WorldWideScience

Sample records for periodical cicada emergences

  1. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  2. Bird Diversity and Composition in Even-Aged Loblolly Pine Stands Relative to Emergence of 13-year Periodical Cicadas and Vegetation Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Hestir; Michael D. Cain

    1999-01-01

    In southern Arkansas, l3-year periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) were expected to emerge in late April and early May of 1998. Presence of a superabundant food source, such as periodical cicadas, may attract greater numbers of birds and more species of birds than is usually present in a particular area. Three even-aged loblolly pine (Pinus...

  3. Periodical Cicada--Brood V (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    1999-01-01

    Three separate species of periodical cicadas, Magicicada septendecim (L.), M. cassini (Fisher), and M. septendecula (Alexander and Moore), will appear this spring over large portions of Ohio and West Virginia during the scheduled Brood V emergence. This brood is the largest that occurs in either state and was last seen in 1982. It will also emerge in the southwest...

  4. Biogeochemistry of Metals in Periodic Cicada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, G. R.; Sibrell, P. L.; Boughton, C. J.; Yang, L. H.; Hancock, T. C.

    2005-05-01

    Metal concentrations were measured in three species of 17-year periodic cicadas (Magicicada spp.) to determine the bioavailability of metals from both uncontaminated and lead-arsenate-pesticide contaminated soils and evaluate whether these metal concentrations might threaten wildlife. Collections were made in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia during Brood X emergence in May and June 2004. Periodic cicadas emerge synchronously at high density after 13 or 17 years of underground development, feeding on xylem fluids, and molt into their adult form leaving a keratin exoskeleton shell. They are an important food source for birds and animals during emergence events, and influence nutrient cycles in woodland settings. Soil concentrations at the collection sites vary over one order of magnitude for Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Se, and Zn and over two orders of magnitude for As, Au, and Pb. The concentration levels of metals in adult periodic cicadas do not pose a dietary threat to birds and other wildlife that preferentially feed upon cicadas during emergence events. The adult cicadas contain concentrations of metals similar to, or less than, other invertebrates, such as earthworms. Average adult cicada body concentrations for As, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn are 3, 64, 0.015, 0.4, and 160 mg/Kg (dry weight), respectively. Much of the cicada nymph body load of metals is partitioned into the molt exoskeleton. Elements, such as Al, Fe, and Pb, are strongly enriched in the exoskeleton relative to the adult body; Cu and Zn are enriched in bodies. Concentrations of Fe, Co, and Pb, when normalized to inert soil constituents such as aluminum and cerium, are similar between the molt exoskeleton and their host soil, implying that passive assimilation through prolonged soil contact (adhesion or adsorption) may control these metal concentrations. Normalized concentrations of bioessential elements, such as S, P, K, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, and Mo, and

  5. Periodical cicadas use light for oviposition site selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Louie H

    2006-12-07

    Organisms use incomplete information from local experience to assess the suitability of potential habitat sites over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Although ecologists have long recognized the importance of spatial scales in habitat selection, few studies have investigated the temporal scales of habitat selection. In particular, cues in the immediate environment may commonly provide indirect information about future habitat quality. In periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.), oviposition site selection represents a very long-term habitat choice. Adult female cicadas insert eggs into tree branches during a few weeks in the summer of emergence, but their oviposition choices determine the underground habitats of root-feeding nymphs over the following 13 or 17 years. Here, field experiments are used to show that female cicadas use the local light environment of host trees during the summer of emergence to select long-term host trees. Light environments may also influence oviposition microsite selection within hosts, suggesting a potential behavioural mechanism for associating solar cues with host trees. In contrast, experimental nutrient enrichment of host trees did not influence cicada oviposition densities. These findings suggest that the light environments around host trees may provide a robust predictor of host tree quality in the near future. This habitat selection may influence the spatial distribution of several cicada-mediated ecological processes in eastern North American forests.

  6. Transient habitats limit development time for periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karban, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) mature in 13 or 17 years, the longest development times for any non-diapausing insects. Selection may favor prolonged development since nymphs experience little mortality and individuals taking 17 years have been shown to have greater fecundity than those taking 13 years. Why don't periodical cicadas take even longer to develop? Nymphs feed on root xylem fluid and move little. Ovipositing females prefer fast-growing trees at forest edges. I hypothesized that (1) adults emerging at edges would be heavier than those from forest interiors and (2) habitat changes could limit development time. I collected newly eclosed females that had neither fed as adults nor moved from their site of development. For M. septendecim, females from edges were 4.9% heavier than those from the interior. I assumed that emergence density indicated habitat quality and measured density at eight sites in 1979, 1996, and 2013. Over three generations, variation in densities was great; densities at two sites crashed, and at one site they exploded to 579/m2 Habitat transience may limit development time because only adults can reassess habitats and reposition offspring. In conclusion, cicadas are affected by habitat characteristics, habitats change over 17 years, and cicadas may emerge, mate, and redistribute their offspring to track habitat dynamics.

  7. Can Periodic Cicadas be used as a Biomonitor for Arsenical Pesticide Contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, G. R.; Sibrell, P. L.; Boughton, C. J.; Yang, L.; Hancock, T. C.

    2004-12-01

    Widespread use of arsenical pesticides on fruit crops, particularly apple orchards, during the first half of the 20th century is a significant source of arsenic to agricultural soil in the Mid-Atlantic region. Cumulative application rates may be as high as 37 Kg/hectare of arsenic in orchard areas. Brood X 17-year periodic cicadas (Magicicada spp.) emerged at densities up to 30,000 or more individuals per hectare in orchard and forest habitats during May-June, 2004, in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia and in Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia. These cicadas were sampled to evaluate the bioavailability of arsenic in orchard and non-orchard reference site soils. Potentially toxic elements, such as arsenic and other heavy metals bind to sulfhydryl groups, and thus may accumulate in keratin-rich tissues, such as cicada nymphal exuviae and adult exoskeletons. These cicadas feed on plant roots underground for 17 years before emerging to molt into their adult form. Adult cicadas have very limited dispersal, rarely traveling more than 50 m in a flight. As such, their body and exoskeleton keratin has potential value as a biomonitor for arsenic and other metals that is spatially referenced to local conditions for the duration of time the nymphs live in the soil. This study addresses the following research questions: (1) do the soils in and adjacent to orchard sites where arsenical pesticide was used contain elevated concentrations of arsenic and other metals relative to likely background conditions?; (2) can periodic cicadas be used as an easily sampled biomonitor measuring bioavailability of pesticide residues in soils?; and (3) do the concentration levels of arsenical pesticide residues in periodic cicadas emerging from contaminated orchard sites pose a dietary threat to birds and other wildlife that preferentially feed upon cicadas during emergence events?

  8. Feeding ecology and evidence for amino acid synthesis in the periodical cicada (Magicicada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Hilary; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2011-01-01

    The periodical cicadas of the genus Magicicada (including M. septendecim, M. cassini, and M. septendecula) have the longest juvenile life span of any insect, living underground for 13 or 17 years and feeding exclusively on root xylem fluids. Due to their inaccessible life cycles very little is known about cicada nutrition, despite the fact that members of Magicicada can achieve a very large biomass in woodland habitats east of the Mississippi and hence constitute a major part of the ecosystem where they occur in high densities. Live cicadas were collected at two sites in early June of 2004, during the emergence of Brood X (both M. septendecim and M. cassini were recovered). We used a combination of stable isotopic measurements (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) and multivariate statistical techniques to test for differences in resource acquisition among the cicada species and sexes collected at two locations within the 17-year periodical Brood X range. The amino acid constituents of cicada chitin and organs, plus xylem extracted from a deciduous sapling, were also analyzed. The data show that male and female cicadas have different carbon fractionations, which could reflect differential resource utilization due to oviposition in females. Several essential amino acids for the cicada were absent in xylem. Carbon-isotopic composition of all amino acids in the cicadas was distinctly different from the limited set measured in the xylem. Because of the differences in isotopic composition, we conclude that amino acids were synthesized de novo rather than incorporated directly, most likely produced by endosymbiotic bacteria. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Avian predation pressure as a potential driver of periodical cicada cycle length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter E. Koenig; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2013-01-01

    The extraordinarily long life cycles, synchronous emergences at 13- or 17-year intervals, and complex geographic distribution of periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in eastern North America are a long-standing evolutionary enigma. Although a variety of factors, including satiation of aboveground predators and avoidance of interbrood hybridization,...

  10. Spatial variability in oviposition damage by periodical cicadas in a fragmented landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, William M; Holt, Robert D; Yao, Jin

    2001-03-01

    Effects of the periodical cicada (Magicicada spp.) on forest dynamics are poorly documented. A 1998 emergence of M. cassini in eastern Kansas led to colonization of a fragmented experimental landscape undergoing secondary succession. We hypothesized that per-tree rates of oviposition damage by cicadas would reflect: (1) distance from the source of the emergence, (2) patch size, and (3) local tree density. Ovipositing females displayed clear preferences for host species and damage incidence showed predictable spatial patterns. Two species (smooth sumac, Rhus glabra, and eastern red cedar, Juniperus virginiana) were rarely attacked, whereas others (rough-leaved dogwood, Cornus drummondii; slippery elm, Ulmus rubra; box elder, Acer negundo, and honey locust, Gleditsia triacanthos) were strongly attacked. The dominant early successional tree, dogwood, received on average the most attacks. As predicted, attacks per stem declined strongly with distance from the emergence source, and with local stem density (a "dilution" effect). Contrary to expectations, there were more attacks per stem on larger patches. Because ovipositing cicadas cut damaging slits in host tree branches, potentially affecting tree growth rate, competitive ability, and capacity to reproduce, cicada damage could potentially influence spatial variation in secondary succession.

  11. Periodical cicadas: A minimal automaton model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de O. Cardozo, Giovano; de A. M. M. Silvestre, Daniel; Colato, Alexandre

    2007-08-01

    The Magicicada spp. life cycles with its prime periods and highly synchronized emergence have defied reasonable scientific explanation since its discovery. During the last decade several models and explanations for this phenomenon appeared in the literature along with a great deal of discussion. Despite this considerable effort, there is no final conclusion about this long standing biological problem. Here, we construct a minimal automaton model without predation/parasitism which reproduces some of these aspects. Our results point towards competition between different strains with limited dispersal threshold as the main factor leading to the emergence of prime numbered life cycles.

  12. Idiosyncratic Genome Degradation in a Bacterial Endosymbiont of Periodical Cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew A; Łukasik, Piotr; Simon, Chris; McCutcheon, John P

    2017-11-20

    When a free-living bacterium transitions to a host-beneficial endosymbiotic lifestyle, it almost invariably loses a large fraction of its genome [1, 2]. The resulting small genomes often become stable in size, structure, and coding capacity [3-5], as exemplified by Sulcia muelleri, a nutritional endosymbiont of cicadas. Sulcia's partner endosymbiont, Hodgkinia cicadicola, similarly remains co-linear in some cicadas diverged by millions of years [6, 7]. But in the long-lived periodical cicada Magicicada tredecim, the Hodgkinia genome has split into dozens of tiny, gene-sparse circles that sometimes reside in distinct Hodgkinia cells [8]. Previous data suggested that all other Magicicada species harbor complex Hodgkinia populations, but the timing, number of origins, and outcomes of the splitting process were unknown. Here, by sequencing Hodgkinia metagenomes from the remaining six Magicicada and two sister species, we show that each Magicicada species harbors Hodgkinia populations of at least 20 genomic circles. We find little synteny among the 256 Hodgkinia circles analyzed except between the most closely related cicada species. Gene phylogenies show multiple Hodgkinia lineages in the common ancestor of Magicicada and its closest known relatives but that most splitting has occurred within Magicicada and has given rise to highly variable Hodgkinia gene dosages among species. These data show that Hodgkinia genome degradation has proceeded down different paths in different Magicicada species and support a model of genomic degradation that is stochastic in outcome and nonadaptive for the host. These patterns mirror the genomic instability seen in some mitochondria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A specialized fungal parasite (Massospora cicadina) hijacks the sexual signals of periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, John R; Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R

    2018-01-23

    Male periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) infected with conidiospore-producing ("Stage I") infections of the entomopathogenic fungus Massospora cicadina exhibit precisely timed wing-flick signaling behavior normally seen only in sexually receptive female cicadas. Male wing-flicks attract copulation attempts from conspecific males in the chorus; close contact apparently spreads the infective conidiospores. In contrast, males with "Stage II" infections that produce resting spores that wait for the next cicada generation do not produce female-specific signals. We propose that these complex fungus-induced behavioral changes, which resemble apparently independently derived changes in other cicada-Massospora systems, represent a fungus "extended phenotype" that hijacks cicadas, turning them into vehicles for fungus transmission at the expense of the cicadas' own interests.

  14. Cicada emergence in southwestern riparian forest: Influences of wildfire and vegetation composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Max Smith; Jeffrey Kelly; Deborah M. Finch

    2006-01-01

    Annually emerging cicadas are a numerically and ecologically dominant species in Southwestern riparian forests. Humans have altered disturbance regimes that structure these forests such that floods are less common and wildfires occur more frequently than was historically the case. Impacts of these changes on primary consumers such as riparian cicadas are unknown....

  15. A specialized fungal parasite (Massospora cicadina) hijacks the sexual signals of periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada)

    OpenAIRE

    Cooley, John R.; Marshall, David C.; Hill, Kathy B. R.

    2018-01-01

    Male periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) infected with conidiospore-producing (“Stage I”) infections of the entomopathogenic fungus Massospora cicadina exhibit precisely timed wing-flick signaling behavior normally seen only in sexually receptive female cicadas. Male wing-flicks attract copulation attempts from conspecific males in the chorus; close contact apparently spreads the infective conidiospores. In contrast, males with “Stage II” infections that produce resting spores that wait for ...

  16. Allee effect in the selection for prime-numbered cycles in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yumi; Yoshimura, Jin; Simon, Chris; Cooley, John R; Tainaka, Kei-ichi

    2009-06-02

    Periodical cicadas are well known for their prime-numbered life cycles (17 and 13 years) and their mass periodical emergences. The origination and persistence of prime-numbered cycles are explained by the hybridization hypothesis on the basis of their lower likelihood of hybridization with other cycles. Recently, we showed by using an integer-based numerical model that prime-numbered cycles are indeed selected for among 10- to 20-year cycles. Here, we develop a real-number-based model to investigate the factors affecting the selection of prime-numbered cycles. We include an Allee effect in our model, such that a critical population size is set as an extinction threshold. We compare the real-number models with and without the Allee effect. The results show that in the presence of an Allee effect, prime-numbered life cycles are most likely to persist and to be selected under a wide range of extinction thresholds.

  17. Energetics of emergence in the cicadas, Cyclochila australasiae and Abricta curvicosta (Homoptera: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Prudence M; Thompson, Michael B

    2006-09-01

    The final moult in cicadas marks a major transition in lifestyle and is a behaviour that makes the cicada vulnerable to predation. Consequently, emergence times are short and, we predict, therefore the rate of energy consumption would be high. Hence, we measured the energetic cost of emergence in Cyclochila australasiae (green grocer) and Abricta curvicosta (floury baker) cicadas during the final moult from nymph to adult cicada. Maximum energy expended whilst emerging was compared between the sexes and species. Even though C. australasiae take longer to emerge than A. curvicosta, the mass-specific cost of emergence is not different between the two species (C. australasiae: 11.34+/-2.55 J g(-1); A. curvicosta: 12.91+/-1.90 J g(-1)). The mass-specific metabolic rates of fully emerged adults of both species are approximately twice those of the nymphs and the maximum metabolic rate during emergence is about 1.5 times higher than the resting metabolic rate of emerged adults. Emergence times, as indicated by rates of oxygen consumption, are longer than expected and probably reflect limitations in the oxygen capacity of the cicadas during moulting.

  18. Comparison of exclusion and imidacloprid for reduction of oviposition damage to young trees by periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Robert G; Frank, Steven D; Raupp, Michael J

    2005-12-01

    Insecticides are traditionally used to control periodical cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae) and to reduce associated injury caused by oviposition. However, research has shown that conventional insecticides have low or variable season-long efficacy in reducing injury caused by cicadas. New systemic neonicotinoid insecticides provide excellent levels of control against a variety of sucking insects. We compared the efficacy of a neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, and a nonchemical control measure, netting, to reduce cicada injury. Netted trees sustained very little injury, whereas unprotected trees were heavily damaged. Fewer eggnests, scars, and flags were observed on trees treated with imidacloprid compared with unprotected trees; however, the hatching of cicada eggs was unaffected by imidacloprid.

  19. Mathematical observations on the relation between eclosion periods and the copulation rate of cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisho, Yasumasa

    2010-04-01

    In many species of cicadas the peak of eclosion of males precedes that of females. In this paper, we construct a stochastic model and consider whether this sexual difference of eclosion periods works against mating or not. We also discuss the relation between the peak period of copulations and the development of population number by using this model.

  20. The emergence densities of annual cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) increase with sapling density and are greater near edges in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavacci, Scott J; Bednarz, James C; McKay, Tanja

    2014-08-01

    The emergence densities of cicadas tend to be patchy at multiple spatial scales. While studies have identified habitat conditions related to these patchy distributions, their interpretation has been based primarily on periodical cicada species; habitat factors associated with densities of nonperiodical (i.e., annual) cicadas have remained under studied. This is despite their widespread distribution, diversity, and role as an important trophic resource for many other organisms, particularly within riparian areas. We studied habitat factors associated with the emergence densities of Tibicen spp. in a bottomland hardwood forest in east-central Arkansas. We found emergence densities were greatest in areas of high sapling densities and increased toward forest edges, although sapling density was a much stronger predictor of emergence density. Emergence densities also differed among sample areas within our study system. The habitat features predicting nymph densities were likely driven by a combination of factors affecting female selection of oviposition sites and the effects of habitat conditions on nymph survival. The differences in nymph densities between areas of our system were likely a result of the differential effects of flooding in these areas. Interestingly, our findings were similar to observations of periodical species, suggesting that both types of cicadas select similar habitat characteristics for ovipositing or are under comparable selective pressures during development. Our findings also imply that changes in habitat characteristics because of anthropogenically altered disturbance regimes (e.g., flooding) have the potential to negatively impact both periodical and annual species, which could have dramatic consequences for organisms at numerous trophic levels.

  1. Genomic divergence and lack of introgressive hybridization between two 13-year periodical cicadas support life cycle switching in the face of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takuya; Ito, Hiromu; Fujisawa, Tomochika; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Cooley, John R; Simon, Chris; Yoshimura, Jin; Sota, Teiji

    2016-11-01

    Life history evolution spurred by post-Pleistocene climatic change is hypothesized to be responsible for the present diversity in periodical cicadas (Magicicada), but the mechanism of life cycle change has been controversial. To understand the divergence process of 13-year and 17-year cicada life cycles, we studied genetic relationships between two synchronously emerging, parapatric 13-year periodical cicada species in the Decim group, Magicicada tredecim and M. neotredecim. The latter was hypothesized to be of hybrid origin or to have switched from a 17-year cycle via developmental plasticity. Phylogenetic analysis using restriction-site-associated DNA sequences for all Decim species and broods revealed that the 13-year M. tredecim lineage is genomically distinct from 17-year Magicicada septendecim but that 13-year M. neotredecim is not. We detected no significant introgression between M. tredecim and M. neotredecim/M. septendecim thus refuting the hypothesis that M. neotredecim are products of hybridization between M. tredecim and M. septendecim. Further, we found that introgressive hybridization is very rare or absent in the contact zone between the two 13-year species evidenced by segregation patterns in single nucleotide polymorphisms, mitochondrial lineage identity and head width and abdominal sternite colour phenotypes. Our study demonstrates that the two 13-year Decim species are of independent origin and nearly completely reproductively isolated. Combining our data with increasing observations of occasional life cycle change in part of a cohort (e.g. 4-year acceleration of emergence in 17-year species), we suggest a pivotal role for developmental plasticity in Magicicada life cycle evolution. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cicada Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Catherine E.; Hildreth, David

    1997-01-01

    Presents investigations in which students are provided with a series of four mystery items related to cicadas. Observations and a class discussion follow each item. Contains basic information on doing experiments with live cicadas, specific assessment strategies for this activity, and facts about cicadas. (DDR)

  3. Allochronic speciation, secondary contact, and reproductive character displacement in periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp.): genetic, morphological, and behavioural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, J R; Simon, C; Marshall, D C; Slon, K; Ehrhardt, C

    2001-03-01

    Periodical cicadas have proven useful in testing a variety of ecological and evolutionary hypotheses because of their unusual life history, extraordinary abundance, and wide geographical range. Periodical cicadas provide the best examples of synchronous periodicity and predator satiation in the animal kingdom, and are excellent illustrations of habitat partitioning (by the three morphologically distinct species groups), incipient species (the year classes or broods), and cryptic species (a newly discovered 13-year species, Magicicada neotredecim). They are particularly useful for exploring questions regarding speciation via temporal isolation, or allochronic speciation. Recently, data were presented that provided strong support for an instance of allochronic speciation by life-cycle switching. This speciation event resulted in the formation of a new 13-year species from a 17-year species and led to secondary contact between two formerly separated lineages, one represented by the new 13-year cicadas (and their 17-year ancestors), and the other represented by the pre-existing 13-year cicadas. Allozyme frequency data, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and abdominal colour were shown to be correlated genetic markers supporting the life-cycle switching/allochronic speciation hypothesis. In addition, a striking pattern of reproductive character displacement in male call pitch and female pitch preference between the two 13-year species was discovered. In this paper we report a strong association between calling song pitch and mtDNA haplotype for 101 individuals from a single locality within the M. tredecim/M. neotredecim contact zone and a strong association between abdomen colour and mtDNA haplotype. We conclude by reviewing proposed mechanisms for allochronic speciation and reproductive character displacement.

  4. Life cycle replacement by gene introduction under an allee effect in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariai, Yukiko; Hayashi, Saki; Morita, Satoru; Umemura, Yoshitaka; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2011-04-06

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are divided into three species groups (-decim, -cassini, -decula) of similar but distinct morphology and behavior. Each group contains at least one species with a 17-year life cycle and one with a 13-year cycle; each species is most closely related to one with the other cycle. One explanation for the apparent polyphyly of 13- and 17-year life cycles is that populations switch between the two cycles. Using a numerical model, we test the general feasibility of life cycle switching by the introduction of alleles for one cycle into populations of the other cycle. Our results suggest that fitness reductions at low population densities of mating individuals (the Allee effect) could play a role in life cycle switching. In our model, if the 13-year cycle is genetically dominant, a 17-year cycle population will switch to a 13-year cycle given the introduction of a few 13-year cycle alleles under a moderate Allee effect. We also show that under a weak Allee effect, different year-classes ("broods") with 17-year life cycles can be generated. Remarkably, the outcomes of our models depend only on the dominance relationships of the cycle alleles, irrespective of any fitness advantages.

  5. Evidence for paternal leakage in hybrid periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Fontaine

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial inheritance is generally assumed to be maternal. However, there is increasing evidence of exceptions to this rule, especially in hybrid crosses. In these cases, mitochondria are also inherited paternally, so "paternal leakage" of mitochondria occurs. It is important to understand these exceptions better, since they potentially complicate or invalidate studies that make use of mitochondrial markers. We surveyed F1 offspring of experimental hybrid crosses of the 17-year periodical cicadas Magicicada septendecim, M. septendecula, and M. cassini for the presence of paternal mitochondrial markers at various times during development (1-day eggs; 3-, 6-, 9-week eggs; 16-month old 1st and 2nd instar nymphs. We found evidence of paternal leakage in both reciprocal hybrid crosses in all of these samples. The relative difficulty of detecting paternal mtDNA in the youngest eggs and ease of detecting leakage in older eggs and in nymphs suggests that paternal mitochondria proliferate as the eggs develop. Our data support recent theoretical predictions that paternal leakage may be more common than previously estimated.

  6. Life cycle replacement by gene introduction under an allee effect in periodical cicadas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Nariai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp. in the USA are divided into three species groups (-decim, -cassini, -decula of similar but distinct morphology and behavior. Each group contains at least one species with a 17-year life cycle and one with a 13-year cycle; each species is most closely related to one with the other cycle. One explanation for the apparent polyphyly of 13- and 17-year life cycles is that populations switch between the two cycles. Using a numerical model, we test the general feasibility of life cycle switching by the introduction of alleles for one cycle into populations of the other cycle. Our results suggest that fitness reductions at low population densities of mating individuals (the Allee effect could play a role in life cycle switching. In our model, if the 13-year cycle is genetically dominant, a 17-year cycle population will switch to a 13-year cycle given the introduction of a few 13-year cycle alleles under a moderate Allee effect. We also show that under a weak Allee effect, different year-classes ("broods" with 17-year life cycles can be generated. Remarkably, the outcomes of our models depend only on the dominance relationships of the cycle alleles, irrespective of any fitness advantages.

  7. Evidence for paternal leakage in hybrid periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Kathryn M; Cooley, John R; Simon, Chris

    2007-09-12

    Mitochondrial inheritance is generally assumed to be maternal. However, there is increasing evidence of exceptions to this rule, especially in hybrid crosses. In these cases, mitochondria are also inherited paternally, so "paternal leakage" of mitochondria occurs. It is important to understand these exceptions better, since they potentially complicate or invalidate studies that make use of mitochondrial markers. We surveyed F1 offspring of experimental hybrid crosses of the 17-year periodical cicadas Magicicada septendecim, M. septendecula, and M. cassini for the presence of paternal mitochondrial markers at various times during development (1-day eggs; 3-, 6-, 9-week eggs; 16-month old 1st and 2nd instar nymphs). We found evidence of paternal leakage in both reciprocal hybrid crosses in all of these samples. The relative difficulty of detecting paternal mtDNA in the youngest eggs and ease of detecting leakage in older eggs and in nymphs suggests that paternal mitochondria proliferate as the eggs develop. Our data support recent theoretical predictions that paternal leakage may be more common than previously estimated.

  8. Geographic body size variation in the periodical cicadas Magicicada: implications for life cycle divergence and local adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, T; Ito, H; Kakishima, S; Yoshimura, J; Cooley, J R; Simon, C; Sota, T

    2015-06-01

    Seven species in three species groups (Decim, Cassini and Decula) of periodical cicadas (Magicicada) occupy a wide latitudinal range in the eastern United States. To clarify how adult body size, a key trait affecting fitness, varies geographically with climate conditions and life cycle, we analysed the relationships of population mean head width to geographic variables (latitude, longitude, altitude), habitat annual mean temperature (AMT), life cycle and species differences. Within species, body size was larger in females than males and decreased with increasing latitude (and decreasing habitat AMT), following the converse Bergmann's rule. For the pair of recently diverged 13- and 17-year species in each group, 13-year cicadas were equal in size or slightly smaller on average than their 17-year counterparts despite their shorter developmental time. This fact suggests that, under the same climatic conditions, 17-year cicadas have lowered growth rates compared to their 13-years counterparts, allowing 13-year cicadas with faster growth rates to achieve body sizes equivalent to those of their 17-year counterparts at the same locations. However, in the Decim group, which includes two 13-year species, the more southerly, anciently diverged 13-year species (Magicicada tredecim) was characterized by a larger body size than the other, more northerly 13- and 17-year species, suggesting that local adaptation in warmer habitats may ultimately lead to evolution of larger body sizes. Our results demonstrate how geographic clines in body size may be maintained in sister species possessing different life cycles. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. The presence of cicada family noise in Javanese and Balinese Pranatamangsa calendar calculation an ethnoecological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadarma, I. G. P.; Handziko, Rio Christy

    2017-08-01

    The presence and distribution of various cicada families as one of Javanese and Balinese ethnic farmers' season changing indicators. Comprehension of season changing is as an effort to optimize crop result as a mean to support basic needs. Society understands the behaviour of animal of cicada family based on season condition. Traditionally season guideline is based on the sun position from the equator, moon position, astronomy called as pranotomongso. Cicada's family is one of indicators of season changing between rain season and dry season. There were two-selected cicadas: garengpung as indicator of dry season and tenggoreknongas indicator of rainy season. This research aimed to discover the presence and growth dynamics of garengpung and tenggoreknong(cicada) as season changing indicator insects. This research is explorative research and data were taken through observation. Field observations on the manifestation and dynamics of two insects were conducted. The research was conducted in Yogyakarta Special Province and Bali Province during period of 2015 up to 2016. Correlation between the presence dynamics and emergence of garengpung and tenggoreknongvoice could be utilized as indicator of rainy and dry season dynamics change. Calculation of rainy and dry season change is relevant with pranotomongso calculation. The presence and dynamics of cicada emergence is still relevant as one of ecological information through ethnoecological approach.

  10. Urbanization disrupts latitude-size rule in 17-year cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, DeAnna E; Penick, Clint A; Boateng, Nana S; Menninger, Holly L; Dunn, Robert R

    2018-03-01

    Many ectotherms show a decrease in body size with increasing latitude due to changes in climate, a pattern termed converse Bergmann's rule. Urban conditions-particularly warmer temperatures and fragmented landscapes-may impose stresses on development that could disrupt these body size patterns. To test the impact of urbanization on development and latitudinal trends in body size, we launched a citizen science project to collect periodical cicadas ( Magicicada septendecim ) from across their latitudinal range during the 2013 emergence of Brood II. Periodical cicadas are long-lived insects whose distribution spans a broad latitudinal range covering both urban and rural habitats. We used a geometric morphometric approach to assess body size and developmental stress based on fluctuating asymmetry in wing shape. Body size of rural cicadas followed converse Bergmann's rule, but this pattern was disrupted in urban habitats. In the north, urban cicadas were larger than their rural counterparts, while southern populations showed little variation in body size between habitats. We detected no evidence of differences in developmental stress due to urbanization. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that urbanization disrupts biogeographical trends in body size, and this pattern highlights how the effects of urbanization may differ over a species' range.

  11. Annual Fire, Mowing and Fertilization Effects on Two Cicada Species (Homoptera: Cicadidae) in Tallgrass Prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac A. Callaham; Matt R. Whiles; John M. Blair

    2002-01-01

    In tallgrass prairie, cicadas emerge annually, are abundant and their emergence can be an important flux of energy and nutrients. However, factors influencing the distribution and abundance of these cicadas are virtually unknown. We examined cicada emergence in plots from a long-term (13 y) experimental manipulation involving common tallgrass prairie management...

  12. Urban heat island effect on cicada densities in metropolitan Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa Q. Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Urban heat island (UHI effect, the ubiquitous consequence of urbanization, is considered to play a major role in population expansion of numerous insects. Cryptotympana atrata and Hyalessa fuscata are the most abundant cicada species in the Korean Peninsula, where their population densities are higher in urban than in rural areas. We predicted a positive relationship between the UHI intensities and population densities of these two cicada species in metropolitan Seoul. Methods To test this prediction, enumeration surveys of cicada exuviae densities were conducted in 36 localities located within and in the vicinity of metropolitan Seoul. Samples were collected in two consecutive periods from July to August 2015. The abundance of each species was estimated by two resource-weighted densities, one based on the total geographic area, and the other on the total number of trees. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors critical for the prevalence of cicada species in the urban habitat. Results C. atrata and H. fuscata were major constituents of cicada species composition collected across all localities. Minimum temperature and sampling period were significant factors contributing to the variation in densities of both species, whereas other environmental factors related to urbanization were not significant. More cicada exuviae were collected in the second rather than in the first samplings, which matched the phenological pattern of cicadas in metropolitan Seoul. Cicada population densities increased measurably with the increase in temperature. Age of residential complex also exhibited a significantly positive correlation to H. fuscata densities, but not to C. atrata densities. Discussion Effects of temperature on cicada densities have been discerned from other environmental factors, as cicada densities increased measurably in tandem with elevated temperature. Several mechanisms may contribute to the abundance of

  13. A Possible Population-Driven Phase Transition in Cicada Chorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Siyuan; Jin Yuliang; Zhao Xiaoxue; Huang Jiping

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the collective synchronization of cicada chirping. Using both experimental and phenomenological numerical techniques, here we show that the onset of a periodic two-state acoustic synchronous behavior in cicada chorus depends on a critical size of population N c = 21, above which a typical chorus state appears periodically with a 30 second-silence state in between, and further clarify its possibility concerning a new class of phase transition, which is unusually driven by population. This work has relevance to acoustic synchronization and to general physics of phase transition. (general)

  14. Cicada (Tibicen linnei steers by force vectoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samane Zeyghami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To change flight direction, flying animals modulate aerodynamic force either relative to their bodies to generate torque about the center of mass, or relative to the flight path to produce centripetal force that curves the trajectory. In employing the latter, the direction of aerodynamic force remains fixed in the body frame and rotations of the body redirect the force. While both aforementioned techniques are essential for flight, it is critical to investigate how an animal balances the two to achieve aerial locomotion. Here, we measured wing and body kinematics of cicada (Tibicen linnei in free flight, including flight periods of both little and substantial body reorientations. It is found that cicadas employ a common force vectoring technique to execute all these flights. We show that the direction of the half-stroke averaged aerodynamic force relative to the body is independent of the body orientation, varying in a range of merely 20 deg. Despite directional limitation of the aerodynamic force, pitch and roll torque are generated by altering wing angle of attack and its mean position relative to the center of mass. This results in body rotations which redirect the wing force in the global frame and consequently change the flight trajectory.

  15. Thermal adaptation in North American cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Allen F; Heath, James E; Heath, Maxine S; Phillips, Polly K

    2017-10-01

    We determine and summarize the thermal responses for 118 species and subspecies of North American cicadas representing more than 50 years of fieldwork and experimentation. We investigate the role that habitat and behavior have on the thermal adaptation of the North American cicadas. There are general patterns of increasing thermal responses in warmer floristic provinces and increasing maximum potential temperature within a habitat. Altitude shows an inverse relationship with thermal responses. Comparison of thermal responses of species emerging early or late in the season within the same habitat show increases in the thermal responses along with the increasing environmental temperatures late in the summer. However, behavior, specifically the use of endothermy as a thermoregulatory strategy, can influence the values determined in a particular habitat. Subspecies generally do not differ in their thermal tolerances and thermal tolerances are consistent within a species over distances of more than 7600km. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 36 CFR 223.81 - Shorter advertising periods in emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shorter advertising periods... OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids § 223.81 Shorter advertising periods in emergencies. In emergency situations where prompt...

  17. Emergence of Prime Numbers as the Result of Evolutionary Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Paulo R.; de Oliveira, Viviane M.; Giro, Ronaldo; Galvão, Douglas S.

    2004-08-01

    We investigate by means of a simple theoretical model the emergence of prime numbers as life cycles, as those seen for some species of cicadas. The cicadas, more precisely the Magicicadas, spend most of their lives below the ground and then emerge and die in a short period of time. The Magicicadas display an uncommon behavior: their emergence is synchronized and these periods are usually prime numbers. In the current work, we develop a spatially extended model at which preys and predators coexist and can change their evolutionary dynamics through the occurrence of mutations. We verified that prime numbers as life cycles emerge as a result of the evolution of the population. Our results seem to be a first step in order to prove that the development of such strategy is selectively advantageous, especially for those organisms that are highly vulnerable to attacks of predators.

  18. Are cicadas (Diceroprocta apache) both a "keystone" and a "critical-link" species in lower Colorado River riparian communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    Apache cicada (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Diceroprocta apache Davis) densities were estimated to be 10 individuals/m2 within a closed-canopy stand of Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and Goodding willow (Salix gooddingii) in a revegetated site adjacent to the Colorado River near Parker, Arizona. Coupled with data drawn from the literature, I estimate that up to 1.3 cm (13 1/m2) of water may be added to the upper soil layers annually through the feeding activities of cicada nymphs. This is equivalent to 12% of the annual precipitation received in the study area. Apache cicadas may have significant effects on ecosystem functioning via effects on water transport and thus act as a critical-link species in this southwest desert riverine ecosystem. Cicadas emerged later within the cottonwood-willow stand than in relatively open saltcedar-mesquite stands; this difference in temporal dynamics would affect their availability to several insectivorous bird species and may help explain the birds' recent declines. Resource managers in this region should be sensitive to the multiple and strong effects that Apache cicadas may have on ecosystem structure and functioning.

  19. TFTR control and monitoring system (CICADA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA) is described. This is a computer based system, supporting three types of user interfaces and supporting real time, terminal, and batch operations. Over one hundred graphic display generators will be supported by the system, four array processors will greatly increase the analysis capabilities, and closed circuit television will distribute performance data throughout the facility. Approximately twenty thousand points wll be interfaced to the system

  20. How do "mute" cicadas produce their calling songs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Luo

    Full Text Available Insects have evolved a variety of structures and mechanisms to produce sounds, which are used for communication both within and between species. Among acoustic insects, cicada males are particularly known for their loud and diverse sounds which function importantly in communication. The main method of sound production in cicadas is the tymbal mechanism, and a relative small number of cicada species possess both tymbal and stridulatory organs. However, cicadas of the genus Karenia do not have any specialized sound-producing structures, so they are referred to as "mute". This denomination is quite misleading, as they indeed produce sounds. Here, we investigate the sound-producing mechanism and acoustic communication of the "mute" cicada, Karenia caelatata, and discover a new sound-production mechanism for cicadas: i.e., K. caelatata produces impact sounds by banging the forewing costa against the operculum. The temporal, frequency and amplitude characteristics of the impact sounds are described. Morphological studies and reflectance-based analyses reveal that the structures involved in sound production of K. caelatata (i.e., forewing, operculum, cruciform elevation, and wing-holding groove on scutellum are all morphologically modified. Acoustic playback experiments and behavioral observations suggest that the impact sounds of K. caelatata are used in intraspecific communication and function as calling songs. The new sound-production mechanism expands our knowledge on the diversity of acoustic signaling behavior in cicadas and further underscores the need for more bioacoustic studies on cicadas which lack tymbal mechanism.

  1. How do "mute" cicadas produce their calling songs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Changqing; Wei, Cong; Nansen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Insects have evolved a variety of structures and mechanisms to produce sounds, which are used for communication both within and between species. Among acoustic insects, cicada males are particularly known for their loud and diverse sounds which function importantly in communication. The main method of sound production in cicadas is the tymbal mechanism, and a relative small number of cicada species possess both tymbal and stridulatory organs. However, cicadas of the genus Karenia do not have any specialized sound-producing structures, so they are referred to as "mute". This denomination is quite misleading, as they indeed produce sounds. Here, we investigate the sound-producing mechanism and acoustic communication of the "mute" cicada, Karenia caelatata, and discover a new sound-production mechanism for cicadas: i.e., K. caelatata produces impact sounds by banging the forewing costa against the operculum. The temporal, frequency and amplitude characteristics of the impact sounds are described. Morphological studies and reflectance-based analyses reveal that the structures involved in sound production of K. caelatata (i.e., forewing, operculum, cruciform elevation, and wing-holding groove on scutellum) are all morphologically modified. Acoustic playback experiments and behavioral observations suggest that the impact sounds of K. caelatata are used in intraspecific communication and function as calling songs. The new sound-production mechanism expands our knowledge on the diversity of acoustic signaling behavior in cicadas and further underscores the need for more bioacoustic studies on cicadas which lack tymbal mechanism.

  2. How Do “Mute” Cicadas Produce Their Calling Songs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Changqing; Wei, Cong; Nansen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Insects have evolved a variety of structures and mechanisms to produce sounds, which are used for communication both within and between species. Among acoustic insects, cicada males are particularly known for their loud and diverse sounds which function importantly in communication. The main method of sound production in cicadas is the tymbal mechanism, and a relative small number of cicada species possess both tymbal and stridulatory organs. However, cicadas of the genus Karenia do not have any specialized sound-producing structures, so they are referred to as “mute”. This denomination is quite misleading, as they indeed produce sounds. Here, we investigate the sound-producing mechanism and acoustic communication of the “mute” cicada, Karenia caelatata, and discover a new sound-production mechanism for cicadas: i.e., K. caelatata produces impact sounds by banging the forewing costa against the operculum. The temporal, frequency and amplitude characteristics of the impact sounds are described. Morphological studies and reflectance-based analyses reveal that the structures involved in sound production of K. caelatata (i.e., forewing, operculum, cruciform elevation, and wing-holding groove on scutellum) are all morphologically modified. Acoustic playback experiments and behavioral observations suggest that the impact sounds of K. caelatata are used in intraspecific communication and function as calling songs. The new sound-production mechanism expands our knowledge on the diversity of acoustic signaling behavior in cicadas and further underscores the need for more bioacoustic studies on cicadas which lack tymbal mechanism. PMID:25714608

  3. Cordyceps cicadae extracts ameliorate renal malfunction in a remnant kidney model*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Chen, Yi-ping; Deng, Yue-yi; Zheng, Rong; Zhong, Yi-fei; Wang, Lin; Du, Lan-ping

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing public health problem with an urgent need for new pharmacological agents. Cordyceps cicadae is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has potential renoprotective benefits. The current study aimed to determine any scientific evidence to support its clinical use. Methods: We analyzed the potential of two kinds of C. cicadae extract, total extract (TE) and acetic ether extract (AE), in treating kidney disease simulated by a subtotal nephrectomy (SNx) model. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into seven groups: sham-operated group, vehicle-treated SNx, Cozaar, 2 g/(kg∙d) TE SNx, 1 g/(kg∙d) TE SNx, 92 mg/(kg∙d) AE SNx, and 46 mg/(kg∙d) AE SNx. Renal injury was monitored using urine and serum analyses, and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stainings were used to analyze the level of fibrosis. The expression of type IV collagen (Col IV), fibronectin (FN), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: Renal injury, reflected in urine and serum analyses, and pathological changes induced by SNx were attenuated by TE and AE intervention. The depositions of Col IV and FN were also decreased by the treatments and were accompanied by reduced expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF. In some respects, 2 g/(kg∙d) of TE produced better effects than Cozaar. Conclusions: For the first time, we have shown that C. cicadae may inhibit renal fibrosis in vivo through the TGF-β1/CTGF pathway. Therefore, we conclude that the use of C. cicadae could provide a rational strategy for combating renal fibrosis. PMID:22135152

  4. Cordyceps cicadae extracts ameliorate renal malfunction in a remnant kidney model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Chen, Yi-ping; Deng, Yue-yi; Zheng, Rong; Zhong, Yi-fei; Wang, Lin; Du, Lan-ping

    2011-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing public health problem with an urgent need for new pharmacological agents. Cordyceps cicadae is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has potential renoprotective benefits. The current study aimed to determine any scientific evidence to support its clinical use. We analyzed the potential of two kinds of C. cicadae extract, total extract (TE) and acetic ether extract (AE), in treating kidney disease simulated by a subtotal nephrectomy (SNx) model. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into seven groups: sham-operated group, vehicle-treated SNx, Cozaar, 2 g/(kg∙d) TE SNx, 1 g/(kg∙d) TE SNx, 92 mg/(kg∙d) AE SNx, and 46 mg/(kg∙d) AE SNx. Renal injury was monitored using urine and serum analyses, and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stainings were used to analyze the level of fibrosis. The expression of type IV collagen (Col IV), fibronectin (FN), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was detected by immunohistochemistry. Renal injury, reflected in urine and serum analyses, and pathological changes induced by SNx were attenuated by TE and AE intervention. The depositions of Col IV and FN were also decreased by the treatments and were accompanied by reduced expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF. In some respects, 2 g/(kg∙d) of TE produced better effects than Cozaar. For the first time, we have shown that C. cicadae may inhibit renal fibrosis in vivo through the TGF-β1/CTGF pathway. Therefore, we conclude that the use of C. cicadae could provide a rational strategy for combating renal fibrosis.

  5. Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor - CICADA, an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauthoff, N.; Bosco, J.; Daniels, R.

    1983-01-01

    The Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) System provides the interface between the human operators and the equipment to be controlled and monitored in support of TFTR operation. The functions can be partitioned into those that are instantaneous and fundamental components of a processed control system (such as displaying the current monitored value of a point or changing the state of a piece of equipment) and those that are more complex, being composite actions executed in sequences either related to the TFTR shot cycle or in the execution of timed procedures for the operation of subsystems. In this paper, the authors present the configuration of the equipment ''from the outside in'' - meaning from the man and equipment external interfaces inward toward the components internal to the CICADA system; they next present an overview of the fundamental operations, including the concept of the CICADA devices, the assignment of values to the elements of the definition of the device, the monitoring procedure for all of the devices on the system, the control process including the assignment of control authorization, the handling of special devices such as diagnostic data acquisition and timing modules, and graphics. Next they proceed to discuss composite actions and timed sequences which support the TFTR cycle; included are the system for activating, suspending, and resuming tasks in response to the occurrence of hardware and software events, and the typical sequence of tasks involved in operation of a subsystem for data acquisition during the shot cycle and the archival of raw and results data; special cases will be the real time control systems for the plasma position and current and the gas injection system, both of which provide closed-loop feedback control of plasma position, current and lineintegrated density throughout the shot. Finally, future directions and initiatives discussed

  6. Calling songs of some South African cicadas (Homoptera: Cicadidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-07-13

    Jul 13, 1987 ... Figure 11 Posture of male cicadas during calling song, illustrated by a specimen ... parameters of the smaller samples falls within that of the largest conspecific ... under the control of the neuromuscular system (Pringle. 1954b).

  7. Cicadas impact bird communication in a noisy tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert; Ray, William; Beck, Angela; Zook, James

    2015-01-01

    Many animals communicate through acoustic signaling, and “acoustic space” may be viewed as a limited resource that organisms compete for. If acoustic signals overlap, the information in them is masked, so there should be selection toward strategies that reduce signal overlap. The extent to which animals are able to partition acoustic space in acoustically diverse habitats such as tropical forests is poorly known. Here, we demonstrate that a single cicada species plays a major role in the frequency and timing of acoustic communication in a neotropical wet forest bird community. Using an automated acoustic monitor, we found that cicadas vary the timing of their signals throughout the day and that the frequency range and timing of bird vocalizations closely track these signals. Birds significantly avoid temporal overlap with cicadas by reducing and often shutting down vocalizations at the onset of cicada signals that utilize the same frequency range. When birds do vocalize at the same time as cicadas, the vocalizations primarily occur at nonoverlapping frequencies with cicada signals. Our results greatly improve our understanding of the community dynamics of acoustic signaling and reveal how patterns in biotic noise shape the frequency and timing of bird vocalizations in tropical forests. PMID:26023277

  8. Organochlorines and heavy metals in 17-year cicadas pose no apparent dietary threat to birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Organochlorine and heavy metal concentrations in 17-year cicadas from Prince Georges and Anne Arundel Counties, Maryland, were well below levels known to be harmful to birds. Cicadas contained concentrations of metals similar to or less than other local invertebrates except they contained more copper than did earthworms. Copper and lead concentrations in cicadas from one site may have been elevated by sewage plant effluent deposited during river floodings. Cicadas from the median of a major highway did not contain more lead than cicadas from non-traffic sites.

  9. Preparation and characterization of α-chitin from cicada sloughs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajomsang, Warayuth; Gonil, Pattarapond

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a new source of insect chitin was proposed. Insect chitin was extracted from cicada sloughs by 1 M HCl and 1 M NaOH treatment for demineralization and deproteinization, respectively. The brown color of this chitin from cicada sloughs was removed using 6% sodium hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent. It was found that the insect chitin extracted from the cicada sloughs has a higher percent recovery than the chitin from rice-field crab shells. The chemical structure and physicochemical properties of α-chitin from cicada sloughs were characterized using elemental analysis (EA), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H NMR), solid-state 13 C cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS) NMR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and thermogravimetry (TG). The degree of acetylation (DA) was determined by EA, 1 H NMR, and 13 C CP/MAS NMR techniques. The DA values of chitin from cicada sloughs were in the range of 97% to 102% depending on each technique. Furthermore, it was found that the DA increased with an increasing thermal property and crystallinity.

  10. Log-periodic self-similarity: an emerging financial law?

    OpenAIRE

    S. Drozdz; F. Grummer; F. Ruf; J. Speth

    2002-01-01

    A hypothesis that the financial log-periodicity, cascading self-similarity through various time scales, carries signatures of a law is pursued. It is shown that the most significant historical financial events can be classified amazingly well using a single and unique value of the preferred scaling factor lambda=2, which indicates that its real value should be close to this number. This applies even to a declining decelerating log-periodic phase. Crucial in this connection is identification o...

  11. Perspectives on the "Silent Period" for Emergent Bilinguals in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bligh, Caroline; Drury, Rose

    2015-01-01

    This article draws together the research findings from two ethnographic studies as a means to problematize the "silent period" as experienced by young bilingual learners in two English speaking early-years settings in England. Most teachers and senior early-years practitioners in England are monolingual English speakers. The children…

  12. THE CICADA FAUNA AS PHYTOPLASMA VECTORS IN ISTRIAN VINEYARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đanfranko Pribetić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cicada fauna represents a considerable group of insects in vine-growing. Phytoplasma vine vectors insects are significant. They are fed from the phloem tissues of plants like cicadas from the families Cicadelidae, Coccidae, Fulgoridae and Psyilloidaea. Their phytoplasma is transmitted in a persistent way. Researches on cicada fauna, on the floristic structure of weeds and host plants of vine phytoplasma were done in 2005 and 2006 in Istrian vineyards. The research was being done in 10 vineyards on 11 localities. Cicade collecting was done with an entomological net by means of yellow sticky plates using an exhauster and a method of clonting. The collected cicadas were identified by means of binoculars and keys to identify species while the presence of phytoplasmas BN and Fd was defined by means of molecular analysis (PCR, RFLP. Listing and identifying the floristic structure of weeds were being cloned in the explored vineyards by means of keys to identify species. Samples of plant materials were taken for the analysis using PCR method by checking visually the typical symptoms caused by phytoplasma. Cicadas identifying and molecular analyses were being done at the Viticulture Institute for Research in Conegliano – Italy. During the researches, 243 insect samples were collected. Of the above mentioned number cicadas of 40 genus were identified in 207 samples. On the list of the floristic structure of Weeds 105 species of 36 families were identified. Corylus avellana L and Clematis vitalba L species were included in this list. These species showed sigus of phytoplasma disease and they were found near the explored vineyards. These two species were analysed on the presence for FD and BN phytoplasmas. The PCR method used in the molecular research on the presence of Fd and BN phytoplasmas was done on 34 insect samples and 22 plant samples. None of the mentioned sample was positive for FD and BN. The phytoplasma BN was found in the vine leaves of

  13. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellieu, Louis, E-mail: louis.dellieu@unamur.be; Sarrazin, Michaël, E-mail: michael.sarrazin@unamur.be; Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Department of Physics, University of Namur (FUNDP), 61 rue de Bruxelles, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)

    2014-07-14

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing, while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  14. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellieu, Louis; Sarrazin, Michaël; Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2014-07-01

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing, while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  15. A two-in-one superhydrophobic and anti-reflective nanodevice in the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellieu, Louis; Sarrazin, Michaël; Simonis, Priscilla; Deparis, Olivier; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2014-01-01

    Two separated levels of functionality are identified in the nanostructure which covers the wings of the grey cicada Cicada orni (Hemiptera). The upper level is responsible for superhydrophobic character of the wing, while the lower level enhances its anti-reflective behavior. Extensive wetting experiments with various chemical species and optical measurements were performed in order to assess the bi-functionality. Scanning electron microscopy imaging was used to identify the nanostructure morphology. Numerical optical simulations and analytical wetting models were used to prove the roles of both levels of the nanostructure. In addition, the complex refractive index of the chitinous material of the wing was determined from measurements.

  16. Versatile aggressive mimicry of cicadas by an Australian predatory katydid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marshall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In aggressive mimicry, a predator or parasite imitates a signal of another species in order to exploit the recipient of the signal. Some of the most remarkable examples of aggressive mimicry involve exploitation of a complex signal-response system by an unrelated predator species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have found that predatory Chlorobalius leucoviridis katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae can attract male cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae by imitating the species-specific wing-flick replies of sexually receptive female cicadas. This aggressive mimicry is accomplished both acoustically, with tegminal clicks, and visually, with synchronized body jerks. Remarkably, the katydids respond effectively to a variety of complex, species-specific Cicadettini songs, including songs of many cicada species that the predator has never encountered. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that the versatility of aggressive mimicry in C. leucoviridis is accomplished by exploiting general design elements common to the songs of many acoustically signaling insects that use duets in pair-formation. Consideration of the mechanism of versatile mimicry in C. leucoviridis may illuminate processes driving the evolution of insect acoustic signals, which play a central role in reproductive isolation of populations and the formation of species.

  17. Versatile aggressive mimicry of cicadas by an Australian predatory katydid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R

    2009-01-01

    In aggressive mimicry, a predator or parasite imitates a signal of another species in order to exploit the recipient of the signal. Some of the most remarkable examples of aggressive mimicry involve exploitation of a complex signal-response system by an unrelated predator species. We have found that predatory Chlorobalius leucoviridis katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) can attract male cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) by imitating the species-specific wing-flick replies of sexually receptive female cicadas. This aggressive mimicry is accomplished both acoustically, with tegminal clicks, and visually, with synchronized body jerks. Remarkably, the katydids respond effectively to a variety of complex, species-specific Cicadettini songs, including songs of many cicada species that the predator has never encountered. We propose that the versatility of aggressive mimicry in C. leucoviridis is accomplished by exploiting general design elements common to the songs of many acoustically signaling insects that use duets in pair-formation. Consideration of the mechanism of versatile mimicry in C. leucoviridis may illuminate processes driving the evolution of insect acoustic signals, which play a central role in reproductive isolation of populations and the formation of species.

  18. Emergence periodicity of Phlebotomus argentipes annandale and brunetti (Diptera: psychodidae): A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, D S; Singh, A; Kumar, V; Kesari, S; Kumar, A J; Kishore, K; Roy, S P; Bhattacharya, S K; Das, P

    2009-12-01

    Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the vector for visceral leishmaniasis in India. The aspects of its biology such as feeding and man vector contact are associated with emergence periodicity of the adult. Hence, the present study was made to find out the actual emergence period of P. argentipes. Wild caught P. argentipes were confined in the rearing pots inside laboratory. The newly emerged adults were collected at hourly intervals and released in to separate polythene bags and were held at 4°C till death. Sand flies were segregated sex-wise after the death under a microscope. The emergence of adult was observed throughout the day. However, the male preferred dawn emergence and the female the dusk. Two peaks of emergence were found in a day; first one in the morning (0900h) and the second one in the evening (1800h). The ratio of both sexes was found to be about equal. The emergence of adult was found to be 77% out of total eggs laid, which was completed within 7-10 days from the 1st day of emergence under laboratory conditions (25°C to 31°C and 70% to 75% relative humidity). This study has important bearings to find out the actual time for personal protection against biting of sand flies to prevent the transmission of Kala-azar.

  19. Spatially resolved chemical analysis of cicada wings using laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Jessica K; Walsh, Callee M; Oh, Junho; Dana, Catherine E; Hong, Sungmin; Jo, Kyoo D; Alleyne, Marianne; Miljkovic, Nenad; Cropek, Donald M

    2018-03-01

    Laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is an emerging bioanalytical tool for direct imaging and analysis of biological tissues. Performing ionization in an ambient environment, this technique requires little sample preparation and no additional matrix, and can be performed on natural, uneven surfaces. When combined with optical microscopy, the investigation of biological samples by LAESI allows for spatially resolved compositional analysis. We demonstrate here the applicability of LAESI-IMS for the chemical analysis of thin, desiccated biological samples, specifically Neotibicen pruinosus cicada wings. Positive-ion LAESI-IMS accurate ion-map data was acquired from several wing cells and superimposed onto optical images allowing for compositional comparisons across areas of the wing. Various putative chemical identifications were made indicating the presence of hydrocarbons, lipids/esters, amines/amides, and sulfonated/phosphorylated compounds. With the spatial resolution capability, surprising chemical distribution patterns were observed across the cicada wing, which may assist in correlating trends in surface properties with chemical distribution. Observed ions were either (1) equally dispersed across the wing, (2) more concentrated closer to the body of the insect (proximal end), or (3) more concentrated toward the tip of the wing (distal end). These findings demonstrate LAESI-IMS as a tool for the acquisition of spatially resolved chemical information from fragile, dried insect wings. This LAESI-IMS technique has important implications for the study of functional biomaterials, where understanding the correlation between chemical composition, physical structure, and biological function is critical. Graphical abstract Positive-ion laser-ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled with optical imaging provides a powerful tool for the spatially resolved chemical analysis of cicada wings.

  20. CeasIng Cpap At standarD criteriA (CICADA): impact on weight gain, time to full feeds and caffeine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Margaret; Ying, Lei; Wright, Audrey; Stewart, Alice; Abdel-Latif, Mohamed E; Shadbolt, Bruce; Todd, David A

    2014-09-01

    In our previous randomised controlled trial (RCT), we have shown in preterm babies (PBs) Cpap At standarD criteriA (CICADA (method 1)) compared with cycling off continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) gradually (method 2) or cycling off CPAP gradually with low flow air/oxygen during periods off CPAP (method 3) reduces CPAP cessation time in PBs CPAP; the CICADA method, does not adversely affect weight gain, time to reach full feeds and may reduce time to cease caffeine in PBs <30 weeks gestation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Stridulatory sound-production and its function in females of the cicada Subpsaltria yangi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Luo

    Full Text Available Acoustic behavior plays a crucial role in many aspects of cicada biology, such as reproduction and intrasexual competition. Although female sound production has been reported in some cicada species, acoustic behavior of female cicadas has received little attention. In cicada Subpsaltria yangi, the females possess a pair of unusually well-developed stridulatory organs. Here, sound production and its function in females of this remarkable cicada species were investigated. We revealed that the females could produce sounds by stridulatory mechanism during pair formation, and the sounds were able to elicit both acoustic and phonotactic responses from males. In addition, the forewings would strike the body during performing stridulatory sound-producing movements, which generated impact sounds. Acoustic playback experiments indicated that the impact sounds played no role in the behavioral context of pair formation. This study provides the first experimental evidence that females of a cicada species can generate sounds by stridulatory mechanism. We anticipate that our results will promote acoustic studies on females of other cicada species which also possess stridulatory system.

  2. Trends in National Emergency Medicine Conference Didactic Lectures Over a 6-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Michael; Riddell, Jeff; Njie, Abdoulie

    2017-01-01

    National conference didactic lectures have traditionally featured hour-long lecture-based presentations. However, there is evidence that longer lectures can lead to both decreased attention and retention of information. The authors sought to identify trends in lecture duration, lecture types, and number of speakers at four national emergency medicine (EM) conferences over a 6-year period. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of the length, number of speakers, and format of didactic lectures at four different national EM conferences over 6 years. The authors abstracted data from the national academic assemblies for the four largest not-for-profit EM organizations in the United States: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. There was a significant yearly decrease in the mean lecture lengths for three of the four conferences. There was an increase in the percentage of rapid fire sessions over the preceding 2 years with a corresponding decrease in the percentage of general educational sessions. There was no significant difference in the mean number of speakers per lecture. An analysis of 4210 didactic lecture sessions from the annual meetings of four national EM organizations over a 6-year period showed significant decreases in mean lecture length. These findings can help to guide EM continuing medical education conference planning and research.

  3. Experiences of counselling in the emergency department during the waiting period: importance of family participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavilainen, Eija; Salminen-Tuomaala, Mari; Kurikka, Sirpa; Paussu, Paula

    2009-08-01

    To describe patients' experiences of counselling, defined as information giving and advice by nursing staff, in the emergency department. A particular focus was on the waiting period and on the importance of family participation in counselling. Counselling is a widely studied topic in nursing. Too little is known about counselling in emergency departments and especially about participation of family members and suitability of counselling for the patient's life situation. Descriptive quantitative study. Data were collected by questionnaires from patients (n = 107) visiting a hospital emergency department. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. Forty-two per cent of patients arrived at the emergency department with a family member: spouse or cohabiting partner, mother, father or daughter. Patients were fairly satisfied with the counselling. The presence of a family member was important to the majority of patients (75%). About half of the patients wanted information concerning their illness, condition and treatment to be given to their family members. Those visiting the department with a family member were more satisfied with counselling and felt that it promoted their participation in care. It is to encourage patients' family members to participate in counselling situations in emergency departments. However, the type of information passed on to family members should be carefully discussed and prepared. Patients' family members seem to be important partners in counselling situations. The presence of family members supports patients in the emergency department during the waiting period and helps them orientate in their situation. When family members are present, issues which patients wish to discuss should be carefully planned. Family presence should be encouraged in emergency departments.

  4. New species of Drymopsalta Heath Cicadas (Cicadidae: Cicadettinae: Cicadettini) from Queensland and Northern Territory, Australia, with overview of genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, A; Popple, L W

    2013-01-01

    Three new species are described in the genus Drymopsalta Ewart, previously known only from D. crepitum Ewart and D. daemeli Distant. The three new species occur in Southern Queensland and Northern Territory. D. wallumi sp. nov. occurs along coastal S.E. Queensland, whereas D. hobsoni sp. nov. is restricted to the Bringalily State Forest, near Inglewood, southern inland Queensland. D. acrotela sp. nov. is found in the Litchfield National Park and other locations near Jabaluka, Cahills Crossing, E. Alligator River and Nourlangie, all across the northern Northern Territory. D. crepitum occurs on the Cape York Peninsular extending into the southern Gulf, while D. daemeli occurs in two localised regions in central coastal N.S.W. Each of the species inhabits heath vegetation, often spilling-over into adjacent tree foliage. The species of Drymopsalta are small and inconspicuous cicadas (cicadas. Two additional song variants are described, a more unstructured chirping song without intervening single ticks observed in each of the species except D. crepitum, and periodic extended buzzing echemes emitted within the calling songs (excepting the D. wallumi song).

  5. An Architect Cicada in Brazilian Rainforest: Guyalna chlorogena (Walker).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguin, C F

    2017-04-01

    To study the noteworthy nest building behavior of the nymph of the Brazilian Rainforest cicada Guyalna chlorogena (Walker) during the last year of its underground life, we monitored a large number of edifices, consisting of a vertical well (up to 1 m deep) with a turret (20 to 40 cm tall) on top, and we also performed experiments. We have shown that the buildings are occupied by a single nymph, male or female, which increases the height of its turret each night by about 3 cm, during a short active growing phase. The nymph softens and reshapes the apex by pushing upwards a lump of freshly mixed soaked clay, without any opening present, i. e., without ever exposing itself to the outside. We also established that the nymph is very active once its building is achieved. For example, it restores the height of the turret to its original value when shortening and opens the top of its building in case of variation of environmental parameters. Finally, we have shown how the nymph opens its edifice to reach the outside for molting into an adult stage (imago). With this work, we contributed to a better understanding of the nesting behavior of Amazon cicadas.

  6. Exploring the Role of Habitat on the Wettability of Cicada Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Junho; Dana, Catherine E; Hong, Sungmin; Román, Jessica K; Jo, Kyoo Dong; Hong, Je Won; Nguyen, Jonah; Cropek, Donald M; Alleyne, Marianne; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2017-08-16

    Evolutionary pressure has pushed many extant species to develop micro/nanostructures that can significantly affect wettability and enable functionalities such as droplet jumping, self-cleaning, antifogging, antimicrobial, and antireflectivity. In particular, significant effort is underway to understand the insect wing surface structure to establish rational design tools for the development of novel engineered materials. Most studies, however, have focused on superhydrophobic wings obtained from a single insect species, in particular, the Psaltoda claripennis cicada. Here, we investigate the relationship between the spatially dependent wing wettability, topology, and droplet jumping behavior of multiple cicada species and their habitat, lifecycle, and interspecies relatedness. We focus on cicada wings of four different species: Neotibicen pruinosus, N. tibicen, Megatibicen dorsatus, and Magicicada septendecim and take a comparative approach. Using spatially resolved microgoniometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and high speed optical microscopy, we show that within cicada species, the wettability of wings is spatially homogeneous across wing cells. All four species were shown to have truncated conical pillars with widely varying length scales ranging from 50 to 400 nm in height. Comparison of the wettability revealed three cicada species with wings that are superhydrophobic (>150°) with low contact angle hysteresis (<5°), resulting in stable droplet jumping behavior. The fourth, more distantly related species (Ma. septendecim) showed only moderate hydrophobic behavior, eliminating some of the beneficial surface functional aspects for this cicada. Correlation between cicada habitat and wing wettability yielded little connection as wetter, swampy environments do not necessarily equate to higher measured wing hydrophobicity. The results, however, do point to species relatedness and reproductive strategy as a closer proxy for predicting

  7. Analysis of Inter-Individual Bacterial Variation in Gut of Cicada Meimuna mongolica (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenting; Nan, Xiaoning; Zheng, Zhou; Wei, Cong; He, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal bacterial community plays a crucial role in the nutrition, development, survival, and reproduction of insects. When compared with other insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts, the habitats of cicada nymphs and adults are totally different. However, little is known about the differences in the gut bacterial communities in the nymphs and adults within any cicada species. The diversity of bacteria in the gut of nymphs and adults of both genders of Meimuna mongolica (Distant) was studied using the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method. Few inter-individual variations among gut microbiota were observed, suggesting that M. mongolica typically harbors a limited and consistent suite of bacterial species. Bacteria in the genera Pseudomonas and Enterobacter were the predominant components of the gut microflora of M. mongolica at all life stages. Bacteria of Pantoea, Streptococcus, and Uruburuella were also widespread in the cicada samples but at relatively lower concentrations. The relative stability and similarity of the PCR-DGGE patterns indicate that all individuals of this cicada species harbor a characteristic bacterial community which is independent from developmental stages and genders. Related endosymbionts that could be harbored in bacteromes of cicadas were not detected in any gut samples, which could be related to the cicada species and the distribution of these endosymbionts in the cicada cavity, or due to some of the possible limitations of PCR-DGGE community profiling. It is worthwhile to further address if related cicada endosymbiont clades distribute in the alimentary canals and other internal organs through diagnostic PCR using group-specific primer sets. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Sichuan Snub-Nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) Consume Cicadas in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Zhang, Peng; Garber, Paul A; Hedley, Richard; Li, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    There is limited information on insectivory in folivorous primates. Here, we report that wild Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) consume cicadas (Karenia caelatata) in the Qinling Mountains of China. Our research suggests that snub-nosed monkeys expand their diet and prey on cicadas during summer and early autumn, possibly in response to increased availability of these insects and their relatively high protein and fat content relative to leaves. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Cordyceps cicadae extracts ameliorate renal malfunction in a remnant kidney model*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Rong; Chen, Yi-ping; Deng, Yue-yi; Zheng, Rong; Zhong, Yi-fei; Wang, Lin; Du, Lan-ping

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing public health problem with an urgent need for new pharmacological agents. Cordyceps cicadae is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has potential renoprotective benefits. The current study aimed to determine any scientific evidence to support its clinical use. Methods: We analyzed the potential of two kinds of C. cicadae extract, total extract (TE) and acetic ether extract (AE), in treating kidney disease si...

  10. 76 FR 75562 - Notice of a Change in Status of the Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program for Colorado AGENCY... Change in Status of the payable periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) program... claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department of Labor produces a trigger notice indicating...

  11. 77 FR 7604 - Notice of a Change in Status of the Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program for Alaska AGENCY... status of the payable periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) program for Alaska... high unemployment states. The Department of Labor produces a trigger notice indicating which states...

  12. 77 FR 11160 - Notice of a Change in Status of the Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program for Connecticut and... announces a change in status of the payable periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08... unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department of Labor produces a trigger...

  13. 77 FR 2091 - Notice of a Change in Status of the Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program for Iowa and Oklahoma... Notice of a Change in Status of the payable period in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08... unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department of Labor produces a trigger...

  14. Pengembangan Desain Mainan Anak Sebagai Identitas Dan Sarana Pengenalan Musik Untuk Anak-anak Di Kampung Akustik Cicadas

    OpenAIRE

    Fajriani, Novi; Larasati, Dwinita

    2014-01-01

    Bermain dengan bermusik sebagai contohnya merupakan sebuah kebutuhan bagi anak untuk mengeksplorasi kreativitas alami dalam mengembangkan dirinya. Sebagai salah satu kampung kreatif , Kampung Akustik Cicadas belum memiliki identitas khusus sebagai kampung yang berhubungan erat dengan musik, baik identitas fisik maupun nonfisik dengan minimnya ruang publik terbuka dan sarana bermusik untuk anak-anak Cicadas sebagai salah satu permasalahannya. Berdasarkan analisis kondisi lapangan dan tinjauan ...

  15. [Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis, an endocrine emergency: clinical and genetic features in 25 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Magnus R Dias da; Chiamolera, Maria Izabel; Kasamatsu, Teresa S; Cerutti, Janete M; Maciel, Rui M B

    2004-02-01

    Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis (THPP) is a medical emergency characterized by acute attacks of weakness, hypokalemia, and thyrotoxicosis that resolve with the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Attacks are transient, self-limited, associated with hypokalemia and resemble those of familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis (FHPP), an autosomal dominant neurological channelopathy. This study reviews the clinical features and genetic findings of THPP in 25 Brazilian patients. Most patients had weight loss, taquicardia, goiter, tremor, and ophthalmopathy. Most often attacks arose during the night and recovered spontaneously but some patients evolved to total quadriplegia, and few experienced cardiac arrhythmias. All patients had suppressed TSH and elevated T4 and most had positive anti-thyroid antibodies, indicating autoimmunity thyrotoxic etiology. Potassium was low in all patients during the crisis. Prophylactic potassium therapy has not been shown to prevent attacks; however it was useful for curbing the paralysis during the crisis. We identified the mutation R83H in the KCNE3 gene in one sporadic case, and M58V in the KCNE4 gene in one case with family history. Furthermore, we identified other genetic polymorphisms in the CACNA1S, SCN4A, KCNE1, KCNE2, KCNE1L, KCNJ2, KCNJ8 e KCNJ11 genes. We conclude that THPP is the most common treatable cause of acquired periodic paralysis; therefore, it must be included in the differential diagnosis of acute muscle weakness.

  16. Acoustic and temporal partitioning of cicada assemblages in city and mountain environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Sen Shieh

    Full Text Available Comparing adaptations to noisy city environments with those to natural mountain environments on the community level can provide significant insights that allow an understanding of the impact of anthropogenic noise on invertebrates that employ loud calling songs for mate attraction, especially when each species has its distinct song, as in the case of cicadas. In this study, we investigated the partitioning strategy of cicada assemblages in city and mountain environments by comparing the acoustic features and calling activity patterns of each species, recorded using automated digital recording systems. Our comparison of activity patterns of seasonal and diel calling revealed that there was no significant temporal partitioning of cicada assemblages in either environment. In addition, there was no correlation between the acoustic distance based on spectral features and temporal segregation. Heterospecific spectral overlap was low in both city and mountain environments, although city and mountain cicada assemblages were subject to significantly different levels of anthropogenic or interspecific noise. Furthermore, for the common species found in both environments, the calling activity patterns at both seasonal and diel time scales were significantly consistent across sites and across environments. We suggest that the temporal calling activity is constrained by endogenous factors for each species and is less flexible in response to external factors, such as anthropogenic noise. As a result, cicada assemblages in city environments with low species diversity do not demonstrate a more significant temporal partitioning than those in mountain environments with high species diversity.

  17. Replication of cicada wing's nano-patterns by hot embossing and UV nanoimprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung-Hoon; Hwang, Jaeyeon; Lee, Heon

    2009-01-01

    The hydrophobicity of the cicada wing originates from its naturally occurring, surface nano-structure. The nano-structure of the cicada wing consists of an array of nano-sized pillars, 100 nm in diameter and 300 nm in height. In this study, the nano-structure of the cicada wing was successfully duplicated by using hot embossing lithography and UV nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The diameter and pitch of replication were the same as those of the original cicada wing and the height was a little smaller than that of the original master. The transmittance of the hot embossed PVC film was increased by 2-6% compared with that of the bare PVC film. The hydrophobicity was measured by water contact angle measurements. The water contact angle of the replica, made of UV cured polymer, was 132 0 ± 2 0 , which was slightly lower than that of the original cicada wing (138 0 ± 2 0 ), but much higher than that of the UV cured polymer surface without any nano-sized pillars (86 0 ).

  18. Near-Optimal Foraging in the Pacific Cicada Killer Sphecius convallis Patton (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R. Coelho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated foraging effectiveness of Pacific cicada killers (Sphecius convallis by comparing observed prey loads to that predicted by an optimality model. Female S. convallis preyed exclusively on the cicada Tibicen parallelus, resulting in a mean loaded flight muscle ratio (FMR of 0.187 (N = 46. This value lies just above the marginal level, and only seven wasps (15% were below 0.179. The low standard error (0.002 suggests that S. convallis is the most ideal flying predator so far examined in this respect. Preying on a single species may have allowed stabilizing selection to adjust the morphology of females to a nearly ideal size. That the loaded FMR is slightly above the marginal level may provide a small safety factor for wasps that do not have optimal thorax temperatures or that have to contend with attempted prey theft. Operational FMR was directly related to wasp body mass. Smaller wasps were overloaded in spite of provisioning with smaller cicadas, while larger wasps were underloaded despite provisioning with larger cicadas. Small wasps may have abandoned larger cicadas because of difficulty with carriage.

  19. 76 FR 80407 - Notice of a Change in Status of the Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program for Texas AGENCY... Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) for weeks of unemployment beginning December... claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The Department of Labor produces a trigger notice indicating...

  20. FORMATION OF THE PRECONDITIONS FOR THE EMERGENCE OF GENDER PSYCHOLOGY IN MIDDLE AGES PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Olegovna Mokhova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to analyze the main ideas of the Medieval Period authors in Europe and in Russia, in terms of identifying the most important theses of this historical period for the formation and development of the ideas of gender psychology. It is being considered the role of Christianity and the emergence of the women's education issue in the formation of gender stereotypes. In this article the Middle Ages period is being considered as a separate historical phase for the basic ideas formation in the gender psychology, which is a new approach to the history of gender science. To estimate medieval texts - European and Russian, the method of qualitative content analysis is used, by means of which the most relevant to the period ideas associated with the sexes are identified. For Europe, it inter-sexual features, for Russia - different behavioral requirements of the society associated with sexes. Conclusions contain ideas of the Middle Ages in Europe and in Russia that are relevant to the development and establishment of gender psychology. In Europe: the continuation of the ancient thesis of the initial androgyny of a human being; impact of the woman's education on her ability for development; consideration of sexuality as sinful; the issue of women's emancipation, the declining value of the large numerous families despite of a ban on interference in the reproductive cycle in the middle of the Medieval period. In Russia: the perception of inter-sexual characteristics as defined by the God; unconditional obedience of a woman to her husband; androgyny in the distribution of the farmers’ responsibilities.Objective: To analyze the main ideas of the authors of the Middle Ages in Europe and in Russia, in terms of identifying the significant theses of this historical period for the formation and development of the ideas of the gender psychology.Method of the research work: A qualitative content analysis of the texts by the authors

  1. 18 CFR 376.209 - Procedures during periods of emergency requiring activation of the Continuity of Operations Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... periods of emergency requiring activation of the Continuity of Operations Plan. 376.209 Section 376.209... of the Continuity of Operations Plan. (a)(1) The Commission's Continuity of Operations Plan is...) During periods when the Continuity of Operations Plan is activated, the Commission will continue to act...

  2. Socioeconomic factors and mortality in emergency general surgery: trends over a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenia, Sarah J; Pentakota, Sri Ram; Merchant, Aziz M

    2017-05-15

    Socioeconomic factors such as race, insurance, and income quartiles have been identified as independent risk factors in emergency general surgery (EGS), but this impact has not been studied over time. We sought to identify trends in disparities in EGS-related operative mortality over a 20-y period. The National Inpatient Sample was used to identify patient encounters coded for EGS in 1993, 2003, and 2013. Logistic regression models were used to examine the adjusted relationship between race, primary payer status, and median income quartiles and in-hospital mortality after adjusting for patients' age, gender, Elixhauser comorbidity score, and hospital region, size, and location-cum-teaching status. We identified 391,040 patient encounters. In 1993, Black race was associated with higher odds of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.35 [1.20-1.53]) than White race, although this difference dissipated in subsequent years. Medicare, Medicaid, and underinsured patients had a higher odds of mortality than those with private insurance for the entire 20-y period; only the disparity in the underinsured decreased over time (1993, 1.63 [1.35-1.98]; 2013, 1.41 [1.20-1.67]). In 2003 (1.23 [1.10-1.38]) and 2013 (1.23 [1.11-1.37]), patients from the lowest income quartile were more likely to die after EGS than patients from the highest income quartile. Socioeconomic disparities in EGS-related operative morality followed inconsistent trends. Over time, while gaps in in-hospital mortality among Blacks and Whites have narrowed, disparities among patients belonging to lowest income quartile have worsened. Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries continued to experience higher odds of in-hospital mortality relative to those with private insurance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The cicada genus Karenia Distant, 1888 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae), with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hong-Thai; Constant, Jerome

    2014-08-19

    The cicadas of the genus Karenia are reviewed, and Karenia tibetensis sp.nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) is described from Tibet, China. Pictures of the male adult and illustrations of the male genitalia are provided. A key to the species of Karenia is presented and the distribution of the Karenia species is discussed.

  4. Multiple origins of interdependent endosymbiotic complexes in a genus of cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik, Piotr; Nazario, Katherine; Van Leuven, James T; Campbell, Matthew A; Meyer, Mariah; Michalik, Anna; Pessacq, Pablo; Simon, Chris; Veloso, Claudio; McCutcheon, John P

    2018-01-09

    Bacterial endosymbionts that provide nutrients to hosts often have genomes that are extremely stable in structure and gene content. In contrast, the genome of the endosymbiont Hodgkinia cicadicola has fractured into multiple distinct lineages in some species of the cicada genus Tettigades To better understand the frequency, timing, and outcomes of Hodgkinia lineage splitting throughout this cicada genus, we sampled cicadas over three field seasons in Chile and performed genomics and microscopy on representative samples. We found that a single ancestral Hodgkinia lineage has split at least six independent times in Tettigades over the last 4 million years, resulting in complexes of between two and six distinct Hodgkinia lineages per host. Individual genomes in these symbiotic complexes differ dramatically in relative abundance, genome size, organization, and gene content. Each Hodgkinia lineage retains a small set of core genes involved in genetic information processing, but the high level of gene loss experienced by all genomes suggests that extensive sharing of gene products among symbiont cells must occur. In total, Hodgkinia complexes that consist of multiple lineages encode nearly complete sets of genes present on the ancestral single lineage and presumably perform the same functions as symbionts that have not undergone splitting. However, differences in the timing of the splits, along with dissimilar gene loss patterns on the resulting genomes, have led to very different outcomes of lineage splitting in extant cicadas.

  5. Scheduling and control of programs in the CICADA computer system for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christianson, G.B.; Sherrick, M.; Stark, W.

    1983-01-01

    The CICADA computer system is a network of super minicomputers for data acquisition, reduction, display and device control on the TFTR experiment. Human interaction with the CICADA system is accomplished by consoles offering color displays with a high degree of operator interaction with the computer system, and by interactive terminals offering a limited degree of operator interaction. The authors describe the software packages and data bases used to control the consoles and provide communication to an application program attached to a console. The console control program in its turn schedules the execution of control programs that furnish operating system interfaces to applications programs executing at a console or terminal (in response to human activation), or upon activation by scheduling tasks. The control programs handle functions such as applications task activation. They discuss the implementation of the control programs in the multi-computer CICADA environment, and describe the control program data bases. In a TFTR shot cycle, applications programs must be scheduled for activation at operator-defined stages, in order to accomplish the arming of hardware devices, acquisition of summary waveform data, and the acquisition and archiving of raw data. The authors describe the software tasks and data bases of the CICADA event system, which accomplishes this scheduling of applications task activation in conjunction with the control programs. Future enhancements planned for the console control, program control, and event systems are outlined

  6. Limited, episodic diversification and contrasting phylogeography in a New Zealand cicada radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshall, David; Hill, Kathy; Marske, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    The New Zealand (NZ) cicada fauna contains two co-distributed lineages that independently colonized the isolated continental fragment in the Miocene. One extensively studied lineage includes 90% of the extant species (Kikihia + Maoricicada + Rhodopsalta; ca 51 spp.), while the other contains just...

  7. CeasIng Cpap At standarD criteriA (CICADA): predicting a successful outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yue; Broom, Margaret; Wright, Audrey; Hovey, Donna; Abdel-Latif, Mohamed E; Shadbolt, Bruce; Todd, David A

    2016-01-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) where we concluded that CeasIng Cpap At standerD criteriA (CICADA) in premature babies (PBs) CPAP. To identify factors that may influence the number of attempts to cease CPAP, we reviewed the records of 50 PBs from the RCT who used the CICADA method. PBs were grouped according to number of attempts to cease CPAP (fast group ≤2 attempts and slow group >2 attempts to cease CPAP). There were 26 (fast group) and 24 (slow group) PBs included in the analysis. Results showed significant differences in mean GA (27.8 ± 0.3 vs 26.9 ± 0.3 [weeks ± SE], p = 0.03) and birth weight ([Bwt]; 1080 ± 48.8 vs 899 ± 45.8 [grams ± SE], p = 0.01) between groups. Significantly fewer PBs in the fast group had a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) compared to the slow group (5/26 (19.2%) vs 13/24 (54.2 %), p = 0.02). Bwt was a significant negative predictor of CPAP duration (r = -0.497, p = 0.03) and CPAP ceasing attempts (r = -0.290, p = 0.04). PBs with a higher GA and Bwt without a PDA ceased CPAP earlier using the CICADA method. Bwt was better than GA for predicting CPAP duration and attempts to cease CPAP. Our previous studies showed that CeasIng Cpap At standarD criteriA (CICADA) significantly reduces CPAP time, oxygen requirements and caffeine use. Some PBs however using the CICADA method required >2 attempts to cease CPAP ('slow CICADA' group). PBs in the 'fast CICADA' group (CPAP) (a) have longer gestational age and higher birth weight, (b) shorter mechanical ventilation and (c) lower incidence of patent ductus arteriosus. Attempts to cease CPAP decreased by 0.5 times per 1 week increase in GA and 0.3 times per 100-g increase in birth weight for PBs <30 weeks gestation.

  8. Bacterial diversity of bacteriomes and organs of reproductive, digestive and excretory systems in two cicada species (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhou; Wang, Dandan; He, Hong; Wei, Cong

    2017-01-01

    Cicadas form intimate symbioses with bacteria to obtain nutrients that are scarce in the xylem fluid they feed on. The obligate symbionts in cicadas are purportedly confined to specialized bacteriomes, but knowledge of bacterial communities associated with cicadas is limited. Bacterial communities in the bacteriomes and organs of reproductive, digestive and excretory systems of two cicada species (Platypleura kaempferi and Meimuna mongolica) were investigated using different methods, and the bacterial diversity and distribution patterns of dominant bacteria in different tissues were compared. Within each species, the bacterial communities of testes are significantly different from those of bacteriomes and ovaries. The dominant endosymbiont Candidatus Sulcia muelleri is found not only in the bacteriomes and reproductive organs, but also in the "filter chamber + conical segment" of both species. The transmission mode of this endosymbiont in the alimentary canal and its effect on physiological processes merits further study. A novel bacterium of Rhizobiales, showing ~80% similarity to Candidatus Hodgkinia cicadicola, is dominant in the bacteriomes and ovaries of P. kaempferi. Given that the genome of H. cicadicola exhibits rapid sequence evolution, it is possible that this novel bacterium is a related endosymbiont with beneficial trophic functions similar to that of H. cicadicola in some other cicadas. Failure to detect H. cicadicola in M. mongolica suggests that it has been subsequently replaced by another bacterium, a yeast or gut microbiota which compensates for the loss of H. cicadicola. The distribution of this novel Rhizobiales species in other cicadas and its identification require further investigation to help establish the definition of the bacterial genus Candidatus Hodgkinia and to provide more information on sequence divergence of related endosymbionts of cicadas. Our results highlight the complex bacterial communities of cicadas, and are informative for

  9. Bacterial diversity of bacteriomes and organs of reproductive, digestive and excretory systems in two cicada species (Hemiptera: Cicadidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zheng

    Full Text Available Cicadas form intimate symbioses with bacteria to obtain nutrients that are scarce in the xylem fluid they feed on. The obligate symbionts in cicadas are purportedly confined to specialized bacteriomes, but knowledge of bacterial communities associated with cicadas is limited. Bacterial communities in the bacteriomes and organs of reproductive, digestive and excretory systems of two cicada species (Platypleura kaempferi and Meimuna mongolica were investigated using different methods, and the bacterial diversity and distribution patterns of dominant bacteria in different tissues were compared. Within each species, the bacterial communities of testes are significantly different from those of bacteriomes and ovaries. The dominant endosymbiont Candidatus Sulcia muelleri is found not only in the bacteriomes and reproductive organs, but also in the "filter chamber + conical segment" of both species. The transmission mode of this endosymbiont in the alimentary canal and its effect on physiological processes merits further study. A novel bacterium of Rhizobiales, showing ~80% similarity to Candidatus Hodgkinia cicadicola, is dominant in the bacteriomes and ovaries of P. kaempferi. Given that the genome of H. cicadicola exhibits rapid sequence evolution, it is possible that this novel bacterium is a related endosymbiont with beneficial trophic functions similar to that of H. cicadicola in some other cicadas. Failure to detect H. cicadicola in M. mongolica suggests that it has been subsequently replaced by another bacterium, a yeast or gut microbiota which compensates for the loss of H. cicadicola. The distribution of this novel Rhizobiales species in other cicadas and its identification require further investigation to help establish the definition of the bacterial genus Candidatus Hodgkinia and to provide more information on sequence divergence of related endosymbionts of cicadas. Our results highlight the complex bacterial communities of cicadas, and

  10. The Analysis of Poisoning Cases Presented to the Emergency Department within a One-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma SARI DOGAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Objectives: Intoxication is the emergence of unwanted signs and symptoms in an organism after exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical or organic materials. In our study, we evaluated demographic and etiological factors of adult patients admitted to the emergency department with suicidal or accidental poisoning. Methods: This study was conducted retrospectively by using data from the forensics books, protocol notebooks and patient files. Patients over the age of 14 years that were admitted to the Goztepe Training and Research Hospital during a 1-year period (September 2011-September 2012 with poisoning were included in the study. Results: A total of 430 patients were included in the study and 278 of those patients were females (64.7%. The male/female (F/M ratio was 1.82/1 and the mean age of the patients was 27.4±11.75 years. The analyses showed that in 348 patients (80.93% the cause of poisoning was medicine, in 39 patients (9.06% alcohol and drugs, in 37 patients (8.6% rat poison, in 4 patients (0.93% a caustic substance and organophosphates in 2 patients (0.46%. The highest rate of admittance due to poisoning was seen in July, followed by August and September. When the frequency of admittance was evaluated in terms of seasons: summer had the highest frequency with 35.6%, then autumn with 29.1%, spring with 19.8% and winter with 15.6%. Conclusions: The results of our studies are similar to previously reported studies in Turkey. Poisoning cases are more common in women and the most common way of poisoning is by medication. Unlike previous reports from the literature, we found that poisoning was most frequent in the summer. ÖZET: Amaç: Zehirlenme potansiyel olarak zarar verebilen herhangi bir kimyasal, fiziksel veya organik maddeye maruziyet sonrası organizmada bazı istenmeyen belirti ve bulguların ortaya çıkmasıdır. Biz bu çalışmamızda intihar amaçlı veya kazara zehirlenme nedeniyle acil servisimize ba

  11. 76 FR 73685 - Notice of a Change in Status of the Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Payable Periods in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program for Indiana, the Virgin... Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) program for Indiana, the Virgin Islands, West Virginia, and Wyoming... benefits in high unemployment states. The Department of Labor produces a trigger notice indicating which...

  12. Emergency Department Care in the Postpartum Period: California Births, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Priya; Fridman, Moshe; Leng, Mei; Gregory, Kimberly D

    2017-11-01

    To use population data to identify patient characteristics associated with a postpartum maternal emergency department visit within 90 days of discharge after birth. This retrospective cross-sectional study analyzed linked maternal discharge and emergency department data for all live California births from 2009 to 2011. The primary outcome was at least one emergency department visit within 90 days of hospital discharge after birth. Secondary outcomes included three or more visits within 90 days ("high utilization") and inpatient readmission. Independent variables included demographics (age, race or ethnicity, payer, income) and clinical characteristics (length of stay, antepartum complications, mode of delivery, and severe maternal morbidity at delivery). Multilevel logistic regression identified variables associated study outcomes; we validated the predictive model with a split-sample approach and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Of 1,071,232 deliveries included, 88,674 women (8.3%) visited the emergency department at least once in the 90 days after delivery discharge. Emergency department use was significantly associated with Medicaid insurance (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.15, 95% CI 2.08-2.21), age younger than 20 years (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.98-2.19), severe maternal morbidity at delivery (adjusted OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.49-1.71), antepartum complications (adjusted OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.42-1.50), and cesarean delivery (adjusted OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.37-1.44). Approximately one fifth of visits occurred within 4 days of discharge, and more than half were within 3 weeks. High utilizers comprised 0.5% of the entire sample (5,171 women) and only 1.2% of women presenting for emergency department care were readmitted. Receiver operating curve model analysis using the validation sample supported predictive accuracy for postpartum emergency department use (area under the curve=0.95). One in 12 California women visited the emergency department in the first 90 days

  13. The period between exfoliation of primary teeth and the emergence of permanent successors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, M; Peck, L

    1989-02-01

    The dates of natural exfoliation of primary teeth and of clinical eruption of their successors were recorded in 141 children, a total of 660 teeth. The aim of this investigation was to study the length of the period between these two developmental events. In the mandible, the mean length of the toothless period for the central incisor was 2 weeks and that for the lateral incisors and canines 6 weeks. In the maxilla, the corresponding period was 6 weeks for the central incisor and over 4 months for the lateral incisor and the canine. The mean length of the toothless period was shortest, 0-6 days, between the primary molars and the succeeding premolars. Individual variation was great. No difference was detected between the sexes. In some cases the length of the toothless period for the maxillary lateral incisors and for the canines in both jaws exceeded one year. This was associated with crowding, which caused the premature loss of primary teeth.

  14. Screening Models for Cardiac Risk Evaluation in Emergency Abdominal Surgery. I. Evaluation of the Intraoperative Period Risk based on Data from the Preoperative Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Matveev

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A classification of intraoperative cardio-vascular complications (CVC was performed, based on data from 466 patients subjected to emergency surgery, due to severe abdominal surgical diseases or traumas, in accordance with the severe criteria of ACC/AHA for CVC in noncardiac surgery. There were 370 intraoperative CVC registered, distributed as follows: groups with low risk (148, moderate risk (200, and high risk (22. Patient groups were formed, according to the CVC risk level, during the intraoperative period, for which the determinant factor for the group distribution of patients was the complication with the highest risk. Individual data was collected for each patient, based on 65 indices: age, physical status, diseases, surgical interventions, anaesthesiological information, intra and postoperative cardio-vascular complications, disease outcome, causes of death, cardiovascular disease anamnesis, anamnesis of all other nonsurgical diseases present, laboratory results, results from all imaging and instrumental examinations, etc. On the basis of these indices, a new distribution of the risk factors was implemented, into groups with different levels of risk of CVC during intraoperative period. This result is a solid argument, substantiating the proposal to introduce these adjustments for determining the severity of CVC in the specific conditions of emergency abdominal surgery.

  15. Trends and Weekly Cycles in a Large Swiss Emergency Centre: A 10 Year Period at the University Hospital of Bern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian T. Braun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Popular demand for high quality care has increased in recent years. This is also the case for medical services and support at all times of the day and night is nowadays required. During the last ten years, there has been a marked increase in the demands on hospital emergency hospitals, particularly in the Western industrialized countries. The present retrospective study investigates how the demands on a large Swiss university centre have changed over a period of 10 years. Patient numbers are differentiated by age, gender, nationality, weekday and mode of referral. A retrospective analysis was performed of the data of the patients admitted to the Emergency Centre of Bern University Medical Hospital (Inselspital during the ten-year period from 2004 up to and including 2013 and who were treated as emergencies. A total of 264,272 patients were included in the study. It was shown that there was an uninterrupted annual increase from 23,555 patients in 2004 to 34,918 patients in 2013 (+48%. Most patients came to the Emergency Centre on Mondays, followed by Fridays. Because of the marked increase in life expectancy and the resulting demographic changes, there has been a marked increase in the number of older patients coming to the Emergency Centre for acute medical care. It was found that there were disproportionately high numbers of patients aged 20 to 49 years who were not Swiss citizens. In contrast, most patients over 60 were Swiss. In the coming years, emergency centres will have to adapt to the continued increase in patient numbers. This trend will continue, so that it is essential to consider the sociodemographic structure of a region when planning the availability of emergency medical care.

  16. [Productivity of Spanish emergency physicians: comparison of the 5-year periods 2010-2014 and 2005-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Guerrero, Inés M; Burbano Santos, Pablo; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Hidalgo-Rodríguez, Abraham; Leal-Lobato, María de Las Mercedes; Rivilla-Doce, Celia; Julián-Jiménez, Agustín; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Miró, Òscar

    2016-06-01

    To study the publication productivity of Spanish emergency physicians in the 5-year period from 2010 through 2014 and compare it with the previous period (2005-2009). Articles authored by emergency physicians affiliated with institutions in Spain were selected from the Science Citation Index-Expanded; conference presentations were excluded. We collected data for year of publication, author information, journal, the journal's impact factor (IF), type of article, cites received, and area of research. We searched at 2010-2014 period, and these data were compared with historic data from the 2005-2009 period. A total of 1433 articles were published in 2010-2014; 52.4% were original research articles (56% more than in 2005-2009, P=.01). The mean journal IF associated with the publications was slightly higher in 2010-2014 (2.587 vs 2.483 for 2005-2009). The median was slightly lower (2.295 vs 3.085 in the earlier period), but the 90th percentile was higher (4.036 vs 3.085, P=0.01), reflecting an increase in the number of publications in journals with high IFs. Most articles continue to be published in Castilian Spanish (67.8%), although the percentage of articles published in English increased significantly, from 25.2% in the previous period to 32.1% in 2010-2014; P=.001). Scientific publications in emergency medicine come mainly from specialists working in hospital emergency departments (89%). Authors affiliated with a university are in the minority, although their percentage increased significantly from 10.9% in the previous period to 16.2% in the recent one (P=.001). Collaboration increased in the recent period in all categories: between hospitals in the same Spanish autonomous community (from 24.7% to 36%), in different communities (from 10.9% to 19%), or in different countries (from 2.3% to 8.4%) (P=.001, all comparisons). The most productive research areas were cardiovascular conditions (accounting for 13.1% of the publications), infectious diseases (13

  17. How the Aridification of Australia Structured the Biogeography and Influenced the Diversification of a Large Lineage of Australian Cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Christopher L; Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R; Simon, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Over the last 30 million years, Australia's landscape has undergone dramatic cooling and drying due to the establishment of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and change in global CO$_{2}$ levels. Studies have shown that many Australian organisms went extinct during these major cooling events, while others experienced adaptive radiations and increases in diversification rates as a result of exploiting new niches in the arid zone. Despite the many studies on diversification and biogeography in Australia, few have been continent-wide and none have focused on a group of organisms adapted to feeding on plants. We studied 162 species of cicadas in the Australian Pauropsalta complex, a large generic lineage within the tribe Cicadettini. We asked whether there were changes in the diversification rate of Pauropsalta over time and if so: 1) which clades were associated with the rate change? 2) did timing of rate shifts correspond to known periods of dramatic historical climate change, 3) did increases in diversification rate along select lineages correspond to adaptive radiations with movement into the arid zone? To address these questions, we estimated a molecular phylogeny of the Pauropsalta complex using ${\\sim}$5300 bp of nucleotide sequence data distributed among five loci (one mtDNA locus and four nDNA loci). We found that this large group of cicadas did not diversify at a constant rate as they spread through Australia; instead the signature of decreasing diversification rate changed roughly around the time of the expansion of the east Antarctic ice sheets ${\\sim}$16 Ma and the glaciation of the northern hemisphere ${\\sim}$3 Ma. Unlike other Australian taxa, the Pauropsalta complex did not explosively radiate in response to an early invasion of the arid zone. Instead multiple groups invaded the arid zone and experienced rates of diversification similar to mesic-distributed taxa. We found evidence for relictual groups, located in pre-Mesozoic habitat, that have not

  18. Ergosterol peroxide from Cordyceps cicadae ameliorates TGF-β1-induced activation of kidney fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Zheng, Rong; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; Zhang, Shuwei

    2014-02-15

    Chronic kidney disease is a growing public health problem with an urgent need for new pharmacological agents. Ergosterol peroxide (EP) is the major sterol produced by Cordyceps cicadae Shing (C. cicadae), a widely used traditional Chinese medicine. C. cicadae has been used to treat many kinds of diseases and has a potential benefit on renoprotection. This study aimed to investigate the anti-fibrotic effects of EP as well as the underlying mechanisms. A normal rat kidney fibroblast cell line (NRK-49F) was stimulated to undergo fibroblast activation by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and EP treatment was applied to explore its potential anti-fibrotic effects. Cell proliferation was investigated using MTT analysis. Fibrosis-associated protein expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and/or Western blotting. EP treatment attenuated TGF-β1-induced renal fibroblast proliferation, expression of cytoskeleton protein and CTGF, as well as ECM production. Additionally, EP blocked TGF-β1-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK pathway. Moreover, the TGF-β1-induced expression of fibronectin was attenuated by either inhibition of MAPKs or by EP treatment. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that EP is able to suppress TGF-β1-induced fibroblasts activation in NRK-49F. This new information provides a line of theoretical evidence supporting the use of C. cicadae in the intervention of kidney disease and suggests that EP has the potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent to prevent renal fibrosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. CeasIng Cpap At standarD criteriA (CICADA): Implementation improves neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath Jeffery, Rachael C; Broom, Margaret; Shadbolt, Bruce; Todd, David A

    2016-03-01

    A previous randomised controlled trial (RCT) in babies born CPAP) with a view to remain off rather than slow weaning) significantly reduced CPAP time. Post-RCT we introduced the CICADA method and evaluated whether the improved outcomes of the CICADA method during the RCT were replicated in clinical practice. The aim of the study is to compare cardio-respiratory outcomes in PBs CPAP days and corrected GA to cease CPAP post implementation (20.5 ± 2.1, 21.1 ± 2.1, 16.5 ± 1.8 (days ± SE); P = 0.006 and 33.3 ± 0.4, 33.5 ± 0.4, 32.6 ± 0.4 (weeks ± SE); P = 0.01). Compared with the pre RCT epoch, there were significant reductions in patent ductus arteriosus (36/78 (46%), 33/87 (37%), 18/103 (17%); P CPAP time, corrected GA to cease CPAP, patent ductus arteriosus and chronic lung disease significantly reduced following the introduction of the CICADA method. Early cessation of CPAP expedites the transition from neonatal intensive care to special care. © 2016 The Author. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Targeted HIV Screening in Eight Emergency Departments: The DICI-VIH Cluster-Randomized Two-Period Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Judith; Hejblum, Gilles; Costagliola, Dominique; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Lert, France; de Truchis, Pierre; Verbeke, Geert; Rousseau, Alexandra; Piquet, Hélène; Simon, François; Pateron, Dominique; Simon, Tabassome; Crémieux, Anne-Claude

    2017-10-30

    This study compares the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of nurse-driven targeted HIV screening alongside physician-directed diagnostic testing (intervention strategy) with diagnostic testing alone (control strategy) in 8 emergency departments. In this cluster-randomized, 2-period, crossover trial, 18- to 64-year-old patients presenting for reasons other than potential exposure to HIV were included. The strategy applied first was randomly assigned. During both periods, diagnostic testing was prescribed by physicians following usual care. During the intervention periods, patients were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. According to their answers, the triage nurse suggested performing a rapid test to patients belonging to a high-risk group. The primary outcome was the proportion of new diagnoses among included patients, which further refers to effectiveness. A secondary outcome was the intervention's incremental cost (health care system perspective) per additional diagnosis. During the intervention periods, 74,161 patients were included, 16,468 completed the questionnaire, 4,341 belonged to high-risk groups, and 2,818 were tested by nurses, yielding 13 new diagnoses. Combined with 9 diagnoses confirmed through 97 diagnostic tests, 22 new diagnoses were established. During the control periods, 74,166 patients were included, 92 were tested, and 6 received a new diagnosis. The proportion of new diagnoses among included patients was higher during the intervention than in the control periods (3.0 per 10,000 versus 0.8 per 10,000; difference 2.2 per 10,000, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.6; relative risk 3.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 9.8). The incremental cost was €1,324 per additional new diagnosis. The combined strategy of targeted screening and diagnostic testing was effective. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy information needs for U. S. state-level policy making: Minimal data requirements during normal and emergency periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Leff, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Since the oil embargo of 1973, state governments have increased their efforts to track and understand energy flows within their boundaries. There is a commonly perceived need to comprehend the status of present and expected future energy availability, demand, and price and to be prepared to exercise responsible and effective management during energy emergencies. This responsibility has brought with it new needs for accurate and timely state-level information on energy transactions and the external parameters that effect energy availability and disposition. What energy data are needed by a state, regardless of its idiosyncracies, during both normal and energy emergency periods, and to what extent are these data available now. The authors find that needed ongoing (core) data are only partially available at present, and that emergency data can be obtained only with a carefully planned monitoring program that can be fitted to specific emergency conditions. Overall, this paper provides a realistic assessment of the state-level energy data needed to provide state policy makers with sufficient information to make considered judgments.

  2. Energy-information needs for US state-level policy making: minimal data requirements during normal and emergency periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Leff, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Since the oil embargo of 1973, state governments have increased their efforts to track and understand energy flows within their boundaries. There is a commonly perceived need to comprehend the status of present and expected future energy availability, demand, and price and to be prepared to exercise responsible and effective management during energy emergencies. This responsibility has brought with it new needs for accurate and timely state-level information on energy transactions and the external parameters that effect energy availability and disposition. Hence, we ask: what energy data are needed by a state, regardless of its idiosyncracies, during both normal and energy emergency periods, and to what extent are these data available now. We find that needed ongoing (core) data are only partially available at present, and that emergency data can be obtained only with a carefully planned monitoring program that can be fitted to specific emergency conditions. Overall, this paper provides a realistic assessment of the state-level energy data needed to provide state policy makers with sufficient information to make considered judgments. 7 references, 6 tables.

  3. How did the fracking controversy emerge in the period 2010-2012?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Allan

    2016-02-01

    In 2010-2012, the controversy over fracking grew rapidly, first in the United States, and then internationally. An important step was the anti-fracking documentary film Gasland. With help from celebrity sources, the film was produced and won a prize at the Sundance Film Festival by early 2010 and had an Oscar nomination by early 2011, in the meantime popularizing potent images of hazard including tainted aquifers and ignitable water running from kitchen faucets. During this period, major US news organizations paid little attention to the issue. The offshore Deepwater Horizon disaster of April 2010 spurred The New York Times to prolific reporting on potential risks of the new onshore technique for extracting shale gas. With flagship news coverage, the controversy had by 2012 gained wide media attention that evoked public concern and opposition, spreading from the United States to other nations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. A checklist of the cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of Hainan Island, China, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingsheng; Wei, Cong

    2013-10-29

    A total of 54 cacada species, belonging to 28 genera, nine tribes and three subfamilies of the family Cicadidae, are identified to comprise the cicada fauna of Hainan Island, based on the examination of material collected between 2007 and 2011. One species, Semia hainanensis sp. n., is described as new to science. Nine species are recorded as new to Hainan Island, of which two species, Pomponia subtilita Lee, 2009 and Becquartina bleuzeni Boulard, 2005, are reported for the first time from China. In addition, six species formerly recorded from Hainan are removed from the list of Hainan cicadas. Taxonomic remarks and information on geographic distributions are also provided.

  5. A new genus and species of tettigarctid cicada from the early Miocene of New Zealand: Paratettigarcta zealandica (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Tettigarctidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulfuss, Uwe; Moulds, Max

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of primitive cicada (Hemiptera: Tettigarctidae) is described from the early Miocene of southern New Zealand. Paratettigarcta zealandica gen. et sp. n. is the first cicada (Cicadoidea) fossil from New Zealand and exhibits wing venation patterns typical for the subfamily Tettigarctinae. It differs from other fossil taxa and the extant genus Tettigarcta in the early divergence of CuA2 from the nodal line in the forewing, its parallel-sided subcostal cell, the early bifurcation of vein M and long apical cells of the hindwing, and in wing pigmentation patterns. PMID:25829843

  6. Emergency Diesel Generation System Surveillance Test Policy Optimization Through Genetic Algorithms Using Non-Periodic Intervention Frequencies and Seasonal Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapa, Celso M.F.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear standby safety systems must frequently, be submitted to periodic surveillance tests. The main reason is to detect, as soon as possible, the occurrence of unrevealed failure states. Such interventions may, however, affect the overall system availability due to component outages. Besides, as the components are demanded, deterioration by aging may occur, penalizing again the system performance. By these reasons, planning a good surveillance test policy implies in a trade-off between gains and overheads due to the surveillance test interventions. In order maximize the systems average availability during a given period of time, it has recently been developed a non-periodic surveillance test optimization methodology based on genetic algorithms (GA). The fact of allowing non-periodic tests turns the solution space much more flexible and schedules can be better adjusted, providing gains in the overall system average availability, when compared to those obtained by an optimized periodic tests scheme. The optimization problem becomes, however, more complex. Hence, the use of a powerful optimization technique, such as GAs, is required. Some particular features of certain systems can turn it advisable to introduce other specific constraints in the optimization problem. The Emergency Diesel Generation System (EDGS) of a Nuclear Power Plant (N-PP) is a good example for demonstrating the introduction of seasonal constraints in the optimization problem. This system is responsible for power supply during an external blackout. Therefore, it is desirable during periods of high blackout probability to maintain the system availability as high as possible. Previous applications have demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of the methodology. However, no seasonal constraints have ever been imposed. This work aims at investigating the application of such methodology in the Angra-II Brazilian NPP EDGS surveillance test policy optimization, considering the blackout probability

  7. New records of Brazilian cicadas including the description of a new species (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea, Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Allen F

    2008-01-01

    A new species of Proarna Stål is described from southern Brazil. Proarna gianucai sp. nov. is distinguished by its coloration and genitalia. The species inhabits coastal dune environments and is associated with the perennial grass Panicum racemosum (P. Beauv.) Spreng. Adults are active from December to March. The first records of Carineta durantoni Boulard, Carineta gemella Boulard, Carineta pilifera Walker, Fidicina christinae Boulard & Martinelli, Fidicina torresi Boulard & Martinellli, Fidicinoides determinata (Walker), Fidicinoides distanti (Goding), Fidicinoides glauca (Goding), Majeorona truncata Goding, and Zammara columbia Distant for Brazil are provided. The new species and new records bring the total cicada diversity of Brazil to 146 species.

  8. Endothermy in African platypleurine cicadas: the influence of body size and habitat (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Allen F; Villet, Martin H; Phillips, Polly K

    2004-01-01

    The platypleurine cicadas have a wide distribution across Africa and southern Asia. We investigate endothermy as a thermoregulatory strategy in 11 South African species from five genera, with comparisons to the lone ectothermic platypleurine we found, in an attempt to ascertain any influence that habitat and/or body size have on the expression of endothermy in the platypleurine cicadas. Field measurements of body temperature (T(b)) show that these animals regulate T(b) through endogenous heat production. Heat production in the laboratory elevated T(b) to the same range as in animals active in the field. Maximum T(b) measured during calling activity when there was no access to solar radiation ranged from 13.2 degrees to 22.3 degrees C above ambient temperature in the five species measured. The mean T(b) during activity without access to solar radiation did not differ from the mean T(b) during diurnal activity. All platypleurines exhibit a unique behavior for cicadas while warming endogenously, a temperature-dependent telescoping pulsation of the abdomen that probably functions in ventilation. Platypleurines generally call from trunks and branches within the canopy and appear to rely on endothermy even when the sun is available to elevate T(b), in contrast to the facultative endothermy exhibited by New World endothermic species. The two exceptions to this generalization we found within the platypleurines are Platypleura wahlbergi and Albanycada albigera, which were the smallest species studied. The small size of P. wahlbergi appears to have altered their thermoregulatory strategy to one of facultative endothermy, whereby they use the sun when it is available to facilitate increases in T(b). Albanycada albigera is the only ectothermic platypleurine we found. The habitat and host plant association of A. albigera appear to have influenced the choice of ectothermy as a thermoregulatory strategy, as the species possesses the metabolic machinery to elevate to the T

  9. Evaluation of insecticides in different dosages to control cicadas in parica plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odineila Martins Monteiro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the more efficient and economically viable dosage of chemical insecticide to control Quesada gigas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae nymphs in parica plantations. Three dosages of three products (carbofuran, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam were tested based on the maximum recommended dosage for the control of cicadas in coffee plants and applied in total area. The dosage of one kilogram of a commercial product based in thiamethoxam per hectare was more efficient economically and environmentally to control nymphs of Q. gigas in parica plantations.

  10. Assessing the gap in female authorship in the journal Emergency Radiology: trends over a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kristopher; Ramonas, Milita; Patlas, Michael; Katz, Douglas S

    2017-12-01

    To examine trends in female authorship in the journal Emergency Radiology from January 1994 to December 2014. We obtained institutional review board approval for our study. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 1617 articles published in the journal Emergency Radiology over a 20-year period. Original articles, case reports, review articles, and pictorial essays were included. The first and last position author's gender was categorized as female or male. We analyzed trends by comparing the first and last position authors of original articles from the first and last year reviewed. We utilized Chi-square test for statistical analysis, with a p value gender of 96% of the authors. Overall, female authors were 21% of first position authors (290 of 1368) and 15% of last position authors (183 of 1246). Thirty-two percent of articles with female last position authors also had female first position authors (58 of 183). There was a statistically significant increase in female last position authors, from 12.9% in 1994 to 21.3% in 2014 (p = 0.026), a non-significant increase in female first position authors, from 17.5% in 1994 to 20.9% in 2014 (p = 0.514), and a non-significant increase in articles with both a first and last female author, from 25% in 1994 to 35% in 2014 (p = 0.593). Over the last 20 years, there has been a statistically significant upward trend in female last position authors publishing in the journal Emergency Radiology.

  11. Response to period shifts in tapping and circle drawing: a window into event and emergent components of continuous movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenka, Breanna E

    2015-05-01

    Synchronization of movement to a metronome is a well-studied task for both discretely and smoothly produced rhythmic movement. In particular, behavioral responses to unexpected changes in a regular metronome can reveal both the strength and the completeness of error correction mechanisms and temporal control. Clock-like control is exhibited by discretely produced movement and movement with discrete perceptual information, whereas smoothly produced movement does not rely on internal clock mechanisms. Documented differences in error correction between discretely and smoothly produced movements have been attributed to this different underlying control. In this study, error correction mechanisms were examined by inducing changes in the pace of rhythmic movement. An overshoot response following the pace change for both tapping and circle drawing is documented, and suggests the presence of phase and period correction in both tasks. The presence of phase correction in circle drawing also suggests that clock and non-clock timing may co-exist within the same movement. Furthermore, a sub-group of participants emerged who appropriately changed pace, but were not able to correct the phasing of their movement while performing the circle drawing task, supporting that phase and period maintenance in timing are independently controlled processes.

  12. Description and key to the fifth-instars of some Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) associated with coffee plants in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccagnan, D H B; Martinelli, N M

    2011-01-01

    Fifth-instars of the cicada species Dorisiana drewseni (Stål), Dorisiana viridis (Olivier), Fidicina mannifera (Fabricius), Fidicinoides pronoe (Walker) and Carineta fasciculata (Germar) are described and illustrated. Moreover, a key to the nymphs of these species along with Quesada gigas (Olivier) is also provided.

  13. Hubungan Antara Tingkat Pendidikan Orang Tua dengan Prestasi Siswa Sekolah Dasar dalam Mata Pelajaran Matematika di Kecamatan Cicadas Kota Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Sofia Yanti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Keberhasilan siswa dalam menempuh pendidikan di sekolah dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor diantaranya kepala sekolah, guru, siswa, orang tua dan lingkungan sekolah. Penelitian ini memberikan gambaran bahwa rata-rata nilai matematika siswa SD di Kecamatan Cicadas Bandung sudah relatif baik serta terdapat korelasi yang positif antara prestasi anak dalam pelajaran matematika dengan tingkat pendidikan Ayah maupun Ibu.

  14. Revision of the cicada genus Dilobopyga (Hemiptera, Cicadidae) from Sulawesi and the Moluccas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffels, J P

    2018-04-13

    This revision of the cicadas of the genus Dilobopyga provides a diagnosis of the genus and descriptions, illustrations and distribution maps for 48 species. The following 33 species described here are new to science: D. angulata, angustata, bifida, curvispina, fasciata, hayashii, hollowayi, johani, knighti, langeraki, laterocurvata, latifascia, luwukensis, macrocerata, maleo, mamasa, mediolobata, nebulosa, operculata, palopoensis, pelengensis, platyacantha, quadrimaculata, rantemario, recurvata, rozendaali, sangihensis, sarasinorum, splendida, tambusisi, toraja, vantoli and watuwila. The key presented is designed for the identification of males of Dilobopyga to the species level. The subdivision of the genus in five species groups viz., opercularis group (17 species), nebulosa group (1 species), chlorogaster group (16 species), minahassae group (6 species) and watuwila group (8 species), is sustained by a phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters of all species described.        The cicadas of the genus Dilobopyga are found in Sulawesi, neighbouring islands and southern Moluccas. Of the 48 species of Dilobopyga 43 species are endemic to Sulawesi. Most of these Sulawesi species are restricted to either one peninsula or to a part of Central Sulawesi. The remaining five species are endemic to either the Sangihe Islands, Banggai Islands or the southern Moluccas. A taxon-area cladogram for the species of Dilobopyga provides a basis for a discussion on the historic biogeography of the genus.

  15. Thermal biology of Pacific cicada killers, Sphecius convallis Patton, in the Upper Sonoran Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Joseph R; Holliday, Charles W; Hastings, Jon M; Phillips, Christy M

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the Pacific cicada killer, Sphecius convallis Patton, was undertaken to examine the behavioral and physiological mechanisms by which they are able to complete their life cycle in the thermal extremes of the Upper Sonoran Desert. S. convallis were endothermic, exhibiting elevated and relatively constant thorax temperatures during many activities. Males basked in trees at dawn to warm up, then used a variety of behaviors and perching strategies to maintain thorax temperature during territorial behavior. The thorax temperature of females was highest during provisioning and orientation flights, somewhat lower while investigating burrows, and lowest while digging burrows. The optimal thorax temperature for flight was about 40°C, which was approximated most closely by males resting in the shade during the afternoon. In mating clusters, the mated male was the hottest, the female was coolest and the other males were intermediate. Wasps lost about 5% of body mass during heating treatments, and may use evaporative water loss for cooling. Pacific cicada killers use a complex suite of behavioral and physiological adaptations to regulate body temperature during their nesting season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The hypertrehalosemic neuropeptides of cicadas are structural isomers-evidence by ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Simone; Marco, Heather; Gäde, Gerd

    2017-11-01

    It has been known for more than 20 years that the neurosecretory glands of the cicadas, the corpora cardiaca, synthesize two isobaric peptides with hypertrehalosemic activity. Both decapeptides have exactly the same amino acid sequence (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Ser-Trp-Gly-Asn-NH 2 ) and mass but differ in their retention time in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. A synthetic peptide with the same sequence elutes together with the second more hydrophobic peptide peak of the natural cicada extract. It is not clear what modification is causing the described observations. Therefore, in the current study, ion mobility separation in conjunction with high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to investigate this phenomenon as it was sensitive to changes in conformation. It detected different drift times in buffer gas for both the intact peptides and some of their fragment ions. Based on the ion mobility and fragment ion intensity of the corresponding ions, it is concluded that the region Pro 6 -Ser 7 -Trp 8 contains a structural feature differing from the L-amino acids present in the known peptide. Whether the conformer is the result of racemization or other biochemical processes needs to be further investigated.

  17. Sperm morphology in four species of African platypleurine cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawanji, A S; Hodgson, A N; Villet, M H

    2005-08-01

    Mature spermatozoa from four species of platypleurine cicadas (Albanycada albigera, Azanicada zuluensis, Platypleura capensis and P. hirtipennis) were examined by light and electron microscopy. The filiform sperm have a similar ultrastructure in all species but notable variations were found in sperm dimensions. All species produce more than one discrete length of nucleated, motile sperm, a form of polymorphism termed polymegaly. Polymegaly is expressed in two ways: sperm have bi- or trimodal head and tail lengths. The anterior parts of sperm heads are embedded in an elongate homogenous matrix forming a spermatodesm. The conical acrosome is deeply invaginated posteriorly, and sits on top of the nucleus. The acrosomal contents are differentiated internally with an electron-lucent central medulla and a denser cortex. The homogenously electron-dense nucleus is pointed anteriorly and is generally cylindrical, although posteriorly there is a lateral invagination that extends part-way along the nucleus. This invagination houses fine granular material of the centriolar adjunct. Vesicle-like elements that are associated with both the posterior nucleus and the centriolar adjunct are also found within the invagination. Immediately posterior of and adjoining the centriolar adjunct is a pair of mitochondrial derivatives that are elongated and extend for almost the entire length of the tail. The absence of accessory bodies in cicada sperm suggests that within the Cicadomorpha, the families Cicadidae and Cercopidae are closely affiliated.

  18. Thermal adaptation and diversity in tropical ecosystems: evidence from cicadas (Hemiptera, Cicadidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen F Sanborn

    Full Text Available The latitudinal gradient in species diversity is a central problem in ecology. Expeditions covering approximately 16°54' of longitude and 21°4' of latitude and eight Argentine phytogeographic regions provided thermal adaptation data for 64 species of cicadas. We test whether species diversity relates to the diversity of thermal environments within a habitat. There are general patterns of the thermal response values decreasing in cooler floristic provinces and decreasing maximum potential temperature within a habitat except in tropical forest ecosystems. Vertical stratification of the plant communities leads to stratification in species using specific layers of the habitat. There is a decrease in thermal tolerances in species from the understory communities in comparison to middle level or canopy fauna. The understory Herrera umbraphila Sanborn & Heath is the first diurnally active cicada identified as a thermoconforming species. The body temperature for activity in H. umbraphila is less than and significantly different from active body temperatures of all other studied species regardless of habitat affiliation. These data suggest that variability in thermal niches within the heterogeneous plant community of the tropical forest environments permits species diversification as species adapt their physiology to function more efficiently at temperatures different from their potential competitors.

  19. Biogeography of the Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae of North America, North of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen F. Sanborn

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe and illustrate the biogeography of the cicadas inhabiting continental North America, north of Mexico. Species distributions were determined through our collecting efforts as well as label data from more than 110 institutional collections. The status of subspecies is discussed with respect to their distributions. As we have shown over limited geographic areas, the distribution of individual species is related to the habitat in which they are found. We discuss the biogeography of the genera with respect to their phylogenetic relationships. California is the state with the greatest alpha diversity (89 species, 46.6% of taxa and unique species (35 species, 18.3% of taxa. Texas, Arizona, Colorado and Utah are the states with the next greatest alpha diversity with Texas, Arizona and Utah being next for unique species diversity. Maine, New Hampshire and Rhode Island are the states with the least amount of cicada diversity. Diversity is greatest in states and areas where there is a diversity of plant communities and habitats within these communities. Mountainous terrain also coincides with increases in diversity. Several regions of the focus area require additional collection efforts to fill in the distributions of several species.

  20. Thermal adaptation and diversity in tropical ecosystems: evidence from cicadas (Hemiptera, Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Allen F; Heath, James E; Phillips, Polly K; Heath, Maxine S; Noriega, Fernando G

    2011-01-01

    The latitudinal gradient in species diversity is a central problem in ecology. Expeditions covering approximately 16°54' of longitude and 21°4' of latitude and eight Argentine phytogeographic regions provided thermal adaptation data for 64 species of cicadas. We test whether species diversity relates to the diversity of thermal environments within a habitat. There are general patterns of the thermal response values decreasing in cooler floristic provinces and decreasing maximum potential temperature within a habitat except in tropical forest ecosystems. Vertical stratification of the plant communities leads to stratification in species using specific layers of the habitat. There is a decrease in thermal tolerances in species from the understory communities in comparison to middle level or canopy fauna. The understory Herrera umbraphila Sanborn & Heath is the first diurnally active cicada identified as a thermoconforming species. The body temperature for activity in H. umbraphila is less than and significantly different from active body temperatures of all other studied species regardless of habitat affiliation. These data suggest that variability in thermal niches within the heterogeneous plant community of the tropical forest environments permits species diversification as species adapt their physiology to function more efficiently at temperatures different from their potential competitors.

  1. Complications after emergency laparotomy beyond the immediate postoperative period - a retrospective, observational cohort study of 1139 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tengberg, L T; Cihoric, M; Foss, N B

    2017-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity occur commonly following emergency laparotomy, and incur a considerable clinical and financial healthcare burden. Limited data have been published describing the postoperative course and temporal pattern of complications after emergency laparotomy. We undertook...

  2. Appearance of cicada fauna (Homoptera: Cicadoidea) by altitudes in Johor National Park, Mount Ledang, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Aliadi Mohd; Sulaiman, Azman

    2015-09-01

    A total of 31 cicada species in 15 genera under two families (Cicadidae, 27 species in 11 genera; Tibicinidae, four species in three genera) was recorded for Johor National Park, Mount Ledang, Johor. This was based on 666 individuals were obtained through six sampling occasions in November 2012 until October 2013, each time using light trap set in six sampling locations (L1, L2, L3, L4a, L4b, L4c) that were selected based on altitudes. The most common and abundant species in L1 is Pomponia sp1 and recognized as new species that need to be described as new to science. Orientopsaltria saudarapadda Duffles & Zaidi appeared as the most common and abundant species in L2, represented by 21 individuals which covers 34.43 % of the total cicadas specimen in that area. In the location of L3, Dundubia vaginata (Fabricius) appeared as the most abundant species represented by 37 individuals or 26.81% while Abroma maculicollis Guerin appeared as the most common species. Shannon's Species Diversity Index (H') in L3 was the highest (H'=2.28) followed by L4b (H'=2.21), L2 (H'=1.93) L4a (H'=1.92), L4c (H'=1.84) and L1 (H'=1.58), and the evenness index in L1 was the highest (E= 0.88), followed by L4b (E= 0.79), L3 (E= 0.77), L2 (E= 0.75), L4c (E= 0.74) and L4a (E= 0.79). Margalef Species Richness Index in L3 was the highest (R'=3.65), followed by oleh L4b (R'=3.01), L4a (R'=2.97), L2 (R'=2.92), L4c (R'=2.4), and L1 (R'=2.01). Generally shows that L3 at the altitude 350 m appear as the best sampling site for cicadas species in Mount Ledang Johor with the highest value of species diversity and richness index.

  3. Sperm morphology in five species of cicadettine cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawanji, Abraham S; Hodgson, Alan N; Villet, Martin H

    2006-12-01

    Mature spermatozoa from five species of cicadas of the subfamily Cicadettinae (Quintilia wealei, Melampsalta leucoptera, Stagira simplex, Xosopsaltria thunbergi and Monomatapa matoposa) were examined by light and electron microscopy. In each species sperm are elongate, aggregated into organized bundles with their heads embedded in a homogenous matrix to form spermatodesmata, and exhibit polymegaly. The head of the sperm consist of an anteriorly positioned conical acrosome that has a tubular substructure and a deep, posterior invagination that forms the subacrosomal space (eccentrically positioned anteriorly). The acrosome is flattened anteriorly; posteriorly it extends along either side of the nucleus as two tubular processes that gradually decrease in diameter. The filiform nucleus tapers anteriorly and intrudes into the subscrosomal space. Posteriorly the nucleus has a lateral invagination that houses material of the so-called centriolar adjunct. Posterior to the centriolar adjuct and the nucleus are two crystalline mitochondrial derivatives and a centriole, respectively, the latter giving rise to the axoneme, which has a 9 + 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules. In these respects the sperm are similar to those of platypleurine cicadas. However, some features seem unique to cicadettines, including the structural organization of an enlarged centriolar adjunct and the dimensions of the tails. The enlarged centriolar adjunct has a lamella-like substructure and can be considered a synapomorphic character in the Cicadettinae. It is, therefore, potentially useful in the separation of this subfamily from the Cicadinae. In addition, the great length of the sperm nucleus of long-headed sperm in M. matoposa could be a synapomorphy of this genus and related taphurine and cicadettine species.

  4. Factors associated with emergency services use in Taiwanese advanced cancer patients receiving palliative home care services during out-of-hours periods: a retrospective medical record study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yee-Hsin; Liu, Yao-Ting; Koo, Malcolm; Chiang, Jui-Kun

    2018-03-12

    For patients receiving palliative home care, the need to visit the emergency department is considered to be an indicator of poor quality care. The situation can be particularly distressing when it occurs outside of normal hours of palliative home care service. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors for emergency department use during out-of-hours periods of palliative home care service among advanced cancer patients in Taiwan. This case-control study was based on a retrospective medical chart review (January 2010 to December 2012) of advanced cancer patients who were receiving palliative home care in a community hospital in south Taiwan. The use of emergency medical services by these patients was dichotomized into either normal hours (8 a.m. to midnight, Monday to Friday, excluding public holidays) of palliative home care or outside normal hours. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate factors associated with emergency services use during out-of-hours period of palliative home care. Of the 94 patients receiving palliative home care, 65 had used emergency services at least once during the 3-year study period. Of these 65 patients, 40% used emergency services during out-of-hours of palliative home care. Patients with distressing conditions (defined as the occurrence of any two conditions of dyspnea, change of consciousness, or gastrointestinal bleeding) were significantly more likely to use emergency services during out-of-hours of palliative home care. Patients at risk of developing dyspnea, change of consciousness, or gastrointestinal bleeding should be provided with relevant information regarding these symptoms and signs.

  5. The cicadas of Argentina with new records, a new genus and fifteen new species (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Allen F; Heath, Maxine S

    2014-10-11

    The Argentine cicada fauna is determined. A total of 108 species belonging to 37 genera, eight tribes, and three subfamilies of cicadas are represented in the Argentine cicada fauna. One genus and 15 species are described as new to science: Torresia Sanborn & Heath gen. n., Fidicinoides ferruginosa Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Proarna alalonga Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Proarna parva Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Prasinosoma medialinea Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Dorisiana noriegai Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Guyalna platyrhina Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Herrera humilastrata Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Herrera umbraphila Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Parnisa lineaviridia Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Parnisa viridis Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Alarcta micromacula Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Torresia lariojaensis Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Torresia sanjuanensis Sanborn & Heath sp. n., Chonosia longiopercula Sanborn & Heath sp. n., and Chonosia septentrionala Sanborn & Heath sp. n. Adusella signata Haupt, 1918 rev. stat. is determined to be a valid species, removed as a junior synonym of Tettigades lebruni Distant, 1906 and reassigned to the genus Odopoea Distant to become Odopoea signata comb. n. Fidicina vinula Stål, 1854 rev. stat. is determined to be a valid species, removed as a junior synonym of Fidicinoides pronoe (Walker, 1850) and assigned to the genus Fidicinoides Boulard & Martinelli to become Fidicinoides vinula comb. n. Proarna capistrata Distant, 1885 rev. stat. is determined to be a valid species, removed as a junior synonym of Proarna montividensis Berg, 1882. Chonosia papa (Berg, 1882) rev. stat. is determined to be a valid species and removed as a junior synonym of Chonosia crassipennis (Walker, 1858). Chonosia crassipennis var. metequei nom. nud. Delétang, 1919 syn. n. is considered natural variation in C. crassipennis. Dorisia bonaerensis var. bergi nom. nud. Delétang, 1919 syn. n. and Dorisia bonaerensis var. dominiquei nom. nud. Delétang, 1919 syn. n. are considered to be natural variation

  6. Gross morphology and ultrastructure of salivary glands of the mute cicada Karenia caelatata Distant (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hai-ying; Wei, Cong; Zhang, Ya-lin

    2013-02-01

    Salivary glands of the cicada Karenia caelatata Distant were investigated using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The salivary glands are paired structures and consist of principal glands and accessory glands. The principal gland is subdivided into anterior lobe and posterior lobe; the former contains about 34-39 long digitate lobules, while the latter contains approximately 30-33 long digitate lobules and 13-22 short digitate lobules. These short digitate lobules, about one fifth or sixth as long as the long digitate lobules, locate at the base of the long digitate lobules of posterior lobe. All of these digitate lobules vary in size, disposition, length and shape. The anterior lobe and the posterior lobe are connected by an anterior-posterior duct. Two efferent salivary ducts, which connect with the posterior lobe, fuse to form a common duct. The accessory gland is composed of three parts: a greatly tortuous and folded accessory salivary tube, a circlet of gular gland constituting of several acini of the same size, and a non-collapsible accessory salivary duct. The digitate lobules and gular glands possess secretory cells containing abundant secretory granules vary in size, shape, and electron density, as might indicate different materials are synthesized in different secretory regions. The anterior-posterior duct lines with a player of cuticular lining, and cells beneath the cuticular lining lack of basal infoldings, as suggests the duct serves just to transport secretions. The accessory salivary duct is lined with cuticular lining; cells of the duct have well developed basal infoldings associated with abundant mitochondria, as probably suggests the duct is a reabsorptive region of ions. The cells of the accessory salivary tube possess deep basal infoldings and well developed apical dense microvilli, indicating the cells of the tube are secretory in function. Concentric lamellar structures and a peculiar structure with abundant membrane

  7. Molecular phylogenetics, diversification, and systematics of Tibicen Latreille 1825 and allied cicadas of the tribe Cryptotympanini, with three new genera and emphasis on species from the USA and Canada(Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kathy B R; Marshall, David C; Moulds, Maxwell S; Simon, Chris

    2015-07-10

    North America has a diverse cicada fauna with multiple genera from all three Cicadidae subfamilies, yet molecular phylogenetic analyses have been completed only for the well-studied periodical cicadas (Magicicada Davis). The genus Tibicen Latreille, a large group of charismatic species, is in need of such work because morphological patterns suggest multiple groups with complicated relationships to other genera in the tribe Cryptotympanini. In this paper we present a molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, of 35 of the 38 extant USA species and subspecies of the genus Tibicen together with their North American tribal allies (Cornuplura Davis, Cacama Davis), selected Tibicen species from Eurasia, and representatives of other Eurasian and Pacific cryptotympanine genera. This tree shows that Tibicen contains several well-supported clades, one predominating in eastern and central North America and related to Cryptotympana Stål and Raiateana Boulard, another in western North America related to Cacama and Cornuplura, and at least two clades in Eurasia. We also present a morphological cladistic analysis of Tibicen and its close allies based on 27 characters. Character states identified in the cladistic analysis define three new genera, two for North American taxa (Hadoa gen. n. and Neotibicen gen. n.) including several Mexican species, and one for Asian species (Subsolanus gen. n.). Using relaxed molecular clocks and literature-derived mtDNA rate estimates, we estimate the timeframe of diversification of Tibicen clades and find that intergeneric divergence has occurred since the late Eocene, with most extant species within the former Tibicen originating after the mid-Miocene. We review patterns of ecology, behavior, and geography among Tibicen clades in light of the phylogenetic results and note that the study of these insects is still in its early stages. Some Mexican species formerly placed in Tibicen are here transferred to Diceroprocta

  8. Identification of Tibicen cicada species by a Principal Components Analysis of their songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Ohya

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Specific identification of three Tibicen cicadas, T. japonicus, T. flammatus and T. bihamatus, by their chirping sounds was carried out using Principal Components Analysis (PCA. High quality recordings of each species were used as the standards. The peak and mean frequencies and the pulse rate were used as the variables. Out of 12 samples recorded in the fields one fell in the vicinity of T. japonicus and all other were positioned near T. bihamatus. Then the cluster analysis of the PCA scores clearly separated each species and allocated the samples in the same way.A identificação de três espécies de cigarras do gênero Tibicen, T. japonicus, T. flammatus e T. bihamatus, através de seus sons estridentes foi realizada por meio da Análise de Componentes Principais (PCA. Gravações de alta fidelidade de cada espécie foram usadas como referencias. As variáveis usadas foram as freqüências máxima e média e a taxa de pulsos. Das 12 amostras gravadas no campo, uma foi colocada perto de T. japonicus e as outras perto de T. bihamatus. A análise de conglomerados dos valores da PCA separou claramente cada espécie e posicionou as amostras da mesma maneira.

  9. New Jurassic tettigarctid cicadas from China with a novel example of disruptive coloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tettigarctidae is the most primitive family of Cicadoidea, with only two relict species. Although they are relatively well known from Eurasia, Australia, Africa, and South America, their Mesozoic examples are typically preserved only as isolated forewings. Herein, a new genus Sanmai Chen, Zhang, and B. Wang with three new species (Sanmai kongi Chen, Zhang, and B. Wang, S. mengi Chen, Zhang, and B. Wang, and S. xuni Chen, Zhang, and B. Wang are described based on fossil specimens from the Middle–Upper Jurassic of northeastern China, with well-preserved body structures, forewing and hindwing venations, making it the hitherto best known extinct tettigarctid taxon. The new genus, provisionally assigned to the tribe Turutanoviini, provides some new information about the evolution and palaeobiogeography of Mesozoic Tettigarctidae. The genus Paraprosbole is synonymized with Shuraboprosbole. In addition, the coloration pattern of forewing, prominent on some specimens of Sanmai kongi Chen, Zhang, and B. Wang sp. nov. and Sanmai xuni Chen, Zhang, and B. Wang sp. nov., represents a novel example of disruptive coloration in Tettigarctidae, which can effectively break up the body outline as well as surface, and so likely enabled these cicadas to reduce the detectability of potential predators.

  10. Organization of first and foremost life security of population in the initial period of liquidation of emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutov, B.P.; Mytenkov, V.M.; Lebedev, A.I.; Zorin, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    The present study reviews the questions of increase of readiness of administration bodies, services and teams for first and foremost life security of people in emergency situations. The main trends of settlement of this task and the types of priority measures of life support are determined. A list of normative methodical documents for settlement of the problem of the first and foremost life security is stated. The authors have defined the wording of the requirements to mobile teams and their technical equipment, the realization of which will provide for their high readiness condition to settlement of the tasks of immediate life security of the injured population in liquidation of after-effects of accidents and disasters of technogenic and natural character

  11. Ligand field theory and the origin of life as an emergent feature of the periodic table of elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morowitz, Harold J; Srinivasan, Vijayasarathy; Smith, Eric

    2010-08-01

    The assumption that all biological catalysts are either proteins or ribozymes leads to an outstanding enigma of biogenesis-how to determine the synthetic pathways to the monomers for the efficient formation of catalytic macromolecules in the absence of any such macromolecules. The last 60 years have witnessed chemists developing an understanding of organocatalysis and ligand field theory, both of which give demonstrable low-molecular-weight catalysts. We assume that transition-metal-ligand complexes are likely to have occurred in the deep ocean trenches by the combination of naturally occurring oceanic metals and ligands synthesized from the emergent CO(2), H(2), NH(3), H(2)S, and H(3)PO(4). We are now in a position to investigate experimentally the metal-ligand complexes, their catalytic function, and the reaction networks that could have played a role in the development of metabolism and life itself.

  12. Traces and burrowing behaviors of the Cicada nymph Cicadetta calliope: Neoichnology and paleoecological significance of extant soil-dwelling insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.J.; Hasiotis, S.T.

    2008-01-01

    This study documents the traces and burrowing behaviors of nymphs of the prairie cicada Cicadetta calliope (Hemiptera: Cicadidae), as observed in neoichnological experiments. Cicada nymphs were collected from the C horizons of sandy Fluvents along the Kansas River east of Lawrence, Kansas. The nymphs appeared to be fifth instars, 13-17 mm long and 6-7 mm wide. Nymphs were placed in plastic enclosures containing layers of colored, moist, very fine-grained sand. They burrowed immediately, excavating air-filled, sediment-enclosed cells between 20 mm and 40 mm long and averaging 9 mm wide. Burrowing was completed in three stages: (1) sediment in the forward portion of the cell was excavated and rolled into a ball with the forelimbs; (2) the nymph turned 180?? using a forward roll, and moved to the back of the cell; and (3) the sediment ball was pushed up against the back wall of the cell and kneaded with the forelimbs into a thin layer. Resulting burrow traces are sinuous and distinctly meniscate and demonstrate that insect larvae construct meniscate, backfilled burrows in well-drained terrestrial settings. Cicadetta calliope nymphs and their traces are excellent analogs for meniscate trace fossils commonly found in late Paleozoic-Cenozoic alluvial deposits and paleosols. Such meniscate trace fossils are useful for interpreting the paleoenvironment and paleohydrogeology of the units in which they are found. In addition, such backfilled burrows can be used to supplement the fossil record of cicada-like hemipterans, currently known only from the latest Permian to the Early Triassic. Copyright ?? 2008, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  13. Documentation of Pregnancy Status, Gynaecological History, Date of Last Menstrual Period and Contraception Use in Emergency Surgical Admissions: Time for a Change in Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Bowns, M; Wilson, M S J; Mustafa, A

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether pregnancy status, gynaecological history, date of last menstrual period and contraceptive use are documented in emergency female admissions of reproductive age admitted to general surgery. This is a retrospective study. This study was conducted in the United Kingdom. Females of reproductive age (12-50 years) admitted as an emergency to general surgery with abdominal pain were considered in this study. Retrospective analysis of medical notes of emergency female admissions with abdominal pain between January and September 2012. We recorded whether a pregnancy test result was documented (cycle 1). Results were analysed and a prompt added to the medical clerk-in document. We re-audited (cycle 2) between January and June 2013 looking for improvement. Documented pregnancy status within 24 h of admission and prior to any surgical intervention. 100 case notes were reviewed in stage 1. 30 patients (30 %) had a documented pregnancy status. 32 (32 %), 25 (25 %) and 29 (29 %) had a documented gynaecology history, contraceptive use and date of last menstrual period (LMP), respectively. 24 patients underwent emergency surgery, 6 (25 %) had a documented pregnancy status prior to surgery. Of 50 patients reviewed in stage 2, 37 (75.0 %) had a documented pregnancy status (p contraceptive use (p < 0.0001) documented. 40 patients (80 % had a documented LMP (p < 0.0001). 7 patients required surgery, of whom 6 (85.7 %) had a documented pregnancy test prior to surgery (p = 0.001). All pregnancy tests were negative. A simple prompt in the surgical admission document has significantly improved the documentation of pregnancy status and gynaecological history in our female patients, particularly in those who require surgical intervention. A number of patient safety concerns were addressed locally, but require a coordinated, interdisciplinary discussion and a national guideline. A minimum standard of care, in females of reproductive age, should include mandatory objective

  14. Incidence and mortality of solid cancer among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident: assessment of radiation risks for the follow-up period of 1992-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashcheev, V.V.; Chekin, S.Yu.; Maksioutov, M.A.; Tumanov, K.A.; Kochergina, E.V.; Kashcheeva, P.V.; Shchukina, N.V.; Ivanov, V.K. [Russian Ministry of Health, Federal State Institution, Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence and mortality among emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident, for the follow-up period 1992-2009. The cohort selected for analysis consists of 67,568 emergency workers who worked in the Chernobyl exclusion zone in 1986-1987. External radiation whole-body absorbed dose varied from 0.0001 gray (Gy) to 1.24 Gy, with a median of 0.102 Gy. Over the follow-up period 1992-2009, a total of 4,002 solid cancers of different sites were identified as the result of annual compulsory health examination, and a total of 2,442 deaths from all solid cancers in the study cohort were reported. Poisson regression was applied for the analysis of cancer incidence and mortality. The analysis of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) has shown a statistically significant increase in cancer incidence in the cohort as compared with baseline cancer incidence among males of Russia. The average excess over the entire follow-up period is 18 % [SIR = 1.18, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.15; 1.22]. In contrast, however, no increase in the mortality from all cancers among the emergency workers as compared to the baseline mortality in Russian men was found. Values of excess relative risk of cancer incidence and mortality per 1 Gy (ERR Gy{sup -1}) are 0.47 (95 % CI 0.03; 0.96, p value = 0.034) and 0.58 (95 % CI 0.002; 1.25, p value = 0.049), respectively. These values are statistically significant. (orig.)

  15. Cosmopsaltria halmaherae n. sp. endemic to Halmahera, Maluku, Indonesia (Homoptera, Cicadidae). The relationship of cicadas of Maluku Utara and Maluku Selatan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffels, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Cosmopsaltria halmaherae n. sp. is described from Halmahera, Maluku and placed in the C. doryca group. The characters of this group are reconsidered and the relationships of its members are discussed. The C. doryca group and two other monophyletic groups of cicadas demonstrate a vicariant

  16. The eye-catching cicada Hamza ciliaris (Linnaeus, 1758) comb. n. in Indonesia and the Pacific: taxonomie status, synonymy, and distribution (Homoptera, Cicadoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffels, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The new combination Hamza ciliaris (Linnaeus) is proposed for a cicada species widely distributed in Maluku ( = Moluccas), Timor, Banda, Kei and Banggai Islands, the Philippines, and the Palau group of the Caroline Islands. The synonymy of five species, treated in the literature as junior synonyms

  17. Emergence of dramatic literary form in the classical period and its effect on the English Renaissance drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejević Ana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the literary-historical and theoretical sense, the ancient drama established the initial genre of drama as the basis for its future evolution. Despite the poetic differences in understanding the certain elements of drama, ancient authors established a basis for continuity of development of European drama in future centuries, literary periods and stylistic formations. Diachronic perspective of the drama development in English literature will also play a certain role in the centuries that follow. However, the existence of a rich national dramatic tradition in England had, after all, greater impact on dramatic literature, which will allow classical models only to steer the development of drama in the right direction, not allowing the authors to be captured in rules and uniformity. University wits, with their adaptation of ancient drama conventions and their combination with traditional medieval elements, created the model for a comedy and a tragedy which needed only a natural skill of a genius to use them in proportion and to raise them to a higher level of dramatic art. Then, fortunately, William Shakespeare, who will achieve that aesthetic-axiological dramatic scale, appears. Like many great writers, Shakespeare was not a founder of a new tradition, but the culmination of an existing one, like Veselin Kostić put it. The appearance of the classical interpretation of drama and great interest in Seneca, Terence and Plautus quickly found its way from the academic circles to the national theaters and Shakespeare did not remain immune to these influences.

  18. Diapause and prolonged development in the embryo and their ecological significance in two cicadas, Cryptotympana facialis and Graptopsaltria nigrofuscata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Minoru; Numata, Hideharu

    2008-12-01

    The seasonal timing mechanism of egg hatching was examined in two cicadas, Cryptotympana facialis and Graptopsaltria nigrofuscata, with different but overlapping geographical distributions. These species lay eggs in summer, and nymphs hatch in the summer of the following year after egg durations of 10-12 months. When eggs were maintained at 25 degrees C from oviposition, both the species entered embryonic diapause within 60 days irrespective of photoperiod, but at different developmental stages between the two species. The optimal temperature for diapause development was approximately 15 degrees C in both the species. The development rate for postdiapause morphogenesis increased linearly with temperature in the range of 20-27.5 degrees C in C. facialis, and of 15-25 degrees C in G. nigrofuscata. The lower development threshold and the sum of effective temperatures were computed as 14.3 degrees C and 715.3 day-degrees in C. facialis and 12.1 degrees C and 566.6 day-degrees in G. nigrofuscata, respectively. The hatching dates predicted by these large thermal constants accorded with the hatching dates observed in the field, i.e., late June and mid-July in G. nigrofuscata and C. facialis, respectively. Therefore, the high thermal requirements for postdiapause development compel the cicadas to hatch in summer.

  19. A retrospective study of the demographics of sport and exercise injuries in 1143 children presenting to an Irish emergency department over a 6-month period.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Rourke, Killian Patrick

    2012-02-03

    The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date data on the nature of sport related injury (SRI) presenting to a large emergency department in Ireland. Data were collected retrospectively on all children under 17 years of age with a SRI, presenting to the emergency department of a major teaching hospital, over a 6-month period, and entered into a Microsoft Access database. A total of 1143 SRIs were identified which had occurred over a 6-month period, from 53 different sports. There was a high proportion of humerus and back SRIs in females, and a higher proportion of falls in females. Males were more frequently involved in collisions. Children with SRI were not using protective equipment in 94% of cases. Advice regarding rest, ice, compression and elevation (RICE)\\/general injury advice was given to 25% of patients and regarding injury preventive measures in less than 0.1% of cases. Of children, 28% had previously attended with a SRI. We also observed a lower rate of analgesia prescription to children under age 4, compared to children of an older age, and rarity of topical analgesic prescription. Overall, 10% of SRIs required admission, with 65% of these cases needing orthopaedic intervention. CONCLUSION: The data provided from this study should raise awareness of the different aspects of sport related injuries affecting children, and may help to provide the impetus for suggesting direction and guidance for reducing such events.

  20. Conflicting patterns of DNA barcoding and taxonomy in the cicada genus Tettigettalna from Southern Europe (Hemiptera: Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Vera L; Mendes, Raquel; Marabuto, Eduardo; Novais, Bruno M; Hertach, Thomas; Quartau, José A; Seabra, Sofia G; Paulo, Octávio S; Simões, Paula C

    2014-01-01

    DNA barcodes have great potential to assist in species identification, especially when high taxonomical expertise is required. We investigated the utility of the 5' mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) region to discriminate between 13 European cicada species. These included all nine species currently recognized under the genus Tettigettalna, from which seven are endemic to the southern Iberian Peninsula. These cicadas have species-specific male calling songs but are morphologically very similar. Mean COI divergence between congeners ranged from 0.4% to 10.6%, but this gene was proven insufficient to determine species limits within genus Tettigettalna because a barcoding gap was absent for several of its species, that is, the highest intraspecific distance exceeded the lowest interspecific distance. The genetic data conflicted with current taxonomic classification for T. argentata and T. mariae. Neighbour-joining and Bayesian analyses revealed that T. argentata is geographically structured (clades North and South) and might constitute a species complex together with T. aneabi and T. mariae. The latter diverges very little from the southern clade of T. argentata and shares with it its most common haplotype. T. mariae is often in sympatry with T. argentata but it remains unclear whether introgression or incomplete lineage sorting may be responsible for the sharing of haplotypes. T. helianthemi and T. defauti also show high intraspecific variation that might signal hidden cryptic diversity. These taxonomic conflicts must be re-evaluated with further studies using additional genes and extensive morphological and acoustic analyses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. N(6)-(2-Hydroxyethyl)adenosine in the Medicinal Mushroom Cordyceps cicadae Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Pro-inflammatory Responses by Suppressing TLR4-Mediated NF-κB Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Meng-Ying; Chen, Chin-Chu; Lee, Li-Ya; Lin, Ting-Wei; Kuo, Chia-Feng

    2015-10-23

    Natural products play an important role in promoting health with relation to the prevention of chronic inflammation. N(6)-(2-Hydroxyethyl)adenosine (HEA), a physiologically active compound in the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps cicadae, has been identified as a Ca(2+) antagonist and shown to control circulation and possess sedative activity in pharmacological tests. The fruiting body of C. cicadae has been widely applied in Chinese medicine. However, neither the anti-inflammatory activities of HEA nor the fruiting bodies of C. cicadae have been carefully examined. In this study, we first cultured the fruiting bodies of C. cicadae and then investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of water and methanol extracts of wild and artificially cultured C. cicadae fruiting bodies. Next, we determined the amount of three bioactive compounds, adenosine, cordycepin, and HEA, in the extracts and evaluated their synergistic anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, the possible mechanism involved in anti-inflammatory action of HEA isolated from C. cicadae was investigated. The results indicate that cordycepin is more potent than adenosine and HEA in suppressing the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by RAW 264.7 macrophages; however, no synergistic effect was observed with these three compounds. HEA attenuated the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses by suppressing the toll-like receptor (TLR)4-mediated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. This result will support the use of HEA as an anti-inflammatory agent and C. cicadae fruiting bodies as an anti-inflammatory mushroom.

  2. The impact of nurse-driven targeted HIV screening in 8 emergency departments: study protocol for the DICI-VIH cluster-randomized two-period crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Judith; Rousseau, Alexandra; Hejblum, Gilles; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; de Truchis, Pierre; Lert, France; Costagliola, Dominique; Simon, Tabassome; Crémieux, Anne-Claude

    2016-02-01

    In 2010, to reduce late HIV diagnosis, the French national health agency endorsed non-targeted HIV screening in health care settings. Despite these recommendations, non-targeted screening has not been implemented and only physician-directed diagnostic testing is currently performed. A survey conducted in 2010 in 29 French Emergency Departments (EDs) showed that non-targeted nurse-driven screening was feasible though only a few new HIV diagnoses were identified, predominantly among high-risk groups. A strategy targeting high-risk groups combined with current practice could be shown to be feasible, more efficient and cost-effective than current practice alone. DICI-VIH (acronym for nurse-driven targeted HIV screening) is a multicentre, cluster-randomized, two-period crossover trial. The primary objective is to compare the effectiveness of 2 strategies for diagnosing HIV among adult patients visiting EDs: nurse-driven targeted HIV screening combined with current practice (physician-directed diagnostic testing) versus current practice alone. Main secondary objectives are to compare access to specialist consultation and how early HIV diagnosis occurs in the course of the disease between the 2 groups, and to evaluate the implementation, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of nurse-driven targeted screening. The 2 strategies take place during 2 randomly assigned periods in 8 EDs of metropolitan Paris, where 42 % of France's new HIV patients are diagnosed every year. All patients aged 18 to 64, not presenting secondary to HIV exposure are included. During the intervention period, patients are invited to fill a 7-item questionnaire (country of birth, sexual partners and injection drug use) in order to select individuals who are offered a rapid test. If the rapid test is reactive, a follow-up visit with an infectious disease specialist is scheduled within 72 h. Assuming an 80 % statistical power and a 5 % type 1 error, with 1.04 and 3.38 new diagnoses per 10,000 patients in

  3. Two new genera and five new species of Mugadina-like small grass cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettini) from Central and Eastern Australia: comparative morphology, songs, behaviour and distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, A

    2018-04-20

    Moulds (2012) established the genus Mugadina for two small cicadas, M. marshalli (Distant) and M. emma (Goding and Froggatt), both grass inhabiting species known from Queensland and New South Wales. Both species are notable for their relatively simple 'ticking' songs. Moulds further noted that there were at least two superficially similar genera of cicadas, but each with different genitalia. This paper describes two new genera of small (9-15 mm body lengths) and distinctive grass cicadas with genitalia that are very similar to those of Mugadina, but possess clear morphological, colour and calling song differences. The new genera are: Heremusina n. gen. with two known species namely H. udeoecetes n. sp. and H. pipatio n. sp.; the second new genus is Xeropsalta n. gen., containing four known species, X. thomsoni n. sp., X. aridula n. sp., X. rattrayi n. sp., and X. festiva n. comb. Heremusina n. gen. species are described from the Alice Springs area of Northern Territory and the Cloncurry area of northwest Queensland, from arid to semi arid habitats. The Xeropsalta n. gen. species are described from western, southwest and central Queensland, and from the Simpson and Strzelecki Deserts in northeastern South Australia and northwestern New South Wales, respectively, all locations in very arid to arid habitats, but close to seasonal (often irregular) rivers and lakes. X. festiva n. comb. occurs in semi arid habitats in southern and southeastern Australia.        Detailed taxonomic descriptions are provided of the new species, together with distributions, habitats, and the calling songs. The Heremusina species emit songs with short repetitive buzzing echemes, the echeme durations differing between each species. The Xeropsalta songs are notable for their complexity, containing multiple elements with rapid changes of amplitudes and temporal structures, rather atypical of the songs of most small grass dwelling cicadas. Detailed song structures distinguishing each of

  4. Morphology, songs and genetics identify two new cicada species from Morocco: Tettigettalna afroamissa sp. nov. and Berberigetta dimelodica gen. nov. & sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadettini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Gonçalo João; Nunes, Vera L; Marabuto, Eduardo; Mendes, Raquel; Laurentino, Telma G; Quartau, José Alberto; Paulo, Octávio S; Simões, Paula Cristina

    2017-03-01

    Morocco has been the subject of very few expeditions on the last century with the objective of studying small cicadas. In the summer of 2014 an expedition was carried out to Morocco to update our knowledge with acoustic recordings and genetic data of these poorly known species. We describe here two new small-sized cicadas that could not be directly assigned to any species of North African cicadas: Tettigettalna afroamissa sp. nov. and Berberigetta dimelodica gen. nov. & sp. nov. In respect to T. afroamissa it is the first species of the genus to be found outside Europe and we frame this taxon within the evolutionary history of the genus. Acoustic analysis of this species allows us to confidently separate T. afroamissa from its congeners. With B. dimelodica, a small species showing a remarkable calling song characterized by an abrupt frequency modulation, a new genus had to be erected. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses with DNA-barcode sequences of Cytochrome C Oxidase 1 support the monophyly of both species, their distinctness and revealed genetic structure within B. dimelodica. Alongside the descriptions we also provide GPS coordinates of collection points, distributions and habitat preferences.

  5. Population structure of Cicada barbara Stål (Hemiptera, Cicadoidea) from the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco based on mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Juma, G A; Quartau, J A; Bruford, M W

    2008-02-01

    We assess the genetic history and population structure of Cicada barbara in Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula, based on analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The divergence between Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula populations was strongly corroborated by the molecular data, suggesting genetically isolated populations with a low level of gene flow. The Ceuta population from Spanish North Africa was more similar to the Iberian populations than the surrounding Moroccan populations, suggesting that the Strait of Gibraltar has not been acting as a strict barrier to dispersal while the Rif Mountains have. The Iberian Peninsula specimens showed a signature of demographic expansion before that which occurred in Morocco, but some of the assumptions related to the demographic parameters should be considered with caution due to the small genetic variation found. The high haplotype diversity found in Morocco implies higher demographic stability than in the Iberian Peninsula populations. These results do not, however, suggest a Moroccan origin for Iberian cicadas; but the most northwest region in Africa, such as Ceuta, might have acted as a southern refuge for Iberian cicadas during the most severe climatic conditions, from where they could expand north when climate improved. The separation of two subspecies within C. barbara (C. barbara lusitanica and C. barbara barbara) finds support with these results.

  6. A new Neotibicen cicada subspecies (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from the southeastern USA forms hybrid zones with a widespread relative despite a divergent male calling song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R

    2017-05-31

    A morphologically cryptic subspecies of Neotibicen similaris (Smith and Grossbeck) is described from forests of the Apalachicola region of the southeastern United States. Although the new form exhibits a highly distinctive male calling song, it hybridizes extensively where it meets populations of the nominate subspecies in parapatry, by which it is nearly surrounded. This is the first reported example of hybridization between North American nonperiodical cicadas. Acoustic and morphological characters are added to the original description of the nominate subspecies, and illustrations of complex hybrid song phenotypes are presented. The biogeography of N. similaris is discussed in light of historical changes in forest composition on the southeastern Coastal Plain.

  7. Morphology and identification of the final instar nymphs of three cicadas (Hemiptera, Cicadidae) in Guanzhong Plain, China based on comparative morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zehai; Li, Qinglong; Wei, Cong

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation provides comparative morphometrics of the final instar nymphs of three dominant cicada species, i.e., Cryptotympana atrata (Fabricius), Meimuna mongolica (Distant) and Platypleura kaempferi (Fabricius), in Guanzhong Plain, China. Particularly, characters on the antennae, legs, and apex of abdomen of both males and females of these three species were investigated and analyzed. In addition, the numbers of hind tibial spines of the final instar nymphs of 21 representatives of Cicadoidea were compared. The results provide useful characteristics for nymph identification of related species and for further taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis of Cicadoidea.

  8. Morphology and identification of the final instar nymphs of three cicadas (Hemiptera, Cicadidae in Guanzhong Plain, China based on comparative morphometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehai Hou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation provides comparative morphometrics of the final instar nymphs of three dominant cicada species, i.e., Cryptotympana atrata (Fabricius, Meimuna mongolica (Distant and Platypleura kaempferi (Fabricius, in Guanzhong Plain, China. Particularly, characters on the antennae, legs, and apex of abdomen of both males and females of these three species were investigated and analyzed. In addition, the numbers of hind tibial spines of the final instar nymphs of 21 representatives of Cicadoidea were compared. The results provide useful characteristics for nymph identification of related species and for further taxonomic and phylogenetic analysis of Cicadoidea.

  9. Ecology of Meimuna mongolica (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) Nymphs: Instars, Morphological Variation, Vertical Distribution and Population Density, Host-Plant Selection, and Emergence Phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinglong; Yang, Mingsheng; Liu, Yunxiang; Wei, Cong

    2015-01-01

    The cicada Meimuna mongolica (Distant) (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) is one of the most important pests of economic forest in Guanzhong Plain of Shaanxi Province, China. Information about ecological characteristics and some sustainable control measures of this species is urgently required for its control. In this study, nymphal instars, morphological variation, vertical distribution, and population density in soil, and emergence phenology of nymphs of M. mongolica on three main host plants (Pinus tabuliformis Carr., Populus tomentosa Carr., and Pyrus xerophila Yü) were studied, based on combined morphological and molecular identification, investigation of the first-instar nymphs hatched from eggs and others excavated from soil, and investigation of exuviae in the adult emergence period. Five nymphal instars of M. mongolica were redetermined according to the distribution plots of the head capsule widths of the nymphs. Nymphs of third and fourth instars showed morphological variation, which is closely related to host-plant association. The mean densities of nymphs in soil under the three host plants were significantly different, indicating a distinct host preference. The nymphs could extend their distribution from the 0–10 cm soil layer to the 51–60 cm soil layer underground but not beyond 60 cm soil layer under all the three host plants. The 21–30 cm soil layer under all the three host plants has the highest nymphal population density. The sex ratio of the entire population was nearly 50:50, but males dominated in the early half of the duration of the emergence. These ecological characteristics of M. mongolica could provide important information for sustainable control measures.

  10. The cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka: an annotated provisional catalogue, regional checklist and bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Benjamin Wills; Allan, Elizabeth Louise; Marathe, Kiran; Sarkar, Vivek; Simon, Chris; Kunte, Krushnamegh

    2016-01-01

    The cicadas of the Indian subcontinent, like many other insects in the region, have remained understudied since the early part of the 20th Century, and await modern taxonomic, systematic and phylogenetic treatment. This paper presents an updated systematic catalogue of cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka, the first in over a century. This paper treats 281 species, including: India and Bangladesh (189 species), Bhutan (19 species), Myanmar (81 species), Nepal (46 species) and Sri Lanka (22 species). For each species all recognized junior synonyms are included with information on the type material and additional specimens where relevant. The global distributional range and notes on the taxonomy of each species are included where appropriate. Two lists are provided: (1) species known to occur in India and Bangladesh (treated as a geographic unit), Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Sri Lanka; and (2) species previously listed from these countries in error. A bibliography of species descriptions is provided, with the papers containing the original descriptions provided where copyright allows.

  11. Hybridization, mitochondrial DNA phylogeography, and prediction of the early stages of reproductive isolation: lessons from New Zealand cicadas (genus Kikihia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R; Cooley, John R; Simon, Chris

    2011-07-01

    One of the major tenets of the modern synthesis is that genetic differentiation among subpopulations is translated over time into genetic differentiation among species. Phylogeographic exploration is therefore essential to the study of speciation because it can reveal the presence of subpopulations that may go on to become species or that may already represent cryptic species. Acoustic species-specific mating signals provide a significant advantage for the recognition of cryptic or incipient species. Because the majority of species do not have such easily recognized premating signals, data from acoustically signaling species can serve as a valuable heuristic tool. Acoustic signals are also convenient tools for recognizing hybridization events. Here, we demonstrate that evidence of hybridization in the form of intermediate song phenotypes is present in many contact zones between species of the New Zealand grass cicadas of the Kikihia muta species complex and that recurring mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) introgression has created misleading patterns that make it difficult to identify certain taxa using song or mtDNA alone. In one case, introgression appears to have occurred between allopatric taxa by dispersal of introgressed populations of an intermediary species ("hybridization by proxy"). We also present a comparison of mtDNA-tree- and song-based taxonomies obtained for the K. muta complex. We find that 12 mtDNA candidate species are identified using shifts in phylogenetic branching rate found by a single-threshold mixed Yule-coalescent lineage model, while only 7 candidate species are identified using songs. Results from the Yule-coalescent model are dependent on factors such as the number of modeled thresholds and the inclusion of duplicate haplotypes. Genetic distances within song species reach a maximum at about 0.028 substitutions/site when likely cases of hybridization and introgression are excluded. Large genetic breaks or "gaps" are not observed between some

  12. Emergence of periodic order in electric-field-driven planar nematic liquid crystals: An exclusive ac effect absent in static fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, K. S.; Kumar, Pramoda

    2007-11-01

    We report, for a nematic liquid crystal with a low conductivity anisotropy, an ac field generated transition from a uniformly planar to a periodically modulated director configuration with the wave vector parallel to the initial director. Significantly, with unblocked electrodes, this instability is not excited by dc fields. Additionally, in very low frequency square wave fields, it occurs transiently after each polarity reversal, vanishing completely during field constancy. The time of occurrence of maximum distortion after polarity reversal decreases exponentially with voltage. The time dependence of optical phase change during transient distortion is nearly Gaussian. The pattern threshold Vc is linear in f , f denoting the frequency; the critical wave number qc of the modulation scales nearly linearly as f to a peak at ˜50Hz before falling slightly thereafter. The observed Vc(f) and qc(f) characteristics differ from the predictions of the standard model (SM). The instability may be interpreted as a special case of the Carr-Helfrich distortion suppressed in static fields due to weak charge focusing and strong charge injection. Its transient nature in the low frequency regime is suggestive of the possible role of gradient flexoelectric effect in its occurrence. The study includes measurement of certain elastic and viscosity parameters relevant to the application of the SM.

  13. Predominance and high antibiotic resistance of the emerging Clostridium difficile genotypes NAPCR1 and NAP9 in a Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ureña, Diana; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Montoya-Ramírez, Mónica; del Mar Gamboa-Coronado, María; Somogyi, Teresita; Rodríguez, César; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn

    2016-05-11

    Clostridium difficile is the major causative agent of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In a 2009 outbreak of C. difficile-associated diarrhea that was recorded in a major Costa Rican hospital, the hypervirulent NAP1 strain (45%) predominated together with a local genotype variant (NAPCR1, 31%). Both strains were fluoroquinolone-resistant and the NAPCR1 genotype, in addition, was resistant to clindamycin and rifampicin. We now report on the genotypes and antibiotic susceptibilities of 68 C. difficile isolates from a major Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks. In contrast to our previous findings, no NAP1 strains were detected, and for the first time in a Costa Rican hospital, a significant fraction of the isolates were NAP9 strains (n=14, 21%). The local NAPCR1 genotype remained prevalent (n=18, 26%) and coexisted with 14 strains (21%) of classic hospital NAP types (NAP2, NAP4, and NAP6), eight new genotypes (12%), four environmental strains classified as NAP10 or NAP11 (6%), three strains without NAP designation (4%) and seven non-toxigenic strains (10%). All 68 strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 88% were resistant to clindamycin and 50% were resistant to moxifloxacin and rifampicin. Metronidazole and vancomycin susceptibilities were universal. The NAPCR1 and NAP9 strains, which have been associated with more severe clinical infections, were more resistant to antibiotics than the other strains. Altogether, our results confirm that the epidemiology of C. difficile infection is dynamic and that A(-)B(+) strains from the NAP9 type are on the rise not only in the developed world. Moreover, our results reveal that the local NAPCR1 strains still circulate in the country without causing outbreaks but with equally high antibiotic-resistance rates and levels.

  14. Optimization of the solid-state fermentation and properties of a polysaccharide from Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel Samson and its antioxidant activities in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyong Ren

    Full Text Available The culture conditions for the yield of a polysaccharide (PCPS produced by Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel Samson on solid-state fermentation were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM. Plackett-Burman design (PBD was applied to screen out significant factors, followed by the paths of steepest ascent to move to the nearest region of maximum response. Then Box-Behnken design (BBD was conducted to optimize the final levels of the culture conditions. After analyzing the regression equation and the response surface contour plots, relative humidity 56.07%, inoculum 13.51 mL/100 g and temperature 27.09°C were found to be the optimal key parameters for PCPS production. The maximum predicted yield of PCPS was 10.76 mg/g under the optimized conditions. The resulting PCPS (FPCPS generated at optimal conditions was purified by chromatography column and found to be composed of mannose (43.2%, rhamnose (32.1%, xylose (14.5% and arabinose (10.2%. Based on the size exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS analysis, FPCPS adopted a Gaussian coil conformation in 0.1 M NaNO3 solution with 3.75 × 10(6 g/mol of the weight-average molar mass (Mw and 41.1 nm of the root-mean square radius (Rg(2z (1/2. Furthermore, both of the polysaccharides were revealed to have strong antioxidant activities by evaluating in DPPH radical, superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radical assay. These data suggest the polysaccharides of Paecilomyces cicadae (Miquel Samson produced by solid-state fermentation could be explored as potential natural antioxidants.

  15. Emergência de plântulas de Astrocaryum aculeatum G. May. em função da temperatura e do período de embebição das sementes Emergence of Astrocaryum aculeatum seedlings according temperature and soaking period of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Nazáro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a emergência de plântulas de Astrocaryum aculeatum a partir de sementes submetidas a diferentes temperaturas e períodos de embebição. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 (temperaturas de embebição em água: 25ºC, 30ºC, 35ºC e 40ºC X 3 (períodos de embebição: 2, 4 e 6 dias, com testemunha (sem embebição e com quatro repetições. As semeaduras foram realizadas em viveiro. A emergência e o índice de velocidade de emergência só diferiram entre a testemunha e os tratamentos aplicados, independentes do período e da temperatura, com resultados favoráveis para a embebição das sementes. O tempo médio de emergência apresentou efeito de interação significativo, destacando-se a utilização da temperatura de embebição de 40ºC, associada ao período de 4 dias, que proporcionou um menor tempo médio (163 dias. O tempo inicial de emergência foi menor na temperatura de 35ºC (80 dias, enquanto o tempo final de emergência não apresentou diferença entre as médias. Sementes embebidas por 2 dias apresentaram 50% de sementes mortas ao final do experimento, enquanto as embebidas por 4 dias, apenas 38%. A emergência de plântulas de A. aculeatum foi favorecida pela embebição, independente da temperatura e do período utilizados.This study evaluated the seedling emergence of Astrocaryum aculetum seeds soaked in water for different periods at different temperatures. The experimental design was entirely randomized, in factorial 4 (temperatures of soaking in water: 25ºC, 30ºC, 35ºC e 40ºC X 3 (period of soaking: 2, 4 and 6 days, additional treatment (control, without soaking, with four replications. Before (control and after the soaking periods in different temperatures, the seeds were planted in nursery. The emergence and its velocity differed only in the comparison of the control with the applied treatments, with favorable results of all

  16. Inventory of emergencies and disasters in the Aburra Valley. Caused by natural and human phenomena in the period 1880-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristizabal, Edier; Gomez, Julieta

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, natural and man induced disasters have been increasingly affecting numbers of people throughout the world, especially in the developing countries located within the tropics, such as Colombia. For this reason complete and high quality database on disasters and their human and economic impact is very much needed. It becomes an important tool for planners, policy makers, and field agencies engaged in preparedness and risk assessment. The Aburra Valley Metropolitan Area has implemented a local disaster database using the software DesInventar, developed in 1992 by La Red, Social Studies Network for Disaster Prevention in Latin America. The DesInventar methodology consists of two modules: DesInventar module, allows entry of space and temporal data, types of events, causes and sources through predefined fields? and DesConsultar module, allows easy database access, elaboration of queries including relations between the variables of effects, types of events, causes, sites, dates, etc, as well the use of tables, graphics and thematic maps. This local disaster database has been built using the data provided by previous works from EAFIT University, SIMPAD, Hormaza (1991) and Saldarriaga (2002). Here, we use the DesInventar methodology to identify the human and economic impact of natural and man induced disaster in the Aburra Valley. The current database indicates that the Aburra Valley has been affected by a large amount of events ranging in magnitude between small to moderate. During the period 1880 - 2007 a total of 6750 events were registered, classified as flooding events (42%), landslides (35%), and forest fires (15%). Manmade disasters are small, however its impact and recurrence has increased during the last two decades. In a global perspective of the Aburra Valley,we concluded that the most populated cities in the valley are the most affected, e.g. Medellin: 72% of events and 2'223.660 inhabitants? Itagui: 5,4% and 231.768 inhabitants? Envigado: 4

  17. Emergence delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Louise; Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Gögenur, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Emergence delirium (ED) is a well-known phenomenon in the postoperative period. However, the literature concerning this clinical problem is limited. This review evaluates the literature with respect to epidemiology and risk factors. Treatment strategies are discussed. The review concludes...

  18. 6-year periodicity and variable synchronicity in a mass-flowering plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Kakishima

    Full Text Available Periodical organisms, such as bamboos and periodical cicadas, are very famous for their synchronous reproduction. In bamboos and other periodical plants, the synchronicity of mass-flowering and withering has been often reported indicating these species are monocarpic (semelparous species. Therefore, synchronicity and periodicity are often suspected to be fairly tightly coupled traits in these periodical plants. We investigate the periodicity and synchronicity of Strobilanthes flexicaulis, and a closely related species S. tashiroi on Okinawa Island, Japan. The genus Strobilanthes is known for several periodical species. Based on 32-year observational data, we confirmed that S. flexicaulis is 6-year periodical mass-flowering monocarpic plant. All the flowering plants had died after flowering. In contrast, we found that S. tashiroi is a polycarpic perennial with no mass-flowering from three-year individual tracking. We also surveyed six local populations of S. flexicaulis and found variation in the synchronicity from four highly synchronized populations (>98% of plants flowering in the mass year to two less synchronized one with 11-47% of plants flowering before and after the mass year. This result might imply that synchrony may be selected for when periodicity is established in monocarpic species. We found the selective advantages for mass-flowering in pollinator activities and predator satiation. The current results suggest that the periodical S. flexicaulis might have evolved periodicity from a non-periodical close relative. The current report should become a key finding for understanding the evolution of periodical plants.

  19. Emergency procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Emergency Procedures: emergency equipment, emergency procedures; emergency procedure involving X-Ray equipment; emergency procedure involving radioactive sources

  20. Problem Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovary syndrome. Read our information on PCOS for teens , and see your doctor if you think you may have PCOS. Major weight loss. Girls who have anorexia will often stop having periods. When to see ...

  1. Emergência de plântulas de porta-enxertos de pessegueiro submetidos a diferentes períodos de estratificação Emergence of seedlings of rootstock of the peach when submitted to different periods of stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralice Lobato de Oliveira Fischer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho, avaliar a germinação e o desenvolvimento de plantas oriundas de duas cultivares de pessegueiro 'Capdeboscq' e 'Okinawa' sob diferentes períodos de armazenamento, em viveiro comercial da empresa Frutplan Mudas Ltda, em Pelotas - RS, no período de maio a dezembro de 2009. Os caroços das duas cultivares foram armazenados em embalagens de papel por um período de 120 dias, sendo realizados os seguintes procedimentos: 10 dias de temperatura ambiente + 110 dias de frio; 40 dias de temperatura ambiente + 80 dias de frio; 70 dias de temperatura ambiente + 50 dias de frio; 100 dias de temperatura ambiente + 20 dias de frio e 120 dias de temperatura ambiente. Utilizando câmara fria programada para 6 ± 2 °C. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e 25 sementes por parcela, no arranjo fatorial 2x5 (duas cultivares e cinco períodos de estratificação. As variáveis analisadas foram: porcentagem de plântulas emergidas, altura das plantas, diâmetro do tronco medido a 10 cm do colo, índice de velocidade de emergência em campo (IVEC e dias para obtenção de 70% de emergência. A emergência da cv. Okinawa foi próximo a zero, com isto não foi considerada para avaliação de plântulas. Para a cv. Capdeboscq verificou-se diferenças significativas apenas para a variável dias para obtenção de 70% de emergência de plântulas, 112 a 123 dias, exceto para o tratamento com maior horas de frio que não atingiu os 70% de emergência. Conclui-se que os períodos de estratificação e frio não se mostraram vantajosos para obtenção de porta-enxertos de pessegueiro destas cultivares nas condições em que foi conduzido o experimento.The objective of this study was to evaluate the germination and development of plants from two cultivars of the peach, 'Capdeboscq' and 'Okinawa', for different periods of storage, at the commercial nursery of the company Frutplan Mudas Ltda., in Pelotas

  2. The highly efficient photocatalytic and light harvesting property of Ag-TiO2 with negative nano-holes structure inspired from cicada wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zada, Imran; Zhang, Wang; Zheng, Wangshu; Zhu, Yuying; Zhang, Zhijian; Zhang, Jianzhong; Imtiaz, Muhammad; Abbas, Waseem; Zhang, Di

    2017-12-08

    The negative replica of biomorphic TiO 2 with nano-holes structure has been effectively fabricated directly from nano-nipple arrays structure of cicada wings by using a simple, low-cost and highly effective sol-gel ultrasonic method. The nano-holes array structure was well maintained after calcination in air at 500 °C. The Ag nanoparticles (10 nm-25 nm) were homogeneously decorated on the surface and to the side wall of nano-holes structure. It was observed that the biomorphic Ag-TiO 2 showed remarkable photocatalytic activity by degradation of methyl blue (MB) under UV-vis light irradiation. The biomorphic Ag-TiO 2 with nano-holes structure showed superior photocatalytic activity compared to the biomorphic TiO 2 and commercial Degussa P25. This high-performance photocatalytic activity of the biomorphic Ag-TiO 2 may be attributed to the nano-holes structure, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) property of the Ag nanoparticles, and enhanced electron-hole separation. Moreover, the biomorphic Ag-TiO 2 showed more absorption capability in the visible wavelength range. This work provides a new insight to design such a structure which may lead to a range of novel applications.

  3. A flexible and stable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on Au nanoparticles/Graphene oxide/Cicada wing array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guochao; Wang, Mingli; Zhu, Yanying; Shen, Lin; Wang, Yuhong; Ma, Wanli; Chen, Yuee; Li, Ruifeng

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we presented an eco-friendly and low-cost method to fabricate a kind of flexible and stable Au nanoparticles/graphene oxide/cicada wing (AuNPs/GO/CW) substrate. By controlling the ratio of reactants, the optimum SERS substrate with average AuNPs size of 65 nm was obtained. The Raman enhancement factor for rhodamine 6G (R6G) was 1.08 ×106 and the limit of detection (LOD) was as low as 10-8 M. After calibrating the Raman peak intensities of R6G, it could be quantitatively detected. In order to better understand the experimental results, the 3D finite-different time-domain simulation was used to simulate the AuNPs/GO/CW-1 (the diameter of the AuNPs was 65 nm) to further investigate the SERS enhancement effect. More importantly, the AuNPs/GO/CW-1 substrates not only can provide strong enhancement factors but also can be stable and reproducible. This SERS substrates owned a good stability for the SERS intensity which was reduced only by 25% after the aging time of 60 days and the relative standard deviation was lower than 20%, revealing excellent uniformity and reproducibility. Our positive findings can pave a new way to optimize the application of SERS substrate as well as provide more SERS platforms for quantitative detection of organic contaminants vestige, which makes it very promising in the trace detection of biological molecules.

  4. Diabetic Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaigns Share this! EmergencyCareForYou » Emergency 101 » Diabetic Emergencies Diabetic Emergencies It is estimated that more than 20 ... they have it. The best way to prevent diabetic emergencies is to effectively manage the disease through ...

  5. Emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, major efforts of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) were focused on tasks associated with completion and incorporation of the Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of NRA SR in emergency planning and crisis management. Construction of the ERC had begun based on NRA SR's knowledge, as well as recommendations of Regulatory Assistance Management Group (RAMG) International Mission in 1993 and follow-up missions in 1994. Early in 1994, re-construction of selected rooms had been done and early in 1995, supported by the UK and U.S.A. Government's funding, technical equipment was purchased. The equipment was necessary for ERC operation as tools to improve NRA SR readiness for the management of emergency situations at nuclear installations. NRA SR commenced operation of the Centre in April 1995. The Centre has been on-line connected to a teledosimetric system of Radiation Monitoring Laboratory in Trnava. The basic software for assessment of radiation consequences of a NPP accident was supplied were also focused on cooperation with state administration authorities and organizations which were involved in an emergency planning structure. In September 1995, staffing of the ERC was completed and parallel, the first document concerning the ERC prime task, i.e. activities and procedures of of NRA SR Crisis crew in case of an accident at a nuclear installation on the territory of the Slovak Republic, was approved by the NRA SR's Management. In the period that is being assessed, NRA SR made significant progress in events classification and emergency planning terminology in order to unify the above between both the Slovak NPPs

  6. Emergency Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Resources » Emergency Communication Emergency Communication Stay informed of emergencies, weather delays, closures, other alerts. Find links to

  7. Emergência de plântulas do pêssego porta-enxerto 'Okinawa': influência de períodos de estratificação e de ácido giberélico Effects of stratification period and gibberellic acid on emergence of 'Okinawa' peach seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barbosa

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Testaram-se os efeitos dos períodos de estratificação a frio úmido por 0, 10, 20, 30 e 40 dias, associados a aplicações do ácido giberélico (GA3 nas concentrações de 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 ppm, na quebra de dormência das sementes do pessegueiro porta-enxerto 'Okinawa'. Os resultados mostraram que os períodos de estratificação de 0, 10 e 20 dias foram insuficientes para a completa quebra de dormência, mesmo quando em associação com o GA3. Apesar da boa emergência verificada, após 20 dias de frio, 20% das plantas desenvolveram-se com formação de rosetas. As melhores respostas foram obtidas aos 30 e 40 dias de estratificação, mesmo na ausência do GA3; a germinação aproximou-se de 100% e nenhuma plântula anômala foi detectada. O GA3 mostrou efeito na germinação das amêndoas, sobretudo nas concentrações maiores, porém insuficiente para eliminar os sintomas de falta de frio das plântulas.The main objective of the present work was to study the effects of stratification period and gibberellic acid (GA3, on emergence of 'Okinawa' peach rootstock seeds. The experiment was conducted with seeds freshly extracted from ripe fruits. The seeds were soaked for 24 hours in aqueous solutions of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 ppm GA3 and immediately stratified in a wet cotton substrate for 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 days. The results showed that for 0, 10 and 20 days, stratification associated with GA3 at 5, 10, 15 and 20 ppm, presented no significant effect on the seed germination and seedling emergence. The best responses were achieved with 30 and 40 days of stratification, even in the absence of GA3. In these treatments, 100% germination and emergence were obtained and no anomalous seedling was detected.

  8. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SUBSCRIBE Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Childhood Emergencies Keeping children healthy and safe is every ... and tools to prevent, recognize and address a childhood emergency is the first step in keeping your ...

  9. Eye Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  10. Emergency contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B; Family planning - emergency contraception ... IUD placed inside the uterus CHOICES FOR EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION Two emergency contraceptive pills may be bought without a prescription. ...

  11. Five new species of grass cicadas in the genus Graminitigrina (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettinae: Cicadettini) from Queensland and Northern Territory, Australia: comparative morphology, songs, behaviour and distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, A; Popple, L W; Hill, K B R

    2017-02-07

    Five new species of small grass cicadas belonging to the genus Graminitigrina Ewart and Marques are described, together with detailed analyses of their calling songs. Four species occur in Queensland, G. aurora n. sp. from eastern central Queensland near Fairbairn Dam; G. flindensis n. sp. from central Queensland between Hughenden northwards for at least 108 km; G. einasleighi n. sp. from near The Lynd, Einasleigh River, northeastern Queensland; G. selwynensis n. sp. from the Selwyn Range, northwestern Queensland, at locations about 40 km east of Mount Isa and 25 km southwest of Cloncurry, this latter here transferred from G. bowensis Ewart and Marques; G. uluruensis n. sp. from Uluru and the Olgas in southwestern Northern Territory, extending northwards through Tennant Creek and apparently further north to near Larrimah, a linear distance of approximately 1190 km. These new species bring the known Graminitigrina species to ten, all superficially similar in colour and morphology. A key to male specimens is provided for the 10 species. Additional distribution records and additional aural song recordings are presented for G. bowensis, these requiring the transfer of populations previously identified as G. bowensis from Croydon and Georgetown, northern Gulf region, to G. karumbae Ewart and Marques. Detailed comparative analyses, including NMDS analyses, of the songs of all 10 species are provided, which show that the song parameters are appropriate to distinguish the species, although some partial overlap is noted in the waveform plots between the songs of G. uluruensis n. sp. and G. flindensis n. sp. Regional variations of song parameters are noted in the calling songs of most of the species described.

  12. Identification of potentially emerging food safety issues by analysis of reports published by the European Community's Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) during a four-year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Prandini, A.; Filippi, L.; Marvin, H.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The SAFE FOODS project undertakes to design a new approach towards the early identification of emerging food safety hazards. This study explored the utility of notifications filed through RASFF, the European Commission¿s Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, to identify emerging trends in food

  13. Eficiência de herbicidas pré-emergentes após períodos de seca Efficiency of pre-emergence herbicides after different periods of drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Monquero

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar a eficácia de herbicidas pré-emergentes após períodos de seca, em dois tipos de solo. Foram realizados dois ensaios simultâneos em casa de vegetação: no primeiro foram aplicados os herbicidas (trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn - 351 + 99 g ha-1 + (diuron + hexazinone - 1.097 + 27,77 g ha-1, trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn - 1.463 + 37 g ha-1, diuron + hexazinone - 1.170 + 330 g ha-1, imazapyr - 200 g ha-1 e imazapic - 122,5 g ha-1, em vasos com amostras de Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico (textura argilosa; e, no segundo, as doses foram ajustadas em função dos teores de matéria orgânica e argila do solo e aplicadas em vasos com amostras de Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (textura média. Em cada ensaio, foram utilizados Cucumis sativus e Sorghum bicolor como espécies bioindicadoras e seis períodos de seca após as aplicações dos herbicidas (0, 10, 20, 40, 60 e 90 dias, com quatro repetições. Os sintomas de intoxicação foram observados aos 7, 14 e 21 dias após semeadura dos bioindicadores. Os herbicidas apresentaram maior estabilidade, ou seja, maior efeito tóxico sobre os bioindicadores ao longo do tempo, no solo com maior teor de argila e matéria orgânica; o isoxaflutole e as misturas (trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn + (diuron + hexazinone e diuron + hexazinone demonstraram maior efeito residual em ambos os solos, afetando o desenvolvimento dos bioindicadores em 100%.This work aimed to study the effectiveness of pre-emerging herbicides after drought periods in two soil types. Two simultaneous experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions: in the first, the herbicides (trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn - 351 + 99 g ha-1 + (diuron + hexazinone - 1097 + 27,77 g ha-1, trifloxysulfuron-sodium + ametryn - 1463 + 37 g ha-1, diuron + hexazinone - 1170 + 330 g ha-1, imazapyr 200 g ha-1 and imazapic - 122,5 g ha-1 were applied in vases containing samples of Dystroferric Red

  14. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at increased risk of sudden lung ...

  15. Entrepreneurship, Emerging Technologies, Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thukral, Inderpreet S.; Von Ehr, James; Walsh, Steven Thomas; Groen, Arend J.; van der Sijde, Peter; Adham, Khairul Akmaliah

    2008-01-01

    Academics and practitioners alike have long understood the benefits, if not the risks, of both emerging markets and emerging technologies.Yet it is only recently that foresighted firms have embraced emerging technologies and emerging markets through entrepreneurial activity. Emerging technologies

  16. Abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raissaki, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: There are numerous conditions that affect mainly or exclusively the pediatric population. These constitute true emergencies, related to patient's health. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of abdominal non-traumatic emergencies may result in rapid deterioration, peritonitis, sepsis, even death or in severe complications with subsequent morbidity. Abdominal emergencies in children mostly present with pain, tenderness, occasionally coupled by vomiting, fever, abdominal distension, and failure to pass meconium or stools. Diarrhea, blood per rectum, abnormal laboratory tests and lethargy may also be manifestations of acute abdominal conditions. Abdominal emergencies have a different aetiology, depending on age and whether the pain is acute or chronic. Symptoms have to be matched with age and gender. Newborns up to 1 months of age may have congenital diseases: atresia, low obstruction including Hirschsprung's disease, meconium ileus. Meconium plug is one of the commonest cause of low obstruction in newborns that may also develop necrotizing enterocolitis, incarcerated inguinal hernia and mid-gut volvulus. Past the immediate postnatal period, any duodenal obstruction should be considered midgut volvulus until proven otherwise and patients should undergo ultrasonography and/or properly performed upper GI contrast study that records the exact position of the deduno-jejunal junction. Infants 6 months-2 years carry the risk of intussusception, mid-gut volvulus, perforation, acute pyelonephritis. Preschool and school-aged children 2-12 years carry the risk of appendicitis, genito-urinary abnormalities including torsion, urachal abnormalities, haemolytic uremic syndrome and Henoch-Schonlein purpura. Children above 12 years suffer from the same conditions as in adults. Most conditions may affect any age despite age predilection. Abdominal solid organ ultrasonography (US) coupled with gastrointestinal ultrasonography is the principle imaging modality in radiosensitive

  17. New species of Simona Moulds, 2012 and Chelapsalta Moulds, 2012 cicadas (Cicadidae: Cicadettinae: Cicadettini) from Australia: comparative morphology, songs, behaviour and distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, A; Popple, L W; Marshall, D C

    2015-08-20

    In 2012, Moulds established the morphologically similar cicada genera Simona and Chelapsalta, each with one Australian species (sancta Distant and puer Walker, respectively). In this paper, two new species are described within the genus Simona Moulds 2012, S. erema sp. nov. and S. retracta sp. nov., and one within the genus Chelapsalta Moulds 2012, C. myoporae sp. nov. The type species of Simona (female holotype), S. sancta (Distant, 1913), is redescribed based on a contemporary male, nominated a plesiotype, held in the Australian National Insect Collection. Melampsalta subgulosa Ashton 1914 is supported as a junior synonym of S. sancta. The species within the two genera of Simona and Chelapsalta are morphologically very similar. S. erema occurs widely through the arid regions of inland Australia, extending west from western Queensland through the Northern Territory, to central-western Western Australia, a linear distance of approximately 2200 km. S. retracta is known from a single semi-arid locality in southern inland Queensland. C. myoporae occurs widely through southeast, central and southwest Queensland, extending southwards into inland and western N.S.W. and southeastern South Australia. It tends to occur most commonly within vegetation associated with seasonal riverine floodplains, and in some areas of poorly drained and clay-rich soils. The calling songs of these three species, together with those of S. sancta and C. puer, are described. Detailed comparisons made of the songs of S. erema and C. myoporae, each from three widely separated locations, clearly exhibit structural consistency in their calling songs across their distributions. The Simona songs are complex and contain multiple elements; the species are very mobile and wary, and inhabit low dense shrubland. The songs of the two Chelapsalta species, both relatively sedentary in behaviour, in contrast consist of relatively uniform chirping and buzzing elements. It is suggested that, although the two

  18. Germalna, a new genus for the New Caledonian cicada previously assigned to the genus Melampsalta Kolenati, plus a complement to the description of the genus Rouxalna Boulard, with the description of two new species (Insecta: Hemiptera, Cicadoidea, Cicadidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Quentin

    2018-01-31

    Species previously assigned to Melampsalta Kolenati, in New Caledonia are reviewed. Morphological studies indicate that New Caledonian cicadas currently placed in this genus have been wrongly assigned and should be placed in a new genus. The genus Germalna gen. nov., is therefore erected to accommodate Germalna germaini comb. nov. The genus Germalna gen. nov. was first documented by Michel Boulard, but remained a nomen nudum until now. A redescription of the genus Rouxalna Boulard is provided and the following new species are described: Rouxalna villosa sp. nov., and Rouxalna scabens sp. nov. Male calling songs of Rouxalna rouxi Boulard and Rouxalna scabens sp. nov. are analysed and described from field recordings. A key to the species of Rouxalna is also provided.

  19. Periodic instantons and scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlebnikov, S.Yu.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tinyakov, P.G.

    1991-04-01

    We discuss the role of periodic euclidean solutions with two turning points and zero winding number (periodic instantons) in instanton induced processes below the sphaleron energy E sph . We find that the periodic instantons describe certain multiparticle scattering events leading to the transitions between topologically distinct vacua. Both the semiclassical amplitudes and inital and final states of these transitions are determined by the periodic instantons. Furthermore, the corresponding probabilities are maximal among all states of given energy. We show that at E ≤ E sph , the periodic instantons can be approximated by infinite chains of ordinary instantons and anti-instantons, and they naturally emerge as deformations of the zero energy instanton. In the framework of 2d abelian Higgs model and 4d electroweak theory we show, however, that there is not obvious relation between periodic instantons and two-particle scattering amplitudes. (orig.)

  20. The difficult medical emergency call

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Kjærulff, Thora Majlund; Viereck, Søren

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pre-hospital emergency care requires proper categorization of emergency calls and assessment of emergency priority levels by the medical dispatchers. We investigated predictors for emergency call categorization as "unclear problem" in contrast to "symptom-specific" categories and the ......BACKGROUND: Pre-hospital emergency care requires proper categorization of emergency calls and assessment of emergency priority levels by the medical dispatchers. We investigated predictors for emergency call categorization as "unclear problem" in contrast to "symptom-specific" categories...... and the effect of categorization on mortality. METHODS: Register-based study in a 2-year period based on emergency call data from the emergency medical dispatch center in Copenhagen combined with nationwide register data. Logistic regression analysis (N = 78,040 individuals) was used for identification...

  1. Emerging Hopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China looks to strategically important emerging industries for innovation-driven economic growthc hina will soon announce a decision to rev up seven strategically impor- tant emerging industries,said the National

  2. Emergent Expertise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  3. Emergency surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoneham, M; Murray, D; Foss, N

    2014-01-01

    National reports recommended that peri-operative care should be improved for elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates remain high, and indicate that emergency ruptured aneurysm repair, laparotomy and hip fracture fixation are high-risk procedures...... undertaken on elderly patients with limited physiological reserve. National audits have reported variations in care quality, data that are increasingly being used to drive quality improvement through professional guidance. Given that the number of elderly patients presenting for emergency surgery is likely...

  4. A Systematic Framework and Nanoperiodic Concept for Unifying Nanoscience: Hard/Soft Nanoelements, Superatoms, Meta-Atoms, New Emerging Properties, Periodic Property Patterns, and Predictive Mendeleev-like Nanoperiodic Tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomalia, Donald A; Khanna, Shiv N

    2016-02-24

    Development of a central paradigm is undoubtedly the single most influential force responsible for advancing Dalton's 19th century atomic/molecular chemistry concepts to the current maturity enjoyed by traditional chemistry. A similar central dogma for guiding and unifying nanoscience has been missing. This review traces the origins, evolution, and current status of such a critical nanoperiodic concept/framework for defining and unifying nanoscience. Based on parallel efforts and a mutual consensus now shared by both chemists and physicists, a nanoperiodic/systematic framework concept has emerged. This concept is based on the well-documented existence of discrete, nanoscale collections of traditional inorganic/organic atoms referred to as hard and soft superatoms (i.e., nanoelement categories). These nanometric entities are widely recognized to exhibit nanoscale atom mimicry features reminiscent of traditional picoscale atoms. All unique superatom/nanoelement physicochemical features are derived from quantized structural control defined by six critical nanoscale design parameters (CNDPs), namely, size, shape, surface chemistry, flexibility/rigidity, architecture, and elemental composition. These CNDPs determine all intrinsic superatom properties, their combining behavior to form stoichiometric nanocompounds/assemblies as well as to exhibit nanoperiodic properties leading to new nanoperiodic rules and predictive Mendeleev-like nanoperiodic tables, and they portend possible extension of these principles to larger quantized building blocks including meta-atoms.

  5. [Oncological emergencies in the emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimpoeşu, Diana; Dumea, Mihaela; Durchi, Simona; Apostoae, F; Olaru, G; Ciolan, Mioara; Popa, O; Corlade-Andrei, Mihaela

    2011-01-01

    to assess the profile and the characteristic of oncological patients, establishing management in patients with neoplasia presented in the emergency department (ED), the analysis of short-term movements in patients with neoplasia whilst in the ED. we performed a retrospective study on nonrandomized consecutive cases. The lot analysis included 1315 oncological patients admitted in the Emergency Department of the Clinical Emergency Hospital "St. Spiridon" Iaşi, in the period June 1st, 2009 - May 31st, 2010. 23.12% of the patients had high suspicion of neoplasia at the first visit to the ED. 67.07% of patients were in metastatic stage disease located as follows: liver metastasis 37.59%, lung metastasis 18.36%, lymph node metastasis 13, 29%. After processing the data there were found statistically significant correlations between the age of patients and the documented/suspected diagnosis of neoplasia (p = 0.01) in the sense that a neoplasia diagnosis in emergency was more frequent in people of young age. It should be mentioned that other studies rarely mention first diagnosis of neoplasia in emergency department with presence of complications. 1315 oncological patients presented in ED, almost a quarter of which presented high suspicion of neoplasia (still without histopathological confirmation) when in ED (23.12%). Most of them were aged male patients (over 65 years old), with tumors of the digestive system. A significant proportion (almost 60%) of these patients ended up in emergency due to complications and the therapy intended life support and pain management. Some of these patients were directed to further exploring and emergency outpatient therapy while 75% of patients were hospitalized after stabilization. Although we expected that the frequency of complications to be higher in patients previously diagnosed with cancer, data analysis showed no statistically significant differences (p = NS) between the rate of complications in patients previously diagnosed with

  6. Emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1996 the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) continued in systematic development of its activities in the field of emergency planning according to the concept adopted by the Authority and according to the concept for building Emergency headquarters (EH) adopted after establishing of Emergency Response Centre (ERC). Major efforts were focused not only on building up a quality EH, but also tasks associated with completion and incorporation of ERC into emergency planning and emergency managing. An important role in building ERC was played by international missions. Significant position among these missions was taken by missions from Great Britain, which in the past years made a significant contribution to building up ERC. These missions focused on review of newly created standard procedures, preparation and implementation of first emergency exercises of the EH. The emergency exercises in which NRA SR took place in 1996 are reviewed. In order to make the co-operation of the Authority with the selected Army units of SR more effective in solving extraordinary situations in nuclear energy, an agreement was signed between NRA SR and the Headquarters of the Army of SR, which will help significantly to the objective

  7. Studying Emerge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia; Rodegher, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The Emerge event, held in Tempe, AZ in March 2012, brought together a range of scientists, artists, futurists, engineers and students in order to experiment with innovative methods for thinking about the future. These methodological techniques were tested through nine workshops, each of which made...... use of a different format; Emerge as a whole, then, offered an opportunity to study a diverse set of future-oriented engagement practices. We conducted an event ethnography, in which a team of 11 researchers collaboratively developed accounts of the practices at play within Emerge and its workshops...

  8. Chemical Emergencies - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) PDF Chemical Emergencies - English MP3 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) MP3 Chemical Emergencies - English MP4 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) ...

  9. Perfil de ingresos y urgencias pediátricas en período epidémico de rotavirus en Valladolid: Utilidad de un modelo predictivo Profile of paediatric admissions and emergencies during an epidemic period of rotavirus in Valladolid [Spain]: Utility of a predictive model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Luquero

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Este estudio pretende determinar las semanas de alta circulación de rotavirus en valladolid, y comparar las características de los ingresos y urgencias en período epidémico con respecto al período no epidémico. Métodos: Se utilizaron las declaraciones al sistema de información microbiológica, el conjunto mínimo básico de datos y el registro de urgencias. Se calcularon los casos esperados para 2006 a partir de un modelo elaborado previamente. Si los casos observados superaban el umbral superior del 95% de los esperados, la semana se consideró epidémica. Se compararon las características de los ingresos y urgencias en ambos períodos. Resultados: En 2006 se diagnosticaron un 42% menos de los casos esperados. La media de ingresos diarios fue superior en período epidémico (diferencia=1,49; p=0,01, y también fue mayor la duración media del ingreso. Conclusión: La actividad del servicio de pediatría se incrementó en período epidémico, por lo que es oportuna la implantación de actividades de vigilancia, programas de prevención y control frente a rotavirus en el ámbito hospitalario.Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the weeks of high rotavirus circulation in Valladolid (Spain and to compare the characteristics of hospitalizations and emergencies in epidemic and nonepidemic periods. Methods: The information sources consisted of the weekly notifications to the Microbiological Information System, the Minimum Data Set, and the Emergency Registry. Expected cases for 2006 were calculated using a previously developed model. Weeks with observed cases over the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for expected cases were considered epidemic periods. Hospitalization and emergencies in epidemic and nonepidemic periods were compared. Results: The number of cases in 2006 was 42% less than the expected number. The mean number of daily admissions was higher in epidemic periods (d=1.49; p=0.01 and the

  10. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.; Chu, Hungkuo; Lee, Tongyee; Wolf, Lior; Yeshurun, Hezy; Cohen-Or, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart

  11. Emergent emotion

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Elaine Finbarr

    2016-01-01

    I argue that emotion is an ontologically emergent and sui generis. I argue that emotion meets both of two individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for ontological emergence. These are, (i) that emotion necessarily has constituent parts to which it cannot be reduced, and (ii) that emotion has a causal effect on its constituent parts (i.e. emotion demonstrates downward causation).\\ud \\ud I argue that emotion is partly cognitive, partly constituted by feelings and partly perceptu...

  12. Dermatologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Simón Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologic emergencies represent about 8–20% of the diseases seen in the Emergency Department of hospitals. It is often a challenge for primary care physicians to differentiate mundane skin ailments from more serious, life threatening conditions that require immediate intervention. In this review we included the following conditions: Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrosis, pemphigus vulgaris, toxic shock syndrome, fasciitis necrotising, angioedema/urticaria, meningococcemia, Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

  13. EMERGENCY CALLS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2001-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors ...

  14. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart. This paper presents a synthesis technique to generate images of 3D objects that are detectable by humans, but difficult for an automatic algorithm to recognize. The technique allows generating an infinite number of images with emerging figures. Our algorithm is designed so that locally the synthesized images divulge little useful information or cues to assist any segmentation or recognition procedure. Therefore, as we demonstrate, computer vision algorithms are incapable of effectively processing such images. However, when a human observer is presented with an emergence image, synthesized using an object she is familiar with, the figure emerges when observed as a whole. We can control the difficulty level of perceiving the emergence effect through a limited set of parameters. A procedure that synthesizes emergence images can be an effective tool for exploring and understanding the factors affecting computer vision techniques. © 2009 ACM.

  15. Anorectal emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2016-01-01

    Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleeding which might require an immediate management. This article deals with the diagnosis and management of common anorectal emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rectal cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases as anorectal non-surgical emergencies and some anorectal emergencies in neonates are also discussed. The last part of this review dedicates to the management of early complications following common anorectal procedures that may present as an emergency including acute urinary retention, bleeding, fecal impaction and anorectal sepsis. Although many of anorectal disorders presenting in an emergency setting are not life-threatening and may be successfully treated in an outpatient clinic, an accurate diagnosis and proper management remains a challenging problem for clinicians. A detailed history taking and a careful physical examination, including digital rectal examination and anoscopy, is essential for correct diagnosis and plan of treatment. In some cases, some imaging examinations, such as endoanal ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of whole abdomen, are required. If in doubt, the attending physicians should not hesitate to consult an expert e.g., colorectal surgeon about the diagnosis, proper management and appropriate follow-up. PMID:27468181

  16. Hematologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vallisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the surprising progress made in other areas of hematology (advances in the understanding of leukemogenesis, improved transplant techniques has been conspicuously absent in the management of hematologic emergencies. And yet, every step toward greater knowledge, every new treatment option will be of little value unless we are able to manage the acute complications of hematologic diseases. These complications are better defined as hematologic emergencies, and they are characterized by a high rate of mortality. This review is based on a search of the literature that was initially confined to articles published in the journal Hematology from 2000 to 2009. The search was then extended to the Cochrane Library and to Pub Med in February 2010 with the following Keywords emergencies; urgencies; hematology. The same key words were employed in a search of the archives of Blood and the New England Journal of Medicine from 2000 to 2010. The results confirm that hematologic emergencies can be caused by hematologic malignancies as well as by non-neoplastic hematologic diseases. Within the former category; this review examines the causes; manifestations; treatment and prevention of disseminated intravascular coagulation; superior vena caval syndrome; spinal cord compression; tumor lysis syndrome; hyperleukocytosis; and hypercalcemia. We also review emergency situations associated with non-neoplatic haematological diseases; such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; drug-induced hemolytic anemia; and acute sickle-cell crisis.

  17. Emergency preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    Cennini, E; Oortman Gerlings, P

    2009-01-01

    On September 19th 2008, a technical fault was at the centre of a sequence of events which hampered the performance of certain equipments of the LHC 3-4 sector. Once the first effects of this sequence of events were detected, the behaviour of the CERN staff confronted to this complex and critical situation became the centre of the risk control process. During such a downward spiral the preparation of all stakeholders is essential and should respect the (apparently) basic principles of emergency preparedness. Preparedness towards normal operation of CERN facilities towards minor up to major emergency situations will be presented. The main technical, organisational and legal frameworks of the CERN emergency preparedness will be recalled, highlighting the CERN risk management and risk control strategy. Then, the sequence of events experienced by different stakeholders on September 19th will be reported, thus starting the learned lessons process.

  18. Emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  19. Emergency neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarabino, T.; Hospital of Andria; Salvolini, U.; Jinkins, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The book is directed at emergency radiologists and neuroradiologists. It aims at providing exhaustive information that will help the reader understand the clinical problems in the full range of neurological emergencies and to select the methodological and technical options that will ensure prompt and effective response and correct interpretation of the clinical findings. The various chapters address the most common neuroradiological emergencies, summarize their fundamental physiopathological features, describe the main semiological and differential diagnostic features, and provide operative suggestions for the selection of the appropriate techniques to be applied in a sequential order. The book addresses the application of state-of-the-art techniques and their implications for clinical practice (particularly the contributions of standard and functional MRI and of spiral and multislice CT). The illustrations provide not only training but also reference material for routine clinical work. (orig.)

  20. EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Pantić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Emergency contraception refers to any device or drug that is used as an emergency procedure to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse.The first method of emergency contraception was high dose of estrogen. Concern about side effects led to subsequent development of the so-called Yuzpe regimen which combined ethinil estradiol with levonorgestrel and levonorgestrel alone. Less convenient to use is the copper intauterine contraceptive device.It is known that in some women sexual steroids may inhibit or delay ovulation and may interfere with ovum and sperm transport and implantation. Copper intrauterine device causes a foreign-body effect on the endometrium and a direct toxic effect to sperm and blastocyst.The Yuzpe regimen reduces the risk of pregnancy after a single act of sexual intercourse by about 75% and the levonorgestrel alone by about 85%. The copper intrauterine device is an extremely effective method for selected patients.Nausea and vomiting are common among women using the Yuzpe regimen and considerably less common among women using levonorgestrel alone regimen.Emergency contraception is relatively safe with no contraindications except pregnancy. It is ineffective if a woman is pregnant. There is no need for a medical hystory or a phisical examination before providing emergency contraceptive pills. They are taken long before organogenesis starts, so they should not have a teratogenic effect.Counseling should include information about correct use of the method, possible side effects and her preferences for regular contraception.Unintended pregnancy is a great problem. Several safe, effective and inexpensive methods of emergency contraception are available including Yuzpe regimen, levonorges-trel-only regimen and copper intrauterine device.

  1. Nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This leaflet, which is in the form of a fold-up chart, has panels of text which summarize the emergencies that could arise and the countermeasures and emergency plans that have been prepared should nuclear accident occur or affect the United Kingdom. The levels of radiation doses at which various measures would be introduced are outlined. The detection and monitoring programmes that would operate is illustrated. The role of NRPB and the responsible government departments are set out together with an explanation of how the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity would be coordinated. (UK)

  2. EMERGING MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE CARALICEA-MĂRCULESCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The emerging markets are winning the currency war, because at this very moment its the battle of global financial institutions , as to who is more vulnerable and more exposed to the debt crisis and have their hands in more risky assets. US and Euro with their intertwining the financial stuff of the nation, the banks and the corporations are in a deep mess. One goes down, takes the other ones too. Right now , they all are struggling and getting beaten up , while the emerging markets are quiet and not really expressing their stands on the current situation except are reacting by all only putting their own houses in order.

  3. Emergency radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    This book is the German, translated version of the original published in 1984 in the U.S.A., entitled 'Emergency Radiology'. The publication for the most part is made up as an atlas of the radiological images presenting the findings required for assessment of the emergency cases and their first treatment. The test parts' function is to explain the images and give the necessary information. The material is arranged in seven sections dealing with the skull, the facial part of the skull, the spine, thorax, abdominal region, the pelvis and the hip, and the limbs. With 690 figs [de

  4. The Emerging World Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER COLLECOTT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is common ground amongst almost all commentators that the world has changed radically over the past 25 years – the 25 years since the fall of the Berlin Wall heralded the ending of the Cold War, the reunification of a tragically divided Europe, and the acceleration of the process of globalisation which has its only comparable period in the decades leading up to the First World War in 1914. When analyzing the Emerging World Order it is important to cover more than Brazil economy or any other individual BRICs or other Emerging Powers. Instead, our analysis will provide a global view about the economic and political global power structures which are evolving and forming before our eyes, and then to talk about the challenges these emerging realities pose for us in Europe, and in the West in general.

  5. Emergency Preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The trends of RPC work in the area of preparedness for nuclear and radiological accidents are listed. RPC in cooperation with Swedish Government developed the project on preparation for iodine prophylaxis in case of accident at Ignalina NPP and arranged seminar on emergency preparedness issues in 2001.

  6. Emerging Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how materiality emerges from complex chains of mediation in creative software use. The primarily theoretical argument is inspired and illustrated by interviews with two composers of electronic music. The authors argue that computer mediated activity should not primarily be und...

  7. Emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J. [Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp., Sylvan Lake, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This presentation included several slides depicting well control and emergency preparedness. It provided information to help in pre-emergency planning for potential well control situations. Key Safety and Blowout Control Corp has gained experience in the Canadian and International well control industry as well as from the fires of Kuwait. The president of the company lectures on the complications and concerns of managers, wellsite supervisors, service companies, the public sector, land owners, government agencies and the media. The slides presented scenarios based on actual blowout recovery assignments and described what types of resources are needed by a well control team. The presentation addressed issues such as the responsibility of a well control team and what they can be expected to do. The issue of how government agencies become involved was also discussed. The presentation combines important information and descriptive images of personal experiences in fire fighting and well control. The emergency situations presented here demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding of preplanning for emergencies and what to expect when a typical day in the oil patch turns into a high stress, volatile situation. tabs., figs.

  8. OPERATION EMERGENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MELBO, IRVING R.

    THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE EMERGING ENVIRONMENT FOR THE FUTURE OF PUBLIC EDUCATION IN CALIFORNIA IS CONSIDERED. CERTAIN WORLD REVOLUTIONS HAVE AFFECTED CONTEMPORARY LIFE. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BROUGHT WITH IT INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY, RESEARCH, HIGHER STANDARDS OF LIVING, LONGER LIFE SPANS, AND CATEGORIZATION OF NATIONS INTO HAVES AND HAVE NOTS.…

  9. Emergent Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Everdij, M.H.C.; Bouarfa, S.; Cook, A; Rivas, D

    2016-01-01

    In complexity science a property or behaviour of a system is called emergent if it is not a property or behaviour of the constituting elements of the system, though results from the interactions between its constituting elements. In the socio-technical air transportation system these interactions

  10. Thyroid emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2012-03-01

    This review presents current knowledge about the thyroid emergencies known as myxedema coma and thyrotoxic storm. Understanding the pathogenesis of these conditions, appropriate recognition of the clinical signs and symptoms, and their prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment are crucial in optimizing survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Koyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency post-coital contraception (EC is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method, and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference.

  12. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

  13. Emerging Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter

    South Korean and Taiwanese brands have long been household names. Today, however, the names of transnational companies (TNCs) from an increasingly diverse set of emerging and developing economies are regularly making if not the dinner table conversation then at least the headlines...... of the international business press. This reflects that companies such as Mittal and Tata (India), China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), Haier and Lenovo (PRC), Embraer (Brazil), SAPMiller (South Africa), and Cemex (Mexico) are foraying ever deeper into the international economy and increasingly investing...... countries. Apart from a few early pioneering studies (Lecraw 1977; Lall 1983; Wells 1983; Agarwal 1985) only few studies have been made so far of outward investment from emerging and developing economies. This is in spite of the fact that the value of outward FDI stock from developing countries reached USD...

  14. Evolutionary dynamics of incubation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottino-Loffler, Bertrand; Scott, Jacob G; Strogatz, Steven H

    2017-12-21

    The incubation period for typhoid, polio, measles, leukemia and many other diseases follows a right-skewed, approximately lognormal distribution. Although this pattern was discovered more than sixty years ago, it remains an open question to explain its ubiquity. Here, we propose an explanation based on evolutionary dynamics on graphs. For simple models of a mutant or pathogen invading a network-structured population of healthy cells, we show that skewed distributions of incubation periods emerge for a wide range of assumptions about invader fitness, competition dynamics, and network structure. The skewness stems from stochastic mechanisms associated with two classic problems in probability theory: the coupon collector and the random walk. Unlike previous explanations that rely crucially on heterogeneity, our results hold even for homogeneous populations. Thus, we predict that two equally healthy individuals subjected to equal doses of equally pathogenic agents may, by chance alone, show remarkably different time courses of disease.

  15. Emerging Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  16. Emerging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Weiler, Andreas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  17. Emerging jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  18. Emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    According the conception of the Emergency Response Centre (ERC) of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA), and the obtained experience from exercises, and as well as on the basis of recommendations of international missions, the NRA SR started, in 1997 the ERC extension. The new room enable the work for radiation protection group, reactor safety and logistic group separately. At the same time special room was build for work of the NECRA Technical Support Group of the Emergency Commission for Radiation Accidents of the SR.This group co-operates closely with ERC while evaluation the situation, and by using the information system of the NRA and database of ERC to generate the conditions of nuclear facilities in once of emergency. Extension of the mentioned rooms was carried out. The financing by the European Union helped to build the project RAMG. In this way the NRA gained a working site which, with its equipment and parameters belongs to the top working sites of regulatory bodies of developed European countries. The NRA preparation of exercise and special staff education was carried out in 1997, for employees of the NRA and members of Emergency Headquarters (EH) for work in ERC in case of nuclear installation accident. The task of education of member of EH was their preparation for carrying out three exercises. These exercises are described. In the area of emergency preparedness, in accordance with inspection plan of the Office, 7 team inspections were carried out in individual localities; in NPP Bohunice, two in NPP Mochovce and one in Bohunice Conditioning Centre for radioactive wastes. Solution of the task of development of science and technology in the area of 'Development of technical and programme means for analyses of accidents and solutions of crisis situations'continued in 1997. Another regulations were elaborated for activity of members of EH of the NRA. The following was was carried out: selection of data for transfer and the

  19. The Periodic Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  20. Book Reviews in Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt, Harold J.

    All recent issues of periodicals found which contain indexed book reviews are listed in this compilation from Drake Memorial Library at the New York State University at Brockport. The periodicals are listed by 29 subject headings in this informal guide designed to be used at Drake Library. The number of reviews in the periodical in a recent year…

  1. PFP Emergency Lighting Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BUSCH, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    NFPA 101, section 5-9 mandates that, where required by building classification, all designated emergency egress routes be provided with adequate emergency lighting in the event of a normal lighting outage. Emergency lighting is to be arranged so that egress routes are illuminated to an average of 1.0 footcandle with a minimum at any point of 0.1 footcandle, as measured at floor level. These levels are permitted to drop to 60% of their original value over the required 90 minute emergency lighting duration after a power outage. The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) has two designations for battery powered egress lights ''Emergency Lights'' are those battery powered lights required by NFPA 101 to provide lighting along officially designated egress routes in those buildings meeting the correct occupancy requirements. Emergency Lights are maintained on a monthly basis by procedure ZSR-12N-001. ''Backup Lights'' are battery powered lights not required by NFPA, but installed in areas where additional light may be needed. The Backup Light locations were identified by PFP Safety and Engineering based on several factors. (1) General occupancy and type of work in the area. Areas occupied briefly during a shiftly surveillance do not require backup lighting while a room occupied fairly frequently or for significant lengths of time will need one or two Backup lights to provide general illumination of the egress points. (2) Complexity of the egress routes. Office spaces with a standard hallway/room configuration will not require Backup Lights while a large room with several subdivisions or irregularly placed rooms, doors, and equipment will require Backup Lights to make egress safer. (3) Reasonable balance between the safety benefits of additional lighting and the man-hours/exposure required for periodic light maintenance. In some plant areas such as building 236-Z, the additional maintenance time and risk of contamination do not warrant having Backup Lights installed in all rooms

  2. Is it an Emergency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Is it an Emergency? Medical emergencies can be frightening and ... situation. Here you can find information about emergencies. It is essential to know how to recognize the ...

  3. LNG - emergency control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berardinelli, Ricardo Porto; Correa, Kleber Macedo; Moura Filho, Nelson Barboza de; Fernandez, Carlos Antonio [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Matos, Jose Eduardo Nogueira de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The operation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is pioneering within the PETROBRAS System. PETROBRAS Transporte - TRANSPETRO is going to operate two flexible LNG terminals, located in Ceara and Rio de Janeiro. In accordance with the Corporate Health, Safety and Environmental (HSE) Directive - Training, Education and Awareness, PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. - TRANSPETRO has prepared an action plan with the objective of ensuring the operational safety of the undertaking. Among other actions a training program for the emergency control of LNG will be inserted into the timetable. The above mentioned training program was held over a period of 20 hours, and was divided between theory and practice. In the theoretical part, the characteristics of the product, the history of accidents and the emergency response procedures were covered. In the practical part, 3000 gallons of LNG were utilized where the behavior of the product could be confirmed following a confined leak, thereby verifying the efficacy of the emergency control resources. The teaching process of the course was developed in the company through the preparation of specific procedures, emergency plans and the formation of internal instructors. (author)

  4. Painful menstrual periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... into two groups, depending on the cause: Primary dysmenorrhea Secondary dysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that ...

  5. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    and their quality was improved considerably toward the end of this period. The profound cultural innovations of the Middle Helladic period were initially interpreted as a result of violent population movement and troubles provoked by the coming of the first Indo-European races. However, this matter does no more...... Helladic period is considered as a period of economic and social decline it was the time during which the mainland features merged with the insular influence, that is all the Aegean elements which led to the creation of the Mycenaean civilization were mixed in a creative way....

  6. Periodization Theory: Confronting an Inconvenient Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, John

    2018-04-01

    Periodization theory has, over the past seven decades, emerged as the preeminent training planning paradigm. The philosophical underpinnings of periodization theory can be traced back to the integration of diverse shaping influences, whereby coaching beliefs and traditions were blended with historically available scientific insights and contextualized against pervading social planning models. Since then, many dimensions of elite preparation have evolved significantly, as driven by a combination of coaching innovations and science-led advances in training theory, techniques, and technologies. These advances have been incorporated into the fabric of the pre-existing periodization planning framework, yet the philosophical assumptions underpinning periodization remain largely unchallenged and unchanged. One particularly influential academic sphere of study, the science of stress, particularly the work of Hans Selye, is repeatedly cited by theorists as a central pillar upon which periodization theory is founded. A fundamental assumption emanating from the early stress research is that physical stress is primarily a biologically mediated phenomenon: a presumption translated to athletic performance contexts as evidence that mechanical training stress directly regulates the magnitude of subsequent 'fitness' adaptations. Interestingly, however, since periodization theory first emerged, the science of stress has evolved extensively from its historical roots. This raises a fundamental question: if the original scientific platform upon which periodization theory was founded has disintegrated, should we critically re-evaluate conventional perspectives through an updated conceptual lens? Realigning periodization philosophy with contemporary stress theory thus presents us with an opportunity to recalibrate training planning models with both contemporary scientific insight and progressive coaching practice.

  7. On some periodicity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim o...

  8. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  9. Periods and Nori motives

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  10. Mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Berenstein

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  11. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  12. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  13. Super periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  14. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  15. The Periodic Table CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  16. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  17. Supersymmetrically transformed periodic potentials

    OpenAIRE

    C, David J. Fernandez

    2003-01-01

    The higher order supersymmetric partners of a stationary periodic potential are studied. The transformation functions associated to the band edges do not change the spectral structure. However, when the transformation is implemented for factorization energies inside of the forbidden bands, the final potential will have again the initial band structure but it can have bound states encrusted into the gaps, giving place to localized periodicity defects.

  18. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan; Suresh Rama Chandran; Geetha Thirumalnesan; Nedumaran Doraisamy

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recove...

  19. Orion Emergency Mask Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, George C.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Emergency mask approach on Orion poses a challenge to the traditional Shuttle or Station approaches. Currently, in the case of a fire or toxic spill event, the crew utilizes open loop oxygen masks that provide the crew with oxygen to breath, but also dumps the exhaled oxygen into the cabin. For Orion, with a small cabin volume, the extra oxygen will exceed the flammability limit within a short period of time, unless a nitrogen purge is also provided. Another approach to a fire or toxic spill event is the use of a filtering emergency masks. These masks utilize some form of chemical beds to scrub the air clean of toxic providing the crew safe breathing air for a period without elevating the oxygen level in the cabin. Using the masks and a form of smoke-eater filter, it may be possible to clean the cabin completely or to a level for safe transition to a space suit to perform a cabin purge. Issues with filters in the past have been the reaction time, breakthroughs, and high breathing resistance. Development in a new form of chemical filters has shown promise to make the filtering approach feasible.

  20. Periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluck, E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF) [de

  1. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly.

  2. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  3. Hereditary periodic fever syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, MF; Frenkel, J

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are defined by recurrent attacks of generalised inflammation for which no infectious or auto-immune cause can be identified. For most of these disorders, the molecular basis has recently been elucidated. This has opened the prospect of novel therapeutic

  4. Almost periodic Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, J.; Lima, R.

    1984-01-01

    These lectures are devoted to recent developments in the theory of almost-periodic Schroedinger Operators. We specially describe the algebraic point of view, with applications to gap-labelling theorems. Particular models are also presented which exhibit various spectral properties. (orig.)

  5. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed

  6. Periodic Table of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  7. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  8. Awareness and Practice of Emergency Contraception Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    There is therefore an urgent need to improve the student's knowledge and use .... period to eliminate chances of correlated or block response. ... emergency contraception pills only in pharmacies and health facilities ... poor settings like ours.

  9. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself

  10. Emergency department discharge prescription interventions by emergency medicine pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarz, Joseph L; Steffenhagen, Aaron L; Svenson, James; Hamedani, Azita G

    2013-02-01

    We determine the rate and details of interventions associated with emergency medicine pharmacist review of discharge prescriptions for patients discharged from the emergency department (ED). Additionally, we evaluate care providers' satisfaction with such services provided by emergency medicine pharmacists. This was a prospective observational study in the ED of an academic medical center that serves both adult and pediatric patients. Details of emergency medicine pharmacist interventions on discharge prescriptions were compiled with a standardized form. Interventions were categorized as error prevention or optimization of therapy. The staff of the ED was surveyed related to the influence and satisfaction of this new emergency medicine pharmacist-provided service. The 674 discharge prescriptions reviewed by emergency medicine pharmacists during the study period included 602 (89.3%) for adult patients and 72 (10.7%) for pediatric patients. Emergency medicine pharmacists intervened on 68 prescriptions, resulting in an intervention rate of 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.0% to 12.7%). The intervention rate was 8.5% (95% CI 6.4% to 11.1%) for adult prescriptions and 23.6% for pediatric prescriptions (95% CI 14.7% to 35.3%) (difference 15.1%; 95% CI 5.1% to 25.2%). There were a similar number of interventions categorized as error prevention and optimization of medication therapy, 37 (54%) and 31 (46%), respectively. More than 95% of survey respondents believed that the new pharmacist services improved patient safety, optimized medication regimens, and improved patient satisfaction. Emergency medicine pharmacist review of discharge prescriptions for discharged ED patients has the potential to significantly improve patient care associated with suboptimal prescriptions and is highly valued by ED care providers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  11. Emergency Medical Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need help right away, you should use emergency medical services. These services use specially trained people and ... emergencies, you need help where you are. Emergency medical technicians, or EMTs, do specific rescue jobs. They ...

  12. Chemical Emergencies Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Chemical Emergencies Overview Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... themselves during and after such an event. What chemical emergencies are A chemical emergency occurs when a ...

  13. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Home Be Informed Household Chemical Emergencies Household Chemical Emergencies Although the risk of a chemical accident ... reduce the risk of injury. Before a Household Chemical Emergency It is critical to store household chemicals ...

  14. Emergency Contraception Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Text Only Full media Version Get Emergency Contraception NOW INFO about Emergency Contraception Q&A about Emergency Contraception Español | Arabic Find a Morning After Pill Provider Near You This website ...

  15. Polysheroidal periodic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truskova, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    Separation of variables in the Helmholtz N-dimensional (N≥4) equation in polyspheroidal coordinate systems leads to the necessity of solving equations going over into equations for polyspheroidal periodic functions used for solving the two-centre problem in quantum mechanics, the three-body problem with Coulomb interaction, etc. For these functions the expansions are derived in terms of the Jacobi polynomials and Bessel functions. Their basic properties, asymptotics are considered. The algorithm of their computer calculations is developed. The results of numerical calculations are given

  16. Deciphering Periodic Methanol Masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, Bringfried; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus; Hopp, Ulrich; Kraus, Alex; Linz, Hendrik; Sanna, Alberto; Sobolev, Andrej; Wolf, Verena

    2018-05-01

    Impressive progress has been made in recent years on massive star formation, yet the involved high optical depths even at submm/mm wavelengths make it difficult to reveal its details. Recently, accretion bursts of massive YSOs have been identified to cause flares of Class II methanol masers (methanol masers for short) due to enhanced mid-IR pumping. This opens a new window to protostellar accretion variability, and implies that periodic methanol masers hint at cyclic accretion. Pinning down the cause of the periodicity requires joint IR and radio monitoring. We derived the first IR light curve of a periodic maser host from NEOWISE data. The source, G107.298+5.639, is an intermediate-mass YSO hosting methanol and water masers which flare every 34.5 days. Our recent joint K-band and radio observations yielded first but marginal evidence for a phase lag between the rise of IR and maser emission, respectively, and revealed that both NEOWISE and K-band light curves are strongly affected by the light echo from the ambient dust. Both the superior resolution of IRAC over NEOWISE and the longer wavelengths compared to our ground-based imaging are required to inhibit the distractive contamination by the light echo. Thus, we ask for IRAC monitoring of G107 to cover one flare cycle, in tandem with 100-m Effelsberg and 2-m Wendelstein radio and NIR observations to obtain the first high-quality synoptic measurements of this kind of sources. The IR-maser phase lag, the intrinsic shape of the IR light curves and their possible color variation during the cycle allow us to constrain models for the periodic maser excitation. Since methanol masers are signposts of intermediate-mass and massive YSOs, deciphering their variability offers a clue to the dynamics of the accretion-mediated growth of massive stars and their feedback onto the immediate natal environment. The Spitzer light curve of such a maser-hosting YSO would be a legacy science product of the mission.

  17. Emergency surgery for Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smida, Malek; Miloudi, Nizar; Hefaiedh, Rania; Zaibi, Rabaa

    2016-03-01

    Surgery has played an essential role in the treatment of Crohn's disease. Emergency can reveal previously unknown complications whose treatment affects prognosis. Indicate the incidence of indications in emergent surgery for Crohn's disease. Specify the types of procedures performed in these cases and assess the Results of emergency surgery for Crohn's disease postoperatively,  in short , medium and long term. Retrospective analysis of collected data of 38 patients, who underwent surgical resection for Crohn's disease during a period of 19 years from 1992 to 2011 at the department of surgery in MONGI SLIM Hospital, and among them 17 patients underwent emergency surgery for Crohn's disease. In addition to socio-demographic characteristics and clinical presentations of our study population, we evaluated the indications, the type of intervention, duration of evolution preoperative and postoperative complications and overall prognosis of the disease. Of the 38 patients with Crohn's disease requiring surgical intervention, 17/38 patients underwent emergency surgery. Crohn's disease was inaugurated by the complications requiring emergency surgery in 11 patients. The mean duration of symptoms prior to surgery was 1.5 year. The most common indication for emergency surgery was acute intestinal obstruction (n=6) followed by perforation and peritonitis (n=5). A misdiagnosis of appendicitis was found in 4 patients and a complicated severe acute colitis for undiagnosed Crohn's disease was found in 2 cases. The open conventional surgery was performed for 15 patients. Ileocolic resection was the most used intervention. There was one perioperative mortality and 5 postoperative morbidities. The mean of postoperative hospital stay was 14 days (range 4-60 days). Six patients required a second operation during the follow-up period. The incidence of emergency surgery for Crohn's disease in our experience was high (17/38 patients), and is not as rare as the published estimates

  18. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  19. Periodically modulated dark states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2018-04-01

    Phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (PEIT) may be interpreted by the Autler-Townes Splitting (ATS), where the coupled states are split by the coupling laser field, or by the quantum destructive interference (QDI), where the atomic phases caused by the coupling laser and the probe laser field cancel. We propose modulated experiments to explore the PEIT in an alternative way by periodically modulating the coupling and the probe fields in a Λ-type three-level system initially in a dark state. Our analytical and numerical results rule out the ATS interpretation and show that the QDI interpretation is more appropriate for the modulated experiments. Interestingly, dark state persists in the double-modulation situation where control and probe fields never occur simultaneously, which is significant difference from the traditional dark state condition. The proposed experiments are readily implemented in atomic gases, artificial atoms in superconducting quantum devices, or three-level meta-atoms in meta-materials.

  20. Normative Beliefs Regarding Aggression in Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David A.; Springer, Melanie M.; Nelson, Larry J.; Bean, Nathaniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined the nature of aggression in emerging adulthood (ages 18-25), a unique developmental period wherein relationships become increasingly important and intimate. Consistent with a greater emphasis on relationships, relationally manipulative forms of aggression may be particularly salient during this time period. Based on…

  1. Integrated emergency management in KKG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluegel, J.U.; Plank, H.

    2007-01-01

    The development and introduction of emergency measures in Switzerland was mainly characterized by the evaluation of international experience and by systematic analysis of beyond-design basis accidents within the framework of plant-specific probabilistic safety analyses. As early as in the mid-eighties, the Swiss regulatory authority demanded that measures be taken against severe accidents, and periodically added more detailed requirements, most recently in 2000 when the introduction of Severe Accident Management Guidelines (SMAG) was demanded for power operation as well as operation in the non-power mode. The SMAG were introduced at the Goesgen nuclear power station within a project in the period between 2003 and 2005. For this purpose, a concept of integrated emergency management was developed which is based on updates of the proven emergency manual. One important aspect of this integrative concept is the distinction between preventive and mitigating procedures by defining appropriate criteria. The findings made in the implementation phase of the project include the realization that the introduction of procedures dealing with severe accidents also requires the ability to develop new ways of thinking and acting in accident management. This implies the awareness that procedures covering severe accidents must be applied much more flexibly and in the light of the situation than regulations covering fault conditions. Also possibilities to simulate severe accidents were created within the project both for the development of procedures and for training plant operators and members of the emergency staff. (orig.)

  2. Emergency care of raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer E; Heatley, J Jill

    2007-05-01

    Raptors may present with a variety of conditions, such as trauma, debilitation, and disease, that necessitate emergency care. Emergency treatment should prioritize stabilization of the patient. Diagnostic testing should be delayed until feasible based on patient status. This article reviews emergency medicine in raptors, including appropriate handling and restraint, hospitalization, triage and patient assessment, sample collection, supportive care, and common emergency presentations.

  3. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  4. Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Hart, Jeffrey D.; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both

  5. Medical Emergencies in Goa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Saxena, Mukul Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most emergencies in Goa arise due to road traffic accidents and drowning, which have been compounded by the rise in number of recorded accidents in 2007 to be above 4000. It is believed that 11 people meet with an accident on Goa's roads every day and this is expected to rise by 10% by next year. Similar is the case with drownings and other medical emergencies. We therefore aimed to conduct a cross-sectional survey of medical emergencies and identify various types of emergencies presenting to emergency departments. Materials and Methods: Using a stratified random sampling design, all emergencies presenting to the three government hospitals in Goa, which handle 90% of all emergencies currently, were studied on specially designed data sheets in order to collect data. Emergency medical technicians (ETs) were placed in the Casualty Ward of the medical colleges and they recorded all emergencies on the data sheet. The collected data were then analyzed for stratification and mapping of emergencies. Results: GMC Hospital attended to majority of emergencies (62%), which were mainly of the nature of accidents or assaults (17%) and fever related (17%). Most emergencies were noncritical and about 1% expired. Maximum emergencies also presented from Salcette and Bardez, and occurred among young males in the age group of 19-45 years. Males were also more prone to accidents while females had pregnancies as emergencies. Conclusion: Potential emergency services need to target young males with higher concentrations required in Salcette in South Goa and Bardez in North Goa. PMID:20606921

  6. Constitutional Reform and Emergency Powers in Egypt and Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    Legal mechanisms governing the state of emergency can play an important role in authoritarian rule and post-revolutionary transition periods. Egypt has experienced the terror of a regime empowered by emergency law. In Tunisia, emergency law was not so much an issue before but rather after the

  7. Radiation emergency preparedness in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geetha, P.V.; Ramamirtham, B.; Khot, P.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of planning for radiation emergency response is to ensure adequate preparedness for protection of the plant personnel and members of the public from significant radiation exposures in the unlikely event of an accident. With a number of safety features in the reactor design and sound operating procedures, the probability of a major accident resulting in the releases of large quantities of radioactivity is extremely small. However, as an abundant cautious approach a comprehensive radiation emergency response preparedness is in place in all the nuclear power plants (NPPs). Radiation Emergency in NPPs is broadly categorized into three types; plant emergency, site emergency and off-site emergency. During off site emergency conditions, based on levels of radiation in the environment, Civil Authorities may impose several counter measures such as sheltering, administering prophylaxis (stable iodine for thyroid blocking) and evacuation of people from the affected area. Environmental Survey Laboratory (ESL) carries out environmental survey extensively in the affected sector identified by the meteorological survey laboratory. To handle emergency situations, Emergency Control Centre with all communication facility and Emergency Equipment Centre having radiation measuring instruments and protective equipment are functional at all NPPs. AERB stipulates certain periodicity for conducting the exercises on plant, site and off site emergency. These exercises are conducted and deficiencies corrected for strengthening the emergency preparedness system. In the case of off site emergency exercise, observers are invited from AERB and Crisis Management Group of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). The emergency exercises conducted by Nuclear Power Plant Sites have been very satisfactory. (author)

  8. Testing periodically integrated autoregressive models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPeriodically integrated time series require a periodic differencing filter to remove the stochastic trend. A non-periodic integrated time series needs the first-difference filter for similar reasons. When the changing seasonal fluctuations for the non-periodic integrated series can be

  9. Stocks for the long run? : Evidence from emerging markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierdijk, Laura; Umar, Zaghum

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the myopic (single-period) and intertemporal hedging (long-run) demand for stocks in 20 growth-leading emerging market economies during the 1999-2012 period. We consider two types of investors: a domestic investor who invests in emerging-market assets only (with returns in local

  10. Part I. Emergency workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This monograph deals with assessment of radiological health effects of the Chernobyl accident for emergency workers (part 1) and the population of the contaminated areas in Russia (part 2). The Chernobyl emergency workers and people living in the contaminated areas of Russia received much lower doses than the population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and it was unclear whether risks of radiation-induced cancers derived with the Japanese data could be extrapolated to the low dose range However, it was predicted as early as in 1990 that the thyroid cancer incidence might be increasing due to incorporated 131 irradiation. What conclusions can be drawn from regarding cancer incidence among emergency workers and residents of the contaminated areas in Russia and the role of the radiation factor on the basis of the registry data? Leukemia incidence. Leukemia incidence is known to be one of principal indications of radiation effects. The radiation risk for leukemias is 3-4 times higher that for solid cancers and its latent period is estimated to be 2-3 years after exposure. Results of the radiation epidemiological studies discussed in this book show that in the worst contaminated Bryansk region the leukemia incidence rate is not higher than in the country in general. Even though some evidence exists for the dose response relationship, the radiation risks appear to be not statistically significant. Since risks of leukemia are known to be higher for those who were children at exposure, long-term epidemiological studies need to be continued. The study of leukemias among emergency workers strongly suggest the existence of dose response relationship. In those who received external doses more than 0.15 Gy the leukemia incidence rate is two time higher and these emergency workers should be referred to as a group of increased radiation risk. Solid cancers. The obtained results provide no evidence to a radiation-induced increase in solid cancers among residents of the contaminated areas

  11. Electrons and photons in periodic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor

    . In particular, the modulation leads to the emergence of band gaps, which are accompanied by a strongly modified density of states near and within the band gap. The main focus is on two applications of such modified densities of states. Firstly, the intentional introduction of defects in an otherwise perfectly...... periodic modulation of an electron gas leads to the emergence of localized defect states with energies within the band gap, where no propagating modes exist. Secondly, the divergence of the photonic density of states near a photonic band gap leads to strongly modified light-matter interactions, which has...... of the density of states near the band gap edge. Using a perturbative approach, we demonstrate certain limits of the attainable slow down factors due to broadening of electromagnetic modes. We discuss the effect of damping due to a finite conductivity as well as structural disorder, and provide a common...

  12. Periodic subsystem density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele; Ceresoli, Davide

    2014-01-01

    By partitioning the electron density into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for reducing the computational scaling of Kohn–Sham DFT. To date, however, FDE has been employed to molecular systems only. Periodic systems, such as metals, semiconductors, and other crystalline solids have been outside the applicability of FDE, mostly because of the lack of a periodic FDE implementation. To fill this gap, in this work we aim at extending FDE to treat subsystems of molecular and periodic character. This goal is achieved by a dual approach. On one side, the development of a theoretical framework for periodic subsystem DFT. On the other, the realization of the method into a parallel computer code. We find that periodic FDE is capable of reproducing total electron densities and (to a lesser extent) also interaction energies of molecular systems weakly interacting with metallic surfaces. In the pilot calculations considered, we find that FDE fails in those cases where there is appreciable density overlap between the subsystems. Conversely, we find FDE to be in semiquantitative agreement with Kohn–Sham DFT when the inter-subsystem density overlap is low. We also conclude that to make FDE a suitable method for describing molecular adsorption at surfaces, kinetic energy density functionals that go beyond the GGA level must be employed

  13. Periodic subsystem density-functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genova, Alessandro; Ceresoli, Davide; Pavanello, Michele

    2014-11-01

    By partitioning the electron density into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE) formulation of subsystem Density Functional Theory (DFT) has recently emerged as a powerful tool for reducing the computational scaling of Kohn-Sham DFT. To date, however, FDE has been employed to molecular systems only. Periodic systems, such as metals, semiconductors, and other crystalline solids have been outside the applicability of FDE, mostly because of the lack of a periodic FDE implementation. To fill this gap, in this work we aim at extending FDE to treat subsystems of molecular and periodic character. This goal is achieved by a dual approach. On one side, the development of a theoretical framework for periodic subsystem DFT. On the other, the realization of the method into a parallel computer code. We find that periodic FDE is capable of reproducing total electron densities and (to a lesser extent) also interaction energies of molecular systems weakly interacting with metallic surfaces. In the pilot calculations considered, we find that FDE fails in those cases where there is appreciable density overlap between the subsystems. Conversely, we find FDE to be in semiquantitative agreement with Kohn-Sham DFT when the inter-subsystem density overlap is low. We also conclude that to make FDE a suitable method for describing molecular adsorption at surfaces, kinetic energy density functionals that go beyond the GGA level must be employed.

  14. Birding Lessons and the Teachings of Cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, David W.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the ecological and pedagogical images hidden within a tale of the author's returning to the place where he grew up and going for a birding walk with some old friends. Contains 18 references. (DDR)

  15. The impact of an emergency fee increase on the composition of patients visiting emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyemin; Do, Young Kyung; Kim, Yoon; Ro, Junsoo

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to test our hypothesis that a raise in the emergency fee implemented on March 1, 2013 has increased the proportion of patients with emergent symptoms by discouraging non-urgent emergency department visits. We conducted an analysis of 728 736 patients registered in the National Emergency Department Information System who visited level 1 and level 2 emergency medical institutes in the two-month time period from February 1, 2013, one month before the raise in the emergency fee, to March 31, 2013, one month after the raise. A difference-in-difference method was used to estimate the net effects of a raise in the emergency fee on the probability that an emergency visit is for urgent conditions. The percentage of emergency department visits in urgent or equivalent patients increased by 2.4% points, from 74.2% before to 76.6% after the policy implementation. In a group of patients transferred using public transport or ambulance, who were assumed to be least conscious of cost, the change in the proportion of urgent patients was not statistically significant. On the other hand, the probability that a group of patients directly presenting to the emergency department by private transport, assumed to be most conscious of cost, showed a 2.4% point increase in urgent conditions (pfee implemented on March 1, 2013 increased the proportion of urgent patients in the total emergency visits by reducing emergency department visits by non-urgent patients.

  16. Emergencies and emergency planning in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.

    1986-01-01

    The organization for dealing with radiation emergencies in France is complex and centralized. It consists of the Radiation Security Council with participants from the Premier Ministre and the Ministers of Interior, Industry, Health, and Defense. A permanent general secretary for radiation security coordinates the work of the various departments. Planning for nuclear power emergencies is divided between on-site, in which organization and intervention are the responsibilities of the manager of the plant, and off-site, in which organization and intervention are the responsibility of the regional governor. Both on-site and off-site planning have models integrated into a special code of practice called the radiation emergency organization

  17. Emergency control; Kawalan kecemasan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: plans and actions taken in emergency condition. It covers four main elements in planning, command, control center, emergency plans, continuous training and practices.

  18. Emergency care of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, T H

    1998-09-01

    Common reptile emergencies are reviewed in this article and the fundamentals of emergency care are provided. Important points include obtaining a complete history and husbandry review, physical examination, diagnostic tests, fluid support, anesthetics, and antibiotics.

  19. [Emerging noninfectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Ezequiel

    2008-11-01

    In recent years, emerging diseases were defined as being infectious, acquiring high incidence, often suddenly, or being a threat or an unexpected phenomenon. This study discusses the hallmarks of emerging diseases, describing the existence of noninfectious emerging diseases, and elaborating on the advantages of defining noninfectious diseases as emerging ones. From the discussion of various mental health disorders, nutritional deficiencies, external injuries and violence outcomes, work injuries and occupational health, and diseases due to environmental factors, the conclusion is drawn that a wide variety of noninfectious diseases can be defined as emergent. Noninfectious emerging diseases need to be identified in order to improve their control and management. A new definition of "emergent disease" is proposed, one that emphasizes the pathways of emergence and conceptual traits, rather than descriptive features.

  20. OEM Emergency Preparedness Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management compiles a wide variety of information in support of Emergency Preparedness, including certain elements of the System for Risk...

  1. Emergency Nurses Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... menu Join ENA Today! Membership in the Emergency Nurses Association offers a variety of benefits and allows ... a part of more than 42,000 emergency nurses working together to promote safe practice and safe ...

  2. Multiscale periodic structure in the Io wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P R; Wright, A N

    1989-06-08

    The decametric radio emissions from Jupiter are known to be influenced by the Galilean satellite Io. It is believed that the structure in these emissions is associated with the Alfven-wave wake downstream of Io. However, recent studies have shown that the structure of the wake cannot be as simple as originally thought. Here we present preliminary results from an eigenmode synthesis of the Alfven waves launched by Io, and find that several important periodicities emerge. Observations of the decametric emissions reveal fine, medium-and large-scale structure. The simulation we present here can provide structure on each of these scales, unlike earlier models. (author).

  3. Harwell emergency handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The Harwell Laboratory Emergency Handbook 1987 contains emergency procedures to deal with any incident which might occur at AERE Harwell involving radioactive or toxic material releases. The Handbook gives details of the duties of members of the Site Emergency Organization and other key members of staff, the methods by which incidents are controlled, the communication links and liaison arrangements with other organizations and the possible consequences and actions that may be needed following an emergency. (UK)

  4. Derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...

  5. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Ken.

    1989-01-01

    In PWR type reactors, a cooling water spray portion of emergency core cooling pipelines incorporated into pipelines on high temperature side is protruded to the inside of an upper plenum. Upon rupture of primary pipelines, pressure in a pressure vessel is abruptly reduced to generate a great amount of steams in the reactor core, which are discharged at a high flow rate into the primary pipelines on high temperature side. However, since the inside of the upper plenum has a larger area and the steam flow is slow, as compared with that of the pipelines on the high temperature side, ECCS water can surely be supplied into the reactor core to promote the re-flooding of the reactor core and effectively cool the reactor. Since the nuclear reactor can effectively be cooled to enable the promotion of pressure reduction and effective supply of coolants during the period of pressure reduction upon LOCA, the capacity of the pressure accumulation vessel can be decreased. Further, the re-flooding time for the reactor is shortened to provide an effect contributing to the improvement of the safety and the reduction of the cost. (N.H.)

  6. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic

  7. Emergency preparedness in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivukoski, J.

    1993-01-01

    Although the menace of nuclear war still persists, the focus in national emergency preparedness in Finland is presently on emergencies involving nuclear installations. The nuclear power plants, nuclear submarines and other installations in the former USSR are a major reason for this. In this article the main features and organization of emergency preparedness in Finland are described. (orig.)

  8. Emerging technology and ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Wakunuma, Kutoma

    2011-01-01

    This e-book on Emerging Technologies and Ethics includes a collection of essays which explore the future and ethics of emerging information and communication technologies. Articles in the collection include an overview of the legal implications which may be relevant to the ethical aspects of emerging technologies and also ethical issues arising from the mass-take up of mobile technologies.

  9. Neurologic emergencies in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vernon B

    2014-12-01

    Sports neurology is an emerging area of subspecialty. Neurologists and non-neurologists evaluating and managing individuals participating in sports will encounter emergencies that directly or indirectly involve the nervous system. Since the primary specialty of sports medicine physicians and other practitioners involved in the delivery of medical care to athletes in emergency situations varies significantly, experience in recognition and management of neurologic emergencies in sports will vary as well. This article provides a review of information and elements essential to neurologic emergencies in sports for the practicing neurologist, although content may be of benefit to readers of varying background and expertise. Both common neurologic emergencies and less common but noteworthy neurologic emergencies are reviewed in this article. Issues that are fairly unique to sports participation are highlighted in this review. General concepts and principles related to treatment of neurologic emergencies that are often encountered unrelated to sports (eg, recognition and treatment of status epilepticus, increased intracranial pressure) are discussed but are not the focus of this article. Neurologic emergencies can involve any region of the nervous system (eg, brain, spine/spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles). In addition to neurologic emergencies that represent direct sports-related neurologic complications, indirect (systemic and generalized) sports-related emergencies with significant neurologic consequences can occur and are also discussed in this article. Neurologists and others involved in the care of athletes should consider neurologic emergencies in sports when planning and providing medical care.

  10. Hibernal Emergence of Chironomidae in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Baranov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of Chironomidae were detected emerging in the Crimea during the period from December 2010 to March 2013. Twenty-three are Orthocladiinae and 4 are Chironominae (one Chironomini and three Tanytarsini species. Nine species are recorded for the first time in Crimea. At the genus-level the hibernal emergence in Crimea shows resemblance to the patterns reported for streams in Kansas.

  11. FOMC communication and emerging equity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hayo, Bernd; Kutan, Ali M.; Neuenkirch, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Using a GARCH model, we study the effects of Federal Funds target rate changes and FOMC communication on emerging equity market returns and volatility over the period 1998–2006. First, both types of news have a significant impact on market returns. Second, target rate changes are more important than informal communication. Third, the occurrence of monetary policy reports lowers price volatility. Finally, American emerging markets react more to U.S. news than non-American markets.

  12. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary

  13. Transient virulence of emerging pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolker, Benjamin M; Nanda, Arjun; Shah, Dharmini

    2010-05-06

    Should emerging pathogens be unusually virulent? If so, why? Existing theories of virulence evolution based on a tradeoff between high transmission rates and long infectious periods imply that epidemic growth conditions will select for higher virulence, possibly leading to a transient peak in virulence near the beginning of an epidemic. This transient selection could lead to high virulence in emerging pathogens. Using a simple model of the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of emerging pathogens, along with rough estimates of parameters for pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, West Nile virus and myxomatosis, we estimated the potential magnitude and timing of such transient virulence peaks. Pathogens that are moderately evolvable, highly transmissible, and highly virulent at equilibrium could briefly double their virulence during an epidemic; thus, epidemic-phase selection could contribute significantly to the virulence of emerging pathogens. In order to further assess the potential significance of this mechanism, we bring together data from the literature for the shapes of tradeoff curves for several pathogens (myxomatosis, HIV, and a parasite of Daphnia) and the level of genetic variation for virulence for one (myxomatosis). We discuss the need for better data on tradeoff curves and genetic variance in order to evaluate the plausibility of various scenarios of virulence evolution.

  14. Periodic feedback stabilization for linear periodic evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gengsheng

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a number of recent advances regarding periodic feedback stabilization for linear and time periodic evolution equations. First, it presents selected connections between linear quadratic optimal control theory and feedback stabilization theory for linear periodic evolution equations. Secondly, it identifies several criteria for the periodic feedback stabilization from the perspective of geometry, algebra and analyses respectively. Next, it describes several ways to design periodic feedback laws. Lastly, the book introduces readers to key methods for designing the control machines. Given its coverage and scope, it offers a helpful guide for graduate students and researchers in the areas of control theory and applied mathematics.

  15. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  16. The nuclear emergency plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertes Menendez, M. J.; Gasco Leonarte, L.; Granada Ferrero, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Planning of the response to emergencies in nuclear plants is regulated by the Basic Nuclear Emergency Plan (PLABEN). This basic Plan is the guidelines for drawing up, implementing and maintaining the effectiveness of the nuclear power plant exterior nuclear emergency plans. The five exterior emergency plans approved as per PLABEN (PENGUA, PENCA, PENBU, PENTA and PENVA) place special emphasis on the preventive issues of emergency planning, such as implementation of advance information programs to the population, as well as on training exercises and drills. (Author)

  17. Color on emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  18. Update on emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Wing Kay; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2016-12-01

    Emergency contraception provides a critical and time-sensitive opportunity for women to prevent undesired pregnancy after intercourse. Both access and available options for emergency contraception have changed over the last several years. Emergency contraceptive pills can be less effective in obese women. The maximum achieved serum concentration of levonorgestrel (LNG) is lower in obese women than women of normal BMI, and doubling the dose of LNG (3 mg) increases its concentration maximum, approximating the level in normal BMI women receiving one dose of LNG. Repeated use of both LNG and ulipristal acetate (UPA) is well tolerated. Hormonal contraception can be immediately started following LNG use, but should be delayed for 5 days after UPA use to avoid dampening the efficacy of UPA. The copper intrauterine device (IUD) is the only IUD approved for emergency contraception (and the most effective method of emergency contraception), but use of LNG IUD as emergency contraception is currently being investigated. Accurate knowledge about emergency contraception remains low both for patients and healthcare providers. Emergency contraception is an important yet underutilized tool available to women to prevent pregnancy. Current options including copper IUD and emergency contraceptive pills are safe and well tolerated. Significant gaps in knowledge of emergency contraception on both the provider and user level exist, as do barriers to expedient access of emergency contraception.

  19. Train operation in emergencies

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Limin; Qin, Yong

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the latest findings on train operation theories and methods in the context of emergencies. It examines and assesses a range of aspects—including the definition of a railway emergency, transport organization modes in emergencies, calculating railway transport capacity in emergencies, line planning in emergencies, train re-pathing in emergencies and train re-scheduling in emergencies—that are urgently needed in the railway transportation field, which faces the serious challenge of dealing with emergencies worldwide. The book highlights the latest research results in an integrated and systematic way, and the methodology presented is oriented on real-world problems, allowing it to be used not only directly in railway operational management, but also as the point of departure for further applications or theoretical research. As such, the book will be of considerable interest to graduate students and researchers in the field of traffic and transportation engineering.>.

  20. Defining an emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P-P

    2015-04-01

    Defining an emerging disease is not straightforward, as there are several different types of disease emergence. For example, there can be a 'real' emergence of a brand new disease, such as the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy in the 1980s, or a geographic emergence in an area not previously affected, such as the emergence of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006. In addition, disease can emerge in species formerly not considered affected, e.g. the emergence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife species since 2000 in France. There can also be an unexpected increase of disease incidence in a known area and a known species, or there may simply be an increase in our knowledge or awareness of a particular disease. What all these emerging diseases have in common is that human activity frequently has a role to play in their emergence. For example, bovine spongiform encephalopathy very probably emerged as a result of changes in the manufacturing of meat-and-bone meal, bluetongue was able to spread to cooler climes as a result of uncontrolled trade in animals, and a relaxation of screening and surveillance for bovine tuberculosis enabled the disease to re-emerge in areas that had been able to drastically reduce the number of cases. Globalisation and population growth will continue to affect the epidemiology of diseases in years to come and ecosystems will continue to evolve. Furthermore, new technologies such as metagenomics and high-throughput sequencing are identifying new microorganisms all the time. Change is the one constant, and diseases will continue to emerge, and we must consider the causes and different types of emergence as we deal with these diseases in the future.

  1. Reliability performance of standby equipment with periodic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, S.H.

    1985-11-01

    In this report, the reliability performance of standby equipment subjected to periodic testing is studied. analytical expressions have been derived for reliability measures, such as the man accumulated operating time to failure, the expected number of tests between two consecutive failures, the mean time to failure following an emergency start-up and the probability of failing to complete an emergency mission of a specified duration. These results are useful for the reliability assessment of standby equipment such as combustion turbine units of the emergency power supply system, and of the Class III power system at a nuclear generating station

  2. Integrated hospital emergency care improves efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, A A; Robinson, S M; Whitwell, D; Myers, S; Bennett, T J H; Hall, N; Haydock, S; Fritz, Z; Atkinson, P

    2008-02-01

    There is uncertainty about the most efficient model of emergency care. An attempt has been made to improve the process of emergency care in one hospital by developing an integrated model. The medical admissions unit was relocated into the existing emergency department and came under the 4-hour target. Medical case records were redesigned to provide a common assessment document for all patients presenting as an emergency. Medical, surgical and paediatric short-stay wards were opened next to the emergency department. A clinical decision unit replaced the more traditional observation unit. The process of patient assessment was streamlined so that a patient requiring admission was fully clerked by the first attending doctor to a level suitable for registrar or consultant review. Patients were allocated directly to specialty on arrival. The effectiveness of this approach was measured with routine data over the same 3-month periods in 2005 and 2006. There was a 16.3% decrease in emergency medical admissions and a 3.9% decrease in emergency surgical admissions. The median length of stay for emergency medical patients was reduced from 7 to 5 days. The efficiency of the elective surgical services was also improved. Performance against the 4-hour target declined but was still acceptable. The number of bed days for admitted surgical and medical cases rose slightly. There was an increase in the number of medical outliers on surgical wards, a reduction in the number of incident forms and formal complaints and a reduction in income for the hospital. Integrated emergency care has the ability to use spare capacity within emergency care. It offers significant advantages beyond the emergency department. However, improved efficiency in processing emergency patients placed the hospital at a financial disadvantage.

  3. Periodic waves in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Jing-Hua; Yan, Jie-Yun; Tian, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Periodic waves are presented in this Letter. With symbolic computation, equations for monochromatic waves are studied, and analytic periodic waves are obtained. Factors affecting properties of periodic waves are analyzed. Nonlinear metamaterials, with the continuous distribution of the dielectric permittivity obtained, are different from the ones with the discrete distribution. -- Highlights: ► Equations for the monochromatic waves in transverse magnetic polarization have been studied. ► Analytic periodic waves for the equations have been obtained. ► Periodic waves are theoretically presented and studied in the nonlinear metamaterials.

  4. Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-02-01

    This article proposes a nonparametric method for estimating the period and values of a periodic sequence when the data are evenly spaced in time. The period is estimated by a "leave-out-one-cycle" version of cross-validation (CV) and complements the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both theoretically and by simulation.We also propose a nonparametric test of the null hypothesis that the data have constantmean against the alternative that the sequence of means is periodic. Finally, our methodology is demonstrated on three well-known time series: the sunspots and lynx trapping data, and the El Niño series of sea surface temperatures. © 2012 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Quality.

  5. Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Wei; Chen Tianping

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases

  6. Photolysis of Periodate and Periodic Acid in Aqueous Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Knud; Kläning, U. K.

    1978-01-01

    The photochemistry of periodate and periodic acid in aqueous solution was studied (i) by quantum yield measurements at low light intensity (ii) by flash photolysis, and (iii) by photolysis of glassy samples at 77 K. The photochemical studies were supplemented with pulse radiolysis studies...... of aqueous periodate solutions and with kinetic studies using stopped-flow technique. In strongly alkaline solution the photodecomposition of periodate proceeds via formation of O– and IVI. At pH solution O3 P is formed in a small...

  7. Gene Expression Profiling in the Pituitary Gland of Laying Period and Ceased Period Huoyan Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhong Luan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Huoyan goose is a Chinese local breed famous for its higher laying performance, but the problems of variety degeneration have emerged recently, especially a decrease in the number of eggs laid. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism that underlies egg laying in Huoyan geese, gene profiles in the pituitary gland of Huoyan geese taken during the laying period and ceased period were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH method. Total RNA was extracted from pituitary glands of ceased period and laying period geese. The cDNA in the pituitary glands of ceased geese was subtracted from the cDNA in the pituitary glands of laying geese (forward subtraction; the reverse subtraction was also performed. After sequencing and annotation, a total of 30 and 24 up and down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These genes mostly related to biosynthetic process, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, transport, cell differentiation, cellular protein modification process, signal transduction, small molecule metabolic process. Furthermore, eleven genes were selected for further analyses by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. The qRT-PCR results for the most part were consistent with the SSH results. Among these genes, Synaptotagmin-1 (SYT1 and Stathmin-2 (STMN2 were substantially over-expressed in laying period compared to ceased period. These results could serve as an important reference for elucidating the molecular mechanism of higher laying performance in Huoyan geese.

  8. Energy emergency handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This Handbook identifies selected state and federal measures available to mitigate the impact of an energy emergency, and provides a comprehensive energy emergency communications directory. In the case of state remedial actions, particular emphasis has been placed on typical implementation procedures and likely impacts. The discussions of federal actions focus on initation and implementation procedures. The directory is designed to facilitate communications of all types (telephone, Telex, TWX, or facsimile) among key energy emergency officials in the federal and state governments.

  9. Nonneurologic emergencies in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Domenic F

    2009-10-01

    Professional boxing has done an admirable job in promoting safety standards in its particular sport. However, injuries occur during the normal course of competition and, unfortunately, an occasional life-threatening emergency may arise. Although most common medical emergencies in boxing are injuries from closed head trauma, in this article those infrequent but potentially catastrophic nonneurologic conditions are reviewed along with some less serious emergencies that the physician must be prepared to address.

  10. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  11. Radiological Emergency Response Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quality Data Asset includes all current and historical emergency radiological response event and incident of national significance data and surveillance, monitoring,...

  12. Historicism and Industry Emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, David; Moeen, Mahka; Wadhwani, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Management and organization scholars have increasingly turned to historical sources to examine the emergence and evolution of industries over time. This scholarship has typically used historical evidence as observations for testing theoretically relevant processes of industry emergence....... In this chapter, an alternative approach is explored that focuses on reconstructing causes and processes that time and theory have erased. The emergence of three industries—plant biotechnology, savings banking, and the automobile—shows how time, along with prevailing functional models of industry evolution, leads...... excluded phenomena and explanations, reconstructing uncertainty and alternative paths of industry emergence, and studying the processes of information elision and exclusion in the formation of industry knowledge....

  13. Inspection of Emergency Arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) was tasked by the NEA CNRA to examine and evaluate the extent to which emergency arrangements are inspected and to identify areas of importance for the development of good inspection practices. WGIP members shared their approaches to the inspection of emergency arrangements by the use of questionnaires, which were developed from the requirements set out in IAEA Safety Standards. Detailed responses to the questionnaires from WGIP member countries have been compiled and are presented in the appendix to this report. The following commendable practices have been drawn from the completed questionnaires and views provided by WGIP members: - RBs and their Inspectors have sufficient knowledge and information regarding operator's arrangements for the preparedness and response to nuclear emergencies, to enable authoritative advice to be given to the national coordinating authority, where necessary. - Inspectors check that the operator's response to a nuclear emergency is adequately integrated with relevant response organisations. - Inspectors pay attention to consider the integration of the operator's response to safety and security threats. - The efficiency of international relations is checked in depth during some exercises (e.g. early warning, assistance and technical information), especially for near-border facilities that could lead to an emergency response abroad. - RB inspection programmes consider the adequacy of arrangements for emergency preparedness and response to multi-unit accidents. - RBs assess the adequacy of arrangements to respond to accidents in other countries. - The RB's role is adequately documented and communicated to all agencies taking part in the response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. - Inspectors check that threat assessments for NPPs have been undertaken in accordance with national requirements and that up-to-date assessments have been used as the basis for developing emergency plans for

  14. Holonomic systems for period mappings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingyue, E-mail: jychen@brandeis.edu [Department of Mathematics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Huang, An, E-mail: anhuang@math.harvard.edu [Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lian, Bong H., E-mail: lian@brandeis.edu [Department of Mathematics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Period mappings were introduced in the sixties [4] to study variation of complex structures of families of algebraic varieties. The theory of tautological systems was introduced recently [7,8] to understand period integrals of algebraic manifolds. In this paper, we give an explicit construction of a tautological system for each component of a period mapping. We also show that the D-module associated with the tautological system gives rise to many interesting vanishing conditions for period integrals at certain special points of the parameter space.

  15. Microprocessor controlled digital period meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Rusch, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    A microprocessor controlled digital period meter has been developed and tested operationally on a reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The principle of operation is the mathematical relationship between asymptotic periods and pulse counting circuitry. This relationship is used to calculate and display the reactor periods over a range of /plus or minus/1 second to /plus or minus/999 seconds. The time interval required to update each measurement automatically varies from 8 seconds at the lowest counting rates to 2 seconds at higher counting rates. The paper will describe hardware and software design details and show the advantages of this type of Period Meter over the conventional circuits. 1 ref

  16. Emergências hipertensivas Hypertensive emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Soares Feitosa-Filho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As urgências e as emergências hipertensivas são ocorrências clínicas que podem representar mais de 25% dos atendimentos a urgências médicas. O médico deverá estar habilitado a diferenciá-las, pois o prognóstico e o tratamento são distintos. Estima-se que 3% de todas as visitas às salas de emergência decorrem de elevações significativas da pressão arterial. Nos quadros relacionados a estes atendimentos, a emergência hipertensiva é a entidade clínica mais grave que merece cuidados intensivos. É caracterizada por pressão arterial marcadamente elevada e sinais de lesões de órgãos-alvo (encefalopatia, infarto agudo do miocárdio, angina instável, edema agudo de pulmão, eclâmpsia, acidente vascular encefálico. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar os principais pontos sobre o seu apropriado diagnóstico e tratamento. Foi realizada busca por artigos originais com os unitermos "crise hipertensiva" e "emergência hipertensiva" nas bases de dados Pubmed e MedLine nos últimos dez anos. As referências disponíveis destes artigos foram verificadas. Os artigos foram identificados e revisados e o presente estudo condensa os principais resultados descritos. Para esta revisão foram considerados ensaios clínicos em língua inglesa, estudos retrospectivos e artigos de revisão. A crise hipertensiva é a entidade clínica com aumento súbito da PA (> 180 x 120 mmHg, acompanhada por sintomas, que podem ser leves (cefaléia, tontura, zumbido ou graves (dispnéia, dor precordial, coma e até morte, com ou sem lesão aguda de órgãos-alvo. Se os sintomas forem leves e sem lesão aguda de órgãos alvos, define-se a urgência hipertensiva. Se o quadro clínico apresentar risco de vida e refletir lesão aguda de órgãos-alvo têm-se, então, a emergência hipertensiva. Muitos pacientes também apresentam uma PA elevada demais, por não usarem suas medicações, tratando-se apenas de hipertensão arterial sistêmica crônica n

  17. Current management of surgical oncologic emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosscher, Marianne R F; van Leeuwen, Barbara L; Hoekstra, Harald J

    2015-01-01

    For some oncologic emergencies, surgical interventions are necessary for dissolution or temporary relieve. In the absence of guidelines, the most optimal method for decision making would be in a multidisciplinary cancer conference (MCC). In an acute setting, the opportunity for multidisciplinary discussion is often not available. In this study, the management and short term outcome of patients after surgical oncologic emergency consultation was analyzed. A prospective registration and follow up of adult patients with surgical oncologic emergencies between 01-11-2013 and 30-04-2014. The follow up period was 30 days. In total, 207 patients with surgical oncologic emergencies were included. Postoperative wound infections, malignant obstruction, and clinical deterioration due to progressive disease were the most frequent conditions for surgical oncologic emergency consultation. During the follow up period, 40% of patients underwent surgery. The median number of involved medical specialties was two. Only 30% of all patients were discussed in a MCC within 30 days after emergency consultation, and only 41% of the patients who underwent surgery were discussed in a MCC. For 79% of these patients, the surgical procedure was performed before the MCC. Mortality within 30 days was 13%. In most cases, surgery occurred without discussing the patient in a MCC, regardless of the fact that multiple medical specialties were involved in the treatment process. There is a need for prognostic aids and acute oncology pathways with structural multidisciplinary management. These will provide in faster institution of the most appropriate personalized cancer care, and prevent unnecessary investigations or invasive therapy.

  18. Forward Period Analysis Method of the Periodic Hamiltonian System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Wang

    Full Text Available Using the forward period analysis (FPA, we obtain the period of a Morse oscillator and mathematical pendulum system, with the accuracy of 100 significant digits. From these results, the long-term [0, 1060] (time unit solutions, ranging from the Planck time to the age of the universe, are computed reliably and quickly with a parallel multiple-precision Taylor series (PMT scheme. The application of FPA to periodic systems can greatly reduce the computation time of long-term reliable simulations. This scheme provides an efficient way to generate reference solutions, against which long-term simulations using other schemes can be tested.

  19. Detecting periodicities with Gaussian processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Durrande

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of detecting and quantifying the periodic component of a function given noise-corrupted observations of a limited number of input/output tuples. Our approach is based on Gaussian process regression, which provides a flexible non-parametric framework for modelling periodic data. We introduce a novel decomposition of the covariance function as the sum of periodic and aperiodic kernels. This decomposition allows for the creation of sub-models which capture the periodic nature of the signal and its complement. To quantify the periodicity of the signal, we derive a periodicity ratio which reflects the uncertainty in the fitted sub-models. Although the method can be applied to many kernels, we give a special emphasis to the Matérn family, from the expression of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space inner product to the implementation of the associated periodic kernels in a Gaussian process toolkit. The proposed method is illustrated by considering the detection of periodically expressed genes in the arabidopsis genome.

  20. Scheduling periodic tasks with slack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korst, J.H.M.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Lenstra, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the problem of nonpreemptively scheduling periodic tasks on a minimum number of identical processors, assuming that some slack is allowed in the time between successive executions of a periodic task. We prove that the problem is NP-hard in the strong sense. Necessary and sufficient

  1. The Emergence of Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Dalsgård, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The development of new ideas is an essential concern for many design projects. There are, however, few in-depth studies of how such ideas emerge within these contexts. In this article we offer an analysis of the emergence of ideas from specific sources of inspiration, as they arise through...

  2. Emergency exercise scenario tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear power plant emergency exercises require a realistically presented accident situation which includes various aspects: plant process, radioactivity, radiation, weather and people. Experiences from nuclear power plant emergency exercises show that preparing accident scenarios even for relatively short exercises is tedious. In the future modern computer technology and past experience could be used for making exercise planning more effective. (au)

  3. Theme: Emerging Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpiedi, Barbara J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Consists of six articles discussing the effect of emerging technologies on agriculture. Specific topics include (1) agriscience programs, (2) the National Conference on Agriscience and Emerging Occupations and Technologies, (3) biotechnology, (4) program improvement through technology, (5) the Agriscience Teacher of the Year program, and (6)…

  4. Emergency presurgical visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Castro Díaz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective has been to create a Protocol of Structured Presurgical Visit applicable to the patients who are undergoing an emergency surgery, to provide the user and his family all the necessary cares on the basis of those nursing diagnosis that prevail in all the cases of surgical emergency interventions. The used method has been an analysis of the emergency surgical interventions more prevalent from February 2007 until October 2008 in our area (a regional hospital, and statistic of those nursing diagnosis that more frequently appeared in these interventions, the previous moment to the intervention and in addition common to all of them. The results were the following ones: the more frequent emergency operations were: Caesarean, ginecological curettage, laparotomy, help in risk childbirth, orthopaedic surgery and appendectomy. The more frequent nursing diagnosis in all the emergency operations at the previous moment of the intervention were: risk of falls, pain, anxiety, deficit of knowledge, risk of infection, movement stress syndrome, risk of hemorrhage, cutaneous integrity deterioration. The conclusion is that users present at the previous moment to an emergency operation several problems, which force to the emergency surgical ward nurse to the introduction of the nursing methodology, in order to identify the problems, to mark results and to indicate the interventions to achieve those results, besides in a humanitarian way and with quality. This can be obtained by performing a Structured Emergency Presurgical Visit.

  5. Emerging wind energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Flemming; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2014-01-01

    This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive.......This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive....

  6. Competitiveness in Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a collection of interrelated research advances in the field of technological entrepreneurship from the perspective of competition in emerging markets. Featuring contributions by scholars from different fields of interest, it provides a mix of theoretical developments, insights...... and research methods used to uncover the unexplored aspects of competitiveness in emerging markets in an age characterized by disruptive technologies....

  7. Radiology in emergency medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.; Barsan, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book gives a discussion of radiologic modalities currently being used in emergency situations. Radiographs, echocardiographs, radionuclide scans and CT scans are systematically analyzed and evaluated to provide a step-by-step diagnostic process for emergency physicians to follow when a radiologist is not present

  8. Emergent Collaboration on Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Daniel; Razmerita, Liana; Tan, Chee-Wee

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the organizing elements that foster emergent collaboration within large-scale communities on online social platforms like Twitter. This study is based on a case study of the #BlackLivesMatter social movement and draws on organizing dynamics and online social network literature...... foster emergent collaboration in social movements using Twitter....

  9. Rationalization of Comet Halley's periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Michael J. S.

    1990-01-01

    The sense of long axis orientation of Comet Halley during the Vega 1 encounter must be reversed from that deduced by Sagdeev et al. (1986) in order to harmonize the comet nucleus' Vega/Giotto-observed orientations with periodicities extracted from time-series brightness data. It is also demonstrated that Vega/Giotto observations can be satisfied by either a 2.2- or 3.7-day long-axis free precession period. A novel Fourier algorithm is used to reanalyze five independent data sets; strong evidence is adduced for periods harmonically related to a 7.4-day period. The preferred candidate models for Halley's nuclear rotation are characterized by a long-axis precession period of 3.7 days.

  10. Orbital periods of recurrent novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    The class of recurrent novae (RN) with thermonuclear runaways contains only three systems (T Pyx, U Sco, and V394 CrA), for which no orbital periods are known. This paper presents a series of photometric observations where the orbital periods for all three systems are discovered. T Pyx is found to have sinusoidal modulation with an amplitude of 0.08 mag and a period of 2.3783 h (with a possible alias of 2.6403 h). U Sco is found to be an eclipsing system with an eclipse amplitude of roughly 1.5 mag and an orbital period of 1.2344 days. V394 CrA is found to have sinusoidal modulation with an amplitude of 0.5 mag and a period of 0.7577 days. Thus two out of three RN with thermonuclear runaways (or five out of six for all RN) have evolved companions. 16 refs

  11. Chaos to periodicity and periodicity to chaos by periodic perturbations in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qianshu; Zhu Rui

    2004-01-01

    A three-variable model of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction system subject to external sinusoidal perturbations is investigated by means of frequency spectrum analysis. In the period-1 window of the model, the transitions from periodicity to chaos are observed; in the chaotic window, the transitions from chaos to periodicity are found. The former might be understood by the circle map of two coupled oscillators, and the latter is partly explained by the resonance between the main frequency of the chaos and the frequency of the external periodic perturbations

  12. Educational program emergency planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Tammy

    2009-01-01

    Tragic university shootings have prompted administrators of higher education institutions to re-evaluate their emergency preparedness plans and take appropriate measures for preventing and responding to emergencies. To review the literature and identify key components needed to prevent shootings at higher education institutions in the United States, and in particular, institutions housing radiologic science programs. Twenty-eight emergency preparedness plans were retrieved electronically and reviewed from a convenience sample of accredited radiologic science programs provided by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology Web site. The review of the 28 emergency preparedness plans confirmed that most colleges are prepared for basic emergencies, but lack the key components needed to successfully address mass-casualty events. Only 5 (18%) of the 28 institutions addressed policies concerning school shootings.

  13. Management of Radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentijo, J. C.; Gil, E.; San Nicolas, J.; Lazuen, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Spain has a system of planning and response to emergency situations that is structured and coordinated by the General Directorship of civil Defense of the Ministry of the Interior and in which all levels of the Public Administration. state, autonomous and municipal-and owners of potentially hazardous activities participate. Activities involving a nuclear or radiological risk have specific emergency plans whose general principles are based on the general emergency system and whose technical bases are consistent with international practices and recommendations. The Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear actively participates in the design, implementation and activation of these plans, and for this purpose has an organization superimposed on its ordinary working organization that is activated in the event of an accident, as well as an Emergency Room specifically designed to deal with nuclear and radiological emergencies. (Author)

  14. Iraqi architecture in mogul period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Shatha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Iraqi architecture have many periods passed through it until now, each on from these periods have it is architectural style, also through time these styles interacted among us, to creating kind of space forming, space relationships, and architectural elements (detailed treatments, the research problem being from the multi interacted architectural styles causing some of confused of general characteristic to every style, that we could distinguish by it. Research tries to study architecture style through Mogul Conquest to Baghdad. Aim of research follow main characteristic for this architectural style in the Mogul periods on the level of form, elements, and treatments. Research depending on descriptive and analytical all buildings belong to this period, so from analyzing there style by, general form for building, architectural elements, and it architectural treatment, therefore; repeating this procedures to every building we get some similarities, from these similarities we can making conclusion about pure characteristic of the style of these period. Other side, we also discover some Dissimilar in the building periods, these will lead research to make what interacting among styles in this period, after all that we can drew clearly main characteristic of Architectural Style for Mogul Conquest in Baghdad

  15. The Periodic Table in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raos, N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian (Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts was the first academy to elect D. I. Mendeleev as its honorary member (1882, whereas the periodic table of the elements has been taught regularly at the Zagreb University since 1888. The early interest of Croatian chemists in the periodic table should be attributed primarily to their pan-Slavic attitude, particularly as proof that Slavic people were able to produce "their own Newtons" (M. V. Lomonosov and D. I. Mendeleev. Such enthusiastic views, however, did not help in analyzing the contribution of Mendeleev and other scientists to the discovery and development of the periodic table of the elements.

  16. Identifying barriers to emergency care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoodt, Luk; Mock, Charles; Bucagu, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to present a review of published evidence of barriers to emergency care, with attention towards both financial and other barriers. With the keywords (financial) accessibility, barriers and emergency care services, citations in PubMed were searched and further selected in the context of the objective of this article. Forty articles, published over a period of 15 years, showed evidence of significant barriers to emergency care. These barriers often tend to persist, despite the fact that the evidence was published many years ago. Several publications stressed the importance of the financial barriers in foregoing or delaying potentially life-saving emergency services, both in poor and rich countries. Other publications report non-financial barriers that prevent patients in need of emergency care (pre-hospital and in-patient care) from seeking care, from arriving in the proper emergency department without undue delay or from receiving proper treatment when they do arrive in these departments. It is clear that timely access to life-saving and disability-preventing emergency care is problematic in many settings. Yet, low-cost measures can likely be taken to significantly reduce these barriers. It is time to make an inventory of these measures and to implement the most cost-effective ones worldwide. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Hypertension in the Neonatal Period: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Anish; Sharma, Deepak; Kadam, Pratichi

    2016-01-01

    There has been a growing interest among neonatologists and paediatricians regarding identification and evaluation of hypertension in the neonatal period. Despite the emergent normative data on blood pressure values in term and preterm neonates over the last two decades, there is still controversy regarding correct definition and classification of hypertension. This article will discuss the current definitions, available normative data and etiology of neonatal hypertension. There is paucity of records in terms of efficacy of antihypertensive drugs in this specific population and management is usually experience based, causing considerable heterogeneity amongst different units. This review article will also cover the evaluation, management, outcomes and follow up of neonatal hypertension with latest advances in this field. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Emergence in Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Collier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergence is a term used in many contexts in current science; it has become fashionable. It has a traditional usage in philosophy that started in 1875 and was expanded by J. S. Mill (earlier, under a different term and C. D. Broad. It is this form of emergence that I am concerned with here. I distinguish it from uses like ‘computational emergence,’ which can be reduced to combinations of program steps, or its application to merely surprising new features that appear in complex combinations of parts. I will be concerned specifically with ontological emergence that has the logical properties required by Mill and Broad (though there might be some quibbling about the details of their views. I restrict myself to dynamical systems that are embodied in processes. Everything that we can interact with through sensation or action is either dynamical or can be understood in dynamical terms, so this covers all comprehensible forms of emergence in the strong (nonreducible sense I use. I will give general dynamical conditions that underlie the logical conditions traditionally assigned to emergence in nature.The advantage of this is that, though we cannot test logical conditions directly, we can test dynamical conditions. This gives us an empirical and realistic form of emergence, contrary those who say it is a matter of perspective.

  19. Possible Rivaroxaban Failure during the Postpartum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Kelly M; Winans, Amanda R McFee; Panneerselvam, Narmadha

    2015-11-01

    Rivaroxaban, a factor Xa inhibitor, is a direct-acting oral anticoagulant (DOAC) indicated for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), and for reducing the risk of DVT and PE recurrence. To our knowledge, no data are presently available to guide DOAC dosing in the postpartum period when pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes induced by pregnancy have an impact on drug clearance and increase hypercoagulability for a period of 6-8 weeks after delivery. We describe the case of a 35-year-old postpartum woman who presented to the emergency department with a diagnosis of a new multiple segmental PE 5 days after starting rivaroxaban therapy for a diagnosis of DVT. No precipitating cause, including noncompliance, was identified as a source of thrombosis embolization or extension. The patient was admitted, a heparin infusion was started for the management of PE, and rivaroxaban was discontinued. She was transitioned to enoxaparin 1 mg/kg (90 mg) subcutaneously every 12 hours the next day, bridged to warfarin, and discharged home on the overlapping regimen with close follow-up by the pharmacist-managed outpatient Anticoagulation Management Service. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of potential failure associated with rivaroxaban therapy in the postpartum period, possibly due to pharmacokinetic alterations seen in the postpartum period contributing to decreased drug exposure, yielding reduced anticoagulant efficacy. Clinicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of DOAC therapy in postpartum patients or other special populations requiring anticoagulation therapy. This report also highlights the need for further research identifying the impact of pharmacokinetic changes induced by special populations and the need to develop monitoring assays for such clinical situations. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  20. Hypertensive crisis during pregnancy and postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, Gloria T; Hill, James B

    2013-08-01

    Hypertension affects 10% of pregnancies, many with underlying chronic hypertension, and approximately 1-2% will undergo a hypertensive crisis at some point during their lives. Hypertensive crisis includes hypertensive urgency and emergency; the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists describes a hypertensive emergency in pregnancy as persistent (lasting 15 min or more), acute-onset, severe hypertension, defined as systolic BP greater than 160 mmHg or diastolic BP >110 mmHg in the setting of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia. Pregnancy may be complicated by hypertensive crisis, with lower blood pressure threshold for end-organ damage than non-pregnant patients. Maternal assessment should include a thorough history. Fetal assessment should include heart rate tracing, ultrasound for growth and amniotic assessment, and Doppler evaluation if growth restriction is suspected. Initial management of hypertensive emergency (systolic BP >160 mmHg or diastolic BP >110 mmHg in the setting of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia) generally includes the rapid reduction of blood pressure through the use of intravenous antihypertensive medications, with goal systolic blood pressure between 140 mmHg and 150 mmHg and diastolic pressure between 90 mmHg and 100 mmHg. First-line intravenous drugs include labetalol and hydralazine, but other agents may be used, including esmolol, nicardipine, nifedipine, and, as a last resort, sodium nitroprusside. Among patients with hypertensive urgency, slower blood pressure reduction can be provided with oral agents. The objective of this article is to review the current understanding, diagnosis, and management of hypertensive crisis during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Training for emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauf, E.

    1993-01-01

    There are specific boundary conditions where preparedness for in-plant emergency management is as necessary and useful as is the training for the management of design-based accidents. The shift personnel has to be trained to cope particularly with the difficult and demanding initial phase of an emergency, and care must be taken to be very close to reality. Only thus can weak points be discovered and removed by pinpointed measures such as organisational changes, optimization of emergency management procedures, or hardware conditions. (orig.) [de

  2. Acute oncological emergencies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gabriel, J

    2012-01-01

    The number of people receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment and presenting at emergency departments with treatment-related problems is rising. Nurses will be the first point of contact for most patients and need to be able to recognise oncological emergencies to initiate urgent assessment of patients and referral to the acute oncology team so that the most appropriate care can be delivered promptly. This article discusses the role of acute oncology services, and provides an overview of the most common acute oncological emergencies.

  3. Is hospital care of major importance for outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest? Experience acquired from patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitated by the same Emergency Medical Service and admitted to one of two hospitals over a 16-year period in the municipality of Göteborg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engdahl, J; Abrahamsson, P; Bång, A; Lindqvist, J; Karlsson, T; Herlitz, J

    2000-02-01

    To describe patient characteristics, hospital investigations and interventions and early mortality among patients being hospitalized after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in two hospitals. Municipality of Göteborg, Sweden. All patients suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who were successfully resuscitated and admitted to hospital between 1 October 1980 and 31 December 1996. All patients were resuscitated by the same Emergency Medical Service and admitted alive to one of the two city hospitals in Göteborg. Of 579 patients admitted to Sahlgrenska Hospital, 253 (44%) were discharged alive and of 459 patients admitted to Ostra Hospital, 152 (33%) were discharged alive (P percentage of patients admitted to Sahlgrenska Hospital underwent coronary angiography (P < 0.001), electrophysiological testing (P < 0.001), Holter recording (P < 0.001), echocardiography (P = 0.004), percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA, P = 0.009), implantation of automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD, P = 0.03) and exercise stress tests (P = 0.003). Inhabitants in the catchment area of Ostra Hospital had a less favourable socio-economic profile. Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest may be affected by the course of hospital management. Other variables that might influence survival are socio-economic factors and cardiorespiratory status on admission to hospital. Further investigation is called for as more patients are being hospitalised alive after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

  4. Topological imprint for periodic orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Jesús San; Moscoso, Ma José; Gómez, A González

    2012-01-01

    The more self-crossing points an orbit has the more complex it is. We introduce the topological imprint to characterize crossing points and focus on the period-doubling cascade. The period-doubling cascade topological imprint determines the topological imprint for orbits in chaotic bands. In addition, there is a closer link between this concept and the braids studied by Lettelier et al (2000 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 33 1809–25). (paper)

  5. Minimum period and the gap in periods of Cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paczynski, B.; Sienkiewicz, R.

    1983-01-01

    The 81 minute cutoff to the orbital periods of hydrogen-rich cataclysmic binaries is consistent with evolution of those systems being dominated by angular momentum losses due to gravitational radiation. Unfortunately, many uncertainties, mainly poorly known atmospheric opacities below 2000 K, make is physically impossible to verify the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation by using the observed cutoff at 81 minutes. The upper boundary of the gap in orbital periods observed at about 3 hours is almost certainly due to enhanced angular momentum losses from cataclysmic binaries which have longer periods. The physical mechanism of those losses is not identified, but a possible importance of stellar winds is pointed out. The lower boundary of the gap may be explained with the oldest cataclysmic binaries, whose periods evolved past the minimum at 81 minutes and reached the value of 2 hours within about 12 x 10 9 years after the binary had formed. Those binaries should have secondary components of only 0.02 solar masses, and their periods could be used to estimate ages of the oldest cataclysmic stars, and presumably the age of Galaxy. An alternative explanation for the gap requires that binaries should be detached while crossing the gap. A possible mechanism for this phenomenon is discussed. It requires the secondary components to be about 0.2 solar masses in the binaries just below the gap

  6. Common geriatric emergencies in a rural hospital in South‑Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common geriatric emergencies in a rural hospital in South‑Eastern Nigeria. ... by emergency health conditions that predispose them to higher risk of disability and ... The geriatric patients seen within the study period who met the selection ...

  7. 77 FR 58529 - Submission for OMB Emergency Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Total Burden Hours: 28,089 hours. Total Burden Cost (capital/startup): None. Total Burden Cost... date. Therefore, there will be no comment period for this request. Type of Review: Emergency request...

  8. The Spy in Early America: The Emergence of a Genre

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weir, Alison

    1998-01-01

    ... after the Revolution through the antebellum period. By examining the paradoxical figure of the heroic spy, the dissertation explores how the spy story emerged as the adventure tale of the Revolution, the spy became a potential hero, and how the...

  9. Commuting periodic operators and the periodic Wigner function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, J

    2004-01-01

    Commuting periodic operators (CPO) depending on the coordinate x-hat and the momentum p-hat operators are defined. The CPO are functions of the two basic commuting operators exp(i x-hat 2π/a) and exp(i/h p-hat a), with a being an arbitrary constant. A periodic Wigner function (PWF) w(x, p) is defined and it is shown that it is applicable in a normal expectation value calculation to the CPO, as done in the original Wigner paper. Moreover, this PWF is non-negative everywhere, and it can therefore be interpreted as an actual probability distribution. The PWF w(x, p) is shown to be given as an expectation value of the periodic Dirac delta function in the phase plane. (letter to the editor)

  10. Create an Emergency Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... models take up less space in your kit. Cell phone. Always carry a cell phone and let people know where you are going ... pump in your emergency kit. Remember that despite safety standards and careful monitoring, these devices can fail. ...

  11. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  12. Emerging topics in FXTAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Deborah A; Birch, Rachael C; Anheim, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes key emerging issues in fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) as presented at the First International Conference on the FMR1 Premutation: Basic Mechanisms & Clinical Involvement in 2013....

  13. 7. Emergency contraception

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitwala

    individually on each day after satisfying the selection criteria. ... thought the pills can work up to a maximum of 24 hours. The main source of information was from friends (80%). ... 6 – 10 years .... emergency contraceptive pills among Swedish.

  14. Clustering of Emerging Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Observations show that newly emerging flux tends to appear on the Solar surface at sites where there is flux already. This results in clustering of solar activity. Standard dynamo theories do not predict this effect.

  15. Emergency management at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockholts, I.P.

    1992-01-01

    In the past years, all kind of activities in the field of emergency management have been taken in order to handle accidents. In the scope of this paper, emergencies are those accidents that may lead to severe releases of oil and gas, whereby also attention is paid to collisions between offshore installations and drifting objects and the situation where people fall overboard. Case histories show that coping with these serious accidents is not always as effective and successful as intended. The stage from being aware of the risks, to being prepared to cope with the consequences, to actually being capable to combat is long and consists of many elements. This paper will deal with the general approach of emergency management, the development of automated tools for decision support on emergencies as well as some fate and effect models

  16. Emerging Targets in Photopharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerch, Michael M.; Hansen, Mickel J.; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L.

    2016-01-01

    The field of photopharmacology uses molecular photoswitches to establish control over the action of bioactive molecules. It aims to reduce systemic drug toxicity and the emergence of resistance, while achieving unprecedented precision in treatment. By using small molecules, photopharmacology

  17. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, A.L.; Rutten, V.P.M.G.; Helden van, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement to Transboundary and Emerging Diseases is a compilation of selected papers presented at the International Wildlife Tuberculosis Conference, held from 9 to 12 September 2012 in Skukuza, South Africa.

  18. OEM Emergency Response Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management retains records of all incident responses in which it participates. This data asset includes three major sources of information:...

  19. Imaging of gynecologic emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Matthias W.; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; John Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD; Kubik, Rahel A.

    2016-01-01

    Acute abdominal pain related to the female genital organs is frequently encountered in the emergency department. Gynecological emergencies are diseases of the female reproductive system that are potentially life-threatening and peril the sexual function and fertility. In the diagnostic work-up of acute abdominal pain, a wide variety of differential diagnoses needs to be considered depending on the age of the patient and a concomitant pregnancy. There is significant clinical overlap with gastrointestinal emergencies. Therefore, imaging plays a key role in diagnosing the cause of the pain and the planning of the therapy. The aim of this review is to illustrate the significant role of imaging in frequently encountered gynecologic emergencies.

  20. Emergency Notification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID ENS provides quick and effective notification messages during any emergency affecting the Ronald Reagan Building, SA-44, Potomac Yards and USAID Washington...

  1. Football emergency medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may be called upon to intervene medically when a football player succumbs to a severe ... including safety and security services, emergency and primary health care medical ..... of the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines 2005.

  2. Emerging nuclear suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sands, A.

    1990-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons have usually taken two tracks: The traditional approach has concentrated on a potential proliferant's perceived need for nuclear technology and possibly weapons; a second approach has targeted the supply side of the proliferation equation. The issue being examined in this book---emerging nuclear suppliers---falls between these two approaches. The potential proliferants have emerged as possible unrestrained suppliers of nuclear materials and technology. They threaten the entire nonproliferation regime by their exporting, not their weapons development. Analyzing and understanding the issue of emerging suppliers requires a refined definition of suppliers in general. The simple dichotomy of traditional versus emerging suppliers is no longer an adequate framework for analysis. Suppliers differ significantly in their technical capabilities, experience, and regime involvement, and these distinctions result in different nuclear export policies

  3. Nanopublication beyond the sciences: the PeriodO period gazetteer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Golden

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The information expressed in humanities datasets is inextricably tied to a wider discursive environment that is irreducible to complete formal representation. Humanities scholars must wrestle with this fact when they attempt to publish or consume structured data. The practice of “nanopublication,” which originated in the e-science domain, offers a way to maintain the connection between formal representations of humanities data and its discursive basis. In this paper we describe nanopublication, its potential applicability to the humanities, and our experience curating humanities nanopublications in the PeriodO period gazetteer.

  4. Transfusion Related Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, Megan Boysen; Tran, Min-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Audience: This exercise is appropriate for all emergency medicine learners (residents and medical students) and learners from other specialties (internal medicine, family medicine, anesthesia). Introduction: About 85 million red blood cell units are transfused worldwide each year. Transfusion reactions can complicate up to 8% of blood transfusions and can range from benign to life threatening. An emergency physician must be able to discuss the risks and benefits of blood transfusion...

  5. Ten Questions about Emergence

    OpenAIRE

    Fromm, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    Self-Organization is of growing importance for large distributed computing systems. In these systems, a central control and manual management is exceedingly difficult or even impossible. Emergence is widely recognized as the core principle behind self-organization. Therefore the idea to use both principles to control and organize large-scale distributed systems is very attractive and not so far off. Yet there are many open questions about emergence and self-organization, ranging from a clear ...

  6. Diabetic and endocrine emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, T; Dang, C

    2007-01-01

    Endocrine emergencies constitute only a small percentage of the emergency workload of general doctors, comprising about 1.5% of all hospital admission in England in 2004–5. Most of these are diabetes related with the remaining conditions totalling a few hundred cases at most. Hence any individual doctor might not have sufficient exposure to be confident in their management. This review discusses the management of diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state, hypoglycaemia, hyperca...

  7. Design of emergency shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    Manufacturing of an emergency movable shield in the hot laboratories center is urgently needed for the safety of personnel in case of accidents or spilling of radioactive materials. In this report, a full design for an emergency shield is presented and the corresponding dose rates behind the shield for different activities (from 1 mCi to 5 Ci) was calculated by using micro shield computer code. 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Emergency response workers workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agapeev, S.A.; Glukhikh, E.N.; Tyurin, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    A training workshop entitled Current issues and potential improvements in Rosatom Corporation emergency prevention and response system was held in May-June, 2012. The workshop combined theoretical training with full-scale practical exercise that demonstrated the existing innovative capabilities for radiation reconnaissance, diving equipment and robotics, aircraft, emergency response and rescue hardware and machinery. This paper describes the activities carried out during the workshop [ru

  9. Planning for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, J.R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper aims to stimulate discussions between nuclear engineers and the radiological protection professions in order to facilitate planning for nuclear emergencies. A brief review is given of the response to nuclear accidents. Studying accidents can lead to prevention, but some effort must be put into emergency response. Such issues as decontamination and decommissioning, socio-economic consequences, education and training for nuclear personnel and exercises and drills, are raised. (UK)

  10. Emerging technologies in surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satava, R.M.; Gaspari, A.; Di Lorenzo, N.

    2007-01-01

    Tremendous acceleration and changes in scientific discovery and progress are presently occurring. These important emerging technologies that will affect the practicing surgeon within the next 10 to 20 years are illustrated in detail in this volume. Its purpose is not to review clinical experience of the common surgical practice of the past decade, but to outline and illustrate the future trends. International experts in this field demonstrate emerging procedures and significant advances. (orig.)

  11. Accident and emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, V.; Moellenbach, K.; Heinonen, R.; Jakobsson, S.; Kukko, T.; Berg, Oe.; Larsen, J.S.; Westgaard, T.; Magnusson, B.; Andersson, H.; Holmstroem, C.; Brehmer, B.; Allard, R.

    1988-06-01

    There is an increasing potential for severe accidents as the industrial development tends towards large, centralised production units. In several industries this has led to the formation of large organisations which are prepared for accidents fighting and for emergency management. The functioning of these organisations critically depends upon efficient decision making and exchange of information. This project is aimed at securing and possibly improving the functionality and efficiency of the accident and emergency management by verifying, demonstrating, and validating the possible use of advanced information technology in the organisations mentioned above. With the nuclear industry in focus the project consists of five main activities: 1) The study and detailed analysis of accident and emergency scenarios based on records from incidents and rills in nuclear installations. 2) Development of a conceptual understanding of accident and emergency management with emphasis on distributed decision making, information flow, and control structure sthat are involved. 3) Development of a general experimental methodology for evaluating the effects of different kinds of decision aids and forms of organisation for emergency management systems with distributed decision making. 4) Development and test of a prototype system for a limited part of an accident and emergency organisation to demonstrate the potential use of computer and communication systems, data-base and knowledge base technology, and applications of expert systems and methods used in artificial intelligence. 5) Production of guidelines for the introduction of advanced information technology in the organisations based on evaluation and validation of the prototype system. (author)

  12. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L-F; Crameri, G

    2014-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. They are caused by all types of pathogenic agents, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses and prions. Although they have been recognised for many centuries, their impact on public health has increased in the last few decades due to a combination of the success in reducing the spread of human infectious diseases through vaccination and effective therapies and the emergence of novel zoonotic diseases. It is being increasingly recognised that a One Health approach at the human-animal-ecosystem interface is needed for effective investigation, prevention and control of any emerging zoonotic disease. Here, the authors will review the drivers for emergence, highlight some of the high-impact emerging zoonotic diseases of the last two decades and provide examples of novel One Health approaches for disease investigation, prevention and control. Although this review focuses on emerging zoonotic viral diseases, the authors consider that the discussions presented in this paper will be equally applicable to emerging zoonotic diseases of other pathogen types.

  13. Emergency reactor cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Ken.

    1993-01-01

    An emergency nuclear reactor cooling device comprises a water reservoir, emergency core cooling water pipelines having one end connected to a water feeding sparger, fire extinguishing facility pipelines, cooling water pressurizing pumps, a diesel driving machine for driving the pumps and a battery. In a water reservoir, cooling water is stored by an amount required for cooling the reactor upon emergency and for fire extinguishing, and fire extinguishing facility pipelines connecting the water reservoir and the fire extinguishing facility are in communication with the emergency core cooling water pipelines connected to the water feeding sparger by system connection pipelines. Pumps are operated by a diesel power generator to introduce cooling water from the reservoir to the emergency core cooling water pipelines. Then, even in a case where AC electric power source is entirely lost and the emergency core cooling system can not be used, the diesel driving machine is operated using an exclusive battery, thereby enabling to inject cooling water from the water reservoir to a reactor pressure vessel and a reactor container by the diesel drive pump. (N.H.)

  14. Suppression of period-doubling and nonlinear parametric effects in periodically perturbed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.; Wiesenfeld, K.

    1986-01-01

    We consider the effect on a generic period-doubling bifurcation of a periodic perturbation, whose frequency ω 1 is near the period-doubled frequency ω 0 /2. The perturbation is shown to always suppress the bifurcation, shifting the bifurcation point and stabilizing the behavior at the original bifurcation point. We derive an equation characterizing the response of the system to the perturbation, analysis of which reveals many interesting features of the perturbed bifurcation, including (1) the scaling law relating the shift of the bifurcation point and the amplitude of the perturbation, (2) the characteristics of the system's response as a function of bifurcation parameter, (3) parametric amplification of the perturbation signal including nonlinear effects such as gain saturation and a discontinuity in the response at a critical perturbation amplitude, (4) the effect of the detuning (ω 1 -ω 0 /2) on the bifurcation, and (5) the emergence of a closely spaced set of peaks in the response spectrum. An important application is the use of period-doubling systems as small-signal amplifiers, e.g., the superconducting Josephson parametric amplifier

  15. Periodic testing in operative action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larm, T.

    2005-01-01

    Periodic testing forms a remarkable part of the regular work tasks of the shift crew. Testing is generally carried out beside the daily monitoring and control work. Even remarkable plant related differences may occur in the procedures and routines used in periodic testing. The goal is still always the same, to regularly ensure that the systems and equipment are in working order according to their design. This presentation studies with examples the execution and scope of periodic testing as well as the routines and procedures used in the testing in Loviisa power plant. The presentation is based on the testing procedures of Loviisa power plant and the aim is not to compare them to the procedures of other plants. The scope of periodic testing has increased and the routines and procedures have been developed as the operation experience has increased. The assessment of the need of periodic testing and the consideration of the practical execution possibilities should be a part of the plant's planning phase as a part of the planning process. (orig.)

  16. Inflation from periodic extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro [Department of Physics, Keio University, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Tatsuta, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: thigaki@rk.phys.keio.ac.jp, E-mail: y_tatsuta@akane.waseda.jp [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2017-07-01

    We discuss a realization of a small field inflation based on string inspired supergravities. In theories accompanying extra dimensions, compactification of them with small radii is required for realistic situations. Since the extra dimension can have a periodicity, there will appear (quasi-)periodic functions under transformations of moduli of the extra dimensions in low energy scales. Such a periodic property can lead to a UV completion of so-called multi-natural inflation model where inflaton potential consists of a sum of multiple sinusoidal functions with a decay constant smaller than the Planck scale. As an illustration, we construct a SUSY breaking model, and then show that such an inflaton potential can be generated by a sum of world sheet instantons in intersecting brane models on extra dimensions containing orbifold. We show also predictions of cosmic observables by numerical analyzes.

  17. Periodicity, the Canon and Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Scanlon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic according to this title is admittedly a broad one, embracing two very general concepts of time and of the cultural valuation of artistic products. Both phenomena are, in the present view, largely constructed by their contemporary cultures, and given authority to a great extent from the prestige of the past. The antiquity of tradition brings with it a certain cachet. Even though there may be peripheral debates in any given society which question the specifics of periodization or canonicity, individuals generally accept the consensus designation of a sequence of historical periods and they accept a list of highly valued artistic works as canonical or authoritative. We will first examine some of the processes of periodization and of canon-formation, after which we will discuss some specific examples of how these processes have worked in the sport of two ancient cultures, namely Greece and Mesoamerica.

  18. Periodicity and repeatability in data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, D.

    Using magnetic data from the first two years in Saturn orbit, the basic periodicity of apparent is examined with the aim of elucidating the `cam' shaft model of Espinosa et al. (2003) identifying the nature of the `cam' and giving a definitive period for its rotation. An initial hypothesis, supported by the spectral analysis of analysis of the first 8 months in orbit Gianpieri et al. (2006), is made that the source of the period is linked to something inside the planet and therefore that the source inertia means that the period effectively does not change over the 2 years. Moreover one expects that the source phase is fixed. Using this approach, not only can the period identified by spectral analysis (647.1 + 0.6 min.) be verified but also by phase analysis between successive passes over the 2 years the period can be refined to 647.6 + 0.1 min. The signal itself is remarkably reproducible from pass to pass. It appears in all three components of the field and its polarisation is unambiguously not attributable to direct detection of an internal field. Not only does the signal not decay rapidly with distance from the planet, but although it has the m=1 symmetry of a tilted dipole, the field lines diverge from the planet indicating an exterior source. This feature led to the `cam' model. The polarisation and comparisons of passes with different latitude profiles show a surprising north-south symmetry in the azimuthal field. The absence of asymmetry with respect to the magnetic equator rules out a direct magnetospheric-ionospheric interaction source. Accordingly, it is proposed that the basic `cam' effect is generated by a single hemisphere anomaly which creates hemisphere to hemisphere field aligned currents. The existence of Saturn phase related anomaly appears to produce a basic asymmetry in the inner magnetosphere that sets the phase of both an inflowing and outflowing sector in a rotating circulation system.

  19. An improved test for periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    I discuss two widely used methods of testing for periodicity, phase dispersion minimization and epoch-folding. Using an analysis of variance approach, I demonstrate the close relationship between these two methods. I also show that the significance test sometimes used in phase dispersion minimization is statistically inaccurate, and that the test used in epoch-folding is an approximation valid only for large sample sizes. I propose a new test statistic, applicable to either epoch-folding or PDM, which is statistically sound for all sample sizes, and which is also more sensitive to periodicity than the test statistics previously used with these two methods. (author)

  20. Sigmoid Volvulus Complicating Postpartum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey E. Ward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sigmoid volvulus is a rare complication of pregnancy and the puerperium. Case. A 19-year-old patient, gravida 1 para 0 at 41 0/7 weeks of gestation, admitted for late-term induction of labor underwent an uncomplicated primary low transverse cesarean delivery for arrest of descent. Her postoperative period was complicated by sudden onset of abdominal pain and the ultimate diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus. Conclusion. Prompt surgical evaluation of an acute abdomen in the postpartum period is essential; delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to significant maternal morbidity and mortality.

  1. Hydrogen purification by periodic adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barg, Christian; Secchi, Argimiro R.; Trierweiler, Jorge O. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: cbarg@enq.ufrgs.br; arge@enq.ufrgs.br; jorge@enq.ufrgs.br

    2000-07-01

    The periodic adsorption processes have been widely used for industrial applications, mainly because it spends less energy than the usual gas separation processes, like the cryogenic distillation. The largest commercial application of periodic adsorption processes is the pressure swing adsorption (PSA) applied to hydrogen purification. Although its wide use in the chemical and petrochemical industry, there are no reports in the open literature about complete modeling studies of a complex commercial unit, with multiple adsorbents and multiple beds and several feed components. This study has as objective the modeling, optimization and dynamical analysis of an industrial PSA unit for hydrogen purification. (author)

  2. Availability of periodically tested systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    There is at the present time a need in accurate models to asess the availability of periodically tested stand-by systems. This paper shows how to improve the well known 'saw-tooth curve' model in order to take into account various reliability parameters. A model is developed to assess the pointwise and the mean availabilities of periodically tested stand-by systems. Exact and approxination formulae are given. In addition, the model developed herein leads to optimize the test interval in order to minimize the mean unavailability. A safety diesel in a nuclear power plant is given as an example

  3. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary. The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ''natural disasters.'' Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic, others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms. State-by-state breakdowns are given for specific states

  4. [Cardiological emergency network in Lombardy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzegalli, Maurizio; Fontana, Giancarlo; Sesana, Giovanni; Grieco, Niccolò; Lombardi, Federico; Elena, Corrada; Ieva, Francesca; Paganoni, Anna Maria

    2008-10-01

    To achieve a reduction of time to reperfusion through the organization of an interhospital network and the involvement of the Regional Health Authority. Four major endpoints were identified: institutional governance action, clinical management of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), priority actions for cardiac arrest and early defibrillation, actions to avoid the delay related to decision-making, and logistic factors. Since 2001 in the urban area of Milan a network has been operating among 23 coronary care units, the 118 Dispatch Center (national free number for medical emergencies) and the Health Country Government Agency named Group for Prehospital Cardiac Emergency. In order to monitor the network activity and time to treatment and clinical outcomes a periodic monthly survey, called MOMI (One Month Monitoring Myocardial Infarction), was undertaken and repeated twice yearly. Data were evaluated according to hospital admission modality. Global times are: symptom onset to first medical contact 116 min (interquartile range [IQR] 189), time to first ECG 7 min (IQR 12), door-to-balloon time 77 min (IQR 81.7). Non-parametric test showed that the modality of hospital admittance was the most critical determinant of door-to-balloon time. The shortest one (49.5 min) was that of patients transported by means of advanced rescue units with 12-lead ECG teletransmission and activation of a fast track directly to the cath lab. Our data show how in a complex urban area the organization of an interhospital network and the availability of ECG teletransmission are effective in reducing time to reperfusion, in the treatment of major arrhythmias and in pre-alert of coronary care units and cath labs in case of confirmed STEMI. This experience also stimulated an improvement in technological equipment of rescue units with extension of 12-lead teletransmission to basic life support units. Through the Health Country Government Agency and the Scientific Societies we carry on

  5. Emerging Biometric Modalities: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon

    Recent advances in sensor technology and wide spread use of various electronics (computers, PDA, mobile phones etc.) provide new opportunities for capturing and analyses of novel physiological and behavioural traits of human beings for biometric authentication. This paper presents an overview of several such types of human characteristics that have been proposed as alternatives to traditional types of biometrics. We refer to these characteristics as emerging biometrics. We survey various types of emerging modalities and techniques, and discuss their pros and cons. Emerging biometrics faces several limitations and challenges which include subject population coverage (focusing mostly on adults); unavailability of benchmark databases; little research with respect to vulnerability/robustness against attacks; and some privacy concerns they may arise. In addition, recognition performance of emerging modalities are generally less accurate compared to the traditional biometrics. Despite all of these emerging biometrics posses their own benefits and advantages compared to traditional biometrics which makes them still attractive for research. First of all, emerging biometrics can always serve as a complementary source for identity information; they can be suitable in applications where traditional biometrics are difficult or impossible to adapt such as continuous or periodic re-verification of the user's identity etc.

  6. Hepatitis C in haemorrhagic obstetrical emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaskheli, M.; Baloch, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the maternal health and fetal outcome in hepatitis C with obstetrical haemorrhagic emergencies. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Unit-I, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Hospital, Hyderabad, Sindh, from January 2009 to December 2010. Methodology: All the women admitted during the study period with different obstetrical haemorrhagic emergencies were included. On virology screening, hepatitis C screening was done on all. The women with non-haemorrhagic obstetrical emergencies were excluded. Studied variables included demographic characteristics, the nature of obstetrical emergency, haemorrhagic conditions and maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The data was analyzed on SPSS version 20. Results: More frequent obstetrical haemorrhagic emergencies were observed with hepatitis C positive in comparison with hepatitis C negative cases including post-partum haemorrhage in 292 (80.88%) and ante-partum haemorrhage in 69 (19.11%) cases. Associated morbidities seen were disseminated intravascular coagulation in 43 (11.91%) and shock in 29 (8.03%) cases with hepatitis C positive. Fetal still birth rate was 37 (10.24%) in hepatitis C positive cases. Conclusion: Frequency of maternal morbidity and mortality and perinatal mortality was high in obstetrical haemorrhagic emergencies with hepatitis C positive cases. (author)

  7. How Much Time Do Unhospitalized Patients Applying for Emergency Services Stay in Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur Kürsad Erkuran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The patients applying to a emergency service may stay longer than necessary for diagnosis, monitoring and treatment. This can be due to the inadequacy of the treatment performed in emergency department or to the absence of the required unit in the hospital. In this study, we analyzed the waiting period of the patients who have not been hospitalized. METHODS: The patients applying to Bolu İzzet Baysal Public Hospital Emergency Unit between 24.11.2009 and 25.08.2011 have been studied regarding their application date, the season, and their waiting period in the emergency unit. The data have been analyzed using the statistics software Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, version 17.0 for Windows. The chi-square χ2 test has been used for the determination of the percentage distribution and significance and p<0,05 has been considered significant. RESULTS: 4215 patients applying to Bolu İzzet Baysal Public Hospital Emergency Unit between 24.11.2009 and 25.08.2011 and monitored without hospitalization have been studied. The patients mainly presented during spring (p<0.05. The application occurred more often between 20.00 PM – 23.59 PM (p<0.005. The mean duration of the accept-standby of the patients in emergency unit was 09±12 (minimum 0 minute, maximum 130 minutes. The patients waited 0,26 ±70 minutes in emergency unit examination (minimum 0 minute, maximum 1292 minutes. The total waiting time in emergency unit was 52 ±100 minutes (minimum 10, maximum 1435 minutes. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: In this study, we observed that the duration of the hospitalization in emergency unit is longer than the ideal duration.

  8. Managing hypopituitarism in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Jeanette

    2015-10-01

    Healthcare professionals manage patients with a vast range of conditions, but often specialise and acquire expertise in specific disease processes. Emergency and pre-hospital clinicians care for patients with various conditions for short periods of time, so have less opportunity to become familiar with more unusual conditions, yet it is vital that they have some knowledge and understanding of these. Patients with rare conditions can present at emergency departments with common complaints, but the effect of their original diagnosis on the presenting complaint may be overlooked or underestimated. This article uses a case study to describe the experience of one patient who presented with vomiting, but who also had hypopituitarism and therefore required specific management she did not at first receive. The article describes hypopituitarism and the initial management of patients with this condition who become unwell, and discusses how the trust responded to the patient's complaint to improve patient safety and care. It has been written with the full participation and consent of the patient and her husband.

  9. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  10. Emergency planning zone reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the process used by a large industrial Department of Energy (DOE) site to communicate changing hazards to its stakeholders and install the confidence necessary to implement the resulting emergency planning changes. Over the last decade as the sites missions have shifted from full-scale production to a greater emphasis on environmental restoration and waste management, the off-site threat from its operations has substantially decreased. The challenge was to clearly communicate the reduced hazards, install confidence in the technical analysis that documented the hazard reduction, and obtain stakeholder buy-in on the path forward to change the emergency management program. The most significant change to the emergency management program was the proposed reduction of the sites Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ). As the EPZ is defined as an area for which planning is needed to protect the public in the event of an accident, the process became politically challenging. An overview of how the site initially approached this problem and then learned to more substantially involve the state and local emergency preparedness agencies and the local Citizens Advisory Board will be presented. (author)

  11. Periodic and quasiperiodic revivals in periodically driven interacting quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitz, David J.; Lazarides, Achilleas; Bar Lev, Yevgeny

    2018-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that interparticle interactions generically destroy dynamical localization in periodically driven systems, resulting in diffusive transport and heating. In this Rapid Communication we rigorously construct a family of interacting driven systems which are dynamically localized and effectively decoupled from the external driving potential. We show that these systems exhibit tunable periodic or quasiperiodic revivals of the many-body wave function and thus of all physical observables. By numerically examining spinless fermions on a one-dimensional lattice we show that the analytically obtained revivals of such systems remain stable for finite systems with open boundary conditions while having a finite lifetime in the presence of static spatial disorder. We find this lifetime to be inversely proportional to the disorder strength.

  12. Cosmophysical periods in European history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirskij, B.M.; Kislovskij, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    In social systems there are rhythms synchronised by cosmical periods. These rhythms have partly biological origin. Some natural cycles also might influence upon historical processes (as such as climatic and epidemical). The analysis of the literature shows that there is rhythmic component in European history where solar activity cycles -11 and 340 years are presented. 17 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Genius of the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    'Isn't it the work of a genius!' exclaimed Academician V.I. Spitsyn, USSR, a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee when talking to an Agency audience in January. His listeners shared his enthusiasm. Academician Spitsyn was referring to the first formulation a hundred years ago by Professor Dmitry I. Mendeleyev of the Periodic Law of Elements. (author)

  14. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  15. Periodic linear differential stochastic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakernaak, H.

    1975-01-01

    Periodic linear differential processes are defined and their properties are analyzed. Equivalent representations are discussed, and the solutions of related optimal estimation problems are given. An extension is presented of Kailath and Geesey’s [1] results concerning the innovations representation

  16. Model selection in periodic autoregressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the issue of period autoagressive time series models (PAR) selection in practice. One aspect of model selection is the choice for the appropriate PAR order. This can be of interest for the valuation of economic models. Further, the appropriate PAR order is important

  17. Periodic progress report, 6 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    This is the first progress report of the BriteEuram project named "High Power Laser Cutting for Heavy Industry" ("Powercut"). The report contains a summary of the objectives of the first period, an overview of the technical progress, a comparison between the planed and the accomplished work...

  18. Radiological emergencies - planning and preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-12-31

    This information and training film in three parts deals with the technical background for emergency planning, emergency planning concepts and emergency preparedness. It describes the technical characteristics of radiological emergencies on which important emergency planning concepts are based and the purpose of those concepts. The film also demonstrates how emergency organizations must work together to ensure adequate preparedness. The programme reflects the standards, guidance and recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency

  19. Autoinflammatory Diseases with Periodic Fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Erdal; Bilginer, Yelda; Ozen, Seza

    2017-07-01

    One purpose of this review was to raise awareness for the new autoinflammatory syndromes. These diseases are increasingly recognized and are in the differential diagnosis of many disease states. We also aimed to review the latest recommendations for the diagnosis, management, and treatment of these patients. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS), and hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome/mevalonate kinase deficiency (HIDS/MVKD) are the more common autoinflammatory diseases that are characterized by periodic fevers and attacks of inflammation. Recently much collaborative work has been done to understand the characteristics of these patients and to develop recommendations to guide the physicians in the care of these patients. These recent recommendations will be summarized for all four diseases. FMF is the most common periodic fever disease. We need to further understand the pathogenesis and the role of single mutations in the disease. Recently, the management and treatment of the disease have been nicely reviewed. CAPS is another interesting disease associated with severe complications. Anti-interleukin-1 (anti-IL-1) treatment provides cure for these patients. TRAPS is characterized by the longest delay in diagnosis; thus, both pediatricians and internists should be aware of the characteristic features and the follow-up of these patients. HIDS/MVKD is another autoinflammatory diseases characterized with fever attacks. The spectrum of disease manifestation is rather large in this disease, and we need further research on biomarkers for the optimal management of these patients.

  20. Vertebrate fauna of the Roman period, migrations period and Medieval period in Vojvodina (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmanović Darko P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on current published and unpublished research results, a total of 16 vertebrate species members of mammal (Mammalia, bird (Aves and osteichthyes (Osteichthyes classes have been registered at 11 archaeological sites from the Roman Period in Vojvodina. Mammals dominate with 12 species and one genus, birds are present with 3 species, and osteichthyes with one. From the Migration Period, at 9 sites, 22 vertebrate species have been registered, of which 13 species and one genus of mammals, 4 species and one genus of birds, and 5 species from the Osteichthyes class. At 8 sites from the Medieval Period, 16 vertebrate species have been registered. Mammals are the most numerous class with 10 species and one genus, while birds are present with 4 species and one genus. Furthermore, two species of osteichthyes have also been registered.

  1. Emergency reactor shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehara, Morihiko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To smoothen the emergency operation of the control rod in a BWR type reactor and to eliminate the external discharge of radioactively contaminated water. Constitution: A drain receiving tank is connected through a scram valve to the top of a cylinder which is containing a hydraulic piston connected to a trombone-shaped control rod and an accumulator is connected through another scram valve to the bottom of the cylinder. The respective scram valves are constructed to be opened by the reactor emergency shutdown signal from a reactor control system in such a manner that drain valve and a vent valve of the tank normally opened at the standby time are closed after approx. 10 seconds from the opening of the scram valves. In this manner, back pressure is not applied to the hydraulic piston at the emergency time, thereby smoothly operating the control rod. (Sikiya, K.)

  2. The emerging nuclear suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, a growing amount of attention has been paid to a small group of mostly developing countries that have come to be called the emerging nuclear suppliers. Argentina and Brazil, China and South Korea, India and Pakistan, Spain and Yugoslavia have frequently been mentioned in this category. Their actual and potential nuclear export dealings and policies have been the subject of academic writings and policy papers, of scholarly symposia and exchanges at meetings of the traditional nuclear suppliers. With foundation and other support, UCLA's Center for International and Strategic Affairs has begun a major project to develop a database on the transactions, policies, and export control institutions of the emerging suppliers. This chapter provides some guidelines for policy toward the emerging nuclear suppliers

  3. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures

  4. Emergent geometry of membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badyn, Mathias Hudoba de; Karczmarek, Joanna L.; Sabella-Garnier, Philippe; Yeh, Ken Huai-Che [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia,6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-11-13

    In work http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.86.086001, a surface embedded in flat ℝ{sup 3} is associated to any three hermitian matrices. We study this emergent surface when the matrices are large, by constructing coherent states corresponding to points in the emergent geometry. We find the original matrices determine not only shape of the emergent surface, but also a unique Poisson structure. We prove that commutators of matrix operators correspond to Poisson brackets. Through our construction, we can realize arbitrary noncommutative membranes: for example, we examine a round sphere with a non-spherically symmetric Poisson structure. We also give a natural construction for a noncommutative torus embedded in ℝ{sup 3}. Finally, we make remarks about area and find matrix equations for minimal area surfaces.

  5. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  6. Emergent technologies: 25 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Hawley K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

  7. Efficiency of emergency exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, N.; Sogalla, M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to cope with accidents beyond the design basis within German nuclear power plants which possibly lead to relevant radiological consequences, the utilities as well as the competent authorities exist emergency organisations. The efficiency, capacity for teamwork and preparedness of such organisations should be tested by regular, efficient exercise activities. Such activities can suitably be based on scenarios which provide challenging tasks for all units of the respective emergency organisation. Thus, the demonstration and further development of the efficiency of the respective organisational structures, including their ability to collaborate, is promoted. (orig.)

  8. Preparing for Emergency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchiors, Jacob; Todsen, Tobias; Nilsson, Philip

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Emergency cricothyrodotomy (EC) is a lifesaving procedure. Evidence-based assessment of training effects and competency levels is relevant to all departments involved in emergency airway management. As most training uses low-fidelity models, the predictive value of good performance....... Sixteen physicians (7 experienced surgeons and 9 novice physicians) performed an EC on a low-fidelity model and a cadaver. Two blinded raters assessed video recordings of performances using the assessment tool. RESULTS: We found a high interrater reliability, based on a Pearson's r (0.81), and good...

  9. Characterization of radiological emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.

    1985-01-01

    Several severe radiological emergencies were reviewed to determine the likely range of conditions which must be coped with by a mobile teleoperator designed for emergencies. The events reviewed included accidents at TMI (1978), SL-1 (1961), Y-12 (1958), Bethesda (1982), Chalk River (1952 and 1958), Lucens (1969). The important conditions were: radiation fields over 10,000 R/h, severe contamination, possible critical excursion, possible inert atmosphere, temperatures from 50 0 C to -20 0 C, 100% relative humidity, 60-cm-high obstacles, stairs, airlocks, darkness, and lack of electric power

  10. Ultrasonography in abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risi, D.; Alessi, G.; Meli, C.; Marzano, M.; Fiori, E.; Caterino, S.

    1989-01-01

    From February 1986 to March 1988 113 abdominal US exams were performed in emergency situation to evaluate the accuracy of this methodology: 13 were blunt traumas, 18 post-operative complications. A real-time scanner with a linear probe of 5 MHz was employed. The results were confirmed by surgical and/or clinical and instrumental evaluation. In 81% of the examinations, ultrasonography allowed a diagnosis to be made. Gallbladder and biliary pathologies were the most common findings. The results (sensibility 96%, specificity 88%, accuracy 95%) confirm the affidability of ultrasonography in abdominal emergencies, as shown in literature

  11. Abdominal Aortic Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Christie; Swaminathan, Anand

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses abdominal aortic emergencies. There is a common thread of risk factors and causes of these diseases, including age, male gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and connective tissue disorders. The most common presenting symptom of these disorders is pain, usually in the chest, flank, abdomen, or back. Computed tomography scan is the gold standard for diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the aorta in the hemodynamically stable patient. Treatment consists of a combination of blood pressure and heart rate control and, in many cases, emergent surgical intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Emerging arboviral human diseases in Southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Southern Europe is characterized by unique landscape and climate which attract tourists, but also arthropod vectors, some of them carrying pathogens. Among several arboviral diseases that emerged in the region during the last decade, West Nile fever accounted for high number of human cases and fatalities, while Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever expanded its geographic distribution, and is considered as a real threat for Europe. Viruses evolve rapidly and acquire mutations making themselves stronger and naive populations more vulnerable. In an effort to tackle efficiently the emerging arboviral diseases, preparedness and strategic surveillance are needed for the early detection of the pathogen and containment and mitigation of probable outbreaks. In this review, the main human arboviral diseases that emerged in Southern Europe are described. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Regression periods in infancy: a case study from Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadurní, Marta; Rostan, Carlos

    2002-05-01

    Based on Rijt-Plooij and Plooij's (1992) research on emergence of regression periods in the first two years of life, the presence of such periods in a group of 18 babies (10 boys and 8 girls, aged between 3 weeks and 14 months) from a Catalonian population was analyzed. The measurements were a questionnaire filled in by the infants' mothers, a semi-structured weekly tape-recorded interview, and observations in their homes. The procedure and the instruments used in the project follow those proposed by Rijt-Plooij and Plooij. Our results confirm the existence of the regression periods in the first year of children's life. Inter-coder agreement for trained coders was 78.2% and within-coder agreement was 90.1%. In the discussion, the possible meaning and relevance of regression periods in order to understand development from a psychobiological and social framework is commented upon.

  14. Period of an Interrupted Pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bradley E.

    2002-11-01

    While demonstrating a classic conservation-of-energy problem to my AP Physics students, I became curious about the periodic motion that ensued for certain initial conditions. The original problem consists of releasing a mass at the end of a string from an initial position horizontal to the plane of a table. The string comes in contact with a peg some distance below the point where the string is attached at the top. One is asked to find what minimum fraction of the string's length should the peg be placed to have the mass complete a circle about the peg. However, when the mass is released from much lower heights, the system undergoes periodic motion that can be thought of as an interrupted pendulum.

  15. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  16. On nonlinear periodic drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauschke, U.; Schlueter, H.

    1990-09-01

    Nonlinear periodic drift waves are investigated on the basis of a simple perturbation scheme for both the amplitude and inverse frequency. The coefficients for the generation of the forced harmonics are derived, a nonlinear dispersion relation is suggested and a criterion for the onset of the modulational instability is obtained. The results are compared with the ones obtained with the help of a standard KBM-treatment. Moreover cnoidal drift waves are suggested and compared to an experimental observation. (orig.)

  17. Long Period Seismological Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-31

    in central Asia as observed at the high-gain long- period sites. Preliminary results from observations at Chiang Mai (CHG) show that the complexity...Preliminary results from observations at Chiang Mai (CHG) show that the complexity of the surface wave signals from many events in the Tadzhik-Kirgiz...and receivers. A number of Interesting features can be illustrated by examining portions of three selsmograms recorded at Chiang Mai (CHO

  18. Evaluation of Performance Indexes of Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baratloo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of evaluating performance indicators in the emergency department, as one of the most important departments of hospital, is obvious to everyone. Therefore, in this study we aimed to appraise the five performance indicators, approved by the ministry of health, in Shohadaye Tajrish hospital, Tehran, Iran. Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study based on the profiles of all the patients admitted to the emergency department, performance indicators in the emergency department were evaluated. The study was divided into 2 parts about the establishment of emergency medicine system and training the medical staff: the first 6 months of 1392 and the second. Then these 2 periods were compared using Mann-Whitney U test while P< 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: Of the studied indicators, mean triage time was 6.04 minutes in the first 6 months which was reduced to 1.5 minutes in the second 6 months (p=0.016. In addition, the percentage of patients who moved out of the department in 12 hours was lowered from 97.3% in the first period to 90.4% in the second (p=0.004. While, the percentage of patients who were decided upon in 6 hours (p=0.2, unsuccessful CPR percentage (p=0.34 and patients discharged against medical advice (p=0.42 showed no significant difference. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the establishment of the emergency medicine system in the emergency department could lead to more efficient triage. Due to the differences made after their establishment including: different pattern of the patients admitted, increased stay of the patients in the department due to their need for prolonged intensive care, a raise in patient referral to the hospital by pre-hospital services and a higher percentage of occupied hospital beds, other indicators have not shown a significant improvement.

  19. Current management of surgical oncologic emergencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne R F Bosscher

    Full Text Available For some oncologic emergencies, surgical interventions are necessary for dissolution or temporary relieve. In the absence of guidelines, the most optimal method for decision making would be in a multidisciplinary cancer conference (MCC. In an acute setting, the opportunity for multidisciplinary discussion is often not available. In this study, the management and short term outcome of patients after surgical oncologic emergency consultation was analyzed.A prospective registration and follow up of adult patients with surgical oncologic emergencies between 01-11-2013 and 30-04-2014. The follow up period was 30 days.In total, 207 patients with surgical oncologic emergencies were included. Postoperative wound infections, malignant obstruction, and clinical deterioration due to progressive disease were the most frequent conditions for surgical oncologic emergency consultation. During the follow up period, 40% of patients underwent surgery. The median number of involved medical specialties was two. Only 30% of all patients were discussed in a MCC within 30 days after emergency consultation, and only 41% of the patients who underwent surgery were discussed in a MCC. For 79% of these patients, the surgical procedure was performed before the MCC. Mortality within 30 days was 13%.In most cases, surgery occurred without discussing the patient in a MCC, regardless of the fact that multiple medical specialties were involved in the treatment process. There is a need for prognostic aids and acute oncology pathways with structural multidisciplinary management. These will provide in faster institution of the most appropriate personalized cancer care, and prevent unnecessary investigations or invasive therapy.

  20. Emergency operation determination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Tetsushi.

    1993-01-01

    The system of the present invention can determine an emergency operation coping with abnormal events occurring during nuclear plant operation without replying on an operator's judgement. That is, the system of the present invention comprises an intelligence base which divides and classifies the aims of the plant operation for the function, structure and operation manual and puts them into network. Degree of attainment for the extend of the status normality is determined on every aim of operation based on various kinds of measured data during plant operation. For a degree of attainment within a predetermined range, it is judged that an emergency operation is possible although this is in an abnormal state. Degree of emergency is determined by a fuzzy theory based on the degree of attainment, variation coefficient for the degree of attainment and the sensitivity to external disturbance as parameters. Priority for the degree of emergency on every operation aims is determined by comparison. Normality is successively checked for the determined operation aims. As a result, equipments as objects of abnormality suppressing operation are specified, and the operation amount of the equipments as objects are determined so that the measuring data are within a predetermined range. (I.S.)

  1. Biodosimetry: emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2016-01-01

    Biodosimetry assays are the only methods available for ascertaining and estimating biological dose for suspected over-exposures and manage radiological emergency situations. These methods also plays a major role in medical management and triage. In the eventuality of radiological emergency, it becomes inevitable to provide care for exposed individuals. However, large numbers of unexposed individuals or those with clinically insignificant doses are to be screened off for effective medical management of those who really need the specialized medical attention. Majority of individuals involved in radiological accidents may not need any medical attention but will need ascertainment of dose estimation and counselling. The decision making and counselling is possible only with the evidence of dose estimation. Though Biodosimetry procedures-are known for their inherent delay, since radiation effects are very slow in nature, give ample time for such investigations to be completed without any hurry to take medical actions in most cases. High throughput facilities in the state of the art Biodosimetry lab established at HS and EG, BARC has helped us to address many small scale radiological emergencies in the past. These experiences also helped the lab to prepare itself for large scale scenario and support the emergency management with continually improving preparedness and indigenous development of facilities. (author)

  2. Emerging Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Communities of practice are emerging as an innovative approach to faculty development. While collaborative learning is becoming popular in the classroom, autonomy and individualism continue to dominate the culture of higher education for faculty. However, as we begin to recognize that old solutions to new problems are no longer effective, there is…

  3. Structural Emergency Control Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Thanh Long; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Chiang, Hsiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    demand and hopefully stabilize the system. This traditional emergency control results in interrupted service with severe economic damage to customers. Also, such control is usually less effective due to the lack of coordination among protective devices. In this paper, we propose a novel structural...

  4. Emerging Asian Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  5. Fire Department Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services

  6. Costs of Emergency Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All RSS Feeds ACEP In the News Multimedia Image Gallery ACEP Video ACEP Radio ACEP Ads Resources Statistics & Reports Health Policy Campaigns Published Letters Journalism Awards Fact Sheets Social Media Contact Us Site Body Main Content Annals of Emergency Medicine | EMAF Website | ...

  7. Financing emerging energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Row, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the financing of emerging energies in Canada. Transforming energy markets will involve billions of dollars of investment from businesses and residents. Many different types of return on investment can be expected. These benefits will continue to grow over time and provide a permanent i ncome

  8. Emergence of regional clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Dalum, Bent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on regional clusters has increased considerably during the last decade. The emergence and growth patterns are usually explained by such factors as unique local culture, regional capabilities, tacit knowledge or the existence of location-specific externalities (knowledge spillovers...

  9. Emerging Art Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraussl, R.G.W.; Logher, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the performance and risk-return characteristics of three major emerging art markets: Russia, China, and India. According to three national art market indices, built by hedonic regressions based on auction sales prices, the geometric annual returns are 10.00%, 5.70%, and 42.20%

  10. Emergency preparedness in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Sina; Marcozzi, David

    2015-04-01

    During and after disasters, focus is directed toward meeting the immediate needs of the general population. As a result, the routine health care and the special needs of some vulnerable populations such as pregnant and postpartum women may be overlooked within a resource-limited setting. In the event of hazards such as natural disasters, manmade disasters, and terrorism, knowledge of emergency preparedness strategies is imperative for the pregnant woman and her family, obstetric providers, and hospitals. Individualized plans for the pregnant woman and her family should include knowledge of shelter in place, birth at home, and evacuation. Obstetric providers need to have a personal disaster plan in place that accounts for work responsibilities in case of an emergency and business continuity strategies to continue to provide care to their communities. Hospitals should have a comprehensive emergency preparedness program utilizing an "all hazards" approach to meet the needs of pregnant and postpartum women and other vulnerable populations during disasters. With lessons learned in recent tragedies such as Hurricane Katrina in mind, we hope this review will stimulate emergency preparedness discussions and actions among obstetric providers and attenuate adverse outcomes related to catastrophes in the future.

  11. Emerging themes in international business research

    OpenAIRE

    David A Griffith; Salih Tamer Cavusgil; Shichun Xu

    2008-01-01

    This study is motivated by two research questions: (1) Which recent contributions have been driving the research agenda in international business? (2) Which emerging themes in the literature are likely to set the stage for future work? To examine these questions, the study examined scholarly work in international business over the time period 1996–2006 in six leading international business journals (Journal of International Business Studies, Management International Review, Journal of World B...

  12. Carbon mitigation technologies for emerging economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-05-15

    A review of the various options being pursued to reduce carbon intensities in five developing countries, namely Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa. These are major emerging economies, all of which are vulnerable to adverse effects from climate change, with their governments having to balance economic, environmental and social priorities. All have large carbon footprints; however, in each case, they have made commitments to reduce carbon intensities over the period to 2030 and, in some cases, beyond.

  13. Emerging infectious diseases – 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ferguson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty years ago is not ancient history in the medical field. However, being an eye witness to the emergence of three new infectious diseases in the northeastern United States in the 1970s left a deep impression on this author. I will relate a small portion of the amazing events that caught the attention of the medical establishment and the general public in a roughly 5-year period of medical discovery.

  14. Wake behind circular cylinder excited by spanwise periodic disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yudai; Uchida, Iwami; Sakakibara, Jun

    2017-11-01

    We experimentally investigated the influence of flow control of the wake behind a circular cylinder excited by temporal periodic disturbances with spanwise phase variations using plasma actuators, motivated by reducing drag forces by suppressing development of large scale vortices. Plasma actuators were segmented in the spanwise direction, phase differences were given to adjacent electrodes. This experiment was conducted at Re =8000 and the wake was visualized by PIV. Compared to without forcing, when the phase difference is 180° and non-dimensional forcing frequency is higher than approximately 1.0, small vortices induced by periodic disturbance emerged in the free shear layer and the drag forces decreased.

  15. An exploration of emergency nurses' perceptions, attitudes and experience of teamwork in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Elise; Porter, Joanne E; Morphet, Julia

    2017-05-01

    Teamwork may assist with increased levels of efficiency and safety of patient care in the emergency department (ED), with emergency nurses playing an indispensable role in this process. A descriptive, exploratory approach was used, drawing on principles from phenomenology and symbolic interactionism. Convenience, purposive sampling was used in a major metropolitan ED. Semi structured interviews were conducted, audio recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Three major themes emerged from the data. The first theme 'when teamwork works' supported the notion that emergency nurses perceived teamwork as a positive and effective construct in four key areas; resuscitation, simulation training, patient outcomes and staff satisfaction. The second theme 'team support' revealed that back up behaviour and leadership were critical elements of team effectiveness within the study setting. The third theme 'no time for teamwork' centred around periods when teamwork practices failed due to various contributing factors including inadequate resources and skill mix. Outcomes of effective teamwork were valued by emergency nurses. Teamwork is about performance, and requires a certain skill set not necessarily naturally possessed among emergency nurses. Building a resilient team inclusive of strong leadership and communication skills is essential to being able to withstand the challenging demands of the ED. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing School Emergency Care Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Charles; Varnes, Jill

    A study assessed the emergency health care preparedness of a north central Florida public school district in light of seven criteria: (1) school policies regarding delivery of emergency health care; (2) identification of school personnel responsible for rendering emergency care; (3) training levels of emergency health care providers (first aid and…

  17. Long-Period Solar Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GAUTHIER,JOHN H.

    2000-07-20

    Terrestrial climate records and historical observations of the Sun suggest that the Sun undergoes aperiodic oscillations in radiative output and size over time periods of centuries and millenia. Such behavior can be explained by the solar convective zone acting as a nonlinear oscillator, forced at the sunspot-cycle frequency by variations in heliomagnetic field strength. A forced variant of the Lorenz equations can generate a time series with the same characteristics as the solar and climate records. The timescales and magnitudes of oscillations that could be caused by this mechanism are consistent with what is known about the Sun and terrestrial climate.

  18. Pairs of dual periodic frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2012-01-01

    The time–frequency analysis of a signal is often performed via a series expansion arising from well-localized building blocks. Typically, the building blocks are based on frames having either Gabor or wavelet structure. In order to calculate the coefficients in the series expansion, a dual frame...... is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide constructions of dual pairs of frames in the setting of the Hilbert space of periodic functions L2(0,2π). The frames constructed are given explicitly as trigonometric polynomials, which allows for an efficient calculation of the coefficients...

  19. Periodic dynamics in queuing networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addabbo, Tommaso [Information Engineering Department, University of Siena, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy)], E-mail: addabbo@dii.unisi.it; Kocarev, Ljupco [Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, bul. Krste Misirkov 2, P.O. Box 428, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)], E-mail: lkocarev@ucsd.edu

    2009-08-30

    This paper deals with state-dependent open Markovian (or exponential) queuing networks, for which arrival and service rates, as well as routing probabilities, may depend on the queue lengths. For a network of this kind, following Mandelbaum and Pats, we provide a formal definition of its associated fluid model, and we focus on the relationships which may occur between the network stochastic dynamics and the deterministic dynamics of its corresponding fluid model, particularly focusing on queuing networks whose fluid models have global periodic attractors.

  20. Periodic permanent magnet focused klystron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Patrick; Read, Michael; Ives, R Lawrence

    2015-04-21

    A periodic permanent magnet (PPM) klystron has beam transport structures and RF cavity structures, each of which has permanent magnets placed substantially equidistant from a beam tunnel formed about the central axis, and which are also outside the extent of a cooling chamber. The RF cavity sections also have permanent magnets which are placed substantially equidistant from the beam tunnel, but which include an RF cavity coupling to the beam tunnel for enhancement of RF carried by an electron beam in the beam tunnel.

  1. Forgiveness in the intertestamental period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Mong Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests answers to the following questions: what are the characteristics of God�s forgiveness in the intertestamental literature and what connection do these characteristics have with the Old Testament? Important passages in the late Second Temple period that expose the characteristics of God�s forgiveness, such as certain Qumran texts (1QH 12:35�37, 1QH 13:2 and the Damascus Document 14:18�19, the writings of Philo and Josephus, the Apocrypha and the Pseudepigrapha, are investigated for this purpose.

  2. Developing utility emergency preparedness exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1986-01-01

    Utility emergency preparedness exercises constitute an important link in upgrading the response to nuclear power plant emergencies. Various emergency exercises are arranged annually at the Loviisa nuclear power plant. The on-site simulator is a practical tool in developing suitable accident scenarios and demonstrating them to the site emergency players and spectators. The exercises concentrate on emergency management and radiological activities. It is important to create a high degree of motivation. (author)

  3. Ocular emergencies presenting to Menelik II Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negussie, Dereje; Bejiga, Abebe

    2011-01-01

    Ocular conditions such as trauma, painful red eye of any cause, painless sudden visual loss and others are commonly seen as ocular emergencies, and can lead to ocular morbidity and visual loss. To determine types and causes of ocular emergencies seen at Menelik II hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to October, 2007. Consecutive patients who presented with ocular emergencies at any time of the day were prospectively evaluated and registered on a formatted questionnaire. Evaluation of the patients included history of presenting illness, visual acuity testing intraocular pressure measurement on non-perforated and non-infected eyes, and complete eye examination in order to arrive at the diagnosis. A total of 26,400 patients attended Menelik II hospital during the study period. Of these, 758 (3%) were persons with an ocular emergency. The majority of patients (n=551; 72.7%) were male, with a male to female ratio of 2.7:1. The age group of 16 to 30 years was the most affected (47.9%), followed by those aged 15 years or younger (27.3%). Ocular trauma and ocular infections accounted for 75.6% and 13.1% of cases, respectively. Of the total ocular emergencies, open globe injuries constituted 171 (22.6%), corneal foreign bodies and abrasion 125 (16.5%), and open adnexal injuries 119 (15.7%). Metal and wood were the commonest work-related causes of ocular injuries in adults, with both together accounting for 60% of all ocular injuries. Children, on the other hand, sustained ocular injury while playing with others in 128 (22.3%) of cases. This study was able to provide a more complete picture to improve understanding of the nature and circumstances of ocular emergencies in Ethiopia. Ocular emergencies were dominated by ocular trauma, particularly affecting males and working-age adults. Public education and use of protective safety measures are recommended to alleviate the problem.

  4. Emergency Physicians at War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muck, Andrew E; Givens, Melissa; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Mason, Phillip E; Goolsby, Craig

    2018-05-01

    Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs) fully participated as an integrated part of the military's health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM) training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.

  5. [Enterostomy post emergency enterectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilescu, S; Velicu, D; Gheorghiu, L; Duţescu, S

    2002-01-01

    This is a clinical approach regarding 43 resection of intestine, performed in emergency condition, terminated as enterostomy, with represent 20% of enterectomyes performed in emergency condition and 1.6% of urgent operations. The decision of enterostomy has been taken in the conditions of peritoneal sepsis, occlusion or the association of the two circumstances. The results are comparatively analyzed between the cases with enterostomy that has been made from the beginning (66% success, 33% gone wrong), and those with enterostomy made at the second intervention (14% success, 86% gone wrong). One discusses problems of leading, technique and post-operating nursing. The intestinal reintegration has been made possible at 16 patients after a timing of three of four weeks.

  6. Emergency plan belgian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clymans, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Chernobyl disaster prompted authorities in Belgium to carry out a comprehensive review of all emergency plans and, in particular, those designed specifically for nuclear accidents. This review was aimed at determining what type of plans existed and to what extent such plans were operational. This paper sets out to present a broad overview of different aspects of this problem: organization of public emergency plans, co-ordination of operations, merits and demerits of centralization as opposed to decentralization, planning zones, obligation to release information to the public and relations with the media, and finally the international dimension to the problem. The author expresses the hope that the latter area will inspire practical suggestions [fr

  7. Emergency Physicians at War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Givens

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs fully participated as an integrated part of the military’s health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units. EPs have brought their combat experience home to civilian practice. This narrative review summarizes the history, contributions, and lessons learned by EPs during OEF-A/OIF and describes changes to daily clinical practice of EM derived from the combat environment.

  8. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kricka, Larry J

    2016-08-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home testing formats), new types of specimens (e.g., cell free DNA), big biology/data (e.g., million genome projects), and new regulations (e.g., for laboratory developed tests). In addition, there are many emerging technologies (e.g., planar arrays, mass spectrometry) that might find even broader application in the future and therefore also disrupt current practice. One interesting source of disruptive technology may prove to be the Qualcomm Tricorder XPrize, currently in its final stages.

  9. [Hospital emergency rooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudela, Pere; Mòdol, Josep Maria

    2003-05-17

    Overuse of hospital emergency rooms (HERs) is parallel to their controversy. To understand this problem, some concepts should be first clarified. In HERs, there are some intrinsic aspects which are directly related to the emergency itself and thus cannot be modified (intermittent patient flow, need to prioritize, difficulty to achieve a rapid diagnosis, influence of time on treatment, value of clinical follow up, patient's expectations, impact of HER on the overall hospital working dynamics). On the other hand, there are some extrinsic aspects which indeed are not related to HER itself but are rather historically associated with it (precarious structure, delay on admission, lack of privacy, inadequate triage of cases, lack of professionalization); these latter aspects may be potentially modified and should be reconsidered.

  10. [Ambulance in emergency medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Fikret; Ergun, Alper

    2002-07-01

    The ambulance service is very important in emergency medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate the new governing statuate of private ambulance service and to propose some new ideas. We examinated the new governing statuate of private ambulance service, rules of patient transporte between the hospitals and reports written by SSK Goztepe Educational Hospital ambulance drivers. We concluded that SSK Goztepe Educational Hospital ambulance drivers have a iot of problems especially at the rules of patient transport between the hospitals and there are some defiencies at the new governing statuate of private ambulance service. We concluded that it is necesssary to manage all the ambulance services in one center; all the private ambulance services have to have a specialist and all these must be determinated by the special rules. Key words: Regulation ofprivate ambulance, emergency head maintanence, ambulance services

  11. Hantaviruses as emergent zoonoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LS Ullmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family, which consists of vector-borne viruses. These viruses can provoke two infection types: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS - which occurs in the Old World - and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS - an emergent zoonosis that can be found in many countries of the western hemisphere. Rodents are hantavirus reservoirs and each species seems to host a different virus type. Humans acquire the infection by inhaling contaminated aerosol particles eliminated by infected animals. The factors involved in the emergence of hantavirus infections in the human population include ecological modifications and changes in human activities. The most important risk factor is contact between man and rodents, as a result of agricultural, forestry or military activities. Rodent control remains the primary strategy for preventing hantavirus diseases, including via health education and hygienic habits.

  12. Guidelines for emergency laparoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerland Stefan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute abdominal pain is a leading symptom in many surgical emergency patients. Laparoscopy allows for accurate diagnosis and immediate therapy of many intraabdominal pathologies. The guidelines of the EAES (European Association for Endoscopic Surgery provides scientifically founded recommendations about the role of laparoscopy in the different situations. Generally, laparoscopy is well suited for the therapy of the majority of diseases that cause acute abdominal pain.

  13. Emerging contaminants in groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, Dan; Stuart, Marianne; Hart, Alwyn; Crane, Emily; Baran, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The term ‘emerging contaminants’ (ECs) is used to cover not only newly developed compounds but also includes newly discovered compounds in the environment (often due to analytical developments), and compounds that have been recently categorised as contaminants. ECs include a huge array of different compounds (and their metabolites) that are used by society for a range of purposes and include; pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal care products, veterinary medicines, engineered nano-materials,...

  14. 'Regular' and 'emergency' repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchnik, N.V.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments on the combined action of radiation and a DNA inhibitor using Crepis roots and on split-dose irradiation of human lymphocytes lead to the conclusion that there are two types of repair. The 'regular' repair takes place twice in each mitotic cycle and ensures the maintenance of genetic stability. The 'emergency' repair is induced at all stages of the mitotic cycle by high levels of injury. (author)

  15. Web Science emerges

    OpenAIRE

    Shadbolt, Nigel; Berners-Lee, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The relentless rise in Web pages and links is creating emergent properties, from social networks to virtual identity theft, that are transforming society. A new discipline, Web Science, aims to discover how Web traits arise and how they can be harnessed or held in check to benefit society. Important advances are beginning to be made; more work can solve major issues such as securing privacy and conveying trust.

  16. Emerging Market Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Hobdari, Bersant

    2017-01-01

    International knowledge flows and innovation are becoming ever more important to the competitiveness of multinational corporations. Emerging market multinationals (EMNCs) in specific are deploying increasingly activist measures to harness foreign sources of knowledge and innovation as a strategy...... in which this disagreement can be reconciled through recognition of other EMNC advantages, particularly abilities to leverage country-specific assets, and possession and development of dynamic capabilities. Finally, we identify a set of core themes in the recent literature on strategic asset...

  17. Pediatric oncologic emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietz, Hallie A.

    1997-01-01

    Oncologic emergencies arise in three ways: disease or therapy induced cytopenias; a space occupying lesion causing pressure on or obstruction of surrounding tissues; or leukemia or tumors creating life-threatening metabolic or hormonal problems. Knowledge of presenting signs and symptoms of these emergencies are essential in pediatric oncologic nursing. Neutropenia opens the door for all manner of infections, but the most life threatening is septicemia progressing to shock. A variety of organisms can cause septic shock in the neutropenic patient, but episodes are most often due to gram-negative organisms and the endotoxins they release. Shock, while still compensated, may present with a elevated or subnormal temperature, flushed, warm, dry skin, widening pulse pressure, tachycardia, tachypnoea and irritability, but without medical intervention will progress to hypo tension, cool, clammy extremities, decreased urinary out- put, and eventually to bradycardia and cardiogenic shock. Another emergency in the cytopenia category is bleeding as a result of thrombocytopenia. Of greatest concern is intracranial hemorrhage that may occur at platelet counts of less than 5,000/mm3. Space-occupying lesions of the chest may produce superior vena cava syndrome (SVGS), pleural and pericardial effusions, and cardiac tamponade. SVGS is most often caused by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and presents as cough, hoarseness, dyspnea, orthopnea and chest pain. Signs include swelling, plethora, cyanosis, edema of conjunctiva and wheezing. Pleural and pericardial effusions present with respiratory or cardiac distress as does cardiac tamponade. Abdominal emergencies arise because of inflammation, mechanical obstruction, hemorrhage (often from steroid induced ulcers), and perforation. Pain is the most common presenting symptom, although vital sign alterations, fever, blood in vomitus or stool, abdominal distension and cessation of flatus are also important components of the acute abdomen

  18. Emerging and Disruptive Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Kricka, Larry J.

    2016-01-01

    Several emerging or disruptive technologies can be identified that might, at some point in the future, displace established laboratory medicine technologies and practices. These include increased automation in the form of robots, 3-D printing, technology convergence (e.g., plug-in glucose meters for smart phones), new point-of-care technologies (e.g., contact lenses with sensors, digital and wireless enabled pregnancy tests) and testing locations (e.g., Retail Health Clinics, new at-home test...

  19. Tacit knowledge emergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines tacit knowledge emergence. Tacit knowledge is 'knowledge that we have without knowing we have it and that once we know we have it, it becomes harder to know how we know what we know'. We learn by doing. Knowledge is not a thing; it is a process. It cites examples of tacit knowledge transfer failures. Failure in organization could be attributed to lack of explicit scientific and engineering knowledge, lack of research or improperly implemented knowledge

  20. Architecture humanitarian emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Guillamon, Maria; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Contreras, Jorge Lobos

    2013-01-01

    Introduced by scientific articles conserning architecture and human rights in light of cultures, emergencies, social equality and sustainability, democracy, economy, artistic development and science into architecture. Concluding in definition of needs for new roles, processes and education of arc......, Architettura di Alghero in Italy, Architecture and Design of Kocaeli University in Turkey, University of Aguascalientes in Mexico, Architectura y Urbanismo of University of Chile and Escuela de Architectura of Universidad Austral in Chile....

  1. Emerging drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2014-02-01

    Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear medicine in emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansi, L.; Rambaldi, P.F.; Cuccurullo, V.; Varetto, T.

    2005-01-01

    The role of a procedure depends not only on its own capabilities but also on a cost/effective comparison with alternative technique giving similar information. Starting from the definition of emergency as a sudden unexpected occurrence demanding immediate action, the role of nuclear medicine (NM) is difficult to identify if it is not possible to respond 24h a day, 365 days a year, to clinical demands. To justify a 24 h NM service it is necessary to reaffirm the role in diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in the spiral CT era, to spread knowledge of the capabilities of nuclear cardiology in reliability diagnosis myocardial infraction (better defining admission and discharge to/from the emergency department), to increase the number of indications. Radionuclide technique could be used as first line, alternative, complementary procedures in a diagnostic tree taking into account not only the diagnosis but also the connections with prognosis and therapy in evaluating cerebral pathologies, acute inflammation/infection, transplants, bleeding, trauma, skeletal, hepatobiliary, renal and endocrine emergencies, acute scrotal pain

  3. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary D Storrick

    2007-01-01

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled 'Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor' focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design--specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design--precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I and C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions

  4. Periodic paralysis: rare presenting symptom of thyrotoxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Luna, Luis Daniel; Reyes-Ortiz, Luis M; Ramírez-Rivera, José

    2006-01-01

    Paralysis due to hypokalemia results from an acute shift of potassium into cells or excessive potassium deficit. In the absence of potassium deficit, it is observed in Familial Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis and in Thyrotoxic Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis (TPP). This report describes the initial presentation of hyperthyroidism as sudden quadriplegia associated with hypokalemia. A healthy 25-year-old Puerto Rican policeman came to the emergency room with sudden paralysis in the four extremities of five hours evolution. He woke up in the morning and could not get up. The day before admission his legs felt weak, and it was hard to get out of bed. He arrived home at 7:00 PM, ate pasta and vegetables, and went to sleep at 10:00 PM. He had no diarrhea or weight loss, no history of medications or illicit drugs. He has a cousin and an aunt with the diagnosis of hypo-thyroidism. The admission temperature was 36.0 degrees C, pulse 96 per minute, respiratory rate 18 per minute, blood pressure 160/70 mmHg. He was alert and oriented as to time, place and person. He could talk properly and was in no respiratory distress. He had no exophtalmos or lid lag. The thyroid was not enlarged or tender. No pseudoclubbing or pretibial edema was found. There was flaccid paralysis of all extremities, 0/5 legs and 1/5 arms. Deep tendon reflexes could not be elicited. The cranial nerves and sensory examination were normal. The hemogram was within normal limits as were the renal and liver functions. Serum sodium was 140 mEq/L, potassium 1.48 mEq/L, phosphorus 1.4 mEq/L. A random glucose was 155 mg/dl and the arterial Ph was 7.41. The urine potassium was 7.04 mEq/L, sodium 60.8 mg/dl. TSH levelwas < 0.03 ug/d], TUP 50.69% (24-40%), T4 17.6 ug/dl (4.7-11.4 ug/dl) Free T4 Index 28.23. He was managed with intravenous potassium chloride, 80 mEq in a period of seven hours with cardiac monitor. The serum potassium level, after the infusion was completed, was 6.70 mEq/L. No cardiac arrhythmia was

  5. Emergence from general anesthesia and the sleep-manifold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Fletcher Hight

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The electroencephalogram (EEG during the re-establishment of consciousness after general anesthesia and surgery varies starkly between patients. Can the EEG during this emergence period provide a means of estimating the underlying biological processes underpinning the return of consciousness? Can we use a model to infer these biological processes from the EEG patterns? A frontal EEG was recorded from 84 patients. Ten patients were chosen for state-space analysis. Five showed archetypal emergences; which consisted of a progressive decrease in alpha power and increase peak alpha frequency before return of responsiveness. The five non-archetypal emergences showed almost no spectral EEG changes (even as the volatile general anesthetic decreased and then an abrupt return of responsiveness. We used Bayesian methods to estimate the likelihood of an EEG pattern corresponding to the position of the patient on a 2-dimensional manifold in a state space of excitatory connection strength vs change in intrinsic resting neuronal membrane conductivity. We could thus visualize the trajectory of each patient in the state-space during their emergence period. The patients who followed an archetypal emergence displayed a very consistent pattern; consisting of progressive increase in conductivity, and a temporary period of increased connection strength before return of responsiveness. The non-archetypal emergence trajectories remained fixed in a region of phase space characterized by a relatively high conductivity and low connection strength throughout emergence. This unexpected progressive increase in conductivity during archetypal emergence may be due to an abating of the surgical stimulus during this period. Periods of high connection strength could represent forays into dissociated consciousness, but the model suggests all patients reposition near the fold in the state space to take advantage of bi-stable cortical dynamics before transitioning to consciousness.

  6. Periodic weather and climate variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir V

    2002-01-01

    Variations in meteorological parameters are largely due to periodic processes and can be forecast for several years. Many such processes are related to astronomical factors such as the gravitational influences of the Moon and the Sun, and the modulation of solar irradiance by lunar and planetary motion. The Moon, Jupiter, and Venus have the strongest effect. These influences produce lines in the spectra of meteorological variations, which are combinations of the harmonics of the frequencies of revolution of the planets, the Earth, and the Moon around the Sun with the harmonics of the lunar revolution around the Earth. Due to frequency differences between the orbital and radial motions, fine spectral features of three types appear: line splitting, line-profile complications due to radial oscillations, and additional lines due to the combination of radial-oscillation frequencies with perturbation harmonics. (reviews of topical problems)

  7. The periodic table in Flatland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.

    1995-01-01

    The D-dimensional Coulomb system serves as a starting point for generating generalized atomic shells. These shells are ordered according to a generalized Madelung rule in D dimensions. This rule together with an Aufbau Prinzip is applied to produce a D-dimensional periodic table. A model is developed to rationalize the ordering of the shells predicted by the generalized Madelung rule. This model is based on the introduction of an Hamiltonian, invariant under the q-deformed algebra U q (so(D)), that breaks down the SO (D + 1) dynamical symmetry of the hydrogen atom in D dimensions. The D = 2 case (Flatland) is investigated with some details. It is shown that the neutral atoms and the (moderately) positive ions correspond to the values q = 0.8 and q = 1, respectively, of the deformation parameter q. (authors). 55 refs

  8. Periodic folding of viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2003-09-01

    The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.

  9. A periodic table for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Cancers exhibit differences in metastatic behavior and drug sensitivity that correlate with certain tumor-specific variables such as differentiation grade, growth rate/extent and molecular regulatory aberrations. In practice, patient management is based on the past results of clinical trials adjusted for these biomarkers. Here, it is proposed that treatment strategies could be fine-tuned upfront simply by quantifying tumorigenic spatial (cell growth) and temporal (genetic stability) control losses, as predicted by genetic defects of cell-cycle-regulatory gatekeeper and genome-stabilizing caretaker tumor suppressor genes, respectively. These differential quantifications of tumor dysfunction may in turn be used to create a tumor-specific 'periodic table' that guides rational formulation of survival-enhancing anticancer treatment strategies.

  10. Exploring the Everyday Life Information Needs, Practices, and Challenges of Emerging Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson-Baldauf, Dana

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation research addresses a gap in the library and information science literature on everyday life information (ELI) needs and experiences of emerging adults with intellectual disabilities (I/DD). Emerging adulthood refers to the period between the late teen years and mid-twenties. Although this is a period of significant change for all…

  11. INCIDENCE OF AMPUTATION IN EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rojaramani Kumbha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Technology and early detection of disease by recent improvements in investigation modalities lead to decreased incidents of amputations while Road Traffic Accidents (RTA increase. Furthermore, it leads to variation and decreased morbidity, mortality and accidents (crush injuries, and better equipped and trained staff, specialist services, diabetic food, rehabilitation centres, and giving good support physically and psychologically for Amputated patients. OBJECTIVE To know incidence rates of Emergency Amputation who attended causality with advanced disease and severe Trauma. METHODOLOGY The study is done over a period of one year i.e. between June 2015 to June 2016 who attended causality with advanced and severe disease affecting the limbs either due to diabetes, trauma or vascular diseases. RESULTS During one-year period, total 6,371 patients attended for general surgery OP. In those, 187 patients needed emergency surgery which included both major and minor operations. Among those, 81 patients were amputated. CONCLUSION As per our available records and observation, even though there is increased literacy and access to advanced technology, there is still increased incidence of patients undergoing amputations due to diseases. Therefore, there is a need to improve awareness and importance of early detection of diabetes, hazards of smoking, and regular general health checkups for patients at root level. With that we can treat diabetes and/or any disease in time. So there must be awareness in peripheral health staff i.e. PHC, subcentres, and community health centres about early detection of disease which in turn improves the quality of life of the patient. Due to diabetes slight injury to the glucose laden tissue may cause chronic infection and ulcer formation.(1 The tumours are seen commonly in the age group of 20-40 years after bone fusion, bones affected commonly are those around the knee (lower end of knee, upper end of tibia. A lytic

  12. Intrinsic periodic and aperiodic stochastic resonance in an electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ishant; Phogat, Richa; Parmananda, P.; Ocampo-Espindola, J. L.; Rivera, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we show the interaction of a composite of a periodic or aperiodic signal and intrinsic electrochemical noise with the nonlinear dynamics of an electrochemical cell configured to study the corrosion of iron in an acidic media. The anodic voltage setpoint (V0) in the cell is chosen such that the anodic current (I ) exhibits excitable fixed point behavior in the absence of noise. The subthreshold periodic (aperiodic) signal consists of a train of rectangular pulses with a fixed amplitude and width, separated by regular (irregular) time intervals. The irregular time intervals chosen are of deterministic and stochastic origins. The amplitude of the intrinsic internal noise, regulated by the concentration of chloride ions, is then monotonically increased, and the provoked dynamics are analyzed. The signal to noise ratio and the cross-correlation coefficient versus the chloride ions' concentration curves have a unimodal shape indicating the emergence of an intrinsic periodic or aperiodic stochastic resonance. The abscissa for the maxima of these unimodal curves correspond to the optimum value of intrinsic noise where maximum regularity of the invoked dynamics is observed. In the particular case of the intrinsic periodic stochastic resonance, the scanning electron microscope images for the electrode metal surfaces are shown for certain values of chloride ions' concentrations. These images, qualitatively, corroborate the emergence of order as a result of the interaction between the nonlinear dynamics and the composite signal.

  13. Sensitive periods in affective development: nonlinear maturation of fear learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Catherine A; Lee, Francis S

    2015-01-01

    At specific maturational stages, neural circuits enter sensitive periods of heightened plasticity, during which the development of both brain and behavior are highly receptive to particular experiential information. A relatively advanced understanding of the regulatory mechanisms governing the initiation, closure, and reinstatement of sensitive period plasticity has emerged from extensive research examining the development of the visual system. In this article, we discuss a large body of work characterizing the pronounced nonlinear changes in fear learning and extinction that occur from childhood through adulthood, and their underlying neural substrates. We draw upon the model of sensitive period regulation within the visual system, and present burgeoning evidence suggesting that parallel mechanisms may regulate the qualitative changes in fear learning across development.

  14. Periodic inspection for safety of CANDU heat transport piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellyin, F.

    1979-10-01

    Periodic inspection of heat transport and emergency core cooling piping systems is intended to maintain an adequate level of safety throughout the life of the plant, and to protect plant personnel and the public from the consequences of a failure and release of fission products. This report outlines a rational approach to the periodic inspection based on a fully probabilistic model. It demonstrates the methodology based on theoretical treatment and experimental data whereby the strength of a pressurized pipe or vessel containing a defect could be evaluated. It also shows how the extension of the defect at various lifetimes could be predicted. These relationships are prerequisite for the probabilistic formulation and analysis for the periodic inspection of piping systems

  15. Emergency Victim Care. A Textbook for Emergency Medical Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Trade and Industrial Education Service.

    This textbook for emergency medical personnel should be useful to fire departments, private ambulance companies, industrial emergency and rescue units, police departments, and nurses. The 30 illustrated chapters cover topics such as: (1) Emergency Medical Service Vehicles, (2) Safe Driving Practices, (3) Anatomy and Physiology, (4) Closed Chest…

  16. THE IMPLICATIONS OF LIQUIDITY CRISES IN THE CONTEXT OF EMERGING CAPITAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Felicia Ramona Birău

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to highlight the implications of liquidity crises in the context of emerging capital market. Capital markets, and especially emerging capital market appear to behave notably differently during periods of liquidity crises in comparison with periods of stability. The concept of emerging capital market itself is in obvious antithesis to the idea of financial equilibrium. This particular category of capital markets is characterized in a certain measure by profound institutional,...

  17. The effect of emergency department expansion on emergency department overcrowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin H; Zhou, Chuan; France, Daniel J; Zhong, Sheng; Jones, Ian; Storrow, Alan B; Aronsky, Dominik

    2007-04-01

    To examine the effects of emergency department (ED) expansion on ambulance diversion at an urban, academic Level 1 trauma center. This was a pre-post study performed using administrative data from the ED and hospital electronic information systems. On April 19, 2005, the adult ED expanded from 28 to 53 licensed beds. Data from a five-month pre-expansion period (November 1, 2004, to March 1, 2005) and a five-month postexpansion period (June 1, 2005, to October 31, 2005) were included for this analysis. ED and waiting room statistics as well as diversion status were obtained. Total ED length of stay (LOS) was defined as the time from patient registration to the time leaving the ED. Admission hold LOS was defined as the time from the inpatient bed request to the time leaving the ED for admitted patients. Mean differences (95% confidence interval [CI]) in total time spent on ambulance diversion per month, diversion episodes per month, and duration per diversion episode were calculated. An accelerated failure time model was performed to test if ED expansion was associated with a reduction in ambulance diversion while adjusting for potential confounders. From pre-expansion to postexpansion, daily patient volume increased but ED occupancy decreased. There was no significant change in the time spent on ambulance diversion per month (mean difference, 10.9 hours; 95% CI = -74.0 to 95.8), ambulance diversion episodes per month (two episodes per month; 95% CI = -4.2 to 8.2), and duration of ambulance diversion per episode (0.3 hours; 95% CI = -4.0 to 3.5). Mean (+/-SD) total LOS increased from 4.6 (+/-1.9) to 5.6(+/-2.3) hours, and mean (+/-SD) admission hold LOS also increased from 3.0 (+/-0.2) to 4.1 (+/-0.2) hours. The proportion of patients who left without being seen was 3.5% and 2.7% (p = 0.06) in the pre-expansion and postexpansion periods, respectively. In the accelerated failure time model, ED expansion did not affect the time to the next ambulance diversion episode

  18. The Military Emergency Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Requena, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most justified and pressing demands that society makes of the State, requiring a fast, forceful and effective response, is that it guarantees the safety of people and their assets when a disaster seriously endangers them. At the proposal of the President of the Government, the Cabinet of Ministers, in its meeting held on October 7, 2005, agreed to create the Military Emergency Unit, known since the as the UME. Its mission is to intervene anywhere in the national territory when the President of the Government, or the Minister to whom he delegates, so decides in order to assure the safety and welfare of citizens in cases of serious risk, disaster, catastrophe or any other public need. The UME is organically incorporated into the Ministry of Defense and its actions may be supported with all the available human and material needs of the Armed Forces. Availability and effectiveness, with calmness and humility, have characterized the early actions of the Military Emergency Unit and are the guidelines for future action. The first steps of this military unit have focused on a clear goal: collaboration and participation in situations whose seriousness requires the coordination of different forces in order to immediately respond to them. The UME is the States tool to join forces and, with other administration and institutions, help to rapidly and effectively deal with emergencies. It has taken its first step and achieved the capacity specified in the UME Operations Order for 2007. The 150 men and women per battalion, plus the 80 in the Gando detachment, are on active duty and have sufficient material means to deploy, if necessary and when requested by the regions, town councils an other administrative bodies, to help in the extinction of forest fires. (Author)

  19. Emergence of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Paule Bassez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Indeed, even if we know that many individual components are necessary for life to exist, we do not yet know what makes life emerge. One goal of this journal Life is to juxtapose articles with multidisciplinary approaches and perhaps to answer in the near future this question of the emergence of life. Different subjects and themes will be developed, starting of course with the multiple definitions of life and continuing with others such as: life diversity and universality; characteristics of living systems; thermodynamics with energy and entropy; kinetics and catalysis; water in its different physical states; circulation of sap and blood and its origin; the first blood pump and first heart; the first exchange of nutrients between cells, sap and blood; essential molecules of living systems; chirality; molecular asymmetry and its origin; formation of enantiomer excess and amplification; microscopic observations on a micrometer and sub-micrometer scales, at molecular and atomic levels; the first molecules at the origin of genetic information, viroids, circular RNA; regions of space or the area inside membranes and cells capable of initiating and maintaining life; phenomena at the origin of the emergence of life; molecules studied in the traditional field of chemistry and in the recent field of nanoscience governed by new laws; interaction between the individual molecules and components of living systems; interaction between living systems and the environment; transfer of information through generations; continuation of life from one generation to the next; prebiotic chemistry and prebiotic signatures on Earth, on Mars, on other planets; biosignatures of the first forms of life; fossils and pseudofossils dating 3.5 Ga ago and more recent ones; experimental fossilization; pluricellular eukaryotes dating 2.1 Ga ago; sudden increase in oxygen in the atmosphere around 2.0 to 2.5 Ga ago and its relation to geology; shell symmetry; aging with

  20. Emerging hot spot analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    Traditionally, focus in the transport field, both politically and scientifically, has been on private cars and public transport. Freight transport has been a neglected topic. Recent years has seen an increased focus upon congestion as a core issue across Europe, resulting in a great need for know...... speed data for freight. Secondly, the analytical methods used, space-time cubes and emerging hot spot analysis, are also new in the freight transport field. The analysis thus estimates precisely how fast freight moves on the roads in Northern Jutland and how this has evolved over time....

  1. Corruption in emergency procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jessica; Søreide, Tina

    2008-12-01

    Corruption in emergency procurement reduces the resources available for life-saving operations, lowers the quality of products and services provided, and diverts aid from those who need it most.(1) It also negatively influences public support for humanitarian relief, both in the affected country and abroad. This paper aims to unpack and analyse the following question in order to mitigate risk: how and where does corruption typically occur, and what can be done? Suggested strategies reflect a multi-layered approach that stresses internal agency control mechanisms, conflict-sensitive management, and the need for common systems among operators.

  2. EDF national emergency organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverge, J.

    1992-01-01

    The scope of French nuclear power led Electricite de France (EDF) to design standard products, manufactured in series but adaptable to different sites. Standardization is based on the decision on a single technology: pressurized water reactors (PWR). Thirty-four 900 MW and seventeen 1300 MW units are in operation on seventeen sites. The specific nature of French organization for normal operation and accident management results from equipment standardization and single licensee. This specificity is based on emergency plan standardization and highly structured national organization. Figs

  3. Emergence and Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J; Ibba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    ancestor and as such they provide insights into the evolution and development of the extant genetic code. Although the aaRSs have long been viewed as a highly conserved group of enzymes, findings within the last couple of decades have started to demonstrate how diverse and versatile these enzymes really...... are. Beyond their central role in translation, aaRSs and their numerous homologs have evolved a wide array of alternative functions both inside and outside translation. Current understanding of the emergence of the aaRSs, and their subsequent evolution into a functionally diverse enzyme family...

  4. Preventive measures for emergencies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calliess, J.

    1990-01-01

    The meeting discussed the new provisions for civil defense on account of the amended Disaster Control Act which had been recently adopted by the Lower House of Parliament. In 6 working groups it was discussed how appropriate and sensible the attempt is to make provisions for civil defence in order to protect the population, and how adequate legislative measures are in the face of true threat and var scenarios. Ethical aspects and aspects of international law were considered, as well as the role of public health and free charitable institutions concering preventive measures in emergencies. (orig. HSCH) [de

  5. Emergency response strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrilo, D.; Dias de la Cruz, F.

    1984-01-01

    In the present study is estimated, on the basis of a release category (PWR4) and several accident scenarios previously set up, the emergency response efficacy obtained in the application of different response strategies on each of the above mentioned scenarios. The studied strategies contemplate the following protective measures: evacuation, shelter and relocation. The radiological response has been obtained by means of CRAC2 (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) code, and calculated in terms of absorbed dose equivalent (Whole body and thyroid), as well as early and latent biological effects. (author)

  6. Dangerous goods emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a general overview of the State of Western Australia including: the legal framework of the Dangerous Goods and Emergency response management scenarios (which consist mainly of fuel products such as LP gas); particular problems unique to the Western Australian environment; what has been done to overcome those problems. Western Australia has an area of about two and a half million square kilometers. The demography of the State is such that the population is concentrated in the south-west corner of the State with isolated pockets, mainly associated with mineral development but also associated with agriculture, scattered throughout the State

  7. CSN's New Emergency Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendin, P.

    2005-01-01

    During the month of July 2005 the physical renovation works and technological updating of the basic infrastructures of the CSN Emergency Room (SALEM) were finished, allowing the Room to now have greater functionality and a broader technical capacity. Nevertheless, the technological improvement process of SALEM will reach its full potential within the next few years, once the installation currently underway of the new information integration and monitoring systems and the decision making support systems have been completed. This article describes the improvements introduced to the Room and the objectives pursued in this renovation project to convert the SALEM into a new generation room in accordance with its current technological context. (Author) 4 refs

  8. Emergency procedures in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cree, D.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following: emergency services (fire brigade, ambulance and police) that would be involved in dealing with an accident to a nuclear fuel flask in transport through London, with special reference to procedures used by the Metropolitan Police; geographical area covered by Metropolitan Police; initiation of action; decision whether to evacuate the area of the accident; examples of action taken to deal with non-radiation accidents (in absence of any example of relevant radiation accident); specific instructions, or advice, to police relating to the movement of irradiated fuel; training exercises. (U.K.)

  9. German emergency management concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, K.

    1993-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the margin and start-up value concepts (according to ICRP 40 and EU-ordinances) are explained, and it is demonstrated that the two concepts are combinable. The combined concept has the advantage of immediately providing, if required, intervention levels for the various measures to be taken, and of obliging those persons concerned with emergency protection to study and quantify, already at the planning stage, the influence of a range of accident conditions on the decision on measures. In this context, the use of computerized decision support systems which are currently being developed is indispensable. (orig./DG) [de

  10. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsson, Maija; Tapper, Anna Maija; Colmorn, Lotte Berdiin

    2015-01-01

    peripartum hysterectomies reached 211, yielding an incidence rate of 3.5/10 000 (95% confidence interval 3.0-4.0) births. Finland had the highest prevalence (5.1) and Norway the lowest (2.9). Primary indications included an abnormally invasive placenta (n = 91, 43.1%), atonic bleeding (n = 69, 32.......7%), uterine rupture (n = 31, 14.7%), other bleeding disorders (n = 12, 5.7%), and other indications (n = 8, 3.8%). The delivery mode was cesarean section in nearly 80% of cases. Previous cesarean section was reported in 45% of women. Both preterm and post-term birth increased the risk for emergency peripartum...

  11. Wind emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, A.J.; Buckner, M.R.; Mueller, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The WIND system is an automated emergency response system for real-time predictions of the consequences of liquid and airborne releases from SRP. The system consists of a minicomputer and associated peripherals necessary for acquisition and handling of large amounts of meteorological data from a local tower network and the National Weather Service. The minicomputer uses these data and several predictive models to assess the impact of accidental releases. The system is fast and easy to use, and output is displayed both in tabular form and as trajectory map plots for quick interpretation. The rapid response capabilities of the WIND system have been demonstrated in support of SRP operations

  12. Dynamical diffraction in periodic multilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, V F

    1997-01-01

    Exact reflectivity curves are calculated numerically for various periodic multilayers using the optical matrix method in order to test the dynamical theory of diffraction. The theory is generally valid for values of the bilayer thickness d up to about 100 A. For somewhat larger values of d, where the theory begins to break down, the initial discrepancy is in the phase of the oscillations in the wings of the peaks. For very large values of d, where the first-order Bragg peak approaches the edge of the mirror reflection, two general types of multilayers can be distinguished. In the first (typified in the present work by Ni/Ti), there is a large (30% or more) reduction in the actual value of the critical wave vector for total reflection while, in the second (typified here by Fe/Ge), there is very little reduction (3 % or so). The origin of these two very different types of behavior is explained. It is also shown that, within the dynamical theory of diffraction, the change in the position of the center of the Dar...

  13. On-site emergency planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture covers the Emergency Planning of the Operating organization and is based on the Code of Practice and Safety Guides of the IAEA as well as on arrangements in use at the Swiss Nuclear Power Station Beznau and - outlines the basis and content of an emergency plan - describes the emergencies postulated for emergency planning purposes - describes the responsibilities, the organization and the procedures of the operating organization to cope with emergency situations and the liaison between the operating organization, the regulatory body and public authorities - describes the facilities and equipment which should be available to cope with emergency sitauations - describes the measures and actions to be taken when an emergency arises in order to correct abnormal plant conditions and to protect the persons on-and off-site - describes the aid to be given to affected personnel - describes the aspects relevant to maintaining the emergency plan and organization in operational readiness. (orig./RW)

  14. Plan for radiological emergencies situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada Figueroa, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    The objective for the Emergencies plan it is to reestablish the stock that they should be executed by the regulatory Entity in Guatemala during a real potential radiological emergency situation in the national territory

  15. Emergency Meal Planning for Diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency . What should I expect during an emergency situation? Many things we depend on daily may not ... 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc., 30 East 33rd Street, New York, NY 10016, 1-800-622-9010. ...

  16. Trampoline injury in New Zealand: emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, P A; Chalmers, D J; Wilson, B D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine trampoline related injuries resulting in emergency department attendance. METHODS: Cases were identified by searching free text descriptions of the circumstances of injury contained in the records of the emergency department of a large city hospital. RESULTS: 114 cases were identified for a 12 month period, giving an incidence rate of 108 per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 89 to 129) compared with 9.3 hospital admissions per 100,000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 8.3 to 10.4) for a corresponding period reported in earlier research from New Zealand. This suggested that for every one hospital admission there are approximately 12 emergency department attendances. Of the cases, 95% were aged less than 20 years. As for the earlier research, falls from the trampoline to the surrounding surface were the commonest cause of injury. In the present study, sprains and strains were the commonest type of injury (40%), and the body site most frequently involved was the lower limb (46%). CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the conclusion from earlier research that although existing trampoline standards address many of the issues relating to trampoline safety, the need remains for measures to reduce the impact of falls from the trampoline to the ground surface and to prohibit the use of trampolines as unsupervised "play equipment". PMID:9015596

  17. Ideas Production in Emerging Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Luintel, Kul B; Kahn, Mosahid

    2012-01-01

    We model 'new ideas' production in a panel of 17 emerging countries. Our results reveal: (i) ideas production is duplicative, (ii) externality associated with domestic knowledge stocks is of above unit factor proportionality, (iii) OECD countries raise the innovation-bar for emerging countries, (iv) there is no significant knowledge diffusion across emerging countries, and (v) growth in emerging countries appear far from a balanced growth path.

  18. Emerging Frontiers in Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitt, Mark W; Dahlman, James E; Langer, Robert

    2016-01-27

    Medicine relies on the use of pharmacologically active agents (drugs) to manage and treat disease. However, drugs are not inherently effective; the benefit of a drug is directly related to the manner by which it is administered or delivered. Drug delivery can affect drug pharmacokinetics, absorption, distribution, metabolism, duration of therapeutic effect, excretion, and toxicity. As new therapeutics (e.g., biologics) are being developed, there is an accompanying need for improved chemistries and materials to deliver them to the target site in the body, at a therapeutic concentration, and for the required period of time. In this Perspective, we provide an historical overview of drug delivery and controlled release followed by highlights of four emerging areas in the field of drug delivery: systemic RNA delivery, drug delivery for localized therapy, oral drug delivery systems, and biologic drug delivery systems. In each case, we present the barriers to effective drug delivery as well as chemical and materials advances that are enabling the field to overcome these hurdles for clinical impact.

  19. Communication system for emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajioka, Yoshiteru

    1996-01-01

    People are apprehensive that a strong earthquake with a magnitude of nearly 8 may occur in Tokai area. The whole area of Shizuoka Prefecture has been specified as the specially strengthened region for earthquake disaster measures. This report outlines the communication system for emergency with respect to atomic disaster caused by an earthquake. Previously, wireless receiving system is stationed in the whole area to simultaneously inform the related news to the residents and so, communications with them are possible at any time by using the system. Since mobile wireless receiving sets are stationed in all town halls, self defense organizations and all the places of refuge, mutual communications are possible. These communication system can be utilized for either earthquake or nuclear disaster. Further, Shizuoka general information network system has been established as a communication system for anti-disaster organization and a wireless network via a communication satellite, ''super bird'' has been constructed in addition to the ground network. Therefore, the two communication routes became usable at emergency and the systems are available in either of nuclear disaster or earthquake. (M.N.)

  20. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.