in the literature focusing on Brazilians (3 concerning cardiovascular disease, 7 about pregnancy outcomes, 9 about diabetes and one regarding pneumonia. Although the majority of them observed an association between periodontitis and systemic conditions, a causal relationship still needs to be demonstrated. Further studies, particularly interventional well-designed investigations, with larger sample sizes, need to be conducted in Brazilian populations.

  7. Association between periodontal disease and mortality in people with CKD: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Hong; Sun, Min; Chen, Jianghua

    2017-08-16

    Periodontal disease occurs relatively prevalently in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but it remains indeterminate whether periodontal disease is an independent risk factor for premature death in this population. Interventions to reduce mortality in CKD population consistently yield to unsatisfactory results and new targets are necessitated. So this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between periodontal disease and mortality in the CKD population. Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus and abstracts from recent relevant meeting were searched by two authors independently. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for overall and subgroup meta-analyses. Statistical heterogeneity was explored by chi-square test and quantified by the I 2 statistic. Eight cohort studies comprising 5477 individuals with CKD were incorporated. The overall pooled data demonstrated that periodontal disease was associated with all-cause death in CKD population (RR, 1.254; 95% CI 1.046-1.503; P = 0.005), with a moderate heterogeneity, I 2  = 52.2%. However, no evident association was observed between periodontal disease and cardiovascular mortality (RR, 1.30, 95% CI, 0.82-2.06; P = 0.259). Besides, statistical heterogeneity was substantial (I 2  = 72.5%; P = 0.012). Associations for mortality were similar between subgroups, such as the different stages of CKD, adjustment for confounding factors. Specific to all-cause death, sensitivity and cumulative analyses both suggested that our results were robust. As for cardiovascular mortality, the association with periodontal disease needs to be further strengthened. We demonstrated that periodontal disease was associated with an increased risk of all-cause death in CKD people. Yet no adequate evidence suggested periodontal disease was also at elevated risk for cardiovascular death.

  8. Comparative evaluation of serum antioxidant levels in periodontally diseased patients: An interventional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Biju; Madani, Shabeer Mohamed; Prasad, B. Rajendra; Kumari, Suchetha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periodontal disease is an immune-inflammatory disease characterized by connective tissue breakdown, loss of attachment and alveolar bone resorption. In normal physiology, there is a dynamic equilibrium between reactive oxygen species activity and antioxidant defense capacity and when that equilibrium shifts in favor of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress results. Oxidative stress is thought to play a causative role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. Catalase (CAT) protects cells from hydrogen peroxide generated within them. Even though, CAT is not essential for some cell types under normal conditions, it plays an important role countering the effects of oxidative stress on the cell. Aim: This study was designed to estimate and compare the CAT and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) levels in the serum of periodontitis, gingivitis, and healthy individuals before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Periodontics, A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. The study was designed as a single blinded interventional study comprising of 75 subjects, inclusive of both sexes and divided into three groups of 25 patients each. Patients were categorized into chronic periodontitis, gingivitis and healthy. The severity of inflammation was assessed by using gingival index and pocket probing depth. Biochemical analysis was done to estimate the TAOC and CAT levels before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Results obtained were then statistically analyzed using ANOVA test and paired t-test. Results: The results showed a higher level of serum TAOC and CAT in the healthy group compared with the other groups. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P periodontitis group. PMID:25191070

  9. Periodontal disease burden and pathological changes in organs of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlica, Zlatko; Petelin, Milan; Juntes, Polona; Erzen, Damjan; Crossley, David A; Skaleric, Uros

    2008-06-01

    Bacterial plaque associated periodontal disease is the most common chronic infection in man and dogs. In man, there is an association between periodontal disease and myocardial infarction and stroke, while in dogs it has also been associated with changes in internal organs. Inflamed periodontal tissues present a 'periodontal disease burden' to the host and the extent of this inflammatory disease burden is likely to affect the degree of associated pathological change in distant organs. This hypothesis was investigated in dogs with naturally occurring periodontal disease. Post-mortem investigations including periodontal assessment, standard necropsy, and organ histology were performed on 44 mature toy and miniature Poodles (related, periodontitis predisposed breeds) that died naturally or were euthanized based on clinical disease. Animals with gross primary organ pathology were excluded. The periodontal disease burden was estimated from the total surface area of periodontal pocket epithelium using six measurements of probing depth for each tooth and the tooth circumferences. Ordinal logistic regression (OR) analysis established that for each square centimeter of periodontal disease burden there was a 1.4-times higher likelihood of greater changes being present in the left atrio-ventricular valves (OR = 1.43), plus 1.2 and 1.4 times higher likelihoodfor greater liver and kidney pathology (OR = 1.21; OR = 1.42), respectively The results show that there is a link between the estimated 'periodontal disease burden' resulting from plaque-bacteria associated periodontal disease and the level of internal pathology in this population, implying that periodontitis might contribute to the development of systemic pathology in dogs.

  10. Periodontal Disease-Induced Atherosclerosis and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Kurita-Ochiai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is a highly prevalent disorder affecting up to 80% of the global population. Recent epidemiological studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease, as oxidative stress plays an important role in chronic inflammatory diseases such as periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms by which periodontopathic bacteria cause chronic inflammation through the enhancement of oxidative stress and accelerate cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, we comment on the antioxidative activity of catechin in atherosclerosis accelerated by periodontitis.

  11. Periodontal disease severity is associated with micronutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, P-P; Xu, H-S; Chen, Y-W; Wu, S-P

    2018-03-06

    This study aimed to examine if specific micronutrients were associated with periodontal disease using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2011 to 2014. Participants who were aged 30 years or more and received complete periodontal examinations were included. Regression analyses were performed to determine associations of variables of interest with periodontal disease. Data of 6415 NHANES participants were included in the analysis. Multivariable analysis revealed that less intake of vitamin A (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.784), vitamin B1 (aOR = 1.334), vitamin C (aOR = 1.401), vitamin E (aOR = 1.576), iron (aOR = 1.234), folate (aOR = 1.254) and phosphorus (aOR = 1.280) was associated with increased severity of periodontal disease. Compared with the highest level of vitamin D intake, the second highest level of vitamin D intake was associated with lower severity of periodontal disease (aOR = 0.727). Insufficient intake of vitamin A, B1, C and E, iron, folate and phosphorus was significantly associated with severity of periodontal disease. Results of the present study suggest that the above micronutrients may be increased in the diet or taken as dietary supplements in order to reduce severity of periodontal disease. © 2018 Australian Dental Association.

  12. Periodontal disease treatment and risk of preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Maria Inês da; Pires, Patrícia Duarte Simões; Medeiros, Lidia Rosi; Edelweiss, Maria Isabel; Martínez-Mesa, Jeovany

    2012-10-01

    The events leading to preterm birth are still not completely understood. A quantitative systematic review was performed to estimate the effects of periodontal care during pregnancy on preventing preterm birth and low birth weight. The meta-analysis included randomized trials with pregnant women with a diagnosis of periodontal disease before 20 weeks of gestation. Relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) was calculated. We evaluated the reduction in preterm and low birth weight. Thirteen trials were included, comparing 3,576 women in intervention groups with 3,412 women receiving usual care. The meta-analysis of the effects of periodontal disease treatment during pregnancy indicated a non-significant reduction in preterm births (RR = 0.90; 95%CI: 0.68-1.19) and low birth weights (RR = 0.92; 95%CI: 0.71-1.20). The creation and examination of a funnel plot revealed clear evidence of publication bias. In summary, primary periodontal care during pregnancy cannot be considered an efficient way of reducing the incidence of preterm birth.

  13. Analysis of gingival pocket microflora and biochemical blood parameters in dogs suffering from periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkowska, Izabela; Sobczyńska-Rak, Aleksandra; Gołyńska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal diseases in dogs are caused by bacteria colonising the oral cavity. The presence of plaque comprising accumulations of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria leads to the development of periodontitis. Due to the fact that in a large percentage of cases periodontal diseases remain undiagnosed, and consequently untreated, they tend to acquire a chronic character, lead to bacteraemia and negatively impact the health of internal organs. The aim of the present study was to perform a qualitative microbiological analysis of gingival pockets and determine the correlations between selected morphological and biochemical blood parameters and the extent periodontal diseases. Twenty-one dogs treated for periodontal diseases were qualified for the study and subsequently divided into two groups: with 3rd and 4th stage of periodontal disease. Swabs from the patients' gingival pockets were taken for bacteriological testing. Blood was tested for parameters including erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit values and leukocyte count. Blood serum was analyzed with respect to the concentrations of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AspAT/AST) and urea. The microbiological analysis of gingival pockets indicated the presence of numerous pathogens with a growth tendency in bacterial cultures observed in dogs with advanced-stage periodontal disease. The concentration of biochemical blood markers was significantly higher in dogs with 4th stage of periodontal disease, to compared to the 3rd-stage group. Morphological parameters were not significantly different with the exception of haemoglobin concentration, which was lower in dogs with 4th stage disease. In both groups, elevated leukocyte counts were observed. By conducting a detailed microbiological examination, it is possible to provide a better prognosis, plan adequate treatment and monitor dogs treated for peridontopathy. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G

  14. Morphometric assessment of periodontal tissues in relation to periodontal disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyllar, Michal; Doskarova, Barbora; Paral, Vaclav

    2013-01-01

    Dimensions of periodontal tissues are thought to predispose to the development of periodontal disease in man and dogs. Several studies have suggested that thin gingiva correlates with an increased incidence of periodontal disease. In this study, we hypothesized that the dimensions of periodontal tissues will vary in different breeds of dogs and could possibly correlate with the incidence of periodontal disease. Forty-two jaws of dogs aged up to 5-years were examined post-mortem and gingival and alveolar bone thickness were measured using methods of transgingival probing and digital calipers, respectively. Dogs were divided into three groups based on their body weight. Group I (dogs compared with small and medium-sized breed dogs. Both gingival and alveolar bone dimensions may be predictors for severity of periodontal disease and influence clinical outcome in certain periodontal surgical procedures.

  15. Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or

  16. The relationship between depression and periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S H; Park, S G

    2018-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate whether depression is associated with periodontal diseases in a representative sample of South Korean adults Methods: We used data from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI), conducted in 2014. We included in this study 4328 participants aged over 20 years (1768 males and 2560 females). Depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and history of physician-diagnosed depression. Periodontal diseases were assessed a gingival bleeding, calculus and periodontal pockets. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. People with any periodontal diseases tended to be old, male, married, low income, poor education, blue-collar occupation, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, overweight, smoking, not using dental floss or interdental brush in univariate analysis. Neither self-reported nor diagnosed depression was associated with the presence of any or severe periodontal disease in the total sample. In participants aged 20-29 years only, the presence of any periodontal disease was associated with self-reported depression (OR, 2.031; 95% CI, 1.011-4.078). In the same age group, the presence of severe periodontal disease was associated with both self-reported depression (OR, 6.532; 95% CI, 2.190-19.483) and diagnosed depression (OR, 7.729; 95% CI, 1.966-30.389). Self-reported depression was significantly associated with the presence of any or severe periodontal disease, and diagnosed depression was significantly associated with severe periodontal diseases only in participants aged 20-29 years. Copyright© 2018 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  17. Periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønkjær, Lea Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest that periodontal disease, a source of subclinical and persistent infection, may be associated with various systemic conditions, including liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to examine the literature and determine the relationship between periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis and to identify opportunities and directions for future research in this area. A systematic review of English articles in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases was conducted using search terms including 'liver cirrhosis', 'end-stage liver disease', 'liver diseases', 'oral health', 'periodontal disease', 'mouth disease', 'gingivitis', and 'periodontitis'. Thirteen studies published between 1981 and 2014 were found to include data on oral health and periodontal disease in cirrhotic patients. Studies indicated an increased incidence of periodontal disease in patients with liver cirrhosis, measured with several different periodontal indices. The reported prevalence of periodontal disease in cirrhosis patients ranged from 25.0% to 68.75% in four studies and apical periodontitis was found in 49%-79% of the patients. One study found that mortality was lower among patients who underwent dental treatment versus non-treated patients. Another study suggested an association between periodontal disease and the progression of liver cirrhosis, but data are sparse and conflicting as to whether periodontal disease is correlated to cirrhosis aetiology and severity. Despite the clinical reality of periodontal disease in liver cirrhosis patients, there are few published studies. Before clinical implications can be addressed, more data on the prevalence of and correlation between periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis aetiology, duration, and progression are needed.

  18. Income inequality and periodontal diseases in rich countries: an ecological cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Wael; Sheiham, Aubrey; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2010-10-01

    There are adverse effects of income inequality on morbidity and mortality. This relationship has not been adequately examined in relation to oral health. To examine the relationship between income inequality and periodontal disease in rich countries. Adults aged 35-44 years in 17 rich countries with populations of more than 2 million. National level data on periodontal disease, income inequality and absolute national income were collected from 17 rich countries with populations of more than 2m. Pearson and partial correlations were used to examine the relationship between income inequality and percentage of 35-44-year-old adults with periodontal pockets > or = 4 mm and > or = 6 mm deep, adjusting for absolute national income. Higher levels of income inequality were significantly associated with higher levels of periodontal disease, independently of absolute national income. Absolute income was not associated with levels of periodontal disease in these 17 rich countries. Income inequality appears to be an important contextual determinant of periodontal disease. The results emphasise the importance of relative income rather than absoluteincome in relation to periodontal disease in rich countries.

  19. Comparative evaluation of serum antioxidant levels in periodontally diseased patients: An interventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biju Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is an immune-inflammatory disease characterized by connective tissue breakdown, loss of attachment and alveolar bone resorption. In normal physiology, there is a dynamic equilibrium between reactive oxygen species activity and antioxidant defense capacity and when that equilibrium shifts in favor of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress results. Oxidative stress is thought to play a causative role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. Catalase (CAT protects cells from hydrogen peroxide generated within them. Even though, CAT is not essential for some cell types under normal conditions, it plays an important role countering the effects of oxidative stress on the cell. Aim: This study was designed to estimate and compare the CAT and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC levels in the serum of periodontitis, gingivitis, and healthy individuals before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Periodontics, A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. The study was designed as a single blinded interventional study comprising of 75 subjects, inclusive of both sexes and divided into three groups of 25 patients each. Patients were categorized into chronic periodontitis, gingivitis and healthy. The severity of inflammation was assessed by using gingival index and pocket probing depth. Biochemical analysis was done to estimate the TAOC and CAT levels before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Results obtained were then statistically analyzed using ANOVA test and paired t-test. Results: The results showed a higher level of serum TAOC and CAT in the healthy group compared with the other groups. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.0001. The posttreatment levels of TAOC were statistically higher than the pretreatment levels in periodontitis group.

  20. Periodontal disease and systemic complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Vicente Oppermann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal diseases comprise a number of infectious and inflammatory conditions brought about by the interaction between supragingival and subgingival biofilms and the host inflammatory response. Periodontal diseases should be considered systemic conditions. This means that they are both modulated by the body's systems and play a role as a risk factor for systemic derangements. The current evidence supports some of these interactions, such as smoking as a risk factor for periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, as both influenced by and influencing inflammatory changes in the periodontal tissue. Other potential associations are still being researched, such as obesity, hormonal changes, cardiovascular disease, and adverse outcomes in pregnancy. These, and others, still require further investigation before the repercussions of periodontal disease can be fully elucidated. Nevertheless, at the present time, the treatment of periodontal diseases-and, most importantly, their prevention-enables adequate intervention as a means of ensuring periodontal health.

  1. Ubiquitination in Periodontal Disease: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Sachio; Satoh, Mamoru; Takiwaki, Masaki; Nomura, Fumio

    2017-07-10

    Periodontal disease (periodontitis) is a chronic inflammatory condition initiated by microbial infection that leads to gingival tissue destruction and alveolar bone resorption. The periodontal tissue's response to dental plaque is characterized by the accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes, all of which release inflammatory mediators and cytokines to orchestrate the immunopathogenesis of periodontal disease. Ubiquitination is achieved by a mechanism that involves a number of factors, including an ubiquitin-activating enzyme, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, and ubiquitin-protein ligase. Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification restricted to eukaryotes that are involved in essential host processes. The ubiquitin system has been implicated in the immune response, development, and programmed cell death. Increasing numbers of recent reports have provided evidence that many approaches are delivering promising reports for discovering the relationship between ubiquitination and periodontal disease. The scope of this review was to investigate recent progress in the discovery of ubiquitinated protein in diseased periodontium and to discuss the ubiquitination process in periodontal diseases.

  2. Genetic influences in caries and periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassell, T M; Harris, E L

    1995-01-01

    Deciphering the relative roles of heredity and environmental factors ("nature vs. nurture") in the pathogenesis of dental caries and diseases of the periodontium has occupied clinical and basic researchers for decades. Success in the endeavor has come more easily in the case of caries; the complex interactions that occur between host-response mechanisms and putative microbiologic pathogens in periodontal disease have made elucidation of genetic factors in disease susceptibility more difficult. In addition, during the 30-year period between 1958 and 1987, only meager resources were targeted toward the "nature" side of the nature/nurture dipole in periodontology. In this article, we present a brief history of the development of genetic epistemology, then describe the three main research mechanisms by which questions about the hereditary component of diseases in humans can be addressed. A critical discussion of the evidence for a hereditary component in caries susceptibility is next presented, also from a historical perspective. The evolution of knowledge concerning possible genetic ("endogenous", "idiotypic") factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease is initiated with an analysis of some foreign-language (primarily German) literature that is likely to be unfamiliar to the reader. We identify a turning point at about 1960, when the periodontal research community turned away from genetics in favor of microbiology research. During the past five years, investigators have re-initiated the search for the hereditary component in susceptibility to common adult periodontal disease; this small but growing body of literature is reviewed. Recent applications of in vitro methods for genetic analyses in periodontal research are presented, with an eye toward a future in which persons who are at risk--genetically predisposed--to periodontal disease may be identified and targeted for interventive strategies. Critical is the realization that genes and environment

  3. Validity of Self-Reported Periodontal Disease Questionnaire among Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiga, Sakura; Ohba, Takashi; Tanoue, Daisuke; Kawase, Hiromi; Katoh, Takahiko; Katabuchi, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Kumamoto RAINBOW Project, a multifaceted implementation of the prevention of premature labor, we investigated pregnant women's oral health status and assessed the validity of a self-reported periodontal disease questionnaire. We examined the oral health status of pregnant women and asked them for subjective descriptions of symptoms of periodontitis both in the first and the second half of their pregnancy in Kumamoto Prefecture from August 2012 to January 2014. The Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was used to assess the periodontal condition, and women having periodontal pockets with depths of ≥4 mm were catecogorized as having periodontitis. The results were the scores of the self-questionnaire for periodontal disease prepared by the Japan Dental Association. Of the 9,527 pregnant women who received periodontal check- ups during the first half of pregnancy, 32 percent were diagnosed as having periodontitis. The self-questionnaire had a sensitivity of 51.2% and a specificity of 62.9% for pregnant women to predict their periodontal disease. Then, we evaluated the importance of each question by logistic regression analysis and extracted the useful items. An increased sensitivity (79.9%) was obtained with the best of the modified questionnaire. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the evaluation of the usefulness of the self-reported periodontal disease questionnaire for pregnant women. The current self-questonnaire used for the general adult population was less sensitive for pregnant women. Our modified questionnaire showed an improved sensitivity for diagnosing periodontitis, but its specificity remained low. A specialized self-questionnaire for periodontal disease in pregnant women should be designed.

  4. Useful Immunochromatographic Assay of Calprotectin in Gingival Crevicular Fluid for Diagnosis of Diseased Sites in Patients with Periodontal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Jun-Ichi; Murakami, Shinya; Kitamura, Masahiro; Yanagita, Manabu; Tabeta, Koichi; Yamazaki, Kazuhisa; Yoshie, Hiromasa; Watanabe, Hisashi; Izumi, Yuichi; Suda, Reiko; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Shiba, Hideki; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Kurihara, Hidemi; Mizuno, Mitsuharu; Mishima, Akihiro; Kawahara, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Naruishi, Koji; Nagata, Toshihiko

    2017-09-06

    Calprotectin, an inflammation-related protein, is present in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and the determination of calprotectin is useful for diagnosing periodontal diseases. We have recently developed a novel immunochromatographic (IC) chip system (SI-101402) to determine calprotectin levels in GCF. In the present study, the usefulness of this diagnostic system was investigated in patients with periodontal diseases. Thirty-six patients with periodontal diseases participated in this clinical test at multiple centers. Periodontitis sites (n=118) and non-periodontitis (healthy) sites (n=120) were selected after periodontal examination. GCF collection and periodontal examination were performed at baseline, after supragingival and subgingival scaling and root planing. Calprotectin amount in GCF was determined using a novel IC chip system and evaluated as a visual score and an IC reader value. The correlation between GCF calprotectin levels, clinical indicators and changes in calprotectin levels by periodontal treatments were investigated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of IC reader value for GCF calprotectin was performed to predict periodontal diseases. The visual score of GCF calprotectin was highly correlated the IC reader value. IC reader values of GCF calprotectin in periodontitis group were higher than those of healthy group at three dental examination stages and they significantly decreased with periodontal treatments. Visual scores and IC reader values of GCF calprotectin were correlated to the levels of clinical indicators. ROC analysis for GCF calprotectin showed an optimal cutoff value to predict periodontal diseases. Determination of GCF calprotectin using a novel IC chip system is useful for diagnosis of periodontal diseases.

  5. Periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shub, Alexis; Swain, Jonathan R; Newnham, John P

    2006-09-01

    Periodontal disease is a common infectious disease in women of reproductive age. The disease is often not diagnosed and in studies of over 10 000 women has been associated with preterm birth, small for gestational age newborns, and preeclampsia. It has been shown in a smaller number of women that treatment of periodontal disease may reduce the rate of preterm birth. The pregnancy complications of periodontal disease may be due to lipopolysaccharide from the periodontal pockets inciting prostaglandin pathways controlling parturition. Three large randomized controlled trials of treatment of periodontal disease are underway and may provide confirmation of the importance of periodontal disease in causing complications of pregnancy.

  6. Maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, M Ashley; Boggess, Kim A; Moss, Kevin L; Beck, James D; Offenbacher, Steven

    2011-03-01

    We sought to determine if maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress as measured by serum 8-isoprostane. A secondary analysis was conducted using prospective data from the Oral Conditions and Pregnancy Study. Healthy women enrolled at periodontal disease status was categorized as healthy, mild, or moderate to severe by clinical criteria. Maternal serum was analyzed for 8-isoprostane using ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Elevated 8-isoprostane level was defined as ≥ 75th percentile. Maternal factors associated with elevated 8-isoprostane were determined using chi-square or T test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess association between elevated 8-isoprostane and maternal factors. Seven hundred ninety-one women had complete data. Median (interquartile) 8-isoprostane serum level was 1806 (16 to 81,870) pg/dL. Using bivariate analysis, maternal age, race, marital status, utilization of public assistance, and mild or moderate to severe periodontal disease were associated with elevated serum 8-isoprostane. Using logistic regression, moderate to severe periodontal disease (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.7 to 5.0) remained significantly associated with an elevated serum 8-isoprostane level. Maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress during pregnancy. Further study is needed to determine the role of maternal oxidative stress in periodontal disease-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  7. Obstetric outcomes after treatment of periodontal disease during pregnancy: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Polyzos, Ilias P; Zavos, Apostolos; Valachis, Antonis; Mauri, Davide; Papanikolaou, Evangelos G; Tzioras, Spyridon; Weber, Daniel; Messinis, Ioannis E

    2010-12-29

    To examine whether treatment of periodontal disease with scaling and root planing during pregnancy is associated with a reduction in the preterm birth rate. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Cochrane Central Trials Registry, ISI Web of Science, Medline, and reference lists of relevant studies to July 2010; hand searches in key journals. Randomised controlled trials including pregnant women with documented periodontal disease randomised to either treatment with scaling and root planing or no treatment. Data were extracted by two independent investigators, and a consensus was reached with the involvement a third. Methodological quality of the studies was assessed with the Cochrane's risk of bias tool, and trials were considered either high or low quality. The primary outcome was preterm birth (pregnancy outcome (preterm birth pregnancy outcome (preterm births periodontal disease with scaling and root planing cannot be considered to be an efficient way of reducing the incidence of preterm birth. Women may be advised to have periodical dental examinations during pregnancy to test their dental status and may have treatment for periodontal disease. However, they should be told that such treatment during pregnancy is unlikely to reduce the risk of preterm birth or low birthweight infants.

  8. The global burden of periodontal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul E; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases are accelerating globally, advancing across all regions and pervading all socioeconomic classes. Unhealthy diet and poor nutrition, physical inactivity, tobacco use, excessive use of alcohol and psychosocial stress are the most important risk factors. Periodontal disease...... is a component of the global burden of chronic disease, and chronic disease and periodontal disease have the same essential risk factors. In addition, severe periodontal disease is related to poor oral hygiene and to poor general health (e.g. the presence of diabetes mellitus and other systemic diseases......). The present report highlights the global burden of periodontal disease: the ultimate burden of periodontal disease (tooth loss), as well as signs of periodontal disease, are described from World Health Organization (WHO) epidemiological data. High prevalence rates of complete tooth loss are found in upper...

  9. Periodontal disease and pregnancy outcomes: state-of-the-science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Vastardis, Sotirios; Yu, Stell M

    2007-09-01

    To examine the existing evidence on the relationship between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes, we conducted a systematic review of studies published up to December 2006. Studies published in full text were identified by searching computerized databases (e.g., MEDLINE, EMBASE). A meta-analysis was performed to pool the effect size of the clinical trials. Forty-four studies were identified (26 case-control studies, 13 cohort studies, and 5 controlled trials). The studies focused on preterm low birth weight, low birth weight, preterm birth, birth weight by gestational age, miscarriage or pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Of the chosen studies, 29 suggested an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome (odds ratios [ORs] ranging from 1.10 to 20.0) and 15 found no evidence of an association (ORs ranging from 0.78 to 2.54). A meta-analysis of the clinical trials suggested that oral prophylaxis and periodontal treatment may reduce the rate of preterm low birth weight (pooled risk ratio (RR): 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30-0.95, P 0.05) or low birth weight (pooled RR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.58%1.29, P > 0.05). The authors conclude that periodontal disease may be associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. More methodologically rigorous studies are needed in this field. Currently, there is insufficient evidence to support the provision of periodontal treatment during pregnancy for the purpose of reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes. Obstetricians & Gynecologists, Family Physicians. After completion of this article, the reader should be able to state that the published literature is not vigorous to clinically link periodontal disease and/or its treatment to specific adverse pregnancy outcomes, and explain that more rigorous studies with world-wide agreed-upon definitions are particularly needed before periodontal disease treatment can be recommended.

  10. Periodontal profile classes predict periodontal disease progression and tooth loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Thiago; Moss, Kevin L; Preisser, John S; Beck, James D; Divaris, Kimon; Wu, Di; Offenbacher, Steven

    2018-02-01

    Current periodontal disease taxonomies have limited utility for predicting disease progression and tooth loss; in fact, tooth loss itself can undermine precise person-level periodontal disease classifications. To overcome this limitation, the current group recently introduced a novel patient stratification system using latent class analyses of clinical parameters, including patterns of missing teeth. This investigation sought to determine the clinical utility of the Periodontal Profile Classes and Tooth Profile Classes (PPC/TPC) taxonomy for risk assessment, specifically for predicting periodontal disease progression and incident tooth loss. The analytic sample comprised 4,682 adult participants of two prospective cohort studies (Dental Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and Piedmont Dental Study) with information on periodontal disease progression and incident tooth loss. The PPC/TPC taxonomy includes seven distinct PPCs (person-level disease pattern and severity) and seven TPCs (tooth-level disease). Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of these latent classes with disease progression and incident tooth loss, adjusting for examination center, race, sex, age, diabetes, and smoking. To obtain personalized outcome propensities, risk estimates associated with each participant's PPC and TPC were combined into person-level composite risk scores (Index of Periodontal Risk [IPR]). Individuals in two PPCs (PPC-G: Severe Disease and PPC-D: Tooth Loss) had the highest tooth loss risk (RR = 3.6; 95% CI = 2.6 to 5.0 and RR = 3.8; 95% CI = 2.9 to 5.1, respectively). PPC-G also had the highest risk for periodontitis progression (RR = 5.7; 95% CI = 2.2 to 14.7). Personalized IPR scores were positively associated with both periodontitis progression and tooth loss. These findings, upon additional validation, suggest that the periodontal/tooth profile classes and the derived

  11. Periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Studies suggest that periodontal disease, a source of subclinical and persistent infection, may be associated with various systemic conditions, including liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to examine the literature and determine the relationship between periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis and to identify opportunities and directions for future research in this area. Methods: A systematic review of English articles in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases was conducted using search terms including ‘liver cirrhosis’, ‘end-stage liver disease’, ‘liver diseases’, ‘oral health’, ‘periodontal disease’, ‘mouth disease’, ‘gingivitis’, and ‘periodontitis’. Results: Thirteen studies published between 1981 and 2014 were found to include data on oral health and periodontal disease in cirrhotic patients. Studies indicated an increased incidence of periodontal disease in patients with liver cirrhosis, measured with several different periodontal indices. The reported prevalence of periodontal disease in cirrhosis patients ranged from 25.0% to 68.75% in four studies and apical periodontitis was found in 49%–79% of the patients. One study found that mortality was lower among patients who underwent dental treatment versus non-treated patients. Another study suggested an association between periodontal disease and the progression of liver cirrhosis, but data are sparse and conflicting as to whether periodontal disease is correlated to cirrhosis aetiology and severity. Conclusion: Despite the clinical reality of periodontal disease in liver cirrhosis patients, there are few published studies. Before clinical implications can be addressed, more data on the prevalence of and correlation between periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis aetiology, duration, and progression are needed. PMID:26770799

  12. Relationship between overweight-obesity and periodontal disease in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zermeño-Ibarra, Jorge A; Delgado-Pastrana, Soledad; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Loyola-Rodríguez, Juan P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between overweight-obesity and periodontal disease in subjects who attended the clinic of Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, San Luis de Potosi, México. This was cross-sectional study involving 88 subjects--60 without overweight-obesity and 28 with overweight-obesity. The following clinical parameters were evaluated: dental bacterial plaque, index of calculus, gingivitis, probing depth and periodontal disease index (PDI). When comparing the group of subjects with overweight-obesity to the control, there were statistically significant differences in the variables calculus (p = 0.0015), gingivitis (p = 0.0050) and periodontal disease (p = 0.0154). Regarding the logistic regression analysis, the dependent variable was subjects with and without overweight-obesity and the independent variables were sex, age and periodontal disease. We found statistically significant differences (p = 0.0162) with OR = 3.16 in periodontal disease. Periodontal disease showed statistically significant differences in the group of subjects with overweight-obesity. The oral health of subjects with overweight-obesity should be supervised and checked in order to prevent oral alterations.

  13. Impact of Yoga on Periodontal Disease and Stress Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhanshu, Archika; Sharma, Urvi; Vadiraja, H S; Rana, Rakesh Kumar; Singhal, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Yoga is considered to be one of the most important, effective, and valuable tools available for man to overcome various physical and psychological problems. Stress contributes significantly to the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases; hence, it becomes important to reduce the level of stress for prevention and management of diseases. The present study was aimed: (1) To understand and analyze the possibilities of employing yogic practices in the treatment of periodontal disease along with conventional dental therapy, (2) to understand the effect of stress on periodontal treatment outcome, (3) to evaluate the efficacy of yoga in the management of periodontal disease with reference to stress. An outpatient department-based parallel group randomized study was performed with standard treatment for periodontal disease yoga therapy as Group II and only standard treatment as Group I. Periodontal health status was recorded using indices of modified plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth, and clinical attachment loss (CAL). The Cohen's perceived stress questionnaire was also used to determine stress severity. The yogic intervention consists of lectures and practical sessions on asanas, pranayama, kriyas, and meditation. Repeated measure analysis of variance revealed a significant difference ( P stress scale score also reduced by 18.76 points in Group II as compared to only 2.58 points in Group I, BOP also shows better improvement in Group II with a reduction of 0.68 as compared to reduction of only 0.08 in Group I. The results obtained ascertained the role of yoga in stress reduction in periodontal disease. Although yoga does not play a direct role in improving periodontal disease, it accelerates the treatment outcomes by combating the stress which is a major factor affecting the treatment of periodontal disease.

  14. Periodontal disease, periodontal treatment and systemic nitric oxide in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, A; Verstraete, F J M; Jerin, A; Šentjurc, M; Kass, P H; Petelin, M; Pavlica, Z

    2013-06-01

    Thirty-two client-owned dogs treated for periodontal disease were divided in group 1 if no periodontitis, group 2 if ≤25%, and group 3 if >25% of the teeth present were affected with periodontitis. Blood was tested before and 2 weeks after periodontal therapy for nitrosyl hemoglobin (HbNO), plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) and 3-nitrotyrosine (NT) levels. No HbNO was detected in any of the animals tested. There was no significant difference in the NOx plasma levels within each group or across the groups before and after the treatment, but a noticeable increase in NOx plasma levels was observed in group 3 after the treatment. Plasma NT was detected in only one third of the animals. NO levels varied greatly across individual dogs. The data are suggestive of an overall increase in systemic NO response 2 weeks after periodontal treatment in dogs with advanced periodontal disease, but the response is greatly individually-dependent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Some modern aspects of periodontal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergenholtz, A.; Jorkjend, L.

    1990-01-01

    During the last three to four decades, extensive changes in opinion concerning the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of periodontal disease have taken place. During these decades, contributing factors are standardized and controlled trials, as well as epidemiological studies, were performed. Periodontics is no longer an art as it was at the end of the 19th century- it is a science based on research. Pyorrhea alveoiaris or periodontitis has been considered a multifactorial disease with bad prognosis which, together with caries, causes loss of teeth in the population. It was supposed to affect most of the population with age progress, trauma from occlusion, systemic diseases, and bad oral hygiene. The discovery that plaque was the cause of gingivitis, and that the subgingival microflora differed in composition between sites, teeth, and individuals created new suggestions and demands for the treatment of periodontal disease. The aim of this paper is to summarize some modern aspects on periodontal disease. (author)

  16. Comorbidity of periodontal disease: two sides of the same coin? An introduction for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Damgaard, Christian; Olsen, Ingar; Klinge, Björn; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence has suggested an independent association between periodontitis and a range of comorbidities, for example cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, psoriasis, and respiratory infections. Shared inflammatory pathways are likely to contribute to this association, but distinct causal mechanisms remain to be defined. Some of these comorbid conditions may improve by periodontal treatment, and a bidirectional relationship may exist, where, for example, treatment of diabetes can improve periodontal status. The present article presents an overview of the evidence linking periodontitis with selected systemic diseases and calls for increased cooperation between dentists and medical doctors to provide optimal screening, treatment, and prevention of both periodontitis and its comorbidities.

  17. Comorbidity of periodontal disease: two sides of the same coin? An introduction for the clinician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Damgaard, Christian; Olsen, Ingar; Klinge, Björn; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Increasing evidence has suggested an independent association between periodontitis and a range of comorbidities, for example cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, psoriasis, and respiratory infections. Shared inflammatory pathways are likely to contribute to this association, but distinct causal mechanisms remain to be defined. Some of these comorbid conditions may improve by periodontal treatment, and a bidirectional relationship may exist, where, for example, treatment of diabetes can improve periodontal status. The present article presents an overview of the evidence linking periodontitis with selected systemic diseases and calls for increased cooperation between dentists and medical doctors to provide optimal screening, treatment, and prevention of both periodontitis and its comorbidities. PMID:28748036

  18. Common Periodontal Diseases of Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hayat Al-Ghutaimel; Hisham Riba; Salem Al-Kahtani; Saad Al-Duhaimi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Since 2000, studies, experiments, and clinical observations revealed high prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents. Therefore, this paper was designed to provide an update for dental practitioners on epidemiology, microbiology, pathology, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of periodontal diseases in children and adolescents. Methods. This paper reviews the current literature concerning periodontal diseases in pediatric dentistry. It includes MEDLINE data...

  19. Familial periodontal disease in the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Octavio A; Orraca, Luis; Kensler, Terry B; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Maldonado, Elizabeth; Ebersole, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Substantial ongoing research continues to explore the contribution of genetics and environment to the onset, extent and severity of periodontal disease(s). Existing evidence supports that periodontal disease appears to have an increased prevalence in family units with a member having aggressive periodontitis. We have been using the nonhuman primate as a model of periodontal disease for over 25 years with these species demonstrating naturally occurring periodontal disease that increases with age. This report details our findings from evaluation of periodontal disease in skulls from 97 animals (5-31 years of age) derived from the skeletons of the rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago. Periodontal disease was evaluated by determining the distance from the base of the alveolar bone defect to the cemento-enamel junction on 1st/2nd premolars and 1st/2nd molars from all four quadrants. The results demonstrated an increasing extent and severity of periodontitis with aging across the population of animals beyond only compensatory eruption. Importantly, irrespective of age, extensive heterogeneity in disease expression was observed among the animals. Linking these variations to multi-generational matriarchal family units supported familial susceptibility of periodontitis. As the current generations of animals that are descendants from these matrilines are alive, studies can be conducted to explore an array of underlying factors that could account for susceptibility or resistance to periodontal disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Role of genetic in periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Narayanrao Wankhede

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetics is the study and understanding of the phenomena of heredity and variation. A large number of genes are associated with many systemic conditions. Periodontitis is inflammatory condition of periodontium. Periodontium consists of gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. It is considered being a multifactorial disease. Studies of animals and humans support the concept that a large number of genes' factor may be associated with periodontitis and clearly play a role in the predisposition and progression of periodontal diseases. It has been proven that genetic factors impair inflammatory and immune responses during periodontal diseases. Research on identifying specific genes causing periodontitis may improve and prevent the disease progression. The aim of this article is to focus on genetic risk factors and its influence for the various forms of periodontal disease.

  1. Periodontal disease and pre-eclampsia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnen, Alina; van Doormaal, Jasper J; Abbas, Frank; Aarnoudse, Jan G; van Pampus, Maria G; Faas, Marijke M

    2010-12-01

    This review evaluates the possible relationship between periodontal disease and pre-eclampsia, a major pregnancy complication. A generalized inflammatory response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Because periodontal disease is a low-grade inflammatory state, periodontal disease might contribute to the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. A literature search of PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL until August 2010 revealed 12 eligible observational studies and three randomized-controlled trials (RCTs). It appeared difficult to compare these studies, due to variations in definitions of periodontal disease and pre-eclampsia, timing of periodontal examination and inadequate control for confounding factors. Eight observational studies reported a positive association, while four studies found no association. None of the RTCs reported reductions in pre-eclamptic rate after periodontal therapy during pregnancy. Therefore, it is questionable whether periodontal disease plays a causal role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. The observed association in eight observational studies might be the result of induction of periodontal disease due to the pre-eclamptic state or it may be an epiphenomenon of an exaggerated inflammatory response to pregnancy. Larger RCTs with pre-eclampsia as the primary outcome and pathophysiological studies are required to explore causality and to dissect biological mechanisms involved. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Periodontitis and Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ide

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is common in the elderly and may become more common in Alzheimer's disease because of a reduced ability to take care of oral hygiene as the disease progresses. Elevated antibodies to periodontal bacteria are associated with an increased systemic pro-inflammatory state. Elsewhere raised serum pro-inflammatory cytokines have been associated with an increased rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that periodontitis would be associated with increased dementia severity and a more rapid cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to determine if periodontitis in Alzheimer's disease is associated with both increased dementia severity and cognitive decline, and an increased systemic pro inflammatory state. In a six month observational cohort study 60 community dwelling participants with mild to moderate Alzheimer's Disease were cognitively assessed and a blood sample taken for systemic inflammatory markers. Dental health was assessed by a dental hygienist, blind to cognitive outcomes. All assessments were repeated at six months. The presence of periodontitis at baseline was not related to baseline cognitive state but was associated with a six fold increase in the rate of cognitive decline as assessed by the ADAS-cog over a six month follow up period. Periodontitis at baseline was associated with a relative increase in the pro-inflammatory state over the six month follow up period. Our data showed that periodontitis is associated with an increase in cognitive decline in Alzheimer's Disease, independent to baseline cognitive state, which may be mediated through effects on systemic inflammation.

  3. Autoimmunity-Basics and link with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gagandeep; Mohindra, Kanika; Singla, Shifali

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune reactions reflect an imbalance between effector and regulatory immune responses, typically develop through stages of initiation and propagation, and often show phases of resolution (indicated by clinical remissions) and exacerbations (indicated by symptomatic flares). The fundamental underlying mechanism of autoimmunity is defective elimination and/or control of self-reactive lymphocytes. Periodontal diseases are characterized by inflammatory conditions that directly affect teeth-supporting structures, which are the major cause of tooth loss. Several studies have demonstrated the involvement of autoimmune responses in periodontal disease. Evidence of involvement of immunopathology has been reported in periodontal disease. Bacteria in the dental plaque induce antibody formation. Autoreactive T-cells, natural killer cells, ANCA, heat shock proteins, autoantibodies, and genetic factors are reported to have an important role in the autoimmune component of periodontal disease. The present review describes the involvement of autoimmune responses in periodontal diseases and also the mechanisms underlying these responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Hashimoto Thyroiditis and Periodontal Disease: A Narrative Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Ana; Resende, Marta; Pereira, José

    2016-10-31

    Currently there is a growing interest in studying systemic conditions with impact on the periodontium. The aim of this article is to determinate if there is a relation between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and periodontal disease. Founded on periodontology based on evidence and in the combination of the keywords: 'Hashimoto disease'; 'Hypothyroidism'; 'Periodontal disease'; 'Systemic Diseases'; a search and evaluation of articles was conducted in Medline, Scopus and Thomson Reuters databases, selecting 30 articles for integral analysis. There have been developed several studies, searching for a better comprehension about the complexity and pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, associated them to multiple systemic conditions. Actually, the relationship that is best described in the literature is the one with rheumatoid arthritis; however, other relations have been pointed, such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The identification of multiple etiopathogenic mechanisms common to Hashimoto's thyroiditis and periodontal disease allow to suspect of a relation between them. Some of these mechanisms include the proliferation of lymphocytes T helper 1 and T helper 17 and their impact on the periodontium, the dysfunction of vascular endothelium in gingival microcirculation and the influence of hypothyroidism on bone metabolism, namely on the alveolar bone. There is biological plausibility to support the establishment of an association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and periodontal disease. However, there are not enough studies to support the existence of a causal nexus between these two pathologies, so, in the future, more studies should be conducted to determinate there relation and interaction.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus is associated with periodontal diseases: A meta-analysis based on 21 case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zilong; Lv, Juan; Wang, Min

    2017-02-01

    Some controversies still exist between the detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)'s DNA and risks of periodontal diseases. Hence, a comprehensive meta-analysis on all available literatures was performed to clarify the relationship between EBV and preidontitis.A comprehensive search was conducted within the PUBMED, EMBASE, and WANFANG databases up to October 10th, 2016 according to inclusion and exclusion criteria and finally 21 case-control literatures were obtained. The outcomes including odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations. Publication bias was determined by Begg or Egger test. Sensitivity analysis was used to investigate reliability and stability of the results.According to the data from included trials, the association between overall increased risks of periodontitis and the detection of EBV was significant (OR = 6.199, 95% CI = 3.119-12.319, P disease-type analysis, the pooled ORs for chronic periodontitis and aggressive periodontitis were 6.586 (95% CI = 3.042-14.262, P diseases. SgP and tissue are available for detecting EBV in patients of periodontitis. At last, our results suggest that detecting EBV of samples in =5 (6) mm sites of periodontal pockets are more sensitive than in ≤3-mm sites.

  6. Association of periodontitis and chronic kidney disease in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. U. Nabi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of our study is to study the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis in chronic kidney disease and to identify a correlation between periodontitis and chronic kidney disease, with the help of periodontal exaamination, ultrasonographic and hematobiochemical analysis. Materials and Methods: 46 dogs with renal failure were studied and classified as presenting a slight (56.52%, moderate (36.95% and severe (47.8% degree of periodontal disease. Results: Marked gingival recession involving whole maxillary dental arcade, Oral mucosa ulcers and tissue necrosis and mobility of mandibular incisors was observed in dogs with chronic kidney disease. Dogs with normal renal function were observed to have minimal gingival recession of the mandibular teeth only. Conclusion: In view of the causative association between periodontal infection, generalized inflammation and important systemic diseases like chronic kidney disease, we hypothesize that targeted prophylaxis and careful treatment of oral diseases can prevent the progression of renal failure

  7. Periodontitis and gingivitis in inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavricka, Stephan R; Manser, Christine N; Hediger, Sebastian; Vögelin, Marius; Scharl, Michael; Biedermann, Luc; Rogler, Sebastian; Seibold, Frank; Sanderink, René; Attin, Thomas; Schoepfer, Alain; Fried, Michael; Rogler, Gerhard; Frei, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    The oral cavity is frequently affected in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Periodontitis is thought to influence systemic autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. We aimed to analyze the relationship of periodontitis and gingivitis markers with specific disease characteristics in patients with IBD and to compare these data with healthy controls. In a prospective 8-month study, systematic oral examinations were performed in 113 patients with IBD, including 69 patients with CD and 44 patients with ulcerative colitis. For all patients, a structured personal history was taken. One hundred thirteen healthy volunteers served as a control group. Oral examination focussed on established oral health markers for periodontitis (bleeding on probing, loss of attachment, and periodontal pocket depth) and gingivitis (papilla bleeding index). Additionally, visible oral lesions were documented. Both gingivitis and periodontitis markers were higher in patients with IBD than in healthy control. In univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis, perianal disease was a risk factor for periodontitis. Nonsmoking decreased the risk of having periodontitis. No clear association was found between clinical activity and periodontitis in IBD. In only the CD subgroup, high clinical activity (Harvey-Bradshaw index > 10) was associated with 1 periodontitis marker, the loss of attachment at sites of maximal periodontal pocket depth. Oral lesions besides periodontitis and gingivitis were not common, but nevertheless observed in about 10% of patients with IBD. IBD, and especially perianal disease in CD, is associated with periodontitis. Optimal therapeutic strategies should probably focus on treating both local oral and systemic inflammation.

  8. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    C C Azodo; P Erhabor

    2015-01-01

    The roles of bacteria in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease are well-understand, but that of the virus found in the periodontal environment are poorly understood. The aim of this literature review was to report the roles of viruses in periodontal diseases. The roles of viruses in periodontal diseases were categorized into the role in disease etiology, role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases, role in diseases progression and role in response to treatment. Clearer understandin...

  9. Gingival and Periodontal Diseases in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Singh Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal diseases are among the most frequent diseases affecting children and adolescents. These include gingivitis, localized or generalized aggressive periodontitis (a.k.a., early onset periodontitis and periodontal diseases associated with systemic disorders. The effects of periodontal diseases observed in adults have earlier inception in life period. Gingival diseases in a child may progress to jeopardize the periodontium in adulthood. Therefore, periodontal diseases must be prevented and diagnosed early in the life. This paper reviews the most common periodontal diseases affecting children: chronic gingivitis (or dental plaque-induced gingival diseases and aggressive periodontitis. In addition, systemic diseases that affect the periodontium in young children and necrotizing periodontal diseases are addressed. The prevalence, diagnostic characteristics, microbiology, host- related factors, and therapeutic management of each of these disease entities are discussed.

  10. The effect of a periodontal intervention on cardiovascular risk markers in Indigenous Australians with periodontal disease: the PerioCardio study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Alex

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience an overwhelming burden of chronic disease, including cardiovascular diseases. Periodontal disease (inflammation of the tissues surrounding teeth is also widespread, and may contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases via pathogenic inflammatory pathways. This study will assess measures of vascular health and inflammation in Indigenous Australian adults with periodontal disease, and determine if intensive periodontal therapy improves these measures over a 12 month follow-up. The aims of the study are: (i to determine whether there is a dose response relationship between extent and severity of periodontal disease and measures of vascular health and inflammation among Indigenous Australian adults with moderate to severe periodontal disease; and (ii to determine the effects of periodontal treatment on changes in measures of vascular health and inflammation in a cohort of Indigenous Australians. Methods/Design This study will be a randomised, controlled trial, with predominantly blinded assessment of outcome measures and blinded statistical analysis. All participants will receive the periodontal intervention benefits (with the intervention delayed 12 months in participants who are randomised to the control arm. Participants will be Indigenous adults aged ≥25 years from urban centres within the Top End of the Northern Territory, Australia. Participants assessed to have moderate or severe periodontal disease will be randomised to the study's intervention or control arm. The intervention involves intensive removal of subgingival and supragingival calculus and plaque biofilm by scaling and root-planing. Study visits at baseline, 3 and 12 months, will incorporate questionnaires, non-fasting blood and urine samples, body measurements, blood pressure, periodontal assessment and non-invasive measures of vascular health (pulse wave velocity and carotid intima-media thickness. Primary outcome

  11. Gingival and Periodontal Diseases in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Singh Chauhan; Rashmi Singh Chauhan; Nihal Devkar; Akshay Vibhute; Shobha More

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are among the most frequent diseases affecting children and adolescents. These include gingivitis, localized or generalized aggressive periodontitis (a.k.a., early onset periodontitis) and periodontal diseases associated with systemic disorders. The effects of periodontal diseases observed in adults have earlier inception in life period. Gingival diseases in a child may progress to jeopardize the periodontium in adulthood. Therefore, periodontal diseases must be prevented...

  12. Recording and surveillance systems for periodontal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D; Eke, Paul I; Thornton-Evans, Gina

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes tools used to measure periodontal diseases and the integration of these tools into surveillance systems. Tools to measure periodontal diseases at the surveillance level have focussed on current manifestations of disease (e.g. gingival inflammation) or disease sequelae (e.......g. periodontal pocket depth or loss of attachment). All tools reviewed in this paper were developed based on the state of the science of the pathophysiology of periodontal disease at the time of their design and the need to provide valid and reliable measurements of the presence and severity of periodontal...... diseases. Therefore, some of these tools are no longer valid. Others, such as loss of periodontal attachment, are the current de-facto tools but demand many resources to undertake periodical assessment of the periodontal health of populations. Less complex tools such as the Community Periodontal Index...

  13. Periodontal disease and systemic diseases in an older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçaka, Özgün; Becerik, Sema; Bıçakcı, Nurgün; Kiyak, Asuman H

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between older adults' medical and oral conditions and their self-reports of periodontal conditions with clinically obtained data. Concerns about oral health of elders and its association with systemic diseases have been gaining more attention. A total of 201 older subjects were interviewed about their previous medical and dental histories and were asked to complete a health questionnaire. Each subject received full mouth exam, including counting number of natural teeth remaining, gingival (GI) and plaque index (PI), CPITN and denture status. Elders who completed health questionnaires had mean age of 62.5. Mean CPITN score was 1.62(± 1.12), PI was 1.57(± 1.48), and GI was 1.55(± 1.31). Women had higher prevalence of CVD and osteoporosis than men (p=0.008, p=0.0001, respectively). Subjects who reported bleeding upon brushing had higher PI and GI scores (p=0.03, p=0.05, respectively). Smokers were more likely to describe their periodontal tissues as unhealthy (72.3% vs. 27.7%, p=0.01), whereas self-reports of healthy vs. unhealthy gums did not differ between non-smokers. These findings suggest that a number of systemic conditions are associated with indicators of periodontal disease, and self-reports of oral conditions are independent of systemic diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethnic inequalities in periodontal disease among British adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Bernabé, Eduardo; Marcenes, Wagner

    2016-11-01

    To explore ethnic inequalities in periodontal disease among British adults, and the role of socioeconomic position (SEP) in those inequalities. We analysed data on 1925 adults aged 16-65 years, from the East London Oral Health Inequality (ELOHI) Study, which included a random sample of adults living in an ethnically diverse and socially deprived area. Participants completed a questionnaire and were clinically examined for the number of teeth with periodontal pocket depth (PPD)≥4 mm and loss of attachment (LOA)≥4 mm. Ethnic inequalities in periodontal measures were assessed in negative binomial regression models before and after adjustment for demographic (gender and age groups) and SEP indicators (education and socioeconomic classification). Compared to White British, Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi and Asian Others had more teeth with PPD≥4 mm whereas White East European, Black African and Bangladeshi had more teeth with LOA≥4 mm, after adjustments for demographic and SEP measures. The association of ethnicity with periodontal disease was moderated by education, but not by socioeconomic classification. Stratified analysis showed that ethnic disparities in the two periodontal measures were limited to more educated groups. This study showed considerable ethnic disparities in periodontal disease between and within the major ethnic categories. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Periodontal Disease, Tooth Loss, and Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Dominique S; Fu, Zhuxuan; Shi, Jian; Chung, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease, which includes gingivitis and periodontitis, is highly prevalent in adults and disease severity increases with age. The relationship between periodontal disease and oral cancer has been examined for several decades, but there is increasing interest in the link between periodontal disease and overall cancer risk, with systemic inflammation serving as the main focus for biological plausibility. Numerous case-control studies have addressed the role of oral health in head and neck cancer, and several cohort studies have examined associations with other types of cancers over the past decade. For this review, we included studies that were identified from either 11 published reviews on this topic or an updated literature search on PubMed (between 2011 and July 2016). A total of 50 studies from 46 publications were included in this review. Meta-analyses were conducted on cohort and case-control studies separately when at least 4 studies could be included to determine summary estimates of the risk of cancer in relation to 1) periodontal disease or 2) tooth number (a surrogate marker of periodontal disease) with adjustment for smoking. Existing data provide support for a positive association between periodontal disease and risk of oral, lung, and pancreatic cancers; however, additional prospective studies are needed to better inform on the strength of these associations and to determine whether other cancers are associated with periodontal disease. Future studies should include sufficiently large sample sizes, improved measurements for periodontal disease, and thorough adjustment for smoking and other risk factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Periodontal disease as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, Stefano; Taschieri, Silvio; Francetti, Luca; De Siena, Francesca; Del Fabbro, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    Periodontal disease is a highly prevalent group of illnesses of microbial etiology, whose consequence is a severe breakdown of tooth-supporting structures. A link between periodontal infection and several systemic conditions, among which adverse pregnancy outcomes, has been suggested in the recent years. The aim of this review based on case-control studies was to evaluate if periodontal disease could be considered as a risk factor for preterm birth, low birth-weight and preterm low birth-weight. An electronic search (via Pubmed) was performed for case-control studies investigating the relationship between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. From the initially retrieved 417 articles, 17 case-control studies, accounting for a total of 10,148 patients, were included in the review and in the meta-analysis. The estimated odds ratio was 1.78 (CI 95%: 1.58, 2.01) for preterm birth, 1.82 (CI 95%: 1.51, 1.20) for low birth-weight and 3.00 (CI 95%: 1.93, 4.68) for preterm low birth-weight. Despite the results of the analysis of pooled data suggested a link between periodontal diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes, the presence of important confounders, whose effect could not be addressed, prevents a validation of the meta-analysis outcomes. Further more accurate investigations based on individual data analysis could give a better insight into the topic of the present review.

  17. Periodontal disease and anemias associated with Crohn's disease. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Swati; Acharya, Anirudh B; Thakur, Srinath L

    2012-03-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease with oral findings, including periodontal manifestations. Anemias, such as iron deficiency and anemia of chronic disease (ACD), are the most common hematologic complications of CD. Periodontitis has systemic effects, and may tend toward anemia, which can be explained by depressed erythropoiesis. In the report presented here, the authors review a case of Crohn's disease diagnosed 10 years previous to the patient presenting with a changing anemic profile and periodontal disease. A discussion of patient and disease management is included.

  18. Diagnosis of Periodontal Diseases by Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Jun-Ichi; Hino, Mami; Bando, Mika; Hiroshima, Yuka

    Many middle aged and old persons take periodontal diseases that mainly cause teeth loss and result in some systemic diseases. The prevention of periodontal diseases is very important for oral and systemic health, but the present diagnostic examination is not fully objective and suitable. To diagnose periodontal diseases exactly, some biomarkers shown inflammation, tissue degradation and bone resorption, in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva are known. We demonstrated that GCF levels of calprotectin, inflammation-related protein, and carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen, bone metabolism-related protein, were associated with clinical condition of periodontal diseases, and suggested that these proteins may be useful biomarkers for periodontal diseases. Recently, determinations of genes and proteins by using microdevices are studied for diagnosis of some diseases. We detected calprotectin protein by chemiluminescent immunoassay on a microchip and showed the possibility of specific and quantitative detection of calprotectin in a very small amount of GCF. To determine plural markers in GCF by using microdevices contributes to develop accurate, objective diagnostic system of periodontal diseases.

  19. Change of periodontal disease status during and after pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yiqiong; Xiong, Xu; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen E; Pridjian, Gabriella; Maney, Pooja; Delarosa, Robert L; Buekens, Pierre

    2013-06-01

    This study explored whether there is any change of periodontal disease status during and after pregnancy. We also examined whether the change is different between females with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and females without GDM during pregnancy. A follow-up study was conducted at Woman's Hospital, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Thirty-nine females who were previously enrolled in a case-control study during pregnancy were followed an average of 22 months postpartum. Periodontal status was assessed through dental examinations performed both during and after pregnancy. Clinical periodontal parameters included bleeding on probing (BOP), mean probing depth (PD), and mean clinical attachment level (CAL). Periodontitis was defined as the presence of ≥1 sites exhibiting PD ≥4 mm or CAL ≥4 mm. We used generalized estimating equation analysis to examine the change of periodontal status. Mean number and percentage of sites with BOP decreased from 10.7 ± 11.6 (mean ± SD) and 6.5% ± 7.0% during pregnancy to 7.1 ± 8.8 and 4.3% ± 5.3% at 22 months postpartum (P periodontitis decreased from 66.7% to 33.3% (P periodontal status between females with GDM and females without GDM during pregnancy. Pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of periodontal disease. The association is not different between females with GDM and females without GDM during pregnancy.

  20. Periodontal disease in children and adolescents of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Javier E; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Duque, Andres; Jaramillo, Adriana; Contreras, Adolfo

    2015-02-01

    Periodontal diseases are a group of infectious diseases that mainly include gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is the most prevalent form of periodontal disease in subjects of all ages, including children and adolescents. Less frequent types of periodontal disease include aggressive periodontitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and various diseases of herpesviral and fungal origin. This review aimed to retrieve relevant information from Latin America on the prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents of the region. Gingivitis was detected in 35% of young Latin American subjects and showed the highest frequencies in Colombia (77%) and Bolivia (73%) and the lowest frequency in Mexico (23%). The frequency of gingivitis in subjects from other Latin American countries was between 31% and 56%. Periodontitis may affect periodontal disease in children and adolescents of Latin America may help policy makers and dentists to institute more effective public health measures to prevent and treat the disease at an early age to avoid major damage to the permanent dentition. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Global oral health inequalities: task group--periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, L J; Armitage, G C; Klinge, B; Lang, N P; Tonetti, M; Williams, R C

    2011-05-01

    Periodontal diseases constitute one of the major global oral health burdens, and periodontitis remains a major cause of tooth loss in adults worldwide. The World Health Organization recently reported that severe periodontitis exists in 5-20% of adult populations, and most children and adolescents exhibit signs of gingivitis. Likely reasons to account for these prevalent diseases include genetic, epigenetic, and environmental risk factors, as well as individual and socio-economic determinants. Currently, there are fundamental gaps in knowledge of such fundamental issues as the mechanisms of initiation and progression of periodontal diseases, which are undefined; inability to identify high-risk forms of gingivitis that progress to periodontitis; lack of evidence on how to prevent the diseases effectively; inability to detect disease activity and predict treatment efficacy; and limited information on the effects of integration of periodontal health as a part of the health care program designed to promote general health and prevent chronic diseases. In the present report, 12 basic, translational, and applied research areas have been proposed to address the issue of global periodontal health inequality. We believe that the oral health burden caused by periodontal diseases could be relieved significantly in the near future through an effective global collaboration.

  2. Prevalence of periodontal disease, its association with systemic diseases and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Muhammad Ashraf

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are prevalent both in developed and developing countries and affect about 20-50% of global population. High prevalence of periodontal disease in adolescents, adults, and older individuals makes it a public health concern. Several risk factors such as smoking, poor oral hygiene, diabetes, medication, age, hereditary, and stress are related to periodontal diseases. Robust evidence shows the association of periodontal diseases with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Periodontal disease is likely to cause 19% increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease, and this increase in relative risk reaches to 44% among individuals aged 65 years and over. Type 2 diabetic individuals with severe form of periodontal disease have 3.2 times greater mortality risk compared with individuals with no or mild periodontitis. Periodontal therapy has been shown to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetic subjects. Periodontitis is related to maternal infection, preterm birth, low birth weight, and preeclampsia. Oral disease prevention strategies should be incorporated in chronic systemic disease preventive initiatives to curtail the burden of disease in populations. The reduction in the incidence and prevalence of periodontal disease can reduce its associated systemic diseases and can also minimize their financial impact on the health-care systems. It is hoped that medical, dental practitioners, and other health-care professionals will get familiar with perio-systemic link and risk factors, and need to refer to the specialized dental or periodontal care.

  3. Periodontal disease and percentage of calories from fat using national data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, T; Kitamura, M; Kawashita, Y; Ando, Y; Saito, T

    2017-02-01

    The association between periodontal disease and nutrient intake was examined using linked data from the 2005 National Health and Nutrition Survey, the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions and the Survey of Dental Diseases from the same year 'using linked data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions and the Survey of Dental Diseases, all from 2005'. There has been increasing focus on the importance of nutritional factors in disease in recent years, but very few studies in Japan have looked at the association between periodontal disease and nutrients. Therefore, in the present study we investigated factors associated with periodontal disease, particularly in terms of nutrient intake. Data from 3043 individuals, ≥ 20 years of age (the original study sample comprised 4873 individuals, but those younger than 20 years of age and pregnant women were excluded from the present study) were compiled from linked responses to these three surveys from the same year. Permission to use the data was obtained from the Lifestyle-Related Diseases Control General Affairs Division of the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare, Japan. Information including basic attributes, family structure, economic status, physical condition, lifestyle habits, diet, dental habits, blood data, intake of foods (including the categories of food) and nutrient-related information were obtained from the linked data. The individual maximum Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was used as an index of periodontal disease. Subjects were divided, according to maximum CPI, into groups in which CPI = 0-2 or CPI = 3-4, and associations between CPI and basic attributes, family structure, economic status, physical condition, lifestyle habits, diet, blood data and food intake were analyzed. Multivariate analysis revealed that the percentage of calories from fat was a nutrient factor associated with periodontal disease, with the percentage of calories from fat

  4. Periodontitis and Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer?s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ide, Mark; Harris, Marina; Stevens, Annette; Sussams, Rebecca; Hopkins, Viv; Culliford, David; Fuller, James; Ibbett, Paul; Raybould, Rachel; Thomas, Rhodri; Puenter, Ursula; Teeling, Jessica; Perry, V. Hugh; Holmes, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Background. Periodontitis is common in the elderly and may become more common in Alzheimer’s disease because of a reduced ability to take care of oral hygiene as the disease progresses. Elevated antibodies to periodontal bacteria are associated with an increased systemic pro-inflammatory state. Elsewhere raised serum pro-inflammatory cytokines have been associated with an increased rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease. We hypothesized that periodontitis would be associated with in...

  5. An integrated risk assessment tool for team-based periodontal disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyvalikakath, Thankam P; Padman, Rema; Gupta, Sugandh

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests a potential association of periodontal disease with systemic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and stroke. The objective of this study is to develop an integrated risk assessment tool that displays a patients' risk for periodontal disease in the context of their systemic disease, social habits and oral health. Such a tool will be used by not just dental professionals but also by care providers who participate in the team-based care for chronic disease management. Displaying relationships between risk factors and its influence on the patient's general health could be a powerful educational and disease management tool for patients and clinicians. It may also improve the coordination of care provided by the provider-members of a chronic care team.

  6. Comparative evaluation of serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels in periodontally diseased patients: An interventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Biju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is an immune-inflammatory disease characterized by connective tissue breakdown, loss of attachment, and alveolar bone resorption. Under normal physiological conditions, a dynamic equilibrium is maintained between the reactive oxygen species (ROS and antioxidant defense capacity. Oxidative stress occurs when this equilibrium shifts in favor of ROS. Oxidative stress is thought to play a causative role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. Aim: The present study was designed to estimate and compare the superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione (GSH levels in the serum of periodontitis, gingivitis, and healthy individuals before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Department of Periodontics, A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. The study was designed as a single blinded interventional study comprising 75 subjects, inclusive of both sexes and divided into three groups of 25 patients each. Patients were categorized into chronic periodontitis, gingivitis, and healthy. The severity of inflammation was assessed using gingival index and pocket probing depth. Biochemical analysis was done to estimate the SOD and GSH levels before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Results obtained were then statistically analyzed using ANOVA test and paired t-test. Results: The results showed a higher level of serum SOD and GSH in the healthy group compared to the other groups. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.0001. The post-treatment levels of SOD were statistically higher than the pre-treatment levels in periodontitis and gingivitis group.

  7. Association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, M.M.; Salama, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    Studies have supported the notion that subjects with periodontitis and patients with multiple tooth extractions as a result of chronic advanced periodontal disease (PDD) have a greater risk of developing Cardiovascular disease (CVD) than those who had little or no periodontal infection. Periodontitis may predispose affected patients to CVD by elevating systemic C-reactive protein level and pro-inflammatory activity in atherosclerotic lesions and accelerate development of cardiovascular diseases, Oral health variables including loss of teeth, positive plaque Benzoyl-D-L-Arginine- Naphthyl Amide test (BANA) scores, and compliant of xerostomia may by considered as risk indicators for CVD. Exact mechanism which links PDD and CVD has not been firmly established. The link between PDD and CVD may be attributed to bacteria entering blood stream and attaching to the fatty plaque in coronary artery and contributing to clot formation which can lead to heart attack. Inflammation caused by PDD increases the plaque build up. The association between the two disease entities is cause for concern. However, dental and medical practitioners should be aware of these findings to move intelligently to interact with inquiring patients with periodontitis. They should be urged to maintain medical surveillance of their cardiovascular status, and work on controlling or reducing all known risk factors associated with CVD, including periodontal infection. (author)

  8. Association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, M M; Salama, R P [Ajman Univ. of Science and Technology Network, Abu-Dhabi Campus (United Arab Emirates)

    2004-06-01

    Studies have supported the notion that subjects with periodontitis and patients with multiple tooth extractions as a result of chronic advanced periodontal disease (PDD) have a greater risk of developing Cardiovascular disease (CVD) than those who had little or no periodontal infection. Periodontitis may predispose affected patients to CVD by elevating systemic C-reactive protein level and pro-inflammatory activity in atherosclerotic lesions and accelerate development of cardiovascular diseases, Oral health variables including loss of teeth, positive plaque Benzoyl-D-L-Arginine- Naphthyl Amide test (BANA) scores, and compliant of xerostomia may by considered as risk indicators for CVD. Exact mechanism which links PDD and CVD has not been firmly established. The link between PDD and CVD may be attributed to bacteria entering blood stream and attaching to the fatty plaque in coronary artery and contributing to clot formation which can lead to heart attack. Inflammation caused by PDD increases the plaque build up. The association between the two disease entities is cause for concern. However, dental and medical practitioners should be aware of these findings to move intelligently to interact with inquiring patients with periodontitis. They should be urged to maintain medical surveillance of their cardiovascular status, and work on controlling or reducing all known risk factors associated with CVD, including periodontal infection. (author)

  9. 18F-FDG accumulation in the oral cavity is associated with periodontal disease and apical periodontitis. An initial demonstration on PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, Hiroaki; Kakimoto, Naoya; Murakami, Shumei; Furukawa, Souhei; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Shimosegawa, Eku; Hatazawa, Jun; Hamada, Seiki

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to prospectively investigate the relationship between high accumulation of 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F] fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) in the oral cavity and dental infections on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). FDG-PET/CT scans of 103 patients who underwent a health screening were evaluated. The dental examination was performed prior to each PET/CT scan, and dental infections were assessed. Dental infections were classified into six blocks. The severity of dental caries was classified into five grades, and periodontal disease and apical periodontitis were classified into three grades. Two radiologists classified the PET images in the same manner as the dental examination. They evaluated the intensity of FDG uptake by a four-point visual PET image score for each block. The comparison of the dental examination, as a gold standard, and the visual PET image score was performed on a patient or block basis. On a patient-based analysis, 21 of 103 patients (20.4%) showed PET positive findings in the oral cavity; 18 of the 21 patients (85.7%) had dental infections. On a block-based analysis, 25 of 605 blocks (4.1%) showed PET positive findings in the oral cavity; 22 of the 25 blocks (88.0%) had dental infections. On a detailed block-based analysis, a significant difference was observed between the presence of periodontal disease, or apical periodontitis and the positivity of the visual PET image findings (P<0.01). Their severity correlated with the visual PET image score (P<0.05). Periodontal disease or apical periodontitis, but not dental caries, caused FDG accumulation in the oral cavity. This finding should be taken into account when a head and neck FDG-PET study is interpreted. (author)

  10. Comparative evaluation of serum C-reactive protein levels in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients and association with periodontal disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Lata; Bey, Afshan; Gupta, N D; Sharma, Vivek Kumar

    2014-10-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant and has been proved to be a significant predictor of future cardiovascular events. Recent studies have demonstrated a correlation between periodontitis and elevated CRP levels. However, most of the studies have focused on chronic periodontitis and very few studies are done in patients with aggressive periodontitis. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the relative levels of serum CRP in aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients. A total of 75 systemically healthy subjects were divided into three groups: Group I, nonperiodontitis subjects; group II, chronic generalized periodontitis patients and group III, generalized aggressive periodontitis patients. All participants were subjected to quantitative CRP analysis using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mean CRP levels were significantly greater in both group II and III as compared to group I and group III having greater level than group II. Furthermore, CRP levels positively correlated with the amount of periodontal destruction as measured by probing depth and clinical attachment loss. The present study indicates a positive correlation between CRP and periodontal disease severity with particular concern in younger individuals that could be a possible underlying pathway in the association between periodontal disease and the observed higher risk for cardiovascular disease in periodontitis patients.

  11. Association of Relationship between Periodontal Disease and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, N; Dhodapkar, S V; Kumar, R; Verma, T; Jajoo, A

    2017-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the relationship between periodontal and cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown some co-relation between the two conditions. We included 186 patients divided into four groups. First two Groups (A1 & A2) were the patients with cardiac disease (100 in numbers) whilst Groups (B1 & B2) (86 in numbers) were treated as controls (without cardiac disease). Following markers of periodontal disease were assessed - plaque index, calculus index, gingival and periodontal index. Markers of cardiovascular disease included were LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and CRP. Ramfjords periodontal index was used to assess the extent of periodontal disease. In the present study there was a significant increase in CRP levels in Group A1 (CVD + PD) compared to controls and overall the two cardiac groups showed a significant increase in CRP compared to controls. There was a non-significant change in lipid profile markers (LDL, HDL and total cholesterol). Periodontal Disease Index (PDI) was also increased in Group A1 compared to other groups except Group B1 and overall in cardiac groups compared to non-cardiac (PD) groups. In this study no correlation between periodontal and cardiovascular disease was found. This may be due intake of statins by few patients in Group A with a confirmed diagnosis of cardiovascular disease.

  12. Repair of experimental plaque-induced periodontal disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoukry, M; Ben Ali, L; Abdel Naby, M; Soliman, A

    2007-09-01

    Forty mongrel dogs were used in this study for induction of periodontal disease by placing subgingival silk ligatures affecting maxillary and mandibular premolar teeth during a 12-month period. Experimental premolar teeth received monthly clinical, radiographic, and histometric/pathologic assessments. The results demonstrated significant increases in scores and values of periodontal disease parameters associated with variable degrees of alveolar bone loss. The experimental maxillary premolar teeth exhibited more severe and rapid rates of periodontal disease compared with mandibular premolar teeth. Histometric analysis showed significant reduction in free and attached gingiva of the experimental teeth. Histopathological examination of buccolingual sections from experimental premolar teeth showed the presence of rete pegs within the sulcular epithelium with acanthosis and erosive changes, widening of the periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone resorption. Various methods for periodontal repair were studied in 194 experimental premolar teeth exhibiting different degrees of periodontal disease. The treatment plan comprised non-surgical (teeth scaling, root planing, and oral hygiene) and surgical methods (closed gingival curettage, modified Widman flap, and reconstructive surgery using autogenous bone marrow graft and canine amniotic membrane). The initial non-surgical treatment resulted in a periodontal recovery rate of 37.6% and was found effective for treatment of early periodontal disease based on resolution of gingivitis and reduction of periodontal probing depths. Surgical treatment by closed gingival curettage to eliminate the diseased pocket lining resulted in a recovery rate of 48.8% and proved effective in substantially reducing deep periodontal pockets. Open root planing following flap elevation resulted in a recovery rate of 85.4% and was effective for deep and refractory periodontal pockets. Autogenous bone graft implantation combined with canine amniotic

  13. Oxidative Stress and Periodontal Disease in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Erhan; Akalin, Ferda Alev; Genc, Tolga; Cinar, Nese; Erel, Ozcan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2016-03-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the jaws and is more prevalent in obesity. Local and systemic oxidative stress may be an early link between periodontal disease and obesity. The primary aim of this study was to detect whether increased periodontal disease susceptibility in obese individuals is associated with local and systemic oxidative stress. Accordingly; we analyzed periodontal status and systemic (serum) and local (gingival crevicular fluid [GCF]) oxidative status markers in young obese women in comparison with age-matched lean women.Twenty obese and 20 lean women participated. Periodontal condition was determined by clinical periodontal indices including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, and plaque index. Anthropometric, hormonal, and metabolic measurements were also performed. Blood and GCF sampling was performed at the same time after an overnight fasting. Serum and GCF total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were determined, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated.Clinical periodontal analyses showed higher gingival index and gingival bleeding index in the obese group (P = 0.001 for both) with no significant difference in probing depth, clinical attachment level, and plaque index between the obese and the lean women. Oxidant status analyses revealed lower GCF and serum TAOC, and higher GCF and serum OSI values in the obese women (P < 0.05 for all). GCF TOS was higher in the obese women (P < 0.05), whereas there was a nonsignificant trend for higher serum TOS in obese women (P = 0.074). GCF TAOC values showed a negative correlation with body mass index, whereas GCF OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (P < 0.05 for all). Clinical periodontal indices showed significant correlations with body mass index, insulin, and lipid levels, and also oxidant status markers

  14. PERIODONTAL INFECTIONS AS A RISK FACTOR FOR VARIOUS SYSTEMIC DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    Solanki, Gaurav; Solanki, Renu

    2012-01-01

    A healthy periodontium is needed for the general well being of an individual. However, periodontal diseases are common and periodontal infections are increasingly associated with systemic diseases. The literature is focused on the association between periodontal infections and systemic diseases. The individuals with periodontal disease may be at higher risk for adverse medical outcomes including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory infections, adverse pregnancy outcomes, rheumatoid arthritis ...

  15. Quantitative and functional analysis of CD69+ T regulatory lymphocytes in patients with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitales-Noyola, Marlen; Martínez-Martínez, Rita; Loyola-Rodríguez, Juan P; Baranda, Lourdes; Niño-Moreno, Perla; González-Amaro, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    Periodontal disease is chronic inflammatory process that affects the attachment structures of the teeth and constitutes a significant cause of tooth loss in adults. Although different bacteria play an important role in the triggering of this condition, the progression and severity of the disease are strongly affected by the host immune response, which is under the control of different immune regulatory mechanisms, including T regulatory (Treg) cells. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and function of CD69 + Treg lymphocytes in patients with chronic periodontal disease. Peripheral blood samples (n = 33) and gingival tissue (n = 9) were obtained from patients with chronic periodontal disease. Blood samples from 25 healthy individuals were also studied. Levels of CD69 + Treg lymphocytes in peripheral blood and gingival tissue were determined by six-color multiparametric flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry. The immune regulatory function of CD69 + Treg cells was tested by an in vitro assay of inhibition of lymphocyte activation. Percentages of CD69 + Treg cells were significantly higher in the peripheral blood from patients with active periodontal disease compared to healthy controls, and these percentages inversely correlated with the periodontal attachment loss. Increased numbers of these Treg cells were detected in the gingival tissue from active PD patients compared to their peripheral blood. However, the suppressive function of CD69 + Treg cells was significantly diminished in patients with periodontal disease compared to healthy controls. Our data suggest that CD69 + Treg cells seem to be another important piece in the complex immunopathogenesis of periodontal disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Periodontal Disease and Systemic Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Club Program Perio Store Education & Careers Careers in Periodontics Perio Exam for Dental Licensure Recommended Competencies Periodontal ... may also help with the management of other chronic inflammatory conditions. Diabetes heart Disease Other Diseases Members ...

  17. Periodontal diseases in children and adolescents: a clinician's perspective part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Masamatti, Sujata Surendra; Virdi, Mandeep Singh

    2012-11-01

    The general dental practitioner and paediatric dentist are in a unique position to identify and distinguish between a seemingly innocuous condition that may be a normal physiological aberration or an early sign of severe destructive periodontal disease. Although severe destructive periodontal conditions are uncommon in children, it is essential that children receive a periodontal screening as part of their regular dental examination. Early diagnosis ensures a high likelihood of a successful therapeutic outcome, primarily by reduction of aetiologic factors, remedial therapy and development of an effective maintenance protocol. This prevents the recurrence and progression of disease and reduces the incidence of tooth loss. In the first article, we discussed the classification, plaque-induced and non plaque-induced gingival diseases, localized and generalized forms of chronic as well as aggressive periodontitis. In this second article, we discuss periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic disease, necrotizing periodontal diseases, periodontal screening and basic periodontal examination, and treatment of periodontal diseases in children and adolescents. Incorporation of periodontal screening in regular dental examination by dentists can help in early diagnosis and treatment of periodontal diseases. This could prevent further progression of disease and reduce the frequency of tooth loss.

  18. Optical coherence tomography for diagnosing periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colston, Bill W., Jr.; Everett, Matthew J.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Otis, Linda L.; Nathel, Howard

    1997-05-01

    We have, in this preliminary study, investigated the use of optical coherence tomography for diagnosis of periodontal disease. We took in vitro OCT images of the dental and periodontal tissues from a young pig and compared them to histological sections. These images distinguish tooth and soft tissue relationships that are important in diagnosing and assessing periodontal disease. We have imaged the attachment of gingiva to the tooth surface and located the cemento-enamel junction. This junction is an important reference point for defining attachment level in the diagnosis of periodontal disease. the boundary between enamel and dentin is also visible for most of the length of the anatomical crown, allowing quantitation of enamel thickness and character.

  19. [Inpatients days in patients with respiratory diseases and periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Olmedo-Torres, Daniel; Martínez-Briseño, David; González-Cruz, Herminia; Casa-Medina, Guillermo; García-Sancho, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory gingival process that has been associated with the severity of respiratory diseases. In Mexico a prevalence of 78% was found in population with social security and > 60 years old. The aim of this study is to establish the association between periodontal disease and respiratory diseases according to the inpatient days. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to December 2011. We included hospitalized patients, ≥ 18 years of age, without sedation or intubated. A dentist classified patients into two groups according to the severity of the periodontal disease: mild-to-moderate and severe. We estimated medians of inpatient days by disease and severity. Negative binomial models were adjusted to estimate incidence rate ratios and predicted inpatient days. 3,059 patients were enrolled. The median of observed and predicted inpatient days was higher in the group of severe periodontal disease (p disease, tuberculosis, and influenza had the highest incidence rates ratios of periodontal disease (p periodontal disease is positively -associated with inpatient days of patients with respiratory diseases.

  20. Synchrotron radiation analysis of possible correlations between metal status in human cementum and periodontal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.R.; Naftel, S.J.; Nelson, A.J.; Edwards, M.; Mithoowani, H.; Stakiw, J. (UWO); (Saskatchewan)

    2010-03-16

    Periodontitis is a serious disease that affects up to 50% of an adult population. It is a chronic condition involving inflammation of the periodontal ligament and associated tissues leading to eventual tooth loss. Some evidence suggests that trace metals, especially zinc and copper, may be involved in the onset and severity of periodontitis. Thus we have used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging on cross sections of diseased and healthy teeth using a microbeam to explore the distribution of trace metals in cementum and adhering plaque. The comparison between diseased and healthy teeth indicates that there are elevated levels of zinc, copper and nickel in diseased teeth as opposed to healthy teeth. This preliminary correlation between elevated levels of trace metals in the cementum and plaque of diseased teeth suggests that metals may play a role in the progress of periodontitis.

  1. Periodontal disease in primary Sjögren's Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt, Morten; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Petersen, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome, gingivitis, periodontitis, periodontal disease, xerostomia, oral manifestations......Sjögren's syndrome, gingivitis, periodontitis, periodontal disease, xerostomia, oral manifestations...

  2. Acute-phase reactants in periodontal disease: current concepts and future implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archana, Vilasan; Ambili, Ranjith; Nisha, Krishnavilasam Jayakumary; Seba, Abraham; Preeja, Chandran

    2015-05-01

    Periodontal disease has been linked to adverse cardiovascular events by unknown mechanisms. C-reactive protein is a systemic marker released during the acute phase of an inflammatory response and is a prognostic marker for cardiovascular disease, with elevated serum levels being reported during periodontal disease. Studies also reported elevated levels of various other acute-phase reactants in periodontal disease. It has been reported extensively in the literature that treatment of periodontal infections can significantly lower serum levels of C-reactive protein. Therefore, an understanding of the relationship between acute-phase response and the progression of periodontal disease and other systemic health complications would have a profound effect on the periodontal treatment strategies. In view of this fact, the present review highlights an overview of acute-phase reactants and their role in periodontal disease. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Periodontal disease and the special needs patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louise F; Ford, Pauline J; Symons, Anne L

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with special needs are at more risk of dental disease, including periodontal diseases, and have a greater prevalence and incidence of periodontal diseases than the rest of the population. Genetic or medical conditions, and/or the use of prescription medication or recreational substances, may further increase the risk for susceptibility to periodontal disease. The success of preventing or controlling periodontal diseases amongst this group of patients has not been established. Even those individuals who access regular and comprehensive dental care appear to develop periodontal diseases as they age, and this development occurs at a rate comparable to the natural history of the disease. The reasons behind the lack of success of interventions in reducing the incidence of periodontal diseases are complex and part of the lack of success may relate to the professional challenges in treating individuals with special needs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Interaction of lifestyle, behaviour or systemic diseases with dental caries and periodontal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapple, Iain L C; Bouchard, Philippe; Cagetti, Maria Grazia

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal diseases and dental caries are the most common diseases of humans and the main cause of tooth loss. Both diseases can lead to nutritional compromise and negative impacts upon self-esteem and quality of life. As complex chronic diseases, they share common risk factors, such as a requir......Periodontal diseases and dental caries are the most common diseases of humans and the main cause of tooth loss. Both diseases can lead to nutritional compromise and negative impacts upon self-esteem and quality of life. As complex chronic diseases, they share common risk factors...... to periodontal diseases and caries susceptibility, with an attributable risk estimated to be up to 50%. The genetics literature for periodontal disease is more substantial than for caries and genes associated with chronic periodontitis are the vitamin D receptor (VDR), Fc gamma receptor IIA (Fc...... or composition, smoking, carbohydrate intake). Identification of these factors is crucial in the prevention of both diseases as well as in their management. AIM: To systematically appraise the scientific literature to identify potential risk factors for caries and periodontal diseases. METHODS: One systematic...

  5. Risk of Periodontal Disease in Patients With Asthma: A Nationwide Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wei, Chang-Ching; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-08-01

    Studies have reported an association between asthma and oral diseases, including periodontal diseases. The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate risk of periodontal diseases for patients with asthma. Using the claims data of National Health Insurance of Taiwan and patients without a history of periodontal diseases, 19,206 asthmatic patients, who were newly diagnosed from 2000 through 2010, were identified. For each case, four comparison individuals without history of asthma and periodontal disease were randomly selected from the general population and frequency matched (categorical matched) by sex, age, and year of diagnosis (n = 76,824). Both cohorts were followed to the end of 2011 to monitor occurrence of periodontal diseases. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of periodontal disease were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Overall incidence of periodontal diseases was 1.18-fold greater in the asthma cohort than in the comparison cohort (P periodontal diseases compared with those with a mean of less than one visit. Patients with at least three admissions annually also had a similar aHR (51.8) for periodontal disease. In addition, asthmatic patients on inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy had greater aHRs than non-users (aHR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.23). In the studied population, asthmatic patients are at an elevated risk of developing periodontal diseases. The risk is much greater for those with emergency medical demands or hospital admissions and those on ICS treatment.

  6. Bidirectional relationship between renal function and periodontal disease in older Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Akihiro; Iwasaki, Masanori; Miyazaki, Hideo; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reciprocal effects of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and periodontal disease. A total of 332 postmenopausal never smoking women were enrolled, and their serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum osteocalcin and serum cystatin C levels were measured. Poor renal function was defined as serum cystatin C > 0.91 mg/l. Periodontal disease markers, including clinical attachment level and the periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA), were also evaluated. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationships between renal function and periodontal disease markers, serum osteocalcin level and hsCRP level. The prevalence-rate ratios (PRRs) on multiple Poisson regression analyses were determined to evaluate the relationships between periodontal disease markers and serum osteocalcin, serum cystatin C and serum hsCRP levels. On logistic regression analysis, PISA was significantly associated with serum cystatin C level. The odds ratio for serum cystatin C level was 2.44 (p = 0.011). The PRR between serum cystatin C level and periodontal disease markers such as number of sites with clinical attachment level ≥6 mm was significantly positive (3.12, p periodontal disease can have reciprocal effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The effect of an inhibitor of gut serotonin (LP533401) during the induction of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, G M G; Corazza, B J M; Moraes, R M; de Oliveira, F E; de Oliveira, L D; Franco, G C N; Perrien, D S; Elefteriou, F; Anbinder, A L

    2016-10-01

    LP533401 is an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase 1, which regulates serotonin production in the gut. Previous work indicates that LP533401 has an anabolic effect in bone. Thus, we hypothesized that inhibition of gut serotonin production may modulate the host response in periodontal disease. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effects of LP533401 in a rat periodontitis model to evaluate the role of gut serotonin in periodontitis pathophysiology. Twenty-four rats were divided into three groups: treated group (T: ligature-induced periodontal disease and LP533401, 25 mg/kg/d) by gavage; ligature group (L: ligature-induced periodontal disease only); and control group (C: without ligature-induced periodontal disease). After 28 d, radiographic alveolar bone support was measured on digital radiographs, and alveolar bone volume fraction, tissue mineral density and trabeculae characteristics were quantified by microcomputed tomography in the right hemi-mandible. Left hemi-mandibles were decalcified and alveolar bone loss, attachment loss and area of collagen in the gingiva were histologically analyzed. Significant difference between the L and C groups was found, confirming that periodontal disease was induced. We observed no difference between the T and L groups regarding alveolar bone destruction and area of collagen. LP533401 (25 mg/kg/d) for 28 d does not prevent bone loss and does not modulate host response in a rat model of induced periodontal disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Periodontal disease in diabetic patients - clinical and histopathological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlan Puşcu, Dorina; Ciuluvică, Radu Constantin; Anghel, Andreea; Mălăescu, Gheorghe Dan; Ciursaş, Adina Nicoleta; Popa, Gabriel Valeriu; Agop Forna, Doriana; Busuioc, Cristina Jana; Siloşi, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is one of the most frequent diseases affecting people all over the world. The relation between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus raised the interest both of dentists and doctors treating metabolic diseases, as the two conditions influence one another. In our study, we analyzed a number of 75 patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease that presented to the medical consultory for conditions of the dental maxillary system. The clinical study showed that periodontal disease and diabetes may affect young adults as well, still this pathological association more frequently appears after the age of 50. The disease was identified especially in the women living in urban area. The clinical examination of the dental maxillary system identified the presence of gingival ulcerations, dental calculus, gingival bleeding, radicular leftovers with anfractuous margins, fixed prostheses with an inappropriate cervical adjustment. Of the systemic diseases associated to periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus, there was observed that 66.66% of the patients also suffered from cardiovascular diseases (high blood pressure, ischemic cardiopathy, heart failure), and 37.33% suffered from obesity. The histopathological and immunohistochemical tests highlighted the presence of an inflammatory chronic, intense reaction, mainly formed of lymphocytes, plasmocytes, macrophages and granulocytes, heterogeneously disseminated and alteration of the structure of marginal and superficial periodontium. The inflammatory reaction in the patients with periodontal disease and diabetes was more intense than in the patients with periodontal disease without diabetes.

  9. The role of probiotic bacteria in managing periodontal disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Victor Haruo; Bandara, H M H N; Ishikawa, Karin Hitomi; Mayer, Marcia Pinto Alves; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera

    2016-07-01

    The frequent recolonization of treated sites by periodontopathogens and the emergence of antibiotic resistance have led to a call for new therapeutic approaches for managing periodontal diseases. As probiotics are considered a new tool for combating infectious diseases, we systematically reviewed the evidences for their effectiveness in the management of periodontitis. An electronic search was performed in the MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Cochrane Library databases up to March 2016 using the terms 'periodontitis', 'chronic periodontitis', 'probiotic(s)', 'prebiotic(s)', 'symbiotic(s)', 'Bifidobacterium and 'Lactobacillus'. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the present study. Analysis of 12 RCTs revealed that in general, oral administration of probiotics improved the recognized clinical signs of chronic and aggressive periodontitis such as probing pocket depth, bleeding on probing, and attachment loss, with a concomitant reduction in the levels of major periodontal pathogens. Continuous probiotic administration, laced mainly with Lactobacillus species, was necessary to maintain these benefits. Expert commentary: Oral administration of probiotics is a safe and effective adjunct to conventional mechanical treatment (scaling) in the management of periodontitis, specially the chronic disease entity. Their adjunctive use is likely to improve disease indices and reduce the need for antibiotics.

  10. Prevalence of periodontal disease, its association with systemic diseases and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, Muhammad Ashraf

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are prevalent both in developed and developing countries and affect about 20-50% of global population. High prevalence of periodontal disease in adolescents, adults, and older individuals makes it a public health concern. Several risk factors such as smoking, poor oral hygiene, diabetes, medication, age, hereditary, and stress are related to periodontal diseases. Robust evidence shows the association of periodontal diseases with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular di...

  11. Periodontal disease and halitosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzoman, Hamad

    2008-01-01

    Halitosis is a general term used to describe an unpleasant or offensive odor emanating from the oral cavity. It is a condition that has health and social implications in the life of those who suffer from it. The origin of halitosis is related to both systemic and oral conditions although the oral causes predominate. Volatile sulfur compound is the primary gas responsible for halitosis. They are formed as a result of gram-negative bacterial putrefaction. The major sites for oral halitosis are the dorsum of the tongue and periodontal pockets. There is a correlation between the amount of plaque on the tongue and periodontitis with the severity of halitosis. The aim of this article was to review the data and correlate periodontitis with severity of halitosis and the effect of halitosis- inducing factors on the progress of periodontal diseases. (author)

  12. Periodontal diseases in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerehugh, V

    2008-04-26

    Unlike in adults, currently there are no nationally agreed guidelines for the assessment of periodontal diseases in children and adolescents. This paper considers the range of periodontal diseases that can affect youngsters and documents a simple periodontal screening system for the younger age groups. It includes principles of periodontal diagnosis and management for the practitioner to apply to the young patient and considers when to treat in practice and when to refer to a specialist.

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERIODONTAL DISEASE INDEX AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Komara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and low birth weight babies. Methods: A case-control study was conducted to determine the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and the low birth weight babies (LBW. The participants were mothers with periodontitis and non-periodontitis mothers aged 20–35 years who gave birth in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology-Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung in the period of December to January 2005. Results: Based on the chisquare test results a highly significant relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (p=0.002 was found. The Odd’s ratio showed that the risk of low birth weight in pregnant women with periodontitis was 15.58 times higher compared to those who did not suffer from periodontitis. The periodontal disease index has an accuracy of 88.6% in predicting the incidence of LBW. It strongly influenced the incidence of LBW with a high Odd’s ratio of 28.0. Pregnant women who suffer from periodontitis with a PDI > 3.25, have 19.2 times higher risk for delivering babies with LBW compared to the non-periodontitis mothers. Conclusions: The loss of attachment affects the possibility of delivering LBW babies.

  14. Common Periodontal Diseases of Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Al-Ghutaimel

    2014-01-01

    “microbiology of periodontal diseases,” “classification of periodontal diseases,” “epidemiology of periodontal diseases,” and “treatment of periodontal diseases.” Articles were evaluated by title and/or abstract and relevance to pediatric dentistry. Sixty-five citations were selected by this method and by the references within the chosen articles. A review of the comprehensive textbooks on pediatric dentistry and periodontology was done. Some recommendations were based on the opinions of experienced researchers and clinicians, when data were inconclusive.

  15. Periodontal disease and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Maria Luisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Martelli, Marialaura; Nobili, Piero; Medico, Enzo; Martelli, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is a multifactorial inflammatory condition in which inappropriate interaction between the host immune response and specific groups of bacterial pathogens leads to destruction of connective and bone tissues supporting the tooth. Dissemination of pathogens, toxins, and immune complexes from and to periodontal lesions is at the basis of the increasingly recognized association between PD and various systemic diseases (SDs). Considering the growing attention of the medical community to "gender medicine", this review focuses on the association between PD and six systemic conditions heavily impacting women's health, with the aim of providing evidence in support of a joint effort between physicians and dentists to improve clinical management of these conditions. We considered systematic reviews, meta-analyses and narrative reviews evaluating all possible associations between periodontitis, systemic diseases and women. Gender prevalence for PD is discordant, but the literature strongly supports an association between PD and female infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, PD is bidirectionally linked to several systemic diseases characterized by an established female gender bias, i.e. osteoporosis (OP), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), autoimmunity, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer. Overall, the literature data reviewed here provides a strong foundation for further characterization of molecular and microbial drivers of PD and of several female-prevalent systemic diseases, highlighting the possible importance of a good oral condition in preventing or attenuating women's systemic diseases.

  16. PERIODONTAL DISEASE: LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Baia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The periodontal disease is the most common disorder of oral cavity of the dogs, being characterized by the inflammation of the gingiva (gingivitis and periodontium (periodontitis, as a result of aerobic bacteria accumulation on the tooth surface, shaped as a biofilm, creating a microaerophilic environment that enhances the development of pathogenic anaerobic bacteria. The process of gingivitis can be reversed after proper treatment. If untreated, it progresses to periodontitis, an irreversible condition, because of the loss of epithelial adhesion. Animals with periodontitis have bone loss and consequently tooth mobility. This condition has the feeding as the main modifier factor. This means that the more solid is the food, the more friction with the tooth it will do, helping the removal of the biofilm. There are several predisposing factors of this disease, such as race, age, occlusion problems, immunodeficiency, among others. The clinical signs of periodontal disease may vary, being halitosis and gingivitis the most common findings. The diagnosis is made by direct inspection, where furcation exposure, inflammation and dental calculus can be seen. The best complementary tool to diagnose is the intra-oral radiography, which allows the visualization of bone structures that can not be seen during clinical inspection, helping to manage the treatment. The use of antibiotics is only complementary to treatment and only chosen in special cases. The treatment for this condition is surgical and requires sedation. It basically consists in the complete removal of dental calculus, followed by teeth polishing. The whole procedure is performed using specific techniques and instrumentation. There are various prophylactic methods, although daily brushing and the awareness of the owner about this condition are considered the ideal combination.

  17. Analysis of the relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis within a local clinical system: a cross-sectional observational pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Chieko; Shin, Wee Soo; Minabe, Masato; Harai, Kazuo; Kato, Kai; Seino, Hiroaki; Goke, Eiji; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Fujino, Takemasa; Kuribayashi, Nobuichi; Pearce, Youko Onuki; Taira, Masato; Maeda, Hiroshi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2015-09-01

    It has been revealed that atherosclerosis and periodontal disease may have a common mechanism of "chronic inflammation". Several reports have indicated that periodontal infection is related to atherosclerosis, but none have yet reported such an investigation through the cooperation of local clinics. This study was performed in local Japanese clinics to examine the relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis under collaborative medical and dental care. A pilot multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted on 37 medical patients with lifestyle-related diseases under consultation in participating medical clinics, and 79 periodontal patients not undergoing medical treatment but who were seen by participating dental clinics. Systemic examination and periodontal examination were performed at baseline, and the relationships between periodontal and atherosclerosis-related clinical markers were analyzed. There was a positive correlation between LDL-C level and plasma IgG antibody titer to Porphyromonas gingivalis. According to the analysis under adjusted age, at a cut-off value of 5.04 for plasma IgG titer to Porphyromonas gingivalis, the IgG titer was significantly correlated with the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). This study suggested that infection with periodontal bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis) is associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. Plasma IgG titer to Porphyromonas gingivalis may be useful as the clinical risk marker for atherosclerosis related to periodontal disease. Moreover, the application of the blood examination as a medical check may lead to the development of collaborative medical and dental care within the local medical clinical system for the purpose of preventing the lifestyle-related disease.

  18. Preterm birth and periodontal disease: A medical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Dhabhai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Births occurring before 37 weeks resulting in prematurity poses serious hazards to the baby from delayed growth, neurodevelopmental anomalies to death and unfortunately India is in the top four countries with maximum preterm births and leads globally in deaths by prematurity. Infection is a very important component of the etiopathogenesis of preterm labor and periodontal disease is a rather unexplored aspect of infection very often overlooked by the general gynecologist and the dental practitioner equally. Periodontal disease is a potential foci of infectious pathogens which may disseminate hematogenously and effect the fetus. In this article, an effort has been made to find an evidence-based link between periodontal disease and preterm labor to drive home the conclusion that an early screening and diagnosis in pregnancy followed up with effective treatment of periodontal disease may significantly reduce the burden of preterm births.

  19. Genetic variants in periodontal health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumitrescu, Alexandrina L [Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Dentistry; Kobayashi, Junya [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Genome Repair Dynamics

    2010-07-01

    Periodontitis is a complex, multifactorial disease and its susceptibility is genetically determined. The present book systematically reviews the evidence of the association between the genetic variants and periodontitis progression and/or treatment outcomes. Genetic syndromes known to be associated with periodontal disease, the candidate gene polymorphisms investigated in relation to periodontitis, the heritability of chronic and aggressive periodontitis, as well as common guidelines for association studies are described. This growing understanding of the role of genetic variation in inflammation and periodontal chronic disease presents opportunities to identify healthy persons who are at increased risk of disease and to potentially modify the trajectory of disease to prolong healthy aging. The book represents a new concept in periodontology with its pronounced focus on understanding through knowledge rather than presenting the presently valid answers. Connections between genetics and periodontology are systematically reviewed and covered in detail. (orig.)

  20. Diabetes and periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a systemic disease characterized by increased blood glucose levels and abnormalities of lipid metabolism due to absence or decreased level of insulin. It affects all the body organs and their functions either directly or indirectly. Every dentist should have a basic understanding of the etiopathogenesis, oral and systemic manifestations of this disease. The periodontal diseases are a consequence of extension of the gingival inflammation into the underlying supporting structures of the periodontium, initiated by the presence of plaque and its products on the surfaces of the teeth and the adjoining structures. The progression of periodontal disease is influenced by variety of factors like microorganisms, host response, systemic background, and genetic makeup of the host. Amongst them, diabetes mellitus tops the list. Diabetes and periodontitis influence the clinical outcome of each other and control of both influences the clinical improvement of each.

  1. Social gradients in periodontal diseases among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rodrigo; Fernández, Olaya; Baelum, Vibeke

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the association between socioeconomic position and periodontal diseases among adolescents. Data were obtained from 9203 Chilean high school students. Clinical examinations included direct recordings of clinical attachment level and the necrotizing ulcerative gingival lesions. Students answered a questionnaire on various dimensions of socioeconomic position. Seven periodontal outcomes were analyzed. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify socioeconomic variables associated with the periodontal outcomes. The occurrence of all periodontal outcomes investigated followed social gradients, and paternal income and parental education were the most influential variables. The study demonstrates the existence of significant social gradients in periodontal diseases already among adolescents. This is worrying, and indicates a new potential for further insight into the mechanisms of periodontal disease causation.

  2. Perioceutics: Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as an adjunctive therapy for inflammatory periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Nalini Honibald

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs form a group of more than 20 zinc-dependent enzymes that are crucial in the degradation of the main components in the extracellular matrix, and thereby play important roles in cell migration, wound healing, and tissue remodeling. MMPs have outgrown the field of extracellular matrix biology and have progressed toward being important regulatory molecules in inflammation, and hence are key components in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. This rise in status has led to the development of MMP inhibitors which can act as switches or delicate tuners in acute and chronic inflammation and the regenerative phase after inflammation. The new challenge in MMP research is to better understand the complex role these enzymes play in periodontal disease and to design inhibitors that are successful in the clinic. Perioceutics or the use of the pharmacological agents specifically developed to manage periodontitis is an interesting and emerging aid in the management of periodontal diseases along with mechanical debridement. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to MMPs and their inhibitors, the pathologic effects of a disturbance in the functions of enzyme cascades in balance with natural inhibitors, and highlight on the adjunctive use of MMP inhibitors in periodontal therapy and some of the current challenges with an overview of what has been achieved till date.

  3. Immunological disorders in formation of periodontal diseases at pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Lepilin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 200 women with physiological pregnancy and 300 women with pregnancy complicated by gestosis. According to the results of examination 50 women with gestosis and 50 women with physiological pregnancy had inflammatory periodontal diseases. Phenotyping of lymphocytes by immunofluorescence method, investigation of necrosis containing factor of tumour-a, interleukin-8, interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor beta-1 in oral cavity by immunofermental analysis were performed. Frequency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnancy were defined. Correlation of gingivitis and periodontitis at pregnancy with extragenital pathology was demonstrated. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Thus pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affects inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women

  4. Periodontal disease and pre-eclampsia : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, Alina; van Doormaal, Jasper J.; Abbas, Frank; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; van Pampus, Maria; Faas, Marijke M.

    2010-01-01

    P>Aim This review evaluates the possible relationship between periodontal disease and pre-eclampsia, a major pregnancy complication. A generalized inflammatory response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Because periodontal disease is a low-grade inflammatory state,

  5. Cardiovascular Risks Associated with Incident and Prevalent Periodontal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Chasman, Daniel I; Buring, Julie E; Rose, Lynda; Ridker, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Aim While prevalent periodontal disease associates with cardiovascular risk, little is known about how incident periodontal disease influences future vascular risk. We compared effects of incident versus prevalent periodontal disease in developing major cardiovascular diseases (CVD), myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke and total CVD. Material and Methods In a prospective cohort of 39863 predominantly white women, age ≥ 45 years and free of cardiovascular disease at baseline were followed for an average of 15.7 years. Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying periodontal status (prevalent [18%], incident [7.3%] vs. never [74.7%]) were used to assess future cardiovascular risks. Results Incidence rates of all CVD outcomes were higher in women with prevalent or incident periodontal disease. For women with incident periodontal disease, risk factor adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.42 (95% CI, 1.14–1.77) for major CVD, 1.72 (1.25–2.38) for MI, 1.41(1.02–1.95) for ischemic stroke, and 1.27(1.06–1.52) for total CVD. For women with prevalent periodontal disease, adjusted HRs were 1.14 (1.00–1.31) for major CVD, 1.27 (1.04–1.56) for MI, 1.12(0.91–1.37) for ischemic stroke, and 1.15(1.03–1.28) for total CVD. Conclusion New cases of periodontal disease, not just those that are pre-existing, place women at significantly elevated risks for future cardiovascular events. PMID:25385537

  6. Animal Models for Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helieh S. Oz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models and cell cultures have contributed new knowledge in biological sciences, including periodontology. Although cultured cells can be used to study physiological processes that occur during the pathogenesis of periodontitis, the complex host response fundamentally responsible for this disease cannot be reproduced in vitro. Among the animal kingdom, rodents, rabbits, pigs, dogs, and nonhuman primates have been used to model human periodontitis, each with advantages and disadvantages. Periodontitis commonly has been induced by placing a bacterial plaque retentive ligature in the gingival sulcus around the molar teeth. In addition, alveolar bone loss has been induced by inoculation or injection of human oral bacteria (e.g., Porphyromonas gingivalis in different animal models. While animal models have provided a wide range of important data, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether the findings are applicable to humans. In addition, variability in host responses to bacterial infection among individuals contributes significantly to the expression of periodontal diseases. A practical and highly reproducible model that truly mimics the natural pathogenesis of human periodontal disease has yet to be developed.

  7. Animal Models for Periodontal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Helieh S.; Puleo, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Animal models and cell cultures have contributed new knowledge in biological sciences, including periodontology. Although cultured cells can be used to study physiological processes that occur during the pathogenesis of periodontitis, the complex host response fundamentally responsible for this disease cannot be reproduced in vitro. Among the animal kingdom, rodents, rabbits, pigs, dogs, and nonhuman primates have been used to model human periodontitis, each with advantages and disadvantages. Periodontitis commonly has been induced by placing a bacterial plaque retentive ligature in the gingival sulcus around the molar teeth. In addition, alveolar bone loss has been induced by inoculation or injection of human oral bacteria (e.g., Porphyromonas gingivalis) in different animal models. While animal models have provided a wide range of important data, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether the findings are applicable to humans. In addition, variability in host responses to bacterial infection among individuals contributes significantly to the expression of periodontal diseases. A practical and highly reproducible model that truly mimics the natural pathogenesis of human periodontal disease has yet to be developed. PMID:21331345

  8. A correlative study of the clinical and radiographic signs of periodontal disease in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.M.; Zontine, W.J.; Willits, N.H.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-four dogs admitted for routine teeth cleaning were selected arbitrarily to undergo a periodontal examination and a dental radiographic examination before the dental procedure. Data pertaining to the physical and radiographic manifestations of periodontal disease of 783 teeth were collected. All dogs had lesions consistent with periodontal disease, ranging from mild gingivitis and minimal plaque accumulation to severely inflamed gingiva, exuberant calculus formation, and root exposure. Of the 783 teeth examined, 153 (20%) had a pocket depth greater than or equal to 4 mm and less than or equal to 9 mm. Data regarding these teeth were subjected to statistical analysis. The clinical signs of plaque, calculus, mobility, pocket depth, and furcation were positively associated with radiographic signs of periodonta disease. The association between grossly evident gingivitis and radiographic signs of periodontal disease was not significant. Conditional probability analysis was applied to determine confidence intervals for the probability of a radiographic sign of periodontal disease occurring given that a clinical sign of periodontal disease occurs. (author)

  9. A critical assessment of adverse pregnancy outcome and periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Gernot; Pihlstrom, Bruce L

    2008-09-01

    Pre-term birth is a major cause of infant mortality and morbidity that has considerable societal, medical, and economic costs. The rate of pre-term birth appears to be increasing world-wide and efforts to prevent or reduce its prevalence have been largely unsuccessful. To review the literature for studies investigating periodontal disease as a possible risk factor for pre-term birth and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Variability among studies in definitions of periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes as well as widespread inadequate control for confounding factors and possible effect modification make it difficult to base meaningful conclusions on published data. However, while there are indications of an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in some populations, there is no conclusive evidence that treating periodontal disease improves birth outcome. Based on a critical qualitative review, available evidence from clinical trials indicates that, although non-surgical mechanical periodontal treatment in the second trimester of pregnancy is safe and effective in reducing signs of maternal periodontal disease, it does not reduce the rate of pre-term birth. Clinical trials currently underway will further clarify the potential role of periodontal therapy in preventing adverse birth outcomes. Regardless of the outcomes of these trials, it is recommended that large, prospective cohort studies be conducted to assess risk for adverse pregnancy outcome in populations with periodontal disease. It is critical that periodontal exposure and adverse birth outcomes be clearly defined and the many potential confounding factors and possible effect modifiers for adverse pregnancy outcome be controlled in these studies. If periodontal disease is associated with higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome in these specific populations, large multicenter randomized-controlled trials will be needed to determine if prevention or

  10. Trichomonas tenax and periodontal diseases: a concise review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Mathieu; Lemaitre, Mathieu; Kémoun, Philippe; Morrier, Jean-Jacques; Monsarrat, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Periodontal diseases (gingivitis and periodontitis), result from a disruption of the host-oral microbiome homoeostasis. Whereas the pathological role of some specific bacterial strains during periodontal diseases is well documented, the impact of parasites in periodontium pathophysiology is still under debate. This review aims to collect data about the prevalence and the potential role of Trichomonas tenax during periodontal diseases. Data from 47 studies revealed that T. tenax prevalence in diseased periodontium ranged from 0 to 94·1%. The prevalence of oral protozoan infections was found to be largely greater in patients with periodontal diseases than with healthy periodontium. The parasite detection was mainly performed by direct microscopy. Trichomonas tenax presence was clearly correlated with periodontal disease. The high heterogeneity of its periodontal prevalence may be correlated with the diversity of the population screened (age, sex, systemic diseases), and the methods used for diagnosis. This protozoan seems to have the capacity to be involved in the inflammatory process of gum disease. Animal experimentation, using relevant physiopathological models of periodontitis, needs to be performed to investigate the ability of T. tenax to cause and/or worsen the disease. Further investigations using standardized experimental designs of epidemiologic studies are also needed.

  11. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are associated with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laky, Markus; Bertl, Kristina; Haririan, Hady; Andrukhov, Oleh; Seemann, Rudolf; Volf, Ivo; Assinger, Alice; Gruber, Reinhard; Moritz, Andreas; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2017-06-01

    Vitamin D plays an essential role in bone metabolism as well as in immunity. Hence, it might affect the development and extent of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was the assessment of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in periodontal disease. Twenty-nine patients with severe periodontal disease and 29 healthy volunteers were recruited in this case-control-study. Serum 25(OH)D levels, Periodontal Probing Depth (PPD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), Bleeding on Probing (BOP), Body Mass Index (BMI), and current smoking status and smoking history (packyears) were assessed in all participants. Serum 25(OH)D levels were compared between controls and cases. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for periodontal disease in 25(OH)D deficient probands. Patients with periodontal disease presented a significantly higher proportion of deficient 25(OH)D levels (i.e., periodontal disease with vitamin D deficiency was 1.5 (95 % CI, 1.13-1.98). No correlation between serum 25(OH)D levels and CAL, PPD, and BOP in the group with periodontal disease was found. In this case-control-study 25(OH)D deficiency is significantly associated with periodontal disease. The assessment of vitamin D levels in patients presenting with periodontal disease seems advisable, as vitamin D deficiency might be involved in the onset and progression of periodontal disease.

  12. Detection and prevalence of Capnocytophaga in periodontal Health and disease

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    Pushpa S Pudakalkatti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context/Background: Periodontal disease is a multifactorial disease, in which bacteria play a major role. Capnocytophaga species form a part of human oral flora both in health and disease. They have been implicated as putative periodontal pathogens, and yet, they are less understood members of plaque flora. No studies have been conducted on the association of Capnocytophaga species with periodontal diseases in India. Aim: The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of Capnocytophaga species in patients with healthy periodontium, gingivitis, and periodontitis using culture method. Methods: Forty patients each with healthy periodontium, gingivitis, and periodontitis were selected. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from all the patients using sterile curettes and transferred to transport medium and sent to the laboratory. The plaque samples were inoculated on blood agar and trypticase-blood-bacitracin-polymyxin agar to grow Capnocytophaga species. Later, Gram-staining and microscopy were done to confirm the presence of Capnocytophaga in each sample. The prevalence of Capnocytophaga species was statistically analyzed using Chi-square test, Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance, and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Capnocytophaga was detected in 21 (52.50% samples out of 40 samples of gingivitis group, 11 (27.50% samples of healthy group, and 12 (30% samples of periodontitis group. Conclusions: Capnocytophaga is more prevalent in gingivitis compared to healthy periodontium and periodontitis. Capnocytophaga has the potential to cause periodontal disease, but as it is less competitive in the periodontal pocket, it is usually overgrown by other rapidly growing bacteria.

  13. Position paper: periodontal diseases of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califano, Joseph V

    2003-11-01

    Children and adolescents are subject to several periodontal diseases. Although there is a much lower prevalence of destructive periodontal diseases in children than in adults, children can develop severe forms of periodontitis. In some cases, this destructive disease is a manifestation of a known underlying systemic disease. In other young patients, the underlying cause for increased susceptibility and early onset of disease is unknown. These diseases are often familial, suggesting a genetic predisposition for aggressive disease. Current modalities for managing periodontal diseases of children and adolescents may include antibiotic therapy in combination with non-surgical and/or surgical therapy. Since early diagnosis ensures the greatest chance for successful treatment, it is important that children receive a periodontal examination as part of their routine dental visits.

  14. Development of an Ontology for Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Asami; Takai-Igarashi, Takako; Nakaya, Jun; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    In the clinical dentists and periodontal researchers' community, there is an obvious demand for a systems model capable of linking the clinical presentation of periodontitis to underlying molecular knowledge. A computer-readable representation of processes on disease development will give periodontal researchers opportunities to elucidate pathways and mechanisms of periodontitis. An ontology for periodontitis can be a model for integration of large variety of factors relating to a complex disease such as chronic inflammation in different organs accompanied by bone remodeling and immune system disorders, which has recently been referred to as osteoimmunology. Terms characteristic of descriptions related to the onset and progression of periodontitis were manually extracted from 194 review articles and PubMed abstracts by experts in periodontology. We specified all the relations between the extracted terms and constructed them into an ontology for periodontitis. We also investigated matching between classes of our ontology and that of Gene Ontology Biological Process. We developed an ontology for periodontitis called Periodontitis-Ontology (PeriO). The pathological progression of periodontitis is caused by complex, multi-factor interrelationships. PeriO consists of all the required concepts to represent the pathological progression and clinical treatment of periodontitis. The pathological processes were formalized with reference to Basic Formal Ontology and Relation Ontology, which accounts for participants in the processes realized by biological objects such as molecules and cells. We investigated the peculiarity of biological processes observed in pathological progression and medical treatments for the disease in comparison with Gene Ontology Biological Process (GO-BP) annotations. The results indicated that peculiarities of Perio existed in 1) granularity and context dependency of both the conceptualizations, and 2) causality intrinsic to the pathological processes

  15. Comparative assessment of the prevalence of periodontal disease in subjects with and without systemic autoimmune diseases: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Kumar, S G; Aswath Narayanan, M B; Jayanthi, D

    2016-01-01

    Immune mechanism shares a common pathway both for systemic autoimmune diseases and periodontal diseases. Scientific exploration of literature revealed limited studies on the association between systemic autoimmune diseases and periodontal diseases in India. The aim of the study is to find whether the presence of systemic autoimmune diseases in an individual is a risk factor for the development of periodontal disease. This was a hospital-based case-control study. A sample of 253 patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, attending the Rheumatology Department of Government General Hospital, Chennai-3, and 262 patients without systemic autoimmune diseases, attending the outpatient department of the Tamil Nadu Government Dental College and Hospital, Chennai-3, constituted the case and control groups, respectively. Age, gender, and oral hygiene status matching was done. Oral hygiene status was assessed using oral hygiene index (OHI) and periodontal status was assessed using community periodontal index (CPI) and loss of attachment (LOA) index. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 15 (SPSS Inc, 2006, Chicago). Results showed 99.2% and 73.9% prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis, respectively, in the case group as compared to 85.5% and 14.9%, respectively, in the control group. There is no linear relationship between OHI scores and prevalence of periodontitis (CPI and LOA scores) in the case group. Patients suffering from systemic autoimmune diseases showed more prevalence of periodontal diseases irrespective of oral hygiene scores. It is postulated that the presence of systemic autoimmune diseases may pose a risk for the development of periodontal diseases.

  16. Periodontal disease and its connection to systemic biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in young American Indian/Alaskan natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delange, Nicole; Lindsay, Suzanne; Lemus, Hector; Finlayson, Tracy L; Kelley, Scott T; Gottlieb, Roberta A

    2018-02-01

    Periodontal disease has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). No known studies evaluate the relationship between periodontal disease status and biomarkers of CVD risk in the American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) population despite their disproportionately high rates of poor oral health and cardiovascular disease-related outcomes. This study compared levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) across increasing severity of periodontal disease status among younger adults between the ages of 21 and 43 years. Plasma levels of IL-6 and CRP were measured in adult participants (ages 21 to 43 years) as part of a study of periodontal disease and CVD risk among an AI/AN population in southern California (n = 59). Periodontal evaluations were performed and disease status was classified into three categories based on highest probing depth (none/mild: disease or active infection were excluded. Severe periodontitis was significantly associated with increased levels of IL-6 compared with those with none or mild periodontitis before controlling for other variables (P = 0.02), but lacked significance after controlling for sex, BMI, smoking status, and high-density lipoprotein (P = 0.09). Moderate periodontal disease was positively associated with IL-6 levels after controlling for potential confounders (P = 0.01). Periodontal status was not associated with CRP, before or after adjusting for covariates. In this otherwise healthy AI/AN adult sample, moderate periodontal disease compared with none or mild periodontal disease was associated with increased levels of IL-6. High levels of CRP found in this population warrant further research. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.

  17. Periodontitis, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease: A Bermuda Triangle

    OpenAIRE

    Teeuw, W.J.

    2017-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis contributes to the understanding of the complex relationship between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus (DM), and periodontitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). It was observed that a substantial number of suspected new DM patients could be found in patients with periodontitis. Furthermore, periodontitis patients showed increased C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and more arterial stiffness compared to controls, reflecting an increased at...

  18. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 levels in periodontal disease patients: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, E F; Pinheiro, J C; Leite, R B; Santos, P P A; Barboza, C A G; Freitas, R A

    2018-04-01

    Periodontal disease is characterized as a disorder of the oral microbiota resulting in an immune response which, in turn, leads to the destruction of periodontal tissue. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) has been reported as the major metalloproteinase involved in periodontal disease, being present at high levels in gingival crevicular fluid and salivary fluid (SF). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the scientific literature regarding the expression of MMP-8 in gingival crevicular fluid and SF in patients with periodontal disease, analyzing its validity as a possible biomarker in the diagnosis of periodontal disease. A systematic review of the literature was performed using the PubMed/Medline, CENTRAL and Science Direct databases. Studies concerning the use of MMP-8 in the diagnosis of periodontal disease that evaluated its effectiveness as a biomarker for periodontal disease were selected. The search strategy provided a total of 6483 studies. After selection, six articles met all the inclusion criteria and were included in the present systematic review. The studies demonstrated significantly higher concentrations of MMP-8 in patients with periodontal disease compared with controls, as well as in patients presenting more advanced stages of periodontal disease. The findings on higher MMP-8 concentrations in patients with periodontal disease compared with controls imply the potential adjunctive use of MMP-8 in the diagnosis of periodontal disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Monitoring of the periodontal disease using digital image analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taba Junior, Mario.

    1995-01-01

    The radiographs play an important role in the diagnosis and management of periodontal disease although the most appropriate form of assessment vary. The great technologic advance and the easily accessible systems of digital image analyses, specify digitized radiographs, improve the diagnostic power. The studied group was 29 adults (14 female and 15 male) ranging in age from 18 to 45 years. They all had evidence of alveolar bone loss and established periodontitis. They were studied, without treatment, over a six month period with four posterior standardized vertical bite wings radiographs, electronic probing of attachment loss, and bacteriological and temperature analysis of periodontal pocket. The aim of this investigation was to determine the relationship between the loss of radiographic crestal bone height and probing attachment loss in digitized radiographs and show a standardization method for periodontal radiographs. Radiographic and probing attachment change at all sites, dichotomously classified as to not changing or loosing indicated 20.42% of sites were loosing by measurement of radiographic change and 5.29% were loosing by measurement of attachment change. There was concordance between the presence or absence of probing attachment loss and bone loss in 72% to 86% depending on the area. The results, admitting methodological limitations, indicate that when these two methods for the assessment of progressive periodontitis were used they represents measure degrees of different features of periodontitis and that the period of periodontal disease activity was detected in the either the soft tissue attachment or bone. (author)

  20. Expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and iNOS in pregnant women with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otenio, C C M; Fonseca, I; Martins, M F; Ribeiro, L C; Assis, N M S P; Ferreira, A P; Ribeiro, R A

    2012-12-17

    Periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent oral diseases. An association between this disease and pregnancy has been suggested, but available findings are controversial. We evaluated the expression levels of interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in pregnant women with and without periodontal disease in comparison with non-pregnant women with and without periodontal disease since studies have suggested a relationship between periodontitis and the expression levels of these genes. The women in the sample were distributed into four groups: pregnant and non-pregnant women, with or without periodontal disease, a total of 32 women. The periodontal condition was evaluated according to the probing depth, clinical attachment level and bleeding on probing. Analysis of gene expression was performed by real-time PCR. Comparisons were made of the level of gene expression among the four groups. Expression of IL-1β in the non-pregnant women with periodontal disease was 12.6 times higher than in the non-pregnant women without periodontal disease (P periodontal disease was 3.5 times higher than in the pregnant women with periodontal disease (P periodontal disease in comparison with expression of the same genes in non-pregnant women with and without periodontal disease, suggesting that periodontal disease is not influenced by pregnancy.

  1. Periodontal disease associated to systemic genetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nualart Grollmus, Zacy Carola; Morales Chávez, Mariana Carolina; Silvestre Donat, Francisco Javier

    2007-05-01

    A number of systemic disorders increase patient susceptibility to periodontal disease, which moreover evolves more rapidly and more aggressively. The underlying factors are mainly related to alterations in immune, endocrine and connective tissue status. These alterations are associated with different pathologies and syndromes that generate periodontal disease either as a primary manifestation or by aggravating a pre-existing condition attributable to local factors. This is where the role of bacterial plaque is subject to debate. In the presence of qualitative or quantitative cellular immune alterations, periodontal disease may manifest early on a severe localized or generalized basis--in some cases related to the presence of plaque and/or specific bacteria (severe congenital neutropenia or infantile genetic agranulocytosis, Chediak-Higiashi syndrome, Down syndrome and Papillon-Lefévre syndrome). In the presence of humoral immune alterations, periodontal damage may result indirectly as a consequence of alterations in other systems. In connective tissue disorders, bacterial plaque and alterations of the periodontal tissues increase patient susceptibility to gingival inflammation and alveolar resorption (Marfan syndrome and Ehler-Danlos syndrome). The management of periodontal disease focuses on the control of infection and bacterial plaque by means of mechanical and chemical methods. Periodontal surgery and even extraction of the most seriously affected teeth have also been suggested. There are variable degrees of consensus regarding the background systemic disorder, as in the case of Chediak-Higiashi syndrome, where antibiotic treatment proves ineffective; in severe congenital neutropenia or infantile genetic agranulocytosis, where antibiotic prophylaxis is suggested; and in Papillon-Lefévre syndrome, where an established treatment protocol is available.

  2. EVALUATION OF THE PREVALENCE OF THE PERIODONTAL DISEASE VERSUS SYSTEMIC AND LOCAL RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia MÂRŢU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The periodontal disease represents a malady characterized by an extremely high incidence. The manifestations and evolution of the periodontal diseases vary for each form in part, being influenced by systemic and local risk factors. Scope of the study: To evaluate the periodontal status on a group of patients, versus the syste‐ mic and local factors. Materials and method: The study was performed on a group of 170 patients, whose odonto‐periodontal status was evaluated by strict clinical and paraclinical examinations, on establishing the inflammation indices and the periodontal diagnosis. Results: The main cause of the analysis was gingival ble‐ eding; an increased number of smokers was registered among the patients. Out of the local factors, especially important were edentations and malocclusions. Also, a higher number of aggressive generalized periodontites has been noticed. Discussion: The forms of the periodontal diseases are obviously influenced by the systemic context, while the forms of localized chronic periodontitis associa‐ ted with generalized chronic gingivitis reflect the role pla‐ yed by the local risk factors. Conclusions: Stress and smoking represent significant risk factors in the installation of periodontal pathology, with a really alarming preva‐ lence. The aggressive forms of periodontitis showed a higher frequency than that recorded in literature.

  3. Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Suffer from Worse Periodontal Health-Evidence from a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Quan; Zhang, Bin; Xing, Helin; Yang, Shuo; Xu, Juan; Liu, Hongchen

    2018-01-01

    Background and Objective: It is widely accepted that there is an association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and periodontitis. However, whether the periodontal status of the COPD patients is worse than that of the non-COPD subjects is seldom assessed. The findings currently available are inconsistent, some even contradictory. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to compare the periodontal health status of COPD patients and non-COPD subjects. Methods: PubMed and Embase were searched for all of the eligible studies which comparing the periodontal status between COPD patients and non-COPD subjects. The results of periodontal parameters in each study were extracted and the mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each parameter were calculated to determine their overall effects. Results: In total, 14 studies involving 3348 COPD patients and 20612 non-COPD controls were included and 9 periodontal indexes were analyzed. The mean differences (95% CIs) between COPD and non-COPD subjects for probing depth, clinical attachment loss, level of alveolar bone loss, plaque index, oral hygiene index, bleeding index, bleeding on probing, gingival index, and remaining teeth were 0.261 (0.020-0.501), 0.480 (0.280-0.681), 0.127 (0.000-0.254), 0.226 (0.043-0.408), 0.802 (0.326-1.279), 0.241 (-0.106 to 0.588), 6.878 (5.489-8.266), 0.364 (0.036-0.692), and -3.726 (-5.120 to -2.331), respectively. Conclusion: In summary, this meta-analysis demonstrates that the COPD patients suffer from worse periodontal health status, indicated by deeper periodontal pockets, high level of clinical attachment loss, worse oral hygiene, more inflammation and bleeding in the gingival tissue, and lower number of remaining teeth. Nevertheless, considering the limitations in our meta-analysis, more high-quality, and well-designed studies focusing on the periodontal health of the COPD patients are required to validate our conclusion.

  4. Poor Response to Periodontal Treatment May Predict Future Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmlund, A; Lampa, E; Lind, L

    2017-07-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but whether the response to the treatment of periodontal disease affects this association has not been investigated in any large prospective study. Periodontal data obtained at baseline and 1 y after treatment were available in 5,297 individuals with remaining teeth who were treated at a specialized clinic for periodontal disease. Poor response to treatment was defined as having >10% sites with probing pocket depth >4 mm deep and bleeding on probing at ≥20% of the sites 1 y after active treatment. Fatal/nonfatal incidence rate of CVD (composite end point of myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure) was obtained from the Swedish cause-of-death and hospital discharge registers. Poisson regression analysis was performed to analyze future risk of CVD. During a median follow-up of 16.8 y (89,719 person-years at risk), those individuals who did not respond well to treatment (13.8% of the sample) had an increased incidence of CVD ( n = 870) when compared with responders (23.6 vs. 15.3%, P 4 mm, and number of teeth, the incidence rate ratio for CVD among poor responders was 1.28 (95% CI, 1.07 to 1.53; P = 0.007) as opposed to good responders. The incidence rate ratio among poor responders increased to 1.39 (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.73; P = 0.002) for those with the most remaining teeth. Individuals who did not respond well to periodontal treatment had an increased risk for future CVD, indicating that successful periodontal treatment might influence progression of subclinical CVD.

  5. Periodontal Disease, Regular Dental Care Use, and Incident Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Souvik; Giamberardino, Lauren D; Moss, Kevin; Morelli, Thiago; Rosamond, Wayne D; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Beck, James; Offenbacher, Steven

    2018-02-01

    Periodontal disease is independently associated with cardiovascular disease. Identification of periodontal disease as a risk factor for incident ischemic stroke raises the possibility that regular dental care utilization may reduce the stroke risk. In the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study, pattern of dental visits were classified as regular or episodic dental care users. In the ancillary dental ARIC study, selected subjects from ARIC underwent fullmouth periodontal measurements collected at 6 sites per tooth and classified into 7 periodontal profile classes (PPCs). In the ARIC study 10 362 stroke-free participants, 584 participants had incident ischemic strokes over a 15-year period. In the dental ARIC study, 6736 dentate subjects were assessed for periodontal disease status using PPC with a total of 299 incident ischemic strokes over the 15-year period. The 7 levels of PPC showed a trend toward an increased stroke risk (χ 2 trend P periodontal disease). Periodontal disease was significantly associated with cardioembolic (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-5.6) and thrombotic (hazard ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.8) stroke subtypes. Regular dental care utilization was associated with lower adjusted stroke risk (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.94). We confirm an independent association between periodontal disease and incident stroke risk, particularly cardioembolic and thrombotic stroke subtype. Further, we report that regular dental care utilization may lower this risk for stroke. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Periodontal disease and bacterial vaginosis increase the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome.

    OpenAIRE

    Oittinen, Juha; Kurki, Tapio; Kekki, Minnamaija; Kuusisto, Minna; Pussinen, Pirkko; Vilkuna-Rautiainen, Tiina; Nieminen, Anja; Asikainen, Sirkka; Paavonen, Jorma

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether periodontal disease or bacterial vaginosis (BV) diagnosed before pregnancy increase the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome. METHODS: We enrolled a total of 252 women who had discontinued contraception in order to become pregnant. The first 130 pregnant women were included in the analyses. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed a strong association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcome (OR 5.5, 95% confidence interval 1.4-21.2; p = 0.014), an...

  7. Degenerative alterations of the cementum-periodontal ligament complex and early tooth loss in a young patient with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruţiu, S A; Buiga, Petronela; Roman, Alexandra; Danciu, Theodora; Mihu, Carmen Mihaela; Mihu, D

    2012-01-01

    Premature exfoliation of primary or permanent teeth in children or adolescents is extremely rare and it can be a manifestation of an underlying systemic disease. This study aims to present the histological aspects associated with early tooth loss in a case of periodontal disease developed without local inflammation and with minimal periodontal pockets and attachment loss. The maxillary left second premolar was extracted together with a gingival collar attached to the root surface. The histological analysis recorded the resorption of the cementum in multiple areas of the entire root surface with the connective tissue of the desmodontium invading the lacunae defects. The connective tissue rich in cells occupied the periodontal ligamentar space and the resorptive areas. No inflammation was obvious in the periodontal ligament connective tissue. This report may warn clinicians about the possibility of the association of cemental abnormalities with early tooth loss.

  8. Chronic periodontitis, inflammatory cytokines, and interrelationship with other chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Elsa Maria; Reis, Cátia; Manzanares-Céspedes, Maria Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Periodontal diseases, such as chronic periodontitis, share common inflammatory risk factors with other systemic and chronic inflammatory disorders. Mucosal tissues, such as oral epithelia, are exposed to environmental stressors, such as tobacco and oral bacteria, that might be involved in promoting a systemic inflammatory state. Conversely, chronic disorders can also affect oral health. This review will summarize recent evidence for the interrelationship between chronic periodontitis and other prevalent chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. The association with pregnancy is also included due to possible obstetric complications. We will focus on inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6, because they have been shown to be increased in patients with chronic periodontitis, in patients with chronic systemic diseases, and in patients with both chronic periodontitis and other chronic diseases. Therefore, an imbalance towards a proinflammatory immune response could underline a bidirectional link between chronic periodontitis and other chronic diseases. Finally, we highlight that a close coordination between dental and other health professionals could promote oral health and prevent or ameliorate other chronic diseases.

  9. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

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    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242- 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lewgoy, H. R. [Universidade Anhanguera Bandeirante, UNIBAN R. Maria Candida, 1813, Bloco G / 6o andar - 02071-013 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  10. Periodontal disease early in pregnancy is associated with maternal systemic inflammation among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Amanda L; Boggess, Kim A; Moss, Kevin L; Jared, Heather L; Beck, James; Offenbacher, Steven

    2008-07-01

    Maternal periodontal disease is a chronic oral infection with local and systemic inflammatory responses and may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study determined whether maternal periodontal disease in early pregnancy is associated with elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and whether maternal race influences the relationship between maternal periodontal disease and systemic inflammatory responses. A secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from the Oral Conditions and Pregnancy study was conducted. Healthy women at Periodontal disease was categorized by clinical criteria, and maternal serum was analyzed for CRP levels using highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. An elevated CRP level was defined as >75th percentile. Demographic and medical data were obtained from the women's charts. Chi-square and multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine maternal factors associated with an elevated CRP. An adjusted odds ratio (OR) for elevated CRP levels was calculated and stratified by race and periodontal disease category. The median (interquartile) CRP level was 4.8 (0.6 to 15.7) microg/ml, and an elevated CRP level (>75th percentile) was 15.7 microg/ml. African American race and moderate/severe periodontal disease were significantly associated with elevated CRP levels. When stratified by race, moderate/severe periodontal disease remained associated with an elevated CRP level among African American women (adjusted OR: 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2 to 8.5) but not among white women (adjusted OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.2 to 3.6) after adjusting for age, smoking, parity, marital status, insurance status, and weight. Among African American women, moderate/severe periodontal disease is associated with elevated CRP levels early in pregnancy.

  11. Periodontal disease and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Tao Zeng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many epidemiological studies have found a positive association between periodontal disease (PD and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but this association is varied and even contradictory among studies. We performed a meta-analysis to ascertain the relationship between PD and COPD. METHODS: PubMed and Embase database were searched up to January 10, 2012, for relevant observational studies on the association between PD and risk of COPD. Data from the studies selected were extracted and analyzed independently by two authors. The meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. RESULTS: Fourteen observational studies (one nested case-control, eight case-control, and five cross-sectional involving 3,988 COPD patients were yielded. Based on random-effects meta-analysis, a significant association between PD and COPD was identified (odds ratio = 2.08, 95% confidence interval = 1.48-2.91; P<0.001, with sensitivity analysis showing that the result was robust. Subgroups analyses according to study design, ethnicity, assessment of PD/COPD, and adjusted/unadjusted odds ratios also revealed a significant association. Publication bias was detected. CONCLUSIONS: Based on current evidence, PD is a significant and independent risk factor of COPD. However, whether a causal relationships exists remains unclear. Morever, we suggest performing randomized controlled trails to explore whether periodontal interventions are beneficial in regulating COPD pathogenesis and progression.

  12. Polymicrobial infection with major periodontal pathogens induced periodontal disease and aortic atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic ApoE(null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes F Rivera

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease (PD and atherosclerosis are both polymicrobial and multifactorial and although observational studies supported the association, the causative relationship between these two diseases is not yet established. Polymicrobial infection-induced periodontal disease is postulated to accelerate atherosclerotic plaque growth by enhancing atherosclerotic risk factors of orally infected Apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(null mice. At 16 weeks of infection, samples of blood, mandible, maxilla, aorta, heart, spleen, and liver were collected, analyzed for bacterial genomic DNA, immune response, inflammation, alveolar bone loss, serum inflammatory marker, atherosclerosis risk factors, and aortic atherosclerosis. PCR analysis of polymicrobial-infected (Porphyromonas gingivalis [P. gingivalis], Treponema denticola [T. denticola], and Tannerella forsythia [T. forsythia] mice resulted in detection of bacterial genomic DNA in oral plaque samples indicating colonization of the oral cavity by all three species. Fluorescent in situ hybridization detected P. gingivalis and T. denticola within gingival tissues of infected mice and morphometric analysis showed an increase in palatal alveolar bone loss (p<0.0001 and intrabony defects suggesting development of periodontal disease in this model. Polymicrobial-infected mice also showed an increase in aortic plaque area (p<0.05 with macrophage accumulation, enhanced serum amyloid A, and increased serum cholesterol and triglycerides. A systemic infection was indicated by the detection of bacterial genomic DNA in the aorta and liver of infected mice and elevated levels of bacterial specific IgG antibodies (p<0.0001. This study was a unique effort to understand the effects of a polymicrobial infection with P. gingivalis, T. denticola and T. forsythia on periodontal disease and associated atherosclerosis in ApoE(null mice.

  13. Periodontal disease and pregnancy outcomes: time to move on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Sindhu K; Parry, Samuel

    2012-02-01

    Maternal periodontal disease is a highly prevalent condition that has been studied extensively in relation to adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm delivery, preeclampsia, and low birth weight. Investigators speculate that hematogenous transport of bacteria and/or pro-inflammatory mediators from sites of periodontal infection into the placenta, fetal membranes, and amniotic cavity induces pathological processes that lead to these adverse outcomes. Preliminary observational studies supported this hypothesis, but more recent work by our group and others do not demonstrate an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among women with periodontal disease, and most randomized trials fail to demonstrate improved perinatal outcomes following treatment of periodontal disease in pregnancy.

  14. Active Matrixmetalloproteinase-8 and periodontal bacteria - interlink between periodontitis and inflammatory bowel disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J; Weigert, M; Leuschner, C; Hartmann, H; Raddatz, D; Haak, R; Mausberg, R F; Kottmann, Tanja; Schmalz, G; Ziebolz, D

    2018-03-25

    The aim of this study was the investigation of concentration and prevalence of selected periodontal pathogenic bacteria and concentration of active matrix-metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) within a group of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and to compare the results with a group of healthy control subjects (HC). 59 IBD patients with Crohn`s disease (CD, n = 30) or ulcerative colitis (UC, n = 29) and 59 HC were included in this cross-sectional study. Based on periodontal probing depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL), periodontitis was classified into healthy/mild, moderate or severe. aMMP-8 was analyzed from gingival crevicular fluid using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Eleven selected periodontal pathogenic bacteria were analyzed in subgingival plaque samples using polymerase chain reaction. IBD patients showed higher CAL (p periodontitis (p = 0.04), gingival bleeding (p periodontitis was associated with an increase in aMMP-8 concentration (p = 0.02). The prevalences of Eubacterium nodatum and Eikanella corrodens were significantly lower in IBD compared to HC (p = 0.01). Additionally, the prevalence of Eikanella corrodens was significantly higher in CD compared to UC group (p = 0.04). Further statistically significant differences in selected bacteria between IBD and HC or CD and UC groups could not be found (p > 0.05). The results reveal changes in host immune response of IBD patients in terms of aMMP-8. Only in CD increasing aMMP-8 was associated with severity of periodontal disease. The role of periodontal pathogenic bacteria in the interrelation between IBD and periodontitis remains unclear. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Periodontitis and systemic diseases : a record of discussions of working group 4 of the Joint EFP/AAP Workshop on Periodontitis and Systemic Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, Gerry J; Herzberg, Mark C; van Winkelhoff, Arie

    BACKGROUND: There has been an explosion in research into possible associations between periodontitis and various systemic diseases and conditions. AIM: To review the evidence for associations between periodontitis and various systemic diseases and conditions, including chronic obstructive pulmonary

  16. [Pregnancy and periodontal disease--is there a relation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Y; Levin, L; Oettinger-Barak, O; Machtei, E

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy complications, especially low birth weight (defined as birth weight less than 2.500 kilograms (kg)), pre-term delivery (less than 37 weeks) and pre-ecclampsia (elevated maternal blood pressure), continue to be a significant public health issue in both developed and developing countries. Recent data indicate that periodontal disease might confer risk for several systemic disorders. The relationship between periodontal diseases in pregnancy and obstetric complications has been increasingly investigated, showing inconclusive results. The purpose of this study is to review the current literature regarding the influence of periodontal status on pregnancy outcome, including the effect of periodontal treatment. Further research in this area is required, particularly with respect to the effect of population differences on this potential association between periodontal diseases and pregnancy complications as well as on the exact mechanism of this association. Since pregnancy tends to influence periodontal status, and considering the potential reported relation between periodontal disease and pregnancy complications, careful periodontal diagnosis and treatment before as well as during pregnancy is warranted.

  17. Assessment of Occlusal Function in a Patient with an Angle Class I Spaced Dental Arch with Periodontal Disease Using a Brux Checker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Taira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive and appropriate occlusion reconstruction therapy is necessary for orthodontic treatment of adult patients with malocclusion with periodontal disease associated with occlusal trauma. We report the case of a patient with extensive moderate chronic periodontitis associated with occlusal trauma. The patient was diagnosed with extensive moderate chronic periodontitis associated with occlusal trauma and underwent thorough treatment for periodontal disease, oral management, and 20 months of orthodontic therapy. Moreover, reconstructed occlusion was performed to evaluate occlusal trauma for visualization using Brux Checker (BC analysis before and after active orthodontic treatment. The patient acquired stable anterior guidance and a functional occlusal relationship. BC findings revealed weakening of the functional contact between the lateral occlusal force of the dentition and the front teeth and alveolar bone regeneration. The laminar dura became clearer, and the periodontal tissue improved. Our results suggest that assessment of occlusion function using BC analysis and periodontal examination was effective in enabling occlusal treatment goal clarification through orthodontic treatment in case of periodontal disease associated with occlusal trauma.

  18. Prevalence of periodontal disease in children with leukemia disease and thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardianti Maulidita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Various periodontal disease can occur in children and adolescents. Some can take place quickly and periodontal tissue damage. Several previous studies indicate that systemic diseases associated with periodontal disease in children. This study aims to determine the prevalence of periodontal disease in children with leukemia and thalassemia. The design study is a cross-sectional approach. Periodontal pocket depth measurements performed using the WHO standard of measurement. The samples in this study were drawn from the entire population using accidental sampling method. Sampled population was pediatric patients with leukemia and thalassemia. These patients were undergoing treatment in hospital Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital Makassar. During the study, children with leukemia as many as 18 patients and children with thalassemia by 8 patients. Distribution of pediatric patients suffering from leukemia by CPITN score; score of 2 as many as 10 patients (55.6%, a score of 1 as 6 patients (33.3%, and  score of 0 as many as 2 patients (11.1%. CPITN score in children with thalassemia; scores 2 in 1 patient (12.5%, a score of 1 as 6 patients (75%, and score of 0 by 1 patient (12.5%. Children who have leukemia and thalassemia, showed the rate of occurrence of different periodontal disease. Children with leukemia shows the level of periodontal disease is higher than in children with thalassemia disease.

  19. Pathogenic mechanisms linking periodontal diseases with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, I; Pileri, P; Villa, A; Calabrese, S; Ottolenghi, L; Abati, S

    2012-06-01

    In the last 2 decades, a large proportion of studies have focused on the relationship between maternal periodontal disease and poor obstetric outcomes. The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge about human studies on the pathogenetic mechanisms linking periodontal diseases with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A search of the medical literature was conducted using NIH (National Institute of Health) Pubmed through April 2011. Articles were identified with the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) and free text terms "small for gestational age (SGA)," "preeclampsia," "preterm labor," and "periodontal disease." Experimental human studies have shown that periodontal pathogens may disseminate toward placental and fetal tissues accompanied by an increase in inflammatory mediators in the placenta. As such, new inflammatory reactions within the placental tissues of the pregnant woman may occur, the physiological levels of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the amniotic fluid may increase and eventually lead to premature delivery. Although many data from clinical trials suggest that periodontal disease may increase the adverse pregnancy outcome, the exact pathogenetic mechanism involved remains controversial. The findings explain the potential link between periodontal infections and adverse pregnancy outcomes. First, periodontal bacteria can directly cause infections both of the uteroplacenta and the fetus; second, systemic inflammatory changes induced by periodontal diseases can activate responses at the maternal-fetal interface. Of note, associative studies have produced different results in different population groups and no conclusive evidence has still been produced for the potential role of preventive periodontal care to reduce the risk factors of preterm birth.

  20. C-reactive protein as a marker of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaparthy, Rosaiah; Kanaparthy, Aruna; Mahendra, Muktishree

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal subgingival pathogens affect local and systemic immune and inflammatory response and cause the release of cytokines; this results in periodontal destruction and initiation of an acute phase systemic inflammatory response characterized by the release of C-reactive proteins (CRP). This study set out to evaluate the serum concentration of CRP that can be used as a marker of periodontal disease as well as a risk indicator for cardiovascular disease. Based on their periodontal status, 45 patients were divided into three groups. The following clinical parameters were recorded: plaque index, gingival index, bleeding index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment levels. Scoring was done on six tooth surfaces for all teeth. For the CRP assessment, blood samples were collected from subjects at the time of clinical examination. The results indicated an increase in serum CRP levels in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis as compared to controls.

  1. Subgingival microbial profile of obese women with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Boghossian, Carina M; Cesário, Paola C; Leão, Anna Thereza T; Colombo, Ana Paula V

    2018-02-01

    This study compared the composition of subgingival microbiota between obese and non-obese women with or without periodontal disease. Full-mouth periodontal clinical assessments were carried out in 76 obese women (17 periodontally healthy and 59 with periodontal disease), and 34 non-obese women (12 periodontally healthy, 22 with periodontal disease). Subgingival biofilm samples were individually obtained from seven sites of each individual, and the prevalence and counts of 40 bacterial taxa were determined by the checkerboard method. The frequency and counts of each species were computed for each individual and across the groups. Differences among and between groups were sought by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests, respectively. Possible correlations between obesity and clinical and microbiologic parameters were tested with Spearman correlation coefficient. Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus oralis, and Capnocytophaga ochracea were found in significantly higher levels in obese compared with non-obese women (P periodontal health, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Leptotrichia buccalis were detected in higher mean frequency and/or counts in obese women than in non-obese women, whereas in patients with periodontal disease, obese women harbored greater levels of C. ochracea than non-obese women (P periodontal disease presented significantly greater mean counts of P. gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia than non-obese women with periodontal health (P periodontal disease are present at the same time, significant positive correlations were detected with C. ocharcea, P. gingivalis, S. sanguinis, and T. forsythia. Few differences in the composition of the subgingival microbiota of obese and non-obese women with periodontal health or disease were found. However, a high prevalence of P. gingivalis in obese women with periodontal health was observed. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.

  2. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2013-05-01

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  3. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  4. Vitamin D levels and risk for periodontal disease: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, J P N S; Goergen, J; Muniz, F W M G; Haas, A N

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the existing evidence supporting or refuting the following questions: (i) Do patients with lower vitamin D levels have higher risk for periodontal disease? (ii) Are periodontal treatment outcomes improved by the adjuvant supplementation of vitamin D or by elevated serum vitamin D levels? MEDLINE, SCOPUS, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched up to September 2017. Studies were included if they had measured serum vitamin D levels or vitamin D intake and any periodontal parameter. Overall, 27 studies were included (13 cross-sectional studies, 6 case-control studies, 5 cohort studies, 2 randomized clinical trials and 1 case series study). Sixty-five percent of the cross-sectional studies reported significant associations between low vitamin D levels and poor periodontal parameters. None of the observational longitudinal studies found that periodontal disease progression could be attributed to lower vitamin D levels. No interventional studies that evaluated the use of vitamin D supplementation as a solely adjuvant to periodontal treatment was found. No meta-analysis was performed due to high variability across studies. The data to support or refute the association between vitamin D levels and periodontal disease are inconclusive at the moment. More rigorously designed longitudinal studies with standardized definitions of periodontal disease and vitamin D are necessary. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Periodontal disease and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Kimberly A; Shingala, Janki; Evens, Andrew; Birmann, Brenda M; Giovannucci, Edward; Michaud, Dominique S

    2017-03-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition that has been associated with chronic diseases, including cancer. In an earlier prospective cohort analysis within the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS), we observed a 31% higher risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) among participants with severe periodontal disease at baseline. Here, we extend the study with an additional 8 years of follow-up, and conduct analyses with updated periodontal disease status and NHL subtypes. The HPFS is an ongoing prospective cohort study of 51,529 men in the USA Between baseline in 1986 and 2012, 875 cases of NHL were diagnosed, including 290 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphomas (CLL/SLL), 85 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and 91 follicular lymphomas. We performed multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to evaluate associations of interest. History of periodontal disease at baseline was positively associated with risk of NHL overall (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.49) and CLL/SLL (HR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.04-1.90). With updated periodontal status, HRs were 1.30 (95% CI: 1.11-1.51) for NHL overall and 1.41 (95% CI: 1.08-1.84) for CLL/SLL. In contrast, after adjusting for periodontal disease, tooth loss was inversely associated with NHL, suggesting that other causes or consequences of tooth loss may have different implications for NHL etiology. Our findings suggest that periodontal disease is a risk factor for NHL. Whether periodontal disease is a direct or indirect cause of NHL, or is a marker of underlying systemic inflammation and/or immune dysregulation, warrants further investigation. © 2016 UICC.

  6. Role of periodontal pathogenic bacteria in RANKL-mediated bone destruction in periodontal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mikihito Kajiya; Gabriela Giro; Martin A. Taubman; Xiaozhe Han; Marcia P.A. Mayer; Toshihisa Kawai

    2010-01-01

    Accumulated lines of evidence suggest that hyperimmune responses to periodontal bacteria result in the destruction of periodontal connective tissue and alveolar bone. The etiological roles of periodontal bacteria in the onset and progression of periodontal disease (PD) are well documented. However, the mechanism underlying the engagement of periodontal bacteria in RANKL-mediated alveolar bone resorption remains unclear. Therefore, this review article addresses three critical subjects. First, ...

  7. Transcriptome analysis reveals mucin 4 to be highly associated with periodontitis and identifies pleckstrin as a link to systemic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundmark, Anna; Davanian, Haleh; Båge, Tove; Johannsen, Gunnar; Koro, Catalin; Lundeberg, Joakim; Yucel-Lindberg, Tülay

    2015-01-01

    The multifactorial chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis, which is characterized by destruction of tooth-supporting tissues, has also been implicated as a risk factor for various systemic diseases. Although periodontitis has been studied extensively, neither disease-specific biomarkers nor therapeutic targets have been identified, nor its link with systemic diseases. Here, we analyzed the global transcriptome of periodontitis and compared its gene expression profile with those of other inflammatory conditions, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and ulcerative colitis (UC). Gingival biopsies from 62 patients with periodontitis and 62 healthy subjects were subjected to RNA sequencing. The up-regulated genes in periodontitis were related to inflammation, wounding and defense response, and apoptosis, whereas down-regulated genes were related to extracellular matrix organization and structural support. The most highly up-regulated gene was mucin 4 (MUC4), and its protein product was confirmed to be over-expressed in periodontitis. When comparing the expression profile of periodontitis with other inflammatory diseases, several gene ontology categories, including inflammatory response, cell death, cell motion, and homeostatic processes, were identified as common to all diseases. Only one gene, pleckstrin (PLEK), was significantly overexpressed in periodontitis, CVD, RA, and UC, implicating this gene as an important networking link between these chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26686060

  8. A randomized controlled trial of pre-conception treatment for periodontal disease to improve periodontal status during pregnancy and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Xiong, Xu; Su, Yi; Zhang, Yiming; Wu, Hongqiao; Jiang, Zhijun; Qian, Xu

    2013-12-09

    Evidence has suggested that periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of various adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. However, several large clinical randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate periodontal therapy during pregnancy reduced the incidence of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. It has been suggested that the pre-conception period may be an optimal period for periodontal disease treatment rather than during pregnancy. To date, no randomized controlled trial (RCT) has examined if treating periodontal disease before pregnancy reduces adverse birth outcomes. This study aims to examine if the pre-conception treatment of periodontal disease will lead to improved periodontal status during late pregnancy and subsequent birth outcomes. A sample of 470 (235 in each arm of the study) pre-conception women who plan to conceive within one year and with periodontal disease will be recruited for the study. All participants will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The intervention group will receive free therapy including dental scaling and root planning (the standard therapy), supragingival prophylaxis, and oral hygiene education. The control group will only receive supragingival prophylaxis and oral hygiene education. Women will be followed throughout their pregnancy and then to childbirth. The main outcomes include periodontal disease status in late pregnancy and birth outcomes measured such as mean birth weight (grams), and mean gestational age (weeks). Periodontal disease will be diagnosed through a dental examination by measuring probing depth, clinical attachment loss and percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) between gestational age of 32 and 36 weeks. Local and systemic inflammatory mediators are also included as main outcomes. This will be the first RCT to test whether treating periodontal disease among pre-conception women reduces periodontal disease during pregnancy and prevents adverse birth outcomes. If

  9. Linkage Between Periodontal Disease and Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The past decades have significantly widened the perspectives of the chronic oral infectious disease known as periodontitis. The disease is regarded as a bacterial infection resulting in low-grade inflammation of the periodontal tissues, and both the associated release of pro-inflammatory mediators...... and the presence of bacteria in the periodontal pockets, which, as the result of daily procedures, may spread after penetration of the vasculature, are possible mediators of systemic consequences. This chapter deals with the possible association between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus which is believed...

  10. Periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X; Buekens, P; Fraser, W D; Beck, J; Offenbacher, S

    2006-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that periodontal disease, as a source of subclinical and persistent infection, may induce systemic inflammatory responses that increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. To examine the existing evidence on the relationship between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Published studies identified via searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Current Contents full-text databases. We identified and selected observational studies (i.e. case-control, cross-sectional, and cohort) and nonrandomised controlled studies or randomised controlled trials that examined periodontal disease as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Odds ratios (OR) or risk ratios (RR) were extracted or calculated from the studies' data. We calculated pooled effect size for two clinical controlled trials but not for the observational studies due to the heterogeneity in definitions for periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes across studies. Twenty-five studies (13 case-control, 9 cohort, and 3 controlled trials) were identified. The studies focused on preterm low birthweight, low birthweight, preterm birth, birthweight by gestational age, miscarriage or pregnancy loss, and pre-eclampsia. Of the chosen studies, 18 suggested an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome (ORs ranging from 1.10 to 20.0) and 7 found no evidence of an association (ORs ranging from 0.78 to 2.54). Three clinical trial studies suggest that oral prophylaxis and periodontal treatment can lead to a 57% reduction in preterm low birthweight (pooled RR 0.43; 95% CI 0.24-0.78) and a 50% reduction in preterm births (RR 0.5; 95% CI 0.20-1.30). Periodontal disease may be associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. However, more methodologically rigorous studies are needed for confirmation.

  11. Is periodontal disease a public health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, P

    2014-10-01

    Clinically defined periodontal disease is highly prevalent, has considerable impacts on individuals and society and is costly to treat; the cost of dental care is the fourth highest costs of all diseases and consuming between 5 and 10% of all healthcare resources. Changes in the epidemiology of clinically defined periodontal diseases suggest that the prevalence of severe periodontal disease is low and rates of progression of periodontal destruction tend to be relatively slow. Current periodontal care modalities have a remarkably weak evidence base, with considerable resources allocated to fund interventions that include oral hygiene instruction, scale and polishes through to surgical interventions. The public health problem lies more in the failure in design of a contract between dental professionals and the state. Such a contract needs to recognise both the wider determinants of disease and the role that dental professionals could play: a contract that concentrated on rewarding outcomes, namely a diminution in treatment need, as opposed to one based simply on the number of interventions would be a major step forward.

  12. Prevalence of Periodontal Disease in Children with Leukemia and Thalassemia

    OpenAIRE

    Marhamah; Maulidita, Hardianti

    2014-01-01

    Background. Various periodontal disease can occur in children and adolescents. Some can take place quickly and periodontal tissue damage. Several previous studies indicate that systemic diseases associated with periodontal disease in children. Objectives. This study aims to determine the prevalence of periodontal disease in children with leukemia and thalassemia. Methods. The design study is a cross-sectional approach. Periodontal pocket depth measurements performed using the WHO standa...

  13. Effect of Periodontal Disease on Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, F; Hoseini, M Sadat; Abbaspour, S

    2011-01-01

    Background: A lot of studies have shown periodontal diseases as a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes. The association between periodontitis and preeclampsia has been studied recently with controversy. Considering the importance of preventing preeclampsia as a dangerous and life-threatening disease in pregnant women, the present study was carried out. Methods: Two hundred and ten pregnant women participated in this case-control study (105 controls & 105 cases) during years 2007 and 2008. Preeclamptic cases were defined as blood pressure ≥140/90mmHg and proteinuria +1. Control group were pregnant women with normal blood pressure without proteinuria. Both groups were examined during 48 hours after child delivery. Plaque Index (PLI), Pocket Depth (PD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), Bleeding On Probing (BOP), Gingival Recession (GR) were measured on all teeth except for third molars and recorded as periodontal examination. Data was analyzed using t-test, chi-square, and Mann-Whitney U statistical tests. Results: There was no significant difference between the two study groups for PD. CAL, GR, BOP significantly increased in the case group (P< 0.02). This study showed that preeclamptic cases were more likely to develop periodontal disease (P< 0.0001). Eighty three percent of the control group and 95% of the case group had periodontal disease (P< 0.005) which had shown that preeclamptic cases were 4.1 times more likely to have periodontal disease (OR= 4.1). Conclusion: Preeclamptic cases significantly had higher attachment loss and gingival recession than the control group. PMID:23113094

  14. PRACTICAL PERIODONTAL SURGERY: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna; Chandrashekar; Anuroopa; Senthil; Syed; Sandeep S; Kumuda; Ashwini

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of periodontal surgery in the treatment of periodontal diseases not yet been systematically evaluated. The objective of this review was to systematically evaluate the efficacy of periodontal surgical procedures in the various treatment modalities. Periodontal disease is multifaceted in nature and scope. The problems created due to this inflammatory condition are different eg. gingival enlargement, osseous deformities, mucogingival problem which ultimately may ...

  15. Linkage Between Periodontal Disease and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The past decades have significantly widened the perspectives of the chronic oral infectious disease known as periodontitis. The disease is regarded as a bacterial infection resulting in low-grade inflammation of the periodontal tissues, and both the associated release of pro-inflammatory mediators...... and the presence of bacteria in the periodontal pockets, which, as the result of daily procedures, may spread after penetration of the vasculature, are possible mediators of systemic consequences. The present chapter deals with the possible association of periodontitis with rheumatoid arthritis, which may possess...

  16. The Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourelahi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Context Oral cavity is one of the most common sites for neoplasms with a multifactorial etiology. Tobacco and alcohol are the main risk factors. Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease affecting periodontal tissues such as gingiva, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Periodontal disease is linked to many systemic diseases. Recently a link between periodontal disease and cancer is suggested. The current review article aimed to evaluate the association between periodontal disease and risk of cancer in the oral cavity and some related factors. Evidence Acquisition Evidence suggests that oral cavity cancer is significantly more prevalent in patients with periodontal disease, poor oral hygiene or more missing teeth. Clinically, gingival squamous cell carcinoma (GSCC usually appears as an exophytic mass with a granular, papillary or verrucous surface or presents as an ulcerative lesion. Some reported cases of GSCC mimicking periodontal disease include gingival enlargement with no bone invasion, dentoalveolar abscess, erosive erythematosus lesion with keratotic papules, root exposure and tooth mobility, verrucous leukoplakia, verruciform xanthoma and development of hyperplastic granulation tissue after tooth extraction. Greater burden of oral flora that produce carcinogenic metabolites, human papilloma virus (HPV and other viruses that are residents of periodontal pocket, increased amount of inflammatory mediators and markers and some periodontal pathogens affecting cell cycle leading to mutation and dysplasia are considered as the rational for the relationship between malignant lesions of oral cavity and periodontal disease. Results Cancer of the oral cavity and periodontal disease are related from different aspects. Periodontal disease and tooth loss are considered as independent risk factors for cancer. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma can also mimic periodontal disease leading to misdiagnosis and delayed commencement of appropriate

  17. Periodontal diseases in children and adolescents: a clinician's perspective part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masamatti, Sujata Surendra; Kumar, Ashish; Virdi, Mandeep Singh

    2012-10-01

    Contrasting forms of periodontal disease can affect children and adolescents with varying prevalence, severity and extent, leading to a diverse prognosis in these age groups. For an early diagnosis and treatment of periodontal conditions in young patients, it is essential for the dental practitioner to be able to identify and classify the disease correctly at the earliest opportunity, applying basic principles along with understanding of aetiology and risk factors. The first part of this article discusses the classification, plaque-induced and non-plaque-induced gingival diseases, localized and generalized forms of chronic, as well as aggressive, periodontitis. Knowledge of different forms of periodontal diseases affecting children and adolescents may help to distinguish between different forms of diseases and have value in screening and early diagnosis of the disease.

  18. Quantitative Molecular Detection of Putative Periodontal Pathogens in Clinically Healthy and Periodontally Diseased Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhler, André; Hetzer, Adrian; Holtfreter, Birte; Geisel, Marie Henrike; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Steinmetz, Ivo; Kocher, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a multi-microbial oral infection with high prevalence among adults. Putative oral pathogens are commonly found in periodontally diseased individuals. However, these organisms can be also detected in the oral cavity of healthy subjects. This leads to the hypothesis, that alterations in the proportion of these organisms relative to the total amount of oral microorganisms, namely their abundance, rather than their simple presence might be important in the transition from health to disease. Therefore, we developed a quantitative molecular method to determine the abundance of various oral microorganisms and the portion of bacterial and archaeal nucleic acid relative to the total nucleic acid extracted from individual samples. We applied quantitative real-time PCRs targeting single-copy genes of periodontal bacteria and 16S-rRNA genes of Bacteria and Archaea. Testing tongue scrapings of 88 matched pairs of periodontally diseased and healthy subjects revealed a significantly higher abundance of P. gingivalis and a higher total bacterial abundance in diseased subjects. In fully adjusted models the risk of being periodontally diseased was significantly higher in subjects with high P. gingivalis and total bacterial abundance. Interestingly, we found that moderate abundances of A. actinomycetemcomitans were associated with reduced risk for periodontal disease compared to subjects with low abundances, whereas for high abundances, this protective effect leveled off. Moderate archaeal abundances were health associated compared to subjects with low abundances. In conclusion, our methodological approach unraveled associations of the oral flora with periodontal disease, which would have gone undetected if only qualitative data had been determined. PMID:25029268

  19. Application of ozone in the treatment of periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Adusumilli; Sathish, Manthena; Sri Harsha, Anumolu Venkatanaga

    2013-01-01

    Gingivitis and periodontitis are most common inflammatory diseases of supporting tissues of teeth. Role of microbial etiology and host response in progression of gingival and periodontal diseases has been well established. Because of the beneficial biological effects of ozone, due to its antimicrobial and immunostimulating effect, it is well indicated in the treatment of gingival and periodontal diseases. The objective of this article is to provide a general review about clinical applications of ozone in treatment of periodontal diseases and to summarize the available in vitro and in vivo studies in Periodontics in which ozone has been used. PMID:23946585

  20. [Update in family medicine: Periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Silva, M C; Diz-Iglesias, P; Seoane-Romero, J M; Quintas, V; Méndez-Brea, F; Varela-Centelles, P

    2017-03-01

    About 85-94% of the Spanish adults older than 35 experience gum problems, and about 15-30% suffer from periodontitis, being severe in up to 5-11% of them. Unlike other inflammatory conditions, periodontal disease rarely causes discomfort, or limits life or causes functional limitations until its advanced stages, when clinical signs and symptoms arise (gingival recession, pathological teeth migration, or mobility). Lack of knowledge about the disease, together with the idea that tooth loss is linked to ageing, frequently results in a late diagnosis, requiring extensive treatments with a worse prognosis. At Primary Care level, there is series of drugs have been related to periodontal disease (anticonvulsants, immunosuppressive drugs, and calcium channel blockers) as secondary effects, which vary as regards their frequency and severity depending of the amount of accumulated plaque. Stress and depression have also been reported to alter the immune response and to increase the inflammatory response as well as periodontal susceptibility. Certain systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, respiratory diseases, as well as low-weight pre-term birth, have also been linked to periodontitis. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Periodontal Disease Awareness and Knowledge among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Periodontal disease is highly prevalent and a costly to treat condition that impacts .... effective in helping young people learn positive and healthy models of behavior. .... periodontal disease as a preventable disease [Table 7]. Best preventive ..... oral hygiene habits, health knowledge, and sources of oral health information ...

  2. Is periodontal disease a reason or result for premature birth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Demir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is a known fact that there is a connection between periodontal disease and certain systemic conditions. Even though there are some contradictory results in the conducted studies, periodontal disease has been accepted as a risk factor affecting the negative terminations of pregnancy in recent years (premature birth [PB], low birth weight. This consideration is associated with a positive correlation between two conditions in some studies. The Hypothesis: Although there is such a relationship between periodontal disease and PB, the linking mechanism has not been explained as presence of the relation cannot reveal the cause-effect relationship. It should be discussed whether or not this positive connection is caused by the fact that periodontal disease is an independent risk factor for PB, or the change (hormonal, inflammatory in the systemic condition in PB cases causes a risk for periodontal disease. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The fact that in PB cases the changes in steroid hormone levels might increase the incidence and severity of periodontal disease as in pregnancy, or there could be a common risk factor that may cause both cases, has not been revealed yet and should be taken into consideration.

  3. Vitamin D status and periodontal disease among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggess, Kim A; Espinola, Janice A; Moss, Kevin; Beck, Jim; Offenbacher, Steven; Camargo, Carlos A

    2011-02-01

    Maternal periodontal disease is found in pregnancy outcomes. Vitamin D deficiency may play a role in periodontal disease and tooth loss, and insufficient vitamin D status is common among pregnant women. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between maternal vitamin D status and periodontal disease. A case-control study was conducted. Cases were defined as pregnant women with clinical moderate to severe periodontal disease; controls were pregnant women who were periodontally healthy. Maternal data were chart abstracted and serum was collected between 14 and 26 weeks of gestation. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Median serum 25(OH)D levels and prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (defined as periodontal disease among women with vitamin D insufficiency was calculated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for maternal race, season of blood draw, and other potential confounders. A total of 117 cases were compared to 118 controls. Cases had lower median 25(OH)D levels than controls (59 versus 100 nmol/l; P periodontal disease among women with vitamin D insufficiency was 2.1 (0.99 to 4.5). Vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25[OH]D periodontal disease during pregnancy. Vitamin D supplementation represents a potential therapeutic strategy to improve maternal oral health.

  4. Polycystic ovary syndrome and periodontal disease: Underlying links- A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Chandana Tanguturi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, which negatively affects various health systems. There is an extensive literature regarding the association of PCOS and other systemic conditions such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and psychological disorders. However, there is a lack of literature in associating PCOS and periodontal disease. Hence, PubMed search was done for various articles related to PCOS and its association with other comorbidities, including periodontal diseases. Analysis was done and data were synthesized and compiled in a sequential and presentable paradigm. This literature review of the pathophysiological mechanisms linking the two diseases suggests a positive relation between the two comorbidities. However, multicenter studies, with larger sample sizes, are to be conducted to establish a clearer and stronger association.

  5. Pyrosequencing Analysis of Subgingival Microbiota in Distinct Periodontal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, O-J; Yi, H; Jeon, J H; Kang, S-S; Koo, K-T; Kum, K-Y; Chun, J; Yun, C-H; Han, S H

    2015-07-01

    Subgingival microorganisms are potentially associated with periodontal diseases. However, changes in the subgingival microbiota during the progress of periodontal diseases are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed bacterial communities in the subgingival paper point samples from 32 Korean individuals with no sign of disease, gingivitis, or periodontitis using 454 FLX Titanium pyrosequencing. A total of 256,113 reads representing 26 phyla, 433 genera, and 1,016 species were detected. Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Synergistetes, and Spirochaetes were the abundant phyla in periodontitis subjects, whereas Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were identified as the dominant phyla in the gingivitis and healthy subjects, respectively. Although high levels of Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Fretibacterium, Rothia, Filifactor, and Treponema genera were observed in the periodontitis subjects, Streptococcus, Capnocytophaga, Leptotrichia, and Haemophilus genera were found at high frequency in the gingivitis subjects. Species including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Fretibacterium fastidiosum were significantly increased in periodontitis subjects. On the other hand, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Leptotrichia hongkongensis were preferentially observed in the gingivitis subjects. Intriguingly, the halophile Halomonas hamiltonii was revealed as a predominant species in the healthy subjects. Based on Fast UniFrac analysis, distinctive bacterial clusters were classified for the healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis state. The current findings might be useful for understanding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of periodontal diseases. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  6. STRESS AS PREDISPOSING FACTOR OF SOME CHRONIC DISEASES INCLUDING PERIODONTAL DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi-Nurul M Dewi-Nurul

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress is hypothesized as a common pathway for several related chronic diseases of man. Psychosocial stress as modified by perceptions and coping by patients can lead to physical processes. Psychoneuroimmunologic (PNI studies have suggested that psychosocial stress can alter immune function and increase vulnerability to illnesses. The patients also have high sensitivity to periodontal disease (PD. This article describes the association of stress as a physiological response to diseases such as PD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, and inflammatory bowel disease. The psychosocial stress can lead to physiological processes through 1 the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis leading to glucocortico-steroid secretion; 2 the autonomic nervous system, resulting in the release of catecholamine; or 3 the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, resulting in the release of sex hormones. These processes may affect chronic diseases. It can be concluded that psychosocial stress in periodontal disease patients must be considered and social support must be provided in order to achieve an optimum periodontal therapy result.

  7. The Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity: A Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Nourelahi; Roshannia; Kameli; Hormozi

    2016-01-01

    Context Oral cavity is one of the most common sites for neoplasms with a multifactorial etiology. Tobacco and alcohol are the main risk factors. Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease affecting periodontal tissues such as gingiva, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Periodontal disease is linked to many systemic diseases. Recently a link between periodontal disease and cancer is suggested. The current review article aimed to evaluate the association between periodonta...

  8. Is Khat (Catha edulis) chewing a risk factor for periodontal diseases? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalakonda, Butchibabu; Al-Maweri, Sadeq-Ali; Al-Shamiri, Hashem-Motahir; Ijaz, Anum; Gamal, Shukri; Dhaifullah, Esam

    2017-10-01

    Khat (Catha edulis) chewing is a highly prevalent habit in the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa, and has recently spread to Western countries. The association between khat chewing and oral mucosal lesions is well documented in the literature. However, there is no concrete evidence on the association between khat chewing and periodontal disease. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the influence of khat chewing on periodontal health. A literature search of PubMed, Scopus and Web of Sciences databases was carried out to identify relevant articles published from 1990 to May 2017. The inclusion criteria were all clinical studies that assessed the relationship between khat chewing and periodontal disease. The search yielded 122 articles, of which 10 were included in this systematic review. Most of the studies exhibited a positive correlation between khat chewing and periodontal disease. Altogether, the analysis of the current evidence reveals that khat chewing is destructive to the periodontium and enhances the risk of periodontal disease progression. However, due to variability of studies, more longitudinal case-controlled studies are highly warranted to establish a causal relation between khat chewing and periodontal disease. Key words: Khat chewing, periodontal health, periodontal disease, risk factor.

  9. Host modulation therapeutics in periodontics: role as an adjunctive periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinwari, Muhammad Saad; Tanwir, Farzeen; Hyder, Pakiza Raza; Bin Saeed, Muhammad Humza

    2014-09-01

    Host Modulation Therapy (HMT) is a treatment concept that reduces tissue destruction and stabilizes or even regenerates inflammatory tissue by modifying host response factors. It has been used for treating osteoporosis and arthritis for several decades. However, its use in dentistry has only been recently reported. The objective of this article is to present a review of the various literatures available on HMT and also its role as adjunct therapy in periodontics. For identifying studies for this review, a PUBMED search was carried out in 2013 for all articles published till December 2012. The search was restricted to English language publications only. Longitudinal prospective and retrospective studies were included in the search. The key words used were: Host Modulation Therapy; Sub antimicrobial dose doxycycline and Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy. The main outcomes sought were host modulation therapeutics in periodontics. Exclusion criteria included cross sectional studies, short case series as well as studies with short follow-up periods. There is a paucity of literature on HMT in periodontics although the only drug approved by United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a subantimicrobial dose of doxycycline (SDD) with highly predictable results as a host modulating agent in periodontal diseases and also an effective adjunctive therapy in various diseases of periodontium. However, more randomized controlled trials are needed to obtain clinical guidelines on the usage of other host modulating agents as adjunct as well as definite therapy for periodontal diseases. SDD is an effective adjunct therapy when used in dosage of 20mg twice daily for minimum 3 months duration in various periodontal diseases with predictable clinical outcomes. It is also recommended that future clinical research on anti cytokine drugs, chemically modified tetracycline and other HMT agents should be conducted so that new drugs are available with highly predictable results.

  10. Stress and periodontal disease: The link and logic!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Goyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is an equated response to constant adverse stimuli. At one point or another everybody suffers from stress. Stress is compatible with good health, being necessary to cope with the challenges of everyday life. Problems start when the stress response is inappropriate to the intensity of the challenge. Psychological stress can down regulate the cellular immune response. Communication between the central nervous system and the immune system occurs via a complex network of bidirectional signals linking the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. Stress disrupts the homeostasis of this network, which in turn, alters immune function. Direct association between periodontal disease and stress remains to be proven, which is partly due to lack of an adequate animal models and difficulty to quantifying the amount and duration of stress and also there are many factors influencing the incidence and severity of periodontal disease. Nevertheless, more recent studies indicate that psychosocial stress represents a risk indicator for periodontal disease and should be addressed before and during treatment. This paper discusses how stress may modulate host response to bacteria and influence the course and progression of periodontal disease.

  11. Global metabolomic analysis of human saliva and plasma from healthy and diabetic subjects, with and without periodontal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia M Barnes

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that periodontal disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus are bi-directionally associated. Identification of a molecular signature for periodontitis using unbiased metabolic profiling could allow identification of biomarkers to assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of both diabetes and periodontal disease. This cross-sectional study identified plasma and salivary metabolic products associated with periodontitis and/or diabetes in order to discover biomarkers that may differentiate or demonstrate an interaction of these diseases. Saliva and plasma samples were analyzed from 161 diabetic and non-diabetic human subjects with a healthy periodontium, gingivitis and periodontitis. Metabolite profiling was performed using Metabolon's platform technology. A total of 772 metabolites were found in plasma and 475 in saliva. Diabetics had significantly higher levels of glucose and α-hydroxybutyrate, the established markers of diabetes, for all periodontal groups of subjects. Comparison of healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis saliva samples within the non-diabetic group confirmed findings from previous studies that included increased levels of markers of cellular energetic stress, increased purine degradation and glutathione metabolism through increased levels of oxidized glutathione and cysteine-glutathione disulfide, markers of oxidative stress, including increased purine degradation metabolites (e.g. guanosine and inosine, increased amino acid levels suggesting protein degradation, and increased ω-3 (docosapentaenoate and ω-6 fatty acid (linoleate and arachidonate signatures. Differences in saliva between diabetic and non-diabetic cohorts showed altered signatures of carbohydrate, lipid and oxidative stress exist in the diabetic samples. Global untargeted metabolic profiling of human saliva in diabetics replicated the metabolite signature of periodontal disease progression in non-diabetic patients and revealed unique metabolic

  12. Maternal periodontal disease and preterm birth: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpalatha Govindaraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Preterm birth (PTB is an important issue in public health and is a major cause for infant mortality and morbidity. There is a growing consensus that systemic diseases elsewhere in the body may influence PTB. Recent studies have hypothesized that maternal periodontitis could be a high-risk factor for PTB. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between maternal periodontitis on PTB. Materials and Methods: Forty systemically healthy primiparous mothers aged 18–35 years were recruited for the study. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, they were categorized into PTB group as cases and full term birth group (FTB as controls. PTB cases (n = 20 defined as spontaneous delivery before/<37 completed weeks of gestation. Controls (FTB were normal births at or after 37 weeks of gestation. Data on periodontal status, pregnancy outcome variables, and information on other factors that may influence adverse pregnancy outcomes were collected within 2 days of labor. Data were subjected to Student's t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient statistical analysis. Results: Statistically significant difference with respect to the gestational period at the time of delivery and birth weight of the infants in (PTB group (<0.001 compared to (FTB group was observed. Overall, there was statistically significant poor periodontal status in the (PTB group compared to (FTB group. The statistical results also showed a positive correlation between gestational age and clinical parameters. Conclusion: An observable relationship was noticed between periodontitis and gestational age, and a positive correlation was found with respect to PTB and periodontitis. Further studies should be designed to establish periodontal disease as an independent risk factor for PTB/preterm low birth weight.

  13. A longitudinal assessment of periodontal disease in 52 Miniature Schnauzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Mark D; Wallis, Corrin V; Milella, Lisa; Colyer, Alison; Tweedie, Andrew D; Harris, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is the most widespread oral disease in dogs and has been associated with serious systemic diseases. The disease is more prevalent in small breeds compared to large breeds and incidence increases with advancing age. In prevalence studies 84% of Beagles over the age of 3 and 100% of Poodles over the age of 4 were diagnosed with PD. Current knowledge of the rate of progression of PD is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the rate of PD progression in Miniature Schnauzers, an at risk small breed of dog. Dogs (n = 52, age 1.3-6.9 years) who had received a regular oral care regime prior to this study were assessed for levels of gingivitis and periodontitis around the whole gingival margin in every tooth under general anaesthetic. Assessments were conducted approximately every six weeks for up to 60 weeks following the cessation of the oral care regime. All of the 2155 teeth assessed entered the study with some level of gingivitis. 23 teeth entered the study with periodontitis, observed across 12 dogs aged between 1.3 and 6.9 years. 35 dogs had at least 12 teeth progress to periodontitis within 60 weeks. Of the teeth that progressed to periodontitis, 54% were incisors. The lingual aspect of the incisors was significantly more likely to be affected (p periodontitis-affected teeth was variable with 24% of the aspects affected having very mild gingivitis, 36% mild gingivitis and 40% moderate gingivitis. Periodontitis progression rate was significantly faster in older dogs. Only one dog (age 3.5) did not have any teeth progress to periodontitis after 60 weeks. This is the first study to have assessed the progression rate of periodontitis in Miniature Schnauzers and highlights that with no oral care regime, the early stages of periodontitis develop rapidly in this breed. An oral care regime and twice yearly veterinary dental health checks should be provided from an early age for this breed and other breeds with similar

  14. Quantitative analysis of mast cell count and density in chronic periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Surekha; Raj, Anubha; Wanikar, Ishita

    2018-01-01

    Mast cells play a crucial role in activation of acquired immune response to inflammatory conditions of periodontal diseases. They promote inflammation by releasing pro-inflammatory mediators and bring about angiogenesis, degeneration of the extracellular matrix, and tissue remodeling. Since there is little literature regarding the role of mast cells in periodontitis, the present study was aimed to evaluate mast cell count (MCC) and density in periodontitis. A total of eighty participants, Group I ( n = 40) healthy participants and Group II ( n = 40) participants with moderate chronic periodontitis, were included in the study. Tissue samples of 5 micron were obtained from each participant and were fixed in 10% formalin. Inflammation assessment was carried out after staining the sections with hematoxylin/eosin (H and E) followed by toluidine blue and mast cells were counted. MCC in healthy group (1.32 ± 0.43) was significantly smaller than periodontitis group (10.28 ± 1.15) and also mast cell density in healthy group (98.08 ± 37.40) was smaller than periodontitis group (803.43 ± 89.94) with P < 0.0001. It could be concluded that participants with chronic periodontitis have a higher MCC and density when compared with healthy participants.

  15. Association between chronic azotemic kidney disease and the severity of periodontal disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Lawrence T; Glickman, Nita W; Moore, George E; Lund, Elizabeth M; Lantz, Gary C; Pressler, Barrak M

    2011-05-01

    Naturally occurring periodontal disease affects >75% of dogs and has been associated with cardiac lesions and presumptive endocarditis. However, the relationships between periodontal disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs have not been studied. In a retrospective longitudinal study the incidence of azotemic CKD was compared between a cohort of 164,706 dogs with periodontal disease and a cohort of age-matched dogs with no periodontal disease from a national primary care practice. These dogs contributed 415,971 dog-years of follow-up from 2002 to 2008. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals from Cox regression were used to compare the incidence of azotemic CKD in dogs with stage 1, 2, or 3/4 periodontal disease to dogs with no periodontal disease. The hazard ratio for azotemic CKD increased with increasing severity of periodontal disease (stage 1 hazard ratio=1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.6, 2.1; stage 2 hazard ratio=2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 2.3; stage 3/4 hazard ratio=2.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.3, 3.0; P(trend)=periodontal disease was also associated with serum creatinine >1.4 mg/dl and blood urea nitrogen >36 mg/dl, independent of a veterinarian's clinical diagnosis of CKD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Psidium guajava: A review on its potential as an adjunct in treating periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, K.; Divyashree, P.

    2014-01-01

    Plants for thousands of years have been used to enhance health and for medicinal purposes. Psidium guajava is one which has an enormous wealth of medicinal value. It for long has been known for its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic properties. Despite of its widespread biologic uses there is a dearth of information on its therapeutic effect in the treatment of periodontal disease. Hence, this review is an attempt to highlight the potential of P. guajava in the treatment of periodontal disease. Internet databases PubMed, Google Scholar were searched and the most relevant articles were considered for review. PMID:25125881

  17. Multi-analyte analysis of saliva biomarkers as predictors of periodontal and pre-implant disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Thomas; Giannobile, William V; Herr, Amy E; Singh, Anup K; Shelburne, Charlie

    2015-04-07

    The present invention relates to methods of measuring biomarkers to determine the probability of a periodontal and/or peri-implant disease. More specifically, the invention provides a panel of biomarkers that, when used in combination, can allow determination of the probability of a periodontal and/or peri-implant disease state with extremely high accuracy.

  18. Advanced biomaterials and their potential applications in the treatment of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Wu, Guofeng; Feng, Zhihong; Dong, Yan; Zhou, Wei; Li, Bei; Bai, Shizhu; Zhao, Yimin

    2016-08-01

    Periodontal disease is considered as a widespread infectious disease and the most common cause of tooth loss in adults. Attempts for developing periodontal disease treatment strategies, including drug delivery and regeneration approaches, provide a useful experimental model for the evaluation of future periodontal therapies. Recently, emerging advanced biomaterials including hydrogels, films, micro/nanofibers and particles, hold great potential to be utilized as cell/drug carriers for local drug delivery and biomimetic scaffolds for future regeneration therapies. In this review, first, we describe the pathogenesis of periodontal disease, including plaque formation, immune response and inflammatory reactions caused by bacteria. Second, periodontal therapy and an overview of current biomaterials in periodontal regenerative medicine have been discussed. Third, the roles of state-of-the-art biomaterials, including hydrogels, films, micro/nanofibers and micro/nanoparticles, developed for periodontal disease treatment and periodontal tissue regeneration, and their fabrication methods, have been presented. Finally, biological properties, including biocompatibility, biodegradability and immunogenicity of the biomaterials, together with their current applications strategies are given. Conclusive remarks and future perspectives for such advanced biomaterials are discussed.

  19. Association between osteoporosis and periodontal disease among postmenopausal Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richa; R, Yashoda; Puranik, Manjunath P; Shrivastava, Amit

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the association between osteoporosis and periodontal disease among postmenopausal Indian women. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among postmenopausal women aged 45-65 years attending various hospitals in Bangalore, India. The examination was performed using the plaque index, gingival index, modified sulcus bleeding index, and community periodontal index. The women then underwent a bone mineral density (BMD) test using an ultrasonometer. Based on the BMD scores, participants were divided into osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic groups. For the statistical analysis, χ 2 -test, Student's t-test, and multiple regression analysis were applied. The mean plaque, gingival, and bleeding scores were significantly higher among osteoporotic women (1.83 ± 0.47, 1.73 ± 0.49, 1.82 ± 0.52) compared to the non-osteoporotic women (1.31 ± 0.40, 1.09 ± 0.52, 1.25 ± 0.50). The mean number of sextants affected for codes 3 and 4 of the community periodontal index and codes 1, 2, and 3 of loss of attachment were significantly higher among osteoporotic group compared to the non-osteoporotic group. Multiple logistic regression tests confirmed the statistically-significant association between osteoporosis and menopause duration, loss of attachment, bleeding, and gingivitis scores. Skeletal BMD is related to clinical attachment loss, bleeding, and gingivitis, which suggests that there is an association between osteoporosis and periodontal diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Periodontal disease detection in primary and mixed dentitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, C M Guimarães; Fernandes-Costa, A N; de Melo Soares, M S; Pugliesi, D M Carvalho; de Vasconcelos Gurgel, B C

    2016-10-01

    This was to compare the periodontal status of children with primary and mixed dentition at the time of their first consultation. Children (200), aged 0-12 years (156 with mixed and 44 with primary dentition), were examined by assessing their simplified plaque index (PI) and simplified periodontal record (PSR). Statistical analysis (Chi-square test) was performed with appropriate software to find any significant associations between sex, type of dentition and PI with the PSR codes (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4). There was no statistically significant difference with regard to gender (p = 0.82). Generalised PI was associated more significantly with mixed dentition (p = 0.025 and higher PSR scores (p periodontal examination in children to diagnose and prevent future periodontal disease and maintain their dentition as well as to identify any associated systemic conditions.

  1. Effect of smoking on neutrophil apoptosis in chronic periodontitis: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin S Shivanaikar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Periodontal disease is caused by chronic infection inducing an inflammatory reaction leading to breakdown of tooth-supporting tissues. There are various risk factors for the disease, and smoking is one of them. Apoptosis plays a critical role in the regulation of inflammation and host immune response which helps in tissue homeostasis, and a disturbance in this is often associated with disease. The imbalance between the apoptosis and proliferation in the periodontal tissue results in periodontal disease. Neutrophils play an important role in the defense mechanism and are the most abundant immune cells in gingival inflammatory infiltrate in patients suffering from periodontal disease. Neutrophil disorders are associated with rapid destruction of periodontal tissues. Aim: To study the influence of smoking on apoptosis of neutrophils by quantifying them in the gingival connective tissue of smoking and nonsmoking subjects suffering from chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty gingival biopsies were harvested from 15 smoking and 15 nonsmoking subjects who suffered from chronic periodontitis. The apoptosis of neutrophils was assessed and quantified using p53 monoclonal mouse antihuman antibody. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square/Fisher′sexact test was used to find the significance of study parameters on a categorical scale between the two groups. Results: Neutrophil apoptosis was significantly more in the group of nonsmokers. There was no statistical difference between plaque and bleeding index, but there was a significant increase in clinical attachment loss among smokers. Conclusions: The study reveals that smoking plays a significant role in the inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis, thereby contributing to the destruction of periodontal tissues in periodontitis.

  2. Dietary Fiber Intake Is Inversely Associated with Periodontal Disease among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Samara Joy; Trak-Fellermeier, Maria Angelica; Joshipura, Kaumudi; Dye, Bruce A

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 47% of adults in the United States have periodontal disease. Dietary guidelines recommend a diet providing adequate fiber. Healthier dietary habits, particularly an increased fiber intake, may contribute to periodontal disease prevention. Our objective was to evaluate the relation of dietary fiber intake and its sources with periodontal disease in the US adult population (≥30 y of age). Data from 6052 adults participating in NHANES 2009-2012 were used. Periodontal disease was defined (according to the CDC/American Academy of Periodontology) as severe, moderate, mild, and none. Intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recalls. The relation between periodontal disease and dietary fiber, whole-grain, and fruit and vegetable intakes were evaluated by using multivariate models, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and dentition status. In the multivariate logistic model, the lowest quartile of dietary fiber was associated with moderate-severe periodontitis (compared with mild-none) compared with the highest dietary fiber intake quartile (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.69). In the multivariate multinomial logistic model, intake in the lowest quartile of dietary fiber was associated with higher severity of periodontitis than dietary fiber intake in the highest quartile (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.62). In the adjusted logistic model, whole-grain intake was not associated with moderate-severe periodontitis. However, in the adjusted multinomial logistic model, adults consuming whole grains in the lowest quartile were more likely to have more severe periodontal disease than were adults consuming whole grains in the highest quartile (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.62). In fully adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic models, fruit and vegetable intake was not significantly associated with periodontitis. We found an inverse relation between dietary fiber intake and periodontal disease among US adults ≥30 y old. Periodontal disease was associated with low whole

  3. Maternal periodontal disease, pregnancy, and neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasanayake, Ananda P; Gennaro, Susan; Hendricks-Muñoz, Karen D; Chhun, Nok

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the association between maternal periodontal disease and poor pregnancy and neonatal outcomes and outline the role nurses can play in improving the oral health of pregnant women. Maternal periodontal disease is linked to preterm birth, low birthweight, and preterm low birthweight, but treatment of periodontal disease during pregnancy has been shown to be safe and effective. Nurses, nurse practitioners, and nurse-midwives are in a position to educate pregnant women on the benefits of good oral health and identify and refer women who are in need of dental care for treatment.

  4. The effectiveness of periodontal disease treatment during pregnancy in reducing the risk of experiencing preterm birth and low birth weight: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Anna; Uppal, Shitanshu; Pinto, Andres; Dutta, Moushumi; Shrivatsa, Shwetha; Dandolu, Vani; Mupparapu, Mel

    2010-12-01

    Treating periodontal disease during pregnancy to improve outcomes is controversial, and the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conflicting. The authors performed meta-analysis of these RCTs to assess the overall effect of treating periodontal disease during pregnancy. The authors performed a meta-analysis of studies found by means of two database aggregators OvidSP (12 databases) and EBSCOhost (11 databases). They included RCTs in pregnant women with periodontal disease who were assigned to a treatment arm (scaling and root planing with polishing) or a control arm (no treatment or only prophylaxis). Ten RCTs met the inclusion criteria for preterm birth (PTB), and eight RCTs met the inclusion criteria for low birth weight (LBW). The odds ratio of PTB in the treatment group was 0.589 (95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.396-0.875) and of LBW was 0.717 (95 percent CI = 0.440-1.169). Level of bias was the only significant predictor (P periodontal disease during pregnancy.

  5. Relationship Between Prehypertension/Hypertension and Periodontal Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yuya; Ekuni, Daisuke; Miyai, Hisataka; Kataoka, Kota; Yamane, Mayu; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-03-01

    Most cross-sectional studies have found a significant positive relationship between periodontal disease and prehypertension/hypertension. However, these studies had limitations and there are few prospective cohort studies in young adults. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether periodontal disease was related to prehypertension/hypertension in Japanese university students. Students (n = 2,588), who underwent health examinations before entering university and before graduation, were included in the analysis. The association between periodontal disease such as the percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) and community periodontal index (CPI) scores, and change in blood pressure status was determined. At the reexamination, the numbers of participants with prehypertension (systolic blood pressure 120-139mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure 80-89mm Hg) and hypertension (≥140/90mm Hg) were 882 (34.1%) and 109 (4.2%), respectively. In a logistic regression model, the risk of hypertension was significantly associated with male (odds ratio (OR): 6.31; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.63-15.13; P periodontal disease defined as the presence of both probing pocket depth (PPD) ≥ 4mm and BOP ≥ 30% at baseline (OR: 2.74; 95% CI: 1.19-6.29; P = 0.02) in participants with prehypertension at baseline. On the other hand, the risk of prehypertension was not associated with presence of periodontal disease (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.51-1.70; P = 0.82). In the short-term prospective cohort study, a significant association between presence of periodontal disease and hypertension was observed in Japanese university students. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Histopathological lesions associated with equine periodontal disease.

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    Cox, Alistair; Dixon, Padraic; Smith, Sionagh

    2012-12-01

    Equine periodontal disease (EPD) is a common and painful condition, the aetiology and pathology of which are poorly understood. To characterise the histopathological lesions associated with EPD, the skulls of 22 horses were assessed grossly for the presence of periodontal disease, and a standard set of interdental tissues taken from each for histopathological examination. Histological features of EPD included ulceration and neutrophilic inflammation of the gingival epithelium. Mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammation of the gingival lamina propria and submucosa was commonly present irrespective of the presence or degree of periodontal disease. Gingival hyperplasia was present to some degree in all horses, and was only weakly associated with the degree of periodontal disease. In all horses dental plaque was present at the majority of sites examined and was often associated with histological evidence of peripheral cemental erosion. Bacteria (including spirochaetes in four horses) were identified in gingival samples by Gram and silver impregnation techniques and were significantly associated with the presence of periodontal disease. This is the first study to describe histological features of EPD, and the first to identify associated spirochaetes in some cases. Histological features were variable, and there was considerable overlap of some features between the normal and diseased gingiva. Further investigation into the potential role of bacteria in the pathogenesis and progression of EPD is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnostic and Prognostic Particularities of the Implications of the Presence of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Patients with Periodontal Disease

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    Yero Ieremie Lia Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease can have significant effects by increasing the circulating levels of TNF-α, therefore its prevention and treatment is important in maintaining the overall health of the body. Objective: The aim of our research was to assess the differences in the salivary concentration of TNF-α between patients with periodontal disease and those free of the disease and to studz whether it can represent an indicator of the evolution of periodontal disease. We also aimed to assess the practical applicability of the method for the determination of this cytokine in the saliva. Materials and methods: Our study included two groups of subjects, the first group consisting in patients diagnosed with periodontal disease, while the control group included subjects free of periodontal disease. TNF-α concentration was determined with the ELISA test for human TNF-α and the results were expressed in pg/ mL. The data were statistically processed with GraphPad software and the statistical nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was applied. Results: We observe nearly double values of the TNF-α salivary level in the group of patients suffering from periodontal disease compared to the subjects free of periodontal disease, which allows us to notice that saliva analysis is a useful and safely enough method for the diagnosis and follow-up in the development of periodontal disease. Conclusion: The salivary level of TNF-α in patients with periodontal disease is not only an indicator of periodontal disease progression, but also a reflection of the pathogen potential that periodontal disease may have on the overall health of the body.

  8. Relationship between invasion of the periodontium by periodontal pathogens and periodontal disease: a systematic review.

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    Mendes, Luzia; Azevedo, Nuno Filipe; Felino, António; Pinto, Miguel Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial invasion of the periodontal tissues has been suggested as a relevant step in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease. However, its exact importance remains to be defined. The present systematic review assessed the scientific evidence concerning the relationship between the quality or quantity of periodontal microbiota in periodontal tissues and development of periodontal disease. The databases Medline-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL, ISI Web of Knowledge and SCOPUS were searched, up to January 2014. Studies that reported evaluation of periodontal pathogens invasion on human tissues were selected. The screening of 440 title/abstracts elected 26 papers for full-text reading. Twenty three papers were subsequently excluded because of insufficient data or a study protocol not related to the objectives of this systematic review. All included studies were case-control studies that evaluated intracellular or adherent bacteria to epithelial cells from periodontal pockets versus healthy sulci. Study protocols presented heterogeneity regarding case and control definitions and methodological approaches for microbial identification. No consistent significant differences were found related to the presence/absence or proportion of specific periopathogens across the studies, as only one study found statistically significant differences regarding the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans (p = 0.043), T. forsythia (P periodontal pockets vs. healthy sulci. All studies reported a larger unspecific bacterial load in or on the epithelial cells taken from a diseased site compared to a healthy sulcus. The current available data is of low to moderate quality and inconsistent mainly due to study design, poor reporting and methodological diversity. As so, there is insufficient evidence to support or exclude the invasion by periodontal pathogens as a key step in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease. Further research is needed.

  9. Coffee consumption and periodontal disease in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nathan; Kaye, Elizabeth Krall; Garcia, Raul I

    2014-08-01

    Coffee is a major dietary source of antioxidants as well as of other anti-inflammatory factors. Given the beneficial role of such factors in periodontal disease, whether coffee intake is associated with periodontal disease in adult males was explored. Existing data collected by a prospective, closed-panel cohort study of aging and oral health in adult males was used. Participants included the 1,152 dentate males in the Veterans Affairs (VA) Dental Longitudinal Study who presented for comprehensive medical and dental examinations from 1968 to 1998. Mean age at baseline was 48 years; males were followed for up to 30 years. Participants are not VA patients; rather, they receive their medical and dental care in the private sector. Periodontal status was assessed by probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing, and radiographic alveolar bone loss (ABL), measured on intraoral periapical radiographs with a modified Schei ruler method. Moderate-to-severe periodontal disease was defined as cumulative numbers of teeth exhibiting PD ≥4 mm or ABL ≥40%. Coffee intake was obtained from participant self-reports using the Cornell Medical Index and food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate repeated-measures generalized linear models estimated mean number of teeth with moderate-to-severe disease at each examination by coffee intake level. It was found that higher coffee consumption was associated with a small but significant reduction in number of teeth with periodontal bone loss. No evidence was found that coffee consumption was harmful to periodontal health. Coffee consumption may be protective against periodontal bone loss in adult males.

  10. Periodontal disease in pregnant patients with rheumatic valvular disease: clinical and microbiological study.

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    Avila, Walkiria Samuel; Timerman, Lilia; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre; Marcelino, Sílvia Linard; Neves, Itamara Lúcia Itagiba; Zugaib, Marcelo; Grinberg, Max

    2011-04-01

    The periodontal disease during pregnancy of women with rheumatic valve disease imply infective endocarditis risks and higher rate of preterm birth and low birth weight. To study the periodontal disease rate of women with rheumatic valve disease during pregnancy. We studied 140 pregnant women who included 70 patients with rheumatic valve disease and 70 healthy women. The periodontal examination included: 1) periodontal clinical exam regard the follow variables: a) probing depth; b) gingival margin; c) clinical attachment level; d) bleeding on probing; e) plaque index and f) gingival index; and 2) microbiological test was performed in samples serum and gingival crevicular fluid and considered positive controls to Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsithia e Aggregobacter actinomycetemcomitans. Age and parity were similar between groups; as single or combined the mitral valve disease was prevalent among the rheumatic valve lesion in 45 (32.1%) e 20 (28.5%) cases, respectively. Among the periodontal variables gingival margin (p=0.01) and plaque index (p=0.04) were different between groups. The periodontal disease was identified in 20 (14,3%) pregnant women, seven (10%) of them were patients with valve rheumatic disease and the remain 13 (18,6%) were healthy women, its percentual was not different between groups (p=0,147). Microbiological analyses of oral samples showed higher percentual of P. gingivalis in healthy pregnant women (p=0.004). The clinical and microbiological study during pregnancy showed comparable incidence of periodontal disease between women with rheumatic valve disease and healthy women.

  11. A randomized controlled trial of pre-conception treatment for periodontal disease to improve periodontal status during pregnancy and birth outcomes

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    Jiang, Hong; Xiong, Xu; Su, Yi; Zhang, Yiming; Wu, Hongqiao; Jiang, Zhijun; Qian, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence has suggested that periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of various adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. However, several large clinical randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate periodontal therapy during pregnancy reduced the incidence of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. It has been suggested that the pre-conception period may be an optimal period for periodontal disease treatment rather than during pregnancy. To date, no randomized cont...

  12. Periodontal Disease Awareness and Knowledge among Nigerian Primary School Teachers

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    Azodo, CC; Umoh, AO

    2015-01-01

    Background: Teacher-led oral health education is equally effective in improving the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene status of adolescents as dentist-led and peer-led strategies. Aim: The aim was to determine periodontal disease awareness and knowledge among Nigerian primary school teachers. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among primary school teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire which elicited information on demography, awareness of the periodontal disease and source of information, knowledge of etiology, and symptoms of the periodontal disease, was the data collection tool.. The test of association was done using either Chi-square or Fisher's exact statistics. P value was set at 0.05 for significance level. Results: Out of 180 teachers recruited from seven public primary schools in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, 151 of them fully participated by filling the study questionnaires giving a 83.9% (151/180) response rate. The majority 74.2% (112/151) of the participants reported having heard of the periodontal disease and the leading source of information was television. A total of 29.8% (45/151) of participants considered periodontal disease as the main cause of tooth loss among adult Nigerian. Only 12.6% (19/151) of the participants knew dental plaque as soft debris on teeth and 29.1% (44/151) attested that plaque can cause periodontal disease. The majority of the participants were not aware of age 81.5% (123/151) and gender 96.7% (146/151) predisposition to periodontal disease. The perceived manifestations of the periodontal disease reported by were mainly gum bleeding 35.1% (53/151) and swollen gum 20.5% (31/151). A total of 70.2% (106/151) of the participants considered periodontal disease as a preventable disease and about half 49.0% (74/151) of the participants considered daily mouth cleaning as the best preventive method. The majority 95.4% (144/151) of the participants expressed interest in

  13. Periodontal Disease Awareness and Knowledge among Nigerian Primary School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodo, C C; Umoh, A O

    2015-01-01

    Teacher-led oral health education is equally effective in improving the oral health knowledge and oral hygiene status of adolescents as dentist-led and peer-led strategies. The aim was to determine periodontal disease awareness and knowledge among Nigerian primary school teachers. This cross-sectional study was conducted among primary school teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. A self-administered questionnaire which elicited information on demography, awareness of the periodontal disease and source of information, knowledge of etiology, and symptoms of the periodontal disease, was the data collection tool.. The test of association was done using either Chi-square or Fisher's exact statistics. P value was set at 0.05 for significance level. Out of 180 teachers recruited from seven public primary schools in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, 151 of them fully participated by filling the study questionnaires giving a 83.9% (151/180) response rate. The majority 74.2% (112/151) of the participants reported having heard of the periodontal disease and the leading source of information was television. A total of 29.8% (45/151) of participants considered periodontal disease as the main cause of tooth loss among adult Nigerian. Only 12.6% (19/151) of the participants knew dental plaque as soft debris on teeth and 29.1% (44/151) attested that plaque can cause periodontal disease. The majority of the participants were not aware of age 81.5% (123/151) and gender 96.7% (146/151) predisposition to periodontal disease. The perceived manifestations of the periodontal disease reported by were mainly gum bleeding 35.1% (53/151) and swollen gum 20.5% (31/151). A total of 70.2% (106/151) of the participants considered periodontal disease as a preventable disease and about half 49.0% (74/151) of the participants considered daily mouth cleaning as the best preventive method. The majority 95.4% (144/151) of the participants expressed interest in learning about the periodontal disease and the

  14. Microbiome Profiles in Periodontitis in Relation to Host and Disease Characteristics

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    Hong, Bo-Young; Furtado Araujo, Michel V.; Strausbaugh, Linda D.; Terzi, Evimaria; Ioannidou, Effie; Diaz, Patricia I.

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition that affects the supporting tissues surrounding teeth. The occurrence of periodontitis is associated with shifts in the structure of the communities that inhabit the gingival sulcus. Although great inter-subject variability in the subgingival microbiome has been observed in subjects with periodontitis, it is unclear whether distinct community types exist and if differences in microbial signatures correlate with host characteristics or with the variable clinical presentations of periodontitis. Therefore, in this study we explored the existence of different community types in periodontitis and their relationship with host demographic, medical and disease-related clinical characteristics. Clustering analyses of microbial abundance profiles suggested two types of communities (A and B) existed in the 34 subjects with periodontitis evaluated. Type B communities harbored greater proportions of certain periodontitis-associated taxa, including species historically associated with the disease, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola, and taxa recently linked to periodontitis. In contrast, subjects with type A communities had increased proportions of different periodontitis-associated species, and were also enriched for health-associated species and core taxa (those equally prevalent in health and periodontitis). Periodontitis subgingival clusters were not associated with demographic, medical or disease-specific clinical parameters other than periodontitis extent (proportion of sites affected), which positively correlated with the total proportion of cluster B signature taxa. In conclusion, two types of microbial communities were detected in subjects with periodontitis. Host demographics and underlying medical conditions did not correlate with these profiles, which instead appeared to be related to periodontitis extent, with type B communities present in more widespread disease cases. The two

  15. Periodontal Disease: A Possible Risk-Factor for Adverse Pregnancy Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, Anuj Singh; Katoch, Vartika; Rajguru, Sneha A; Rajpoot, Nami; Singh, Pinojj; Wakhle, Sonal

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial invasion in subgingival sites especially of gram-negative organisms are initiators for periodontal diseases. The periodontal pathogens with persistent inflammation lead to destruction of periodontium. In recent years, periodontal diseases have been associated with a number of systemic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular-disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic respiratory diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes including pre-term low-birth weight (PLBW) and pre-eclampsia. The factors like low socio-economic status, mother's age, race, multiple births, tobacco and drug-abuse may be found to increase risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. However, the same are less correlated with PLBW cases. Even the invasion of both aerobic and anerobic may lead to inflammation of gastrointestinal tract and vagina hence contributing to PLBW. The biological mechanism involved between PLBW and Maternal periodontitis is the translocation of chemical mediators of inflammation. Pre-eclampsia is one of the commonest cause of both maternal and fetal morbidity as it is characterized by hypertension and hyperprotenuria. Improving periodontal health before or during pregnancy may prevent or reduce the occurrences of these adverse pregnancy outcomes and, therefore, reduce the maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Hence, this article is an attempt to review the relationship between periodontal condition and altered pregnancy outcome.

  16. Association between periodontal disease and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroye, M; Ayanbadejo, P; Savage, K; Oluwole, A

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the association between periodontal disease and pregnancy outcomes like preterm birth and low birth weight. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed by the subjects who attended the antenatal clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos. Information obtained included; maternal age, gestational age, marital status, educational status, occupation and expected date of delivery. After delivery, the questionnaire was completed with baby's weight at birth and the actual date of delivery. Clinical assessment of the periodontium was done using Oral Hygiene Index (OHI) and Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). Participants were divided into three groups: Test, Control I and Control II groups. Scaling and polishing were done for all patients with periodontal disease before (Test group) and after delivery (Control I). All Control II participants (those without periodontal disease) were given Oral hygiene instructions. Descriptive and comparative analyses were done using Epi info version 2008. Four hundred and fifty women received the questionnaire but the response rate was 94%, giving an actual sample size of 423 participants. Maternal age range was between 18 and 34 years with mean age of 29.67 (± 3.37). Gestational age at the point of recruitment was between 10 weeks and 26 weeks with mean of 23.34 (± 4.05). The prevalence of periodontal disease among the study group was 33.38%. About 71% of the participants attained tertiary level of education; only 0.7% had no formal education. There was 9.9% use of alcohol among the participants. The mean oral hygiene score for the participants was 1.94 (± 1.31). The prevalences for preterm deliveries, low birth weight and spontaneous abortion were 12.5%, 12.1% and 1.42% respectively. This study confirms periodontal disease as a probable risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery and low birth weight. Therefore, health workers should be encouraged to promote good

  17. Gingival crevicular fluid in the diagnosis of periodontal and systemic diseases

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    Čakić Saša

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF can be found in the physiologic space (gingival sulcus, as well as in the pathological space (gingival pocket or periodontal pocket between the gums and teeth. In the first case it is a transudate, in the second an exudate. The constituents of GCF originate from serum, gingival tissues, and from both bacterial and host response cells present in the aforementioned spaces and the surrounding tissues. The collection and analysis of GCF are the noninvasive methods for the evaluation of host response in periodontal disease. These analyses mainly focus on inflammatory markers, such as prostaglandin E2, neutrophil elastase and β-glucuronidase, and on the marker of cellular necrosis - aspartat aminotransferase. Further, the analysis of inflammatory markers in the GCF may assist in defining how certain systemic diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus can modify periodontal disease, and how peridontal disease can influence certain systemic disorders (atherosclerosis, preterm delivery, diabetes mellitus and some chronic respiratory diseases. Major factors which influence the results obtained from the analyses of GCF are not only the methods of these analyses, but the method of GCF collection as well. As saliva collection is less technique-sensitive than GCF collection, some constituents of saliva which originate from the GCF can be analyzed as more amenable to chairside utilization.

  18. Assessment of two-way relationship between periodontal disease and gestational diabetes mellitus: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Monika; Tangade, Pradeep; Punia, Himanshu; Gupta, Vipul; Sharma, Hunny; Jain, Ankita

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is glucose intolerance which begins during pregnancy. Few studies have examined the association between periodontal disease and GDM. The aim of this study was to assess the association between periodontal disease and GDM. The study population comprised ninety patients, out of which thirty were cases and sixty were controls. All cases underwent a laboratory screening test for GDM between 24 and 30 weeks of gestation based on the recommendation of the obstetricians and gynecologists. To assess the periodontal status, a full-mouth periodontal examination assessing the probing depth, periodontal depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and gingival recession was performed on all study participants by a single trained examiner. Tests for associations were performed using Chi-square statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis. None of the periodontitis conditions was found to be a significant predictor of GDM. In GDM patients, 70% of females were having periodontal disease whereas non-GDM patients 77% of patient had periodontal disease. The present study did not show any positive association between periodontal disease and GDM.

  19. Periodontitis associated with chronic kidney disease among Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou, Effie; Hall, Yoshio; Swede, Helen; Himmelfarb, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    In comparison to non-Hispanic whites, a number of health-care disparities, including poor oral health, have been identified among Hispanics in general and Mexican Americans in particular. We hypothesized that Mexican Americans with chronic kidney disease (CKD) would have higher prevalence of chronic periodontitis compared with Mexican Americans with normal kidney function, and that the level of kidney function would be inversely related to the prevalence of periodontal disease. We examined this hypothesis using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1994 (NHANES III) data set. We followed the American Academy of Periodontology/Center for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for periodontitis. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD-Epidemiology equation for Hispanic populations. The classification to CKD stages was based on the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative. Periodontitis prevalence increased across the kidney function groups showing a statistically significant dose-response association (Pperiodontitis compared with Mexican Americans with normal kidney function after adjusting for potential confounders such as smoking, diabetes, and socioeconomic status. Multivariate adjusted odds ratio for periodontitis significantly increased with 1, 5, and 10 mL/minute estimated glomerular filtration rate reduction from the mean. This is the first report, to the best our knowledge, that showed an increase of periodontitis prevalence with decreased kidney function in this population. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  20. Periodontal disease in a patient receiving Bevacizumab: a case report

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    Gujral Dorothy M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits the action of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF thereby acting as an angiogenesis inhibitor. As a result, supply of oxygen and nutrients to tissues is impaired and tumour cell growth is reduced. Reported side effects due to bevacizumab are hypertension and increased risk of bleeding. Bowel perforation has also been reported. Periodontal disease in patients on bevacizumab therapy has not been reported before. Case Presentation We report a case of a forty-three year old woman who developed periodontitis whilst receiving bevacizumab for lung cancer. The periodontal disease remained stable on discontinuation of the drug. Conclusion Further investigations are needed to determine the mechanism for bevacizumab-induced periodontal disease.

  1. Salivary and serum inflammatory mediators among pre-conception women with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Yiming; Xiong, Xu; Harville, Emily W; O, Karmin; Qian, Xu

    2016-12-15

    There have been inconsistent conclusions regarding the levels of inflammatory mediators in saliva and serum among people with or without periodontal disease. Although pre-conception has been put forward as the optimal time for the periodontal treatment in order to improving pregnancy outcomes, few studies have been conducted to examine inflammatory mediators in saliva and serum among pre-conception women. Pre-conception women were recruited between January 2012 and December 2014. Women were provided with an oral health examination to detect periodontal disease. Salivary and serum samples were collected at the same of examination. Inflammatory mediators includinginterleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and beta-glucuronidase (β-glucuronidase) were tested and analyzed among women with overall periodontal disease (n = 442) or moderate/severe periodontal disease (n = 247). Results were compared to that in women with a healthy periodontium (n = 91). Significantly increased concentrations of inflammatory mediators of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and β-glucuronidase in saliva and IL-1β, β-glucuronidase and TNF-α in serum were found among pre-conception women with moderate/severe periodontal disease, compared with women without periodontal disease. Significantly increased levels were also found in all the above saliva inflammatory mediators and in serum IL-1β and TNF-α among women with overall periodontal disease. The levels of all inflammatory mediators in saliva and almost all inflammatory mediators except IL-6 in serum significantly increased with severity of periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is highly associated with the elevated levels of inflammatory mediators in saliva and some mediators in serum among pre-conception women.

  2. Periodontal and inflammatory bowel diseases: Is there evidence of complex pathogenic interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira-Junior, Ronaldo; Figueredo, Carlos Marcelo

    2016-09-21

    Periodontal disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are both chronic inflammatory diseases. Their pathogenesis is mediated by a complex interplay between a dysbiotic microbiota and the host immune-inflammatory response, and both are influenced by genetic and environmental factors. This review aimed to provide an overview of the evidence dealing with a possible pathogenic interaction between periodontal disease and IBD. There seems to be an increased prevalence of periodontal disease in patients with IBD when compared to healthy controls, probably due to changes in the oral microbiota and a higher inflammatory response. Moreover, the induction of periodontitis seems to result in gut dysbiosis and altered gut epithelial cell barrier function, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD. Considering the complexity of both periodontal disease and IBD, it is very challenging to understand the possible pathways involved in their coexistence. In conclusion, this review points to a complex pathogenic interaction between periodontal disease and IBD, in which one disease might alter the composition of the microbiota and increase the inflammatory response related to the other. However, we still need more data derived from human studies to confirm results from murine models. Thus, mechanistic studies are definitely warranted to clarify this possible bidirectional association.

  3. A survey on acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners toward periodontal diseases

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    Supreet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An association between oral conditions such as periodontal diseases and systemic conditions is noted. As such, periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of systemic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, adverse pregnancy outcome, atherosclerosis, stroke and hospital acquired pneumonia. The concept of diagnosing and treating a potential patient to minimize the deleterious effects of this chronic infectious and inflammatory condition on systemic conditions represents both an unprecedented challenge and opportunity to our profession. Keeping this in view, the present survey was designed to evaluate the acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners; concerning the effects of periodontal disease on systemic health. Materials and Methods: A typed questionnaire carrying four sets of questions was distributed among general medical practitioners of seven different government and private medical colleges and hospitals. Questionnaire was developed to assess the acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners toward periodontal disease. Results: Most of the respondents have knowledge regarding the signs and symptoms of periodontal disease and its association with cardiovascular disease. However, majority of them do not know about the potential effect of periodontal disease on other organ systems. Conclusion: General medical practitioners have inadequate knowledge regarding periodontal diseases. Hence, oral health related training should be an integral part of the medical curriculum.

  4. A survey on acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners toward periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Supreet; Khurana, Pankaj; Kaur, Harjit

    2015-01-01

    An association between oral conditions such as periodontal diseases and systemic conditions is noted. As such, periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk of systemic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, adverse pregnancy outcome, atherosclerosis, stroke and hospital acquired pneumonia. The concept of diagnosing and treating a potential patient to minimize the deleterious effects of this chronic infectious and inflammatory condition on systemic conditions represents both an unprecedented challenge and opportunity to our profession. Keeping this in view, the present survey was designed to evaluate the acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners; concerning the effects of periodontal disease on systemic health. A typed questionnaire carrying four sets of questions was distributed among general medical practitioners of seven different government and private medical colleges and hospitals. Questionnaire was developed to assess the acquaintance, orientation and behavior of general medical practitioners toward periodontal disease. Most of the respondents have knowledge regarding the signs and symptoms of periodontal disease and its association with cardiovascular disease. However, majority of them do not know about the potential effect of periodontal disease on other organ systems. General medical practitioners have inadequate knowledge regarding periodontal diseases. Hence, oral health related training should be an integral part of the medical curriculum.

  5. Monitoring of the periodontal disease using digital image analyses; Monitoracao da progressao da doenca periodontal atraves de imagens digitalizadas

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    Taba Junior, Mario

    1995-12-31

    The radiographs play an important role in the diagnosis and management of periodontal disease although the most appropriate form of assessment vary. The great technologic advance and the easily accessible systems of digital image analyses, specify digitized radiographs, improve the diagnostic power. The studied group was 29 adults (14 female and 15 male) ranging in age from 18 to 45 years. They all had evidence of alveolar bone loss and established periodontitis. They were studied, without treatment, over a six month period with four posterior standardized vertical bite wings radiographs, electronic probing of attachment loss, and bacteriological and temperature analysis of periodontal pocket. The aim of this investigation was to determine the relationship between the loss of radiographic crestal bone height and probing attachment loss in digitized radiographs and show a standardization method for periodontal radiographs. Radiographic and probing attachment change at all sites, dichotomously classified as to not changing or loosing indicated 20.42% of sites were loosing by measurement of radiographic change and 5.29% were loosing by measurement of attachment change. There was concordance between the presence or absence of probing attachment loss and bone loss in 72% to 86% depending on the area. The results, admitting methodological limitations, indicate that when these two methods for the assessment of progressive periodontitis were used they represents measure degrees of different features of periodontitis and that the period of periodontal disease activity was detected in the either the soft tissue attachment or bone. (author). 116 refs., 17 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Comparison of cardiovascular disease risk in two main forms of periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Rahul; Patil, Sudhir R.; Mathur, Shivani

    2012-01-01

    Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase reactant and has been proved to be a significant predictor of future cardiovascular events. Recent studies have demonstrated a correlation between periodontitis and elevated CRP levels. However, comparison between the levels of CRP in two main forms of periodontitis is ambiguous. This study aims at determining and comparing the relative levels of serum CRP in aggressive and chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 systemically healthy subjects were divided into three groups of 80 based on having generalized aggressive periodontitis, chronic generalized periodontitis and non-periodontitis (NP; controls). Venous blood samples were collected for quantitative CRP analysis using turbidimetric immunoassay. Results: Mean CRP levels were significantly greater in both generalized aggressive periodontitis (7.49±2.31 mg/l) and chronic generalized periodontitis (4.88±1.80 mg/l) groups as compared to NP (0.68±0.23 mg/l) controls. Moreover, CRP levels were significantly higher in aggressive periodontitis as compared to chronic periodontitis patients. Also, CRP levels positively correlated with the amount of periodontal destruction as measured by probing depth and clinical attachment loss for both chronic generalized periodontitis and generalized aggressive periodontitis. Conclusion: Findings of the present study indicated that periodontitis should be of particular concern in younger individuals, where elevated levels of CRP may contribute to early or more rapid cardiovascular disease in susceptible patients. Thus, further research should be carried out at a community level to ascertain these findings. PMID:22363367

  7. Periodontal disease in research beagle dogs--an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortegaard, H E; Eriksen, T; Baelum, V

    2008-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence and describe the extent and severity of periodontal disease and associated periodontal parameters in beagle dogs. A full-mouth, site-specific examination was performed in 98 beagle dogs. Focus was placed on clinical attachment loss, pocket depth and bleeding on probing. The prevalence of clinical attachment loss greater than equal to 1 mm was 20 per cent in the one-year-old dogs, increasing to 84 per cent of the dogs aged more than three years. The number of sites affected with clinical attachment loss greater than equal to 1 mm showed a skewed distribution. The prevalence of clinical attachment loss greater than equal to 4 mm was only seven per cent. A probing pocket depth of 4+ mm was observed in 44 to 81 per cent of the dogs, depending on age. Also, the distribution of the number of deepened pockets/dog was skewed. The teeth most prone to clinical attachment loss greater than equal to 1 mm were the P2, the P3 and the P4 of the maxilla. The teeth most prone to pocket depth greater than equal to 4 mm were the maxillary canines. Periodontal disease in terms of clinical attachment loss greater than equal to 1 mm and pocket depth greater than equal to 4 mm is common in beagle dogs, but the major disease burden is carried by only a few dogs. The prevalence increases with increased age but is high already at the age of two years.

  8. Relationship between invasion of the periodontium by periodontal pathogens and periodontal disease: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Luzia; Azevedo, Nuno Filipe; Felino, António; Pinto, Miguel Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial invasion of the periodontal tissues has been suggested as a relevant step in the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease. However, its exact importance remains to be defined. The present systematic review assessed the scientific evidence concerning the relationship between the quality or quantity of periodontal microbiota in periodontal tissues and development of periodontal disease. The databases Medline-PubMed, Cochrane-CENTRAL, ISI Web of Knowledge and SCOPUS were searched, up to January 2014. Studies that reported evaluation of periodontal pathogens invasion on human tissues were selected. The screening of 440 title/abstracts elected 26 papers for full-text reading. Twenty three papers were subsequently excluded because of insufficient data or a study protocol not related to the objectives of this systematic review. All included studies were case-control studies that evaluated intracellular or adherent bacteria to epithelial cells from periodontal pockets versus healthy sulci. Study protocols presented heterogeneity regarding case and control definitions and methodological approaches for microbial identification. No consistent significant differences were found related to the presence/absence or proportion of specific periopathogens across the studies, as only one study found statistically significant differences regarding the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans (p = 0.043), T. forsythia (P < 0.001), P. intermedia (P < 0.001), C. ochracea (P < 0.001) and C. rectus (P = 0.003) in epithelial cells from periodontal pockets vs. healthy sulci. All studies reported a larger unspecific bacterial load in or on the epithelial cells taken from a diseased site compared to a healthy sulcus. The current available data is of low to moderate quality and inconsistent mainly due to study design, poor reporting and methodological diversity. As so, there is insufficient evidence to support or exclude the invasion by periodontal pathogens as a key step in the

  9. Impact of periodontal disease on quality of life: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M C; Dias-Pereira, A C; Branco-de-Almeida, L S; Martins, C C; Paiva, S M

    2017-08-01

    The diagnosis of periodontal disease is commonly based on objective evaluations of the patient's medical/dental history as well as clinical and radiographic examinations. However, periodontal disease should also be evaluated subjectively through measures that quantify its impact on oral health-related quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of periodontal disease on quality of life among adolescents, adults and older adults. A systematic search of the literature was performed for scientific articles published up to July 2015 using electronic databases and a manual search. Two independent reviewers performed the selection of the studies, extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality. Thirty-four cross-sectional studies involving any age group, except children, and the use of questionnaires for the assessment of the impact of periodontal disease on quality of life were included. Twenty-five studies demonstrated that periodontal disease was associated with a negative impact on quality of life, with severe periodontitis exerting the most significant impact by compromising aspects related to function and esthetics. Unlike periodontitis, gingivitis was associated with pain as well as difficulties performing oral hygiene and wearing dentures. Gingivitis was also negatively correlated with comfort. The results indicate that periodontal disease may exert an impact on quality of life of individuals, with greater severity of the disease related to greater impact. Longitudinal studies with representative samples are needed to ensure validity of the findings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Prevalence of severe periodontal disease and its association with respiratory disease in hospitalized adult patients in a tertiary care center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Olmedo-Torres, Daniel; Martínez-Briseño, David; García-Sancho, Cecilia; Franco-Marina, Francisco; González-Cruz, Herminia

    2015-01-01

    Severe periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory gingival process associated with systemic diseases. To determine the prevalence of severe periodontal disease and its association with respiratory diseases among hospitalized patients at the Institute of Respiratory Diseases "Ismael Cosio Villegas" (INER) in 2011. A cross-sectional study was developed. The severe periodontal disease was diagnosed by the Department of Stomatology. The International Classification of Diseases 10th revision was used. A multinomial logistic was fit to estimate relative-risk. Three thousand and fifty-nine patients were included; 772/3,059 (25.2%) had severe periodontal disease. After controlling for age, sex, inpatient days, death, and socioeconomic status, the infectious respiratory diseases that were significantly associated with severe periodontal disease were: HIV/AIDS (RR: 10.6; 95% CI: 9.1-23.3; p abscess (RR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6-7.8; p = 0.002). Lung cancer and pleural diseases were also significantly associated with severe periodontal disease. High prevalence of severe periodontal disease was observed in the different respiratory diseases. Severe periodontal disease was associated with both infectious and non-infectious respiratory diseases. It is important to study an oral health intervention.

  11. Tannerella forsythia and the HLA-DQB1 allele are associated with susceptibility to periodontal disease in Japanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura-Kuroki, Junko; Yamashita, Kie; Shimooka, Shohachi

    2009-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a multiple factor disease caused by genetic factors, environmental factors, and periodontal bacteria (periodontal pathogens). The present study aimed to elucidate the risk factors for periodontal disease in Japanese adolescents. Subjects (11-16 years old) were classified into three groups: localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP), periodontal attachment loss (PAL), and periodontally healthy (PH) groups. Genomic DNA isolated from the buccal mucosa was used for single-nucleotide polymorphism analyses of the candidate genes (interleukin-1alpha-889; interleukin-1alpha +4845; interleukin-1beta +3954; an immunoglobulin G Fc gamma receptor, FcgammaRIIa-R/H131; and a human leukocyte antigen class II allele, HLA-DQB1) of aggressive periodontitis. Subgingival plaque samples obtained from the same subjects were used for 16S rRNAbased polymerase chain reaction analysis of five important periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia). Tannerella forsythia was detected in the deepest periodontal pockets in all subjects in the LAP and PAL groups. The prevalence of an atypical BamHI restriction site in HLA-DQB1 of the LAP group was significantly higher than that in the PH and PAL groups. Furthermore, all subjects who had the atypical BamHI restriction site in HLA-DQB1 had T. forsythia infection. These results suggested that T. forsythia is associated with periodontal disease in Japanese adolescents and also suggested that HLA-DQB1 is related to LAP and is associated with T. forsythia infection.

  12. The influence of smoking on clinical periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Hendiani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease has very complex and multi factor etiology. Plaque bacteria is the main cause of periodontal disease and another risk factor that also plays a role is a smoking habit. Cigarette product such as nicotine can influence the development of periodontal disease that can directly and systemically damage the function of PMN cell. The research was conducted by taking a clinical examination on the smoking influence that covers the number of cigarettes and the period of smoking, and kind of cigarette to the worse of periodontal disease, and by measuring the epithelial attachment loss and the bleeding index. The research was conducted to 152 male aged 20-45 years old, comprised 80 smokers and 72 nonsmokers at the Clinic of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta. The result of the research showed that smoking gave influence on the worse of the periodontal disease. There was a profound relationship between the smoking period and the number of cigarettes consumed everyday indicated by the epithelial attachment loss. Smoking did not enhance gingival bleeding. The relationship between kinds of cigarette and the gingival bleeding score and the epithelial attachment loss did not show a significant bleeding.

  13. Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome Components and Periodontal Disease in a Japanese General Population: the Suita Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikui, Miki; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Ono, Takahiro; Kida, Momoyo; Kosaka, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Masaaki; Watanabe, Makoto; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2017-05-01

    A positive association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and periodontal status has recently been noted. However, no study has evaluated the relationship by sex and in a general urban population using the uniform definition proposed in the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between MetS and periodontal status using the uniform definition in a general urban Japanese population. A total of 1,856 Japanese men and women (mean age: 66.4 years) were studied using data from the Suita study. Periodontal status was evaluated by the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). MetS was defined using the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. The associations of the MetS and its components with periodontal disease were investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, drinking, and smoking. Among the components of the MetS, low HDL cholesterol level was significantly associated with periodontal disease in men and women [odds ratios (OR)=2.39 and 1.53; 95% confidence intervals=1.36-4.19 and 1.06-2.19]. Furthermore, the risk of periodontal disease showed 1.43-, 1.42-, and 1.89-fold increases in those with 2, 3, and ≥4 components, respectively, compared with those having no components (P trend <0.001). For the analysis by sex, the risk of periodontal disease was increased 2.27- and 1.76-fold in those with ≥4 components in men and women, respectively (both P trend =0.001). These findings suggest that MetS and lower HDL cholesterol are associated with periodontal disease. Subjects with two or more MetS components had a significantly higher prevalence of periodontal disease.

  14. Pentraxins as Key Disease Markers for Periodontal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kathariya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal diseases are characterized by a complex set of biologic interactions between a diverse and dynamic microbial ecosystem and the host’s multifaceted and responsive immune and inflammatory machinery. Such interactions between microbial pathogens and various host response systems play a critical role in the development and progression of periodontal disease via the release of inflammatory and immune mediators. Advances in periodontal disease diagnostic are moving toward methods whereby periodontal risk can be identified and quantified by detecting such inflammatory mediators in its sequential pathophysiology. Pentraxins (PTXs are classical mediators of inflammation and markers of acute-phase reaction. They are a super family of multifunctional molecules characterized by multimeric structure, divided into “short” PTXs and “long” PTXs. C-reactive protein (CRP and pentraxin-3 (PTX3 are prototypic molecules of the short and long PTX family, respectively. Evidence suggests that PTXs acts as a non-redundant component of the humoral arm of innate immunity, downstream of, and complementary to, cellular recognition, as well as a tuner of inflammation. CRP is a cheaper biomarker and more readily available in everyday clinical practice compared with other inflammatory markers, on the other hand, PTX3 is believed to be the true independent indicator of disease activity and could have clinical implication in diagnosing the “at site” inflammatory status of the periodontal disease. These pentraxins are sensitive and specific in the diagnosis and prognosis of chronic diseases. Thus the pentraxins could be used as preferred biomarkers in periodontal disease diagnosis.

  15. Periodontal Disease: A Possible Risk-Factor for Adverse Pregnancy Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Parihar, Anuj Singh; Katoch, Vartika; Rajguru, Sneha A; Rajpoot, Nami; Singh, Pinojj; Wakhle, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial invasion in subgingival sites especially of gram-negative organisms are initiators for periodontal diseases. The periodontal pathogens with persistent inflammation lead to destruction of periodontium. In recent years, periodontal diseases have been associated with a number of systemic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, cardiovascular-disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic respiratory diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes including pre-term low-birth weight (PLBW) and pre-eclampsi...

  16. Periodontitis in coronary heart disease patients: strong association between bleeding on probing and systemic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Syed Akhtar H; Khan, Ayyaz A; Butt, Arshad K; Hanif, Mohammad; Izhar, Mateen; Tatakis, Dimitris N; Ashfaq, Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship of individual periodontal parameters with individual systemic biomarkers. This study assessed the possible association between specific clinical parameters of periodontitis and systemic biomarkers of coronary heart disease risk in coronary heart disease patients with periodontitis. Angiographically proven coronary heart disease patients with periodontitis (n = 317), aged >30 years and without other systemic illness were examined. Periodontal clinical parameters of bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) and systemic levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen (FIB) and white blood cells (WBC) were noted and analyzed to identify associations through linear and stepwise multiple regression analyses. Unadjusted linear regression showed significant associations between periodontal and systemic parameters; the strongest association (r = 0.629; p periodontal and systemic inflammation marker, respectively. Stepwise regression analysis models revealed that BOP was a predictor of systemic CRP levels (p periodontal parameter significantly associated with each systemic parameter (CRP, FIB, and WBC). In coronary heart disease patients with periodontitis, BOP is strongly associated with systemic CRP levels; this association possibly reflects the potential significance of the local periodontal inflammatory burden for systemic inflammation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The effects of providing periodontal disease risk information on psychological outcomes - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimakopoulou, Koula; Newton, Jonathon Tim; Daly, Blánaid; Kutzer, Yvonne; Ide, Mark

    2015-04-01

    In a two arm randomized controlled trial this study compared the effects of a routine periodontal assessment consultation versus a routine consultation + individualized risk assessment communication intervention on patient thoughts and emotions about periodontal disease. Adults (N = 102) with moderate/advanced chronic periodontitis referred to a Periodontology Department of a large UK dental school, completed psychological measures before a periodontal assessment and again at the end of the visit. Intervention participants received an individualized calculation of their periodontal disease risk using PreViser Risk Calculator in addition to their routine assessment consultation. In routine care, patients' thoughts about periodontal disease seriousness (p periodontal disease. These effects were also seen in intervention participants. Additionally, the individualized risk communication intervention led to patients reporting i) periodontal disease treatment as more effective than they did pre-consultation (p periodontal management (p periodontal disease risk communication influences psychological variables that underpin adherence with periodontal instructions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Factors Associated with Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Diabetic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, N; Zaman, N; Nimmi, N; Chowdhury, T A; Khan, M H

    2016-04-01

    There have been an association between systemic diseases and hormonal changes particularly diabetes which has been cited as a risk factor in the progression of periodontitis in pregnant women. The incidence and severity of periodontal diseases are increasing at a higher rate and a common condition in pregnant diabetic women among Bangladeshi population. This cross sectional study included 200 pregnant women who were selected from gynecological department and examined at the dental unit. The clinical parameters used were the Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), gingival scores and periodontal status and any relationship to socio demographic variables (age, occupation, level of education and urban or rural residence) and clinical variables (gestation period, previous pregnancy, type of diabetes and periodontal maintenance) were evaluated. The results showed that these clinical parameters increased concomitantly with an increase in the stage of pregnancy and in women with multiple pregnancies. Increased age, lower level of education, unemployment and patients residing in rural areas were associated with significantly higher gingival scores and periodontal measures. Women with increased age and multiple pregnancies usually have less interest to frequent periodontal maintenance showing a significant statistical relation between an increased age and changes in gingival and periodontal status; however no significant association was found between increased age and plaque index. It is concluded that gingival inflammatory symptoms are aggravated during pregnancy in diabetic women and are related to different clinical and demographic variables.

  19. Periodontal disease as a potential factor for systemic inflammatory response in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouki, M I; Papadimitriou, S A; Kazakos, G M; Savas, I; Bitchava, D

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease that has numerous consequences both locally and systemically The aim of this study was to assess whether periodontal disease causes systemic inflammatory response in otherwise healthy, adult dogs. We estimated the total mouth periodontal score (TMPS), measured the concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP), hematocrit, and albumin, and determined the white blood cell (WBC) and polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) counts in client-owned dogs. There was a statistically significant relationship between the gingival bleeding index (TMPS-G) and CRP concentration, and WBC and PMN counts, possibly during the active periods of periodontal tissue destruction. No correlation was found between the periodontal destruction index (TMPS-P) and the measured blood parameters. We conclude that chronic periodontal disease does not cause anemia or a reduction in serum albumin. However, active periods of periodontal inflammation may be associated with laboratory values suggestive of a systemic inflammatory response.

  20. Association between periodontal diseases and systemic illnesses: A survey among internal medicine residents in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeizudike, Kehinde A; Iwuala, Sandra O; Ozoh, Obianuju B; Ayanbadejo, Patricia O; Fasanmade, Olufemi A

    2016-01-01

    To assess internal medicine residents' knowledge of associations between periodontal disease and systemic illnesses, and attitudes toward patients' periodontal health. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among internal medicine residents attending the Faculty of Internal Medicine 2014 Update Course organized by the National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria. Participants came from all over the country. Data on respondents' demographic characteristics, periodontal disease knowledge, knowledge of associations between periodontal disease and systemic illnesses, and attitudes toward patients' periodontal health were collected. Data were analyzed using Epi INFO software. The Pearson chi square test was used to measure significant association between categorical variables such as the knowledge of periodontal disease and gender, age group and designation of the participants (p ⩽ 0.05). Of 150 questionnaires distributed, 123 were returned (82% response rate); 109 questionnaires were completed properly and included in the analysis. The most common source of residents' information on oral health was television (59.4%). Only 11.2% of respondents were aware that gingival bleeding was the earliest sign of periodontal disease. Respondents correctly identified periodontal disease as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (45.9%), stroke (43.5%), hospital-acquired pneumonia (53.2%), diabetes mellitus (13.8%), and preterm birth (11%). Increased age (p = 0.032) and male gender (p = 0.022) were associated significantly with knowledge of periodontal disease as a risk factor for stroke. Higher designation (p = 0.002) and longer duration in residency training (p = 0.004) were associated significantly with knowledge of periodontal disease as risk factor for peripheral arterial disease. The majority (90.9%) of respondents had positive attitudes toward the referral of their patients for regular periodontal care. Knowledge of

  1. Host response mechanisms in periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora SILVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal diseases usually refer to common inflammatory disorders known as gingivitis and periodontitis, which are caused by a pathogenic microbiota in the subgingival biofilm, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola that trigger innate, inflammatory, and adaptive immune responses. These processes result in the destruction of the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth, and eventually in tissue, bone and finally, tooth loss. The innate immune response constitutes a homeostatic system, which is the first line of defense, and is able to recognize invading microorganisms as non-self, triggering immune responses to eliminate them. In addition to the innate immunity, adaptive immunity cells and characteristic cytokines have been described as important players in the periodontal disease pathogenesis scenario, with a special attention to CD4+ T-cells (T-helper cells. Interestingly, the T cell-mediated adaptive immunity development is highly dependent on innate immunity-associated antigen presenting cells, which after antigen capture undergo into a maturation process and migrate towards the lymph nodes, where they produce distinct patterns of cytokines that will contribute to the subsequent polarization and activation of specific T CD4+ lymphocytes. Skeletal homeostasis depends on a dynamic balance between the activities of the bone-forming osteoblasts (OBLs and bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCLs. This balance is tightly controlled by various regulatory systems, such as the endocrine system, and is influenced by the immune system, an osteoimmunological regulation depending on lymphocyte- and macrophage-derived cytokines. All these cytokines and inflammatory mediators are capable of acting alone or in concert, to stimulate periodontal breakdown and collagen destruction via tissue-derived matrix metalloproteinases, a characterization of the progression of periodontitis as

  2. Host response mechanisms in periodontal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    SILVA, Nora; ABUSLEME, Loreto; BRAVO, Denisse; DUTZAN, Nicolás; GARCIA-SESNICH, Jocelyn; VERNAL, Rolando; HERNÁNDEZ, Marcela; GAMONAL, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal diseases usually refer to common inflammatory disorders known as gingivitis and periodontitis, which are caused by a pathogenic microbiota in the subgingival biofilm, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola that trigger innate, inflammatory, and adaptive immune responses. These processes result in the destruction of the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth, and eventually in tissue, bone and finally, tooth loss. The innate immune response constitutes a homeostatic system, which is the first line of defense, and is able to recognize invading microorganisms as non-self, triggering immune responses to eliminate them. In addition to the innate immunity, adaptive immunity cells and characteristic cytokines have been described as important players in the periodontal disease pathogenesis scenario, with a special attention to CD4+ T-cells (T-helper cells). Interestingly, the T cell-mediated adaptive immunity development is highly dependent on innate immunity-associated antigen presenting cells, which after antigen capture undergo into a maturation process and migrate towards the lymph nodes, where they produce distinct patterns of cytokines that will contribute to the subsequent polarization and activation of specific T CD4+ lymphocytes. Skeletal homeostasis depends on a dynamic balance between the activities of the bone-forming osteoblasts (OBLs) and bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCLs). This balance is tightly controlled by various regulatory systems, such as the endocrine system, and is influenced by the immune system, an osteoimmunological regulation depending on lymphocyte- and macrophage-derived cytokines. All these cytokines and inflammatory mediators are capable of acting alone or in concert, to stimulate periodontal breakdown and collagen destruction via tissue-derived matrix metalloproteinases, a characterization of the progression of periodontitis as a stage that

  3. Microbial Signature Profiles of Periodontally Healthy and Diseased Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Talita Gomes Baêta; Heller, Débora; da Silva-Boghossian, Carina Maciel; Cotton, Sean L.; Paster, Bruce J.; Colombo, Ana Paula Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine microbial profiles that discriminate periodontal health from different forms of periodontal diseases. Methods Subgingival biofilm was obtained from patients with periodontal health (27), gingivitis (11), chronic periodontitis (35) and aggressive periodontitis (24), and analyzed for the presence of >250 species/phylotypes using HOMIM. Microbial differences among groups were examined by Mann-Whitney. Regression analyses were performed to determine microbial risk indicators of disease. Results Putative and potential new periodontal pathogens were more prevalent in subjects with periodontal diseases than periodontal health. Detection of Porphyromonas endodontalis/Porphyromonas spp. (OR 9.5 [1.2–73.1]) and Tannerella forsythia (OR 38.2 [3.2–450.6]), and absence of Neisseria polysaccharea (OR 0.004 [0–0.15]) and Prevotella denticola (OR 0.014 [0–0.49], pdisease. Presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (OR 29.4 [3.4–176.5]), Cardiobacterium hominis (OR 14.9 [2.3–98.7]), Peptostreptococcaceae sp. (OR 35.9 [2.7–483.9]), P. alactolyticus (OR 31.3 [2.1–477.2]), and absence of Fretibacterium spp. (OR 0.024 [0.002–0.357]), Fusobacterium naviforme/Fusobacterium nucleatum ss vincentii (OR 0.015 [0.001–0.223]), Granulicatella adiacens/Granulicatella elegans (OR 0.013 [0.001–0.233], pdiseases. Such profiles may be used to establish risk of disease. PMID:25139407

  4. The Kidney and Periodontal Disease (KAPD) study: A pilot randomized controlled trial testing the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Vanessa; Garcia, Faviola; Jue, Bonnie L; Vittinghoff, Eric; Ryder, Mark; Lovett, David; Carrillo, Jacqueline; Offenbacher, Steven; Ganz, Peter; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Powe, Neil R

    2017-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a prevalent public health problem that disproportionately affects minorities and the poor, despite intense efforts targeting traditional risk factors. Periodontal diseases are common bacterial plaque-induced inflammatory conditions that can respond to treatment and have been implicated as a CKD risk factor. However there is limited evidence that treatment of periodontal disease slows the progression of CKD. We describe the protocol of the Kidney and Periodontal Disease (KAPD) study, a 12-month un-blinded, randomized, controlled pilot trial with two intent-to-treat treatment arms: 1. immediate intensive non-surgical periodontal treatment or 2. rescue treatment with delayed intensive treatment. The goals of this pilot study are to test the feasibility of conducting a larger trial in an ethnically and racially diverse, underserved population (mostly poor and/or low literacy) with both CKD and significant periodontal disease to determine the effect of intensive periodontal treatment on renal and inflammatory biomarkers over a 12-month period. To date, KAPD has identified 634 potentially eligible patients who were invited to in-person screening. Of the 83 (13.1%) of potentially eligible patients who attended in-person screening, 51 (61.4%) were eligible for participation and 46 enrolled in the study. The mean age of participants is 59.2years (range 34 to 73). Twenty of the participants (43.5%) are Black and 22 (47.8%) are Hispanic. Results from the KAPD study will provide needed preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of non-surgical periodontal treatment to slow CKD progression and inform the design future clinical research trials. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Nutrition, dental caries and periodontal disease: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujoel, Philippe P; Lingström, Peter

    2017-03-01

    To provide a narrative review of the role of macro- and micronutrients in relation to dental caries, gingival bleeding and destructive periodontal disease. This review is based on systematic reviews (when available) and comparative human studies. Dental caries cannot develop without the presence of dietary fermentable carbohydrates, in particular sugar. The susceptibility to develop caries in the presence of carbohydrates may be influenced by genetics and micronutrients such as vitamin D. Gingival bleeding and destructive periodontal disease are sensitive markers to both abnormalities in macronutrient content (excessive carbohydrates or poly-unsaturated fat intake, deficient protein intake) and micronutrient intake (e.g. vitamin C and B12). Dental caries and periodontal diseases are a sensitive alarm bell for an unhealthy diet, which predicts the future onset of the diseases of civilizations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on chronic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilana Paula Carillo Artese

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a debilitating systemic condition. Our working hypothesis is that CKD predialysis patients with periodontitis would respond poorly to periodontal treatment owing to immunologic compromise. Twenty-one predialysis patients (group 1 and 19 individuals without clinical evidence of kidney disease (group 2 with chronic periodontitis were subjected to non-surgical periodontal treatment with no antibiotics. Clinical periodontal and systemic parameters were evaluated at baseline and 3 months after treatment. Both groups showed significant and similar post-treatment improvements in all periodontal parameters examined. Most interestingly, periodontal treatment had a statistically significant positive effect on the glomerular filtration rate of each individual (group 1, p = 0.04; group 2, p = 0.002. Our results indicate that chronic periodontitis in predialysis kidney disease patients improved similarly in patients with chronic periodontitis and no history of CKD after receiving non-surgical periodontal therapy. This study demonstrates that CKD predialysis patients show a good response to non-surgical periodontal treatment.

  7. The influence of KIR gene presence/absence polymorphisms on the development of periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek-Mochol, Małgorzata; Majorczyk, Edyta; Banach, Jadwiga; Dembowska, Elżbieta; Kuśnierczyk, Piotr; Safranow, Krzysztof; Pawlik, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent inflammatory, multifactorial diseases. Smoking is one of the most important environmental risk factors for the development and severity of periodontal disease. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and play an essential role in the regulation of NK cell activity, allowing natural killer (NK) cells to sense and respond to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of KIR gene presence/absence polymorphisms on the development of periodontal disease in smokers and non-smokers. This study enrolled 400 Caucasian subjects (age range 25-69 years) from the West Pomeranian region of Poland. The subjects were categorized into four subgroups (smoking and non-smoking patients with periodontal disease; smoking and non-smoking subjects without periodontal disease - control subjects). The differences of KIR gene frequencies between non-smoking patients and non-smoking control subjects as well as smoking patients and control subjects were not statistically significant. In multivariate regression analysis advanced age of patients and smoking were independent factors associated with increased frequency of periodontal disease. The results of this study suggest that the main factor associated with increased risk of periodontal disease is smoking, whereas KIR presence/absence polymorphism is not a significant factor involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

  8. Periodontal disease and adverse birth outcomes: a study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobeen, N; Jehan, I; Banday, N; Moore, J; McClure, E M; Pasha, O; Wright, L L; Goldenberg, R L

    2008-05-01

    Periodontal disease may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes; however, results have been mixed. Few studies have examined periodontal disease in developing countries. We describe the relationship between periodontal disease and birth outcomes in a community setting in Pakistan. This was a prospective cohort study. Enrollment occurred at 20-26 weeks of gestation. A study dentist performed the periodontal examination to assess probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, and plaque index. Outcomes included stillbirth, neonatal death, perinatal death, increasing periodontal disease severity by quartiles. Dental examinations and outcome data were completed for 1152 women: 81% of the women were multiparous, with a mean age of 27 years; 33% of the women had no education. Forty-seven percent of the women had dental caries; 27% of the women had missing teeth, and 91% of the women had had no dental care in the last year. Periodontal disease was common: 76% of the women had > or = 3 teeth with a probing depth of > or = 3 mm; 87% of the women had > or = 4 teeth with a clinical attachment level of > or = 3 mm; 56% of the women had > or = 4 teeth with a plaque index of 3; and 60% of the women had > or = 4 teeth with a gingival index of 3. As the measures of periodontal disease increased from the 1st to 4th quartile, stillbirth and neonatal and perinatal death also increased, with relative risks of approximately 1.3. Early preterm birth increased, but the results were not significant. Late preterm birth and low birthweight were not related to measures of periodontal disease. Pregnant Pakistani women have high levels of moderate-to-severe dental disease. Stillbirth and neonatal and perinatal deaths increased with the severity of periodontal disease.

  9. Further evidence for periodontal disease as a risk indicator for adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Mervyn; Africa, Charlene W J

    2017-06-01

    Although there is increasing evidence to suggest an association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes, the issue remains controversial. This study tested the hypothesis that periodontal disease is a risk indicator for preterm delivery of low-birthweight infants. The study sample comprised 443 pregnant women with a mean (± standard deviation) age of 24.13 (±5.30) years. At first visit, maternal oral health status was assessed by the measurement of probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss, and periodontal status was graded as absent, mild, moderate or severe. An association was sought between pregnancy outcomes and maternal periodontal status. While controlling for other factors, significant associations were found between pregnancy outcomes and maternal periodontal index scores. This study provides further evidence that periodontal disease is a risk indicator for adverse pregnancy outcomes. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  10. Bi-directional relationship between pregnancy and periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, Gary C

    2013-02-01

    During pregnancy profound perturbations in innate and adaptive immunity impact the clinical course of a number of infectious diseases, including those affecting periodontal tissues. Conversely, it has been suggested that periodontal infections may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this review, a summary of the literature associated with the bidirectional relationship between pregnancy and periodontal disease as well as the possible mechanisms behind this interaction were examined. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Association between Smoking and Periodontal Disease in Korean Adults: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010 and 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ah-Young; Lee, Jung-Kwon; Shin, Jin-Young; Lee, Hae-Young

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate an association between smoking, smoking cessation, and periodontal disease in Korean adults. The data were collected from 8,336 participants, aged between 20 and 64 years, who participated in the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination (2010 and 2012). Smoking status was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Periodontal disease was defined as a community periodontal index ≥3 points. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate an association between smoking, smoking cessation, and periodontal disease after adjusting for age, sex, education, monthly income, diabetes, obesity, alcohol intake, and frequency of tooth brushing. The risk of periodontal disease was higher among current smokers (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.83) than never smokers. Among current smokers, the risk of periodontal disease was increased in smokers of ≥10 cigarettes/d, ≥20 years duration, and >10 pack-years compared with never smokers (Pperiodontal disease after 10 years since cessation declined to 0.56 (95% CI, 0.42-0.75) compared with current smokers and was indistinguishable statistically from never smokers. Periodontal disease is significantly associated with smoking status in Korean adults.

  12. Role of periodontal pathogenic bacteria in RANKL-mediated bone destruction in periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiya, Mikihito; Giro, Gabriela; Taubman, Martin A; Han, Xiaozhe; Mayer, Marcia P A; Kawai, Toshihisa

    2010-11-08

    Accumulated lines of evidence suggest that hyperimmune responses to periodontal bacteria result in the destruction of periodontal connective tissue and alveolar bone. The etiological roles of periodontal bacteria in the onset and progression of periodontal disease (PD) are well documented. However, the mechanism underlying the engagement of periodontal bacteria in RANKL-mediated alveolar bone resorption remains unclear. Therefore, this review article addresses three critical subjects. First, we discuss earlier studies of immune intervention, ultimately leading to the identification of bacteria-reactive lymphocytes as the cellular source of osteoclast-induction factor lymphokine (now called RANKL) in the context of periodontal bone resorption. Next, we consider (1) the effects of periodontal bacteria on RANKL production from a variety of adaptive immune effector cells, as well as fibroblasts, in inflamed periodontal tissue and (2) the bifunctional roles (upregulation vs. downregulation) of LPS produced from periodontal bacteria in a RANKL-induced osteoclast-signal pathway. Future studies in these two areas could lead to new therapeutic approaches for the management of PD by down-modulating RANKL production and/or RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in the context of host immune responses against periodontal pathogenic bacteria.

  13. Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Serum Cystatin C Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystatin C (CSTC is an inhibitor of cysteine proteinases and could play a protective and regulatory role under inflammatory conditions. The present study was designed to assess the concentration of CSTC in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF and serum, to find out their association if any, in periodontal health and disease. 30 subjects were selected divided into 3 groups consisting of 10 subjects in each group based on clinical parameters: periodontally healthy group, gingivitis group and chronic periodontitis group, while, chronic periodontitis group after 8 weeks of the treatment (scaling and root planing constituted after periodontal therapy group. GCF and serum samples were collected from all subjects to estimate the levels of CSTC by ELISA. The mean CSTC concentration in GCF and serum was observed to be the highest in periodontitis group and lowest in periodontally healthy group with intermediate concentration in gingivitis group and after periodontal therapy group. CSTC concentration in GCF and serum increased proportionally with the severity of periodontal disease (from health to periodontitis group and decreased after treatment. This suggests that CSTC increases with disease progression to prevent further periodontal degeneration and decreases after treatment due to bone metabolic homeostasis. Further, longitudinal prospective studies involving larger population are needed to confirm the findings of present study and to better understand the role of CSTC in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of CKD in Chinese patients with periodontal disease.

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    Kejin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease is common among adults and is associated with an increasing risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of CKD in patients with periodontal disease in China. METHODS: In the current cross-sectional study, patients with periodontal disease were included from Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital between March 2011 and August 2011. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2, the presence of albuminuria, or hematuria. All patients with periodontal disease underwent a periodontal examination, including periodontal probing pocket depth, gingival recession, and clinical attachment level by Florida Probe. They completed a questionnaire and had blood and urine samples taken. The adjusted prevalence of indicators of kidney damage was calculated and risk factors associated with CKD were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1392 patients with periodontal disease were invited to participate this study and 1268 completed the survey and examination. After adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence of reduced eGFR, albuminuria, and hematuria was 2.7% (95% CI 1.7-3.7, 6.7% (95% CI 5.5-8.1 and 10.9% (95% CI 9.2-12.5, respectively. The adjusted prevalence of CKD was 18.2% (95% CI 16.2-20.3. Age, male, diabetes, hypertension, history of CKD, hyperuricemia, and interleukin-6 levels (≥7.54 ng/L were independent risk factors for reduced eGFR. Female, diabetes, hypertension, history of CKD, hyperuricemia, high level of cholesterol, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP (≥ 1.03 mg/L and TNF-α levels (≥ 1.12 ng/L were independently associated with an increased risk of albuminuria. Female, lower education (periodontal disease have proteinuria, hematuria, or reduced eGFR, indicating the presence of kidney damage

  15. Periodontal disease and type I diabetes mellitus: Associations with glycemic control and complications

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    Ajita Meenawat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate periodontal health status in patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1 and to establish a correlation between metabolic control and periodontal health status. Materials and Methods: Periodontal health parameters namely plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI, probing pocket depth (PPD and clinical attachment loss (CAL were recorded in 28 patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1 and 20 healthy controls. Diabetes history was recorded based on the information provided by the physician and it included date of diagnosis, duration, age of diagnosis, latest values of glycosylated haemoglobin and existing diabetic complications. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between periodontal parameters and degree of metabolic control, the duration of the disease and the appearance of complications. Results: The periodontal health in the diabetic group was compromised and they had greater bleeding index (P < 0.001, probing pocket depth (P < 0.001 and clinical attachment level (P = 0.001. Patients diagnosed for diabetes for shorter duration of time (4-7 years showed bleeding index-disease severity correlation to be 1.760 ΁ 0.434. Conclusion: Periodontal disease was more evident in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and periodontal inflammation is greatly increased in subjects with longer disease course, poor metabolic control and diabetic complications.

  16. Work-Family Conflict Modifies the Association of Smoking and Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, David S; Spencer, A John; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F

    2017-02-01

    The aims of the study were to assess the association of periodontal loss of attachment with smoking and work-family conflict and assess whether work-family conflict modifies the association of smoking and periodontal disease. A random sample of 45-54 year olds from metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, was surveyed by mailed self-complete questionnaire during 2004-2005. Oral examinations were performed on persons who responded to the questionnaire, providing an assessment of periodontal status. A total of 879 responded (participation rate = 43.8 %), with n = 709 oral examinations (completion rate = 80.7 %). Prevalence of periodontal loss of attachment (LOA) of 6+ mm was higher (p periodontal disease. Higher levels of work interfering with family were associated with higher levels of periodontal LOA for smokers compared with non-smokers.

  17. Relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Periodontal disease is a neglected bacterial infection that causes destruction of the periodontium in pregnant women. Yet its impact on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not systematically evaluated and there is no clear statement on the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm ...

  18. Periodontal disease associated with red complex bacteria in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bello, A; Buonavoglia, A; Franchini, D; Valastro, C; Ventrella, G; Greco, M F; Corrente, M

    2014-03-01

    Red complex bacteria (Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia and Porphyromonas gingivalis) play a major role in the aetiology of periodontal disease in humans. This study was designed to evaluate the association of such bacteria with periodontal disease in dogs. Seventy-three subgingival samples taken from dogs ranging from 2 months to 12 years (median age 4 years) were tested for red complex bacteria using a polymerase chain reaction assay. Thirty-six of 73 (49 · 3%) dogs were found to be positive for T. forsythia and P. gingivalis. Dogs with gingivitis or periodontitis were more likely to be infected with T. forsythia and P. gingivalis [odds ratio (OR) 5 · 4 (confidence interval (CI) 1 · 9-15 · 6), P = 0 · 002] than healthy animals. Only 3 (4 · 1%) of 73 samples were positive for red complex bacteria, but the association with periodontal disease was not significant. The results indicate that involvement of red complex bacteria in periodontal disease in dogs is similar to that observed in humans. Only the concurrent presence of T. forsythia and P. gingivalis were correlated to periodontal disease in dogs in this study. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  19. Estimation of nitric oxide as an inflammatory marker in periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menaka K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is not only important in host defense and homeostasis but it is also regarded as harmful and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The presence of NO in periodontal disease may reflect the participation of an additional mediator of bone resorption responsible for disease progression. The aim of this study was to assess the level of NO in serum in chronic periodontitis, and correlate these levels with the severity of periodontal disease. Sixty subjects participated in the study and were divided into two groups. NO levels were assayed by measuring the accumulation of stable oxidative metabolite, nitrite with Griess reaction. Results showed subjects with periodontitis had significantly high nitrite in serum than healthy subjects. NO production is increased in periodontal disease, this will enable us to understand its role in disease progression and selective inhibition of NO may be of therapeutic utility in limiting the progression of periodontitis.

  20. Quantitative PCR analysis of salivary pathogen burden in periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Aino; Kopra, K. A. Elisa; Hyvärinen, Kati; Paju, Susanna; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the value of salivary concentrations of four major periodontal pathogens and their combination in diagnostics of periodontitis. The Parogene study included 462 dentate subjects (mean age 62.9 ± 9.2 years) with coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosis who underwent an extensive clinical and radiographic oral examination. Salivary levels of four major periodontal bacteria were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Median salivary concentrations of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as the sum of the concentrations of the four bacteria, were higher in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis compared to subjects with no to mild periodontitis. Median salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans concentrations did not differ significantly between the subjects with no to mild periodontitis and subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, diabetes, and the number of teeth and implants, high salivary concentrations of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia were significantly associated with moderate to severe periodontitis. When looking at different clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontitis, high concentrations of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia were significantly associated with the number of 4–5 mm periodontal pockets, ≥6 mm pockets, and alveolar bone loss (ABL). High level of T. forsythia was associated also with bleeding on probing (BOP). The combination of the four bacteria, i.e., the bacterial burden index, was associated with moderate to severe periodontitis with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.40 (95% CI 1.39–4.13). When A. actinomycetemcomitans was excluded from the combination of the bacteria, the OR was improved to 2.61 (95% CI 1.51–4.52). The highest OR 3.59 (95% CI 1.94–6.63) was achieved when P. intermedia was further excluded from the combination and only the levels of P. gingivalis and

  1. Xerostomy, dental caries and periodontal disease in HIV+ patients

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    Julio César Cavasin Filho

    Full Text Available We studied xerostomy and its correlation with periodontal and dental cavity diseases in HIV patients, through measurement of salivary flow and through variables such as saliva buffer capacity, salivary pH, periodontal index, MDF index, dental carie risk and risk of periodontal disease. One hundred patients were analyzed. They were distributed into two groups: Group I (test - 50 patients evidently HIV+, from whom information was collected and analyzed regarding age, gender, skin color, habits, general and oral diseases, levels of T-CD4 lymphocytes, viral load and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART; and Group II - (control 50 HIV- patients, from whom information was collected and analyzed regarding age, gender, skin color, habits, general and oral diseases. In both groups, measurement of salivary flow, pH and buffer capacity was made. Group I presented high MDF, bacteria plaque and bleeding, with a greater susceptibility to the risks of oral cavities and periodontal disease. The salivary flow and the buffering capacity of the saliva were low, indicating a high level of xerostomy. Two important modifying factors influence these pathologies in an incisive way: one is immunossuppression and the other is HAART therapy. The control exhibited results that are closer to normality; it had better oral-health conditions.

  2. Bidirectional relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease: Review of Evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, B.A.Q.; Syed, A.; Izhar, F.; Ali Khan, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Presently there are 170 million diabetic patients worldwide. Pakistan ranks sixth in the world with approximately 6.2 million in the 20-79 year age affected by the diabetes. 6-10% of the 35-44 year old diabetic patients have been reported to be affected by moderate form of periodontal disease in Pakistan. Periodontal disease is referred to as sixth complication of diabetes. The association between diabetes and periodontal disease has been reported for more than 40 years but reverse has not been the focus of researchers until recently. Studies have suggested a bidirectional relationship between periodontal disease and glycemic control with each disease having a potential impact on the other. (author)

  3. Development of formulation device for periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yasuhiko; Oba, Takuma; Watanabe, Norio; Danjo, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    In addition to providing standard surgical treatment that removes the plaque and infected tissues, medications that can regenerate periodontal tissue are also required in the treatment of periodontal disease. As a form of regenerative medication, various growth factors are expected to be used while treating periodontal disease. A protein-like growth factor is often developed as a lyophilized product with dissolution liquid, considering its instability in the solution state. We have clarified that the formulation for periodontal disease needs to be viscous. When the lyophilized product was dissolved using a sticky solution, various problems were encountered, difficulty in dissolving and air bubbles, for example, and some efforts were needed to prepare the formulation. In this research, to identify the problem of preparing a viscous formulation, a lyophilized product (placebo) and sticky liquid were prepared by using vial and ampoule as the conventional containers. Based on these problems, a prototype administration device was developed, and its functionality was confirmed. As a result, it was suggested that the device with a useful mixing system that could shorten the preparation time was developed.

  4. The effect of methamphetamine abuse on dental caries and periodontal diseases in an Eastern China city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tao; Sun, Dongliang; Dong, Guangying; Xu, Guangjie; Wang, Ligang; Du, Jinjin; Ren, Pengcheng; Yu, Shibin

    2018-01-10

    Dental diseases are among the most frequently reported health problems in drug abusers. However, few studies have been conducted on oral health of methamphetamine (meth) abusers in China. The aim of the present study was to investigate the caries and periodontal health profile of former meth abusers in Eastern China. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 162 former meth abusers in the male Zhoushan Compulsory Detoxification Center. A standardized questionnaire, which collected information about age, drug-use duration / pattern, oral hygiene habit and systemic diseases, was administered. Then, a dental examination was performed to investigate the severity of dental caries and periodontal diseases. In evaluating dental caries, the prevalence of dental caries, the scores of decayed teeth (DT), missing teeth (MT), filled teeth (FT), and decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) were recorded. In evaluating periodontal diseases, community periodontal index (CPI), and the prevalence of gingival bleeding, dental calculus, periodontal pocket and loose teeth, were recorded. Additionally, the non-parametric test was adopted to analyze the potential risk factors via SPSS. All the participants abused meth by inhalation. The mean scores of DT, MT, FT and DMFT in the former meth users were 2.72 ± 2.78, 3.07 ± 3.94, 0.33 ± 1.03 and 6.13 ± 5.20 respectively. The prevalence of gingival bleeding, dental calculus, periodontal pocket and loose teeth was 97.53%, 95.68%, 51.23% and 9.26% respectively. The DT, DMFT and CPI scores in those who had abused meth for longer than 4 years were significantly higher than those who abused for less than 4 years (P = 0.039, 0.045, P periodontal diseases among former male meth users in Eastern China was poor. Prolonged drug abuse and lower frequency of tooth brushing may be the risk factors of their poor status of caries and periodontal diseases.

  5. La enfermedad periodontal como riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas The periodontal disease as a risk for systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Peña Sisto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica exhaustiva acerca de la presencia de enfermedad periodontal como factor de riesgo asociado con diversas enfermedades sistémicas. Algunos autores han propuesto el nacimiento de la medicina periodontal, como nueva disciplina, para explicar estas asociaciones. Las evidencias que emergieron en el último decenio arrojaron luz sobre el lado inverso de la relación entre salud general y salud bucal, o sea, los efectos potenciales de la enfermedad periodontal sobre una amplia variedad de sistemas de órganos. En los últimos años han surgido numerosos informes basados en estudios epidemiológicos en los que las infecciones buco-dentales se asocian con enfermedades sistémicas, entre ellas alteraciones cerebrovasculares, respiratorias, diabetes mellitus y resultados adversos del embarazo, debido a los lipopolisacáridos, las bacterias gramnegativas viables del biofilm y citoquinas proinflamatorias que pueden ingresar al torrente sanguíneo e influir en la salud general y susceptibilidad a ciertas enfermedades. Se reúnen los modelos de interacción y mecanismos propuestos, además de evidencias que sustentan las teorías proclamadas, prestando especial interés a la causalidad entre ambos procesos.An exhaustive bibliographic review of the presence of the periodontal disease as a risk factor associated with diverse systemic diseases was made. Some authors have proposed the emergence of periodontal medicine as a new discipline to explain these associations. The evidences that appeared in the last decade shed light on the opposite side of the relation between general health and oral health, that is, the potential effects of the periodontal diseases on a wide range of organ systems. In the last years, several reports have been based on epidemiological studies in which the oro-dental diseases are associated with systemic diseases, such as cerebrovascular and respiratory disorders, diabetes mellitus and adverse

  6. Association between maternal periodontal disease and preterm delivery and low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Li Wang

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: After appropriately controlling for confounding variables, our results do not support the hypothesis of an association that was observed in previous studies of maternal periodontal disease and infant PB, but the association between periodontal disease and LBW is significant.

  7. Regulation of defensive function on gingival epithelial cells can prevent periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Yoshimoto, Tetsuya; Kajiya, Mikihito; Ouhara, Kazuhisa; Matsuda, Shinji; Takemura, Tasuku; Akutagawa, Keiichi; Takeda, Katsuhiro; Mizuno, Noriyoshi; Kurihara, Hidemi

    2018-05-01

    Periodontal disease is a bacterial biofilm-associated inflammatory disease that has been implicated in many systemic diseases. A new preventive method for periodontal disease needs to be developed in order to promote the health of the elderly in a super-aged society. The gingival epithelium plays an important role as a mechanical barrier against bacterial invasion and a part of the innate immune response to infectious inflammation in periodontal tissue. The disorganization of cell-cell interactions and subsequent inflammation contribute to the initiation of periodontal disease. These make us consider that regulation of host defensive functions, epithelial barrier and neutrophil activity, may become novel preventive methods for periodontal inflammation. Based on this concept, we have found that several agents regulate the barrier function of gingival epithelial cells and suppress the accumulation of neutrophils in the gingival epithelium. We herein introduce the actions of irsogladine maleate, azithromycin, amphotericin B, and Houttuynia cordata (dokudami in Japanese), which is commonly used in traditional medicine, on the epithelial barrier and neutrophil migration in gingival epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro , in order to provide support for the clinical application of these agents to the prevention of periodontal inflammation.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of periodontal disease among pre-conception Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Su, Yi; Xiong, Xu; Harville, Emily; Wu, Hongqiao; Jiang, Zhijun; Qian, Xu

    2016-12-01

    Periodontal disease is one of the most common chronic infectious diseases. It has been reported that periodontal disease is associated with various adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth, low birth weight, and gestational diabetes mellitus. Given the fact that the treatment for periodontal disease during pregnancy was ineffective in improving pregnancy outcomes by most of studies, the pre-conception period has been put forward as a more optimal time. However, very few studies have reported the prevalence of periodontal disease among pre-conception women. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and risk factors of periodontal disease among Chinese pre-conception women. A survey was conducted among pre-conception women at the Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Changzhou, China between January 2012 and December 2014. A total of 987 pre-conception women were recruited for a full-mouth dental examination after providing informed consent. A dental examination was carried out by probing six sites per tooth using a manual UNC-15 probe and a recording form. The overall rate of periodontal disease among participants was 73.9% (729/987) (95% confidence interval (CI): 71.0-76.6%). Among women with periodontal disease, 48.0% of cases were mild, 50.9% were moderate and 1.1% were severe. Self-reported bleeding during tooth brushing was the only significant predictive factor for overall periodontal disease (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 3.71, 95% CI: 2.24, 6.15, P periodontal disease (aOR: 5.17, 95% CI: 3.05, 8.79, P periodontal disease was found in pre-conception Chinese women. Women who have bleeding during tooth brushing could be at increased risk of periodontal disease, and might require further oral health care.

  9. Periodontal Disease and Bacterial Vaginosis Increase the Risk for Adverse Pregnancy Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Oittinen, Juha; Kurki, Tapio; Kekki, Minnamaija; Kuusisto, Minna; Pussinen, Pirkko; Vilkuna-Rautiainen, Tiina; Nieminen, Anja; Asikainen, Sirkka; Paavonen, Jorma

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. To determine whether periodontal disease or bacterial vaginosis (BV) diagnosed before pregnancy increase the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome.Methods. We enrolled a total of 252 women who had discontinued contraception in order to become pregnant. The first 130 pregnant women were included in the analyses.Results. Multivariate analysis showed a strong association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcome (OR 5.5, 95% confidence interval 1.4–21.2; p = 0.014), and ...

  10. Periodontal response to orthodontic tooth movement in diabetes-induced rats with or without periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Camila Lopes; da Rocha, Vinicius Clemente; da Silva Ursi, Weber José; De Marco, Andrea Carvalho; Santamaria, Milton; Santamaria, Mauro Pedrine; Jardini, Maria Aparecida Neves

    2018-03-01

    Systemic conditions can influence orthodontic tooth movement. This study evaluates histologic periodontal responses to orthodontic tooth movement in diabetes-induced rats with or without periodontal disease. Forty Wistar rats were divided according their systemic condition (SC) into diabetic (D) and non-diabetic (ND) groups. Each group was subdivided into control (C), orthodontic tooth movement (OM), ligature-induced periodontitis (P) and ligature-induced periodontitis with orthodontic movement (P+OM) groups. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced with alloxan monohydrate, and after 30 days, the P group received a cotton ligature around their first lower molar crown. An orthodontic device was placed in OM and P+OM groups for 7 days, and the animals were then euthanized. Differences in OM between D and ND groups were not significant (6.87± 3.55 mm and 6.81 ± 3.28 mm, respectively), but intragroup analysis revealed statistically significant differences between the P+OM groups for both SCs. Bone loss was greater in the D group (0.16 ± 0.07 mm 2 ) than in the ND group (0.10 ± 0.03 mm 2 ). In intragroup analysis of the D condition, the P+OM group differed statistically from the other groups, while in the ND condition, the P+OM group was different from the C and OM groups. There was a statistically significant difference in bone density between D and ND conditions (18.03 ± 8.09% and 22.53 ± 7.72%) in the C, P, and P+OM groups. DM has deleterious effects on bone density and bone loss in the furcation region. These effects are maximized when associated with ligature-induced periodontitis with orthodontic movement. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.

  11. Endodontic-periodontal microsurgery for combined endodontic-periodontal lesions: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ritu; Hegde, Vivek; Siddharth, M; Hegde, Rashmi; Manchanda, Gunsha; Agarwal, Pratul

    2014-11-01

    Endodontic and periodontal microsurgery has surpassed the success rates for traditional endodontic and periodontal surgical procedures. Excellent healing results are being attributed to both the techniques, when employed, for isolated endodontic or periodontal defects. Combined endodontic-periodontal lesions have been referred to as a true challenge, requiring not only endodontic microsurgical management but also concurrent bone grafting and membrane barriers techniques. The prevention of epithelial downgrowth and regeneration of periodontal cementum, fiber, and bone seals the fate of these cases. Achieving primary closure with submergence of grafts has a positive effect on GTR outcome. New techniques of periodontal microsurgery, such as minimally invasive papilla preserving flaps with passive internal mattress suturing, have managed to obtain 90% primary flap closure over grafted sites. Root surface treatment and conditioning has also shown to be beneficial for GTR. Endodontic microsurgery for the combined lesion has not integrated these advances yet. These advances, along with a recently suggested treatment strategy, are ushering in the level next in management of the combined lesions. This article offers an overview of the combined lesion, the disease, its classification, treatment strategy, regenerative tools, microsurgical recommendations, and outcome studies.

  12. Obesity Revised. Chapter at "Periodontal Disease: Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cinar, Ayse Basak

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Obesity, diabetes and oral diseases (dental cariesand periodontal diseases), largely preventable chronic diseases, are described as global pandemic due their distribution and severe consequences. WHO has called for a global action for prevention and promotion of these diseases as a vital...... the likelihood of periodontitis which is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide, described as pandemic, and closely related to DM2. Promoting good oral health is significantly essential for prevention and reducing the negative consequences of periodontal diseases, DM2 and obesity, and to maintain good...

  13. Clinical considerations in the management of inflammatory periodontal diseases in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanilla, Leyvee; Molinari, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Periodontal diseases and conditions, as defined by The 1999 International Workshop for Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions presented some significant paradigm shifts based on evidence that the transition from plaque-associated reversible gingival diseases to periodontitis can occur in children and adolescents with characteristics which were previously thought to be typical of adult periodontitis. The purposes of this paper are to present the periodontal diseases and conditions described in the 1999 workshop sponsored by the American Academy of Periodontology, review the risk factors for the development of periodontal diseases in the pediatric and adolescent populations, and present appropriate clinical periodontal assessment and management for these age groups.

  14. Periodontal disease and non-communicable diseases. Strength of bidirectional associations

    OpenAIRE

    Kassier, SM

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD), along with cardiovascular and circulatory disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic respiratory disease and obesity, are globally regarded as some of the major non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The association between PD and these systemic illnesses is described as bidirectional. Gaining an understanding of the strength of the proposed associations between these diseases is important, as it will enable health professionals to identify common risk factors that will allow fo...

  15. Oral health in patients with chronic kidney disease - emphasis on periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Nylund, Karita

    2017-01-01

    ORAL HEALTH IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE - EMPHASIS ON PERIODONTITIS Background: Periodontitis is a common bacteria-induced chronic inflammatory disease with mild symptoms. It leads to destruction of the periodontium and finally to tooth loss in a susceptible patient. Periodontitis is associated with many systemic diseases such as diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) through low-grade systemic inflammation. However, no causality c...

  16. The Kynurenine Pathway: a Proposed Mechanism Linking Diabetes and Periodontal Disease in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishabh Kapila

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characte-rized by dysregulation of carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism. Diabetes could result, in part, in activation of tryptophan metabolism. Diabetic patients are more susceptible to gingivitis and periodontitis than healthy subjects. The salivary kynurenine derivatives are also implicated in the onset and development of periodontal dis-ease in humans.The hypothesis: We propose that the tryptophan metabolites via kynurenine pathway may lead to diabetes and an increased severity of periodontal disease in diabetic patients, thus linking both diabetes and periodontal disease.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Tryptophan has been found in significant amount in saliva in diabetic individuals in some studies, particularly tryptophan metabolites like kynurenine and anthranilic acid. Moreover, altered tryptophan metabolism has also been reported in the onset of periodontal disease. Thus, this correlation between diabetes mellitus, periodontal disease and salivary tryptophan metabolite levels could be related to the impaired kynurenine pathway metabolism of tryptophan.

  17. The role of acquired immunity and periodontal disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yen-Tung A

    2003-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenesis in human periodontal diseases is limited by the lack of specific and sensitive tools or models to study the complex microbial challenges and their interactions with the host's immune system. Recent advances in cellular and molecular biology research have demonstrated the importance of the acquired immune system not only in fighting the virulent periodontal pathogens but also in protecting the host from developing further devastating conditions in periodontal infections. The use of genetic knockout and immunodeficient mouse strains has shown that the acquired immune response-in particular, CD4+ T-cells-plays a pivotal role in controlling the ongoing infection, the immune/inflammatory responses, and the subsequent host's tissue destruction. In particular, studies of the pathogen-specific CD4+ T-cell-mediated immunity have clarified the roles of: (i) the relative diverse immune repertoire involved in periodontal pathogenesis, (ii) the contribution of pathogen-associated Th1-Th2 cytokine expressions in periodontal disease progression, and (iii) micro-organism-triggered periodontal CD4+ T-cell-mediated osteoclastogenic factor, 'RANK-L', which is linked to the induction of alveolar bone destruction in situ. The present review will focus on some recent advances in the acquired immune responses involving B-cells, CD8+ T-cells, and CD4+ T-cells in the context of periodontal disease progression. New approaches will further facilitate our understanding of their underlying molecular mechanisms that may lead to the development of new treatment modalities for periodontal diseases and their associated complications.

  18. Common dental and periodontal diseases: evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudenbach, Joel M; Simon, Ziv

    2014-11-01

    Physicians may encounter patients with dental and periodontal diseases in the context of outpatient medical practice. It is important for physicians to be aware of common dental and periodontal conditions and be able to assess for the presence and severity of these diseases. This article reviews common dental and periodontal conditions, their cardinal signs and symptoms, outpatient-setting assessment techniques, as well as common methods of treatment. Physicians detecting gross abnormalities on clinical examination should refer the patient to a dentist for further evaluation and management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Periodontal disease as a potential factor of migraine chronification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameijeira, Pablo; Leira, Yago; Blanco, Juan; Leira, Rogelio

    2017-05-01

    Migraine is a hereditary constitutional base disorder, which is characterized by recurrent episodes of headache pulsatile characteristics associated with photophobia/phonophobia, nausea and/or vomiting. The main complication in migraine is the chronicity of the process, now recognized as a chronic migraine. Although pathogenic mechanisms that may influence the pathophysiology of migraine and its possible chronicity are not fully understood, previous studies have shown in patients with migraine molecular alterations of systemic inflammation, neurogenic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, innate immunity, dysfunction of matrix proteases and blood-brain barrier. Periodontal disease is an inflammatory lesion caused by bacteria. After the bacterial infection begins, an immune response that will be responsible for individual susceptibility appears. More advanced forms of periodontitis have demonstrated molecular alterations of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, dysfunction of matrix proteases and innate immunity, similar to those observed in migraine. Furthermore, the main molecular mediators of neurogenic inflammation related to activation of the trigeminovascular system, which are characteristic of migraine, are overexpressed in gingival crevicular fluid and mucosa in patients with periodontal disease. Hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, stroke or coronary artery disease are comorbidities that periodontal disease and migraine could share. Therefore, several mechanisms and hypotheses could explain the possible association between both diseases. However, epidemiological and molecular studies will be necessary to provide a better understanding of this potential association, which could be implicated in the chronification of migraine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between overweight/obesity and periodontal disease in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, L; De Smet, S; Yusof, M Y P M; Rajasekharan, S

    2017-04-01

    To provide a systematic review and meta-analyses investigating the association between overweight/obesity as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) and periodontal disease in terms of clinical periodontal outcomes. A systematic search of the literature was conducted by two authors (SR and SD) independently in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science (ISI), Scopus, Scielo, Lilacs and System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (SIGLE) for full articles published until September 2015. Studies analysing the association between overweight/obesity as defined by Body Mass Index (BMI) and periodontal disease in children and/or adolescents (age ≤18 years) were included. The Gwets AC1 inter-rater reliability coefficient for screening data was calculated using Agreestat 2011.1. Meta-analyses were carried out by using RStudio version 0.97.551-©2009-2012 RStudio, Inc. software. A total of 769 titles and abstracts were screened and 12 articles met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review while only 7 were selected for meta-analyses. The Gwets AC1 inter-rater reliability coefficient for screening data was excellent (0.98; CI 0.98-0.99). A positive association between overweight/obesity and a number of periodontal diseases was seen. For the association between prevalent periodontal disease and obesity in children, the overall fixed-effects OR and 95% CI was 1.46 (1.20-1.77) with a χ 2 statistic for heterogeneity (Q) of 33.4 with 6 degrees of freedom (P periodontal disease and obesity in children. Paediatric dentists should be aware of periodontal alterations as a potential hazard associated with obesity.

  1. Photodynamic therapy: A new vista in management of periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Doshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT for periodontitis. This review also elucidates application of photodynamic therapy for noninvasive management of periodontitis without leading to bacterial resistance. Background: Periodontal diseases are one of the major causes of tooth loss in adults and are considered primarily an anaerobic bacterial infections caused by the so-called red complex species. Bacteria present in a biofilm community, enzymes, endotoxins, and other cytotoxic factors lead to tissue destruction and initiate chronic inflammation. Since many years pioneers have been working to provide logical and cost-effective therapy for management of periodontitis. Periodontal researchers have found that PDT is advantageous to suppress anaerobic bacteria. Clinical Significance: Applications of PDT in dentistry are growing rapidly. PDT application has an adjunctive benefit besides mechanical treatment at sites with difficult access. Necessity for flap surgery may be reduced, patient comfort may increase, and treatment time may decrease. The application of photosensitizing dyes and their excitation by visible light enables effective killing of periodonto-pathogens. The introduction of laser along with photosensitizers has brought a revolutionary change. Conclusion: The application of photodynamic therapy in management of periodontal diseases is very valuable. The therapy should be combined with nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Proper clinical application of photodynamic therapy can and will help patients who are systemically compromised and cannot undergo surgical therapy.

  2. Periodontal disease and Helicobacter pylori infection: a community-based study using serology and rapid urease test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, Krishnavilasom J; Nandakumar, Krishnankutty; Shenoy, Kottacherry T; Janam, Presanthila

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of periodontal disease and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and their associations within a predefined Indian population. A community-based cross-sectional study of 500 selected individuals using a questionnaire, oral examination, rapid urease testing of dental plaque, and serological examination for immunoglobulin G antibody to H. pylori was carried out. Periodontal disease and H. pylori infection were prevalent in more than 50% of the population. Age, smoking, and diabetic status of the individuals were risk factors for periodontal disease after multivariate analysis, and a lack of proper sewage and waste disposal facilities were found to increase the risk of H. pylori infection. Although there was no association between periodontal disease and H. pylori seropositivity in the community, a highly-significant association was found between periodontal disease and colonization of H. pylori in dental plaque. Because periodontal disease is associated with the increased colonization of H. pylori, new treatment modalities, such as plaque control measures, should be employed for the complete management of H. pylori-associated gastric disease. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Association between periodontitis and lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Rito Macedo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the association between periodontal disease and lung disease from an epidemiological, case and control survey, in patients who attended the first aid service of the Adriano Jorge Foundation Hospital, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, from June 2006 to February 2007. Methods: The sample consisted of 140 patients, among whom community-acquired pneumonia was present in 60% (n = 70, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 40% (case-group; and 70 patients without respiratory disease (control group, ranging between 19 and 69 years of ages, with a mean age of 41.3, and standard deviation of 13.6 years. The clinical parameters for evaluating periodontal changes were obtained by means of pocket depth, bleeding on probing, plaque index and clinical attachment loss. Results: Both groups showed no significant difference in any of the control variables (p>0.05. The groups showed significant difference only in the plaque index (p 0.05. Due to the increase in the bacterial plaque index in the oral cavity of patients with respiratory diseases, further studies should be conducted to verify what the relationship between the two diseases is.

  4. Effect of Periodontal Therapy on Crevicular Fluid Interleukin-18 Level in Periodontal Health and Disease in Central Maharashtra (India) Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajani, Monica J; Jadhao, Varsha A; Wankhade, Pooja S; Samson, Emmanuel; Acharya, Vishwas D; Tekale, Pawankumar D

    2017-11-01

    The incidence and progression of the periodontal disease depend on periodontal microflora and the multifaceted response of the host, and these interactions are mediated by cytokines and chemokines. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a proinflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 superfamily. The aim of the present study was the assessment of the periodontal therapy in IL-18 level in periodontal disease and health. Based on clinical attachment loss (CAL), probing pocket depth (PPD), gingival index (GI), and plaque index (PI) patients were divided into three groups: Group I with healthy patients, group II with chronic periodontitis, and group III with posttreatment patients having periodontitis. Mean PI, PPD, CAL, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) volume were significantly higher in groups II and III compared with group I. However, there were no significant differences between GI in groups I, II, and III. The total amount of IL-18 in GCF was significantly higher in group II when compared with groups I and III (p periodontally involved patients, and reduced at baseline, 3 and 6 weeks after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. The IL-18 might be hypothetically beneficial in distinguishing health from disease and monitoring periodontal disease activity.

  5. Relationship between overweight-obesity and periodontal disease in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Zermeño-Ibarra, Jorge A; Delgado-Pastrana, Soledad; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Loyola-Rodríguez, Juan P

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between overweight-obesity and periodontal disease in subjects who attended the clinic of Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, San Luis de Potosi, Mexico. This was cross-sectional study involving 88 subjects - 60 without overweight-obesity and 28 with overweight-obesity. The following clinical parameters were evaluated: dental bacterial plaque, index of calculus, gingivitis, probing depth and periodontal disease index (PDI). When comparing t...

  6. Severity of Periodontitis and Metabolic Syndrome: Is There an Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Filho, Isaac Suzart; das Mercês, Magno Conceição; de Santana Passos-Soares, Johelle; Seixas da Cruz, Simone; Teixeira Ladeia, Ana Marice; Trindade, Soraya Castro; de Moraes Marcílio Cerqueira, Eneida; Freitas Coelho, Julita Maria; Marques Monteiro, Fernanda Maria; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Pereira Vianna, Maria Isabel; Nascimento Costa, Maria da Conceição; Seymour, Gregory John; Scannapieco, Frank A

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major factor for the occurrence of cardiovascular events. Causal factors for MetS are not well defined or yet unidentified. Preliminary investigations suggest that infections and inflammation may be involved in the etiology of this syndrome. This study aims to estimate the association between the severity of periodontitis (exposure) and MetS (outcome). A cross-sectional study was conducted with 419 participants recruited from the Diabetes and Hypertensive Treatment Center, Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. After administration of a questionnaire, general and oral clinical examination and laboratory tests were performed. Diagnosis of periodontitis and MetS was performed according to various criteria. The analysis of the effect of periodontitis on MetS used logistic regression analysis with adjustment for confounders. The prevalence of periodontitis was found to be between 34.61% and 55.37%, depending on the classification definitions used, and the prevalence of MetS ranged from 60.86% to 67.06%. In the group with periodontitis, 14.08% had severe and 41.29% had moderate levels of periodontitis. There was an association between severe periodontitis and MetS after adjustment for sex, age, household density, alcoholic beverage consumption, smoking habit, and cardiovascular disease (odds ratio ORadjusted_6 = 2.11, 95% confidence interval = 1.01 to 4.40, P = 0.05). The results suggest that periodontitis is associated with MetS, and that MetS prevalence is related to severe periodontitis.

  7. Periodontal disease and pregnancy outcomes: exposure, risk and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, B; Stringer, M; Jeffcoat, Marjorie K

    2007-06-01

    Despite the many advances in medicine, the rate of preterm birth has not significantly decreased in the United States over the past several decades. In fact, the rate rose in 2003 to more than 12% of all births in the United States. This equates to over half a million premature births in the United States alone. Consequently, the identification of risk factors for preterm birth which are amenable to intervention would have far-reaching and long-lasting effects. There is emerging evidence of a relationship between periodontal health and adverse pregnancy outcomes, particularly preterm birth/preterm low-birth-weight infants. Therefore this chapter explores the putative association between periodontal disease and infant prematurity, as well as the results of intervention studies which treated periodontal disease in order to reduce the incidence of prematurity. Of 31 published studies, 22 show a positive association between premature birth and periodontal disease. Ongoing studies are addressing the efficacy of periodontal treatment for decreasing the incidence of infant prematurity.

  8. Periodontal Disease and Tooth Loss as Risks for Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadighi Shamami, M; Sadighi Shamami, M; Amini, S

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic destructive disease which occurs in adults, young people, and children. Periodontal disease and periodontal pathogens have been associated with several systemic diseases and more recently, several studies have suggested the relationship between periodontal disease and cancer. Studies with adjustment for the effect of smoking exposure, have found significant positive associations with different cancer sites. This review has outlined recent epidemiologic researches pointing to a possible role for tooth loss and periodontal disease in carcinogenesis. In this review, articles were selected from PubMed between1995 and June 2010 including human. Amongst 5,984 articles identified from the electronic search, 17 articles were selected for a full-text reading based on the inclusion and the exclusion criteria. Nine out of 10 case-control studies reported a significant increase in the risk of oral cancer in patients with periodontitis and one with no significant association. Among 6 studies examining esophageal cancer and periodontal disease, 5 studies found a significant association between them and one study failed to find a significant increased risk of cancer. Also amongst 5 studies which focused on upper gastrointestinal, gastric cancer, and periodontal disease, 4 studies found an increased risk of cancer while one study did not report any relationship. In lung cancer evaluations, 3 out of 4 studies showed some levels of association between lung cancer and periodontal disease but after adjustment for smoking, no relationship were found. Three cohort studies have evaluated overall cancer rates in periodontal patients; two of them found small but significant association between cancers and periodontal disease. The results indicate that there is a possible link between cancer and severe periodontal disease after adjustment for smoking and drinking habits.

  9. Periodontal disease in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Xiaoli; Feng, Guijaun; Fu, Ting; Yin, Rulan; Zhang, Lijuan; Feng, Xingmei; Li, Liren; Gu, Zhifeng

    2017-08-01

    Disease of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and periodontal disease (PD) shares the common multiple characteristics. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in Chinese SLE patients and to determine the association between SLE features and periodontal parameters. A cross-sectional study of 108 SLE patients together with 108 age- and sex-matched healthy controls was made. Periodontal status was conducted by two dentists independently. Sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, medication use, and clinical parameters were also assessed. The periodontal status was significantly worse in SLE patients compared to controls. In univariate logistic regression, SLE had a significant 2.78-fold [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.60-4.82] increase in odds of periodontitis compared to healthy controls. Adjusted for potential risk factors, patients with SLE had 13.98-fold (95% CI 5.10-38.33) increased odds against controls. In multiple linear regression model, the independent variable negatively and significantly associated with gingival index was education (P = 0.005); conversely, disease activity (P periodontitis of SLE in multivariate logistic regression (OR 1.348; 95% CI: 1.183-1.536, P < 0.001). Chinese SLE patients were likely to suffer from higher odds of PD. These findings confirmed the importance of early interventions in combination with medical therapy. It is necessary for a close collaboration between dentists and clinicians when treating those patients.

  10. Periodontal disease in the oldest-old living in Kungsholmen, Sweden: findings from the KEOHS project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Russell, Stefanie Luise; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The Kungsholmen Elders Oral Health Study evaluated the oral health status of generally healthy, community-dwelling persons aged 80 years and over living in Stockholm, Sweden. This paper reports periodontal disease findings and evaluates the distribution by sociodemographic factors. METHODS......-analysis of the differences in proportion of participants with SP revealed that the difference by sex also increased by age. CONCLUSIONS: These findings document the substantial and ongoing impact of periodontal disease in a sample of generally healthy, community dwelling older adults and underscore the importance...... of continued periodontal disease prevention and treatment in the oldest-old....

  11. [Periodontal disease, tobacco and preterm delivery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Marta; Pinto, Elisabete; Pinto, Miguel; Montenegro, Nuno

    2011-12-01

    Preterm delivery is associated with high mortality and morbility perinatal, being the costs dispended by the family and the National Health System with preterm newborns extremely high. However, it has been difficult to reduce its incidence due to the various factors involved. There is scientific evidence which support the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm delivery. There is also evidence of tobacco as a risk factor for periodontal disease, even though the relationship with preterm delivery is not yet clear. The aims of our study were to evaluate, in women in a post-partum period, dental and periodontal status as well as the exposure to tobacco and to establish the relationship between these two factors with preterm delivery. We performed a case control study with 237 parturient women from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Hospital S. João, E.P.E., during the first 48 hours after birth. A total of 86 gave birth at a gestational age under 37 weeks (case group ) and 151 gave birth to term newborns with birthweight equal or superior 2500 g (control group). The prevalence of some indicators of periodontal disease in the studied population was extremely high, namely gingival inflammation and gingival recession, and more of 30% had values of probing depth equal or higher than 4 mm significantly. Based on these periodontal indicators, only the presence of recession in more than two teeth seems to increase the risk of preterm delivery in fivefold (OR = 5,28; IC95%: 1,63-17,04). There is a statistically significant association between probing depth equal or higher than 4mm and smoking during pregnancy. This association might be relevant because 20% of preterm newborns mothers smoked during pregnancy and the proportion that stopped smoking during pregnancy in this group of mothers was almost half of the number of the control group. Therefore it is necessary to embody the information about this thematic in the health education, not only in

  12. Exploring the relationship between periodontal disease and pregnancy complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobetsis, Yiorgos A; Barros, Silvana P; Offenbacher, Steven

    2006-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that maternal gingivitis and periodontitis may be a risk factor for preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. To clarify the possible mechanisms behind the association between periodontal disease and preterm delivery, the authors reviewed studies of the effect of infection with periodontal pathogens in animal models on pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth, placental structural abnormalities and neonatal health. After the first report, in 1996, of a potential association between maternal periodontal disease and delivery of a preterm/low-birth-weight infant in humans, many case control and prospective studies were published. This review summarizes these, as well as early studies involving periodontal intervention to reduce risk. Although there are some conflicting findings and potential problems regarding uncontrolled underlying risk factors, most of the clinical studies indicate a positive correlation between periodontal disease and preterm birth. Recent studies also have shown that there are microbiologic and immunological findings that strongly support the association. The studies indicate that periodontal infection can lead to placental-fetal exposure and, when coupled with a fetal inflammatory response, can lead to preterm delivery. Data from animal studies raise the possibility that maternal periodontal infections also may have adverse long-term effects on the infant's development. Education for patients and health care providers regarding the biological plausibility of the association and the potential risks is indicated, but there is insufficient evidence at this time for health care policy recommendations to provide maternal periodontal treatments for the purpose of reducing the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  13. Doença periodontal materna como fator associado ao baixo peso ao nascer Maternal periodontal disease as a factor associated with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Seixas da Cruz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudos recentes têm apresentado evidências de que a doença periodontal em gestantes pode ser um dos determinantes do baixo peso ao nascer. Realizou-se estudo para verificar a existência de associação entre doença periodontal materna e baixo peso ao nascer. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo caso-controle com 302 mulheres, sendo 102 mães de nascidos vivos de baixo peso (grupo caso e 200 mães de nascidos vivos com peso normal (grupo controle. A existência de associação entre doença periodontal e baixo peso ao nascer foi avaliada mediante modelo multivariado de regressão logística, considerando outros fatores de risco para o baixo peso. RESULTADOS: Ambos os grupos de mães eram comparáveis no que se refere a idade, altura, peso pré-gestacional, tabagismo, alcoolismo, doenças prévias, estado civil, situação socioeconômica, número de escovações e uso de fio dental, número de refeições diárias, e visitas ao dentista. A doença periodontal foi diagnosticada em 57,8% das mães do grupo caso e 39,0% do grupo controle. A análise de regressão logística indicou associação positiva entre doença periodontal e baixo peso ao nascer (ORbruto=2,15; IC 95%: 1,32-3,48, especialmente entre as mães com escolaridade menor ou igual a quatro anos (ORajustada=3,98; IC 95%: 1,58-10,10. CONCLUSÕES: A doença periodontal é um possível fator de risco para o baixo peso ao nascer.OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have presented evidence that periodontal disease in pregnant women may be a determining factor for low birth weight. The present investigation was carried out to verify whether or not there is an association between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight. METHODS: This was a case-control study on 302 women, of whom 102 were the mothers of live newborns of low weight (case group and 200 were the mothers of live newborns of normal birth weight (control group. The existence of an association between periodontal disease and low

  14. Periodontal and systemic diseases among Swedish dental school patients - a retrospective register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Marija; Buhlin, Kåre

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if patients with periodontitis attending the Dental School in Huddinge, Sweden presented with more signs of systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and respiratory diseases, compared to healthy and gingivitis patients. In this retrospective study, dental charts were examined where the periodontal diagnoses of patients were known. A total of 325 patients with severe periodontitis and 149 patients without periodontitis, born 1928 to 1968, were identified. Diagnosis regarding the systemic diseases was self-reported. Odds ratios for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and respiratory diseases were calculated with a logistic regression model that was adjusted for age, gender and smoking. It was observed that more cases of periodontitis were found in older individuals than the controls (61.7 vs 56.2 years; P < 0.001). A total of 44.3% of patients with severe periodontitis also suffered from cardiovascular diseases, 19.1% respiratory diseases and 21.2% from diabetes mellitus. Among the controls, 30.9% had cardiovascular disease, 23.5% suffered from respiratory diseases and 6.7% had diabetes mellitus. Across both groups, hypertension was the most frequent diagnosis. There was a significant association between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease (odds ratio [OR] = 1.79, confidence interval [CI] 1.12-2.86), but not between respiratory diseases and periodontitis (OR= 0.88, CI 0.53-1.47). The risk of diabetes mellitus was greater among those patients with periodontitis (OR= 2.95, CI 1.45- 6.01). This study found that patients with periodontitis presented with more systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus than control patients. However, no association was found between periodontitis and respiratory diseases. At the present time, the reasons for the associations or lack of association are unknown.

  15. Neopterin as a diagnostic biomarker for diagnosis of inflammatory diseases like periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jammula Surya Prasanna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neopterin is a catabolic product of guanosine triphosphate, a purine nucleotide and belongs to the group pteridines. When the cytokine interferon gamma stimulates the human macrophages, they synthesize the neopterin. It is an indicative of a pro-inflammatory immune status and hence serves as a cellular immune system marker. In most of the diseases, in which the cellular immune system is involved, we find that the neopterin concentrations are usually high. In the periodontal diseases, the levels of neopterin usually fluctuate which is proved by its increase in disease progression and a decrease after treatment. Periodontal diseases are characterized by enhanced macrophage infiltration to the periodontal lesion, so neopterin being a macrophage activation marker may be seen in higher levels. This review deals with neopterin and its mechanism and its use as a marker in the diagnosis of the periodontal diseases.

  16. Identification of subgingival periodontal pathogens and association with the severity of periodontitis in patients with chronic kidney diseases: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Fidan Bahtiar; Ismail, Gener; Dumitriu, Anca Silvia; Baston, Catalin; Berbecar, Vlad; Jurubita, Roxana; Andronesi, Andreea; Dumitriu, Horia Traian; Sinescu, Ioanel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the subgingival profile of 9 periodontal pathogens, by means of real-time PCR, in a group of predialysis chronic kidney disease patients with and without periodontal disease and to identify the risk factors associated with periodontal disease in these patients. This is a single centre cross-sectional cohort study performed on 70 CKD patients. Patients received a full-mouth periodontal examination and the following parameters were assessed: periodontal pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, and plaque index; subgingival biofilm samples were collected from the deepest periodontal pocket of each quadrant and were pooled in one transporting unit. Clinical data were drawn from the medical file of the patients. T. denticola (P = 0.001), T. forsythia (P < 0.001), and P. micros (P = 0.003) are significantly associated with periodontal disease in CKD subjects but in a multivariate model only age and T. forsythia remain independent risk factors for periodontal disease in patients with CKD. In our cohort, age and T. forsythia are independently associated with periodontitis in CKD patients. Within the limits of this study, CKD was not significantly associated with a particular subgingival periodontal pathogens profile in periodontitis patients.

  17. Identification of Subgingival Periodontal Pathogens and Association with the Severity of Periodontitis in Patients with Chronic Kidney Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidan Bahtiar Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of our study was to assess the subgingival profile of 9 periodontal pathogens, by means of real-time PCR, in a group of predialysis chronic kidney disease patients with and without periodontal disease and to identify the risk factors associated with periodontal disease in these patients. Material and Methods. This is a single centre cross-sectional cohort study performed on 70 CKD patients. Patients received a full-mouth periodontal examination and the following parameters were assessed: periodontal pocket depth (PPD, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, and plaque index; subgingival biofilm samples were collected from the deepest periodontal pocket of each quadrant and were pooled in one transporting unit. Clinical data were drawn from the medical file of the patients. Results. T. denticola (P=0.001, T. forsythia (P<0.001, and P. micros (P=0.003 are significantly associated with periodontal disease in CKD subjects but in a multivariate model only age and T. forsythia remain independent risk factors for periodontal disease in patients with CKD. Conclusions. In our cohort, age and T. forsythia are independently associated with periodontitis in CKD patients. Within the limits of this study, CKD was not significantly associated with a particular subgingival periodontal pathogens profile in periodontitis patients.

  18. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEGRATO, Carlos Antonio; TARZIA, Olinda; JOVANOVIČ, Lois; CHINELLATO, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the english and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of DM, PD and different clinical criteria were applied to determine the prevalence, extent and severity of PD, levels of glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. Methods: This paper provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research conducted using the BBO (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia), MEDLINE, LILACS and PubMed for Controlled Trials databases, in english and Portuguese languages published from 1960 to October 2012. Primary research reports on investigations of relationships between DM/DM control, PD/periodontal treatment and PD/DM/diabetes-related complications identified relevant papers and meta-analyses published in this period. Results: This paper describes the relationship between PD and DM and answers the following questions: 1- The effect of DM on PD, 2- The effects of glycemic control on PD and 3- The effects of PD on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Conclusions: The scientific evidence reviewed supports diabetes having an adverse effect on periodontal health and PD having an adverse effect on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Further research is needed to clarify these relationships and larger, prospective, controlled trials with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to establish that treating PD can positively influence glycemic control and possibly reduce the burden of diabetes

  19. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Tarzia, Olinda; Jovanovič, Lois; Chinellato, Luiz Eduardo Montenegro

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most commonly known human chronic disorders. The relationship between PD and several systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with knowledge concerning the relationship between PD and DM. Many articles have been published in the English and Portuguese literature over the last 50 years examining the relationship between these two chronic diseases. Data interpretation is often confounded by varying definitions of DM, PD and different clinical criteria were applied to determine the prevalence, extent and severity of PD, levels of glycemic control and diabetes-related complications. This paper provides a broad overview of the predominant findings from research conducted using the BBO (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia), MEDLINE, LILACS and PubMed for Controlled Trials databases, in English and Portuguese languages published from 1960 to October 2012. Primary research reports on investigations of relationships between DM/DM control, PD/periodontal treatment and PD/DM/diabetes-related complications identified relevant papers and meta-analyses published in this period. This paper describes the relationship between PD and DM and answers the following questions: 1- The effect of DM on PD, 2- The effects of glycemic control on PD and 3- The effects of PD on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. The scientific evidence reviewed supports diabetes having an adverse effect on periodontal health and PD having an adverse effect on glycemic control and on diabetes-related complications. Further research is needed to clarify these relationships and larger, prospective, controlled trials with ethnically diverse populations are warranted to establish that treating PD can positively influence glycemic control and possibly reduce the burden of diabetes-related complications.

  20. Oral-Fluid Thiol-Detection Test Identifies Underlying Active Periodontal Disease Not Detected by the Visual Awake Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queck, Katherine E; Chapman, Angela; Herzog, Leslie J; Shell-Martin, Tamara; Burgess-Cassler, Anthony; McClure, George David

    Periodontal disease in dogs is highly prevalent but can only be accurately diagnosed by performing an anesthetized oral examination with periodontal probing and dental radiography. In this study, 114 dogs had a visual awake examination of the oral cavity and were administered an oral-fluid thiol-detection test prior to undergoing a a full-mouth anesthetized oral examination and digital dental radiographs. The results show the visual awake examination underestimated the presence and severity of active periodontal disease. The thiol-detection test was superior to the visual awake examination at detecting the presence and severity of active periodontal disease and was an indicator of progression toward alveolar bone loss. The thiol-detection test detected active periodontal disease at early stages of development, before any visual cues were present, indicating the need for intervention to prevent periodontal bone loss. Early detection is important because without intervention, dogs with gingivitis (active periodontal disease) progress to irreversible periodontal bone loss (stage 2+). As suggested in the current AAHA guidelines, a thiol-detection test administered in conjunction with the visual awake examination during routine wellness examinations facilitates veterinarian-client communication and mitigates under-diagnosis of periodontal disease and underutilization of dental services. The thiol-detection test can be used to monitor the periodontal health status of the conscious patient during follow-up examinations based on disease severity.

  1. Attitude and knowledge of family medicine practitioners towards the association between periodontal disease and obesity.

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    Akram, Z; Abduljabbar, T; Hanif, A; Khan, A; Vohra, F

    2017-05-01

    To assess the attitude and knowledge of family medicine practitioners (FMPs) towards the association between periodontal disease and obesity. A cross-sectional study was performed and a 13-item survey questionnaire was given to FMPs practicing in 12 different teaching hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. The questions were aimed at exploring the knowledge of FMP's regarding the association of obesity and periodontal disease and their attitude towards the association of obesity and periodontal disease. Chi-square and Spearman co-efficient were conducted to compare subgroups and correlate factors with the knowledge score of FMPs. A total of 314 questionnaires were completed (response rate = 92%). Median age of participants was 41 years and 57% were females. Almost 61% of FMPs answered all the knowledge questions correctly and 64% reported moderate understanding of the association between periodontal health and obesity. Nearly 73% FMPs inquired from obese patients regarding the periodontal disease and more than half (58%) refer patients to a dentist for evaluation. More than half of FMPs perform periodontal disease screening. Nearly all FMPs considered informing obese patients regarding periodontal disease as one of their roles. FMP's play an important role in the early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of periodontal conditions in obese patients. More than two thirds of FMPs showed good knowledge of the association of obesity and periodontal disease. The attitudes of FMPs towards assessing and referring obese patients at a risk of having periodontal disease were reassuring.

  2. Interaction of lifestyle, behaviour or systemic diseases with dental caries and periodontal diseases: consensus report of group 2 of the joint EFP/ORCA workshop on the boundaries between caries and periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapple, Iain L C; Bouchard, Philippe; Cagetti, Maria Grazia; Campus, Guglielmo; Carra, Maria-Clotilde; Cocco, Fabio; Nibali, Luigi; Hujoel, Philippe; Laine, Marja L; Lingstrom, Peter; Manton, David J; Montero, Eduardo; Pitts, Nigel; Rangé, Hélène; Schlueter, Nadine; Teughels, Wim; Twetman, Svante; Van Loveren, Cor; Van der Weijden, Fridus; Vieira, Alexandre R; Schulte, Andreas G

    2017-03-01

    Periodontal diseases and dental caries are the most common diseases of humans and the main cause of tooth loss. Both diseases can lead to nutritional compromise and negative impacts upon self-esteem and quality of life. As complex chronic diseases, they share common risk factors, such as a requirement for a pathogenic plaque biofilm, yet they exhibit distinct pathophysiologies. Multiple exposures contribute to their causal pathways, and susceptibility involves risk factors that are inherited (e.g. genetic variants), and those that are acquired (e.g. socio-economic factors, biofilm load or composition, smoking, carbohydrate intake). Identification of these factors is crucial in the prevention of both diseases as well as in their management. To systematically appraise the scientific literature to identify potential risk factors for caries and periodontal diseases. One systematic review (genetic risk factors), one narrative review (role of diet and nutrition) and reference documentation for modifiable acquired risk factors common to both disease groups, formed the basis of the report. There is moderately strong evidence for a genetic contribution to periodontal diseases and caries susceptibility, with an attributable risk estimated to be up to 50%. The genetics literature for periodontal disease is more substantial than for caries and genes associated with chronic periodontitis are the vitamin D receptor (VDR), Fc gamma receptor IIA (Fc-γRIIA) and Interleukin 10 (IL10) genes. For caries, genes involved in enamel formation (AMELX, AMBN, ENAM, TUFT, MMP20, and KLK4), salivary characteristics (AQP5), immune regulation and dietary preferences had the largest impact. No common genetic variants were found. Fermentable carbohydrates (sugars and starches) were the most relevant common dietary risk factor for both diseases, but associated mechanisms differed. In caries, the fermentation process leads to acid production and the generation of biofilm components such as Glucans

  3. Risk factors of chronic periodontitis on healing response: a multilevel modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J; Zhao, H; Pan, C; Li, C; Liu, J; Pan, Y

    2017-09-15

    Chronic periodontitis is a multifactorial polygenetic disease with an increasing number of associated factors that have been identified over recent decades. Longitudinal epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that the risk factors were related to the progression of the disease. A traditional multivariate regression model was used to find risk factors associated with chronic periodontitis. However, the approach requirement of standard statistical procedures demands individual independence. Multilevel modelling (MLM) data analysis has widely been used in recent years, regarding thorough hierarchical structuring of the data, decomposing the error terms into different levels, and providing a new analytic method and framework for solving this problem. The purpose of our study is to investigate the relationship of clinical periodontal index and the risk factors in chronic periodontitis through MLM analysis and to identify high-risk individuals in the clinical setting. Fifty-four patients with moderate to severe periodontitis were included. They were treated by means of non-surgical periodontal therapy, and then made follow-up visits regularly at 3, 6, and 12 months after therapy. Each patient answered a questionnaire survey and underwent measurement of clinical periodontal parameters. Compared with baseline, probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) improved significantly after non-surgical periodontal therapy with regular follow-up visits at 3, 6, and 12 months after therapy. The null model and variance component models with no independent variables included were initially obtained to investigate the variance of the PD and CAL reductions across all three levels, and they showed a statistically significant difference (P periodontal therapy with regular follow-up visits had a remarkable curative effect. All three levels had a substantial influence on the reduction of PD and CAL. Site-level had the largest effect on PD and CAL reductions.

  4. The relationship between recurrent aphthous stomatitis, and periodontal disease and Helicobacter Pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülseren, D; Karaduman, A; Kutsal, D; Nohutcu, R M

    2016-11-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a common oral mucosal disease with unknown etiology. This cross-sectional study aimed to test the hypothesis that Helicobacter pylori and periodontal disease might play an etiological role in RAS. Dental plaque samples obtained from 38 patients with RAS and 43 healthy individuals via periodontal examinations were examined for H. pylori colonization. H. pylori was identified using the rapid urease test (RUT). The periodontal status of the patients and controls was based on the following periodontal parameters: periodontal pocket depth (PPD), the plaque index (PI), the gingival index (GI), and clinical attachment loss (CAL). RUT results were positive in 34 (89.5 %) of the 38 patients and 24 (55.8 %) of the 43 controls (P = 0.002). There were not any significant differences in mean PPD, PI, GI, or CAL between the patient and control groups (P > 0.05). Mean PPD, PI, GI, and CAL were higher in the RUT-positive RAS patients than in the RUT-negative patients (P > 0.05, for all). The present findings show that H. pylori might have played an etiological role in RAS and might have caused periodontal disease, but RAS was not associated with any of the periodontal parameters examined in this study. The present study indicates that H. pylori plays a role in the development of RAS, but periodontal diseases have no effect on it. Eradicating H. pylori might be useful to prevent RAS.

  5. Quantifying oral inflammatory load: oral neutrophil counts in periodontal health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landzberg, M; Doering, H; Aboodi, G M; Tenenbaum, H C; Glogauer, M

    2015-06-01

    Neutrophils are the primary white blood cells that are recruited to fight the initial phases of microbial infections. While healthy norms have been determined for circulating blood neutrophil counts in order to identify patients with suspected systemic infections, the levels of oral neutrophils (oPMNs) in oral health and in the presence of periodontal diseases have not been described. It is important to address this deficiency in our knowledge as neutrophils are the primary immune cell present in the crevicular fluid and oral environment and previous work has suggested that they may be good indicators of overall oral inflammation and periodontal disease severity. The objective of this study was to measure oPMN counts obtained in a standardized oral rinse from healthy patients and from those with chronic periodontal disease in order to determine if oPMN levels have clinical relevance as markers of periodontal inflammation. A parallel goal of this investigation was to introduce the concept of 'oral inflammatory load', which constitutes the inflammatory burden experienced by the body as a consequence of oral inflammatory disease. Periodontal examinations of patients with a healthy periodontium and chronic periodontal disease were performed (n = 124). Two standardized consecutive saline rinses of 30 s each were collected before patient examination and instrumentation. Neutrophils were quantified in the rinse samples and correlated with the clinical parameters and periodontal diagnosis. Average oPMN counts were determined for healthy patients and for those with mild, moderate and severe chronic periodontal diseases. A statistically significant correlation was found between oPMN counts and deep periodontal probing, sites with bleeding on probing and overall severity of periodontal disease. oPMN counts obtained through a 30-s oral rinse are a good marker of oral inflammatory load and correlate with measures of periodontal disease severity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A

  6. Awareness regarding the systemic effects of periodontal disease among medical interns in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Gur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical curriculum does not provide required space for oral health; hence, many medical interns are unfamiliar with the oral cavity and oral health research. Aims: To study the level of awareness regarding systemic effects of periodontal disease among medical interns. Settings and design: A cross-sectional qualitative study recruiting medical interns from two medical institutions affiliated to two different universities in Southern India. Materials and Methods: Study was carried out in two medical institutions affiliated to two different universities in Southern India. A total of 143 interns participated in the study. Each participant was given a self-administered, pre-tested, multiple choice question-type questionnaire to solve on the spot. In order to summarise the awareness level, respondents were graded on a five-level scale as poor, fair, good, very good, and excellent. Statistical analysis used: Percentages, proportions. Results: A total of 67 respondents (47% had fair; 60(42%, poor; and 18(11%, good level of awareness regarding the systemic effects of periodontal disease. Only 23(16%, 17(12%, 12(8%, 6(4% and 4(3% respondents were aware that the periodontal disease may be the possible risk factor for coronary heart disease, cerebral infarction, diabetes mellitus, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and preterm labour (low birth-weight infants, respectively. Only 12 respondents (8% would seek dentist′s opinion for all patients with systemic diseases related to dental disease. Conclusions: Medical interns had inadequate awareness regarding the systemic effects of periodontal disease. Therefore, an integrated teaching of medical and dental sciences is recommended.

  7. Exercise habituation is effective for improvement of periodontal disease status: a prospective intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Shoei; Uchida, Fumihiko; Oh, Sechang; So, Rina; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Yanagawa, Toru; Sakai, Satoshi; Shoda, Junichi; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Bukawa, Hiroki

    2018-01-01

    Periodontal disease is closely related to lifestyle-related diseases and obesity. It is widely known that moderate exercise habits lead to improvement in lifestyle-related diseases and obesity. However, little research has been undertaken into how exercise habits affect periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise habits on periodontal diseases and metabolic pathology. We conducted a prospective intervention research for 12 weeks. The subjects were 71 obese men who participated in an exercise and/or dietary intervention program. Fifty subjects were assigned to exercise interventions (exercise intervention group) and 21 subjects were assigned to dietary interventions (dietary intervention group). This research was conducted before and after each intervention program. In the exercise intervention group, the number of teeth with a probing pocket depth (PPD) ≥4 mm significantly decreased from 14.4% to 5.6% ( P periodontal disease-causing bacteria and PPD and BOP. Our results are the first to show that exercise might contribute to improvements in periodontal disease.

  8. Altered oral viral ecology in association with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Melissa; Abeles, Shira R; Boehm, Tobias K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Naidu, Mayuri; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha; Pride, David T

    2014-05-20

    The human oral cavity is home to a large and diverse community of viruses that have yet to be characterized in patients with periodontal disease. We recruited and sampled saliva and oral biofilm from a cohort of humans either periodontally healthy or with mild or significant periodontal disease to discern whether there are differences in viral communities that reflect their oral health status. We found communities of viruses inhabiting saliva and the subgingival and supragingival biofilms of each subject that were composed largely of bacteriophage. While there were homologous viruses common to different subjects and biogeographic sites, for most of the subjects, virome compositions were significantly associated with the oral sites from which they were derived. The largest distinctions between virome compositions were found when comparing the subgingival and supragingival biofilms to those of planktonic saliva. Differences in virome composition were significantly associated with oral health status for both subgingival and supragingival biofilm viruses but not for salivary viruses. Among the differences identified in virome compositions was a significant expansion of myoviruses in subgingival biofilm, suggesting that periodontal disease favors lytic phage. We also characterized the bacterial communities in each subject at each biogeographic site by using the V3 hypervariable segment of the 16S rRNA and did not identify distinctions between oral health and disease similar to those found in viral communities. The significantly altered ecology of viruses of oral biofilm in subjects with periodontal disease compared to that of relatively periodontally healthy ones suggests that viruses may serve as useful indicators of oral health status. Little is known about the role or the constituents of viruses as members of the human microbiome. We investigated the composition of human oral viral communities in a group of relatively periodontally healthy subjects or significant

  9. Using Big Data to Evaluate the Association between Periodontal Disease and Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Michael A; Comer, Angela C; DiRenzo, Dana D; Yesha, Yelena; Rishe, Naphtali D

    2015-01-01

    An association between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis is believed to exist. Most investigations into a possible relationship have been case-control studies with relatively low sample sizes. The advent of very large clinical repositories has created new opportunities for data-driven research. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to measure the association between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis in a population of 25 million patients. We demonstrated that subjects with periodontal disease were roughly 1.4 times more likely to have rheumatoid arthritis. These results compare favorably with those of previous studies on smaller cohorts. Additional work is needed to identify the mechanisms behind this association and to determine if aggressive treatment of periodontal disease can alter the course of rheumatoid arthritis.

  10. Periodontal treatment effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular disease biomarkers in subjects with chronic periodontitis: protocol for a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease (PD) is an infectious clinical entity characterized by the destruction of supporting tissues of the teeth as the result of a chronic inflammatory response in a susceptible host. It has been proposed that PD as subclinical infection may contribute to the etiology and to the pathogenesis of several systemic diseases including Atherosclerosis. A number of epidemiological studies link periodontal disease/edentulism as independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Moreover, new randomized controlled clinical trials have shown an improvement on cardiovascular surrogate markers (endothelial function, sICAM, hsPCR level, fibrinogen) after periodontal treatment. Nonetheless, such trials are still limited in terms of external validity, periodontal treatment strategies, CONSORT-based design and results consistency/extrapolation. The current study is designed to evaluate if periodontal treatment with scaling and root planning plus local delivered chlorhexidine improves endothelial function and other biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. Methods/Design This randomized, single-blind clinical trial will be performed at two health centers and will include two periodontal treatment strategies. After medical/periodontal screening, a baseline endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and other systemic surrogate markers will be obtained from all recruited subjects. Patients then will be randomized to receive either supragingival/subgingival plaque cleaning and calculus removal plus chlorhexidine (treatment group) or supragingival plaque removal only (control group). A second and third FMD will be obtained after 24 hours and 12 weeks in both treatment arms. Each group will consist of 49 patients (n = 98) and all patients will be followed-up for secondary outcomes and will be monitored through a coordinating

  11. Periodontal treatment effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular disease biomarkers in subjects with chronic periodontitis: protocol for a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arce Roger M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periodontal disease (PD is an infectious clinical entity characterized by the destruction of supporting tissues of the teeth as the result of a chronic inflammatory response in a susceptible host. It has been proposed that PD as subclinical infection may contribute to the etiology and to the pathogenesis of several systemic diseases including Atherosclerosis. A number of epidemiological studies link periodontal disease/edentulism as independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Moreover, new randomized controlled clinical trials have shown an improvement on cardiovascular surrogate markers (endothelial function, sICAM, hsPCR level, fibrinogen after periodontal treatment. Nonetheless, such trials are still limited in terms of external validity, periodontal treatment strategies, CONSORT-based design and results consistency/extrapolation. The current study is designed to evaluate if periodontal treatment with scaling and root planning plus local delivered chlorhexidine improves endothelial function and other biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. Methods/Design This randomized, single-blind clinical trial will be performed at two health centers and will include two periodontal treatment strategies. After medical/periodontal screening, a baseline endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD and other systemic surrogate markers will be obtained from all recruited subjects. Patients then will be randomized to receive either supragingival/subgingival plaque cleaning and calculus removal plus chlorhexidine (treatment group or supragingival plaque removal only (control group. A second and third FMD will be obtained after 24 hours and 12 weeks in both treatment arms. Each group will consist of 49 patients (n = 98 and all patients will be followed-up for secondary outcomes and will be monitored

  12. Relationship between Periodontal Diseases and Preterm Birth: Recent Epidemiological and Biological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, O.; Tenenbaum, H.; Davideau, J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    For ten years, the incidence of preterm birth does not decrease in developed countries despite the promotion of public health programs. Many risk factors have been identified including ethnicity, age, tobacco, and infection. However, almost 50% of preterm birth causes remain unknown. The periodontal diseases are highly prevalent inflammatory and infectious diseases of tooth supporting tissues leading to an oral disability. They influence negatively general health worsening cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Periodontal diseases have been also suspected to increase the rate of preterm birth, but data remain contradictory. The objective of this review is to present the principal results of epidemiological, biological, and interventional studies on the link between periodontal diseases and preterm birth. The conclusions of this work underline the importance for the physician/obstetrician to identify women at risk for preterm birth and to address these patients to dentist for periodontal examination and treatment in order to limit adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:22132334

  13. Relationship between Periodontal Diseases and Preterm Birth: Recent Epidemiological and Biological Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Huck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For ten years, the incidence of preterm birth does not decrease in developed countries despite the promotion of public health programs. Many risk factors have been identified including ethnicity, age, tobacco, and infection. However, almost 50% of preterm birth causes remain unknown. The periodontal diseases are highly prevalent inflammatory and infectious diseases of tooth supporting tissues leading to an oral disability. They influence negatively general health worsening cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Periodontal diseases have been also suspected to increase the rate of preterm birth, but data remain contradictory. The objective of this review is to present the principal results of epidemiological, biological, and interventional studies on the link between periodontal diseases and preterm birth. The conclusions of this work underline the importance for the physician/obstetrician to identify women at risk for preterm birth and to address these patients to dentist for periodontal examination and treatment in order to limit adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  14. Ultra-Sensitive C-Reactive Protein (US-CRP) in Patients With Periodontal Disease and Risk of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriza, Catalina Latorre; Arregoces, Francina Escobar; Porras, Juliana Velosa; Camargo, Maria Beatriz Ferro; Morales, Alvaro Ruiz

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the US-CRP values associated with periodontal disease are risk markers for Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) and to determine if the US-CRP levels associated with recent AMI are higher in patients with Periodontal disease. In order to meet the goal of the study, a case control study design was conducted. The analysis sample consisted of 401 adults (30 - 75 years old), living in Bogota D.C., Colombia, from the Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, the Faculty of Dentistry at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, and the Fundacion Cardio Infantil. Patients with current infections, antibiotic use in the last 3 months, periodontal treatment at least six months before the baseline of this study, mouth ulcerations caused by any type of prosthesis, candidiasis, stomatitis, or less than 7 teeth in mouth were excluded. Periodontal examination for the case group and the control group was conducted by three previously calibrated examiners. Periodontal disease was diagnosed by the presence of bleeding on probing and attachment loss. The Chronic Periodontitis diagnosis was confirmed with these clinical signs, according to the 1999 Armitage classification. The assessment of the US-CRP was performed using the IMMULITE method containing one monoclonal and one polyclonal anti-CRP antibody. This method provides a measurement range of 0.1 - 500 mg/L. Statistical analysis of variables was performed with OR and confidence intervals. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the association between the US-CRP increase, periodontal disease and acute myocardial infarction, adjusting for smoking and other confounding factors identified in the analysis. The study population was constituted by 401 patients, 56.1% (225) males, with a mean age of 52.6. When groups were compared it was observed that, in those patients with AMI and chronic severe or moderate periodontitis, 24.2% had HDL-C values lower than 40 mg/dl, 78.8% had LDL-C values

  15. Occurrence of spontaneous periodontal disease in the SAMP1/YitFc murine model of Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietropaoli, Davide; Del Pinto, Rita; Corridoni, Daniele; Rodriguez-Palacios, Alexander; Di Stefano, Gabriella; Monaco, Annalisa; Weinberg, Aaron; Cominelli, Fabio

    2014-12-01

    Oral involvement is often associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent evidence suggests a high incidence of periodontal disease in patients with Crohn disease (CD). To the best of the authors' knowledge, no animal model of IBD that displays associated periodontal disease was reported previously. The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence and progression of periodontal disease in SAMP1/YitFc (SAMP) mice that spontaneously develop a CD-like ileitis. In addition, the temporal correlation between the onset and progression of periodontal disease and the onset of ileitis in SAMP mice was studied. At different time points, SAMP and parental AKR/J (AKR) control mice were sacrificed, and mandibles were prepared for stereomicroscopy and histology. Terminal ilea were collected for histologic assessment of inflammation score. Periodontal status, i.e., alveolar bone loss (ABL) and alveolar bone crest, was examined by stereomicroscopy and histomorphometry, respectively. ABL increased in both strains with age. SAMP mice showed greater ABL compared with AKR mice by 12 weeks of age, with maximal differences observed at 27 weeks of age. AKR control mice did not show the same severity of periodontal disease. Interestingly, a strong positive correlation was found between ileitis severity and ABL in SAMP mice, independent of age. The present results demonstrate the occurrence of periodontal disease in a mouse model of progressive CD-like ileitis. In addition, the severity of periodontitis strongly correlated with the severity of ileitis, independent of age, suggesting that common pathogenic mechanisms, such as abnormal immune response and dysbiosis, may be shared between these two phenotypes.

  16. Evaluation of cross-protection by immunization with an experimental trivalent companion animal periodontitis vaccine in the mouse periodontitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardham, John; Sfintescu, Cornelia; Evans, Richard T

    2008-03-01

    Companion animal periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent diseases seen by veterinarians. The goal of this study was to evaluate the vaccine performance of a trivalent canine periodontitis vaccine in the mouse oral challenge model of periodontitis. Mice vaccinated subcutaneously with an inactivated, whole-cell vaccine preparation of Porphyromonas denticanis, Porphyromonas gulae, and Porphyromonas salivosa displayed significantly reduced alveolar bone loss in response to heterologous and cross-species challenges as compared to sham vaccinated animals. Based on the results of these studies, a periodontitis vaccine may be a useful tool in preventing the initiation and progression of periodontitis caused by the most commonly isolated pigmenting anaerobic bacteria in animals.

  17. Periodontal treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, S; Figueredo, C M; Lemos, C; Bregman, R; Fischer, R G

    2017-04-01

    This pilot cohort study evaluated the effect of periodontal treatment on renal function, metabolic markers and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in patients with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) presenting chronic periodontitis. Twenty-six patients with CKD and severe chronic periodontitis were selected. Periodontal parameters included plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), triglycerides, total cholesterol, albumin and ADMA levels were evaluated at baseline, 90 and 180 d after periodontal therapy. eGFR was evaluated by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. All periodontal clinical parameters significantly improved (p periodontal therapy. There was a significant improvement on the median values (25%; 75% percentiles) of eGFR from 34.6 (27; 44.7) mL/min/1.73 m 2 on baseline to 37.6 (29.7; 57) mL/min/1.73 m 2 on day 90, and to 37.6 (28.6; 56) mL/min/1.73 m 2 (p periodontal treatment. No significant differences were observed at the median values of metabolic markers comparing baseline and 180 d after periodontal treatment. The results point to a link of kidney disease with endothelium dysfunction and periodontitis, suggesting that periodontal treatment may be beneficial to the course of CKD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Periodontal Disease and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Prospective Study in a Low-Risk Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucy-Giguère, Laurence; Tétu, Amélie; Gauthier, Simon; Morand, Marianne; Chandad, Fatiha; Giguère, Yves; Bujold, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with systemic inflammation and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia and preterm birth. To examine the relationship between periodontal disease in early pregnancy and the risk of amniotic inflammation, preterm birth, and preeclampsia. We performed a prospective cohort study of women undergoing amniocentesis for fetal karyotype between 15 and 24 weeks' gestation. Participants underwent periodontal examination by a certified dentist, and a sample of amniotic fluid was collected. Periodontal disease was defined as the presence of one or more sites with probing depths ≥ 4 mm and ≥ 10% bleeding on probing. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 and interleukin-6 concentrations in the amniotic fluid were measured. Medical charts were reviewed for perinatal outcomes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We recruited 273 women at a median gestational age of 16 weeks (range 15 to 24), and 258 (95%) agreed to undergo periodontal examination. Periodontal disease was observed in 117 of the participants (45%). We observed no significant association between periodontal disease and preterm birth (relative risk [RR] 2.27; 95% CI 0.74 to 6.96) or spontaneous preterm birth (RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.20 to 4.11). However, women with periodontal disease were more likely to develop preeclampsia, and this association remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted RR 5.89; 95% CI 1.24 to 28.05). Periodontal disease was not associated with significant differences in the intra-amniotic concentration of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (13.0 ± 46.6 vs 5.7 ± 10.4 ng/mL, P = 0.098) or interleukin-6 (3.3 ± 20.3 vs 1.0 ± 1.6 ng/mL, P = 0.23), although a non-significant trend was observed. Periodontal disease is associated with preeclampsia but not with spontaneous preterm birth. The current study cannot exclude an

  19. Simple platelet markers: Mean platelet volume and congestive heart failure coexistent with periodontal disease. Pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniuk, Maciej R; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Dudzik-Niewiadomska, Iwona; Pilecki, Tomasz; Górska, Renata; Filipiak, Krzysztof J

    2017-07-17

    Conducted pilot study concerning mean platelet volume parameter among patients suffering from congestive heart failure and periodontal disease. Examination of dynamic changes of platelet and periodontal markers in group of 50 patients before and an average of 6 months subsequent to professional periodontal treatment. Both platelet and periodontal parameters decreased after periodontal treatment, what is more, the decrease of mean platelet volume (MPV) value due to periodontal disease/mm improvement was shown to be statistically significant (p = 0.05). Improvement of periodontal status may influence decrease of MPV value andincrease of congestive heart failure treatment efficacy and effect patient comfort. It is a new, not frequently used pattern of chronic disease treatment optimalization.

  20. Molecular identification of bacteria associated with canine periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Marcello P; Lennon, Alan; Taylor, David J; Bennett, David

    2011-06-02

    Periodontal disease is one of the most common diseases of adult dogs, with up to 80% of animals affected. The aetiology of the disease is poorly studied, although bacteria are known to play a major role. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacteria associated with canine gingivitis and periodontitis and to compare this with the normal oral flora. Swabs were obtained from the gingival margin of three dogs with gingivitis and three orally healthy controls, and subgingival plaque was collected from three dogs with periodontitis. Samples were subjected to routine bacterial culture. The prevalent species identified in the normal, gingivitis and periodontitis groups were uncultured bacterium (12.5% of isolates), Bacteroides heparinolyticus/Pasteurella dagmatis (10.0%) and Actinomyces canis (19.4%), respectively. Bacteria were also identified using culture-independent methods (16S rRNA gene sequencing) and the predominant species identified were Pseudomonas sp. (30.9% of clones analysed), Porphyromonas cangingivalis (16.1%) and Desulfomicrobium orale (12.0%) in the normal, gingivitis and periodontitis groups, respectively. Uncultured species accounted for 13.2%, 2.0% and 10.5%, and potentially novel species for 38.2%, 38.3% and 35.3%, of clones in the normal, gingivitis and periodontitis groups, respectively. This is the first study to use utilise culture-independent methods for the identification of bacteria associated with this disease. It is concluded that the canine oral flora in health and disease is highly diverse and also contains a high proportion of uncultured and, in particular, potentially novel species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A Review of the Relationship between Tooth Loss, Periodontal Disease, and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Mara S.; Joshipura, Kaumudi; Giovannucci, Edward; Michaud, Dominique S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have investigated the association between periodontal disease, tooth loss, and several systemic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and preterm birth. Periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory condition, is highly prevalent in adult populations around the world, and may be preventable. Estimates of prevalence vary between races and geographic regions, with a marked increase in the occurrence of periodontal disease with advancing age. Worldwide estimates for the...

  2. Periodontitis, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease : A Bermuda Triangle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuw, W.J.

    2017-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis contributes to the understanding of the complex relationship between periodontitis and diabetes mellitus (DM), and periodontitis and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). It was observed that a substantial number of suspected new DM patients could be

  3. Effects of anxiety and depression on periodontal diseases: review article

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    Mahvash Mousavi jazi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Periodontitis does not affect on all patients by the same way. There are some risk factors in some people that make them more sensitive to progress of periodontitis. Smoking, uncontrolled diabetes, and special pathogens increase the risk of periodontitis. Other factors such as stress, depression and anxiety, are not crucial risk factors for periodontitis yet. Biologic explanation of this relation is that mental conditions and exposure to stressful situations can alter immune response. The aim of this study was to review the psychological factors of anxiety and depression associated with periodontitis.   Materials and Methods: For this review article, we have searched through internet by the following keywords; periodontal disease, anxiety, depression. We have tried to cover almost all dental– related sites and journals as well as Pubmed from 1990-2010.   Conclusion: Most published studies support a positive relationship between periodontitis and several psycho-social factors. Life style, stressful conditions, hormonal changes, nonchalance in oral hygiene, habits such as smoking are predisposing factors in periodontal diseases.

  4. Identification of azurocidin as a potential periodontitis biomarker by a proteomic analysis of gingival crevicular fluid

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    Lee Jae-Mok

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inflammatory disease periodontitis results in tooth loss and can even lead to diseases of the whole body if not treated. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF reflects the condition of the gingiva and contains proteins transuded from serum or cells at inflamed sites. In this study, we aimed to discover potential protein biomarkers for periodontitis in GCF proteome using LC-MS/MS. Results We identified 305 proteins from GCF of healthy individuals and periodontitis patients collected using a sterile gel loading tip by ESI-MS/MS coupled to nano-LC. Among these proteins, about 45 proteins were differentially expressed in the GCF proteome of moderate periodontitis patients when compared to the healthy individuals. We first identified azurocidin in the GCF, but not the saliva, as an upregulated protein in the periodontitis patients and verified its increased expression during periodontitis by ELISA using the GCF of the classified periodontitis patients compared to the healthy individuals. In addition, we found that azurocidin inhibited the differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages to osteoclasts. Conclusions Our results show that GCF collection using a gel loading tip and subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis following 1D-PAGE proteomic separation are effective for the analysis of the GCF proteome. Our current results also suggest that azurocidin could be a potential biomarker candidate for the early detection of inflammatory periodontal destruction by gingivitis and some chronic periodontitis. Our data also suggest that azurocidin may have an inhibitory role in osteoclast differentiation and, thus, a protective role in alveolar bone loss during the early stages of periodontitis.

  5. Periodontal Disease and Pregnancy Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Babalola, Dolapo A.; Omole, Folashade

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of studies are confirming an association between periodontal disease (PD) and adverse outcomes in pregnancy. PD places pregnant women at greater risk for preterm birth than alcohol consumption or smoking. This underscores the importance of offering dental screening to women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy and the need for physicians who provide obstetric care to be aware of the possible connection between poor dental health and poor pregnancy outcomes.

  6. Relationship between IL1 gene polymorphisms and periodontal disease in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Hanioka, Takashi; Arakawa, Masashi

    2014-04-01

    Epidemiological evidence on the relationship between IL1A and/or IL1B polymorphisms and periodontal disease is inconsistent. We investigated associations between three IL1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding interleukin (IL) -1α (rs1800587) and IL-1β (rs1143634 and rs16944) and the risk of periodontal disease among young Japanese women. A case-control study was performed with a total of 1150 women, including 131 subjects who had at least one tooth with a probing pocket depth of 4 mm or deeper and 1019 periodontally healthy controls. Compared with a reference group of women with the GG genotype of SNP rs16944, those with the GA genotype had a significantly reduced risk of periodontal disease, while there was no significant relationship between the AA genotype and periodontal disease. No evident relationships were observed between SNP rs1800587 or rs1143634 and periodontal disease. Our study did not reveal any evidence of interaction between the IL1 polymorphisms and smoking. The results of this study showed that the heterozygous variant genotype of the IL1 rs16944 was significantly associated with a reduced risk of periodontal disease in young Japanese women. Smoking did not significantly modify the gene-disease associations under study.

  7. Identification of biomarkers for periodontal disease using the immunoproteomics approach

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    Jesinda P. Kerishnan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Periodontitis is one of the most common oral diseases associated with the host’s immune response against periodontopathogenic infection. Failure to accurately diagnose the stage of periodontitis has limited the ability to predict disease status. Therefore, we aimed to look for reliable diagnostic markers for detection or differentiation of early stage periodontitis using the immunoprotemic approach. Method In the present study, patient serum samples from four distinct stages of periodontitis (i.e., mild chronic, moderate chronic, severe chronic, and aggressive and healthy controls were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE, followed by silver staining. Notably, we consistently identified 14 protein clusters in the sera of patients and normal controls. Results Overall, we found that protein levels were comparable between patients and controls, with the exception of the clusters corresponding to A1AT, HP, IGKC and KNG1 (p < 0.05. In addition, the immunogenicity of these proteins was analysed via immunoblotting, which revealed differential profiles for periodontal disease and controls. For this reason, IgM obtained from severe chronic periodontitis (CP sera could be employed as a suitable autoantibody for the detection of periodontitis. Discussion Taken together, the present study suggests that differentially expressed host immune response proteins could be used as potential biomarkers for screening periodontitis. Future studies exploring the diagnostic potential of such factors are warranted.

  8. Serum Ionized Calcium Quantification for Staging Canine Periodontal Disease: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel Carreira, L; Daniela, Dias; Pedro, Azevedo

    2015-06-01

    Periodontal diseases (PD) are infectious, inflammatory, progressive diseases of the oral cavity affecting people and dogs. PD takes 2 forms: gingivitis and periodontitis. Diagnosing or staging PD can be achieved only with dental x-rays and periodontal probing, both of which require the use of general anesthesia in dogs. This study aimed to determine whether serum ionized calcium ([iCa(2+)]) levels can be useful in preliminary PD staging in dogs. A sample of 40 dogs (n = 40) was divided into 4 groups (n = 10 each) based on the following PD stages: G1 (gingivitis), G2 (initial periodontitis), G3 (moderate periodontitis), and G4 (severe periodontitis). The groups were then subjected to [iCa(2+)] quantification. Statistically significant differences were observed between PD stages and [iCa(2+)] for all stages except G3 and G4. Therefore, this parameter can be used as an additional tool to establish and monitor preliminary PD status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Canine periodontitis: the dog as an important model for periodontal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Carlos; Morinha, Francisco; Requicha, João; Martins, Teresa; Dias, Isabel; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Bastos, Estela; Viegas, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Periodontal disease (PD) refers to a group of inflammatory diseases caused by bacterial plaque in the periodontium and ranges from an early stage (gingivitis) to an advanced stage (periodontitis). It is a multifactorial disease that results from the interaction of the host defence mechanisms with the plaque microorganisms. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment are essential in the control of this disease. PD has an enormous impact on human and veterinary medicine due to its high prevalence. The most common animal PD models use dogs and non-human primates, although other animals (rats, mice, hamsters, rabbits, miniature pigs, ferrets, and sheep) have also been employed. Dog models have contributed significantly to the current understanding of periodontology. The most important clinical aspects of canine PD are considered in this review and the various animal models are examined with an emphasis on the role of the dog as the most useful approach for understanding human PD and in the development of new therapeutic and preventive measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Targeted proteomics guided by label-free global proteome analysis in saliva reveal transition signatures from health to periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanci, Nagihan; Selevsek, Nathalie; Wolski, Witold; Grossmann, Jonas; Bao, Kai; Wahlander, Asa; Trachsel, Christian; Schlapbach, Ralph; Özturk, Veli Özgen; Afacan, Beral; Emingil, Gulnur; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2018-04-02

    Periodontal diseases are among the most prevalent worldwide, but largely silent, chronic diseases. They affect the tooth-supporting tissues with multiple ramifications on life quality. Their early diagnosis is still challenging, due to lack of appropriate molecular diagnostic methods. Saliva offers a non-invasively collectable reservoir of clinically relevant biomarkers, which, if utilized efficiently, could facilitate early diagnosis and monitoring of ongoing disease. Despite several novel protein markers being recently enlisted by discovery proteomics, their routine diagnostic application is hampered by the lack of validation platforms that allow for rapid, accurate and simultaneous quantification of multiple proteins in large cohorts. We carried out a pipeline of two proteomic platforms; firstly, we applied open ended label-free quantitative (LFQ) proteomics for discovery in saliva (n=67, health, gingivitis, and periodontitis), followed by selected-reaction monitoring (SRM)-targeted proteomics for validation in an independent cohort (n=82). The LFQ platform led to the discovery of 119 proteins with at least two-fold significant difference between health and disease. The 65 proteins chosen for the subsequent SRM platform included 50 related proteins derived from the significantly enriched processes of the LFQ data, 11 from literature-mining, and four house-keeping ones. Among those, 60 were reproducibly quantifiable proteins (92% success rate), represented by a total of 143 peptides. Machine-learning modeling led to a narrowed-down panel of five proteins of high predictive value for periodontal diseases (higher in disease: Matrix metalloproteinase-9, Ras-related protein-1, Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 5; lower in disease: Clusterin, Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1), with maximum area under the receiver operating curve >0.97. This panel enriches the pool of credible clinical biomarker candidates for diagnostic assay development. Yet, the quantum

  11. Total salivary nitrates and nitrites in oral health and periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gabriel A; Miozza, Valeria A; Delgado, Alejandra; Busch, Lucila

    2014-01-30

    It is well known that nitrites are increased in saliva from patients with periodontal disease. In the oral cavity, nitrites may derive partly from the reduction of nitrates by oral bacteria. Nitrates have been reported as a defence-related mechanism. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the salivary levels of total nitrate and nitrite and their relationship, in unstimulated and stimulated saliva from periodontal healthy subjects, and from patients with chronic periodontal disease. Nitrates and nitrites were determined in saliva from thirty healthy subjects and forty-four patients with periodontal disease. A significant increase in salivary nitrates and nitrites was observed. Nitrates and nitrites concentration was related to clinical attachment level (CAL). A positive and significant Pearson's correlation was found between salivary total nitrates and nitrites. Periodontal treatment induced clinical improvement and decreased nitrates and nitrites. It is concluded that salivary nitrates and nitrites increase, in patients with periodontal disease, could be related to defence mechanisms. The possibility that the salivary glands respond to oral infectious diseases by increasing nitrate secretion should be explored further. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Deoxypyridinoline level in gingival crevicular fluid as alveolar bone loss biomarker in periodontal disease

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    Agustin Wulan Suci Dharmayanti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal diseases have high prevalence in Indonesia. They are caused by bacteria plaque that induced host response to release pro inflammatory mediator. Pro inflammatory mediators and bacteria product cause degradation of collagen fibers in periodontal tissue. Deoxypyridinoline is one of pyridinoline cross-link of collagen type I that can be used as biomarker in bone metabolic diseases, however, their contribution to detect alveolar bone loss in periodontal diseases remains unclear. Purpose: This study was to evaluate deoxypyridinoline level in gingival crevicular fluid as alveolar bone loss biomarker on periodontal disease. Methods: This study used 24 subjects with periodontal diseases and 6 healthy subjects. Dividing of periodontal disease was based on index periodontal. Gingival crevicular fluid was taken at mesial site of maxillary posterior tooth by paper point and deoxypyridinoline be measured by ELISA technique. Results: We found increasing of deoxypyridinoline level following of the severity of periodontal diseases. There was also significant difference between healthy subjects and periodontal diseases subjects (p<0.05. Conclusion: Deoxypyridinoline level in gingiva crevicular fluid can be used as alveolar bone loss biomarker in periodontal disease subjects.Latar belakang: Prevalensi penyakit periodontal di Indonesia cukup tinggi. Ini disebabkan oleh bakteri plak yang merangsang respon tubuh untuk mengeluarkan mediator keradangan. Mediator keradangan dan produk bakteri menyebabkan degradasi serat kolagen jaringan periodontal. Deoksipiridinolin merupakan salah satu ikatan piridinium dari kolagen tipe I yang dapat digunakan sebagai biomarker penyakit metabolisme tubuh. Akan tetapi, penggunaan deoksipiridinolin untuk mendeteksi kehilangan tulang alveolar pada penyakit periodontal masih belum jelas. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui bahwa kadar deoksipiridinolin pada cairan krevikular gingival dapat digunakan

  13. Evidenced-based review of clinical studies on periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Periodontal diseases have several implications for the practice of endodontics. First, advanced periodontitis often has direct implications for the long-term prognosis of the case and requires careful evaluation and coordinated treatment of both the periodontic and endodontic diseases. Second, the potential for functional interactions between odontogenic pathoses and marginal periodontitis requires careful collection of clinical observations and monitoring the outcome of various treatments. In this section, we provide an analysis of recent clinical studies in this area.

  14. Mast Cell Stabilizers as Host Modulatory Drugs to Prevent and Control Periodontal Disease

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    Dhoom Singh Mehta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mast cells are among the first cells to get in-volved in periodontal inflammation. Their numbers have been shown to be in-creased in cases of gingivitis and periodontal disease. The hypothesis: Since mast cell stabilizers like sodium cromogly-cate (SCG and nedocromil sodium (NS have been used in the prophylaxis of bronchial asthma without any significant adverse effects and also the fact that drugs like SCG show significant anti-inflammatory activities, it would be logical to use mast cell stabilizers as host modulating drugs for the treatment and prevention of peri-odontal disease. Evaluation of the hypothesis: Safety and efficacy of both SCG and NS are well documented. So, it will be systemically safe to use in humans. However, oral administration SCG or delivery of the drug by means local irrigation will not be very useful because SCG may not be secreted in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF(as in the case of oral administraion or the drug may get washed out from periodontal pocket due to the constant flow of GCF(as in the case of irrigation. A local or targeted drug delivery of mast cell stabilizers can be used in patients with periodontal disease. Role of mast cells in periodontal disease has been dealt in-depth in many studies and articles. However, limited amount of research has been done on using mast cell stabilizers in the prevention and control of periodontal diseases. More studies are needed to study the efficacy and effective-ness of mast cell stabilizers as an adjunct to phase I therapy in the control of periodontal disease.

  15. Awareness and knowledge of periodontal disease among Saudi primary school teachers in Aseer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshehri, Abdulrahman Ahmed Mohammed; Alshehri, Fawaz Dhafer Abdullah; Hakami, Khalid Yahya Abdo; Assiri, Zayed Ali Ahmad; Alshehri, Abdulrahim Abdullah Mohammed; Alqahtani, Zafer Ali Zafer

    2017-01-01

    The consequences of periodontal disease are not limited to the oral cavity. As schools are considered to be one of the principal systems in preventive oral health, teachers' knowledge pertaining to the periodontal disease, their awareness with regard to its implications and their role in increasing the awareness of the students regarding this disease comprises only one aspect with respect to the prevention of the periodontal disease. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the baseline awareness and knowledge of Saudi primary school teachers regarding the periodontal disease. For this purpose, a questionnaire was distributed among the participants of the study. It was observed that 91.4% of the participants reported that the periodontal disease does not need any treatment although 70% of the participants believed that it could result in tooth loss, and 95% considered the periodontal disease to be a preventable disease. Moreover, social media (44%) and television advertisements (39%) were the main sources from where they acquired information about the periodontal disease. Most participants have heard about the importance of periodontal health but are not sufficiently aware of its consequences and negative effects on their body. They are used to receiving information about periodontal diseases from nondental clinics and unreliable sources. This creates misconceptions. Although the participants were keen to attend educational events on periodontal health, the lack of medical communication between the health practitioners and the general public is evident. Mostly, investigated areas and individuals do not have any educational means to be aware of periodontal health.

  16. Comparative analysis of salivary sialic acid levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic periodontitis patients: A biochemical study

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    Surekha Rathod

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sialic acid plays a central role in the functioning of biological systems, in stabilizing the glycoproteins and cellular membranes, assisting in cell–cell recognition and interaction. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the periodontal health status and salivary Sialic acid levels in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD and chronic periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects were included in the study, which were divided into the following groups, 30 in each group. Group 1: patients suffering from COPD and chronic periodontitis, Group 2: periodontitis patients without any systemic diseases Group 3: healthy subjects. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected around 9–10 AM; 2 h after the subjects had breakfast. The sialic acid content was determined by a combined modification of the thiobarbituric acid method of Skoza and Mohos. Results: The mean salivary sialic acid levels were least in the healthy group followed by the periodontitis group, and it was highest in the COPD group. Conclusions: We can thus conclude that promotion of dental care knowledge is very much essential in the prevention and treatment of COPD. Thus, estimation of levels of salivary sialic acid can be used as an adjunct to diagnose the current periodontal disease status and to assess the treatment outcomes in subjects with COPD and chronic periodontitis.

  17. The Prevalence of Canine Oral Protozoa and Their Association with Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Niran; Colyer, Alison; Harris, Steve; Holcombe, Lucy; Andrew, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Periodontal disease is one of the most important health concerns for companion animals. Research into canine forms of periodontitis has focused on the identification and characterization of the bacterial communities present. However, other microorganisms are known to inhabit the oral cavity and could also influence the disease process. A novel, broad spectrum 18S PCR was developed and used, in conjunction with next-generation sequencing analyses to target the identification of protists. Trichomonas sp. and Entamoeba sp. were identified from 92 samples of canine plaque. The overall prevalence of trichomonads was 56.52% (52/92) and entamoebae was 4.34% (4/92). Next-generation sequencing of pooled healthy, gingivitis, early-stage periodontitis, and severe periodontitis samples revealed the proportion of trichomonad sequences to be 3.51% (health), 2.84% (gingivitis), 6.07% (early periodontitis), and 35.04% (severe periodontitis), respectively, and entamoebae to be 0.01% (health), 0.01% (gingivitis), 0.80% (early-stage periodontitis), and 7.91% (severe periodontitis) respectively. Both genera of protists were statistically associated with plaque from dogs with periodontal disease. These findings provide the first conclusive evidence for the presence of oral protozoa in dog plaque and suggest a possible role for protozoa in the periodontal disease process. © 2016 The Author(s) The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society of Protistologists.

  18. A study on periodontal disease and systemic disease relationship a hospital based study in Bangalore

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    Sukhvinder Singh Oberoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal deterioration has been reported to be associated with various systemic conditions like Cardiovascular disease, Diabetes, Respiratory disease, Liver cirrhosis, Bacterial Pneumonia, Nutritional deficiencies and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Aim: To assess the periodontal disease among patients with systemic disease/conditions. Materials and Method: A total of 500 patients with systemic disease/conditions (Diabetes, Cardiovascular disease, Respiratory disease and Renal disease and 500-age and gender matched controls without systemic disease/conditions were selected from the Government Hospitals in Bangalore City. The medical conditions were recorded and the periodontal status of the study population was assessed using the CPITN index. Results: The prevalence of CPITN Code 4 was found to be more among the patients with systemic disease/conditions (46.2%. The mean number of sextants with CPITN code 3 and 4 were more among the patients with systemic disease/conditions. The prevalence of CPITN code was found to be more among the patients with Respiratory disease whereas the mean number of sextants was found to be more among the patients with Diabetes, Cardiovascular and Renal disease. Conclusion: It may be concluded that the systemic diseases/conditions are associated with higher severity of periodontal disease.

  19. The Landscape of Protein Biomarkers Proposed for Periodontal Disease: Markers with Functional Meaning

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    Nuno Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease (PD is characterized by a deregulated inflammatory response which fails to resolve, activating bone resorption. The identification of the proteomes associated with PD has fuelled biomarker proposals; nevertheless, many questions remain. Biomarker selection should favour molecules representing an event which occurs throughout the disease progress. The analysis of proteome results and the information available for each protein, including its functional role, was accomplished using the OralOme database. The integrated analysis of this information ascertains if the suggested proteins reflect the cell and/or molecular mechanisms underlying the different forms of periodontal disease. The evaluation of the proteins present/absent or with very different concentrations in the proteome of each disease state was used for the identification of the mechanisms shared by different PD variants or specific to such state. The information presented is relevant for the adequate design of biomarker panels for PD. Furthermore, it will open new perspectives and help envisage future studies targeted to unveil the functional role of specific proteins and help clarify the deregulation process in the PD inflammatory response.

  20. Periodontal disease and intra-amniotic complications in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radochova, Vladimira; Kacerovska Musilova, Ivana; Stepan, Martin; Vescicik, Peter; Slezak, Radovan; Jacobsson, Bo; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2017-08-04

    Periodontal disease is frequently suggested as a possible causal factor for preterm delivery. The link between periodontal disease and preterm delivery is a possible translocation of periopathogenic bacteria to the placenta and amniotic fluid as well as a systemic response to this chronic inflammatory disease. However, there is a lack of information on whether there is an association between clinical periodontal status in women with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and the presence of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI). Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and severity of periodontal disease in women with PPROM. The secondary aim was to characterize an association between periodontal status and the presence of intra-amniotic PPROM complications (MIAC and/or IAI). Seventy-eight women with PPROM at gestational ages between 24 + 0 and 36 + 6 weeks were included in this study. The samples of amniotic fluid were obtained at admission via transabdominal amniocentesis, and amniotic fluid interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations were determined using a point-of-care test. All women had a full-mouth recording to determine the periodontal and oral hygiene status. Probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss were measured at four sites on each fully erupted tooth. In total, 45% (35/78) of women with PPROM had periodontal disease. Mild, moderate, and severe periodontal disease was present in 19% (15/78), 19% (15/78), and 6% (5/78) of women, respectively. The presence of MIAC and IAI was found in 28% (22/78) and 26% (20/78) of women, respectively. Periopathogenic bacteria (2 × Streptococcus intermedius and 1 × Fusobacterium nucleatum) was found in the amniotic fluid of 4% (3/78) of women. There were no differences in periodontal status between women with MIAC and/or IAI and women without these intra-amniotic complications. The presence of MIAC and IAI was not related

  1. Periodontal disease in three siblings with familial neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirstilä, V; Sewón, L; Laine, J

    1993-06-01

    The periodontal status and treatment of three teenagers in a Finnish family with familial neutropenia is described. The mother was also diagnosed with neutropenia. At initial examination, the 15-year-old male and the 10-year-old female had severe periodontitis, whereas the 13-year-old male had oral ulcerations but no significant periodontal disease. The two siblings with periodontitis were treated and followed approximately 5 years. It was concluded that periodontal therapy including scaling, surgery, and use of antimicrobial agents can be successful in patients with familial neutropenia, and that such patients are not necessarily candidates for full mouth extraction. The role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in which was used in the treatment of these patients remains to be established.

  2. A review of the relationship between tooth loss, periodontal disease, and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mara S; Joshipura, Kaumudi; Giovannucci, Edward; Michaud, Dominique S

    2008-11-01

    Recent studies have investigated the association between periodontal disease, tooth loss, and several systemic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and preterm birth. Periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory condition, is highly prevalent in adult populations around the world, and may be preventable. Estimates of prevalence vary between races and geographic regions, with a marked increase in the occurrence of periodontal disease with advancing age. Worldwide estimates for the prevalence of severe periodontal disease generally range from 10 to 15%. The relationship between oral health and cancer has been examined for a number of specific cancer sites. Several studies have reported associations between periodontal disease or tooth loss and risk of oral, upper gastrointestinal, lung, and pancreatic cancer in different populations. In a number of studies, these associations persisted after adjustment for major risk factors, including cigarette smoking and socioeconomic status. This review provides a summary of these findings, discusses possible biological mechanisms involved, and raises methodological issues related to studying these relationships.

  3. 16S rRNA based microarray analysis of ten periodontal bacteria in patients with different forms of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcuoglu, Nursen; Kulekci, Guven

    2015-10-01

    DNA microarray analysis is a computer based technology, that a reverse capture, which targets 10 periodontal bacteria (ParoCheck) is available for rapid semi-quantitative determination. The aim of this three-year retrospective study was to display the microarray analysis results for the subgingival biofilm samples taken from patient cases diagnosed with different forms of periodontitis. A total of 84 patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP,n:29), generalized chronic periodontitis (GCP, n:25), peri-implantitis (PI,n:14), localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP,n:8) and refractory chronic periodontitis (RP,n:8) were consecutively selected from the archives of the Oral Microbiological Diagnostic Laboratory. The subgingival biofilm samples were analyzed by the microarray-based identification of 10 selected species. All the tested species were detected in the samples. The red complex bacteria were the most prevalent with very high levels in all groups. Fusobacterium nucleatum was detected in all samples at high levels. The green and blue complex bacteria were less prevalent compared with red and orange complex, except Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitas was detected in all LAP group. Positive correlations were found within all the red complex bacteria and between red and orange complex bacteria especially in GCP and GAP groups. Parocheck enables to monitoring of periodontal pathogens in all forms of periodontal disease and can be alternative to other guiding and reliable microbiologic tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Discrimination of periodontal diseases using diffuse reflectance spectral intensity ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Sekhar, Prasanth; Betsy, Joseph; Presanthila, Janam; Subhash, Narayanan

    2012-02-01

    This clinical study was to demonstrate the applicability of diffuse reflectance (DR) intensity ratio R620/R575 in the quantification and discrimination of periodontitis and gingivitis from healthy gingiva. DR spectral measurements were carried out with white-light illumination from 70 healthy sites in 30 healthy volunteers, and 63 gingivitis- and 58 periodontitis-infected sites in 60 patients. Clinical parameters such as probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and gingival index were recorded in patient population. Diagnostic accuracies for discrimination of gingivitis and periodontitis from healthy gingiva were determined by comparison of spectral signatures with clinical parameters. Divergence of average DR spectral intensity ratio between control and test groups was studied using analysis of variance. The mean DR spectrum on normalization at 620 nm showed marked differences between healthy tissue, gingivitis, and periodontitis. Hemoglobin concentration and apparent SO2 (oxygen saturation) were also calculated for healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis sites. DR spectral intensities at 545 and 575 nm showed a decreasing trend with progression of disease. Among the various DR intensity ratios studied, the R620/R575 ratio provided a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 94% for discrimination of healthy tissues from gingivitis and a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 100% for discrimination of gingivitis from periodontitis.

  5. Periodontal Disease and Pregnancy Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolapo A. Babalola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies are confirming an association between periodontal disease (PD and adverse outcomes in pregnancy. PD places pregnant women at greater risk for preterm birth than alcohol consumption or smoking. This underscores the importance of offering dental screening to women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy and the need for physicians who provide obstetric care to be aware of the possible connection between poor dental health and poor pregnancy outcomes.

  6. The association of periodontal disease with kidney function decline: a longitudinal retrospective analysis of the MrOS dental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Vanessa; Vittinghoff, Eric; Taylor, George; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Powe, Neil; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Ishani, Areef; Cummings, Steven R

    2016-03-01

    Identifying modifiable risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) is essential for reducing its burden. Periodontal disease is common, modifiable and has been implicated as a novel potential CKD risk factor, but evidence of its association with kidney function decline over time is limited. In a longitudinal retrospective cohort of 761 elderly men with preserved kidney function [estimated glomerular filtration rate > 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) using a calibrated creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys) equation] at baseline, we performed multivariable Poisson's regression to examine the association of severe periodontal disease with incident CKD, defined as incident eGFRcr-cys 5% annualized) eGFRcr-cys decline. Severe periodontal disease was defined in two ways: (i) ≥5 mm proximal attachment loss in 30% of teeth examined (European Workshop in Periodontology Group C, European Workshop); and (ii) 2+ interproximal sites with attachment loss ≥6 mm and 1+ interproximal sites with probing depth ≥5 mm (Centers for Disease Control/American Academy of Periodontology, CDC/AAP). At baseline, the mean age was 73.4 (SD 4.8) years, the median eGFRcr-cys was 82.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and 35.5 and 25.4% of participants had severe periodontal disease by European Workshop and CDC/AAP criteria, respectively. After a mean follow-up of 4.9 years (SD 0.3), 56 (7.4%) participants had incident CKD. Severe periodontal disease was associated with a 2-fold greater rate of incident CKD [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.01 (1.21-3.44), P = 0.007] after adjusting for confounders compared with not severe periodontal disease by European Workshop criteria but did not reach statistical significance by CDC/AAP criteria [IRR 1.10 (0.63-1.91), P = 0.9]. Severe periodontal disease may be associated with incident clinically significant kidney function decline among a cohort of elderly men. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of the participation of MMP-7, EMMPRIN and cyclophilin A in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Nóbrega, Fernando José; de Oliveira, Denise Hélen Imaculada Pereira; Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Gadelha; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes

    2016-12-01

    Periodontal disease is an infectious disease resulting from the immunoinflammatory response of the host to microorganisms present in the dental biofilm which causes tissue destruction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP-7), extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and cyclophilin A (CypA) in periodontal disease. Gingival tissue samples were divided as follows: clinically healthy gingiva (n=32), biofilm-induced gingivitis (n=28), and chronic periodontitis (n=30). Histological sections of 3μm were submitted to immunoperoxidase method and undergone quantitative analysis. The results were analyzed statistically by the Mann-Whitney and Spearman correlation tests, with the level of significance set at 0.05 (α=0.05). Immunopositivity for MMP-7, EMMPRIN and CypA differed significantly between the three groups, with higher percentages of staining in chronic periodontitis specimens, followed by chronic gingivitis and healthy gingiva specimens (pEMMPRIN (r=0.289; p=0.006). In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between probing depth and expression of MMP-7 (r=0.726; pEMMPRIN (r=0.345; p=0.001), and CypA (r=0.803; pEMMPRIN and CypA are associated with the pathogenesis and progression of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between periodontal disease and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) - a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Deepika S; Verma, Mahesh; Lamba, Arundeep Kaur; Gupta, Madhavi M; Sharma, Shashi; Perumal, Vanamail

    2018-04-03

    The present study aims to determine the association between periodontal disease and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and the effect of this association on pregnancy outcome in North Indian population. A total of 584 primigravidae were recruited at 12-14 weeks of gestation. Their periodontal examination was done along with 75g oral glucose load test at the time of recruitment. GDM was diagnosed as per the DIPSI (The Diabetes in Pregnancy Study group India) guidelines (≥140mg/dL). Women with normal plasma glucose values underwent a repeat 75g oral glucose load test at 24-28 weeks of gestation. All patients were followed up for pregnancy outcomes. Out of 584 primigravida, 184 (31.5%) had gingivitis and 148 (25.3%) had periodontitis. Overall, 332 (56.8%) pregnant women had periodontal disease. It was associated with GDM with adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 2.85 (95%CI=1.47-5.53). The occurrence of preeclampsia was associated with periodontal disease with aHR of 2.20 (95%CI=0.86-5.60). If primigravidae had periodontal disease along with GDM, the risk of preeclampsia had shown increased aHR of 18.79 (95% CI= 7.45 - 47.40). The study shows a significant association of periodontal disease with GDM and an increased risk of developing preeclampsia due to this association. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Periodontitis and risk of psoriasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungprasert, P; Wijarnpreecha, K; Wetter, D A

    2017-05-01

    The association between periodontitis and systemic diseases has been increasingly recognized. However, the data on the association between periodontitis and psoriasis are still limited. To summarize all available data on the association between periodontitis and the risk of psoriasis. Two investigators independently searched published studies indexed in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from inception to July 2016 using a search strategy that included terms for psoriasis and periodontitis. Studies were included if the following criteria were met: (i) case-control or cohort study comparing the risk of psoriasis in subjects with and without periodontitis; (ii) subjects without periodontitis were used as comparators in cohort studies while participants without psoriasis were used as controls in case-control studies; and (iii) effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were provided. Point estimates and standard errors from each study were extracted and combined together using the generic inverse variance technique described by DerSimonian and Laird. Two cohort studies and three case-control studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled risk ratio of psoriasis in patients with periodontitis versus comparators was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.35-1.77). The statistical heterogeneity was insignificant with an I 2 of 18%. Subgroup analysis according to study design revealed a significantly higher risk among patients with periodontitis with a pooled RR of 1.50 (95% CI, 1.37-1.64) for cohort studies and a pooled RR of 2.33 (95% CI, 1.51-3.60) for case-control studies. Patients with periodontitis have a significantly elevated risk of psoriasis. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  10. Prostaglandin E and the local immune response in chronic periodontal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loening, T.; Albers, H.-K.; Lisboa, B.P.; Burkhardt, A.; Caselitz, J.

    1980-01-01

    The local immune reaction of progressive chronic periodontal disease may be particularly influenced by macrophages and macrophage-derived factors. Among these substances the prostaglandins and lysosomal enzymes may play an important pathogenetic role. Parallel immunohistochemical and radioimmunological studies were done to investigate the relatiships of the immune-competent cells and the inflammatory mediators in gingival tissues. The radioimmunological analysis revealed that prostaglandin E increases markedly in the established gingival lesions. Immunohistochemically prostaglandin E was mainly localized within macrophage-like cells. Cytoplasmic lysozyme could be detected in these cells, too. On the other hand, the B-cell response is the prominent feature in established chronic periodontal disease. However, there is apparently a disturbed B-cell reaction as indicated by the irregular IgG-subclass pattern and by the production of mainly monomeric IgA. The possible interactions of macrophages and especially B-cells via prostaglandin E-mediated mechanisms are discussed. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the prevalence of periodontal disease as a non-classical risk factor in the group of patients undergoing hip and/or knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkiewicz, Karolina; Płatek, Anna E; Łęgosz, Paweł; Czerniuk, Maciej R; Małdyk, Paweł; Szymański, Filip M

    2018-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic disease causing an inflammatory process that affects various organs and is as-sociated with an increased risk of many diseases, including bone and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of periodontal disease in continuous patients scheduled for hip or knee replacement surgery. The study was a prospective, epidemiological analysis performed in consecutive patients scheduled for total joint (hip or knee) replacement surgery. Patients enrolled into the study were screened for classical risk factors and had a dental evaluation performed for the diagnosis of periodontal disease. The study population consisted of 228 patients. A total of 137 (60.1%) patients were scheduled for a hip replace-ment surgery, while 91 (39.9%) had a knee replacement. The mean age of the study population was 66.8 ± 12.2 years, and 83 (36.4%) patients were male. A clinically significant disease was present in 65 (28.5%) cases, while all (100%) of the patients had at least minimal signs of periodontal disease. In patients with periodontal disease the percentage of tartar involvement of the teeth was 33.1 ± 26.8%, mean dental plaque coverage was 48.1 ± 29.8%, and bleeding occurred at a rate of 35.4 ± 29%. As for the hygiene level, it was generally poor in the majority of patients with periodontal disease. No differences in terms of baseline risk factors were present between patients with and without periodontal disease. In conclusion, periodontal diseases are highly prevalent in patients undergoing hip and/or knee replacement surgery. The presence of the periodontal disease is possibly associated with a worse prognosis and should be treated.

  12. Surgical extractions for periodontal disease in a Western Lowland gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, John F

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes surgical exraction of multiple premolar and molar teeth in a Western Lowland gorilla. Postoperative photographs and radiographs indicated complete healing of the extraction sites. This case report includes a review of gorilla dental anatomy, oral disease in primates, pathogenesis of periodontal disease, predisposing factors to periodontal disease, and principles of surgical tooth extraction.

  13. Effects of periodontal treatment on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with lifestyle-related diseases: Japanese prospective multicentre observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Chieko; Shin, Wee Soo; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Harai, Kazuo; Kato, Kai; Seino, Hiroaki; Goke, Eiji; Fujino, Takemasa; Kuribayashi, Nobuichi; Pearce, Youko Onuki; Taira, Masato; Matsushima, Ryoji; Minabe, Masato; Takashiba, Shogo

    2018-01-12

    Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease in arterial blood vessels, is one of the major causes of death in worldwide. Meanwhile, periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by infection with periodontal pathogens such as P. gingivalis (Porphyromonas gingivalis). Several studies have reported association between periodontal infection and atherosclerosis, but direct investigation about the effects of periodontal treatment on atherosclerosis has not been reported. We have planned Japanese local clinics to determine the relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis under collaborative with medical and dental care. A prospective, multicentre, observational study was conducted including 38 medical patients with lifestyle-related diseases in the stable period under consultation at participating medical clinics and 92 periodontal patients not undergoing medical treatment but who were consulting at participating dental clinics. Systemic and periodontal examinations were performed before and after periodontal treatment. At baseline, LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) levels and percentage (%) of mobile teeth were positively related to plasma IgG (immunoglobulin) antibody titer against P. gingivalis with multivariate analysis. Corresponding to improvements in periodontal clinical parameters after treatment, right and left max IMT (maximum intima-media thickness) levels were decreased significantly after treatment (SPT-S: start of supportive periodontal therapy, SPT-1y: at 1 year under SPT, and SPT-3y: at 3 years under SPT). The present study has clarified our previous univariate analysis results, wherein P. gingivalis infection was positively associated with progression of atherosclerosis. Thus, routine screening using plasma IgG antibody titer against P. gingivalis and periodontal treatment under collaborative with medical and dental care may prevent cardiovascular accidents caused by atherosclerosis.

  14. An example of measurement and reporting of periodontal loss of attachment (LOA) in epidemiological studies: smoking and periodontal tissue destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paidi, S; Pack, A R; Thomson, W M

    1999-12-01

    The measurement and reporting of periodontal disease in epidemiological studies can be complex, with the common indices having well-recognised shortcomings. The aim of this study was to illustrate the use of the periodontal loss of attachment (LOA) approach in investigating the association between cigarette smoking and loss of periodontal attachment in a convenience sample of adults, in order to determine whether or not smoking was a risk indicator for periodontal disease. All participants were given a detailed periodontal clinical examination in two randomly assigned contralateral diagonal quadrants, with LOA measurements made at six sites per tooth. Information was also collected on participants' socio-demographic characteristics, oral hygiene practices, smoking history, and attitudes towards smoking. The 240 participants examined comprised 81 current smokers (CS), 79 former smokers (FS) and 80 nonsmokers (NS). Substantial differences and a gradient in disease existed for LOA among the three groups. CS exhibited the greatest (and NS the least) prevalence, extent, and severity of LOA. CS had more plaque and calculus than either of the other two groups, but the groups did not differ with respect to bleeding on probing. Overall, smoking was associated with the disease outcome, and this persisted after potential confounders were controlled using multivariate analysis. Although the observed differences may have been due to the self-selected nature of the sample, the gradient evident across the three smoking exposure groups suggests that smoking cessation can slow the progression of the disease. The LOA approach appears to be a versatile and informative method for recording, analysing, and presenting data on periodontitis in epidemiological studies.

  15. The Effects of Mechanical Treatment on Microbiological Parameters in Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazăr Luminiţa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial plaque has the primary etiologic role in triggering the pathological changes of periodontal disease. A major goal of periodontal therapy is supraand subgingival bacterial flora reduction through scaling and root planning, through local and general antimicrobial treatment. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the mechanical treatment of scaling and root planning in reducing or suppressing bacterial species from the periodontal pockets. In order to conduct this study we collected and analyzed subgingival plaque samples taken from the 50 periodontal pockets with a depth of about 5mm, from 50 subjects with diagnosis of generalized chronic periodontitis, before and after scaling and root planning. The usage of API 20A test allows a quick and easy identification of anaerobic bacteria based on biochemical properties. Additional complementary tests were used, such as examining the culture and the morpho-tinctorial features to confirm and complete the identification. The microbial flora that we were able to isolate from the periodontal pockets before scaling and root planning was very rich. After scaling and root planning the subjects showed clinical improvement in the periodontal status, and the microbiological analysis of the periodontal pockets mostly showed a quantitative and qualitative reduction of bacterial species. A local or general antimicrobial treatment is recommended to assure improved effectiveness because mechanical treatment alone cannot completely suppress bacterial flora.

  16. Optimal timing of periodontal disease treatment for prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes: before or during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xu; Buekens, Pierre; Goldenberg, Robert L; Offenbacher, Steven; Qian, Xu

    2011-08-01

    Several large randomized controlled clinical trials failed to find that standard periodontal therapy during pregnancy reduces the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes (eg, preterm birth and low birthweight). However, treating periodontal disease during pregnancy may be too late to reduce the inflammation that is related to the adverse pregnancy outcomes. Moreover, periodontal treatment during pregnancy can cause bacteremia, which itself may initiate the pathway leading to the adverse pregnancy outcomes. Finally, the periodontal treatments provided during pregnancy are not always effective in preventing the progression of periodontal disease during pregnancy. Pregnancy may not be an appropriate period for periodontal intervention(s). We hypothesize that periodontal treatment before pregnancy may reduce the rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to test if treating periodontal disease in the prepregnancy period reduces the rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnosis and management of periodontal disease in children and adolescents: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Kini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease when occurring in children leads to premature tooth loss, affecting the quality of life. Thus, screening pediatric and adolescent patients early, for periodontal disease is deemed imperative to its early management for improved prognosis. Chronic periodontitis (CP has slow rate of progression, whereas aggressive periodontitis (AP affecting children and young adults has rapid rate of progression. The management of AP in particular is affected by bacterial virulence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in plaque leading to rapid attachment and bone loss around the affected teeth. Nonsurgical treatment, use of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, and surgical correction of defects is required to mitigate disease followed by a comprehensive supportive periodontal therapy. This review visits the current understanding of periodontal disease, its management in pediatric and adolescent patients.

  18. Periodontal Pocket Depth, Hyperglycemia, and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jia-Feng; Yeh, Jih-Chen; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Liou, Jian-Chiun; Hsiung, Jing-Ru; Tung, Tao-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    No large epidemiological study has been conducted to investigate the interaction and joint effects of periodontal pocket depth and hyperglycemia on progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with periodontal diseases. Periodontal pocket depth was utilized for the grading severity of periodontal disease in 2831 patients from January 2002 to June 2013. Progression of chronic kidney disease was defined as progression of color intensity in glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria grid of updated Kidney Disease-Improving Global Outcomes guidelines. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) in various models were presented across different levels of periodontal pocket depth and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in forest plots and 3-dimensional histograms. During 7621 person-years of follow-up, periodontal pocket depth and HbA1C levels were robustly associated with incremental risks for progression of chronic kidney disease (aHR 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-4.6 for periodontal pocket depth >4.5 mm, and 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.4 for HbA1C >6.5%, respectively). The interaction between periodontal pocket depth and HbA1C on progression of chronic kidney disease was strong (P periodontal pocket depth (>4.5 mm) and higher HbA1C (>6.5%) had the greatest risk (aHR 4.2; 95% CI, 1.7-6.8) compared with the lowest aHR group (periodontal pocket depth ≤3.8 mm and HbA1C ≤6%). Our study identified combined periodontal pocket depth and HbA1C as a valuable predictor of progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with periodontal diseases. While considering the interaction between periodontal diseases and hyperglycemia, periodontal survey and optimizing glycemic control are warranted to minimize the risk of worsening renal function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxidative Stress and Dietary Fat Type in Relation to Periodontal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the main factors studied to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms of inflammatory conditions, such as periodontitis. In this respect, nutrition may be of great importance. Actually, research on nutrients’ effects on periodontal diseases has expanded to include those influencing the redox status, which correlates to the inflammatory process. Dietary fat or lipids are often blamed as the major source of excess energy. Consequently, when caloric intake exceeds energy expenditure, the resultant substrate-induced increase in citric acid cycle activity generates an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS. In addition, dietary fatty acid intake influences in relative fatty acid composition of biological membranes determining its susceptibility to oxidative alterations. From this standpoint, here, we reviewed studies analyzing the dietary fat role in periodontal disease. Research data suggest that periodontal health could be achieved by main dietary strategies which include substitution of saturated fats with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, particularly n-3 PUFA. Maybe in the future, we should analyze the diet and provide some advice to periodontitis patients to improve treatment outcomes.

  20. Indagation of serum and salivary reactive oxygen metabolite and cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis and stress-induced chronic periodontitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sudhakar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal disease is not a conventional bacterial infection but is an inflammatory disease initiated by immune response against a group of microorganisms in susceptible hosts. There are many intriguing researches that unfold the secrets of chronic periodontitis. The current researches in chronic periodontitis are directed toward an approach that respects the scientific relationship between the various risk factors, the genetic factors, and the progression of the disease. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the cortisol and reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM concentration in serum and to find out their association in periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods: In this study, totally thirty patients have been taken and divided into two groups of chronic periodontitis (Group I and stress-induced chronic periodontitis (Group II and evaluated the correlation between the ROM and cortisol levels in them. This is the first study, where both the levels of ROM and cortisol are checked in the serum and saliva. The analysis is done to check the association between them. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed using software program (SPSSV 16, Pearson correlation, and paired t-test. Results: Comparison of the mean ROM levels in Group I and Group II showed that mean ROM level in Group II is highly significant than Group I. Conclusion: Our study suggests that stress can have a role in the progression of periodontal disease by increasing the cortisol and ROM levels.

  1. Degenerative periodontal-diseases and oral osteonecrosis: The role of gene-environment interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, D.; Izzotti, A.; Bonica, P.; Pera, P.; Pulliero, A.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic-degenerative dentistry diseases, including periodontal diseases and oral osteonecrosis, are widespread in human populations and represent a significant problem for public health. These diseases result from pathogenic mechanisms created by the interaction between environmental genotoxic risk-factors and genetic assets conferring individual susceptibility. Osteonecrosis occurs in subjects undergoing exposure to high doses of DNA-damaging agents for chemo- and radiotherapy of neoplastic diseases. In susceptible patients, ionizing radiation and biphosphonate-chemotherapy induce severe, progressive, and irreversible degeneration of facial bones, resulting in avascular necrosis of the jaw. This may also occur in patients receiving biphosphonate for osteoporosis therapy. Periodontal diseases include chronic, aggressive, and necrotizing periodontitis, often resulting in severe alteration of periodontal tissues and tooth loss. Cigarette smoking and chronic inflammation caused by specific bacteria are the main risk factors for periodontitis. Oxidative damage plays a fundamental pathogenic role, as established by detection of mitochondrial DNA damage in the gingival tissue of patients with periodontitis. Endogenous risk factors in dental diseases include polymorphisms for metabolic enzymes such as glutathione transferases M1 and T1, N-acetyl transferase 2, and CYP 1A1. Other genetic polymorphisms that confer susceptibility to dentistry diseases affect genes encoding metalloproteases (involved in periodontal tissue remodeling and degradation), cytokines (involved in inflammation), prothrombin, and DNA repair activities. These findings provide evidence that dentistry diseases are related to risk factors associated with environmental mutagenesis. This issue warrants future investigations aimed at improving oral health and preventing oral degenerative diseases using molecular and experimental approaches currently utilized in mutagenicity studies.

  2. Degenerative periodontal-diseases and oral osteonecrosis: The role of gene-environment interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, D. [Department of Medical, Biophysical, and Dentistry Sciences and Technologies, University of Genoa (Italy); Izzotti, A. [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Via A. Pastore 1 (Italy); Bonica, P.; Pera, P. [Department of Medical, Biophysical, and Dentistry Sciences and Technologies, University of Genoa (Italy); Pulliero, A., E-mail: alessandra.pulliero@unige.it [Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Via A. Pastore 1 (Italy)

    2009-07-10

    Chronic-degenerative dentistry diseases, including periodontal diseases and oral osteonecrosis, are widespread in human populations and represent a significant problem for public health. These diseases result from pathogenic mechanisms created by the interaction between environmental genotoxic risk-factors and genetic assets conferring individual susceptibility. Osteonecrosis occurs in subjects undergoing exposure to high doses of DNA-damaging agents for chemo- and radiotherapy of neoplastic diseases. In susceptible patients, ionizing radiation and biphosphonate-chemotherapy induce severe, progressive, and irreversible degeneration of facial bones, resulting in avascular necrosis of the jaw. This may also occur in patients receiving biphosphonate for osteoporosis therapy. Periodontal diseases include chronic, aggressive, and necrotizing periodontitis, often resulting in severe alteration of periodontal tissues and tooth loss. Cigarette smoking and chronic inflammation caused by specific bacteria are the main risk factors for periodontitis. Oxidative damage plays a fundamental pathogenic role, as established by detection of mitochondrial DNA damage in the gingival tissue of patients with periodontitis. Endogenous risk factors in dental diseases include polymorphisms for metabolic enzymes such as glutathione transferases M1 and T1, N-acetyl transferase 2, and CYP 1A1. Other genetic polymorphisms that confer susceptibility to dentistry diseases affect genes encoding metalloproteases (involved in periodontal tissue remodeling and degradation), cytokines (involved in inflammation), prothrombin, and DNA repair activities. These findings provide evidence that dentistry diseases are related to risk factors associated with environmental mutagenesis. This issue warrants future investigations aimed at improving oral health and preventing oral degenerative diseases using molecular and experimental approaches currently utilized in mutagenicity studies.

  3. Evaluation of a model for induction of periodontal disease in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo V. Sepúlveda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several methods for inducing periodontal disease in animal models, being the bone defect one of the most reported. This study aimed to evaluate this model, through clinical, radiographic, tomographic and histological analyzes, thus providing standardized data for future regenerative works. Twelve dogs were subjected to the induction protocol. In a first surgical procedure, a mucoperiosteal flap was made on the buccal aspect of the right third and fourth premolars and a defect was produced exposing the furcation and mesial and distal roots, with dimensions: 5mm coronoapical, 5mm mesiodistal, and 3mm buccolingual. Periodontal ligament and cementum were curetted and the defect was filled with molding polyester, which was removed after 21 days on new surgical procedure. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed after the two surgeries and before the collection of parts for dental tomography and histological analysis. All animals showed grade II furcation exposure in both teeth. Clinical attachment level increased after induction. Defect size did not change for coronoapical and buccolingual measurements, while mesiodistal size was significantly higher than at the time of defect production. Radiographic analysis showed decreased radiopacity and discontinuity of lamina dura in every tooth in the furcation area. The horizontal progression of the disease was evident in micro-computed tomography and defect content in the histological analysis. Therefore, it is concluded that this method promotes the induction of periodontal disease in dogs in a standardized way, thus being a good model for future work.

  4. Crevicular fluid biomarkers and periodontal disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Janet S; Morelli, Thiago; Oh, Min; Braun, Thomas M; Ramseier, Christoph A; Sugai, Jim V; Giannobile, William V

    2014-02-01

    Assess the ability of a panel of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarkers as predictors of periodontal disease progression (PDP). In this study, 100 individuals participated in a 12-month longitudinal investigation and were categorized into four groups according to their periodontal status. GCF, clinical parameters and saliva were collected bi-monthly. Subgingival plaque and serum were collected bi-annually. For 6 months, no periodontal treatment was provided. At 6 months, patients received periodontal therapy and continued participation from 6 to 12 months. GCF samples were analysed by ELISA for MMP-8, MMP-9, Osteoprotegerin, C-reactive Protein and IL-1β. Differences in median levels of GCF biomarkers were compared between stable and progressing participants using Wilcoxon Rank Sum test (p = 0.05). Clustering algorithm was used to evaluate the ability of oral biomarkers to classify patients as either stable or progressing. Eighty-three individuals completed the 6-month monitoring phase. With the exception of GCF C-reactive protein, all biomarkers were significantly higher in the PDP group compared to stable patients. Clustering analysis showed highest sensitivity levels when biofilm pathogens and GCF biomarkers were combined with clinical measures, 74% (95% CI = 61, 86). Signature of GCF fluid-derived biomarkers combined with pathogens and clinical measures provides a sensitive measure for discrimination of PDP (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00277745). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Role of Nutrition in Periodontal Health: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Najeeb

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal health is influenced by a number of factors such as oral hygiene, genetic and epigenetic factors, systemic health, and nutrition. Many studies have observed that a balanced diet has an essential role in maintaining periodontal health. Additionally, the influences of nutritional supplements and dietary components have been known to affect healing after periodontal surgery. Studies have attempted to find a correlation between tooth loss, periodontal health, and nutrition. Moreover, bone formation and periodontal regeneration are also affected by numerous vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. The aim of this review is to critically appraise the currently available data on diet and maintenance of periodontal health and periodontal healing. The effects of nutritional intervention studies to improve the quality of life and well-being of patients with periodontal disease have been discussed.

  6. The base moments in etiological prevention of peri-odontal disease in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharitonova T.L.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical and physiological features of the growing organism requires a different approach to prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. This article presents the highlights of the etiological prevention of periodontal diseases, taking into account the anatomical and physiological, and psycho-emotional features of childhood, are based on current data on the prevalence periodontal disease in children, recent research findings in the etiology and patho-genesis of periodontal disease

  7. The base moments in etiological prevention of peri-odontal disease in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kharitonova T.L.; Suyetenkov D.Ye.; Gritsenko Е.А.; Lebedeva S.N.

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical and physiological features of the growing organism requires a different approach to prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. This article presents the highlights of the etiological prevention of periodontal diseases, taking into account the anatomical and physiological, and psycho-emotional features of childhood, are based on current data on the prevalence periodontal disease in children, recent research findings in the etiology and patho-genesis of periodontal disease

  8. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Vania López Rodríguez; Emilio Carpio Muñoz; Vicente Fardales Macías; Iralys Benítez Guzmán

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease is related with multiple risk factors. Those patients with human immunodeficiency virus have higher risk of presenting this disease and it is usually more serious in these cases. Objective: To describe the prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV. Methods: Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study including patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province. The occurrence of the disease was determi...

  9. [Comparative analysis of 6 kinds of bacteria in the subgingival plaque in different types of patients with periodontal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying-ying; Zhang, Tao-wen; Jiang, Yu-xi; Liu, Shu-tai

    2015-10-01

    To detect the existence of Aa,Pg,Tf,Cr,Ec and Pn in the subgingival plaque, and determine their relationships among different types of periodontal diseases. Dental plaques from 120 subjects were sampled, including 40 volunteers with health periodontal status(Group A) , forty patients with dental plaque-induced gingival diseases(Group B) and 40 patients with moderate or severe chronic periodontitis (Group C) . These samples were detected based on bacterial composition using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA genes by multiple-polymerase chain reaction. The data was analysed with SPSS 13.0 software package for Chi-square test. The detection rate of Pn, Cr and Pg had significant differences between group A and B. The detection rate of Ec, Cr, Pg, Aa and Tf had significant differences between group C and B. The detection rate of Ec, Pn, Cr, Pg, Aa and Tf had significant differences between group A and C. The rate of Ec, Pn, Cr, Pg and Tf detected in moderate or patients with moderate or severe chronic periodontitis are significantly higher than that in healthy subjects, indicating that these bacteria have certain correlation with chronic periodontitis. The rate of Ec, Cr, Pg and Tf detected in severe chronic periodontitis are significantly higher than that in dental-induced gingivitis, suggesting their close relationship with the progress of periodontal disease.

  10. Association between periodontal disease and non-communicable diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hong; Oh, Jin-Young; Youk, Tae-Mi; Jeong, Seong-Nyum; Kim, Young-Taek; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The National Health Insurance Service–Health Examinee Cohort during 2002 to 2013 was used to investigate the associations between periodontal disease (PD) and the following non-communicable diseases (NCDs): hypertension, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, cerebral infarction, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and obesity. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders during the follow-up period—including age, sex, household income, insurance status, residence area, health status, and comorbidities—were used to estimated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in order to assess the associations between PD and NCDs. We enrolled 200,026 patients with PD and 154,824 subjects with a healthy oral status. Statistically, significant associations were found between PD and the investigated NCDs except for cerebral and myocardial infarction after adjusting for sociodemographic and comorbidity factors (P periodontitis pathogenesis as a triggering and mediating mechanism. PMID:28658175

  11. Relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Amare; Yitayeh, Asmare

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a neglected bacterial infection that causes destruction of the periodontium in pregnant women. Yet its impact on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not systematically evaluated and there is no clear statement on the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. The objective of this study was to summarize the evidence on the impact of periodontal disease on preterm low birth weight. We searched the following data bases from January 2005 to December 2015: CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature), MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE (excerpta medica database), Cochrane library and Google scholar. Only case-control studies with full text in English were eligible. Critical appraisal of the identified articles was done by two authors independently to provide the possible relevance of the papers for inclusion in the review process. The selected Case control studies were critically appraised with 12 items structured checklist adapted from national institute of health (NIH). Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratios (RR) were extracted from the selected studies. The two reviewers who selected the appropriate studies also extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias. Of 229 articles, ten studies with a total of 2423 participants with a mean age ranged from 13 to 49 years were met the inclusion criteria. The studies focused on preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight and periodontitis. Of the selected studies, 9 implied an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight outcome (ORs ranging from 2.04 to 4.19) and only one study found no evidence of association. Periodontal disease may be one of the possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight infant. However, more precise studies with randomized clinical trial with sufficient follow-up period must be done to confirm the association.

  12. Periodontal disease, atherosclerosis, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and head-and-neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Y.W.; Houcken, W.; Loos, B.G.; Schenkein, H.A.; Tezal, M.

    2014-01-01

    Interrelationships between periodontal infection and systemic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and head-and-neck cancer have become increasingly appreciated in recent years. Periodontitis is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and, experimentally, with

  13. Identification of a shared genetic susceptibility locus for coronary heart disease and periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne S Schaefer

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate a mutual epidemiological relationship between coronary heart disease (CHD and periodontitis. Both diseases are associated with similar risk factors and are characterized by a chronic inflammatory process. In a candidate-gene association study, we identify an association of a genetic susceptibility locus shared by both diseases. We confirm the known association of two neighboring linkage disequilibrium regions on human chromosome 9p21.3 with CHD and show the additional strong association of these loci with the risk of aggressive periodontitis. For the lead SNP of the main associated linkage disequilibrium region, rs1333048, the odds ratio of the autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance is 1.99 (95% confidence interval 1.33-2.94; P = 6.9 x 10(-4 for generalized aggressive periodontitis, and 1.72 (1.06-2.76; P = 2.6 x 10(-2 for localized aggressive periodontitis. The two associated linkage disequilibrium regions map to the sequence of the large antisense noncoding RNA ANRIL, which partly overlaps regulatory and coding sequences of CDKN2A/CDKN2B. A closely located diabetes-associated variant was independent of the CHD and periodontitis risk haplotypes. Our study demonstrates that CHD and periodontitis are genetically related by at least one susceptibility locus, which is possibly involved in ANRIL activity and independent of diabetes associated risk variants within this region. Elucidation of the interplay of ANRIL transcript variants and their involvement in increased susceptibility to the interactive diseases CHD and periodontitis promises new insight into the underlying shared pathogenic mechanisms of these complex common diseases.

  14. Cannabis use and destructive periodontal diseases among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rodrigo; Baelum, Vibeke

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this experiment was to investigate the association between cannabis use and destructive periodontal disease among adolescents. Data from a population screening examination carried out among Chilean high school students from the Province of Santiago were used to determine whether there was an association between the use of cannabis and signs of periodontal diseases as defined by (1) the presence of necrotizing ulcerative gingival (NUG) lesions or (2) the presence of clinical attachment loss (CAL) > or =3 mm. The cannabis exposures variables considered were "Ever use of cannabis" (yes/no) and "Regular use of cannabis" (yes/no). The associations were investigated using multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, paternal income, paternal education, frequency of tooth-brushing and time since last dental visit. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that "Ever use of cannabis" was significantly negatively associated with the presence of NUG lesions (OR=0.47 [0.2;0.9]) among non-smokers only. No significant associations were observed between the presence of CAL > or =3 mm and cannabis use in either of the smoking groups. There was no evidence to suggest that the use of cannabis is positively associated with periodontal diseases in this adolescent population.

  15. [THE CHARACTERISTICS OF MORPHOLOGY OF BIOFILM OF PERIODONTIUM UNDER INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF GUMS (CHRONIC CATARRHAL GINGIVITIS, CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS, CANDIDA-ASSOCIATED PERIODONTITIS) ACCORDING RESULTS OF ELECTRONIC MICROSCOPY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolitov, E V; Didenko, L V; Tzarev, V N

    2015-12-01

    The study was carried out to analyze morphology of biofilm of periodontium and to develop electronic microscopic criteria of differentiated diagnostic of inflammatory diseases of gums. The scanning electronic microscopy was applied to analyze samples of bioflm of periodont from 70 patients. Including ten patients with every nosologic form of groups with chronic catarrhal periodontitis. of light, mean and severe degree, chronic catarrhal gingivitis, Candida-associated paroperiodontitis and 20 healthy persons with intact periodontium. The analysis was implemented using dual-beam scanning electronic microscope Quanta 200 3D (FEI company, USA) and walk-through electronic micJEM 100B (JEOL, Japan). To detect marker DNA of periodont pathogenic bacteria in analyzed samples the kit of reagentsfor polymerase chain reaction "MultiDent-5" ("GenLab", Russia). The scanning electronic microscopy in combination with transmission electronic microscopy and polymerase chain reaction permits analyzing structure, composition and degree of development of biofilm of periodontium and to apply differentiated diagnostic of different nosologic forms of inflammatory diseases of periodontium, including light form of chronic periodontitis and gingivitis. The electronic microscopical indications of diseases ofperiodontium of inflammatory character are established: catarrhal gingivitis, (coccal morphological alternate), chronic periodontitis (bacillary morphological alternate), Candida-associated periodontitis (Candida morphological alternate of biofilm ofperiodontium).

  16. Saliva as a future potential predictor for various periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahreni Hamzah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are many diagnostic biomarkers have been found in saliva. Saliva contains a wide variety of proteins, including bacteria and products, enzymes, inflammatory mediators and host response modifiers, products of tissue breakdown. Purpose: The purpose of the study was studied current development of diagnostic biomarkers in saliva that will lead to the development of simple and accurate diagnostic tools for periodental disease. Reviews: Specifically, the salivary biomarkers divided for three aspects of periodontitis i.e. inflammation, collagen degradation and bone turnover, correlated with clinical features of periodontal disease. The diagnostic biomarkers is in saliva, such as enzyme, immunoglobulin, cytokines, bacteria and bacterial products, hormones. For the past two decades, oral health researchers have been developing salivary diagnostic tools to monitor oral diseases. Conclusion: The indicators of acute periodontitis can detect with ß-glucuronidase and AST, IL-1β, and MMP-8, whereas indicators for chronic periodontitis can detect with ALP. The indicators for collagen degradation and bone turnover suggest ICTP, fibronectin fragments, and osteonectin. The indicators of severity of periodontitis especially can be predict by B. forsythus.Latar belakang: Banyak biomarker telah ditemukan dalam saliva. Saliva terdiri dari berbagai protein unik meliputi bakteri dan produk bakteri, enzim, mediator inflamasi dan modifikasi respon host (immunoglobulin, sitokin, produk kerusakan jaringan (telopeptida kolagen, osteokalsin, proteoglikan, fragmen fibronectin. Tujuan: Mengkaji biomarker dalam saliva untuk pengembangan metode diagnostik sederhana dan akurat untuk penyakit periodontal. Tinjauan Pustaka: Secara khusus, biomarker saliva pada periodontitis dibagi dalam tiga aspek yaitu inflamasi, dan degradasi kolagen serta pergantian tulang. Biomarker diagnostik dalam saliva, meliputi enzim, imunoglobulin, sitokin, bakteri dan produk

  17. Does a causal relation between cardiovascular disease and periodontitis exist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Damgaard, Christian; Nielsen, Claus H

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is believed to play a central part in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and much attention has been paid to the possible association between atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases. Periodontal disease is a common inflammatory disease affecting up to 50% of the adult...... population, and during the past two decades much research has focused on a possible association between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease. Here, we review the existing literature on the association between the two diseases....

  18. Periodontal Diseases and Systemic Disorders: What Do Our Doctors Know? A General Practitioner's Survey Conducted in Southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexia, Vinel; Chloé, Vachon; Pierre, Barthet; Sara, Laurencin-Dalicieux

    2017-12-01

    With 39,359 entries on PubMed, periodontal medicine has a prominent position in periodontal research. Good patient care requires well-advised physicians, and whereas the dental community is informed about the relationships between periodontal diseases (PDs) and an increasing number of systemic pathologies, we wondered whether general practitioners were too. Thus, we aimed to evaluate their knowledge of the links between periodontal and systemic diseases. To this end, we sent an electronic questionnaire to the 2350 general practitioners registered to the URPS (Union régionale des Professionnels de Santé) of Midi-Pyrénées, France. They were asked about their practice, their attitude during a medical examination, and their knowledge about PDs. The analysis of 222 properly answered questionnaires showed that while most general practitioners are aware of the relationships between PDs and diabetes or cardiovascular diseases, the majority of them are unaware that obesity and respiratory and joint diseases are also concerned. Indeed, 94% of the questioned subjects consider their insight of PDs to be insufficient. Nevertheless, more than half of the interrogated physicians cared about their patients' oral health and dental care. Education regarding relationships between periodontal and systemic diseases must be improved among general practitioners who are in the front line to refer high-risk patients to a periodontist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Periodontal disease and risk of preeclampsia: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Juan Wei

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many epidemiological studies have found a positive association between periodontal disease (PD and the risk of preeclampsia, but the magnitude of this association varies and independent studies have reported conflicting findings. We performed a meta-analysis to ascertain the relationship between PD and preeclampsia. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched up to January 12, 2013, for relevant observational studies on an association between PD and the risk of preeclampsia. Data were extracted and analyzed independently by two authors. The meta-analysis was performed using comprehensive meta-analysis software. RESULTS: Thirteen observational case-control studies and two cohort studies, involving 1089 preeclampsia patients, were identified. Based on a random-effects meta-analysis, a significant association between PD and preeclampsia was identified (odds ratio = 2.79, 95% confidence interval CI, 2.01-3.01, P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Although the causality remains unclear, the association between PD and preeclampsia may reflect the induction of PD by the preeclamptic state, or it may be part of an overall exaggerated inflammatory response to pregnancy. Larger randomized controlled trials with preeclampsia as the primary outcome and pathophysiological studies are required to explore causality and to dissect the biological mechanisms involved.

  20. The Association between Periodontal Disease and Preterm Low Birthweight in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastriot Meqa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Periodontal diseases have a high prevalence worldwide. Existing evidence support the concept that gingivitis and periodontitis are potentially infectious and they present inflammatory reservoirs that can be threatening to the fetoplacental unit. The objective of this study was to compare the periodontal status between women with normal delivery and those with preterm low-birthweight delivery. Materials and Methods: This study included 200 postpartum women whose periodontal and obstetrical parameters were taken. The periodontal condition was assessed bedside according to the modified criteria established by Machtei, while the birthweight and gestational age were assessed according to the World Health Organization criteria. Results: Women with periodontitis are statistically at 3.2 times higher risk to deliver a child with low weight, and at 3.4 times higher risk to deliver preterm, compared to women without periodontitis. The women with preterm low-birthweight babies had deeper periodontal pockets (2.49mm ± 0.49mm than women with normal delivery (2.26mm ± 0.49mm. Conclusions: Periodontal disease in pregnant women with a reservoir of organisms and their products can be considered a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome.

  1. Prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Debora C

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this guidance is to support the dental team to; manage patients with periodontal diseases in primary care appropriately; improve the quality of decision making for referral to secondary care; improve the overall oral health of the population. It focuses on the prevention and non-surgical treatment of periodontal diseases and implant diseases in primary care. The surgical treatment of periodontal and implant diseases and the management of patients by periodontal specialists or in a secondary care setting are outwith the scope of this guidance and are not discussed in detail. The guidance is based on existing guidelines, including those from the British Society of Periodontology, relevant systematic reviews, research evidence and the opinion of experts and experienced practitioners. The methodological approach is based on the international standards set out by the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) Collaboration (www.agreetrust.org). The guiding principle for developing guidance within SDCEP is to first source existing guidelines, policy documents, legislation or other recommendations. Similarly, relevant systematic reviews are also initially identified. These documents are appraised for their quality of development, evidence base and applicability to the remit of the guidance under development. In the absence of these documents or when supplementary information is required, other published literature and unpublished work may be sought.Review and updating. The guidance will be reviewed in three years and updated accordingly. Recommendations are provided for assessment and diagnosis; changing patient behaviour; treatment of gingival conditions; periodontal conditions; long term maintenance; management of patients with dental implants; referral and record keeping. The key recommendations highlighted are: Assess and explain risk factors for periodontal diseases to patients. Screen all patients for periodontal diseases at every routine

  2. [The relevance of Candida spp. in chronic periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razina, I N; Chesnokova, M G; Nedoseko, V B

    The aim of the study was to assess the correlation of Candida spp. incidence in periodontal tissues with various clinical manifestations of chronic periodontal disease (CPD). Ninety patients with CPD were included in the study in which Candida spp. was evaluated in periodontal pockets content and gingival biopsy material. In severe CPD more Candida spp. were seen in gingival biopsy than in periodontal pockets (p=0.0006). Candida spp. incidence and quantity correlated directly with the disease grade showing incidence increase from 40 to 73.3% and quantity increase from 0.8±0.18 до 3.6±0.49 lg CFU/ml in light and severe CPD, correspondingly Candida spp. had statistically significant association with cyanotic gingival color (p=0.0018), tongue plaque and swelling (р=0.0042), lip exfoliation (р=0.0030), periodontal pockets depth >5 mm (р=0.0030), oral mucosa hyperemia (р=0.0157), alveolar bone destruction >1/2 of root length (р=0.0157). These data prove the relevance of Candida spp. and mycological assessment of gingival biopsy in CPD patients.

  3. Evaluation of serum levels of C-reactive protein and lipid profiles in patients with chronic periodontitis and/or coronary heart disease in an ethnic Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Wu, Yafei; Ding, Yi; Meng, Sui; Ge, Song; Deng, Hui

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the relationship of coronary heart disease (CHD)-associated factors-C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profiles-with periodontitis in an ethnic Han population. Forty healthy individuals as control, 40 patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), 28 patients with CHD, and 47 patients with both CP and CHD were included in the study. Serum CRP levels, lipid profile concentrations, and three periodontal clinical parameters (probing depth, clinical attachment level, and bleeding on probing) were measured and analyzed. The chi-square test, Student-Newman-Keuls test, analysis of covariance, and a logistic regression analysis were used in this study. The mean CRP level of patients with CP alone was 2.4 +/- 1.5 mg/L. There were significant differences in mean serum CRP levels among groups after confounders were adjusted, with CP+CHD patients having the highest level (7.3 +/- 5.7 mg/L) and the controls the lowest (1.0 +/- 0.6 mg/L) (P periodontal parameters were apparent (P periodontitis is associated with increased CRP levels and decreased HDL cholesterol concentrations, which suggests that there may be some relationship between periodontal inflammation and CHD.

  4. Periodontal Disease Part IV: Periodontal Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    In Part IV of this article, the author describes two periodontal infections, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (trench mouth) and periodontal abscess, both acute painful conditions for which patients may seek advice from their family physician rather than their dentist.

  5. Periodontal Disease and Tooth Loss as Risks for Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Sadighi Shamami, M; Sadighi Shamami, M; Amini, S

    2011-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is a chronic destructive disease which occurs in adults, young people, and children. Periodontal disease and periodontal pathogens have been associated with several systemic diseases and more recently, several studies have suggested the relationship between periodontal disease and cancer. Studies with adjustment for the effect of smoking exposure, have found significant positive associations with different cancer sites. This review has outlined recent epidemiolo...

  6. Prevalence of Periodontal Disease in the General Population of India-A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewale, Akhilesh H; Gattani, Deepti R; Bhatia, Nidhi; Mahajan, Rupali; Saravanan, S P

    2016-06-01

    Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN). It was also found that no prevalence studies have been carried out in few North and North Eastern states and Union Territories of India. Due to non-availability of same age groups in selected studies an overall prevalence rate could not be obtained. However, it was observed that few areas of states like West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Assam have reported a prevalence rate of periodontal disease of more than 85% in their general population. The data from the present systematic review calls for a combined initiative from the Government of India and Dental council of India to have a nationwide multicentric prevalence studies to obtain the true prevalence rate of periodontal disease in India and interventions should be provided for the same to maintain the oral health and quality of life of the affected population.

  7. Frequency of gingival and periodontal diseases among troops deployed in operational area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, A.; Manzoor, M.A.; Rafi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To find the Frequency of Gingival and Periodontal Diseases among Troops Deployed in Operational Area and to evaluate the treatment needs which might be helpful in oral health policy planning and specific intervention against periodontal disease. Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at 140 mobile dental unit Swat from Dec 2009 to June 2011. Subjects and Methods: the periodontal status of 1500 personnels of Pakistan Army was examined using Basic periodontal Examination Index. Data was evaluated by SPSS version 16. Percentage of various gingival and periodontal disease traits was calculated and treatment needs determined. Results: Out of total 1500 subjects 12.8% subjects were having satisfactory periodontal health and required no treatment whereas 38.3% were having gingivitis requiring oral hygiene instruction and prophylaxis. Gingivitis modified by local factors was seen in 23.5% and required oral hygiene instruction and correction of modifying factors. Some (13.6%) were having mild periodontitis and required scaling, root planning and oral hygiene instruction whereas 11.8% were having moderate or advance periodontitis and required comprehensive periodontal treatment including surgical treatment. Conclusion: A large number of cases (82.7%) of gingivitis and periodontitis were detected in subject population which shows lack of awareness and self -consciousness among troops regarding their oral hygiene. (author)

  8. Deep sequencing of the oral microbiome reveals signatures of periodontal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available The oral microbiome, the complex ecosystem of microbes inhabiting the human mouth, harbors several thousands of bacterial types. The proliferation of pathogenic bacteria within the mouth gives rise to periodontitis, an inflammatory disease known to also constitute a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. While much is known about individual species associated with pathogenesis, the system-level mechanisms underlying the transition from health to disease are still poorly understood. Through the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and of whole community DNA we provide a glimpse at the global genetic, metabolic, and ecological changes associated with periodontitis in 15 subgingival plaque samples, four from each of two periodontitis patients, and the remaining samples from three healthy individuals. We also demonstrate the power of whole-metagenome sequencing approaches in characterizing the genomes of key players in the oral microbiome, including an unculturable TM7 organism. We reveal the disease microbiome to be enriched in virulence factors, and adapted to a parasitic lifestyle that takes advantage of the disrupted host homeostasis. Furthermore, diseased samples share a common structure that was not found in completely healthy samples, suggesting that the disease state may occupy a narrow region within the space of possible configurations of the oral microbiome. Our pilot study demonstrates the power of high-throughput sequencing as a tool for understanding the role of the oral microbiome in periodontal disease. Despite a modest level of sequencing (~2 lanes Illumina 76 bp PE and high human DNA contamination (up to ~90% we were able to partially reconstruct several oral microbes and to preliminarily characterize some systems-level differences between the healthy and diseased oral microbiomes.

  9. Treating periodontal disease for preventing adverse birth outcomes in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iheozor-Ejiofor, Zipporah; Middleton, Philippa; Esposito, Marco; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2017-06-12

    , results of comparable trials were pooled and expressed as risk ratios (RR) or mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) . The random-effects model was used for pooling except where there was an insufficient number of studies. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. There were 15 RCTs (n = 7161 participants) meeting our inclusion criteria. All the included studies were at high risk of bias mostly due to lack of blinding and imbalance in baseline characteristics of participants. The studies recruited pregnant women from prenatal care facilities who had periodontitis (14 studies) or gingivitis (1 study).The two main comparisons were: periodontal treatment versus no treatment during pregnancy and periodontal treatment versus alternative periodontal treatment. The head-to-head comparison between periodontal treatments assessed a more intensive treatment versus a less intensive one.Eleven studies compared periodontal treatment with no treatment during pregnancy. The meta-analysis shows no clear difference in preterm birth birth weight birth birth weight birth) (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.43; 5320 participants; 7 studies; very low-quality evidence), and pre-eclampsia (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.62; 2946 participants; 3 studies; very low-quality evidence). There is no evidence of a difference in small for gestational age (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.16; 3610 participants; 3 studies; low-quality evidence) when periodontal treatment is compared with no treatment.Four studies compared periodontal treatment with alternative periodontal treatment. Data pooling was not possible due to clinical heterogeneity. The outcomes reported were preterm birth birth birth weight birth weight birth birth weight birth weight birth (low-quality evidence). There is low-quality evidence that periodontal treatment may reduce low birth weight (< 2500 g), however, our confidence in the effect estimate is limited. There is insufficient evidence to determine which periodontal

  10. Periodontal disease may be associated with oral and gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Zoann

    2010-12-01

    The association between periodontal disease and cancer:a review of the literature. Fitzpatrick SG, Katz J.J Dent 2010;38(2):83-95. Epub 2009 Nov 4. Zoann Nugent, Ph. D. To assess the published research to date on the relationship between periodontal disease and cancer. Information not available. Comprehensive literature review. Level 3: Other evidence. Grade C: Consensus, disease-oriented evidence, expert opinion.

  11. Risk of Periodontal Diseases in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Nationwide Population-based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Te-Chun; Chang, Pei-Ying; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-11-01

    Several studies have reported an association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and periodontal diseases. However, a large-scale population-based cohort study was previously absent from the literature. Therefore, we evaluated the risk of periodontal diseases in patients with COPD in a nationwide population.From the National Health Insurance claims data of Taiwan, we identified 22,332 patients with COPD who were newly diagnosed during 2000 to 2010. For each case, two individuals without COPD were randomly selected and frequency matched by age, sex, and diagnosis year. Both groups were followed up till the end of 2011.The overall incidence of periodontal diseases was 1.19-fold greater in the COPD group than in the comparison group (32.2 vs 26.4 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-1.24). Compared with non-COPD patients, the adjusted hazard ratios of patients with COPD increased with the number of emergency room visits (from 1.14 [95% CI 1.10-1.19] to 5.09 [95% CI 4.53-5.72]) and admissions (from 1.15 [95% CI 1.10-1.20] to 3.17 [95% CI 2.81-3.57]). In addition, the adjusted hazard ratios of patients with COPD treated with inhaled corticosteroids (1.22, 95% CI 1.11-1.34) and systemic corticosteroids (1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.23) were significantly higher than those of patients not treated with corticosteroids.Patient with COPD are at a higher risk of developing periodontal diseases than the general population. Our results also support that the risk of periodontal diseases is proportional to COPD control. In addition, patients who receive corticosteroid treatment are at a higher risk of developing periodontal diseases.

  12. Modifiable risk factors in periodontitis: at the intersection of aging and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Chronic inflammation is a prominent feature of aging and of common age-related diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer and periodontitis. This volume examines modifiable risk factors for periodontitis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Oral bacterial communities and viral infections, particularly with cytomegalovirus and other herpesviruses, elicit distinct immune responses and are central in the initiation of periodontal diseases. Risk of disease is dynamic and changes in response to complex interactions of genetic, environmental and stochastic factors over the lifespan. Many modifiable risk factors, such as smoking and excess caloric intake, contribute to increases in systemic markers of inflammation and can modify gene regulation through a variety of biologic mechanisms (e.g. epigenetic modifications). Periodontitis and other common chronic inflammatory diseases share multiple modifiable risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, psychological stress and depression, alcohol consumption, obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis. Interventions that target modifiable risk factors have the potential to improve risk profiles for periodontitis as well as for other common chronic diseases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Periodontal manifestations of systemic diseases and developmental and acquired conditions: Consensus report of workgroup 3 of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Søren; Caton, Jack G; Albandar, Jasim M; Bissada, Nabil F; Bouchard, Philippe; Cortellini, Pierpaolo; Demirel, Korkud; de Sanctis, Massimo; Ercoli, Carlo; Fan, Jingyuan; Geurs, Nicolaas C; Hughes, Francis J; Jin, Lijian; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Lalla, Evanthia; Madianos, Phoebus N; Matthews, Debora; McGuire, Michael K; Mills, Michael P; Preshaw, Philip M; Reynolds, Mark A; Sculean, Anton; Susin, Cristiano; West, Nicola X; Yamazaki, Kazuhisa

    2018-06-01

    A variety of systemic diseases and conditions can affect the course of periodontitis or have a negative impact on the periodontal attachment apparatus. Gingival recessions are highly prevalent and often associated with hypersensitivity, the development of caries and non-carious cervical lesions on the exposed root surface and impaired esthetics. Occlusal forces can result in injury of teeth and periodontal attachment apparatus. Several developmental or acquired conditions associated with teeth or prostheses may predispose to diseases of the periodontium. The aim of this working group was to review and update the 1999 classification with regard to these diseases and conditions, and to develop case definitions and diagnostic considerations. Discussions were informed by four reviews on 1) periodontal manifestions of systemic diseases and conditions; 2) mucogingival conditions around natural teeth; 3) traumatic occlusal forces and occlusal trauma; and 4) dental prostheses and tooth related factors. This consensus report is based on the results of these reviews and on expert opinion of the participants. Key findings included the following: 1) there are mainly rare systemic conditions (such as Papillon-Lefevre Syndrome, leucocyte adhesion deficiency, and others) with a major effect on the course of periodontitis and more common conditions (such as diabetes mellitus) with variable effects, as well as conditions affecting the periodontal apparatus independently of dental plaque biofilm-induced inflammation (such as neoplastic diseases); 2) diabetes-associated periodontitis should not be regarded as a distinct diagnosis, but diabetes should be recognized as an important modifying factor and included in a clinical diagnosis of periodontitis as a descriptor; 3) likewise, tobacco smoking - now considered a dependence to nicotine and a chronic relapsing medical disorder with major adverse effects on the periodontal supporting tissues - is an important modifier to be included in

  14. Periodontal disease, tooth loss and colorectal cancer risk: Results from the Nurses' Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Babic, Ana; Tworoger, Shelley S; Zhang, Libin; Wu, Kana; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey; Giovannucci, Edward; Fuchs, Charles; Cho, Eunyoung; Michaud, Dominique S; Stampfer, Meir J; Yu, Yau-Hua; Kim, David; Zhang, Xuehong

    2017-02-01

    Periodontal diseases including tooth loss might increase systemic inflammation, lead to immune dysregulation and alter gut microbiota, thereby possibly influencing colorectal carcinogenesis. Few epidemiological studies have examined the association between periodontal diseases and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We collected information on the periodontal disease (defined as history of periodontal bone loss) and number of natural teeth in the Nurses' Health Study. A total of 77,443 women were followed since 1992. We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) after adjustment for smoking and other known risk factors for CRC. We documented 1,165 incident CRC through 2010. Compared to women with 25-32 teeth, the multivariable HR (95% CI) for CRC for women with periodontal disease, HRs for CRC were 0.91 (95% CI 0.74-1.12) for periodontal disease, and 1.22 (95% CI 0.91-1.63) when limited to moderate to severe periodontal disease. The results were not modified by smoking status, body mass index or alcohol consumption. Women with fewer teeth, possibly moderate or severe periodontal disease, might be at a modest increased risk of developing CRC, suggesting a potential role of oral health in colorectal carcinogenesis. © 2016 UICC.

  15. Isolation and characterization of oral Actinomyces strain from patients with periodontal disease

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    Eshraghi S.

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract: Actinomyces species are normal residents of the mouth cavity, gastrointestinal tract and female genital tract. The genus consists of gram-positive bacteria, strictly anaerobic or microaerophilic. The bacteria are opportunists with a low virulence potential that cause actinomycosis only when the normal mucosal barriers are disrupted. The main purpose of this study was the isolation of Actinomyces strains and determining of their role in periodontal diseases. The present study was carried out on 100 patients with periodontal diseases referred to the Periodontic Department of Faculty of Dentistry. The sampling was done in 6 months with isolation of oral Actinomyces from microbial plaque and periodontal pocket. The samples were selected based on the following criteria: periodontal plaque with deep pocket (>3 mm, no antibiotic therapy for a period of at least two weeks, and lack of systemic diseases. One strain of Actinomyces viscosus and two strains of Actinomyces naeslundii were isolated from the patients with gingivitis and periodontitis. Of the 100 patients with gingivitis and periodontitis, aged between 18-57 years old, 46% were males and 54% were females. The peak incidence of the diseases (35% was in the third age group (31-40 and the lowest incidence (10% was in the first age group (<20. Forty patients (40% complained of gingival disease and its bleeding with lower incidence of (42.5% in female.

  16. Measurement of total antioxidant capacity in gingival crevicular fluid and serum in dogs with periodontal disease.

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    Pavlica, Zlatko; Petelin, Milan; Nemec, Alenka; Erzen, Damjan; Skaleric, Uros

    2004-11-01

    To determine whether gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum total antioxidant capacities (TACs) correlate with the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs. 41 Toy and Miniature Poodles. After assessment of the degree of severity of naturally occurring periodontitis, GCF samples from both maxillary fourth premolars and a blood sample were collected from each dog. The condition of the periodontium of the entire dentition and at each site of GCF collection was recorded. Clinical parameters assessed included plaque index, gingival index, and probing depth. Radiographic analysis of alveolar bone level was also performed. Total antioxidant capacity was measured in GCF and serum samples by use of a commercial kit. Dogs with gingivitis and minimal periodontitis had significantly higher TAC in GCF than dogs with advanced periodontitis. Bivariate regression analysis revealed significant negative correlations between TAC in GCF and clinical parameters and age. The TAC in serum was significantly negatively correlated with the degree of gingival inflammation but was not significantly correlated with age. TAC in GCF is related to the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs. This is likely the result of release of reactive oxygen species by activated phagocytes and fibroblasts in the inflamed periodontal tissues. The results of our study suggest that the local delivery of antioxidants may be a useful adjunctive treatment for periodontitis in dogs.

  17. A cross-sectional survey to study the relationship of periodontal disease with cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus.

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    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Harish, Yashoda; Hiremath, Shivalingaswamy; Puranik, Manjunath

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal deterioration has been reported to be associated with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, liver cirrhosis, bacterial pneumonia, nutritional deficiencies, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The present study assessed the periodontal disease among patients with systemic conditions such as diabetes, CVD, and respiratory disease. The study population consisted of 220 patients each of CVD, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus, making a total of 660 patients in the systemic disease group. A control group of 340 subjects were also included in the study for comparison purpose. The periodontal status of the patients with these confirmed medical conditions was assessed using the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITNs) index. The prevalence of CPITN code 4 was found to be greater among the patients with respiratory disease whereas the mean number of sextants with score 4 was found to be greater among the patients with diabetes mellitus and CVD. The treatment need 0 was found to be more among the controls (1.18%) whereas the treatment need 1, 2, and 3 were more among the patients with respiratory disease (100%, 97.73%, and 54.8%), diabetes mellitus (100%, 100% and 46.4%), and CVD (100%, 97.73%, and 38.1%), in comparison to the controls (6.18%). From the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that diabetes mellitus, CVD, and respiratory disease are associated with a higher severity of periodontal disease.

  18. A cross-sectional survey to study the relationship of periodontal disease with cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus

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    Sukhvinder Singh Oberoi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal deterioration has been reported to be associated with systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD, diabetes mellitus, respiratory disease, liver cirrhosis, bacterial pneumonia, nutritional deficiencies, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Aim: The present study assessed the periodontal disease among patients with systemic conditions such as diabetes, CVD, and respiratory disease. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 220 patients each of CVD, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus, making a total of 660 patients in the systemic disease group. A control group of 340 subjects were also included in the study for comparison purpose. The periodontal status of the patients with these confirmed medical conditions was assessed using the community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITNs index. Results: The prevalence of CPITN code 4 was found to be greater among the patients with respiratory disease whereas the mean number of sextants with score 4 was found to be greater among the patients with diabetes mellitus and CVD. The treatment need 0 was found to be more among the controls (1.18% whereas the treatment need 1, 2, and 3 were more among the patients with respiratory disease (100%, 97.73%, and 54.8%, diabetes mellitus (100%, 100% and 46.4%, and CVD (100%, 97.73%, and 38.1%, in comparison to the controls (6.18%. Conclusion: From the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that diabetes mellitus, CVD, and respiratory disease are associated with a higher severity of periodontal disease.

  19. Periodontal disease and spontaneous preterm birth: a case control study

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    Eley Barry

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have suggested an association between periodontal disease and prematurity but this finding has not been consistently observed. Methods Case control study. Cases (n = 50 were women who had delivered after spontaneous preterm labor at Results There was no difference in the proportion of sites with significant attachment loss (≥3 mm: Cases-3.2%, Controls-2.2% p = 0.21. The gingival crevicular fluid concentrations of elastase and gingipain were elevated in cases vs. controls 238.8 uU/ul vs. 159.6 uU/ul p = .007 and 2.70 uU/ul vs. 1.56 uU/ul p = .001. On multivariate analysis, the mean log concentration of elastase, but not of gingipain, remained a significant predictor of preterm labor p = .0.015. Conclusion We found no evidence that clinical periodontal disease is associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Elevated gingival crevicular fluid levels of elastase were associated with preterm birth but further research is needed before this can be assumed to be a causal relationship.

  20. Association between periodontitis and mortality in stages 3-5 chronic kidney disease: NHANES III and linked mortality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Praveen; Dietrich, Thomas; Ferro, Charles J; Cockwell, Paul; Chapple, Iain L C

    2016-02-01

    Periodontitis may add to the systemic inflammatory burden in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), thereby contributing to an increased mortality rate. This study aimed to determine the association between periodontitis and mortality rate (all-cause and cardiovascular disease-related) in individuals with stage 3-5 CKD, hitherto referred to as "CKD". Survival analysis was carried out using the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and linked mortality data. Cox proportional hazards regression was employed to assess the association between periodontitis and mortality, in individuals with CKD. This association was compared with the association between mortality and traditional risk factors in CKD mortality (diabetes, hypertension and smoking). Of the 13,784 participants eligible for analysis in NHANES III, 861 (6%) had CKD. The median follow-up for this cohort was 14.3 years. Adjusting for confounders, the 10-year all-cause mortality rate for individuals with CKD increased from 32% (95% CI: 29-35%) to 41% (36-47%) with the addition of periodontitis. For diabetes, the 10-year all-cause mortality rate increased to 43% (38-49%). There is a strong, association between periodontitis and increased mortality in individuals with CKD. Sources of chronic systemic inflammation (including periodontitis) may be important contributors to mortality in patients with CKD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Association between Dental Prosthesis and Periodontal Disease among Patients Visiting a Tertiary Dental Care Centre in Eastern Nepal.

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    Mansuri, M; Shrestha, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental caries and Periodontal diseases are the most prevalent oral health problems present globally. The distribution and severity of such oral health problems varies in different parts of the world and even in different regions of the same country. Nepal is one of the country with higher prevalence rate of these problems. These problems arise in association with multiple factors. Objective This study was carried out to describe the periodontal status and to analyse the association of periodontal disease with the wearing of fixed or removable partial dentures in a Nepalese population reporting to the College of Dental Surgery, B P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Method This study comprised of a sample of 200 adult individuals. All data were collected by performing clinical examinations in accordance with the World Health Organization Oral Health Surveys Basic Methods Criteria. It included the Community Periodontal Index and dental prosthesis examination. Result A descriptive analysis was performed and odds ratio (1.048) and 95% confidence interval (1.001; 1.096) was found out. The mean age of the population participated in the study was 41.82 ± 14.80 years. A total of 93 (46.5%) males and 107 (53.5%) females participated in the study. Among these subjects, 100% presented some periodontal problems. The statistical analysis indicated that the probability of periodontal disease with regards to wearing partial dentures was not significant as suggested by the odds ratio (1.048). Conclusion There is no association of the wearing of dental prosthesis (RPD and/or FPD) with the periodontal disease and suggests a need for populations based oral health education programs, plaque control programs to reduce the incidence of periodontal disease.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of Porphyromonas gingivalis-host cell interaction on periodontal diseases

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    Masaaki Nakayama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis is a major oral pathogen and associated with periodontal diseases including periodontitis and alveolar bone loss. In this review, we indicate that two virulence factors, which are hemoglobin receptor protein (HbR and cysteine proteases “gingipains”, expressed by P. gingivalis have novel functions on the pathogenicity of P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis produces three types of gingipains and concomitantly several adhesin domains. Among the adhesin domains, hemoglobin receptor protein (HbR, also called HGP15, has the function of induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8 expression in human gingival epithelial cells, indicating the possibility that HbR is associated with P. gingivalis-induced periodontal inflammation. On bacteria-host cells contact, P. gingivalis induces cellular signaling alteration in host cells. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K and Akt are well known to play a pivotal role in various cellular physiological functions including cell survival and glucose metabolism in mammalian cells. Recently, we demonstrated that gingipains attenuate the activity of PI3K and Akt, which might have a causal influence on periodontal diseases by chronic infection to the host cells from the speculation of molecular analysis. In this review, we discuss new molecular and biological characterization of the virulence factors from P. gingivalis.

  3. Protein Biomarkers of Periodontitis in Saliva

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    Taylor, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the tissues that surround and support the teeth and is initiated by inappropriate and excessive immune responses to bacteria in subgingival dental plaque leading to loss of the integrity of the periodontium, compromised tooth function, and eventually tooth loss. Periodontitis is an economically important disease as it is time-consuming and expensive to treat. Periodontitis has a worldwide prevalence of 5–15% and the prevalence of severe disease in western populations has increased in recent decades. Furthermore, periodontitis is more common in smokers, in obesity, in people with diabetes, and in heart disease patients although the pathogenic processes underpinning these links are, as yet, poorly understood. Diagnosis and monitoring of periodontitis rely on traditional clinical examinations which are inadequate to predict patient susceptibility, disease activity, and response to treatment. Studies of the immunopathogenesis of periodontitis and analysis of mediators in saliva have allowed the identification of many potentially useful biomarkers. Convenient measurement of these biomarkers using chairside analytical devices could form the basis for diagnostic tests which will aid the clinician and the patient in periodontitis management; this review will summarise this field and will identify the experimental, technical, and clinical issues that remain to be addressed before such tests can be implemented. PMID:24944840

  4. Oral hygiene and periodontal treatment needs in children and adolescents with coeliac disease in Greece.

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    Tsami, A; Petropoulou, P; Panayiotou, J; Mantzavinos, Z; Roma-Giannikou, E

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the factors that influence the oral hygiene and the periodontal treatment needs of children and adolescents with coeliac disease (CD) in Greece. The sample consisted of 35 children and adolescents, aged 4-18 years. The evaluation included consideration of the detailed medical history, the duration of CD and of gluten-free diet, the history of oral mucosal findings and a dental questionnaire that included information about oral hygiene habits, symptoms of periodontal disease and dental attendance. The clinical dental examination consisted of the simplified gingival index, the oral hygiene index and the periodontal screening and recording index. The chi square and logistic regression analysis were performed in order to determine the factors or parameters that had a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) impact on oral hygiene and periodontal treatment needs of children and adolescents with CD. The periodontal treatment need of children and adolescents with CD were high and most of them needed treatment of gingivitis (60.01%) and only a few subjects had a healthy periodontium (34.29%). The periodontal treatment need index, the simplified gingival index and the hygiene index correlated statistically significantly with the presence of a coexisting disease, frequency of tooth brushing, bleeding upon brushing and oral malodor. The periodontal treatment need of children and adolescents with CD correlated with factors that related to the presence of a second medical condition and to the personal oral hygiene habits. Additionally, the oral hygiene level and periodontal status of children with CD do not have any specific characteristics but they have similarities to the oral hygiene level and periodontal status of the children of the general population.

  5. Punica granatum: A review on its potential role in treating periodontal disease.

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    Prasad, Divyashree; Kunnaiah, Ravi

    2014-07-01

    A wide variety of plants possess enormous treasure of medicinal value. Majority of these medicinal plants have been used to treat various systemic conditions successfully. Over the recent years, use of these medicinal plants has resurfaced to treat oral conditions. Among the oral conditions, periodontal disease remains one of the most common. Alternative and preventive options has become the need of the hour in order to overcome the adverse effects of the antimicrobial agents used in large as an adjunct to mainstream periodontal treatment. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) is one of the oldest edible fruit which has a long history as a medicinal fruit. This review is an attempt to highlight the potential of Punica granatum as a preventive and therapeutic aid to periodontal disease.

  6. Signature of Microbial Dysbiosis in Periodontitis.

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    Meuric, Vincent; Le Gall-David, Sandrine; Boyer, Emile; Acuña-Amador, Luis; Martin, Bénédicte; Fong, Shao Bing; Barloy-Hubler, Frederique; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine

    2017-07-15

    Periodontitis is driven by disproportionate host inflammatory immune responses induced by an imbalance in the composition of oral bacteria; this instigates microbial dysbiosis, along with failed resolution of the chronic destructive inflammation. The objectives of this study were to identify microbial signatures for health and chronic periodontitis at the genus level and to propose a model of dysbiosis, including the calculation of bacterial ratios. Published sequencing data obtained from several different studies (196 subgingival samples from patients with chronic periodontitis and 422 subgingival samples from healthy subjects) were pooled and subjected to a new microbiota analysis using the same Visualization and Analysis of Microbial Population Structures (VAMPS) pipeline, to identify microbiota specific to health and disease. Microbiota were visualized using CoNet and Cytoscape. Dysbiosis ratios, defined as the percentage of genera associated with disease relative to the percentage of genera associated with health, were calculated to distinguish disease from health. Correlations between the proposed dysbiosis ratio and the periodontal pocket depth were tested with a different set of data obtained from a recent study, to confirm the relevance of the ratio as a potential indicator of dysbiosis. Beta diversity showed significant clustering of periodontitis-associated microbiota, at the genus level, according to the clinical status and independent of the methods used. Specific genera ( Veillonella , Neisseria , Rothia , Corynebacterium , and Actinomyces ) were highly prevalent (>95%) in health, while other genera ( Eubacterium , Campylobacter , Treponema , and Tannerella ) were associated with chronic periodontitis. The calculation of dysbiosis ratios based on the relative abundance of the genera found in health versus periodontitis was tested. Nonperiodontitis samples were significantly identifiable by low ratios, compared to chronic periodontitis samples. When

  7. Comparative analysis of gingival crevicular fluid β-glucuronidase levels in health, chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis.

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    Sanara, P P; Shereef, Mohammed; Hegde, Shashikanth; Rajesh, K S; Arun Kumar, M S; Mohamed, Shabeer

    2015-08-01

    Current methods available for periodontal disease diagnosis are seriously deficient in terms of accuracy, in the ability to predict ongoing or future disease activity and indeed in determining whether previously diseased sites are in an arrested phase or still active. One area that is receiving a great deal of attention is the biochemical investigation of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). β-glucuronidase (βG) is one of the enzymes found in GCF that is involved in degradation of the ground substance and fibrillar components of host connective tissue. GCF βG activity might be a good indicator or predictor of periodontal disease activity. This study was conducted to estimate and compare the GCF βG levels in patients with healthy periodontium, chronic gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis. Subjects were classified into three groups of 20 patients each; healthy individuals, chronic gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis. After recording the plaque index, gingival index and probing pocket depth, 1 μL GCF was collected by placing a calibrated microcapillary pipette extracrevicularly and transferred to sterile plastic vials containing 350 μL of normal saline with 1% bovine serum albumin. Analysis of βG was done by spectrophotometry. βG levels in GCF were significantly higher in chronic periodontitis group (mean value - 2.04743), followed by chronic gingivitis group (mean - 1.11510) and healthy group (0.53643). Increased βG levels were observed in patients with increased periodontal destruction, hence GCF βG levels can be used as biochemical marker for periodontal disease activity.

  8. Association between obesity and periodontal disease. A systematic review of epidemiological studies and controlled clinical trials

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    Martinez-Herrera, Mayte; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity is a very prevalent chronic disease worldwide and has been suggested to increase susceptibility of periodontitis. The aim of this paper was to provide a systematic review of the association between obesity and periodontal disease, and to determine the possible mechanisms underlying in this relationship. Material and Methods A literature search was carried out in the databases PubMed-Medline and Embase. Controlled clinical trials and observational studies identifying periodontal and body composition parameters were selected. Each article was subjected to data extraction and quality assessment. Results A total of 284 articles were identified, of which 64 were preselected and 28 were finally included in the review. All the studies described an association between obesity and periodontal disease, except two articles that reported no such association. Obesity is characterized by a chronic subclinical inflammation that could exacerbate other chronic inflammatory disorders like as periodontitis. Conclusions The association between obesity and periodontitis was consistent with a compelling pattern of increased risk of periodontitis in overweight or obese individuals. Although the underlying pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear, it has been pointed out that the development of insulin resistance as a consequence of a chronic inflammatory state and oxidative stress could be implicated in the association between obesity and periodontitis. Further prospective longitudinal studies are needed to define the magnitude of this association and to elucidate the causal biological mechanisms. Key words:Periodontal disease, periodontitis, periodontal infection, obesity, abdominal obesity. PMID:29053651

  9. Prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at individual and population level: consensus report of group 3 of joint EFP/ORCA workshop on the boundaries between caries and periodontal diseases.

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    Jepsen, Søren; Blanco, Juan; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Carvalho, Joana C; Dietrich, Thomas; Dörfer, Christof; Eaton, Kenneth A; Figuero, Elena; Frencken, Jo E; Graziani, Filippo; Higham, Susan M; Kocher, Thomas; Maltz, Marisa; Ortiz-Vigon, Alberto; Schmoeckel, Julian; Sculean, Anton; Tenuta, Livia M A; van der Veen, Monique H; Machiulskiene, Vita

    2017-03-01

    The non-communicable diseases dental caries and periodontal diseases pose an enormous burden on mankind. The dental biofilm is a major biological determinant common to the development of both diseases, and they share common risk factors and social determinants, important for their prevention and control. The remit of this working group was to review the current state of knowledge on epidemiology, socio-behavioural aspects as well as plaque control with regard to dental caries and periodontal diseases. Discussions were informed by three systematic reviews on (i) the global burden of dental caries and periodontitis; (ii) socio-behavioural aspects in the prevention and control of dental caries and periodontal diseases at an individual and population level; and (iii) mechanical and chemical plaque control in the simultaneous management of gingivitis and dental caries. This consensus report is based on the outcomes of these systematic reviews and on expert opinion of the participants. Key findings included the following: (i) prevalence and experience of dental caries has decreased in many regions in all age groups over the last three decades; however, not all societal groups have benefitted equally from this decline; (ii) although some studies have indicated a possible decline in periodontitis prevalence, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that prevalence has changed over recent decades; (iii) because of global population growth and increased tooth retention, the number of people affected by dental caries and periodontitis has grown substantially, increasing the total burden of these diseases globally (by 37% for untreated caries and by 67% for severe periodontitis) as estimated between 1990 and 2013, with high global economic impact; (iv) there is robust evidence for an association of low socio-economic status with a higher risk of having dental caries/caries experience and also with higher prevalence of periodontitis; (v) the most important behavioural factor

  10. [Smoking and periodontal disease of adolescents--results of an epidemiological survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszyńska, Elzbieta; Jurga, Justyna; Dyszkiewicz-Konwińska, Marta

    2009-01-01

    A questionnaire concerning oral health designed for young people aged between 15 and 18 and based on one produced by Tokyo University entitled Medical Outcome Study (MOS) and Oral Health Score (OHS) 8020, was submitted to a group of Polish citizens. One of the 10 questions in the OHS part of the questionnaire concerned smoking habits. 296 persons (157 girls and 139 boys) living in west Poland, took part. For a clearer evaluation of the health habits in this group, a comparison was made between the youngest (15 y old) and oldest (18 y old) groups. The Oral health Score (with a possible maximum 20 points) for the examined group was 14.4 which is one of the lowest among evaluated European countries. Smoking was most frequent among the 18 year olds (20.1%) whereas among the respondents in the younger group it was this value (16.5%). Moreover, in age 15 group, boys (29%) were more often smokers than girls (5.5%); 22% of 18 year old girls and 19.8% of boys smoked. Comparing the answers relating to oral health with the frequency of smoking revealed a connection between this habit and the presence of periodontal disease. Smoking increases a risk of developing periodontal disease. According to the results there is a need to increase an oral health education and identification of risk factors such smoking among Polish adolescents.

  11. A Comparison of Impact of Chronic Periodontal Diseases and Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life

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    Khushboo Goel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the impact of chronic periodontal diseases (PDs and compare phases of nonsurgical periodontal therapy (NSPT on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL in patients attending a tertiary care center of eastern Nepal. Materials and Methods. Matched for socioeconomic status, participants were recruited in two groups: moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis (n=24, 43±46 years and chronic gingivitis (n=25, 30±96 years. The treatment modalities were scaling and root surface debridement (RSD and supragingival scaling, respectively. The impact of periodontal disease treatment status was assessed by a self-reported questionnaire of Nepali Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14 at baseline and 9–12 weeks after NSPT. Results. The median (IQR OHIP-14 total scores for PDs reduced from 7 (3–11 to 3 (1–7.5 after NSPT. Both groups showed a significant improvement on OHRQoL (p value < 0.001. The periodontitis group showed an increased median (IQR reduction of 52% (35.22–86.15 compared with the gingivitis group with 27% (0.00–50.00. The impact on orofacial pain, orofacial appearance, and psychosocial dimensions was observed, which improved after NSPT in both groups. Conclusion. PDs are directly associated with OHRQoL and treatment of the disease may enhance quality of life from a patient’s perspective. Scaling and RSD provided better influence on OHRQoL than supragingival scaling.

  12. Relationship between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight babies

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    Ahmad Haerian-Ardakani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal infections, which serve as a reservoir of inflammatory mediators, may pose a threat to the fetal-placental unit and cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective: The aim of this study was assessing the periodontal status of women during puerperium and determining the possible relationship between their periodontal disease and low birth weight delivery. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study. The sample included 88 ex-pregnant women were seen at maternity hospitals of Yazd, Iran. Half of the mothers had low birth babies (LBW (birth weight below 2500g- case group and the others had normal weight babies (>2500g- control group. The mothers’ data were obtained from medical files, interview and periodontal clinical examination carried out up to 3 days after delivery. Bleeding on probing, presence of supra-gingival calculus and CPITN (Community Periodontal Index for Treatment Needs were used for periodontal assessment Results: Among the known risk factors of LBW babies, history of previous LBW infant among case mothers reached statistical significance (p=0.0081, Student t-test. Mothers of LBW infants had less healthy areas of gingiva (p=0.042, and more deep pockets (p=0.0006, Mann-Whitney test. Conclusion: The maternal periodontal disease can be a potential independent risk factor for LBW.

  13. Periodontitis induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis drives periodontal microbiota dysbiosis and insulin resistance via an impaired adaptive immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Baque, Vincent; Garidou, Lucile; Pomié, Céline; Escoula, Quentin; Loubieres, Pascale; Le Gall-David, Sandrine; Lemaitre, Mathieu; Nicolas, Simon; Klopp, Pascale; Waget, Aurélie; Azalbert, Vincent; Colom, André; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Kemoun, Philippe; Serino, Matteo; Burcelin, Rémy

    2017-05-01

    To identify a causal mechanism responsible for the enhancement of insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia following periodontitis in mice fed a fat-enriched diet. We set-up a unique animal model of periodontitis in C57Bl/6 female mice by infecting the periodontal tissue with specific and alive pathogens like Porphyromonas gingivalis ( Pg ), Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia . The mice were then fed with a diabetogenic/non-obesogenic fat-enriched diet for up to 3 months. Alveolar bone loss, periodontal microbiota dysbiosis and features of glucose metabolism were quantified. Eventually, adoptive transfer of cervical (regional) and systemic immune cells was performed to demonstrate the causal role of the cervical immune system. Periodontitis induced a periodontal microbiota dysbiosis without mainly affecting gut microbiota. The disease concomitantly impacted on the regional and systemic immune response impairing glucose metabolism. The transfer of cervical lymph-node cells from infected mice to naive recipients guarded against periodontitis-aggravated metabolic disease. A treatment with inactivated Pg prior to the periodontal infection induced specific antibodies against Pg and protected the mouse from periodontitis-induced dysmetabolism. Finally, a 1-month subcutaneous chronic infusion of low rates of lipopolysaccharides from Pg mimicked the impact of periodontitis on immune and metabolic parameters. We identified that insulin resistance in the high-fat fed mouse is enhanced by pathogen-induced periodontitis. This is caused by an adaptive immune response specifically directed against pathogens and associated with a periodontal dysbiosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Nonsurgical and surgical treatment of periodontitis: how many options for one disease?

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    Graziani, Filippo; Karapetsa, Dimitra; Alonso, Bettina; Herrera, David

    2017-10-01

    Treatment of periodontitis aims at preventing further disease progression with the intentions to reduce the risk of tooth loss, minimize symptoms and perception of the disease, possibly restore lost periodontal tissue and provide information on maintaining a healthy periodontium. Therapeutic intervention includes introduction of techniques to change behavior, such as: individually tailored oral-hygiene instructions; a smoking-cessation program; dietary adjustment; subgingival instrumentation to remove plaque and calculus; local and systemic pharmacotherapy; and various types of surgery. No single treatment option has shown superiority, and virtually all types of mechanical periodontal treatment benefit from adjunctive antimicrobial chemotherapy. Periodontal treatment, because of the chronic nature of periodontitis, is a lifelong commitment to intricate oral-hygiene techniques, which, when properly implemented, will minimize the risk of disease initiation and progression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Genetic association in chronic periodontitis through dermatoglyphics: An unsolved link?

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    Sowmya Astekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Because dermatoglyphic features are strongly affected by genetic and environmental factors, using it as supportive evidence in the diagnosis of hereditary disorders becomes a reality. Offspring of patients suffering from chronic periodontitis have a high prevalence rate of periodontal breakdown, suggesting strong familial influence. Aims: The present study intends to evaluate and compare the dermatoglyphic patterns in controls and periodontally compromised patients. Settings and Design: A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted, including a total of 60 individuals, divided into study and control groups of 30 each. The study group included clinically diagnosed periodontitis patients.Materials and Methods: The digital prints were collected using biometric scanner and palmer prints using digital flatbed scanner. Care was taken to ensure that full prints of ridges were obtained. The periodontal status of all 60 participants was assessed clinically for attachment level and pocket depth. Later, Russell's periodontal index was also calculated. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using chi square and Student's t-test. Results: Among the finger ridge patterns, whorl pattern was found to be the most common in the study group whereas loop pattern was the most common in the control group. Mean total finger ridge count in the study group (165.69 ± 25.30 was significantly higher (P = 0.001 than the control group (125.4 ± 16.38. Mean dat angle was significantly higher (P = 0.039 in the study group (60.60 ± 2.76 than the control group (59.20 ± 2.62. Conclusion: Dermatoglyphics may serve as an early predictor in identifying high risk group individuals of developing diseases like periodontitis.

  16. The periodontal disease problem. A comparison between industrialised and developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilot, T

    There is no reason to believe that periodontal diseases in industrialised and developing countries are in principle different. That is, not in the sense that the problem is caused by a different set of periodontal diseases, with different micro-organisms and a different natural history, needing a

  17. Interspecies dynamics among bacteria associated with canine periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguansermsri, P; Nobbs, A H; Jenkinson, H F; Surarit, R

    2018-02-01

    The etiology and pathogenic mechanisms associated with canine periodontal disease are less well understood than the disease in humans. In this study we have reconstructed defined consortia biofilms in vitro of microorganisms identified as prevalent in a same-breed cohort of dogs with or without periodontal disease. Frederiksenia canicola and Neisseria canis were selected as potential early colonizers of salivary pellicle, and Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gulae were included as high incidence canine oral bacteria. N. canis formed a biofilm substratum under aerobic conditions, but was unable to tolerate anaerobic conditions. Fr. canicola exhibited synergistic biofilm growth with Po. gulae under anaerobic conditions, but displayed an antagonistic relationship with Fu. nucleatum. However, strong co-adhesion between Fu. nucleatum and Po. gulae was able to overcome the inhibitory effects of Fr. canicola to facilitate three-species biofilm formation. Parvimonas micra, an anaerobic, asaccharolytic Gram-positive coccus found only under disease conditions in vivo, was able to form biofilms in conjunction with Fr. canicola and Po. gulae. Furthermore, the specific proteolytic activities of biofilms containing Fr. canicola and Po. gulae or Fu. nucleatum and Po. gulae were increased several-fold upon the addition of Pa. micra. This suggests that anaerobic cocci such as Pa. micra might provide a catalyst for progressive tissue destruction, inflammation and alveolar bone loss in canine periodontal disease, in keeping with the keystone-pathogen hypothesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of the risk of endocarditis and other cardiovascular events on the basis of the severity of periodontal disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Lawrence T; Glickman, Nita W; Moore, George E; Goldstein, Gary S; Lewis, Hugh B

    2009-02-15

    To test the hypothesis that increased severity of periodontal disease in dogs is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular-related events, such as endocarditis and cardiomyopathy, as well as markers of inflammation. Historical cohort observational study. 59,296 dogs with a history of periodontal disease (periodontal cohort), of which 23,043 had stage 1 disease, 20,732 had stage 2 disease, and 15,521 had stage 3 disease; and an age-matched comparison group of 59,296 dogs with no history of periodontal disease (nonperiodontal cohort). Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the risk of cardiovascular-related diagnoses and examination findings in dogs as a function of the stage of periodontal disease (1, 2, or 3 or no periodontal disease) over time while controlling for the effect of potential confounding factors. Significant associations were detected between the severity of periodontal dis