Long period pseudo random number sequence generator
Wang, Charles C. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
A circuit for generating a sequence of pseudo random numbers, (A sub K). There is an exponentiator in GF(2 sup m) for the normal basis representation of elements in a finite field GF(2 sup m) each represented by m binary digits and having two inputs and an output from which the sequence (A sub K). Of pseudo random numbers is taken. One of the two inputs is connected to receive the outputs (E sub K) of maximal length shift register of n stages. There is a switch having a pair of inputs and an output. The switch outputs is connected to the other of the two inputs of the exponentiator. One of the switch inputs is connected for initially receiving a primitive element (A sub O) in GF(2 sup m). Finally, there is a delay circuit having an input and an output. The delay circuit output is connected to the other of the switch inputs and the delay circuit input is connected to the output of the exponentiator. Whereby after the exponentiator initially receives the primitive element (A sub O) in GF(2 sup m) through the switch, the switch can be switched to cause the exponentiator to receive as its input a delayed output A(K-1) from the exponentiator thereby generating (A sub K) continuously at the output of the exponentiator. The exponentiator in GF(2 sup m) is novel and comprises a cyclic-shift circuit; a Massey-Omura multiplier; and, a control logic circuit all operably connected together to perform the function U(sub i) = 92(sup i) (for n(sub i) = 1 or 1 (for n(subi) = 0).
Design of Long Period Pseudo-Random Sequences from the Addition of -Sequences over
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ren Jian
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Pseudo-random sequence with good correlation property and large linear span is widely used in code division multiple access (CDMA communication systems and cryptology for reliable and secure information transmission. In this paper, sequences with long period, large complexity, balance statistics, and low cross-correlation property are constructed from the addition of -sequences with pairwise-prime linear spans (AMPLS. Using -sequences as building blocks, the proposed method proved to be an efficient and flexible approach to construct long period pseudo-random sequences with desirable properties from short period sequences. Applying the proposed method to , a signal set is constructed.
Design of Long Period Pseudo-Random Sequences from the Addition of m -Sequences over 𝔽 p
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ren Jian
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Pseudo-random sequence with good correlation property and large linear span is widely used in code division multiple access (CDMA communication systems and cryptology for reliable and secure information transmission. In this paper, sequences with long period, large complexity, balance statistics, and low cross-correlation property are constructed from the addition of m -sequences with pairwise-prime linear spans (AMPLS. Using m -sequences as building blocks, the proposed method proved to be an efficient and flexible approach to construct long period pseudo-random sequences with desirable properties from short period sequences. Applying the proposed method to 𝔽 2 , a signal set ( ( 2 n − 1 ( 2 m − 1 , ( 2 n + 1 ( 2 m + 1 , ( 2 ( n + 1 / 2 + 1 ( 2 ( m + 1 / 2 + 1 is constructed.
Diaz, Francisco J; Berg, Michel J; Krebill, Ron; Welty, Timothy; Gidal, Barry E; Alloway, Rita; Privitera, Michael
2013-12-01
Due to concern and debate in the epilepsy medical community and to the current interest of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in revising approaches to the approval of generic drugs, the FDA is currently supporting ongoing bioequivalence studies of antiepileptic drugs, the EQUIGEN studies. During the design of these crossover studies, the researchers could not find commercial or non-commercial statistical software that quickly allowed computation of sample sizes for their designs, particularly software implementing the FDA requirement of using random-effects linear models for the analyses of bioequivalence studies. This article presents tables for sample-size evaluations of average bioequivalence studies based on the two crossover designs used in the EQUIGEN studies: the four-period, two-sequence, two-formulation design, and the six-period, three-sequence, three-formulation design. Sample-size computations assume that random-effects linear models are used in bioequivalence analyses with crossover designs. Random-effects linear models have been traditionally viewed by many pharmacologists and clinical researchers as just mathematical devices to analyze repeated-measures data. In contrast, a modern view of these models attributes an important mathematical role in theoretical formulations in personalized medicine to them, because these models not only have parameters that represent average patients, but also have parameters that represent individual patients. Moreover, the notation and language of random-effects linear models have evolved over the years. Thus, another goal of this article is to provide a presentation of the statistical modeling of data from bioequivalence studies that highlights the modern view of these models, with special emphasis on power analyses and sample-size computations.
Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences
Sun, Ying
2012-02-01
This article proposes a nonparametric method for estimating the period and values of a periodic sequence when the data are evenly spaced in time. The period is estimated by a "leave-out-one-cycle" version of cross-validation (CV) and complements the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both theoretically and by simulation.We also propose a nonparametric test of the null hypothesis that the data have constantmean against the alternative that the sequence of means is periodic. Finally, our methodology is demonstrated on three well-known time series: the sunspots and lynx trapping data, and the El Niño series of sea surface temperatures. © 2012 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Quality.
Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences
Sun, Ying; Hart, Jeffrey D.; Genton, Marc G.
2012-01-01
the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both
LPTAU, Quasi Random Sequence Generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sobol, Ilya M.
1993-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: LPTAU generates quasi random sequences. These are uniformly distributed sets of L=M N points in the N-dimensional unit cube: I N =[0,1]x...x[0,1]. These sequences are used as nodes for multidimensional integration; as searching points in global optimization; as trial points in multi-criteria decision making; as quasi-random points for quasi Monte Carlo algorithms. 2 - Method of solution: Uses LP-TAU sequence generation (see references). 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The number of points that can be generated is L 30 . The dimension of the space cannot exceed 51
Poo, Jorge Luis; Galán, Juan Francisco; Rosete, Alejandra; de Lago, Alberto; Oliva, Iván; González-de la Parra, Mario; Jiménez, Patricia; Burke-Fraga, Victoria; Namur, Salvador
2008-04-01
Omeprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor that acts to reduce acid secretion in the stomach and is used for treating various acid-related gastrointestinal disorders. There are several generic formulations of omeprazole available in Mexico; however, a literature search failed to identify published data concerning the bioavailability of these formulations in the Mexican population. The aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability of 2 oral formulations of omeprazole 20-mg capsules, marketed for use in Mexico, in healthy volunteers: Inhibitron (test formulation) and LosecA 20 mg (reference formulation). This study used a single-dose, open-label, randomized sequence, 2 x 2 crossover (2 administration periods x 2 treatments) design to compare the 2 formulations. Eligible subjects were healthy adult Mexican volunteers of both sexes. Subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive a single 20-mg dose of the test formulation followed by the reference formulation, or vice versa, with a 7-day washout period between administration periods. After a 12-hour (overnight) fast, subjects received a single, 20-mg dose of the corresponding formulation. Plasma samples were obtained over a 12-hour period after administration. Plasma omeprazole concentrations were analyzed by a nonstereospecific high-performance liquid chromatography method. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties, including C(max), AUC from time 0 (baseline) to time t (AUC(0-t)), and AUC from baseline to infinity (AUC(0-infinity)), blood samples were drawn at baseline and 0.17, 0.33, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, 2, 2.50, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours after administration. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the natural log (ln)-transformed ratios of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined equivalence range of 80% to 125%, and if P disability, or required intervention to prevent permanent impairment or damage. Thirty-four subjects were enrolled and completed the study (25 men and 9
Srichaiya, Arunee; Longchoopol, Chaowanee; Oo-Puthinan, Sarawut; Sayasathid, Jarun; Sripalakit, Pattana; Viyoch, Jarupa
2008-10-01
Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug which has been used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. A search of the literature did not find previously published bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic evaluations of lamotrigine in healthy Thai male volunteers. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters between 2 brands of lamotrigine in healthy Thai male volunteers. A randomized, single-dose, 2-period, 2-sequence, crossover study design with a 2-week washout period was conducted in healthy Thai males. Subjects were randomized to receive either the test or reference formulation in the first period. All subjects were required to be nonsmokers and without a history of alcohol or drug abuse. Plasma samples were collected over a 120-hour period after 100-mg lamotrigine administration in each period. A validated high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet method was used to analyze lamotrigine concentration in plasma. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using a noncompartmental method. Bioequivalence between the test and reference products, as defined by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), is determined when the ratio for the 90% CIs of the difference in the means of the log-transformed AUC(0-t), AUC(0-infinity), and C(max) of the 2 products are within 0.80 and 1.25. Adverse events were determined by measuring vital signs after dosing. Subjects were also asked if they suffered from undesirable effects such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache. This bioequivalence study was performed in 24 healthy Thai males (mean [SD] age, 20.5 [1.3] years; range, 19-24 years; weight, 62.5 [7.4] kg; height, 172.8 [6.9] cm; body mass index, 20.9 [2.0] kg/m(2)). The mean (SD) C(max) and T(max) of the test formulation of lamotrigine were 1.7 (0.3) microg/mL and 1.2 (0.9) hours, respectively. The mean (SD) C(max) and T(max) of the reference formulation of lamotrigine were 1.7 (0.3) microg/mL and 1.4 (1.0) hours, respectively. The mean
Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences
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Lingfeng Liu
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.
Spectral sum rules and search for periodicities in DNA sequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chechetkin, V.R.
2011-01-01
Periodic patterns play the important regulatory and structural roles in genomic DNA sequences. Commonly, the underlying periodicities should be understood in a broad statistical sense, since the corresponding periodic patterns have been strongly distorted by the random point mutations and insertions/deletions during molecular evolution. The latent periodicities in DNA sequences can be efficiently displayed by Fourier transform. The criteria of significance for observed periodicities are obtained via the comparison versus the counterpart characteristics of the reference random sequences. We show that the restrictions imposed on the significance criteria by the rigorous spectral sum rules can be rationally described with De Finetti distribution. This distribution provides the convenient intermediate asymptotic form between Rayleigh distribution and exact combinatoric theory. - Highlights: → We study the significance criteria for latent periodicities in DNA sequences. → The constraints imposed by sum rules can be described with De Finetti distribution. → It is intermediate between Rayleigh distribution and exact combinatoric theory. → Theory is applicable to the study of correlations between different periodicities. → The approach can be generalized to the arbitrary discrete Fourier transform.
RANDNA: a random DNA sequence generator.
Piva, Francesco; Principato, Giovanni
2006-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations are useful to verify the significance of data. Genomic regularities, such as the nucleotide correlations or the not uniform distribution of the motifs throughout genomic or mature mRNA sequences, exist and their significance can be checked by means of the Monte Carlo test. The test needs good quality random sequences in order to work, moreover they should have the same nucleotide distribution as the sequences in which the regularities have been found. Random DNA sequences are also useful to estimate the background score of an alignment, that is a threshold below which the resulting score is merely due to chance. We have developed RANDNA, a free software which allows to produce random DNA or RNA sequences setting both their length and the percentage of nucleotide composition. Sequences having the same nucleotide distribution of exonic, intronic or intergenic sequences can be generated. Its graphic interface makes it possible to easily set the parameters that characterize the sequences being produced and saved in a text format file. The pseudo-random number generator function of Borland Delphi 6 is used, since it guarantees a good randomness, a long cycle length and a high speed. We have checked the quality of sequences generated by the software, by means of well-known tests, both by themselves and versus genuine random sequences. We show the good quality of the generated sequences. The software, complete with examples and documentation, is freely available to users from: http://www.introni.it/en/software.
Shi, Shaojun; Liu, Yani; Wu, Jianhong; Li, Zhongfang; Zhao, Yan; Zhong, Dafang; Zeng, Fandian
2010-10-01
The proprietary formulation of fluoxetine hydrochloride is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class. Pharmacokinetic studies investigating the bioequivalence of generic and branded formulations are needed to market generic fluoxetine in China. The aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability and tolerability of the proposed generic formulation with the established reference formulation of fluoxetine hydrochloride 20 mg in a fasting, healthy Chinese male population. This 10-week, open-label, randomized-sequence, single-dose, 2-period crossover study was conducted in healthy native Han Chinese male volunteers. Eligible subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive a single 20-mg dose of the test or reference formulation, followed by a 35-day washout period and administration of the alternate formulation. Doses were administered after a 12-hour overnight fast. For analysis of pharmacokinetic properties (including C(max), T(max), AUC(0-t), AUC(0-∞), and t(½)), blood samples were obtained over a 672-hour period after dosing. Plasma concentrations of fluoxetine and its active metabolite, norfluoxetine, were analyzed using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if the ln-transformed ratios (test/ reference) of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined bioequivalence range of 80% to 125%, as established by the US Food and Drug Administration, and if the P values were fasting, healthy Chinese male volunteers. Both formulations appeared to be well tolerated. Copyright © 2010 Excerpta Medica Inc. All rights reserved.
Yu, Ji-young; Song, Hyun Ho; Kim, Bo Gyeom; Park, Hyeon Ju; Choi, Kwang Sik; Kwon, Young Ee
2009-11-01
Chlorphenesin carbamate is a skeletal muscle relaxant approved in Korea for use in the treatment of pain and discomfort related to skeletal muscle trauma and inflammation. The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of a generic formulation of chlorphenesin carbamate at doses of 250 and 500 mg and 2 branded formulations of the same doses in healthy Korean adults. This single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted in healthy Korean male and female volunteers. Subjects were assigned to receive, in a randomized sequence, a single dose of the generic (test) and branded (reference) formulations of chlorphenesin carbamate at a dose of 250 or 500 mg. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 0.33, 0.67, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 15 hours after administration. Pharmacokinetic properties (C(max), T(max), AUC(0-t) AUC(0-infinity), t(1/2), and ke) were determined using HPLC. The formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs of the treatment ratios of the geometric means of C(max) and AUC(0-t) were within a predetermined range of log 0.80 to log 1.25 based on regulatory criteria. Tolerability was assessed by monitoring for adverse events (AEs) on physical examination and/or e-mail and personal interview at the beginning and end of each study period. Twenty-eight subjects (22 men, 6 women) received chlorphenesin carbamate at the 250-mg dose, and 24 male subjects received the 500-mg dose. The mean (SD) ages of the subjects were 24.0 (2.6) and 24.0 (1.9) years in the 250- and 500-mg groups, respectively. No significant differences were found between the test and reference formulations (90% CIs: C(max), 1.0048-1.1153 with the 250-mg dose and 0.9630-1.1189 with the 500-mg dose; AUC(0-t), 0.9882-1.0546 and 0.9842-1.0578, respectively). No clinically significant AEs (upper gastric pain, abdominal bloating, pyrexia, edema, nausea, heartburn, constipation, headache, dizziness, drowsiness, or fatigue) were reported throughout
Bunches of random cross-correlated sequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maystrenko, A A; Melnik, S S; Pritula, G M; Usatenko, O V
2013-01-01
The statistical properties of random cross-correlated sequences constructed by the convolution method (likewise referred to as the Rice or the inverse Fourier transformation) are examined. We clarify the meaning of the filtering function—the kernel of the convolution operator—and show that it is the value of the cross-correlation function which describes correlations between the initial white noise and constructed correlated sequences. The matrix generalization of this method for constructing a bunch of N cross-correlated sequences is presented. Algorithms for their generation are reduced to solving the problem of decomposition of the Fourier transform of the correlation matrix into a product of two mutually conjugate matrices. Different decompositions are considered. The limits of weak and strong correlations for the one-point probability and pair correlation functions of sequences generated by the method under consideration are studied. Special cases of heavy-tailed distributions of the generated sequences are analyzed. We show that, if the filtering function is rather smooth, the distribution function of generated variables has the Gaussian or Lévy form depending on the analytical properties of the distribution (or characteristic) functions of the initial white noise. Anisotropic properties of statistically homogeneous random sequences related to the asymmetry of a filtering function are revealed and studied. These asymmetry properties are expressed in terms of the third- or fourth-order correlation functions. Several examples of the construction of correlated chains with a predefined correlation matrix are given. (paper)
Parrillo-Campiglia, Susana; Ercoli, Mónica Cedres; Umpierrez, Ofelia; Rodríguez, Patricia; Márquez, Sara; Guarneri, Carolina; Estevez-Parrillo, Francisco T; Laurenz, Marilena; Estevez-Carrizo, Francisco E
2009-10-01
Imatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been established as a highly effective therapy for chronic myelogenous leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. A new generic, once-daily 400-mg tablet of imatinib has been developed by a pharmaceutical company in Argentina, where the regulatory standard for marketing authorization of an imatinib generic is in vitro dissolution testing. The aim of this study was to assess the bioequivalence of a new generic film-coated test tablet formulation versus a film-coated reference tablet formulation of imatinib 400 mg. The local manufacturer seeks to validate the in vitro performance of this new formulation with a bioequivalence study. A randomized, open-label, single-dose, fasting, 2-period, 2-sequence crossover design with a 2-week washout period was used in this study. The study population consisted of healthy male South American (Uruguayan) volunteers, who were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to a randomized sequence (test-reference or reference-test). In each period, the test or reference formulation was administered after an overnight fast. During the 72-hour follow-up period, participants were monitored for vital signs and symptoms. Blood samples were collected at 15 time points, including baseline, until 72 hours. Physical examination and laboratory tests (blood, urine) were repeated 1 week after study completion. A noncompartmental model was used to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of imatinib. The 90% CIs of the test/reference ratios for AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) were determined; the test and reference formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs were between 0.80 and 1.25. Adverse events were assessed by a nurse who administered a questionnaire while the healthy volunteers were admitted in the unit. The bioequivalence study was conducted in 30 Uruguayan male volunteers. Demographic characteristics (mean [SD]) included age, 27.8 (6.5) years; weight, 71.2 (9.8) kg; height, 1.71 (0.09) m; and body
Liu, Yan-Mei; Liu, Yun; Lu, Chuan; Jia, Jing-Ying; Liu, Gang-Yi; Weng, Li-Ping; Wang, Jia-Yan; Li, Guo-Xiu; Wang, Wei; Li, Shui-Jun; Yu, Chen
2010-11-01
Acetylcysteine may be used as a muco- lytic agent for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and other pulmonary diseases complicated by the production of viscous mucus. However, little is known of its pharmacokinetic properties when given orally in healthy volunteers, particularly in a Chinese Han population. This study was conducted to provide support for the marketing of a generic product in China. The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of a generic test formulation and a branded reference formulation of acetylcysteine in fasting healthy Chinese male volunteers. A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, 2-period crossover design with a 7-day washout period between doses was used in this study. Healthy Chinese male nonsmokers aged 18 to 40 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 19 to 25 kg/m(2) were selected. Eligible volunteers were randomly assigned to receive acetylcysteine 600 mg PO as either the test formulation (3 tablets of 200 mg each) or reference formulation (1 tablet of 600 mg) under fasting conditions. A total of 15 serial blood samples were collected over a 24-hour interval, and total plasma acetylcysteine concentrations were analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography-isotopic dilution mass spectrometry method. Pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), t(½) AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞) were calculated and analyzed statistically. The 2 formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs of the log-transformed ratios (test/reference) of C(max) and AUC were within the predetermined bioequivalence ranges (70%-143% for C(max); 80%-125% for AUC), as established by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. Tolerability was determined by vital signs, clinical laboratory tests, 12-lead ECGs, physical examinations, and interviews with the subjects about adverse events (AEs). A total of 24 healthy Chinese Han male volunteers were enrolled in and
Belotto, Karisa Cristina Rodrigues; Raposo, Nádia Rezende Barbosa; Ferreira, Aline Siqueira; Gattaz, Wagner Farid
2010-11-01
Risperidone (RSP) is a benzisoxazole antipsychotic agent used to treat schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses in adults and children (including those with autism). After oral administration, RSP is completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and undergoes hydroxylation to yield 9-hydroxyrisperidone (9-OH-RSP), an active metabolite that has a pharmacologic profile and potency similar to RSP. The aims of this study were to compare the relative bioavailability of a pharmaceutical-equivalent (test) formulation with a reference formulation of oral RSP 2 mg, both available commercially on the Brazilian pharmaceutical market, and to generate data regarding the oral bioavailability of the tested drug in healthy Brazilian volunteers. This single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted in healthy Brazilian volunteers from August to December 2008. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive the test formulation followed by the reference formulation or vice versa, with a 30-day washout period between doses. Study drugs were administered after a 12-hour overnight fast. For pharmacokinetic analysis, blood samples were drawn at 0 (baseline), 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 5, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after administration. Plasma concentrations of RSP and 9-OH-RSP were determined using LC-MS/MS. The test and reference formulations were to be considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs for the geometric mean test/reference ratios were within a predetermined range of 80% to 125%, in accordance with the policies of the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration. Tolerability was determined using clinical assessments, monitoring of vital signs, analysis of laboratory test results, and subject interviews regarding adverse events. A total of 22 subjects were enrolled (11 men, 11 women; mean [SD] age, 32 [12] years [range, 1858 years]; weight, 70.4 [11.9] kg [range, 50-103 kg]; height, 1.67 [0.08] m
Nonlinear deterministic structures and the randomness of protein sequences
Huang Yan Zhao
2003-01-01
To clarify the randomness of protein sequences, we make a detailed analysis of a set of typical protein sequences representing each structural classes by using nonlinear prediction method. No deterministic structures are found in these protein sequences and this implies that they behave as random sequences. We also give an explanation to the controversial results obtained in previous investigations.
Parallel Mitogenome Sequencing Alleviates Random Rooting Effect in Phylogeography.
Hirase, Shotaro; Takeshima, Hirohiko; Nishida, Mutsumi; Iwasaki, Wataru
2016-04-28
Reliably rooted phylogenetic trees play irreplaceable roles in clarifying diversification in the patterns of species and populations. However, such trees are often unavailable in phylogeographic studies, particularly when the focus is on rapidly expanded populations that exhibit star-like trees. A fundamental bottleneck is known as the random rooting effect, where a distant outgroup tends to root an unrooted tree "randomly." We investigated whether parallel mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequencing alleviates this effect in phylogeography using a case study on the Sea of Japan lineage of the intertidal goby Chaenogobius annularis Eighty-three C. annularis individuals were collected and their mitogenomes were determined by high-throughput and low-cost parallel sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of these mitogenome sequences was conducted to root the Sea of Japan lineage, which has a star-like phylogeny and had not been reliably rooted. The topologies of the bootstrap trees were investigated to determine whether the use of mitogenomes alleviated the random rooting effect. The mitogenome data successfully rooted the Sea of Japan lineage by alleviating the effect, which hindered phylogenetic analysis that used specific gene sequences. The reliable rooting of the lineage led to the discovery of a novel, northern lineage that expanded during an interglacial period with high bootstrap support. Furthermore, the finding of this lineage suggested the existence of additional glacial refugia and provided a new recent calibration point that revised the divergence time estimation between the Sea of Japan and Pacific Ocean lineages. This study illustrates the effectiveness of parallel mitogenome sequencing for solving the random rooting problem in phylogeographic studies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Improved nonparametric inference for multiple correlated periodic sequences
Sun, Ying
2013-08-26
This paper proposes a cross-validation method for estimating the period as well as the values of multiple correlated periodic sequences when data are observed at evenly spaced time points. The period of interest is estimated conditional on the other correlated sequences. An alternative method for period estimation based on Akaike\\'s information criterion is also discussed. The improvement of the period estimation performance is investigated both theoretically and by simulation. We apply the multivariate cross-validation method to the temperature data obtained from multiple ice cores, investigating the periodicity of the El Niño effect. Our methodology is also illustrated by estimating patients\\' cardiac cycle from different physiological signals, including arterial blood pressure, electrocardiography, and fingertip plethysmograph.
Image encryption using random sequence generated from generalized information domain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Xia-Yan; Wu Jie-Hua; Zhang Guo-Ji; Li Xuan; Ren Ya-Zhou
2016-01-01
A novel image encryption method based on the random sequence generated from the generalized information domain and permutation–diffusion architecture is proposed. The random sequence is generated by reconstruction from the generalized information file and discrete trajectory extraction from the data stream. The trajectory address sequence is used to generate a P-box to shuffle the plain image while random sequences are treated as keystreams. A new factor called drift factor is employed to accelerate and enhance the performance of the random sequence generator. An initial value is introduced to make the encryption method an approximately one-time pad. Experimental results show that the random sequences pass the NIST statistical test with a high ratio and extensive analysis demonstrates that the new encryption scheme has superior security. (paper)
PRIMITIVE MATRICES AND GENERATORS OF PSEUDO RANDOM SEQUENCES OF GALOIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Beletsky
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In theory and practice of information cryptographic protection one of the key problems is the forming a binary pseudo-random sequences (PRS with a maximum length with acceptable statistical characteristics. PRS generators are usually implemented by linear shift register (LSR of maximum period with linear feedback [1]. In this paper we extend the concept of LSR, assuming that each of its rank (memory cell can be in one of the following condition. Let’s call such registers “generalized linear shift register.” The research goal is to develop algorithms for constructing Galois and Fibonacci generalized matrix of n-order over the field , which uniquely determined both the structure of corresponding generalized of n-order LSR maximal period, and formed on their basis Galois PRS generators of maximum length. Thus the article presents the questions of formation the primitive generalized Fibonacci and Galois arbitrary order matrix over the prime field . The synthesis of matrices is based on the use of irreducible polynomials of degree and primitive elements of the extended field generated by polynomial. The constructing methods of Galois and Fibonacci conjugated primitive matrices are suggested. The using possibilities of such matrices in solving the problem of constructing generalized generators of Galois pseudo-random sequences are discussed.
Sequence periodicity in nucleosomal DNA and intrinsic curvature.
Nair, T Murlidharan
2010-05-17
Most eukaryotic DNA contained in the nucleus is packaged by wrapping DNA around histone octamers. Histones are ubiquitous and bind most regions of chromosomal DNA. In order to achieve smooth wrapping of the DNA around the histone octamer, the DNA duplex should be able to deform and should possess intrinsic curvature. The deformability of DNA is a result of the non-parallelness of base pair stacks. The stacking interaction between base pairs is sequence dependent. The higher the stacking energy the more rigid the DNA helix, thus it is natural to expect that sequences that are involved in wrapping around the histone octamer should be unstacked and possess intrinsic curvature. Intrinsic curvature has been shown to be dictated by the periodic recurrence of certain dinucleotides. Several genome-wide studies directed towards mapping of nucleosome positions have revealed periodicity associated with certain stretches of sequences. In the current study, these sequences have been analyzed with a view to understand their sequence-dependent structures. Higher order DNA structures and the distribution of molecular bend loci associated with 146 base nucleosome core DNA sequence from C. elegans and chicken have been analyzed using the theoretical model for DNA curvature. The curvature dispersion calculated by cyclically permuting the sequences revealed that the molecular bend loci were delocalized throughout the nucleosome core region and had varying degrees of intrinsic curvature. The higher order structures associated with nucleosomes of C.elegans and chicken calculated from the sequences revealed heterogeneity with respect to the deviation of the DNA axis. The results points to the possibility of context dependent curvature of varying degrees to be associated with nucleosomal DNA.
On the Periods of the {ranshi} Random Number Generator
Gutbrod, F.
The stochastic properties of the pseudo-random number generator {ranshi} are discussed, with emphasis on the average period. Within a factor 2 this turns out to be the root of the maximally possible period. The actual set of periods depends on minor details of the algorithm, and the system settles down in one of only a few different cycles. These features are in perfect agreement with absolute random motion in phase space, to the extent allowed by deterministic dynamics.
Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Shuler, K.E.
1985-01-01
The previously developed formalism for the calculation of asymptotic properties of multistate random walks is used to study random walks on several inhomogeneous periodic lattices, where the periodically repeated unit cell contains a number of inequivalent sites, as well as on lattices with a random
Generation of pseudo-random sequences for spread spectrum systems
Moser, R.; Stover, J.
1985-05-01
The characteristics of pseudo random radio signal sequences (PRS) are explored. The randomness of the PSR is a matter of artificially altering the sequence of binary digits broadcast. Autocorrelations of the two sequences shifted in time, if high, determine if the signals are the same and thus allow for position identification. Cross-correlation can also be calculated between sequences. Correlations closest to zero are obtained with large volume of prime numbers in the sequences. Techniques for selecting optimal and maximal lengths for the sequences are reviewed. If the correlations are near zero in the sequences, then signal channels can accommodate multiple users. Finally, Gold codes are discussed as a technique for maximizing the code lengths.
Epidemic transmission on random mobile network with diverse infection periods
Li, Kezan; Yu, Hong; Zeng, Zhaorong; Ding, Yong; Ma, Zhongjun
2015-05-01
The heterogeneity of individual susceptibility and infectivity and time-varying topological structure are two realistic factors when we study epidemics on complex networks. Current research results have shown that the heterogeneity of individual susceptibility and infectivity can increase the epidemic threshold in a random mobile dynamical network with the same infection period. In this paper, we will focus on random mobile dynamical networks with diverse infection periods due to people's different constitutions and external circumstances. Theoretical results indicate that the epidemic threshold of the random mobile network with diverse infection periods is larger than the counterpart with the same infection period. Moreover, the heterogeneity of individual susceptibility and infectivity can play a significant impact on disease transmission. In particular, the homogeneity of individuals will avail to the spreading of epidemics. Numerical examples verify further our theoretical results very well.
Systematic Onset of Periodic Patterns in Random Disk Packings
Topic, Nikola; Pöschel, Thorsten; Gallas, Jason A. C.
2018-04-01
We report evidence of a surprising systematic onset of periodic patterns in very tall piles of disks deposited randomly between rigid walls. Independently of the pile width, periodic structures are always observed in monodisperse deposits containing up to 1 07 disks. The probability density function of the lengths of disordered transient phases that precede the onset of periodicity displays an approximately exponential tail. These disordered transients may become very large when the channel width grows without bound. For narrow channels, the probability density of finding periodic patterns of a given period displays a series of discrete peaks, which, however, are washed out completely when the channel width grows.
Perceptions of randomness in binary sequences: Normative, heuristic, or both?
Reimers, Stian; Donkin, Chris; Le Pelley, Mike E
2018-03-01
When people consider a series of random binary events, such as tossing an unbiased coin and recording the sequence of heads (H) and tails (T), they tend to erroneously rate sequences with less internal structure or order (such as HTTHT) as more probable than sequences containing more structure or order (such as HHHHH). This is traditionally explained as a local representativeness effect: Participants assume that the properties of long sequences of random outcomes-such as an equal proportion of heads and tails, and little internal structure-should also apply to short sequences. However, recent theoretical work has noted that the probability of a particular sequence of say, heads and tails of length n, occurring within a larger (>n) sequence of coin flips actually differs by sequence, so P(HHHHH) rational norms based on limited experience. We test these accounts. Participants in Experiment 1 rated the likelihood of occurrence for all possible strings of 4, 5, and 6 observations in a sequence of coin flips. Judgments were better explained by representativeness in alternation rate, relative proportion of heads and tails, and sequence complexity, than by objective probabilities. Experiments 2 and 3 gave similar results using incentivized binary choice procedures. Overall the evidence suggests that participants are not sensitive to variation in objective probabilities of a sub-sequence occurring; they appear to use heuristics based on several distinct forms of representativeness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chaos, periodic chaos, and the random-walk problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozak, J.J.; Musho, M.K.; Hatlee, M.D.
1982-01-01
The authors have studied whether numerically generated sequences from the logistic parabola f/sub b/(x) = 4bx(1-x) with b,xelement of[0,1], for values of b above the Feigenbaum critical value b/sub infinity/, are truly chaotic or whether they are periodic but with exceedingly large periods and very long transients. Using the logistic parabola the authors calculate via Monte Carlo simulation the average walk length for trapping on a one-dimensional lattice with a centrosymmetric trap. Comparison with exact results suggests that the only ''truly chaotic'' sequence is the one for which b = 1
Modeling Interdependent and Periodic Real-World Action Sequences
Kurashima, Takeshi; Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure
2018-01-01
Mobile health applications, including those that track activities such as exercise, sleep, and diet, are becoming widely used. Accurately predicting human actions in the real world is essential for targeted recommendations that could improve our health and for personalization of these applications. However, making such predictions is extremely difficult due to the complexities of human behavior, which consists of a large number of potential actions that vary over time, depend on each other, and are periodic. Previous work has not jointly modeled these dynamics and has largely focused on item consumption patterns instead of broader types of behaviors such as eating, commuting or exercising. In this work, we develop a novel statistical model, called TIPAS, for Time-varying, Interdependent, and Periodic Action Sequences. Our approach is based on personalized, multivariate temporal point processes that model time-varying action propensities through a mixture of Gaussian intensities. Our model captures short-term and long-term periodic interdependencies between actions through Hawkes process-based self-excitations. We evaluate our approach on two activity logging datasets comprising 12 million real-world actions (e.g., eating, sleep, and exercise) taken by 20 thousand users over 17 months. We demonstrate that our approach allows us to make successful predictions of future user actions and their timing. Specifically, TIPAS improves predictions of actions, and their timing, over existing methods across multiple datasets by up to 156%, and up to 37%, respectively. Performance improvements are particularly large for relatively rare and periodic actions such as walking and biking, improving over baselines by up to 256%. This demonstrates that explicit modeling of dependencies and periodicities in real-world behavior enables successful predictions of future actions, with implications for modeling human behavior, app personalization, and targeting of health interventions. PMID
Analysis of decision procedures for a sequence of inventory periods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avenhaus, R.
1982-07-01
Optimal test procedures for a sequence of inventory periods will be discussed. Starting with a game theoretical description of the conflict situation between the plant operator and the inspector, the objectives of the inspector as well as the general decision theoretical problem will be formulated. In the first part the objective of 'secure' detection will be emphasized which means that only at the end of the reference time a decision is taken by the inspector. In the second part the objective of 'timely' detection will be emphasized which will lead to sequential test procedures. At the end of the paper all procedures will be summarized, and in view of the multitude of procedures available at the moment some comments about future work will be given. (orig./HP) [de
Correlations of pseudo-random numbers of multiplicative sequence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bukin, A.D.
1989-01-01
An algorithm is suggested for searching with a computer in unit n-dimensional cube the sets of planes where all the points fall whose coordinates are composed of n successive pseudo-random numbers of multiplicative sequence. This effect should be taken into account in Monte-Carlo calculations with definite constructive dimension. The parameters of these planes are obtained for three random number generators. 2 refs.; 2 tabs
Cryptographic pseudo-random sequence from the spatial chaotic map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Fuyan; Liu Shutang
2009-01-01
A scheme for pseudo-random binary sequence generation based on the spatial chaotic map is proposed. In order to face the challenge of using the proposed PRBS in cryptography, the proposed PRBS is subjected to statistical tests which are the well-known FIPS-140-1 in the area of cryptography, and correlation properties of the proposed sequences are investigated. The proposed PRBS successfully passes all these tests. Results of statistical testing of the sequences are found encouraging. The results of statistical tests suggest strong candidature for cryptographic applications.
Classification of periodic, chaotic and random sequences using ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We analyse the problem with multiple values of initial conditions and perform statistical hypothesis testing for differences in means to determine the minimum ... the datasets showed a significant main effect (F3,196 = 77.04, P < 0.001). Post hoc.
Automatic generation of randomized trial sequences for priming experiments.
Ihrke, Matthias; Behrendt, Jörg
2011-01-01
In most psychological experiments, a randomized presentation of successive displays is crucial for the validity of the results. For some paradigms, this is not a trivial issue because trials are interdependent, e.g., priming paradigms. We present a software that automatically generates optimized trial sequences for (negative-) priming experiments. Our implementation is based on an optimization heuristic known as genetic algorithms that allows for an intuitive interpretation due to its similarity to natural evolution. The program features a graphical user interface that allows the user to generate trial sequences and to interactively improve them. The software is based on freely available software and is released under the GNU General Public License.
RANDOMNUMBERS, Random Number Sequence Generated from Gas Ionisation Chamber Data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frigerio, N.A.; Sanathanan, L.P.; Morley, M.; Tyler, S.A.; Clark, N.A.; Wang, J.
1989-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: RANDOM NUMBERS is a data collection of almost 2.7 million 31-bit random numbers generated by using a high resolution gas ionization detector chamber in conjunction with a 4096-channel multichannel analyzer to record the radioactive decay of alpha particles from a U-235 source. The signals from the decaying alpha particles were fed to the 4096-channel analyzer, and for each channel the frequency of signals registered in a 20,000-microsecond interval was recorded. The parity bits of these frequency counts, 0 for an even count and 1 for and odd count, were then assembled in sequence to form 31-bit random numbers and transcribed onto magnetic tape. This cycle was repeated to obtain the random numbers. 2 - Method of solution: The frequency distribution of counts from the device conforms to the Brockwell-Moyal distribution which takes into account the dead time of the counter. The count data were analyzed and tests for randomness on a sample indicate that the device is a highly reliable source of truly random numbers. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The RANDOM NUMBERS tape contains 2,669,568 31-bit numbers
Improved nonparametric inference for multiple correlated periodic sequences
Sun, Ying; Hart, Jeffrey D.; Genton, Marc G.
2013-01-01
cross-validation method to the temperature data obtained from multiple ice cores, investigating the periodicity of the El Niño effect. Our methodology is also illustrated by estimating patients' cardiac cycle from different physiological signals
Random Sequence for Optimal Low-Power Laser Generated Ultrasound
Vangi, D.; Virga, A.; Gulino, M. S.
2017-08-01
Low-power laser generated ultrasounds are lately gaining importance in the research world, thanks to the possibility of investigating a mechanical component structural integrity through a non-contact and Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) procedure. The ultrasounds are, however, very low in amplitude, making it necessary to use pre-processing and post-processing operations on the signals to detect them. The cross-correlation technique is used in this work, meaning that a random signal must be used as laser input. For this purpose, a highly random and simple-to-create code called T sequence, capable of enhancing the ultrasound detectability, is introduced (not previously available at the state of the art). Several important parameters which characterize the T sequence can influence the process: the number of pulses Npulses , the pulse duration δ and the distance between pulses dpulses . A Finite Element FE model of a 3 mm steel disk has been initially developed to analytically study the longitudinal ultrasound generation mechanism and the obtainable outputs. Later, experimental tests have shown that the T sequence is highly flexible for ultrasound detection purposes, making it optimal to use high Npulses and δ but low dpulses . In the end, apart from describing all phenomena that arise in the low-power laser generation process, the results of this study are also important for setting up an effective NDT procedure using this technology.
GuiTope: an application for mapping random-sequence peptides to protein sequences.
Halperin, Rebecca F; Stafford, Phillip; Emery, Jack S; Navalkar, Krupa Arun; Johnston, Stephen Albert
2012-01-03
Random-sequence peptide libraries are a commonly used tool to identify novel ligands for binding antibodies, other proteins, and small molecules. It is often of interest to compare the selected peptide sequences to the natural protein binding partners to infer the exact binding site or the importance of particular residues. The ability to search a set of sequences for similarity to a set of peptides may sometimes enable the prediction of an antibody epitope or a novel binding partner. We have developed a software application designed specifically for this task. GuiTope provides a graphical user interface for aligning peptide sequences to protein sequences. All alignment parameters are accessible to the user including the ability to specify the amino acid frequency in the peptide library; these frequencies often differ significantly from those assumed by popular alignment programs. It also includes a novel feature to align di-peptide inversions, which we have found improves the accuracy of antibody epitope prediction from peptide microarray data and shows utility in analyzing phage display datasets. Finally, GuiTope can randomly select peptides from a given library to estimate a null distribution of scores and calculate statistical significance. GuiTope provides a convenient method for comparing selected peptide sequences to protein sequences, including flexible alignment parameters, novel alignment features, ability to search a database, and statistical significance of results. The software is available as an executable (for PC) at http://www.immunosignature.com/software and ongoing updates and source code will be available at sourceforge.net.
GuiTope: an application for mapping random-sequence peptides to protein sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Halperin Rebecca F
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Random-sequence peptide libraries are a commonly used tool to identify novel ligands for binding antibodies, other proteins, and small molecules. It is often of interest to compare the selected peptide sequences to the natural protein binding partners to infer the exact binding site or the importance of particular residues. The ability to search a set of sequences for similarity to a set of peptides may sometimes enable the prediction of an antibody epitope or a novel binding partner. We have developed a software application designed specifically for this task. Results GuiTope provides a graphical user interface for aligning peptide sequences to protein sequences. All alignment parameters are accessible to the user including the ability to specify the amino acid frequency in the peptide library; these frequencies often differ significantly from those assumed by popular alignment programs. It also includes a novel feature to align di-peptide inversions, which we have found improves the accuracy of antibody epitope prediction from peptide microarray data and shows utility in analyzing phage display datasets. Finally, GuiTope can randomly select peptides from a given library to estimate a null distribution of scores and calculate statistical significance. Conclusions GuiTope provides a convenient method for comparing selected peptide sequences to protein sequences, including flexible alignment parameters, novel alignment features, ability to search a database, and statistical significance of results. The software is available as an executable (for PC at http://www.immunosignature.com/software and ongoing updates and source code will be available at sourceforge.net.
Halton, John H.
1989-09-01
A class of families of linear congruential pseudo-random sequences is defined, for which it is possible to branch at any event without changing the sequence of random numbers used in the original random walk and for which the sequences in different branches show properties analogous to mutual statistical independence. This is a hitherto unavailable, and computationally desirable, tool.
Optical orthogonal code-division multiple-access system - Part 2: Multibits/sequence-period OOCDMA
Kwon, Hyuck M.
1994-08-01
In a recently proposed optical orthogonal code division multiple-access (OOCDMA) system, one bit of user's data is transmitted per sequence-period, and a threshold is employed for the final bit decision. In this paper, a system that can transmit multibits per sequence-period is introduced, and avalanche photodiode (APD) noise, thermal noise, and interference, are included. This system, derived by exploiting orthogonal properties of the OOCDMA code sequence and using a maximum search (instead of a threshold) in the final decision, is log(sub 2) F times higher in throughput, where F is sequence-period. For example, four orders of magnitude are better in bit error probability at - 56 dBW received laser power, with F = 1000 chips, 10 'marks' in a sequence, and 10 users of 30 Mb/s data rate for one-bit/sequence-period and 270 Mb/s data rate for multibits/sequence-period system. Furthermore, an exact analysis is performed for the log(sub 2)F bits/sequence-period system with a hard-limiter placed before the receiver, and its performance is compared to the performance without hard-limiter, for the chip-synchronous case. The improvement from using a hard-limiter is significant in the log(sub 2)F bits/sequence-period OCCDMA system.
Random skew plane partitions with a piecewise periodic back wall
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boutillier, Cedric; Mkrtchyan, Sevak; Reshetikhin, Nicolai
Random skew plane partitions of large size distributed according to an appropriately scaled Schur process develop limit shapes. In the present work we consider the limit of large random skew plane partitions where the inner boundary approaches a piecewise linear curve with non-lattice slopes. Muc...
Lower bounds on the periodic Hamming correlations of frequency hopping sequences with low hit zone
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
In this paper, several periodic Hamming correlation lower bounds for frequency hopping sequences with low hit zone, with respect to the size p of the frequency slot set, the sequence length L, the family size M, low hit zone LH ( or no hit zone NH ), the maximum periodic Hamming autocorrelation sidelobe Ha and the maximum periodic Hamming crosscorrelation Hc, are established. It is shown that the new bounds include the known Lempel-Greenberger bounds, T.S. Seay bounds and Peng-Fan bounds for the conventional frequency hopping sequences as special cases.
Illingworth, Christopher J R; Parkes, Kevin E; Snell, Christopher R; Mullineaux, Philip M; Reynolds, Christopher A
2008-03-01
Methods to determine periodicity in protein sequences are useful for inferring function. Fourier transformation is one approach but care is required to ensure the periodicity is genuine. Here we have shown that empirically-derived statistical tables can be used as a measure of significance. Genuine protein sequences data rather than randomly generated sequences were used as the statistical backdrop. The method has been applied to G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) sequences, by Fourier transformation of hydrophobicity values, codon frequencies and the extent of over-representation of codon pairs; the latter being related to translational step times. Genuine periodicity was observed in the hydrophobicity whereas the apparent periodicity (as inferred from previously reported measures) in the translation step times was not validated statistically. GCR2 has recently been proposed as the plant GPCR receptor for the hormone abscisic acid. It has homology to the Lanthionine synthetase C-like family of proteins, an observation confirmed by fold recognition. Application of the Fourier transform algorithm to the GCR2 family revealed strongly predicted seven fold periodicity in hydrophobicity, suggesting why GCR2 has been reported to be a GPCR, despite negative indications in most transmembrane prediction algorithms. The underlying multiple sequence alignment, also required for the Fourier transform analysis of periodicity, indicated that the hydrophobic regions around the 7 GXXG motifs commence near the C-terminal end of each of the 7 inner helices of the alpha-toroid and continue to the N-terminal region of the helix. The results clearly explain why GCR2 has been understandably but erroneously predicted to be a GPCR.
A symbolic dynamics approach for the complexity analysis of chaotic pseudo-random sequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao Fanghong
2004-01-01
By considering a chaotic pseudo-random sequence as a symbolic sequence, authors present a symbolic dynamics approach for the complexity analysis of chaotic pseudo-random sequences. The method is applied to the cases of Logistic map and one-way coupled map lattice to demonstrate how it works, and a comparison is made between it and the approximate entropy method. The results show that this method is applicable to distinguish the complexities of different chaotic pseudo-random sequences, and it is superior to the approximate entropy method
Fast convergence of spike sequences to periodic patterns in recurrent networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin, Dezhe Z.
2002-01-01
The dynamical attractors are thought to underlie many biological functions of recurrent neural networks. Here we show that stable periodic spike sequences with precise timings are the attractors of the spiking dynamics of recurrent neural networks with global inhibition. Almost all spike sequences converge within a finite number of transient spikes to these attractors. The convergence is fast, especially when the global inhibition is strong. These results support the possibility that precise spatiotemporal sequences of spikes are useful for information encoding and processing in biological neural networks
Golden Ratio Versus Pi as Random Sequence Sources for Monte Carlo Integration
Sen, S. K.; Agarwal, Ravi P.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali
2007-01-01
We discuss here the relative merits of these numbers as possible random sequence sources. The quality of these sequences is not judged directly based on the outcome of all known tests for the randomness of a sequence. Instead, it is determined implicitly by the accuracy of the Monte Carlo integration in a statistical sense. Since our main motive of using a random sequence is to solve real world problems, it is more desirable if we compare the quality of the sequences based on their performances for these problems in terms of quality/accuracy of the output. We also compare these sources against those generated by a popular pseudo-random generator, viz., the Matlab rand and the quasi-random generator ha/ton both in terms of error and time complexity. Our study demonstrates that consecutive blocks of digits of each of these numbers produce a good random sequence source. It is observed that randomly chosen blocks of digits do not have any remarkable advantage over consecutive blocks for the accuracy of the Monte Carlo integration. Also, it reveals that pi is a better source of a random sequence than theta when the accuracy of the integration is concerned.
Reduction of construction periods of PWRs by optimization of detailed sequence planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stocker, W.; Leverenz, R.
1991-01-01
The construction of PWR's is an enterprise with high investment costs, in total up to three billion US$ and with long construction periods of five years and more. Besides the results reached by the intensive standardization, a further reduction of the construction period is possible by optimization of detailed sequence planning and interfaces of work units. During the execution of the three German Convoy plants ISAR 2, EMSLAND and NECKARWESTHEIM 2, the contractual construction periods were shortened between 4 and 8 months. These reductions were reached after individual investigations by measures like advanced finishing work activities; erection of an increased amount of prefabricated pipings; rearrangement of erection sequences; overlapping of piping erection and electrical installation; reduction of plant commissioning period. All these measures support directly the reduction of the total investment cost of a plant, as already demonstrated by the Convoy plants. (author). 8 figs
Method for Generating Pseudorandom Sequences with the Assured Period Based on R-blocks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Ivanov
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The article describes the characteristics of a new class of fast-acting pseudorandom number generators, based on the use of stochastic adders or R-blocks. A new method for generating pseudorandom sequences with the assured length of period is offered.
WEB-server for search of a periodicity in amino acid and nucleotide sequences
E Frenkel, F.; Skryabin, K. G.; Korotkov, E. V.
2017-12-01
A new web server (http://victoria.biengi.ac.ru/splinter/login.php) was designed and developed to search for periodicity in nucleotide and amino acid sequences. The web server operation is based upon a new mathematical method of searching for multiple alignments, which is founded on the position weight matrices optimization, as well as on implementation of the two-dimensional dynamic programming. This approach allows the construction of multiple alignments of the indistinctly similar amino acid and nucleotide sequences that accumulated more than 1.5 substitutions per a single amino acid or a nucleotide without performing the sequences paired comparisons. The article examines the principles of the web server operation and two examples of studying amino acid and nucleotide sequences, as well as information that could be obtained using the web server.
A high-speed on-chip pseudo-random binary sequence generator for multi-tone phase calibration
Gommé, Liesbeth; Vandersteen, Gerd; Rolain, Yves
2011-07-01
An on-chip reference generator is conceived by adopting the technique of decimating a pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) signal in parallel sequences. This is of great benefit when high-speed generation of PRBS and PRBS-derived signals is the objective. The design implemented standard CMOS logic is available in commercial libraries to provide the logic functions for the generator. The design allows the user to select the periodicity of the PRBS and the PRBS-derived signals. The characterization of the on-chip generator marks its performance and reveals promising specifications.
A high-speed on-chip pseudo-random binary sequence generator for multi-tone phase calibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gommé, Liesbeth; Vandersteen, Gerd; Rolain, Yves
2011-01-01
An on-chip reference generator is conceived by adopting the technique of decimating a pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) signal in parallel sequences. This is of great benefit when high-speed generation of PRBS and PRBS-derived signals is the objective. The design implemented standard CMOS logic is available in commercial libraries to provide the logic functions for the generator. The design allows the user to select the periodicity of the PRBS and the PRBS-derived signals. The characterization of the on-chip generator marks its performance and reveals promising specifications
Quantifying biodiversity and asymptotics for a sequence of random strings.
Koyano, Hitoshi; Kishino, Hirohisa
2010-06-01
We present a methodology for quantifying biodiversity at the sequence level by developing the probability theory on a set of strings. Further, we apply our methodology to the problem of quantifying the population diversity of microorganisms in several extreme environments and digestive organs and reveal the relation between microbial diversity and various environmental parameters.
Persaud, Navindra
2005-01-01
Computer algorithms can only produce seemingly random or pseudorandom numbers whereas certain natural phenomena, such as the decay of radioactive particles, can be utilized to produce truly random numbers. In this study, the ability of humans to generate random numbers was tested in healthy adults. Subjects were simply asked to generate and dictate random numbers. Generated numbers were tested for uniformity, independence and information density. The results suggest that humans can generate random numbers that are uniformly distributed, independent of one another and unpredictable. If humans can generate sequences of random numbers then neural networks or forms of artificial intelligence, which are purported to function in ways essentially the same as the human brain, should also be able to generate sequences of random numbers. Elucidating the precise mechanism by which humans generate random number sequences and the underlying neural substrates may have implications in the cognitive science of decision-making. It is possible that humans use their random-generating neural machinery to make difficult decisions in which all expected outcomes are similar. It is also possible that certain people, perhaps those with neurological or psychiatric impairments, are less able or unable to generate random numbers. If the random-generating neural machinery is employed in decision making its impairment would have profound implications in matters of agency and free will.
Inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and random amplified ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
21 of 30 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers produced 220 reproducible bands with average of 10.47 bands per primer and 80.12% of polymorphism. OPR02 primer showed the highest number of effective allele (Ne), Shannon index (I) and genetic diversity (H). Some of the cultivars had specific bands, ...
Minimization of Dead-Periods in MRI Pulse Sequences for Imaging Oblique Planes
Atalar, Ergin; McVeigh, Elliot R.
2007-01-01
With the advent of breath-hold MR cardiac imaging techniques, the minimization of TR and TE for oblique planes has become a critical issue. The slew rates and maximum currents of gradient amplifiers limit the minimum possible TR and TE by adding dead-periods to the pulse sequences. We propose a method of designing gradient waveforms that will be applied to the amplifiers instead of the slice, readout, and phase encoding waveforms. Because this method ensures that the gradient amplifiers will always switch at their maximum slew rate, it results in the minimum possible dead-period for given imaging parameters and scan plane position. A GRASS pulse sequence has been designed and ultra-short TR and TE values have been obtained with standard gradient amplifiers and coils. For some oblique slices, we have achieved shorter TR and TE values than those for nonoblique slices. PMID:7869900
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Zhenkun; Wang Xinghua; Gao Feng
2006-01-01
In this Letter, we discuss discrete-time analogue of a continuous-time cellular neural network. Sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of a unique almost periodic sequence solution which is globally attractive. Our results demonstrate dynamics of the formulated discrete-time analogue as mathematical models for the continuous-time cellular neural network in almost periodic case. Finally, a computer simulation illustrates the suitability of our discrete-time analogue as numerical algorithms in simulating the continuous-time cellular neural network conveniently
Scaling Limit of Symmetric Random Walk in High-Contrast Periodic Environment
Piatnitski, A.; Zhizhina, E.
2017-11-01
The paper deals with the asymptotic properties of a symmetric random walk in a high contrast periodic medium in Z^d, d≥1. From the existing homogenization results it follows that under diffusive scaling the limit behaviour of this random walk need not be Markovian. The goal of this work is to show that if in addition to the coordinate of the random walk in Z^d we introduce an extra variable that characterizes the position of the random walk inside the period then the limit dynamics of this two-component process is Markov. We describe the limit process and observe that the components of the limit process are coupled. We also prove the convergence in the path space for the said random walk.
Prediction of Protein Hotspots from Whole Protein Sequences by a Random Projection Ensemble System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinjian Jiang
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Hotspot residues are important in the determination of protein-protein interactions, and they always perform specific functions in biological processes. The determination of hotspot residues is by the commonly-used method of alanine scanning mutagenesis experiments, which is always costly and time consuming. To address this issue, computational methods have been developed. Most of them are structure based, i.e., using the information of solved protein structures. However, the number of solved protein structures is extremely less than that of sequences. Moreover, almost all of the predictors identified hotspots from the interfaces of protein complexes, seldom from the whole protein sequences. Therefore, determining hotspots from whole protein sequences by sequence information alone is urgent. To address the issue of hotspot predictions from the whole sequences of proteins, we proposed an ensemble system with random projections using statistical physicochemical properties of amino acids. First, an encoding scheme involving sequence profiles of residues and physicochemical properties from the AAindex1 dataset is developed. Then, the random projection technique was adopted to project the encoding instances into a reduced space. Then, several better random projections were obtained by training an IBk classifier based on the training dataset, which were thus applied to the test dataset. The ensemble of random projection classifiers is therefore obtained. Experimental results showed that although the performance of our method is not good enough for real applications of hotspots, it is very promising in the determination of hotspot residues from whole sequences.
Monthus, Cécile
2017-07-01
When random quantum spin chains are submitted to some periodic Floquet driving, the eigenstates of the time-evolution operator over one period can be localized in real space. For the case of periodic quenches between two Hamiltonians (or periodic kicks), where the time-evolution operator over one period reduces to the product of two simple transfer matrices, we propose a block-self-dual renormalization procedure to construct the localized eigenstates of the Floquet dynamics. We also discuss the corresponding strong disorder renormalization procedure, that generalizes the RSRG-X procedure to construct the localized eigenstates of time-independent Hamiltonians.
Pascale, Raffaella; Grossi, Gerarda; Cruciani, Gabriele; Mecca, Giansalvatore; Santoro, Donatello; Sarli Calace, Renzo; Falabella, Patrizia; Bianco, Giuliana
Sequence protein identification by a randomized sequence database and transcriptome mass spectrometry software package has been developed at the University of Basilicata in Potenza (Italy) and designed to facilitate the determination of the amino acid sequence of a peptide as well as an unequivocal identification of proteins in a high-throughput manner with enormous advantages of time, economical resource and expertise. The software package is a valid tool for the automation of a de novo sequencing approach, overcoming the main limits and a versatile platform useful in the proteomic field for an unequivocal identification of proteins, starting from tandem mass spectrometry data. The strength of this software is that it is a user-friendly and non-statistical approach, so protein identification can be considered unambiguous.
Optimal Lot Sizing with Scrap and Random Breakdown Occurring in Backorder Replenishing Period
Ting, Chia-Kuan; Chiu, Yuan-Shyi; Chan, Chu-Chai
2011-01-01
This paper is concerned with determination of optimal lot size for an economic production quantity model with scrap and random breakdown occurring in backorder replenishing period. In most real-life manufacturing systems, generation of defective items and random breakdown of production equipment are inevitable. To deal with the stochastic machine failures, production planners practically calculate the mean time between failures (MTBF) and establish the robust plan accordingly, in terms of opt...
Non-periodic pseudo-random numbers used in Monte Carlo calculations
Barberis, Gaston E.
2007-09-01
The generation of pseudo-random numbers is one of the interesting problems in Monte Carlo simulations, mostly because the common computer generators produce periodic numbers. We used simple pseudo-random numbers generated with the simplest chaotic system, the logistic map, with excellent results. The numbers generated in this way are non-periodic, which we demonstrated for 1013 numbers, and they are obtained in a deterministic way, which allows to repeat systematically any calculation. The Monte Carlo calculations are the ideal field to apply these numbers, and we did it for simple and more elaborated cases. Chemistry and Information Technology use this kind of simulations, and the application of this numbers to quantum Monte Carlo and cryptography is immediate. I present here the techniques to calculate, analyze and use these pseudo-random numbers, show that they lack periodicity up to 1013 numbers and that they are not correlated.
Non-periodic pseudo-random numbers used in Monte Carlo calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barberis, Gaston E.
2007-01-01
The generation of pseudo-random numbers is one of the interesting problems in Monte Carlo simulations, mostly because the common computer generators produce periodic numbers. We used simple pseudo-random numbers generated with the simplest chaotic system, the logistic map, with excellent results. The numbers generated in this way are non-periodic, which we demonstrated for 10 13 numbers, and they are obtained in a deterministic way, which allows to repeat systematically any calculation. The Monte Carlo calculations are the ideal field to apply these numbers, and we did it for simple and more elaborated cases. Chemistry and Information Technology use this kind of simulations, and the application of this numbers to quantum Monte Carlo and cryptography is immediate. I present here the techniques to calculate, analyze and use these pseudo-random numbers, show that they lack periodicity up to 10 13 numbers and that they are not correlated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meng, Haining; Liu, Jianjun; Hei, Xinhong
2015-01-01
Software aging is characterized by an increasing failure rate, progressive performance degradation and even a sudden crash in a long-running software system. Software rejuvenation is an effective method to counteract software aging. A periodically inspected rejuvenation policy for software systems is studied. The consecutive inspection intervals are assumed to be a decreasing geometric sequence, and upon the inspection times of software system and its failure features, software rejuvenation or system recovery is performed. The system availability function and cost rate function are obtained, and the optimal inspection time and rejuvenation interval are both derived to maximize system availability and minimize cost rate. Then, boundary conditions of the optimal rejuvenation policy are deduced. Finally, the numeric experiment result shows the effectiveness of the proposed policy. Further compared with the existing software rejuvenation policy, the new policy has higher system availability. - Highlights: • A periodically inspected rejuvenation policy for software systems is studied. • A decreasing geometric sequence is used to denote the consecutive inspection intervals. • The optimal inspection times and rejuvenation interval are found. • The new policy is capable of reducing average cost and improving system availability
GenRGenS: Software for Generating Random Genomic Sequences and Structures
Ponty , Yann; Termier , Michel; Denise , Alain
2006-01-01
International audience; GenRGenS is a software tool dedicated to randomly generating genomic sequences and structures. It handles several classes of models useful for sequence analysis, such as Markov chains, hidden Markov models, weighted context-free grammars, regular expressions and PROSITE expressions. GenRGenS is the only program that can handle weighted context-free grammars, thus allowing the user to model and to generate structured objects (such as RNA secondary structures) of any giv...
Calculation of the mean differential group delay of periodically spun, randomly birefringent fibers
Galtarossa, Andrea; Griggio, Paola; Pizzinat, Anna; Palmieri, Luca
2002-05-01
Spinning is one of the most effective and well-known ways to reduce polarization mode dispersion of optical fibers. In spite of the popularity of spinning, a detailed theory of spin effects is still lacking. We report an analytical expression for the mean differential group delay of a randomly birefringent spun fiber. The result holds for any periodic spin function with a period shorter than the fiber's beat length.
Baumgarten, Daniel; Eichardt, Roland; Crevecoeur, Guillaume; Supriyanto, Eko; Haueisen, Jens
2013-01-01
Biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles require a precise knowledge of their biodistribution. From multi-channel magnetorelaxometry measurements, this distribution can be determined by means of inverse methods. It was recently shown that the combination of sequential inhomogeneous excitation fields in these measurements is favorable regarding the reconstruction accuracy when compared to homogeneous activation . In this paper, approaches for the determination of activation sequences for these measurements are investigated. Therefor, consecutive activation of single coils, random activation patterns and families of m-sequences are examined in computer simulations involving a sample measurement setup and compared with respect to the relative condition number of the system matrix. We obtain that the values of this condition number decrease with larger number of measurement samples for all approaches. Random sequences and m-sequences reveal similar results with a significant reduction of the required number of samples. We conclude that the application of pseudo-random sequences for sequential activation in the magnetorelaxometry imaging of magnetic nanoparticles considerably reduces the number of required sequences while preserving the relevant measurement information.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Аndriy V. Sadchenko
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Digital television systems need to ensure that all digital signals processing operations are performed simultaneously and consistently. Frame synchronization dictated by the need to match phases of transmitter and receiver so that it would be possible to identify the start of a frame. As a frame synchronization signals are often used long length binary sequence with good aperiodic autocorrelation function. Aim: This work is dedicated to the development of the algorithm of random length sequences synthesis. Materials and Methods: The paper provides a comparative analysis of the known sequences, which can be used at present as synchronization ones, revealed their advantages and disadvantages. This work proposes the algorithm for the synthesis of binary synchronization sequences of random length with good autocorrelation properties based on noise generator with a uniform distribution law of probabilities. A "white noise" semiconductor generator is proposed to use as the initial material for the synthesis of binary sequences with desired properties. Results: The statistical analysis of the initial implementations of the "white noise" and synthesized sequences for frame synchronization of digital television is conducted. The comparative analysis of the synthesized sequences with known ones was carried out. The results show the benefits of obtained sequences in compare with known ones. The performed simulations confirm the obtained results. Conclusions: Thus, the search algorithm of binary synchronization sequences with desired autocorrelation properties received. According to this algorithm, the sequence can be longer in length and without length limitations. The received sync sequence can be used for frame synchronization in modern digital communication systems that will increase their efficiency and noise immunity.
Reduced randomness in quantum cryptography with sequences of qubits encoded in the same basis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamoureux, L.-P.; Cerf, N. J.; Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.; Gisin, N.; Macchiavello, C.
2006-01-01
We consider the cloning of sequences of qubits prepared in the states used in the BB84 or six-state quantum cryptography protocol, and show that the single-qubit fidelity is unaffected even if entire sequences of qubits are prepared in the same basis. This result is only valid provided that the sequences are much shorter than the total key. It is of great importance for practical quantum cryptosystems because it reduces the need for high-speed random number generation without impairing on the security against finite-size cloning attacks
Random sequences are an abundant source of bioactive RNAs or peptides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neme, Rafik; Amador, Cristina; Yildirim, Burcin
2017-01-01
It is generally assumed that new genes arise through duplication and/or recombination of existing genes. The probability that a new functional gene could arise out of random non-coding DNA is so far considered to be negligible, as it seems unlikely that such an RNA or protein sequence could have ...
Drake, C; Jones, M R; Baruch, C
2000-12-15
This paper is divided into three sections. The first section is theoretical; it extends Dynamic Attending Theory (Jones, M. R. Psychological Review 83 (1976) 323; Jones, M. R. Perception and Psychophysics 41(6) (1987) 631; Jones, M. R. Psychomusicology 9(2) (1990) 193; Jones, M. R., & Boltz, M. Psychological Review 96(3) (1989) 459) to developmental questions concerning tempo and time hierarchies. Generally Dynamic Attending Theory proposes that, when listening to a complex auditory sequence, listeners spontaneously focus on events occurring at an intermediate rate (the referent level), and they then may shift attention to events occurring over longer or shorter time spans, that is at lower (faster) or higher (slower) hierarchical levels (focal attending). The second section of the paper is experimental. It examines maturational changes of three dynamic attending activities involving referent period and level, attunement, and focal attending. Tasks involve both motor tapping (including spontaneous motor tempo and synchronization with simple sequences and music) and tempo discrimination. We compare performances by 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-year-old children and adults, with or without musical training. Results indicate three changes with increased age and musical training: (1) a slowing of the mean spontaneous tapping rate (a reflection of the referent period) and mean synchronization rate (a reflection of the referent level), (2) enhanced ability to synchronize tapping and discriminate tempo (improved attunement), and (3) an enlarged range of tapping rates towards slower rates and higher hierarchical levels (improved focal attending). A final section considers results in light of the theory proposed here. It is suggested that growth trends can be expressed in terms of listeners' engagement of slower attending oscillators with age and experience, accompanied by the passage from the initial use of a single oscillator towards the coupling of multiple oscillators.
Statistical distributions of optimal global alignment scores of random protein sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tang Jiaowei
2005-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The inference of homology from statistically significant sequence similarity is a central issue in sequence alignments. So far the statistical distribution function underlying the optimal global alignments has not been completely determined. Results In this study, random and real but unrelated sequences prepared in six different ways were selected as reference datasets to obtain their respective statistical distributions of global alignment scores. All alignments were carried out with the Needleman-Wunsch algorithm and optimal scores were fitted to the Gumbel, normal and gamma distributions respectively. The three-parameter gamma distribution performs the best as the theoretical distribution function of global alignment scores, as it agrees perfectly well with the distribution of alignment scores. The normal distribution also agrees well with the score distribution frequencies when the shape parameter of the gamma distribution is sufficiently large, for this is the scenario when the normal distribution can be viewed as an approximation of the gamma distribution. Conclusion We have shown that the optimal global alignment scores of random protein sequences fit the three-parameter gamma distribution function. This would be useful for the inference of homology between sequences whose relationship is unknown, through the evaluation of gamma distribution significance between sequences.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
You-Wei Zhang
Full Text Available A general symplectic method for the random response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to stationary/non-stationary random excitations is developed using symplectic mathematics in conjunction with variable separation and the pseudo-excitation method (PEM. Starting from the equation of motion for a single loaded substructure, symplectic analysis is firstly used to eliminate the dependent degrees of the freedom through condensation. A Fourier expansion of the condensed equation of motion is then applied to separate the variables of time and wave number, thus enabling the necessary recurrence scheme to be developed. The random response is finally determined by implementing PEM. The proposed method is justified by comparison with results available in the literature and is then applied to a more complicated time-dependent coupled system.
Vibrational spectra of four-coordinated random networks with periodic boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guttman, L.
1976-01-01
Examples of perfectly four-coordinated networks satisfying periodic boundary conditions are constructed by a pseudo-random process, starting from a crystalline region. The unphysical features (high density, large deviations from the tetrahedral bond-angle) are removed by systematic modification of the bonding scheme. The vibrational spectra are calculated, using a valence-force potential, and the neutron scattering is computed by a phonon-expansion approximation
Lotka-Volterra systems in environments with randomly disordered temporal periodicity
Naess, Arvid; Dimentberg, Michael F.; Gaidai, Oleg
2008-08-01
A generalized Lotka-Volterra model for a pair of interacting populations of predators and prey is studied. The model accounts for the prey’s interspecies competition and therefore is asymptotically stable, whereas its oscillatory behavior is induced by temporal variations in environmental conditions simulated by those in the prey’s reproduction rate. Two models of the variations are considered, each of them combining randomness with “hidden” periodicity. The stationary joint probability density function (PDF) of the number of predators and prey is calculated numerically by the path integration (PI) method based on the use of characteristic functions and the fast Fourier transform. The numerical results match those for the asymptotic case of white-noise variations for which an analytical solution is available. Several examples are studied, with calculations of important characteristics of oscillations, for example the expected rate of up-crossings given the level of the predator number. The calculated PDFs may be of predominantly random (unimodal) or predominantly periodic nature (bimodal). Thus, the PI method has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for studies of the dynamics of predator-prey pairs. The method captures the random oscillations as observed in nature, taking into account potential periodicity in the environmental conditions.
Pseudo-Random Sequences Generated by a Class of One-Dimensional Smooth Map
Wang, Xing-Yuan; Qin, Xue; Xie, Yi-Xin
2011-08-01
We extend a class of a one-dimensional smooth map. We make sure that for each desired interval of the parameter the map's Lyapunov exponent is positive. Then we propose a novel parameter perturbation method based on the good property of the extended one-dimensional smooth map. We perturb the parameter r in each iteration by the real number xi generated by the iteration. The auto-correlation function and NIST statistical test suite are taken to illustrate the method's randomness finally. We provide an application of this method in image encryption. Experiments show that the pseudo-random sequences are suitable for this application.
Pseudo-Random Sequences Generated by a Class of One-Dimensional Smooth Map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xing-Yuan; Qin Xue; Xie Yi-Xin
2011-01-01
We extend a class of a one-dimensional smooth map. We make sure that for each desired interval of the parameter the map's Lyapunov exponent is positive. Then we propose a novel parameter perturbation method based on the good property of the extended one-dimensional smooth map. We perturb the parameter r in each iteration by the real number x i generated by the iteration. The auto-correlation function and NIST statistical test suite are taken to illustrate the method's randomness finally. We provide an application of this method in image encryption. Experiments show that the pseudo-random sequences are suitable for this application. (general)
Tori sequences as remnants of multiple accreting periods of Kerr SMBHs
Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z.
2018-03-01
Super-massive black holes (SMBHs) hosted in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can be characterized by multi-accreting periods as the attractors interact with the environment during their life-time. These multi-accretion episodes should leave traces in the matter orbiting the attractor. Counterrotating and even misaligned structures orbiting around the SMBHs would be consequences of these episodes. Our task in this work is to consider situations where such accretions occur and to trace their remnants represented by several toroidal accreting fluids, corotating or counterrotating relative to the central Kerr attractor, and created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around SMBHs. We focus particularly on the emergence of matter instabilities, i.e., tori collisions, accretion onto the central Kerr black hole, or creation of jet-like structures (proto-jets). Each orbiting configuration is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluid. We prove that sequences of configurations and hot points, where an instability occurs, characterize the Kerr SMBHs, depending mainly on their spin-mass ratios. The occurrence of tori accretion or collision are strongly constrained by the fluid rotation with respect to the central black hole and the relative rotation with respect to each other. Our investigation provides characteristic of attractors where traces of multi-accreting episodes can be found and observed.
Configurational statistics of a polymer chain with random sequence of elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obukhov, S.P.
1984-10-01
It is shown that for a disordered polymer chain the upper critical dimension is d c =3. At d≤3 the effect of randomness increases on large scales due to the space correlations of attractive and repulsive monomers, but it can also be screened by repulsive two- or three-body interaction. The renorm group equations indicate that near the theta point it can be the large dispersion of sizes of polymers which differ only in sequences of elements. (orig.)
Zheng, Guanglou; Fang, Gengfa; Shankaran, Rajan; Orgun, Mehmet A; Zhou, Jie; Qiao, Li; Saleem, Kashif
2017-05-01
Generating random binary sequences (BSes) is a fundamental requirement in cryptography. A BS is a sequence of N bits, and each bit has a value of 0 or 1. For securing sensors within wireless body area networks (WBANs), electrocardiogram (ECG)-based BS generation methods have been widely investigated in which interpulse intervals (IPIs) from each heartbeat cycle are processed to produce BSes. Using these IPI-based methods to generate a 128-bit BS in real time normally takes around half a minute. In order to improve the time efficiency of such methods, this paper presents an ECG multiple fiducial-points based binary sequence generation (MFBSG) algorithm. The technique of discrete wavelet transforms is employed to detect arrival time of these fiducial points, such as P, Q, R, S, and T peaks. Time intervals between them, including RR, RQ, RS, RP, and RT intervals, are then calculated based on this arrival time, and are used as ECG features to generate random BSes with low latency. According to our analysis on real ECG data, these ECG feature values exhibit the property of randomness and, thus, can be utilized to generate random BSes. Compared with the schemes that solely rely on IPIs to generate BSes, this MFBSG algorithm uses five feature values from one heart beat cycle, and can be up to five times faster than the solely IPI-based methods. So, it achieves a design goal of low latency. According to our analysis, the complexity of the algorithm is comparable to that of fast Fourier transforms. These randomly generated ECG BSes can be used as security keys for encryption or authentication in a WBAN system.
Theory of the Flower Micelle Formation of Amphiphilic Random and Periodic Copolymers in Solution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takahiro Sato
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The mixing Gibbs energy Δgm for the flower-micelle phase of amphiphilic random and periodic (including alternating copolymers was formulated on the basis of the lattice model. The formulated Δgm predicts (1 the inverse proportionality of the aggregation number to the degree of polymerization of the copolymer, (2 the increase of the critical micelle concentration with decreasing the hydrophobe content, and (3 the crossover from the micellization to the liquid–liquid phase separation as the hydrophobe content increases. The transition from the uni-core flower micelle to the multi-core flower necklace as the degree of polymerization increases was also implicitly indicated by the theory. These theoretical results were compared with experimental results for amphiphilic random and alternating copolymers reported so far.
Randomly modulated periodic signals in Alberta's electricity market
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hinich, M. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Serletis, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)
2005-04-01
The physical laws that determine the delivery of power across a transmission grid require a synchronized energy balance between the injection of power at generating points and offtake at demand points. Grid operators must continuously monitor the demand process and respond quickly to fluctuations in demand. This paper presented a parametric statistical model called Randomly Modulated Periodicity (RMP) which examined Alberta's spot wholesale power market, defined on hourly intervals. The concern was to test for periodic signals that can be perfectly predicted far into the future. A univariate approach was taken, although it was acknowledged that from an economic perspective, the interest in the price of electricity is in its relationship with the electricity load as well as with the prices of other primary fuel commodities. Sections 2 and 3 of the paper discussed the RMP model for the study of periodic signals. In section 4, randomly modulated periodicity was tested in hourly electricity prices and MWh demand for Alberta, over the deregulated period after 1996. It was concluded that electricity prices have low coherence with daily and weekly cycles. The mean value at each half hour of the daily demand and the weekend demand yielded good forecasts after the end of the data series. It was suggested that a statistical forecasting based on historical demand and co-factors such as the average hourly temperature per day and patterns of industrial usage should yield better short term forecasts. The development of a statistical technology for forecasting electricity demand is a challenging area of research. 6 refs., 4 figs.
Prediction of protein-protein interaction sites in sequences and 3D structures by random forests.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mile Sikić
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Identifying interaction sites in proteins provides important clues to the function of a protein and is becoming increasingly relevant in topics such as systems biology and drug discovery. Although there are numerous papers on the prediction of interaction sites using information derived from structure, there are only a few case reports on the prediction of interaction residues based solely on protein sequence. Here, a sliding window approach is combined with the Random Forests method to predict protein interaction sites using (i a combination of sequence- and structure-derived parameters and (ii sequence information alone. For sequence-based prediction we achieved a precision of 84% with a 26% recall and an F-measure of 40%. When combined with structural information, the prediction performance increases to a precision of 76% and a recall of 38% with an F-measure of 51%. We also present an attempt to rationalize the sliding window size and demonstrate that a nine-residue window is the most suitable for predictor construction. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of our prediction methods by modeling the Ras-Raf complex using predicted interaction sites as target binding interfaces. Our results suggest that it is possible to predict protein interaction sites with quite a high accuracy using only sequence information.
Optimal Policies for Random and Periodic Garbage Collections with Tenuring Threshold
Zhao, Xufeng; Nakamura, Syouji; Nakagawa, Toshio
It is an important problem to determine the tenuring threshold to meet the pause time goal for a generational garbage collector. From such viewpoint, this paper proposes two stochastic models based on the working schemes of a generational garbage collector: One is random collection which occurs at a nonhomogeneous Poisson process and the other is periodic collection which occurs at periodic times. Since the cost suffered for minor collection increases, as the amount of surviving objects accumulates, tenuring minor collection should be made at some tenuring threshold. Using the techniques of cumulative processes and reliability theory, expected cost rates with tenuring threshold are obtained, and optimal policies which minimize them are discussed analytically and computed numerically.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Martin Lisewski
2008-09-01
Full Text Available The transmission of genomic information from coding sequence to protein structure during protein synthesis is subject to stochastic errors. To analyze transmission limits in the presence of spurious errors, Shannon's noisy channel theorem is applied to a communication channel between amino acid sequences and their structures established from a large-scale statistical analysis of protein atomic coordinates. While Shannon's theorem confirms that in close to native conformations information is transmitted with limited error probability, additional random errors in sequence (amino acid substitutions and in structure (structural defects trigger a decrease in communication capacity toward a Shannon limit at 0.010 bits per amino acid symbol at which communication breaks down. In several controls, simulated error rates above a critical threshold and models of unfolded structures always produce capacities below this limiting value. Thus an essential biological system can be realistically modeled as a digital communication channel that is (a sensitive to random errors and (b restricted by a Shannon error limit. This forms a novel basis for predictions consistent with observed rates of defective ribosomal products during protein synthesis, and with the estimated excess of mutual information in protein contact potentials.
Ong, Emily; Ho, Christopher; Miles, Peter
2011-03-01
To compare the efficiency of orthodontic archwire sequences produced by three manufacturers. Prospective, randomized clinical trial with three parallel groups. Private orthodontic practice in Caloundra, QLD, Australia. One hundred and thirty-two consecutive patients were randomized to one of three archwire sequence groups: (i) 3M Unitek, 0·014 inch Nitinol, 0·017 inch × 0·017 inch heat activated Ni-Ti; (ii) GAC international, 0·014 inch Sentalloy, 0·016 × 0·022 inch Bioforce; and (iii) Ormco corporation, 0·014 inch Damon Copper Ni-Ti, 0·014 × 0·025 inch Damon Copper Ni-Ti. All patients received 0·018 × 0·025 inch slot Victory Series™ brackets. Mandibular impressions were taken before the insertion of each archwire. Patients completed discomfort surveys according to a seven-point Likert Scale at 4 h, 24 h, 3 days and 7 days after the insertion of each archwire. Efficiency was measured by time required to reach the working archwire, mandibular anterior alignment and level of discomfort. No significant differences were found in the reduction of irregularity between the archwire sequences at any time-point (T1: P = 0·12; T2: P = 0·06; T3: P = 0·21) or in the time to reach the working archwire (P = 0·28). No significant differences were found in the overall discomfort scores between the archwire sequences (4 h: P = 0·30; 24 h: P = 0·18; 3 days: P = 0·53; 7 days: P = 0·47). When the time-points were analysed individually, the 3M Unitek archwire sequence induced significantly less discomfort than GAC and Ormco archwires 24 h after the insertion of the third archwire (P = 0·02). This could possibly be attributed to the progression in archwire material and archform. The archwire sequences were similar in alignment efficiency and overall discomfort. Progression in archwire dimension and archform may contribute to discomfort levels. This study provides clinical justification for three common archwire sequences in 0·018 × 0·025 inch slot brackets.
Interference Suppression Performance of Automotive UWB Radars Using Pseudo Random Sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Pasya
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Ultra wideband (UWB automotive radars have attracted attention from the viewpoint of reducing traffic accidents. The performance of automotive radars may be degraded by interference from nearby radars using the same frequency. In this study, a scenario where two cars pass each other on a road was considered. Considering the utilization of cross-polarization, the desired-to-undesired signal power ratio (DUR was found to vary approximately from -10 to 30 dB. Different pseudo random sequences were employed for spectrum spreading the different radar signals to mitigate the interference effects. This paper evaluates the interference suppression provided by maximum length sequence (MLS and Gold sequence (GS through numerical simulations of the radar’s performance in terms of probability of false alarm and probability of detection. It was found that MLS and GS yielded nearly the same performance when the DUR is -10 dB (worst case; for example when fixing the probability of false alarm to 0.0001, the probabilities of detection were 0.964 and 0.946 respectively. The GS are more advantageous than MLS due to larger number of different sequences having the same length in GS than in MLS.
Koschate, J; Drescher, U; Thieschäfer, L; Heine, O; Baum, K; Hoffmann, U
2016-12-01
This study aims to compare cardiorespiratory kinetics as a response to a standardised work rate protocol with pseudo-random binary sequences between cycling and walking in young healthy subjects. Muscular and pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇O 2 ) kinetics as well as heart rate kinetics were expected to be similar for walking and cycling. Cardiac data and V̇O 2 of 23 healthy young subjects were measured in response to pseudo-random binary sequences. Kinetics were assessed applying time series analysis. Higher maxima of cross-correlation functions between work rate and the respective parameter indicate faster kinetics responses. Muscular V̇O 2 kinetics were estimated from heart rate and pulmonary V̇O 2 using a circulatory model. Muscular (walking vs. cycling [mean±SD in arbitrary units]: 0.40±0.08 vs. 0.41±0.08) and pulmonary V̇O 2 kinetics (0.35±0.06 vs. 0.35±0.06) were not different, although the time courses of the cross-correlation functions of pulmonary V̇O 2 showed unexpected biphasic responses. Heart rate kinetics (0.50±0.14 vs. 0.40±0.14; P=0.017) was faster for walking. Regarding the biphasic cross-correlation functions of pulmonary V̇O 2 during walking, the assessment of muscular V̇O 2 kinetics via pseudo-random binary sequences requires a circulatory model to account for cardio-dynamic distortions. Faster heart rate kinetics for walking should be considered by comparing results from cycle and treadmill ergometry. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Partial summations of stationary sequences of non-Gaussian random variables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mohr, Gunnar; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager
1996-01-01
The distribution of the sum of a finite number of identically distributed random variables is in many cases easily determined given that the variables are independent. The moments of any order of the sum can always be expressed by the moments of the single term without computational problems...... of convergence of the distribution of a sum (or an integral) of mutually dependent random variables to the Gaussian distribution. The paper is closely related to the work in Ditlevsen el al. [Ditlevsen, O., Mohr, G. & Hoffmeyer, P. Integration of non-Gaussian fields. Prob. Engng Mech 11 (1996) 15-23](2)....... lognormal variables or polynomials of standard Gaussian variables. The dependency structure is induced by specifying the autocorrelation structure of the sequence of standard Gaussian variables. Particularly useful polynomials are the Winterstein approximations that distributionally fit with non...
A Novel Motion Compensation Method for Random Stepped Frequency Radar with M-sequence
Liao, Zhikun; Hu, Jiemin; Lu, Dawei; Zhang, Jun
2018-01-01
The random stepped frequency radar is a new kind of synthetic wideband radar. In the research, it has been found that it possesses a thumbtack-like ambiguity function which is considered to be the ideal one. This also means that only a precise motion compensation could result in the correct high resolution range profile. In this paper, we will introduce the random stepped frequency radar coded by M-sequence firstly and briefly analyse the effect of relative motion between target and radar on the distance imaging, which is called defocusing problem. Then, a novel motion compensation method, named complementary code cancellation, will be put forward to solve this problem. Finally, the simulated experiments will demonstrate its validity and the computational analysis will show up its efficiency.
Growth rate for the expected value of a generalized random Fibonacci sequence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janvresse, Elise; De la Rue, Thierry; Rittaud, BenoIt
2009-01-01
We study the behaviour of generalized random Fibonacci sequences defined by the relation g n = |λg n-1 ± g n-2 |, where the ± sign is given by tossing an unbalanced coin, giving probability p to the + sign. We prove that the expected value of g n grows exponentially fast for any 0 (2 - λ)/4 when λ is of the form 2cos(π/k) for some fixed integer k ≥ 3. In both cases, we give an algebraic expression for the growth rate
ACORN—A new method for generating sequences of uniformly distributed Pseudo-random Numbers
Wikramaratna, R. S.
1989-07-01
A new family of pseudo-random number generators, the ACORN ( additive congruential random number) generators, is proposed. The resulting numbers are distributed uniformly in the interval [0, 1). The ACORN generators are defined recursively, and the ( k + 1)th order generator is easily derived from the kth order generator. Some theorems concerning the period length are presented and compared with existing results for linear congruential generators. A range of statistical tests are applied to the ACORN generators, and their performance is compared with that of the linear congruential generators and the Chebyshev generators. The tests show the ACORN generators to be statistically superior to the Chebyshev generators, while being statistically similar to the linear congruential generators. However, the ACORN generators execute faster than linear congruential generators for the same statistical faithfulness. The main advantages of the ACORN generator are speed of execution, long period length, and simplicity of coding.
Dwivedi, Prashant Povel; Choi, Hee Joo; Kim, Byoung Joo; Cha, Myoungsik
2013-12-16
Random duty-cycle errors (RDE) in ferroelectric quasi-phase-matching (QPM) devices not only affect the frequency conversion efficiency, but also generate non-phase-matched parasitic noise that can be detrimental to some applications. We demonstrate an accurate but simple method for measuring the RDE in periodically poled lithium niobate. Due to the equivalence between the undepleted harmonic generation spectrum and the diffraction pattern from the QPM grating, we employed linear diffraction measurement which is much simpler than tunable harmonic generation experiments [J. S. Pelc, et al., Opt. Lett.36, 864-866 (2011)]. As a result, we could relate the RDE for the QPM device to the relative noise intensity between the diffraction orders.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mariana André Honorato Franzoi
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the effects of music listening, for 15 minutes, on the preoperative anxiety levels in children undergoing elective surgery in comparison with conventional pediatric surgical care. Method: randomized controlled clinical trial pilot study with 52 children in the preoperative period, aged 3 to 12 years, undergoing elective surgery and randomly allocated in the experimental group (n = 26 and control group (n = 26. Anxiety was assessed in both groups by the application of the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale and measurement of the physiological variables, upon arrival and 15 minutes after the first measurement. Results: there was a statistically significant difference in preoperative anxiety between the two groups only in relation to the physiological variable, since the respiratory rate of preschool children in the experimental group reduced in the second measurement compared to the control group (p = 0.0453. The experimental group showed a statistically significant reduction in anxiety levels after 15 minutes of music listening (p = 0.0441, specifically with regard to the behavioral domains of activity, vocalization, emotional expression and apparent awakening state. Conclusion: music listening emerges as a potential nursing intervention for relief of preoperative anxiety in children undergoing surgical procedures. RBR-7mcr59.
Avrachenkov, Konstantin; Borkar, Vivek S; Kadavankandy, Arun; Sreedharan, Jithin K
2018-01-01
In the framework of network sampling, random walk (RW) based estimation techniques provide many pragmatic solutions while uncovering the unknown network as little as possible. Despite several theoretical advances in this area, RW based sampling techniques usually make a strong assumption that the samples are in stationary regime, and hence are impelled to leave out the samples collected during the burn-in period. This work proposes two sampling schemes without burn-in time constraint to estimate the average of an arbitrary function defined on the network nodes, for example, the average age of users in a social network. The central idea of the algorithms lies in exploiting regeneration of RWs at revisits to an aggregated super-node or to a set of nodes, and in strategies to enhance the frequency of such regenerations either by contracting the graph or by making the hitting set larger. Our first algorithm, which is based on reinforcement learning (RL), uses stochastic approximation to derive an estimator. This method can be seen as intermediate between purely stochastic Markov chain Monte Carlo iterations and deterministic relative value iterations. The second algorithm, which we call the Ratio with Tours (RT)-estimator, is a modified form of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) that accommodates the idea of regeneration. We study the methods via simulations on real networks. We observe that the trajectories of RL-estimator are much more stable than those of standard random walk based estimation procedures, and its error performance is comparable to that of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) which has a smaller asymptotic variance than many other estimators. Simulation studies also show that the mean squared error of RT-estimator decays much faster than that of RDS with time. The newly developed RW based estimators (RL- and RT-estimators) allow to avoid burn-in period, provide better control of stability along the sample path, and overall reduce the estimation time. Our
2010-12-07
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2011, through December... Regulations Title 14, section 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...
2012-12-03
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2013, through... Regulations Title 14, Sec. Sec. 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...
2011-12-01
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2012, through... Regulations Title 14, Sec. 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...
2013-12-20
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2014, through... Federal Regulations Title 14, section 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing...
RSARF: Prediction of residue solvent accessibility from protein sequence using random forest method
Ganesan, Pugalenthi; Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar Umar; Chou -, Kuochen; Vivekanandan, Saravanan; Kolatkar, Prasanna R.
2012-01-01
Prediction of protein structure from its amino acid sequence is still a challenging problem. The complete physicochemical understanding of protein folding is essential for the accurate structure prediction. Knowledge of residue solvent accessibility gives useful insights into protein structure prediction and function prediction. In this work, we propose a random forest method, RSARF, to predict residue accessible surface area from protein sequence information. The training and testing was performed using 120 proteins containing 22006 residues. For each residue, buried and exposed state was computed using five thresholds (0%, 5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%). The prediction accuracy for 0%, 5%, 10%, 25%, and 50% thresholds are 72.9%, 78.25%, 78.12%, 77.57% and 72.07% respectively. Further, comparison of RSARF with other methods using a benchmark dataset containing 20 proteins shows that our approach is useful for prediction of residue solvent accessibility from protein sequence without using structural information. The RSARF program, datasets and supplementary data are available at http://caps.ncbs.res.in/download/pugal/RSARF/. - See more at: http://www.eurekaselect.com/89216/article#sthash.pwVGFUjq.dpuf
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imen Chaieb Memmi
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Purpose: We aim to examine the capacitated multi-item lot sizing problem which is a typical example of a large bucket model, where many different items can be produced on the same machine in one time period. We propose a new approach to determine the production sequence and lot sizes that minimize the sum of start up and setup costs, inventory and production costs over all periods.Design/methodology/approach: The approach is composed of three steps. First, we compute a lower bound on total cost. Then we propose a three sub-steps iteration procedure. We solve optimally the lot sizing problem without considering products sequencing and their cost. Then, we determine products quantities to produce each period while minimizing the storage and variable production costs. Given the products to manufacture each period, we determine its correspondent optimal products sequencing, by using a Branch and Bound algorithm. Given the sequences of products within each period, we evaluate the total start up and setup cost. We compare then the total cost obtained to the lower bound of the total cost. If this value riches a prefixed value, we stop. Otherwise, we modify the results of lot sizing problem.Findings and Originality/value: We show using an illustrative example, that the difference between the total cost and its lower bound is only 10%. This gap depends on the significance of the inventory and production costs and the machine’s capacity. Comparing the approach we develop with a traditional one, we show that we manage to reduce the total cost by 30%.Research limitations/implications: Our model fits better to real-world situations where production systems run continuously. This model is applied for limited number of part types and periods.Practical implications: Our approach determines the products to manufacture each time period, their economic amounts, and their scheduling within each period. This outcome should help decision makers bearing expensive
Vassy, Jason L; Lautenbach, Denise M; McLaughlin, Heather M; Kong, Sek Won; Christensen, Kurt D; Krier, Joel; Kohane, Isaac S; Feuerman, Lindsay Z; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; Roberts, J Scott; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Ho, Carolyn Y; Ubel, Peter A; MacRae, Calum A; Seidman, Christine E; Murray, Michael F; McGuire, Amy L; Rehm, Heidi L; Green, Robert C
2014-03-20
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is already being used in certain clinical and research settings, but its impact on patient well-being, health-care utilization, and clinical decision-making remains largely unstudied. It is also unknown how best to communicate sequencing results to physicians and patients to improve health. We describe the design of the MedSeq Project: the first randomized trials of WGS in clinical care. This pair of randomized controlled trials compares WGS to standard of care in two clinical contexts: (a) disease-specific genomic medicine in a cardiomyopathy clinic and (b) general genomic medicine in primary care. We are recruiting 8 to 12 cardiologists, 8 to 12 primary care physicians, and approximately 200 of their patients. Patient participants in both the cardiology and primary care trials are randomly assigned to receive a family history assessment with or without WGS. Our laboratory delivers a genome report to physician participants that balances the needs to enhance understandability of genomic information and to convey its complexity. We provide an educational curriculum for physician participants and offer them a hotline to genetics professionals for guidance in interpreting and managing their patients' genome reports. Using varied data sources, including surveys, semi-structured interviews, and review of clinical data, we measure the attitudes, behaviors and outcomes of physician and patient participants at multiple time points before and after the disclosure of these results. The impact of emerging sequencing technologies on patient care is unclear. We have designed a process of interpreting WGS results and delivering them to physicians in a way that anticipates how we envision genomic medicine will evolve in the near future. That is, our WGS report provides clinically relevant information while communicating the complexity and uncertainty of WGS results to physicians and, through physicians, to their patients. This project will not only
2011-01-01
Introduction Succinylcholine and rocuronium are widely used to facilitate rapid sequence induction (RSI) intubation in intensive care. Concerns relate to the side effects of succinylcholine and to slower onset and inferior intubation conditions associated with rocuronium. So far, succinylcholine and rocuronium have not been compared in an adequately powered randomized trial in intensive care. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to compare the incidence of hypoxemia after rocuronium or succinylcholine in critically ill patients requiring an emergent RSI. Methods This was a prospective randomized controlled single-blind trial conducted from 2006 to 2010 at the University Hospital of Basel. Participants were 401 critically ill patients requiring emergent RSI. Patients were randomized to receive 1 mg/kg succinylcholine or 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium for neuromuscular blockade. The primary outcome was the incidence of oxygen desaturations defined as a decrease in oxygen saturation ≥ 5%, assessed by continuous pulse oxymetry, at any time between the start of the induction sequence and two minutes after the completion of the intubation. A severe oxygen desaturation was defined as a decrease in oxygen saturation ≥ 5% leading to a saturation value of ≤ 80%. Results There was no difference between succinylcholine and rocuronium regarding oxygen desaturations (succinylcholine 73/196; rocuronium 66/195; P = 0.67); severe oxygen desaturations (succinylcholine 20/196; rocuronium 20/195; P = 1.0); and extent of oxygen desaturations (succinylcholine -14 ± 12%; rocuronium -16 ± 13%; P = 0.77). The duration of the intubation sequence was shorter after succinycholine than after rocuronium (81 ± 38 sec versus 95 ± 48 sec; P = 0.002). Intubation conditions (succinylcholine 8.3 ± 0.8; rocuronium 8.2 ± 0.9; P = 0.7) and failed first intubation attempts (succinylcholine 32/200; rocuronium 36/201; P = 1.0) did not differ between the groups. Conclusions In critically ill
Tamaki, Kentaro; Fukuyama, Akiko Komatsu; Terukina, Shigeharu; Kamada, Yoshihiko; Uehara, Kano; Arakaki, Miwa; Yamashiro, Kazuko; Miyashita, Minoru; Ishida, Takanori; McNamara, Keely May; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Tamaki, Nobumitsu; Sasano, Hironobu
2017-04-01
Several studies focused on the effect of aromatherapy on mood, quality of life (QOL), and physical symptoms in patients with cancer. We compared the effects on QOL, vital signs, and sleep quality between aromatherapy and conventional therapy during perioperative periods of the breast cancer patients in this study. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive aromatherapy or usual care. The primary endpoint was QOL, which was assessed using the quality of life questionnaire QLQ-C30, Version 3.0 of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Study Group on quality of life. Secondary endpoints included the necessity of hypnotics, vital signs including blood pressure and heart rate and adverse events. In addition, we also summarized the patients' perception of the experience from a free description-type questionnaire. A total of 249 patients had breast cancer surgery and 162 patients gave physician consent and were recruited; 110 were randomly assigned to aromatherapy group (eight patients showed incomplete EORTC QLQ-C30) and 52 to control group (one patient showed incomplete EORTC QLQ-C30). There were no statistically significant differences between the aromatherapy group and control group in the EORTC QLQ-C30 at the surgery day. As for the results of the post-operation day 1, trends for differentiations of physical functioning and role functioning were detected between aromatherapy group and control group, but the differences did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.08 and 0.09). There were no significant differences of systolic and diastolic blood pressures between aromatherapy group and control group (p = 0.82 and 0.68). There was no statistically significant difference in heart rates between aromatherapy group (70.6 ± 11.0 bpm) and control group (71.2 ± 9.8 bpm) (p = 0.73). Likewise, the rate of hypnotic use was not statistically significant (p = 0.10). No adverse events were reported after aromatherapy
Entropy of finite random binary sequences with weak long-range correlations.
Melnik, S S; Usatenko, O V
2014-11-01
We study the N-step binary stationary ergodic Markov chain and analyze its differential entropy. Supposing that the correlations are weak we express the conditional probability function of the chain through the pair correlation function and represent the entropy as a functional of the pair correlator. Since the model uses the two-point correlators instead of the block probability, it makes it possible to calculate the entropy of strings at much longer distances than using standard methods. A fluctuation contribution to the entropy due to finiteness of random chains is examined. This contribution can be of the same order as its regular part even at the relatively short lengths of subsequences. A self-similar structure of entropy with respect to the decimation transformations is revealed for some specific forms of the pair correlation function. Application of the theory to the DNA sequence of the R3 chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster is presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Li; Ma, Xiaobing; Zhai, Qingqing; Zhao, Yu
2016-01-01
We propose an inspection and replacement policy for a single component system that successively executes missions with random durations. The failure process of the system can be divided into two states, namely, normal and defective, following the delay time concept. Inspections are carried out periodically and immediately after the completion of each mission (random inspections). The failed state is always identified immediately, whereas the defective state can only be revealed by an inspection. If the system fails or is defective at a periodic inspection, then replacement is immediate. If, however, the system is defective at a random inspection, then replacement will be postponed if the time to the subsequent periodic inspection is shorter than a pre-determined threshold, and immediate otherwise. We derive the long run expected cost per unit time and then investigate the optimal periodic inspection interval and postponement threshold. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed maintenance policy. - Highlights: • A delay time model of inspection is introduced for mission-based systems. • Periodic and random inspections are performed to check the state. • Replacement of the defective system at a random inspection can be postponed.
Chen, Peng
2014-12-03
Background Protein-ligand binding is important for some proteins to perform their functions. Protein-ligand binding sites are the residues of proteins that physically bind to ligands. Despite of the recent advances in computational prediction for protein-ligand binding sites, the state-of-the-art methods search for similar, known structures of the query and predict the binding sites based on the solved structures. However, such structural information is not commonly available. Results In this paper, we propose a sequence-based approach to identify protein-ligand binding residues. We propose a combination technique to reduce the effects of different sliding residue windows in the process of encoding input feature vectors. Moreover, due to the highly imbalanced samples between the ligand-binding sites and non ligand-binding sites, we construct several balanced data sets, for each of which a random forest (RF)-based classifier is trained. The ensemble of these RF classifiers forms a sequence-based protein-ligand binding site predictor. Conclusions Experimental results on CASP9 and CASP8 data sets demonstrate that our method compares favorably with the state-of-the-art protein-ligand binding site prediction methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vani, V C; Chatterjee, S
2010-01-01
The matched filter method for detecting a periodic structure on a surface hidden behind randomness is known to detect up to (r 0 /Λ)≥0.11, where r 0 is the coherence length of light on scattering from the rough part and Λ is the wavelength of the periodic part of the surface-the above limit being much lower than what is allowed by conventional detection methods. The primary goal of this technique is the detection and characterization of the periodic structure hidden behind randomness without the use of any complicated experimental or computational procedures. This paper examines this detection procedure for various values of the amplitude a of the periodic part beginning from a=0 to small finite values of a. We thus address the importance of the following quantities: '(a/λ)', which scales the amplitude of the periodic part with the wavelength of light, and (r 0 /Λ), in determining the detectability of the intensity peaks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savage, Gordon J.; Zhang, Xufang; Son, Young Kap; Pandey, Mahesh D.
2016-01-01
Resonance in a dynamic system is to be avoided since it often leads to impaired performance, overstressing, fatigue fracture and adverse human reactions. Thus, it is necessary to know the modal frequencies and ensure they do not coincide with any applied periodic loadings. For a rotating planar mechanism, the coefficients in the mass and stiffness matrices are periodically varying, and if the underlying geometry and material properties are treated as random variables then the modal frequencies are both position-dependent and probabilistic. The avoidance of resonance is now a complex problem. Herein, free vibration analysis helps determine ranges of modal frequencies that in turn, identify the running speeds of the mechanism to be avoided. This paper presents an efficient and accurate sample-based approach to determine probabilistic minimum and maximum extremes of the fundamental frequencies and the angular positions of their occurrence. Then, given critical lower and upper frequency constraints it is straightforward to determine reliability in terms of probability of exceedance. The novelty of the proposed approach is that the original expensive and implicit mechanistic model is replaced by an explicit meta-model that captures the tolerances of the design variables over the entire range of angular positions: position-dependent eigenvalues can be found easily and quickly. Extreme-value statistics of the modal frequencies and extreme-value statistics of the angular positions are readily computed through MCS. Limit-state surfaces that connect the frequencies to the design variables may be easily constructed. Error analysis identifies three errors and the paper presents ways to control them so the methodology can be sufficiently accurate. A numerical example of a flexible four-bar linkage shows the proposed methodology has engineering applications. The impact of the proposed methodology is two-fold: it presents a safe-side analysis based on free vibration methods to
Repp, Bruno H
2003-04-01
Four experiments showed that both single and periodic distractor tones affected the timing of finger taps produced in synchrony with an isochronous auditory target sequence. Single distractors had only small effects, but periodic distractors occurring at various fixed or changing phase relationships exerted strong phase attraction. The attraction was asymmetric, being stronger when distractors preceded target tones than when they lagged behind. A large pitch difference between target and distractor tones (20 vs. 3 semitones) did not reduce phase attraction substantially, although in the case of continuously changing phase relationships it did prevent complete capture of the taps by the distractors. The results support the hypothesis that phase attraction is an automatic process that is sensitive primarily to event onsets.
Warris, Sven; Boymans, Sander; Muiser, Iwe; Noback, Michiel; Krijnen, Wim; Nap, Jan-Peter
2014-01-13
Small RNAs are important regulators of genome function, yet their prediction in genomes is still a major computational challenge. Statistical analyses of pre-miRNA sequences indicated that their 2D structure tends to have a minimal free energy (MFE) significantly lower than MFE values of equivalently randomized sequences with the same nucleotide composition, in contrast to other classes of non-coding RNA. The computation of many MFEs is, however, too intensive to allow for genome-wide screenings. Using a local grid infrastructure, MFE distributions of random sequences were pre-calculated on a large scale. These distributions follow a normal distribution and can be used to determine the MFE distribution for any given sequence composition by interpolation. It allows on-the-fly calculation of the normal distribution for any candidate sequence composition. The speedup achieved makes genome-wide screening with this characteristic of a pre-miRNA sequence practical. Although this particular property alone will not be able to distinguish miRNAs from other sequences sufficiently discriminative, the MFE-based P-value should be added to the parameters of choice to be included in the selection of potential miRNA candidates for experimental verification.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
von Reumont Björn M
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Methods of alignment masking, which refers to the technique of excluding alignment blocks prior to tree reconstructions, have been successful in improving the signal-to-noise ratio in sequence alignments. However, the lack of formally well defined methods to identify randomness in sequence alignments has prevented a routine application of alignment masking. In this study, we compared the effects on tree reconstructions of the most commonly used profiling method (GBLOCKS which uses a predefined set of rules in combination with alignment masking, with a new profiling approach (ALISCORE based on Monte Carlo resampling within a sliding window, using different data sets and alignment methods. While the GBLOCKS approach excludes variable sections above a certain threshold which choice is left arbitrary, the ALISCORE algorithm is free of a priori rating of parameter space and therefore more objective. Results ALISCORE was successfully extended to amino acids using a proportional model and empirical substitution matrices to score randomness in multiple sequence alignments. A complex bootstrap resampling leads to an even distribution of scores of randomly similar sequences to assess randomness of the observed sequence similarity. Testing performance on real data, both masking methods, GBLOCKS and ALISCORE, helped to improve tree resolution. The sliding window approach was less sensitive to different alignments of identical data sets and performed equally well on all data sets. Concurrently, ALISCORE is capable of dealing with different substitution patterns and heterogeneous base composition. ALISCORE and the most relaxed GBLOCKS gap parameter setting performed best on all data sets. Correspondingly, Neighbor-Net analyses showed the most decrease in conflict. Conclusions Alignment masking improves signal-to-noise ratio in multiple sequence alignments prior to phylogenetic reconstruction. Given the robust performance of alignment
Non-random alkylation of DNA sequences induced in vivo by chemical mutagens
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durante, M.; Geri, C.; Bonatti, S.; Parenti, R. (Universita di Pisa (Italy))
1989-08-01
Previous studies of the interaction of alkylating agents on the eukaryotic genome support the idea that induction of DNA adducts is at specific genomic sites. Here we show molecular and cytological evidence that alkylation is rather specific. Mammalian cell cultures were exposed to different doses of mutagens and the DNA was analyzed by density gradient ultracentrifugation, hydroxylapatite fractionation, and by restriction enzyme analysis. Studies with the labelled mutagens N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine show that there is a non-random distribution of the adducts. The adducts are found more frequently in A-T, G-C rich satellite DNA and highly repetitive sequences. Analysis with restriction enzymes shows that both methyl and ethyl groups influence the restriction patterns of the enzymes HpaII and MspI that recognize specific endogenous DNA methylation. These data suggest, as a subsequent mechanism, a modification in the pattern of the normal endogenous methylation of 5-methylcytosine.
Least squares deconvolution for leak detection with a pseudo random binary sequence excitation
Nguyen, Si Tran Nguyen; Gong, Jinzhe; Lambert, Martin F.; Zecchin, Aaron C.; Simpson, Angus R.
2018-01-01
Leak detection and localisation is critical for water distribution system pipelines. This paper examines the use of the time-domain impulse response function (IRF) for leak detection and localisation in a pressurised water pipeline with a pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) signal excitation. Compared to the conventional step wave generated using a single fast operation of a valve closure, a PRBS signal offers advantageous correlation properties, in that the signal has very low autocorrelation for lags different from zero and low cross correlation with other signals including noise and other interference. These properties result in a significant improvement in the IRF signal to noise ratio (SNR), leading to more accurate leak localisation. In this paper, the estimation of the system IRF is formulated as an optimisation problem in which the l2 norm of the IRF is minimised to suppress the impact of noise and interference sources. Both numerical and experimental data are used to verify the proposed technique. The resultant estimated IRF provides not only accurate leak location estimation, but also good sensitivity to small leak sizes due to the improved SNR.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Workman, Christopher; Krogh, Anders Stærmose
1999-01-01
This work investigates whether mRNA has a lower estimated folding free energy than random sequences. The free energy estimates are calculated by the mfold program for prediction of RNA secondary structures. For a set of 46 mRNAs it is shown that the predicted free energy is not significantly diff...
Homogenization of metasurfaces formed by random resonant particles in periodical lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Petrov, Mihail
2016-01-01
In this paper we suggest a simple analytical method for description of electromagnetic properties of a geometrically regular two-dimensional subwavelength arrays (metasurfaces) formed by particles with randomly fluctuating polarizabilities. We propose an analytical homogenization method applicable...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalchev, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ketelsen, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vassilevski, P. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2013-11-07
Our paper proposes an adaptive strategy for reusing a previously constructed coarse space by algebraic multigrid to construct a two-level solver for a problem with nearby characteristics. Furthermore, a main target application is the solution of the linear problems that appear throughout a sequence of Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations of subsurface flow with uncertain permeability field. We demonstrate the efficacy of the method with extensive set of numerical experiments.
Franzoi, Mariana André Honorato; Goulart, Cristina Bretas; Lara, Elizabete Oliveira; Martins, Gisele
2016-12-19
to investigate the effects of music listening, for 15 minutes, on the preoperative anxiety levels in children undergoing elective surgery in comparison with conventional pediatric surgical care. randomized controlled clinical trial pilot study with 52 children in the preoperative period, aged 3 to 12 years, undergoing elective surgery and randomly allocated in the experimental group (n = 26) and control group (n = 26). Anxiety was assessed in both groups by the application of the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale and measurement of the physiological variables, upon arrival and 15 minutes after the first measurement. there was a statistically significant difference in preoperative anxiety between the two groups only in relation to the physiological variable, since the respiratory rate of preschool children in the experimental group reduced in the second measurement compared to the control group (p = 0.0453). The experimental group showed a statistically significant reduction in anxiety levels after 15 minutes of music listening (p = 0.0441), specifically with regard to the behavioral domains of activity, vocalization, emotional expression and apparent awakening state. music listening emerges as a potential nursing intervention for relief of preoperative anxiety in children undergoing surgical procedures. RBR-7mcr59. investigar os efeitos da audição musical, por 15 minutos, nos níveis de ansiedade pré-operatória de crianças submetidas a cirurgias eletivas em comparação ao cuidado convencional de uma clínica cirúrgica pediátrica. estudo piloto do tipo ensaio clínico controlado randomizado realizado com 52 crianças no período pré-operatório, de 3 a 12 anos, submetidas a cirurgias eletivas e alocadas aleatoriamente para o grupo experimental (n = 26) e grupo controle (n = 26). A ansiedade foi avaliada em ambos os grupos, por meio da Escala de Ansiedade Pré-operatória de Yale modificada e pela mensuração das dimensões fisiológicas, na chegada
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.; Luck, J.M.
1987-01-01
The authors give a complete description of the scaling behavior of the integrated density of states of random harmonic chains with random masses near the band edge omega/sub max/ and near special frequencies omega/sub s/. There are four different situations: omega upward arrow omega/sub max/, omega upward arrow omega/sub s/, omega upward arrow omega/sub s/ (critical case), omega upward arrow omega/sub s/ (general case). Their analytic results have the form of infinite sums involving Fourier coefficients of the scaling behavior of the Dyson-Schmidt function at the special frequency or the band edge. Binary mass distributions are considered in detail in the limit of a small fraction rho of light masses. Their predictions are compared with extensive numerical data
Quasi-Coherent Noise Jamming to LFM Radar Based on Pseudo-random Sequence Phase-modulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Tai
2015-12-01
Full Text Available A novel quasi-coherent noise jamming method is proposed against linear frequency modulation (LFM signal and pulse compression radar. Based on the structure of digital radio frequency memory (DRFM, the jamming signal is acquired by the pseudo-random sequence phase-modulation of sampled radar signal. The characteristic of jamming signal in time domain and frequency domain is analyzed in detail. Results of ambiguity function indicate that the blanket jamming effect along the range direction will be formed when jamming signal passes through the matched filter. By flexible controlling the parameters of interrupted-sampling pulse and pseudo-random sequence, different covering distances and jamming effects will be achieved. When the jamming power is equivalent, this jamming obtains higher process gain compared with non-coherent jamming. The jamming signal enhances the detection threshold and the real target avoids being detected. Simulation results and circuit engineering implementation validate that the jamming signal covers real target effectively.
A random walk description of individual animal movement accounting for periods of rest
Tilles, Paulo F. C.; Petrovskii, Sergei V.; Natti, Paulo L.
2016-11-01
Animals do not move all the time but alternate the period of actual movement (foraging) with periods of rest (e.g. eating or sleeping). Although the existence of rest times is widely acknowledged in the literature and has even become a focus of increased attention recently, the theoretical approaches to describe animal movement by calculating the dispersal kernel and/or the mean squared displacement (MSD) rarely take rests into account. In this study, we aim to bridge this gap. We consider a composite stochastic process where the periods of active dispersal or `bouts' (described by a certain baseline probability density function (pdf) of animal dispersal) alternate with periods of immobility. For this process, we derive a general equation that determines the pdf of this composite movement. The equation is analysed in detail in two special but important cases such as the standard Brownian motion described by a Gaussian kernel and the Levy flight described by a Cauchy distribution. For the Brownian motion, we show that in the large-time asymptotics the effect of rests results in a rescaling of the diffusion coefficient. The movement occurs as a subdiffusive transition between the two diffusive asymptotics. Interestingly, the Levy flight case shows similar properties, which indicates a certain universality of our findings.
Amour, Julien; Le Manach, Yannick Le; Borel, Marie; Lenfant, François; Nicolas-Robin, Armelle; Carillion, Aude; Ripart, Jacques; Riou, Bruno; Langeron, Olivier
2010-02-01
Single-use metal laryngoscope blades are cheaper and carry a lower risk of infection than reusable metal blades. The authors compared single-use and reusable metal blades during rapid sequence induction of anesthesia in a multicenter cluster randomized trial. One thousand seventy-two adult patients undergoing general anesthesia under emergency conditions and requiring rapid sequence induction were randomly assigned on a weekly basis to either single-use or reusable metal blades (cluster randomization). After induction, a 60-s period was allowed to complete intubation. In the case of failed intubation, a second attempt was performed using the opposite type of blade. The primary endpoint was the rate of failed intubation, and the secondary endpoints were the incidence of complications (oxygen desaturation, lung aspiration, and/or oropharynx trauma) and the Cormack and Lehane score. Both groups were similar in their main characteristics, including the risk factors for difficult intubation. The rate of failed intubation was significantly decreased with single-use metal blades at the first attempt compared with reusable blades (2.8 vs. 5.4%, P < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of grades III and IV in Cormack and Lehane score were also significantly decreased with single-use metal blades (6 vs. 10%, P < 0.05). The global complication rate did not reach statistical significance, although the same trend was noted (6.8% vs. 11.5%, P = not significant). An investigator survey and a measure of illumination pointed that illumination might have been responsible for this result. The single-use metal blade was more efficient than a reusable metal blade in rapid sequence induction of anesthesia.
Cryptographic pseudo-random sequences from the chaotic Hénon ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
dimensional discrete-time Hénon map is proposed. Properties of the proposed sequences pertaining to linear complexity, linear complexity proﬁle, correlation and auto-correlation are investigated. All these properties of the sequences suggest a ...
Doi, I.; Kawakata, H.
2012-12-01
Laboratory experiments [e.g. Scholz, 1968; Lockner et al., 1992] and field observations [e.g. Dodge et al., 1996; Helmstetter and Sornette, 2003; Bouchon et al., 2011] have elucidated part of foreshock behavior and mechanism, but we cannot identify foreshocks while they are occurring. Recently, in Japan, a dense seismic network, Hi-net (High Sensitivity Seismograph Network), provides continuous waveform records for regional seismic events. The data from this network enable us to analyze small foreshocks which occur on long period time scales prior to a major event. We have an opportunity to grasp the more detailed pattern of foreshock generation. Using continuous waveforms recorded at a seismic station located in close proximity to the epicenter of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi inland earthquake, we conducted a detailed investigation of its foreshocks. In addition to the two officially recognized foreshocks, calculation of cross-correlation coefficients between the continuous waveform record and one of the previously recognized foreshocks revealed that 20 micro foreshocks occurred within the same general area. Our analysis also shows that all of these foreshocks occurred within the same general area relative to the main event. Over the two week period leading up to the Iwate-Miyagi earthquake, such foreshocks only occurred during the last 45 minutes, specifically over a 35 minute period followed by a 10 minute period of quiescence just before the mainshock. We found no evidence of acceleration of this foreshock sequence. Rock fracturing experiments using a constant loading rate or creep tests have consistently shown that the occurrence rate of small fracturing events (acoustic emissions; AEs) increases before the main rupture [Scholz, 1968]. This accelerative pattern of preceding events was recognized in case of the 1999 Izmit earthquake [Bouchon et al., 2011]. Large earthquakes however need not be accompanied by acceleration of foreshocks if a given fault's host rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iglói, Ferenc; Lin, Yu-Cheng
2008-01-01
Using free-fermionic techniques we study the entanglement entropy of a block of contiguous spins in a large finite quantum Ising chain in a transverse field, with couplings of different types: homogeneous, periodically modulated and random. We carry out a systematic study of finite-size effects at the quantum critical point, and evaluate subleading corrections both for open and for periodic boundary conditions. For a block corresponding to a half of a finite chain, the position of the maximum of the entropy as a function of the control parameter (e.g. the transverse field) can define the effective critical point in the finite sample. On the basis of homogeneous chains, we demonstrate that the scaling behavior of the entropy near the quantum phase transition is in agreement with the universality hypothesis, and calculate the shift of the effective critical point, which has different scaling behaviors for open and for periodic boundary conditions
Varley, Rosemary; Cowell, Patricia E; Dyson, Lucy; Inglis, Lesley; Roper, Abigail; Whiteside, Sandra P
2016-03-01
There is currently little evidence on effective interventions for poststroke apraxia of speech. We report outcomes of a trial of self-administered computer therapy for apraxia of speech. Effects of speech intervention on naming and repetition of treated and untreated words were compared with those of a visuospatial sham program. The study used a parallel-group, 2-period, crossover design, with participants receiving 2 interventions. Fifty participants with chronic and stable apraxia of speech were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 order conditions: speech-first condition versus sham-first condition. Period 1 design was equivalent to a randomized controlled trial. We report results for this period and profile the effect of the period 2 crossover. Period 1 results revealed significant improvement in naming and repetition only in the speech-first group. The sham-first group displayed improvement in speech production after speech intervention in period 2. Significant improvement of treated words was found in both naming and repetition, with little generalization to structurally similar and dissimilar untreated words. Speech gains were largely maintained after withdrawal of intervention. There was a significant relationship between treatment dose and response. However, average self-administered dose was modest for both groups. Future software design would benefit from incorporation of social and gaming components to boost motivation. Single-word production can be improved in chronic apraxia of speech with behavioral intervention. Self-administered computerized therapy is a promising method for delivering high-intensity speech/language rehabilitation. URL: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1278-0601. Unique identifier: ISRCTN88245643. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Leblanc, Judith; Hejblum, Gilles; Costagliola, Dominique; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Lert, France; de Truchis, Pierre; Verbeke, Geert; Rousseau, Alexandra; Piquet, Hélène; Simon, François; Pateron, Dominique; Simon, Tabassome; Crémieux, Anne-Claude
2017-10-30
This study compares the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of nurse-driven targeted HIV screening alongside physician-directed diagnostic testing (intervention strategy) with diagnostic testing alone (control strategy) in 8 emergency departments. In this cluster-randomized, 2-period, crossover trial, 18- to 64-year-old patients presenting for reasons other than potential exposure to HIV were included. The strategy applied first was randomly assigned. During both periods, diagnostic testing was prescribed by physicians following usual care. During the intervention periods, patients were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. According to their answers, the triage nurse suggested performing a rapid test to patients belonging to a high-risk group. The primary outcome was the proportion of new diagnoses among included patients, which further refers to effectiveness. A secondary outcome was the intervention's incremental cost (health care system perspective) per additional diagnosis. During the intervention periods, 74,161 patients were included, 16,468 completed the questionnaire, 4,341 belonged to high-risk groups, and 2,818 were tested by nurses, yielding 13 new diagnoses. Combined with 9 diagnoses confirmed through 97 diagnostic tests, 22 new diagnoses were established. During the control periods, 74,166 patients were included, 92 were tested, and 6 received a new diagnosis. The proportion of new diagnoses among included patients was higher during the intervention than in the control periods (3.0 per 10,000 versus 0.8 per 10,000; difference 2.2 per 10,000, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.6; relative risk 3.7, 95% CI 1.4 to 9.8). The incremental cost was €1,324 per additional new diagnosis. The combined strategy of targeted screening and diagnostic testing was effective. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stochastic analysis of a novel nonautonomous periodic SIRI epidemic system with random disturbances
Zhang, Weiwei; Meng, Xinzhu
2018-02-01
In this paper, a new stochastic nonautonomous SIRI epidemic model is formulated. Given that the incidence rates of diseases may change with the environment, we propose a novel type of transmission function. The main aim of this paper is to obtain the thresholds of the stochastic SIRI epidemic model. To this end, we investigate the dynamics of the stochastic system and establish the conditions for extinction and persistence in mean of the disease by constructing some suitable Lyapunov functions and using stochastic analysis technique. Furthermore, we show that the stochastic system has at least one nontrivial positive periodic solution. Finally, numerical simulations are introduced to illustrate our results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reichenbach, Tobias; Hudspeth, A J
2012-01-01
Frequency discrimination is a fundamental task of the auditory system. The mammalian inner ear, or cochlea, provides a place code in which different frequencies are detected at different spatial locations. However, a temporal code based on spike timing is also available: action potentials evoked in an auditory-nerve fiber by a low-frequency tone occur at a preferred phase of the stimulus—they exhibit phase locking—and thus provide temporal information about the tone's frequency. Humans employ this temporal information for discrimination of low frequencies. How might such temporal information be read out in the brain? Here we employ statistical and numerical methods to demonstrate that recurrent random neural networks in which connections between neurons introduce characteristic time delays, and in which neurons require temporally coinciding inputs for spike initiation, can perform sharp frequency discrimination when stimulated with phase-locked inputs. Although the frequency resolution achieved by such networks is limited by the noise in phase locking, the resolution for realistic values reaches the tiny frequency difference of 0.2% that has been measured in humans. (paper)
A weak zero-one law for sequences of random distance graphs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhukovskii, Maksim E [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2012-07-31
We study zero-one laws for properties of random distance graphs. Properties written in a first-order language are considered. For p(N) such that pN{sup {alpha}}{yields}{infinity} as N{yields}{infinity}, and (1-p)N{sup {alpha}} {yields} {infinity} as N {yields} {infinity} for any {alpha}>0, we succeed in refuting the law. In this connection, we consider a weak zero-one j-law. For this law, we obtain results for random distance graphs which are similar to the assertions concerning the classical zero-one law for random graphs. Bibliography: 18 titles.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena Hilario
Full Text Available Genotyping by sequencing (GBS is a restriction enzyme based targeted approach developed to reduce the genome complexity and discover genetic markers when a priori sequence information is unavailable. Sufficient coverage at each locus is essential to distinguish heterozygous from homozygous sites accurately. The number of GBS samples able to be pooled in one sequencing lane is limited by the number of restriction sites present in the genome and the read depth required at each site per sample for accurate calling of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci bias was observed using a slight modification of the Elshire et al.some restriction enzyme sites were represented in higher proportions while others were poorly represented or absent. This bias could be due to the quality of genomic DNA, the endonuclease and ligase reaction efficiency, the distance between restriction sites, the preferential amplification of small library restriction fragments, or bias towards cluster formation of small amplicons during the sequencing process. To overcome these issues, we have developed a GBS method based on randomly tagging genomic DNA (rtGBS. By randomly landing on the genome, we can, with less bias, find restriction sites that are far apart, and undetected by the standard GBS (stdGBS method. The study comprises two types of biological replicates: six different kiwifruit plants and two independent DNA extractions per plant; and three types of technical replicates: four samples of each DNA extraction, stdGBS vs. rtGBS methods, and two independent library amplifications, each sequenced in separate lanes. A statistically significant unbiased distribution of restriction fragment size by rtGBS showed that this method targeted 49% (39,145 of BamH I sites shared with the reference genome, compared to only 14% (11,513 by stdGBS.
Qayyum, Aisha; Najmi, Muzammil Hasan; Abbas, Mateen
2013-11-01
Comparative bioavailability studies are conducted to establish the bioequivalence of generic formulation with that of branded reference formulation, providing confidence to clinicians to use these products interchangeably. This study was carried out to compare a locally manufactured formulation of flurbiprofen with that of a branded product. Twenty two healthy male adults received a single dose of flurbiprofen (100mg) either generic or branded product according to randomization scheme on each of 2 periods. Blood samples were collected and plasma flurbiprofen concentration was determined by a validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters like AUC(0-t), AUC(0-oo), Cmax, Tmax, t½, Vd and clearance were determined. The 90% CI for the ratio of geometric means of test to reference product's pharmacokinetic variables was calculated. Pharmacokinetic parameters for two formulations were comparable. Ratio of means of AUC(0-24), AUC(0-oo) and Cmax for test to reference products and 90% CI for these ratios were within the acceptable range. The p-values calculated by TOST were much less than the specified value (p-0.05). ANOVA gave p-values which were more than the specified value (p-0.05) for sequence, subject, period and formulation. Test formulation of flurbiprofen (tablet Flurso) was found to meet the criteria for bioequivalence to branded product (tablet Ansaid) based on pharmacokinetic parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiong Gang; Wang, X.R.
2005-01-01
The zero-temperature transmission rate spectrum of a double-chain tight-binding model for real DNA is calculated. It is shown that a band of extended-like states exists only for finite chain length with strong inter-chain coupling. While the whole spectrum tends to zero in thermodynamic limit, regardless of the strength of inter-chain coupling. It is also shown that a more faithful model for real DNA with periodic sugar-phosphate chains in backbone structures can be mapped into the above simple double-chain tight-binding model. Combined with above results, the transmission rate of real DNA with long random sequence of nucleotides is expected to be poor
Conchon, Marilia Ferrari; Fonseca, Ligia Fahl
2018-04-01
Perioperative thirst is an intense discomfort with high incidence in the immediate postoperative period, but nonetheless, it is highly neglected in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an ice popsicle compared with water at room temperature for thirst relief in the immediate postoperative period in terms of variation in the intensity of the initial compared with the final thirst and the satiety reached after an hour of evaluation and intervention. A parallel randomized clinical trial was used. A total of 208 patients in the immediate postoperative period were assessed for 1 hour, every 15 minutes. Thirst intensity was assessed initially and subsequently; interventions were performed according to the group: (1) control group, 10 mL of water at room temperature; and (2) experimental group, 10-mL ice popsicle. The ice popsicle was 37.8% (P popsicle has greater efficacy than water at room temperature for thirst management in the immediate postoperative period. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nittayananta, W; DeRouen, TA; Arirachakaran, P; Laothumthut, T; Pangsomboon, K; Petsantad, S; Vuddhakul, V; Sriplung, H; Jaruratanasirikul, S; Martin, MD
2011-01-01
OBJECTIVE To determine if chlorhexidine can be used as an intervention to prolong the time to relapse of oral candidiasis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A double-blinded randomized clinical trial was performed in 75 HIV/AIDS subjects with oral candidiasis. Clotrimazole troche was prescribed, and the subjects were re-examined every 2 weeks until the lesions were completely eradicated. The subjects were then randomly divided into two groups; 0.12% chlorhexidine (n = 37, aged 22–52 years, mean 34 years) and 0.9% normal saline (n = 38, aged 22–55 years, mean 38 years). They were re-examined every 2 weeks until the next episode was observed. RESULTS The time to recurrence of oral candidiasis between the chlorhexidine and the saline group was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The following variables were significantly associated with the time of recurrence; frequency of antifungal therapy (P = 0.011), total lymphocyte (P = 0.017), alcohol consumption (P = 0.043), and candidiasis on gingiva (P = 0.048). The subjects with lower lymphocyte showed shorter oral candidiasis-free periods (P = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS Chlorhexidine showed a small but not statistically significant effect in maintenance of oral candidiasis-free period. This lack of significance may be due to the small sample size. Further study should be performed to better assess the size of the effect, or to confirm our findings. PMID:18627504
High-resolution characterization of sequence signatures due to non-random cleavage of cell-free DNA.
Chandrananda, Dineika; Thorne, Natalie P; Bahlo, Melanie
2015-06-17
High-throughput sequencing of cell-free DNA fragments found in human plasma has been used to non-invasively detect fetal aneuploidy, monitor organ transplants and investigate tumor DNA. However, many biological properties of this extracellular genetic material remain unknown. Research that further characterizes circulating DNA could substantially increase its diagnostic value by allowing the application of more sophisticated bioinformatics tools that lead to an improved signal to noise ratio in the sequencing data. In this study, we investigate various features of cell-free DNA in plasma using deep-sequencing data from two pregnant women (>70X, >50X) and compare them with matched cellular DNA. We utilize a descriptive approach to examine how the biological cleavage of cell-free DNA affects different sequence signatures such as fragment lengths, sequence motifs at fragment ends and the distribution of cleavage sites along the genome. We show that the size distributions of these cell-free DNA molecules are dependent on their autosomal and mitochondrial origin as well as the genomic location within chromosomes. DNA mapping to particular microsatellites and alpha repeat elements display unique size signatures. We show how cell-free fragments occur in clusters along the genome, localizing to nucleosomal arrays and are preferentially cleaved at linker regions by correlating the mapping locations of these fragments with ENCODE annotation of chromatin organization. Our work further demonstrates that cell-free autosomal DNA cleavage is sequence dependent. The region spanning up to 10 positions on either side of the DNA cleavage site show a consistent pattern of preference for specific nucleotides. This sequence motif is present in cleavage sites localized to nucleosomal cores and linker regions but is absent in nucleosome-free mitochondrial DNA. These background signals in cell-free DNA sequencing data stem from the non-random biological cleavage of these fragments. This
Cryptographic pseudo-random sequences from the chaotic Hénon ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2-dimensional chaotic maps for the generation of pseudorandom sequences. 3. ... map. Consider the bit-stream Bx formed by choosing every Pth bit of Sx, ... Similarly, the probability of the linear complexity C assuming the value c(c < N) when.
Bernard, Stephen A; Nguyen, Vina; Cameron, Peter; Masci, Kevin; Fitzgerald, Mark; Cooper, David J; Walker, Tony; Std, B Paramed; Myles, Paul; Murray, Lynne; David; Taylor; Smith, Karen; Patrick, Ian; Edington, John; Bacon, Andrew; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Judson, Rodney
2010-12-01
To determine whether paramedic rapid sequence intubation in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) improves neurologic outcomes at 6 months compared with intubation in the hospital. Severe TBI is associated with a high rate of mortality and long-term morbidity. Comatose patients with TBI routinely undergo endo-tracheal intubation to protect the airway, prevent hypoxia, and control ventilation. In many places, paramedics perform intubation prior to hospital arrival. However, it is unknown whether this approach improves outcomes. In a prospective, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned adults with severe TBI in an urban setting to either prehospital rapid sequence intubation by paramedics or transport to a hospital emergency department for intubation by physicians. The primary outcome measure was the median extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSe) score at 6 months. Secondary end-points were favorable versus unfavorable outcome at 6 months, length of intensive care and hospital stay, and survival to hospital discharge. A total of 312 patients with severe TBI were randomly assigned to paramedic rapid sequence intubation or hospital intubation. The success rate for paramedic intubation was 97%. At 6 months, the median GOSe score was 5 (interquartile range, 1-6) in patients intubated by paramedics compared with 3 (interquartile range, 1-6) in the patients intubated at hospital (P = 0.28).The proportion of patients with favorable outcome (GOSe, 5-8) was 80 of 157 patients (51%) in the paramedic intubation group compared with 56 of 142 patients (39%) in the hospital intubation group (risk ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.64; P = 0.046). There were no differences in intensive care or hospital length of stay, or in survival to hospital discharge. In adults with severe TBI, prehospital rapid sequence intubation by paramedics increases the rate of favorable neurologic outcome at 6 months compared with intubation in the hospital.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cummins, J.D.
1965-02-01
With several white noise sources the various transmission paths of a linear multivariable system may be determined simultaneously. This memorandum considers the restrictions on pseudo-random two state sequences to effect simultaneous identification of several transmission paths and the consequential rejection of cross-coupled signals in linear multivariable systems. The conditions for simultaneous identification are established by an example, which shows that the integration time required is large i.e. tends to infinity, as it does when white noise sources are used. (author)
Tan, Shurun
The objective of my research is two-fold: to study wave scattering phenomena in dense volumetric random media and in periodic wave functional materials. For the first part, the goal is to use the microwave remote sensing technique to monitor water resources and global climate change. Towards this goal, I study the microwave scattering behavior of snow and ice sheet. For snowpack scattering, I have extended the traditional dense media radiative transfer (DMRT) approach to include cyclical corrections that give rise to backscattering enhancements, enabling the theory to model combined active and passive observations of snowpack using the same set of physical parameters. Besides DMRT, a fully coherent approach is also developed by solving Maxwell's equations directly over the entire snowpack including a bottom half space. This revolutionary new approach produces consistent scattering and emission results, and demonstrates backscattering enhancements and coherent layer effects. The birefringence in anisotropic snow layers is also analyzed by numerically solving Maxwell's equation directly. The effects of rapid density fluctuations in polar ice sheet emission in the 0.5˜2.0 GHz spectrum are examined using both fully coherent and partially coherent layered media emission theories that agree with each other and distinct from incoherent approaches. For the second part, the goal is to develop integral equation based methods to solve wave scattering in periodic structures such as photonic crystals and metamaterials that can be used for broadband simulations. Set upon the concept of modal expansion of the periodic Green's function, we have developed the method of broadband Green's function with low wavenumber extraction (BBGFL), where a low wavenumber component is extracted and results a non-singular and fast-converging remaining part with simple wavenumber dependence. We've applied the technique to simulate band diagrams and modal solutions of periodic structures, and to
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Regad Leslie
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In bioinformatics it is common to search for a pattern of interest in a potentially large set of rather short sequences (upstream gene regions, proteins, exons, etc.. Although many methodological approaches allow practitioners to compute the distribution of a pattern count in a random sequence generated by a Markov source, no specific developments have taken into account the counting of occurrences in a set of independent sequences. We aim to address this problem by deriving efficient approaches and algorithms to perform these computations both for low and high complexity patterns in the framework of homogeneous or heterogeneous Markov models. Results The latest advances in the field allowed us to use a technique of optimal Markov chain embedding based on deterministic finite automata to introduce three innovative algorithms. Algorithm 1 is the only one able to deal with heterogeneous models. It also permits to avoid any product of convolution of the pattern distribution in individual sequences. When working with homogeneous models, Algorithm 2 yields a dramatic reduction in the complexity by taking advantage of previous computations to obtain moment generating functions efficiently. In the particular case of low or moderate complexity patterns, Algorithm 3 exploits power computation and binary decomposition to further reduce the time complexity to a logarithmic scale. All these algorithms and their relative interest in comparison with existing ones were then tested and discussed on a toy-example and three biological data sets: structural patterns in protein loop structures, PROSITE signatures in a bacterial proteome, and transcription factors in upstream gene regions. On these data sets, we also compared our exact approaches to the tempting approximation that consists in concatenating the sequences in the data set into a single sequence. Conclusions Our algorithms prove to be effective and able to handle real data sets with
Nuel, Gregory; Regad, Leslie; Martin, Juliette; Camproux, Anne-Claude
2010-01-26
In bioinformatics it is common to search for a pattern of interest in a potentially large set of rather short sequences (upstream gene regions, proteins, exons, etc.). Although many methodological approaches allow practitioners to compute the distribution of a pattern count in a random sequence generated by a Markov source, no specific developments have taken into account the counting of occurrences in a set of independent sequences. We aim to address this problem by deriving efficient approaches and algorithms to perform these computations both for low and high complexity patterns in the framework of homogeneous or heterogeneous Markov models. The latest advances in the field allowed us to use a technique of optimal Markov chain embedding based on deterministic finite automata to introduce three innovative algorithms. Algorithm 1 is the only one able to deal with heterogeneous models. It also permits to avoid any product of convolution of the pattern distribution in individual sequences. When working with homogeneous models, Algorithm 2 yields a dramatic reduction in the complexity by taking advantage of previous computations to obtain moment generating functions efficiently. In the particular case of low or moderate complexity patterns, Algorithm 3 exploits power computation and binary decomposition to further reduce the time complexity to a logarithmic scale. All these algorithms and their relative interest in comparison with existing ones were then tested and discussed on a toy-example and three biological data sets: structural patterns in protein loop structures, PROSITE signatures in a bacterial proteome, and transcription factors in upstream gene regions. On these data sets, we also compared our exact approaches to the tempting approximation that consists in concatenating the sequences in the data set into a single sequence. Our algorithms prove to be effective and able to handle real data sets with multiple sequences, as well as biological patterns of
Michas, Georgios; Vallianatos, Filippos; Karakostas, Vassilios; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Sammonds, Peter
2014-05-01
Efpalion aftershock sequence occurred in January 2010, when an M=5.5 earthquake was followed four days later by another strong event (M=5.4) and numerous aftershocks (Karakostas et al., 2012). This activity interrupted a 15 years period of low to moderate earthquake occurrence in Corinth rift, where the last major event was the 1995 Aigion earthquake (M=6.2). Coulomb stress analysis performed in previous studies (Karakostas et al., 2012; Sokos et al., 2012; Ganas et al., 2013) indicated that the second major event and most of the aftershocks were triggered due to stress transfer. The aftershocks production rate decays as a power-law with time according to the modified Omori law (Utsu et al., 1995) with an exponent larger than one for the first four days, while after the occurrence of the second strong event the exponent turns to unity. We consider the earthquake sequence as a point process in time and space and study its spatiotemporal evolution considering a Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) model with a joint probability density function of inter-event times and jumps between the successive earthquakes (Metzler and Klafter, 2000). Jump length distribution exhibits finite variance, whereas inter-event times scale as a q-generalized gamma distribution (Michas et al., 2013) with a long power-law tail. These properties are indicative of a subdiffusive process in terms of CTRW. Additionally, the mean square displacement of aftershocks is constant with time after the occurrence of the first event, while it changes to a power-law with exponent close to 0.15 after the second major event, illustrating a slow diffusive process. During the first four days aftershocks cluster around the epicentral area of the second major event, while after that and taking as a reference the second event, the aftershock zone is migrating slowly with time to the west near the epicentral area of the first event. This process is much slower from what would be expected from normal diffusion, a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soosan Alimohammadzadeh Taher
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Objective: The study evaluated the efficacy of oral calcium carbonate supplement on leg pain in pregnancy and nursing period.Materials and methods: A total number of 176 women at third trimester of pregnancy or nursing period till to one year after delivery with complaint of leg pain, low back pain (LBP, and posterior pelvic pain (PPP were evaluated for distinct primary causes and were excluded, then 58 patients randomized into calcium group (n=27 treated with 500 mg calcium carbonate orally per day just for one week, and control group (n=31 received no drug. Incidence of days with leg, low back, and posterior pelvic pain per week were evaluated and compared between the two groups at 3 different weeks before, during, and after discontinuation of drug. Statistical significance was defined as P<0.05. Results: Mean number of days with leg pain per week during calcium carbonate intake was significantly different between the study and control groups (P<0.05. Mean number of days with LBP and PPP was not significantly different between two groups.Conclusion: The use of oral calcium supplement was associated with lower episodes of leg pain but failed to reduce the incidence of LBP and PPP in pregnancy and nursery period.
Zhang, Guang-He; Poon, Carmen C Y; Zhang, Yuan-Ting
2012-01-01
Wireless body sensor network (WBSN), a key building block for m-Health, demands extremely stringent resource constraints and thus lightweight security methods are preferred. To minimize resource consumption, utilizing information already available to a WBSN, particularly common to different sensor nodes of a WBSN, for security purposes becomes an attractive solution. In this paper, we tested the randomness and distinctiveness of the 128-bit biometric binary sequences (BSs) generated from interpulse intervals (IPIs) of 20 healthy subjects as well as 30 patients suffered from myocardial infarction and 34 subjects with other cardiovascular diseases. The encoding time of a biometric BS on a WBSN node is on average 23 ms and memory occupation is 204 bytes for any given IPI sequence. The results from five U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology statistical tests suggest that random biometric BSs can be generated from both healthy subjects and cardiovascular patients and can potentially be used as authentication identifiers for securing WBSNs. Ultimately, it is preferred that these biometric BSs can be used as encryption keys such that key distribution over the WBSN can be avoided.
Randomness control of vehicular motion through a sequence of traffic signals at irregular intervals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagatani, Takashi
2010-01-01
We study the regularization of irregular motion of a vehicle moving through the sequence of traffic signals with a disordered configuration. Each traffic signal is controlled by both cycle time and phase shift. The cycle time is the same for all signals, while the phase shift varies from signal to signal by synchronizing with intervals between a signal and the next signal. The nonlinear dynamic model of the vehicular motion is presented by the stochastic nonlinear map. The vehicle exhibits the very complex behavior with varying both cycle time and strength of irregular intervals. The irregular motion induced by the disordered configuration is regularized by adjusting the phase shift within the regularization regions.
Ondersma, Steven J; Svikis, Dace S; Thacker, Casey; Resnicow, Ken; Beatty, Jessica R; Janisse, James; Puder, Karoline
2018-04-01
Under-reporting of drug use in the perinatal period is well-documented, and significantly limits the reach of proactive intervention approaches. The Wayne Indirect Drug Use Screener (WIDUS) focuses on correlates of drug use rather than use itself. This trial tested a computer-delivered, brief intervention designed for use with indirect screen-positive cases, seeking to motivate reductions in drug use without presuming its presence. Randomized clinical trial with 500 WIDUS-positive postpartum women recruited between August 14, 2012 and November 19, 2014. Participants were randomly assigned to either a time control condition or a single-session, tailored, indirect brief intervention. The primary outcome was days of drug use over the 6-month follow-up period; secondary outcomes included urine and hair analyses results at 3- and 6-month follow-up. All outcomes were measured by blinded evaluators. Of the 500 participants (252 intervention and 248 control), 36.1% of participants acknowledged drug use in the 3 months prior to pregnancy, but 89% tested positive at the 6-month follow-up. Participants rated the intervention as easy to use (4.9/5) and helpful (4.4/5). Analyses revealed no between-group differences in drug use (52% in the intervention group, vs. 53% among controls; OR 1.03). Exploratory analyses also showed that intervention effects were not moderated by baseline severity, WIDUS score, or readiness to change. The present trial showed no evidence of efficacy for an indirect, single-session, computer-delivered, brief intervention designed as a complement to indirect screening. More direct approaches that still do not presume active drug use may be possible and appropriate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Paritakul, Panwara; Ruangrongmorakot, Kasem; Laosooksathit, Wipada; Suksamarnwong, Maysita; Puapornpong, Pawin
2016-09-01
In Thailand, ginger is a popular natural galactagogue among breastfeeding women. However, there has never been evidence to support the effectiveness of ginger in increasing the breast milk volume. To compare breast milk volume on the third and seventh day postpartum between lactating mothers who receive 500 mg dried ginger capsules twice daily with those receiving placebo. A randomized, double-blind controlled trial was conducted. Women who deliver a term baby were randomly assigned to receive dried ginger or placebo for 7 days postpartum. Breast milk volume was measured on third day postpartum using test weight method for a period of 24 hours and on seventh day postpartum using 1 hour milk production. We also compared the third day serum prolactin level between the two groups. Data from 63 women were available for analysis, 30 from the ginger group and 33 from the placebo group. The two groups were similar regarding baseline characteristics. Women in the ginger group have higher milk volume than the placebo group (191.0 ± 71.2 mL/day versus 135.0 ± 61.5 mL/day, p ginger group does not differ from the placebo group (80.0 ± 58.5 mL versus 112.1 ± 91.6 mL, p = 0.24). The mean serum prolactin levels were similar in both groups (321.5 ± 131.8 ng/L in the ginger group, and 331.4 ± 100.7 ng/L in the placebo group, p = 0.74). No side effect was reported in this study. Ginger is a promising natural galactagogue to improve breast milk volume in the immediate postpartum period without any notable side effect.
Xian, Zhi-Hong; Cong, Wen-Ming; Zhang, Shu-Hui; Wu, Meng-Chao
2005-01-01
AIM: To study the genetic alterations and their association with clinicopathological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to find the tumor related DNA fragments. METHODS: DNA isolated from tumors and corresponding noncancerous liver tissues of 56 HCC patients was amplified by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) with 10 random 10-mer arbitrary primers. The RAPD bands showing obvious differences in tumor tissue DNA corresponding to that of normal tissue were separated, purified, cloned and sequenced. DNA sequences were analyzed and compared with GenBank data. RESULTS: A total of 56 cases of HCC were demonstrated to have genetic alterations, which were detected by at least one primer. The detestability of genetic alterations ranged from 20% to 70% in each case, and 17.9% to 50% in each primer. Serum HBV infection, tumor size, histological grade, tumor capsule, as well as tumor intrahepatic metastasis, might be correlated with genetic alterations on certain primers. A band with a higher intensity of 480 bp or so amplified fragments in tumor DNA relative to normal DNA could be seen in 27 of 56 tumor samples using primer 4. Sequence analysis of these fragments showed 91% homology with Homo sapiens double homeobox protein DUX10 gene. CONCLUSION: Genetic alterations are a frequent event in HCC, and tumor related DNA fragments have been found in this study, which may be associated with hepatocarcin-ogenesis. RAPD is an effective method for the identification and analysis of genetic alterations in HCC, and may provide new information for further evaluating the molecular mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:15996039
Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam; Ravn, Henrik; Napirna, Bitiguida Mutna; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Lisse, Ida Maria; Stensballe, Lone; Diness, Birgitte Rode; Lausch, Karen Rokkedal; Lund, Najaaraq; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Whittle, Hilton; Benn, Christine Stabell
2011-07-15
Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG. In the period 2004-2008 we recruited 2320 LBW children in Bissau. The children were visited at home at 2, 6, and 12 months of age. With a pretrial infant mortality of 250 per 1000, we hypothesized a 25% reduction in infant mortality for LBW children. Infant mortality was only 101 per 1000 during the trial. In the primary analysis, infant mortality was reduced insignificantly by 17% (mortality rate ratio [MRR] = .83 [.63-1.08]). In secondary analyses, early BCG vaccine was safe with an MRR of .49 (.21-1.15) after 3 days and .55 (.34-.89) after 4 weeks. The reduction in neonatal mortality was mainly due to fewer cases of neonatal sepsis, respiratory infection, and fever. The impact of early BCG on infant mortality was marked for children weighing <1.5 kg (MRR = .43 [.21-.85]) who had lower coverage for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccinations. Though early BCG did not reduce infant mortality significantly, it may have a beneficial effect in the neonatal period. This could be important for public health because BCG is often delayed in low-income countries.
The genome sequence strain 104 of the opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium was isolated form an adult AIDS patient in Southern California in 1983. Isolates of non-paratuberculosis M. avium from 207 other patients in Southern California and elsewhere were examined for genoty...
The sequencing of adverbial clauses of time in academic English: Random forest modelling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abbas Ali Rezaee
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Adverbial clauses of time are positioned either before or after their associated main clauses. This study aims to assess the importance of discourse-pragmatics and processing-related constraints on the positioning of adverbial clauses of time in research articles of applied linguistics written by authors for whom English is considered a native language. Previous research has revealed that the ordering is co-determined by various factors from the domains of semantics and discourse-pragmatics (bridging, iconicity, and subordinator and language processing (deranking, length, and complexity. This research conducts a multifactorial analysis on the motivators of the positioning of adverbial clauses of time in 100 research articles of applied linguistics. The study will use a random forest of conditional inference trees as the statistical technique to measure the weights of the aforementioned variables. It was found that iconicity and bridging, which are factors associated with discourse and semantics, are the two most salient predictors of clause ordering.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuichi eYamashita
2011-04-01
Full Text Available How the brain learns and generates temporal sequences is a fundamental issue in neuroscience. The production of birdsongs, a process which involves complex learned sequences, provides researchers with an excellent biological model for this topic. The Bengalese finch in particular learns a highly complex song with syntactical structure. The nucleus HVC (HVC, a premotor nucleus within the avian song system, plays a key role in generating the temporal structures of their songs. From lesion studies, the nucleus interfacialis (NIf projecting to the HVC is considered one of the essential regions that contribute to the complexity of their songs. However, the types of interaction between the HVC and the NIf that can produce complex syntactical songs remain unclear. In order to investigate the function of interactions between the HVC and NIf, we have proposed a neural network model based on previous biological evidence. The HVC is modeled by a recurrent neural network (RNN that learns to generate temporal patterns of songs. The NIf is modeled as a mechanism that provides auditory feedback to the HVC and generates random noise that feeds into the HVC. The model showed that complex syntactical songs can be replicated by simple interactions between deterministic dynamics of the RNN and random noise. In the current study, the plausibility of the model is tested by the comparison between the changes in the songs of actual birds induced by pharmacological inhibition of the NIf and the changes in the songs produced by the model resulting from modification of parameters representing NIf functions. The efficacy of the model demonstrates that the changes of songs induced by pharmacological inhibition of the NIf can be interpreted as a trade-off between the effects of noise and the effects of feedback on the dynamics of the RNN of the HVC. These facts suggest that the current model provides a convincing hypothesis for the functional role of NIf-HVC interaction.
Pelham, William E; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waxmonsky, James G; Greiner, Andrew R; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Coxe, Stefany; Verley, Jessica; Bhatia, Ira; Hart, Katie; Karch, Kathryn; Konijnendijk, Evelien; Tresco, Katy; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Murphy, Susan A
2016-01-01
Behavioral and pharmacological treatments for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were evaluated to address whether endpoint outcomes are better depending on which treatment is initiated first and, in case of insufficient response to initial treatment, whether increasing dose of initial treatment or adding the other treatment modality is superior. Children with ADHD (ages 5-12, N = 146, 76% male) were treated for 1 school year. Children were randomized to initiate treatment with low doses of either (a) behavioral parent training (8 group sessions) and brief teacher consultation to establish a Daily Report Card or (b) extended-release methylphenidate (equivalent to .15 mg/kg/dose bid). After 8 weeks or at later monthly intervals as necessary, insufficient responders were rerandomized to secondary interventions that either increased the dose/intensity of the initial treatment or added the other treatment modality, with adaptive adjustments monthly as needed to these secondary treatments. The group beginning with behavioral treatment displayed significantly lower rates of observed classroom rule violations (the primary outcome) at study endpoint and tended to have fewer out-of-class disciplinary events. Further, adding medication secondary to initial behavior modification resulted in better outcomes on the primary outcomes and parent/teacher ratings of oppositional behavior than adding behavior modification to initial medication. Normalization rates on teacher and parent ratings were generally high. Parents who began treatment with behavioral parent training had substantially better attendance than those assigned to receive training following medication. Beginning treatment with behavioral intervention produced better outcomes overall than beginning treatment with medication.
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Xin Ma
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The prediction of RNA-binding proteins is one of the most challenging problems in computation biology. Although some studies have investigated this problem, the accuracy of prediction is still not sufficient. In this study, a highly accurate method was developed to predict RNA-binding proteins from amino acid sequences using random forests with the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR method, followed by incremental feature selection (IFS. We incorporated features of conjoint triad features and three novel features: binding propensity (BP, nonbinding propensity (NBP, and evolutionary information combined with physicochemical properties (EIPP. The results showed that these novel features have important roles in improving the performance of the predictor. Using the mRMR-IFS method, our predictor achieved the best performance (86.62% accuracy and 0.737 Matthews correlation coefficient. High prediction accuracy and successful prediction performance suggested that our method can be a useful approach to identify RNA-binding proteins from sequence information.
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Suzanne Maman
Full Text Available Pregnancy and the postpartum period present important intervention opportunities. Counseling can leverage the motivation women have during this time to change behaviors that may negatively affect their health and the heath of their infants.Pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in South Africa were randomly allocated to treatment (n=733 and control arms (n=747. Treatment arm participants received enhanced HIV pre- and post-test counseling, legal support and access to support groups at baseline, which occurred at the first antenatal visit, and then six and ten weeks postpartum. Control arm participants received standard HIV testing and counseling (HTC and two postpartum attention control sessions. Outcomes were incidence of sexually transmitted infection (STI by 14 weeks postpartum and past 30-day inconsistent condom use at 14 weeks and 9 months postpartum.There were no intervention effects on incident STIs for either HIV-negative (adjusted risk ratio (aRR 1.01, 95% CI 0.71-1.44 or HIV-positive participants (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.23. The intervention was associated with a 28% decrease in risk of past 30-day inconsistent condom use at nine-months among HIV-negative women (aRR 0.72,95% CI 0.59-0.88, but did not affect inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive women (aRR1.08; 95% CI 0.67-1.75.An enhanced counseling intervention during pregnancy and the postpartum period can lead to reductions in inconsistent condom use among HIV-negative women. Results underscore the importance of the counseling that accompanies HIV HTC. More work is needed to understand how to promote and sustain risk reduction among HIV-positive women.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01683461.
Herschorn, Sender; Staskin, David; Tu, Le Mai; Fialkov, Jonathan; Walsh, Terry; Gooch, Katherine; Schermer, Carol R
2018-04-19
The PREFER study was an assessment of medication tolerability, treatment preference and symptom improvement during treatment with mirabegron (M) and tolterodine (T) extended release (ER) in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). In this analysis of PREFER, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were assessed during treatment. PREFER was a two-period, 8-week crossover, double-blind, phase IV study (NCT02138747) of treatment-naïve adults with OAB ≥3 months randomized to 1 of 4 treatment sequences (M/T; T/M; M/M; T/T), separated by a 2-week washout. Tolterodine ER was dosed at 4 mg for 8 weeks and mirabegron was dosed at 25 mg for 4 weeks then increased to 50 mg for the next 4 weeks. At each visit, PROs related to treatment satisfaction, quality of life and symptom bother were assessed using the OAB Satisfaction (OAB-S; 3 independent scales/5 single-item overall assessments), OAB-q (total health-related QoL [HRQoL] and subscales [Sleep, Social, Coping, Concern] and Symptom Bother scale) and Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) questionnaires. Responder rates were reported for OAB-q subscales based on a minimal important difference (MID; ≥ 10-point improvement) and OAB-S Medication Tolerability score ≥ 90. In total, 358 randomized patients received ≥1 dose of double-blind study medication and completed ≥1 post-baseline value (OAB-S scale, OAB-q, PPBC): M/T (n = 154), T/M (n = 144), M/M (n = 30) or T/T (n = 30). At end of treatment (EoT), mirabegron and tolterodine ER were associated with similar mean improvements in 7 of the 8 OAB-S scores investigated, OAB-q scales and PPBC. A higher percentage of patients achieved clinically relevant improvements (MID) in OAB-q scales and OAB-S Medication Tolerability score during treatment with mirabegron than tolterodine ER. On average, patients with OAB experienced improvements in treatment satisfaction, HRQoL and symptom bother that were of a similar magnitude during treatment with
Drescher, U; Koschate, J; Schiffer, T; Schneider, S; Hoffmann, U
2017-06-01
The aim of the study was to compare the kinetics responses of heart rate (HR), pulmonary (V˙O 2 pulm) and predicted muscular (V˙O 2 musc) oxygen uptake between two different pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) work rate (WR) amplitudes both below anaerobic threshold. Eight healthy individuals performed two PRBS WR protocols implying changes between 30W and 80W and between 30W and 110W. HR and V˙O 2 pulm were measured beat-to-beat and breath-by-breath, respectively. V˙O 2 musc was estimated applying the approach of Hoffmann et al. (Eur J Appl Physiol 113: 1745-1754, 2013) considering a circulatory model for venous return and cross-correlation functions (CCF) for the kinetics analysis. HR and V˙O 2 musc kinetics seem to be independent of WR intensity (p>0.05). V˙O 2 pulm kinetics show prominent differences in the lag of the CCF maximum (39±9s; 31±4s; p<0.05). A mean difference of 14W between the PRBS WR amplitudes impacts venous return significantly, while HR and V˙O 2 musc kinetics remain unchanged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Buchenau, Wolfgang; Urschitz, Michael S; Sautermeister, Judit; Bacher, Margit; Herberts, Tina; Arand, Joerg; Poets, Christian F
2007-08-01
To test the hypothesis that a new orthodontic appliance with a velar extension that shifts the tongue anteriorly would reduce upper airway obstruction in infants with Pierre Robin sequence (PRS). Eleven infants with PRS (median age, 3 days) and an apnea index (AI) >3 were studied. The effect of the new appliance on the AI was compared with that of a conventional appliance without a velar extension by using a crossover study design with random allocation. Compared with baseline (mean AI, 13.8), there was a significant decrease in the AI with the new appliance (3.9; P value appliance (14.8; P = .842). Thus, the relative change in AI was -71% (95% CI, -84--49) for the new appliance and +8% (95% CI, -52-142) for the conventional appliance, which was significantly different (P = .004). No severe adverse effects were observed. This new orthodontic appliance appears to be safe and effective in reducing upper airway obstruction in infants with PRS.
Onsongo, Getiria; Baughn, Linda B; Bower, Matthew; Henzler, Christine; Schomaker, Matthew; Silverstein, Kevin A T; Thyagarajan, Bharat
2016-11-01
Simultaneous detection of small copy number variations (CNVs) (<0.5 kb) and single-nucleotide variants in clinically significant genes is of great interest for clinical laboratories. The analytical variability in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and artifacts in coverage data because of issues with mappability along with lack of robust bioinformatics tools for CNV detection have limited the utility of targeted NGS data to identify CNVs. We describe the development and implementation of a bioinformatics algorithm, copy number variation-random forest (CNV-RF), that incorporates a machine learning component to identify CNVs from targeted NGS data. Using CNV-RF, we identified 12 of 13 deletions in samples with known CNVs, two cases with duplications, and identified novel deletions in 22 additional cases. Furthermore, no CNVs were identified among 60 genes in 14 cases with normal copy number and no CNVs were identified in another 104 patients with clinical suspicion of CNVs. All positive deletions and duplications were confirmed using a quantitative PCR method. CNV-RF also detected heterozygous deletions and duplications with a specificity of 50% across 4813 genes. The ability of CNV-RF to detect clinically relevant CNVs with a high degree of sensitivity along with confirmation using a low-cost quantitative PCR method provides a framework for providing comprehensive NGS-based CNV/single-nucleotide variant detection in a clinical molecular diagnostics laboratory. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Sunirmal Sheet
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Apart from being fed to silkworms in sericulture, the ecologically important Mulberry plant has been used for traditional medicine in Asian countries as well as in manufacturing wine, food, and beverages. Germplasm analysis among Mulberry cultivars originating from South Korea is crucial in the plant breeding program for cultivar development. Hence, the genetic deviations and relations among 8 Morus alba plants, and one Morus lhou plant, of different cultivars collected from South Korea were investigated using 10 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and 10 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers in the present study. The ISSR markers exhibited a higher polymorphism (63.42% among mulberry genotypes in comparison to RAPD markers. Furthermore, the similarity coefficient was estimated for both markers and found to be varying between 0.183 and 0.814 for combined pooled data of ISSR and RAPD. The phenogram drawn using the UPGMA cluster method based on combined pooled data of RAPD and ISSR markers divided the nine mulberry genotypes into two divergent major groups and the two individual independent accessions. The distant relationship between Dae-Saug (SM1 and SangchonJo Sang Saeng (SM5 offers a possibility of utilizing them in mulberry cultivar improvement of Morus species of South Korea.
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ALTINOZ, O. T.
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Nature-inspired optimization algorithms can obtain the optima by updating the position of each member in the population. At the beginning of the algorithm, the particles of the population are spread into the search space. The initial distribution of particles corresponds to the beginning points of the search process. Hence, the aim is to alter the position for each particle beginning with this initial position until the optimum solution will be found with respect to the pre-determined conditions like maximum iteration, and specific error value for the fitness function. Therefore, initial positions of the population have a direct effect on both accuracy of the optima and the computational cost. If any member in the population is close enough to the optima, this eases the achievement of the exact solution. On the contrary, individuals grouped far away from the optima might yield pointless efforts. In this study, low-discrepancy quasi-random number sequence is preferred for the localization of the population at the initialization phase. By this way, the population is distributed into the search space in a more uniform manner at the initialization phase. The technique is applied to the Gravitational Search Algorithm and compared via the performance on benchmark function solutions.
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Pinnarò, Paola; Giordano, Carolina; Farneti, Alessia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Strigari, Lidia; Landoni, Valeria [Department of Physics, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Marucci, Laura; Petrongari, Maria Grazia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Sanguineti, Giuseppe, E-mail: sanguineti@ifo.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)
2016-07-15
Purpose: To compare long-term late local toxicity after either concomitant or sequential chemoradiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery. Methods and Materials: From 1997 to 2002, women aged 18 to 75 years who underwent breast-conserving surgery and axillary dissection for early breast cancer and in whom CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil) chemotherapy was planned were randomized between concomitant and sequential radiation therapy. Radiation therapy was delivered to the whole breast through tangential fields to 50 Gy in 20 fractions over a period of 4 weeks, followed by an electron boost. Surviving patients were tentatively contacted and examined between March and September 2014. Patients in whom progressive disease had developed or who had undergone further breast surgery were excluded. Local toxicity (fibrosis, telangiectasia, and breast atrophy or retraction) was scored blindly to the treatment received. A logistic regression was run to investigate the effect of treatment sequence after correction for several patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related covariates on selected endpoints. The median time to cross-sectional analysis was 15.7 years (range, 12.0-17.8 years). Results: Of 206 patients randomized, 154 (74.8%) were potentially eligible. Of these, 43 (27.9%) refused participation and 4 (2.6%) had been lost to follow-up, and for 5 (3.2%), we could not restore planning data; thus, the final number of analyzed patients was 102. No grade 4 toxicity had been observed, whereas the number of grade 3 toxicity events was low (<8%) for each item, allowing pooling of grade 2 and 3 events for further analysis. Treatment sequence (concomitant vs sequential) was an independent predictor of grade 2 or 3 fibrosis according to both the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (odds ratio [OR], 4.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-12.2; P=.013) and the SOMA (Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinnarò, Paola; Giordano, Carolina; Farneti, Alessia; Strigari, Lidia; Landoni, Valeria; Marucci, Laura; Petrongari, Maria Grazia; Sanguineti, Giuseppe
2016-01-01
Purpose: To compare long-term late local toxicity after either concomitant or sequential chemoradiation therapy after breast-conserving surgery. Methods and Materials: From 1997 to 2002, women aged 18 to 75 years who underwent breast-conserving surgery and axillary dissection for early breast cancer and in whom CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil) chemotherapy was planned were randomized between concomitant and sequential radiation therapy. Radiation therapy was delivered to the whole breast through tangential fields to 50 Gy in 20 fractions over a period of 4 weeks, followed by an electron boost. Surviving patients were tentatively contacted and examined between March and September 2014. Patients in whom progressive disease had developed or who had undergone further breast surgery were excluded. Local toxicity (fibrosis, telangiectasia, and breast atrophy or retraction) was scored blindly to the treatment received. A logistic regression was run to investigate the effect of treatment sequence after correction for several patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related covariates on selected endpoints. The median time to cross-sectional analysis was 15.7 years (range, 12.0-17.8 years). Results: Of 206 patients randomized, 154 (74.8%) were potentially eligible. Of these, 43 (27.9%) refused participation and 4 (2.6%) had been lost to follow-up, and for 5 (3.2%), we could not restore planning data; thus, the final number of analyzed patients was 102. No grade 4 toxicity had been observed, whereas the number of grade 3 toxicity events was low (<8%) for each item, allowing pooling of grade 2 and 3 events for further analysis. Treatment sequence (concomitant vs sequential) was an independent predictor of grade 2 or 3 fibrosis according to both the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (odds ratio [OR], 4.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-12.2; P=.013) and the SOMA (Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic
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Marek Kouba
Full Text Available In altricial birds, the nestling period is an important part of the breeding phase because the juveniles may spend quite a long time in the nest, with associated high energy costs for the parents. The length of the nestling period can be variable and its duration may be influenced by both biotic and abiotic factors; however, studies of this have mostly been undertaken on passerine birds. We studied individual duration of nestling period of 98 Tengmalm's owl chicks (Aegolius funereus at 27 nests during five breeding seasons using a camera and chip system and radio-telemetry. We found the nestlings stayed in the nest box for 27 - 38 days from hatching (mean ± SD, 32.4 ± 2.2 days. The individual duration of nestling period was negatively related to wing length, but no formally significant effect was found for body weight, sex, prey availability and/or weather conditions. The fledging sequence of individual nestlings was primarily related to hatching order; no relationship with wing length and/or other factors was found in this case. We suggest the length of wing is the most important measure of body condition and individual quality in Tengmalm's owl young determining the duration of the nestling period. Other differences from passerines (e.g., the lack of effect of weather or prey availability on nestling period are considered likely to be due to different life-history traits, in particular different food habits and nesting sites and greater risk of nest predation among passerines.
Biesecker, Barbara B; Lewis, Katie L; Umstead, Kendall L; Johnston, Jennifer J; Turbitt, Erin; Fishler, Kristen P; Patton, John H; Miller, Ilana M; Heidlebaugh, Alexis R; Biesecker, Leslie G
2018-03-01
A critical bottleneck in clinical genomics is the mismatch between large volumes of results and the availability of knowledgeable professionals to return them. To test whether a web-based platform is noninferior to a genetic counselor for educating patients about their carrier results from exome sequencing. A randomized noninferiority trial conducted in a longitudinal sequencing cohort at the National Institutes of Health from February 5, 2014, to December 16, 2016, was used to compare the web-based platform with a genetic counselor. Among the 571 eligible participants, 1 to 7 heterozygous variants were identified in genes that cause a phenotype that is recessively inherited. Surveys were administered after cohort enrollment, immediately following trial education, and 1 month and 6 months later to primarily healthy postreproductive participants who expressed interest in learning their carrier results. Both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were applied. A web-based platform that integrated education on carrier results with personal test results was designed to directly parallel disclosure education by a genetic counselor. The sessions took a mean (SD) time of 21 (10.6), and 27 (9.3) minutes, respectively. The primary outcomes and noninferiority margins (δNI) were knowledge (0 to 8, δNI = -1), test-specific distress (0 to 30, δNI = +1), and decisional conflict (15 to 75, δNI = +6). After 462 participants (80.9%) provided consent and were randomized, all but 3 participants (n = 459) completed surveys following education and counseling; 398 (86.1%) completed 1-month surveys and 392 (84.8%) completed 6-month surveys. Participants were predominantly well-educated, non-Hispanic white, married parents; mean (SD) age was 63 (63.1) years and 246 (53.6%) were men. The web platform was noninferior to the genetic counselor on outcomes assessed at 1 and 6 months: knowledge (mean group difference, -0.18; lower limit of 97.5% CI, -0.63;
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Niels Christian; Østergaard, Lars; Gade, Jens Raaberg
2011-01-01
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of commuter cycling on cardiorespiratory fitness in men and women. Secondary outcomes included body fat and blood pressure measurements. METHODS: In February 2009, 48 volunteers from the Island of Funen, Denmark were randomly assigned to either "no ch...
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Maria Clara da Silva Valadão
2015-09-01
Conclusions: In the post‐appendectomy period, the use of hypotonic solution (30 mEq/L, 0.18% did not increase the risk of hyponatremia when compared to isotonic saline. The use of isotonic solution (150 mEq/L, 0.9% did not favor hypernatremia in these patients. Children who received hypotonic solution showed higher cumulative fluid balance in the preoperative period.
Díaz Fernández, Ester
2010-01-01
In this thesis, new models and methodologies are introduced for the analysis of dynamic processes characterized by image sequences with spatial temporal overlapping. The spatial temporal overlapping exists in many natural phenomena and should be addressed properly in several Science disciplines such as Microscopy, Material Sciences, Biology, Geostatistics or Communication Networks. This work is related to the Point Process and Random Closed Set theories, within Stochastic Ge...
Roden, Suzanne E; Dutton, Peter H; Morin, Phillip A
2009-01-01
The green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas, was used as a case study for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery in a species that has little genetic sequence information available. As green turtles have a complex population structure, additional nuclear markers other than microsatellites could add to our understanding of their complex life history. Amplified fragment length polymorphism technique was used to generate sets of random fragments of genomic DNA, which were then electrophoretically separated with precast gels, stained with SYBR green, excised, and directly sequenced. It was possible to perform this method without the use of polyacrylamide gels, radioactive or fluorescent labeled primers, or hybridization methods, reducing the time, expense, and safety hazards of SNP discovery. Within 13 loci, 2547 base pairs were screened, resulting in the discovery of 35 SNPs. Using this method, it was possible to yield a sufficient number of loci to screen for SNP markers without the availability of prior sequence information.
Malaviya, P; Singh, R P; Singh, S P; Hasker, E; Ostyn, B; Shankar, R; Boelaert, M; Sundar, S
2011-09-01
In 2009, a random survey was conducted in Muzaffarpur district to document the clinical outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis patients (VL) treated by the public health care system in 2008, to assess the effectiveness of miltefosine against VL. We analysed the operational feasibility and cost of such periodic random surveys as compared with health facility-based routine monitoring. A random sample of 150 patients was drawn from registers kept at Primary Health Care centres. Patient records were examined, and the patients were located at their residence. Patients and physicians were interviewed with the help of two specifically designed questionnaires by a team of one supervisor, one physician and one field worker. Costs incurred during this survey were properly documented, and vehicle log books maintained for analysis. Hundred and 39 (76.7%) of the patients could be located. Eleven patients were not traceable. Per patient, follow-up cost was US$ 15.51 and on average 2.27 patients could be visited per team-day. Human resource involvement constituted 75% of the total cost whereas involvement of physician costs 51% of the total cost. A random survey to document clinical outcomes is costly and labour intensive but gives probably the most accurate information on drug effectiveness. A health service-based retrospective cohort reporting system modelled on the monitoring system developed by tuberculosis programmes could be a better alternative. Involvement of community health workers in such monitoring would offer the additional advantage of treatment supervision and support. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Ozcelik, M; Guclu, C; Bermede, O; Baytas, V; Altay, N; Karahan, M A; Erdogan, B; Can, O
2016-04-01
The topic of drug administration sequence in rapid sequence induction (RSI) is still an object of interest in terms of rocuronium effectiveness. The aim of this prospective, randomized trial was to evaluate the effect of administration sequence of propofol and remifentanil on ED50 and ED95 of rocuronium in a RSI model. Eighty-four patients were randomized into Group Remifentanil (Group R, n = 43), where induction of general anesthesia started with remifentanil (2 µg/kg) and followed by propofol (2 mg/kg) and rocuronium administrations; and Group Propofol (Group P, n = 41), where induction of general anesthesia started with propofol and followed by remifentanil and rocuronium. First patients in each group were paralyzed by 0.8 mg/kg rocuronium. In case of acceptable intubation as evaluated according to the criteria described by Viby-Mogensen et al, rocuronium dose was decreased by 0.1 mg/kg for the next patient; otherwise, rocuronium dose was increased by 0.1 mg/kg. After three crossover points, increments or decrements in rocuronium dosage were set to 0.05 mg/kg. The process was repeated until a total of ten crossover points were obtained. The ED50 and ED95 doses of rocuronium were similar in Group R (0.182 mg/kg, and 0.244 mg/kg, respectively) and Group P (0.121 mg/kg, and 0.243 mg/kg, respectively) according to 95% CI of the estimates. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of clinically acceptable intubation conditions between the two groups (56.1% in Group R vs. 59% in Group P, p = 0.795). The choice of administration sequence of propofol and remifentanil does not have an impact on estimated ED50 and ED95 of rocuronium in providing acceptable intubation conditions in the RSI technique.
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Covey, Kevin R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington University, Bellingham WA 98225-9164 (United States); Agüeros, Marcel A.; Liu, Jiyu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Law, Nicholas M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255 (United States); Ahmadi, Aida [Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levitan, David [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sesar, Branimir, E-mail: kevin.covey@wwu.edu [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)
2016-05-10
Stellar rotation periods ( P {sub rot}) measured in open clusters have proved to be extremely useful for studying stars’ angular momentum content and rotationally driven magnetic activity, which are both age- and mass-dependent processes. While P {sub rot} measurements have been obtained for hundreds of solar-mass members of the Pleiades, measurements exist for only a few low-mass (<0.5 M {sub ⊙}) members of this key laboratory for stellar evolution theory. To fill this gap, we report P {sub rot} for 132 low-mass Pleiades members (including nearly 100 with M ≤ 0.45 M {sub ⊙}), measured from photometric monitoring of the cluster conducted by the Palomar Transient Factory in late 2011 and early 2012. These periods extend the portrait of stellar rotation at 125 Myr to the lowest-mass stars and re-establish the Pleiades as a key benchmark for models of the transport and evolution of stellar angular momentum. Combining our new P {sub rot} with precise BVIJHK photometry reported by Stauffer et al. and Kamai et al., we investigate known anomalies in the photometric properties of K and M Pleiades members. We confirm the correlation detected by Kamai et al. between a star's P {sub rot} and position relative to the main sequence in the cluster's color–magnitude diagram. We find that rapid rotators have redder ( V − K ) colors than slower rotators at the same V , indicating that rapid and slow rotators have different binary frequencies and/or photospheric properties. We find no difference in the photometric amplitudes of rapid and slow rotators, indicating that asymmetries in the longitudinal distribution of starspots do not scale grossly with rotation rate.
Gungorduk, Kemal; Asicioglu, Osman; Gungorduk, Ozgu Celikkol; Yildirim, Gokhan; Besimoğlu, Berhan; Ark, Cemal
2014-03-01
To determine whether maternal vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation after the premature rupture of membranes is associated with an increase in the latency period before delivery. In the present prospective open randomized trial, 229 pregnant women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) at ≥ 24.0 and vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E (n = 126) or a placebo (n = 123). The primary outcome was the latency period until delivery. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. No significant differences in demographic or clinical characteristics were observed between the groups. Latency period until delivery was significantly higher in the group that received vitamins compared with the control group (11.2 ± 6.3 days versus 6.2 ± 4.0 days; p vitamin group compared with the control group (31.9 ± 2.6 weeks versus 31.0 ± 2.6 weeks; p = 0.01). No significant differences in adverse maternal outcome (i.e., chorioamnionitis or endometritis) or neonatal outcome (i.e., neonatal sepsis, neonatal death, necrotizing enterocolitis, or grade 3 to 4 intraventricular hemorrhage) were noted between groups. The findings of the present study suggest that the use of vitamins C and E in women with PPROM is associated with a longer latency period before delivery. Moreover, adverse neonatal and maternal outcomes, which are often associated with prolonged latency periods, were similar between the groups. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Sund, Nicole L.; Porta, Giovanni M.; Bolster, Diogo
2017-05-01
The Spatial Markov Model (SMM) is an upscaled model that has been used successfully to predict effective mean transport across a broad range of hydrologic settings. Here we propose a novel variant of the SMM, applicable to spatially periodic systems. This SMM is built using particle trajectories, rather than travel times. By applying the proposed SMM to a simple benchmark problem we demonstrate that it can predict mean effective transport, when compared to data from fully resolved direct numerical simulations. Next we propose a methodology for using this SMM framework to predict measures of mixing and dilution, that do not just depend on mean concentrations, but are strongly impacted by pore-scale concentration fluctuations. We use information from trajectories of particles to downscale and reconstruct pore-scale approximate concentration fields from which mixing and dilution measures are then calculated. The comparison between measurements from fully resolved simulations and predictions with the SMM agree very favorably.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjærgaard, Magnus; Poulsen, Flemming Martin
2011-01-01
Random coil chemical shifts are necessary for secondary chemical shift analysis, which is the main NMR method for identification of secondary structure in proteins. One of the largest challenges in the determination of random coil chemical shifts is accounting for the effect of neighboring residues....... The contributions from the neighboring residues are typically removed by using neighbor correction factors determined based on each residue's effect on glycine chemical shifts. Due to its unusual conformational freedom, glycine may be particularly unrepresentative for the remaining residue types. In this study, we...... in the conformational ensemble are an important source of neighbor effects in disordered proteins. Glutamine derived random coil chemical shifts and correction factors modestly improve our ability to predict (13)C chemical shifts of intrinsically disordered proteins compared to existing datasets, and may thus improve...
Naseri, H; Homaeinezhad, M R; Pourkhajeh, H
2013-09-01
The major aim of this study is to describe a unified procedure for detecting noisy segments and spikes in transduced signals with a cyclic but non-stationary periodic nature. According to this procedure, the cycles of the signal (onset and offset locations) are detected. Then, the cycles are clustered into a finite number of groups based on appropriate geometrical- and frequency-based time series. Next, the median template of each time series of each cluster is calculated. Afterwards, a correlation-based technique is devised for making a comparison between a test cycle feature and the associated time series of each cluster. Finally, by applying a suitably chosen threshold for the calculated correlation values, a segment is prescribed to be either clean or noisy. As a key merit of this research, the procedure can introduce a decision support for choosing accurately orthogonal-expansion-based filtering or to remove noisy segments. In this paper, the application procedure of the proposed method is comprehensively described by applying it to phonocardiogram (PCG) signals for finding noisy cycles. The database consists of 126 records from several patients of a domestic research station acquired by a 3M Littmann(®) 3200, 4KHz sampling frequency electronic stethoscope. By implementing the noisy segments detection algorithm with this database, a sensitivity of Se=91.41% and a positive predictive value, PPV=92.86% were obtained based on physicians assessments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trastoy, J; Rouco, V; Bernard, R; Briatico, J; Villegas, J E; Ulysse, C; Faini, G; Palau, A; Puig, T; Lesueur, J
2013-01-01
We study the general problem of a manifold of interacting elastic lines whose spatial correlations are strongly affected by the competition between random and ordered pinning. This is done through magneto-transport experiments with YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−δ thin films that contain a periodic vortex pinning array created via masked ion irradiation, in addition to the native random pinning. The strong field-matching effects we observe suggest the prevalence of periodic pinning, and indicate that at the matching field each vortex line is bound to an artificial pinning site. However, the vortex-glass transition dimensionality—quasi-two dimensional instead of the usual three dimensional—evidences reduced vortex-glass correlations along the vortex line. This is also supported by an unusual angular dependence of the magneto-resistance, which greatly differs from that of Bose-glass systems. A quantitative analysis of the angular magneto-resistance allows us to link this behaviour to the enhancement of the system anisotropy, a collateral effect of the ion irradiation. (paper)
Leblanc, Judith; Rousseau, Alexandra; Hejblum, Gilles; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; de Truchis, Pierre; Lert, France; Costagliola, Dominique; Simon, Tabassome; Crémieux, Anne-Claude
2016-02-01
In 2010, to reduce late HIV diagnosis, the French national health agency endorsed non-targeted HIV screening in health care settings. Despite these recommendations, non-targeted screening has not been implemented and only physician-directed diagnostic testing is currently performed. A survey conducted in 2010 in 29 French Emergency Departments (EDs) showed that non-targeted nurse-driven screening was feasible though only a few new HIV diagnoses were identified, predominantly among high-risk groups. A strategy targeting high-risk groups combined with current practice could be shown to be feasible, more efficient and cost-effective than current practice alone. DICI-VIH (acronym for nurse-driven targeted HIV screening) is a multicentre, cluster-randomized, two-period crossover trial. The primary objective is to compare the effectiveness of 2 strategies for diagnosing HIV among adult patients visiting EDs: nurse-driven targeted HIV screening combined with current practice (physician-directed diagnostic testing) versus current practice alone. Main secondary objectives are to compare access to specialist consultation and how early HIV diagnosis occurs in the course of the disease between the 2 groups, and to evaluate the implementation, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of nurse-driven targeted screening. The 2 strategies take place during 2 randomly assigned periods in 8 EDs of metropolitan Paris, where 42 % of France's new HIV patients are diagnosed every year. All patients aged 18 to 64, not presenting secondary to HIV exposure are included. During the intervention period, patients are invited to fill a 7-item questionnaire (country of birth, sexual partners and injection drug use) in order to select individuals who are offered a rapid test. If the rapid test is reactive, a follow-up visit with an infectious disease specialist is scheduled within 72 h. Assuming an 80 % statistical power and a 5 % type 1 error, with 1.04 and 3.38 new diagnoses per 10,000 patients in
Frequency characteristics of coordinate sequences of linear recurrences over Galois rings
Kamlovskii, O. V.
2013-12-01
We consider some properties of the coordinate sequences of linear recurrences over Galois rings which characterize the possibility of regarding them as pseudo-random sequences. We study the periodicity properties, linear complexity and frequency characteristics of these sequences. Up to now, these parameters have been studied mainly in the case when the linear recurring sequence has maximal possible period. We investigate the coordinate sequences of linear recurrences of not necessarily maximal period. We obtain sharpened and generalized estimates for the number of elements and r-patterns on the cycles and intervals of these sequences.
Frequency characteristics of coordinate sequences of linear recurrences over Galois rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Certification Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (LLC Certification Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation))" >Kamlovskii, O V
2013-01-01
We consider some properties of the coordinate sequences of linear recurrences over Galois rings which characterize the possibility of regarding them as pseudo-random sequences. We study the periodicity properties, linear complexity and frequency characteristics of these sequences. Up to now, these parameters have been studied mainly in the case when the linear recurring sequence has maximal possible period. We investigate the coordinate sequences of linear recurrences of not necessarily maximal period. We obtain sharpened and generalized estimates for the number of elements and r-patterns on the cycles and intervals of these sequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Yang; Chen, Xingfan; Liu, Cheng
2015-01-01
The frequency characteristic is an important indicator of a system’s dynamic performance. The identification of a fiber optic gyroscope (FOG)’s frequency characteristic using a correlation spectrum analysis method based on a pseudo-random sequence is proposed. Taking the angle vibrator as the source of the test rotation stimulation and a pseudo-random sequence as the test signal, the frequency characteristic of a FOG is calculated according to the power spectral density of the rotation rate signal and the cross-power spectral density of the FOG’s output signal and rotation rate signal. A theoretical simulation is done to confirm the validity of this method. An experiment system is built and the test results indicate that the measurement error of the normalized amplitude–frequency response is less than 0.01, that the error of the phase–frequency response is less than 0.3 rad, and the overall measurement accuracy is superior to the traditional frequency-sweep method. By using this method, the FOG’s amplitude–frequency response and phase–frequency response can be measured simultaneously, quickly, accurately, and with a high frequency resolution. The described method meets the requirements of engineering applications. (paper)
Staskin, David; Herschorn, Sender; Fialkov, Jonathan; Tu, Le Mai; Walsh, Terry; Schermer, Carol R
2018-02-01
The objective of this study was to assess the tolerability and treatment preference in patients with overactive bladder (OAB) treated with mirabegron or tolterodine. This was a two-period, 8-week crossover, double-blind, phase IV study (PREFER; NCT02138747) in treatment-naive adults with OAB for 3 months or longer randomized to one of four treatment sequences in a 5:5:1:1 ratio (mirabegron/tolterodine, tolterodine/mirabegron, mirabegron/mirabegron, or tolterodine/tolterodine), separated by a washout period of 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was drug tolerability using the Medication Tolerability scale of the OAB Treatment Satisfaction (OAB-S) questionnaire at end of treatment (EoT). Period-by-treatment interactions were analyzed to determine any effect of drug order. Patient preference, change from baseline in OAB symptoms, and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were assessed. A total of 358 randomized patients completed the OAB-S Medication Tolerability scale questionnaire at one or more visits after the baseline evaluation. The mean (95% CI) OAB-S Medication Tolerability scores were significantly higher (better tolerability) for mirabegron (86.29 [83.50, 89.08]) than for tolterodine (83.40 [80.59, 86.20]; p = 0.004). The period-by-treatment interaction was not significant (p = 0.955). Improvements in OAB-S Medication Tolerability scores at EoT were more evident in women, patients aged ≥65 years, and in patients without baseline incontinence, and were greater with mirabegron than with tolterodine extended release. There were no significant differences in patient preference or improvements in OAB symptoms. Significant differences in favor of mirabegron were observed for anticholinergic TEAEs (20.4% vs. 27.4%; p = 0.042) and specifically for gastrointestinal disorders (14.7% vs. 22.5%; p = 0.015). Tolerability of mirabegron was significantly higher than that of tolterodine, and patient preference and improvements in OAB symptoms were comparable
Doerr, Timothy P.; Alves, Gelio; Yu, Yi-Kuo
2005-08-01
Typical combinatorial optimizations are NP-hard; however, for a particular class of cost functions the corresponding combinatorial optimizations can be solved in polynomial time using the transfer matrix technique or, equivalently, the dynamic programming approach. This suggests a way to efficiently find approximate solutions-find a transformation that makes the cost function as similar as possible to that of the solvable class. After keeping many high-ranking solutions using the approximate cost function, one may then re-assess these solutions with the full cost function to find the best approximate solution. Under this approach, it is important to be able to assess the quality of the solutions obtained, e.g., by finding the true ranking of the kth best approximate solution when all possible solutions are considered exhaustively. To tackle this statistical issue, we provide a systematic method starting with a scaling function generated from the finite number of high-ranking solutions followed by a convergent iterative mapping. This method, useful in a variant of the directed paths in random media problem proposed here, can also provide a statistical significance assessment for one of the most important proteomic tasks-peptide sequencing using tandem mass spectrometry data. For directed paths in random media, the scaling function depends on the particular realization of randomness; in the mass spectrometry case, the scaling function is spectrum-specific.
Jiancheng, Shi; Min, Luo; Chusheng, Huang
2017-08-01
The cooperative effect of random coupling strength and time-periodic coupling strengh on synchronization transitions in one-way coupled neural system has been investigated by mean field approach. Results show that cooperative coupling strength (CCS) plays an active role for the enhancement of synchronization transitions. There exist an optimal frequency of CCS which makes the system display the best CCS-induced synchronization transitions, a critical frequency of CCS which can not further affect the CCS-induced synchronization transitions, and a critical amplitude of CCS which can not occur the CCS-induced synchronization transitions. Meanwhile, noise intensity plays a negative role for the CCS-induced synchronization transitions. Furthermore, it is found that the novel CCS amplitude-induced synchronization transitions and CCS frequency-induced synchronization transitions are found.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feng Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper studies a single-period supply chain with a buy-back contract under a Stackelberg game model, in which the supplier (leader decides on the wholesale price, and the retailer (follower responds to determine the retail price and the order quantity. We analytically investigate the decentralized retailer’s optimal decision. Our results demonstrate that the retailer has a unique optimal simultaneous decision on the retail price and the order quantity, under a mild restriction on the demand distribution. Moreover, as it can be shown that the decentralized supply chain facing price-sensitive random demand cannot be coordinated with buy-back contract, we propose a scheme for the system to achieve Pareto-improvement. Theoretical analysis suggests that there exists a unique Pareto-equilibrium for the supply chain. In particular, when the Pareto-equilibrium is reached, the supply chain is coordinated. Numerical experiments confirm our results.
Bagherinia, Marzieh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Shafaie, Fahimeh Sehhatie
2017-10-01
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a training package on functional status and self-confidence of primiparous women in the postpartum period. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 136 primiparous women who were referred to health centers in Tabriz, Iran, for their second postpartum care (10-15 days after delivery). These women were randomly assigned to education (n= 68) and control (n = 68) groups. The education group was provided with a face-to-face training session, three phone sessions, and a booklet. The control group received the routine postpartum care on days 1-3, 10-15 and 42-60. Participants completed the functional status and maternal self-confidence questionnaires before the interventio n and eight weeks postpartum. Independent t, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for data analysis. No statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of sociodemographic characteristics, except for infant's gender (p > .05). At six weeks after the intervention and by adjusting for baseline scores and infant's sex, mean scores of functional status (adjusted mean difference: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-1.03, p education group than in the control group. This study showed that training women has a positive effect in increasing their self-confidence and improving their functional status.
A large-scale study of the random variability of a coding sequence: a study on the CFTR gene.
Modiano, Guido; Bombieri, Cristina; Ciminelli, Bianca Maria; Belpinati, Francesca; Giorgi, Silvia; Georges, Marie des; Scotet, Virginie; Pompei, Fiorenza; Ciccacci, Cinzia; Guittard, Caroline; Audrézet, Marie Pierre; Begnini, Angela; Toepfer, Michael; Macek, Milan; Ferec, Claude; Claustres, Mireille; Pignatti, Pier Franco
2005-02-01
Coding single nucleotide substitutions (cSNSs) have been studied on hundreds of genes using small samples (n(g) approximately 100-150 genes). In the present investigation, a large random European population sample (average n(g) approximately 1500) was studied for a single gene, the CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator). The nonsynonymous (NS) substitutions exhibited, in accordance with previous reports, a mean probability of being polymorphic (q > 0.005), much lower than that of the synonymous (S) substitutions, but they showed a similar rate of subpolymorphic (q < 0.005) variability. This indicates that, in autosomal genes that may have harmful recessive alleles (nonduplicated genes with important functions), genetic drift overwhelms selection in the subpolymorphic range of variability, making disadvantageous alleles behave as neutral. These results imply that the majority of the subpolymorphic nonsynonymous alleles of these genes are selectively negative or even pathogenic.
Pandis, Nikolaos; Fleming, Padhraig S; Kloukos, Dimitrios; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Katsaros, Christos; Eliades, Theodore
2013-08-01
The objective of this trial was to compare the survival rates of mandibular lingual retainers bonded with either chemically cured or light-cured adhesive after orthodontic treatment. Patients having undergone orthodontic treatment at a private orthodontic office were randomly allocated to fixed retainers placed with chemically cured composite or light-cured composite. Eligibility criteria included no active caries, restorations, or fractures on the mandibular anterior teeth, and adequate oral hygiene. The main outcome was any type of first-time lingual retainer breakage; pattern of failure (adapted adhesive remnant index scores) was a secondary outcome. Randomization was accomplished with random permuted blocks of 20 patients with allocation concealed in sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes. Blinding was applicable for outcome assessment only. Patients were reviewed at 1, 3, and 6 months and then every 6 months after placement of the retainer until completion of the study. Data were analyzed using survival analysis including Cox regression; sensitivity analysis was carried out after data imputation for subjects lost to follow-up. Two hundred twenty patients (median age, 16 years; interquartile range, 2; range, 12-47 years) were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either chemical or light curing. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups, the median follow-up period was 2.19 years (range, 0.003-3.64 years), and 16 patients were lost to follow-up. At a minimum follow-up of 2 years, 47 of 110 (42.7%) and 55 of 110 (50.0%) retainers had some type of failure with chemically cured and light-cured adhesive, respectively (log-rank test, P = 0.35). Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis, and the hazard ratio (HR) was 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-1.70; P = 0.47). There was weak evidence that age is a significant predictor for lingual retainer failures (HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-1.00; P = 0.08). Adhesive remnant index scoring was
Quality pseudo-random number generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasiuk, J.
1996-01-01
The pseudo-random number generator (RNG) was written to match needs of nuclear and high-energy physics computation which in some cases require very long and independent random number sequences. In this random number generator the repetition period is about 10 36 what should be sufficient for all computers in the world. In this article the test results of RNG correlation, speed and identity of computations for PC, Sun4 and VAX computer tests are presented
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farideh Vaziri
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Busy care providers focus on the serious complications of postpartum period. This issue causes the seemingly trivial complications, such as mother's pains, fatigue, and psychological status, to be less taken into account. The study aimed to determine the effect of lavender oil aroma in the early hours of postpartum period on maternal pains, fatigue, and mood in primiparous mothers. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 56 participants; 29 in intervention group and 27 in control group. The intervention group received lavender oil in three doses during the first 24 h after delivery. Sesame oil was used in the control group. Intensity of pain, fatigue, and distress level was measured by visual analog scale before and after the interventions. Besides, mood status was assessed through the positive and negative affect schedule. Results: The mean age of all the participants was 23.88 ± 3.88 years. After the first intervention and also in the tomorrow morning assessment, significant differences were found between the two groups regarding perineal pain (P = 0.004, P< 0.001, physical pain (P < 0.001, fatigue (P = 0.02, P< 0.001, and distress scores (P < 0.001. In addition, significant differences were found concerning the mean scores of positive (P < 0.001 and negative (P = 0.007, P< 0.001 moods between the two groups after the interventions. Repeated measures analyses showed that the two groups were significantly different over time in all the evaluated variables. Conclusions: Lavender oil aromatherapy starting in the first hours of postpartum period resulted in better physical and mood status compared to nonaromatic group.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fatih Mehmet Tok
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The genetic diversity and pathogenicity/virulence among 60 eggplant Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates collected from six different geographic regions of Turkey were analysed using mycelial compatibility groupings (MCGs, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and simple sequence repeat (SSR polymorphism. By MCG tests, the isolates were classified into 22 groups. Out of 22 MCGs, 36% were represented each by a single isolate. The isolates showed great variability for virulence regardless of MCG and geographic origin. Based on the results of RAPD and SSR analyses, 60 S. sclerotiorum isolates representing 22 MCGs were grouped in 2 and 3 distinct clusters, respectively. Analyses using RAPD and SSR markers illustrated that cluster groupings or genetic distance of S. sclerotiorum populations from eggplant were not distinctly relative to the MCG, geographical origin and virulence diversity. The patterns obtained revealed a high heterogeneity of genetic composition and suggested the occurrence of clonal and sexual reproduction of S. sclerotiorum on eggplant in the areas surveyed.
Zhong, Toni; Ojha, M; Bagher, Shaghayegh; Butler, Kate; Srinivas, Coimbatore; McCluskey, Stuart A; Clarke, Hance; O'Neill, Anne C; Novak, Christine B; Hofer, Stefan O P
2014-11-01
The analgesic efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block following abdominal tissue breast reconstruction has not been studied in a randomized controlled trial. The authors conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1:1 allocation, two-arm parallel group, superiority design, randomized controlled trial in patients undergoing microsurgical abdominally based breast reconstruction. Intraoperatively, epidural catheters were inserted under direct vision through the triangle of Petit on both sides of the abdomen into the transversus abdominis plane just before rectus fascial closure. Patients received either bupivacaine (study group) or saline (placebo group) through the catheters for 2 postoperative days. All patients received hydromorphone by means of a patient-controlled analgesic pump. The primary outcome was the difference in the parenteral opioid consumption on each postoperative day between the groups. The secondary outcome measures included the following: total in-hospital opioid; antinausea medication; pain, nausea, and sedation scores; Quality of Recovery Score; time to ambulation; and hospital stay duration. Between September of 2011 and June of 2013, 93 patients were enrolled: 49 received bupivacaine and 44 received saline. There were 11 postoperative complications (13 percent); none were related to the catheter. Primary outcomes were completed by 85 of 93 patients (91.3 percent); the mean parenteral morphine consumption was significantly reduced on postoperative day 1 in the bupivacaine group (20.7±20.1 mg) compared with 30.0±19.1 mg in the control group (p=0.02). There were no significant differences in secondary outcomes. Following abdominally based breast reconstruction, transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block is safe and significantly reduces morphine consumption in the early postoperative period. Therapeutic, II.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zijie Wang
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The overall effect of pamidronate on bone mass density (BMD in the early renal transplant period varies considerably among studies. The effects of pamidronate on graft function have not been determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL and Embase independently by two authors. Randomized controlled trials of pamidronate evaluating bone loss in the first year of renal transplantation were included. Methods reported in the "Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.0.2" were used to evaluate changes of lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, and serum creatinine, calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH levels. Fixed or random effect models were used as appropriate. RESULTS: Six randomized trials evaluating 281 patients were identified. One hundred forty-four were treated with pamidronate and 137 were control patients. Administration of pamidronate was associated with significant reduction of bone loss in the lumbar spine, compared to the control group (standardized mean difference (SMD = 24.62 [16.25, 32.99]. There was no difference between the pamidronate treated and control femoral neck BMD (SMD = 3.53 [-1.84, 8.90]. A significant increase in the serum creatinine level of the intervention group was seen, compared to the control group. The serum calcium and iPTH of the pamidronate and control groups were not different after 1 year (serum creatinine: SMD = -3.101 [-5.33, -0.89]; serum calcium: SMD = 2.18 [-0.8, 5.16]; serum iPTH: SMD = 0.06 [-0.19, 0.31]. Heterogeneity was low for serum calcium and iPTH and high for serum creatinine. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrated the beneficial clinical efficacy of pamidronate on BMD with no association with any alteration in graft function during the first year of renal transplantation. Significant heterogeneity precludes the conclusion of the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hutchisen Tammy
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. It is implicated in the development of a variety of chronic disease states and is associated with increased levels of inflammation and oxidative stress. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of Medifast's meal replacement program (MD on body weight, body composition, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among obese individuals following a period of weight loss and weight maintenance compared to a an isocaloric, food-based diet (FB. Methods This 40-week randomized, controlled clinical trial included 90 obese adults with a body mass index (BMI between 30 and 50 kg/m2, randomly assigned to one of two weight loss programs for 16 weeks and then followed for a 24-week period of weight maintenance. The dietary interventions consisted of Medifast's meal replacement program for weight loss and weight maintenance, or a self-selected, isocaloric, food-based meal plan. Results Weight loss at 16 weeks was significantly better in the Medifast group (MD versus the food-based group (FB (12.3% vs. 6.9%, and while significantly more weight was regained during weight maintenance on MD versus FB, overall greater weight loss was achieved on MD versus FB. Significantly more of the MD participants lost ≥ 5% of their initial weight at week 16 (93% vs. 55% and week 40 (62% vs. 30%. There was no difference in satiety observed between the two groups during the weight loss phase. Significant improvements in body composition were also observed in MD participants compared to FB at week 16 and week 40. At week 40, both groups experienced improvements in biochemical outcomes and other clinical indicators. Conclusions Our data suggest that the meal replacement diet plan evaluated was an effective strategy for producing robust initial weight loss and for achieving improvements in a number of health-related parameters during weight maintenance, including inflammation
Tanet, Antoine; Hubert-Barthelemy, Annik; Crespin, Graciela C; Bodeau, Nicolas; Cohen, David; Saint-Georges, Catherine
2016-01-01
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who also exhibit severe-to-moderate ranges of intellectual disability (ID) still face many challenges (i.e., less evidence-based trials, less inclusion in school with peers). We implemented a novel model called the "Developmental and Sequenced One-to-One Educational Intervention" (DS1-EI) in 5- to 9-year-old children with co-occurring ASD and ID. The treatment protocol was adapted for school implementation by designing it using an educational agenda. The intervention was based on intensity, regular assessments, updating objectives, encouraging spontaneous communication, promoting skills through play with peers, supporting positive behaviors, providing supervision, capitalizing on teachers' unique skills, and providing developmental and sequenced learning. Developmental learning implies that the focus of training is what is close to the developmental expectations given a child's development in a specific domain. Sequenced learning means that the teacher changes the learning activities every 10-15 min to maintain the child's attention in the context of an anticipated time agenda. We selected 11 French institutions in which we implemented the model in small classrooms. Each institution recruited participants per dyads matched by age, sex, and developmental quotient. Patients from each dyad were then randomized to a DS1-EI group or a Treatment as usual (TAU) group for 36 months. The primary variables - the Childhood Autism Rating scale (CARS) and the psychoeducational profile (PEP-3) - will be blindly assessed by independent raters at the 18-month and 36-month follow-up. We enrolled 75 participants: 38 were randomized to the DS1-EI and 37 to the TAU groups. At enrollment, we found no significant differences in participants' characteristics between groups. As expected, exposure to school was the only significant difference [9.4 (±4.1) h/week in the DS1-EI group vs. 3.4 (±4.5) h/week in the TAU group, Student's t
Order and correlations in genomic DNA sequences. The spectral approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lobzin, Vasilii V; Chechetkin, Vladimir R
2000-01-01
The structural analysis of genomic DNA sequences is discussed in the framework of the spectral approach, which is sufficiently universal due to the reciprocal correspondence and mutual complementarity of Fourier transform length scales. The spectral characteristics of random sequences of the same nucleotide composition possess the property of self-averaging for relatively short sequences of length M≥100-300. Comparison with the characteristics of random sequences determines the statistical significance of the structural features observed. Apart from traditional applications to the search for hidden periodicities, spectral methods are also efficient in studying mutual correlations in DNA sequences. By combining spectra for structure factors and correlation functions, not only integral correlations can be estimated but also their origin identified. Using the structural spectral entropy approach, the regularity of a sequence can be quantitatively assessed. A brief introduction to the problem is also presented and other major methods of DNA sequence analysis described. (reviews of topical problems)
Shang, D-W; Guo, W; Zhou, F-C; Wang, X-P; Li, A-N; Zhang, L; Li, W-B; Lu, W; Wang, C-Y
2013-11-01
To evaluate the bioequivalence of a new formulation of atomoxetine hydrochloride (CAS 82248-59-7) capsules (test) and an available branded capsules (reference) after administration of a single 40 mg dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted in 22 healthy male Chinese subjects with a 1-week wash-out period. This study was designed for/the Honglin Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd and contracted to be done by the Beijing Anding Hospital in order to satisfy Chinese regulatory requirements to allow marketing of this generic product and performed according to the criteria of SFDA. Blood samples were collected before and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 16 and 24 h after drug administration. Plasma concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. A non-compartmental method was used to calculate the pharmacokinetic parameters and evaluate bioequivalence of the 2 formulations. The 90% confidence interval (CI) of the ratios (test/reference) of atomoxetine for AUC0-24, AUC0-∞ and Cmax were 100.9% (93.6-108.8%), 103.1% (95.1-111.7%) and 105.2% (92.8-119.4%), respectively, which fell within the interval of 80-125% and 75-133%. No clinically significant changes or abnormalities were noted in laboratory data and vital signs. From these results it can be concluded that the test formulation of atomoxetine capsules met the regulatory criterion for bioequivalence to the reference formulation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eunice Kazue Kano
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Average bioequivalence of two 500 mg levofloxacin formulations available in Brazil, Tavanic(c (Sanofi-Aventis Farmacêutica Ltda, Brazil, reference product and Levaquin(c (Janssen-Cilag Farmacêutica Ltda, Brazil, test product was evaluated by means of a randomized, open-label, 2-way crossover study performed in 26 healthy Brazilian volunteers under fasting conditions. A single dose of 500 mg levofloxacin tablets was orally administered, and blood samples were collected over a period of 48 hours. Levofloxacin plasmatic concentrations were determined using a validated HPLC method. Pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax, Kel, T1/2el, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. Bioequivalence was determined by calculating 90% confidence intervals (90% CI for the ratio of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf values for test and reference products, using logarithmic transformed data. Tolerability was assessed by monitoring vital signs and laboratory analysis results, by subject interviews and by spontaneous report of adverse events. 90% CIs for Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf were 92.1% - 108.2%, 90.7% - 98.0%, and 94.8% - 100.0%, respectively. Observed adverse events were nausea and headache. It was concluded that Tavanic(c and Levaquin(c are bioequivalent, since 90% CIs are within the 80% - 125% interval proposed by regulatory agencies.
Hou, Qingzhen; De Geest, Paul F.G.; Vranken, Wim F.; Heringa, Jaap; Feenstra, K. Anton
2017-01-01
Motivation: Genome sequencing is producing an ever-increasing amount of associated protein sequences. Few of these sequences have experimentally validated annotations, however, and computational predictions are becoming increasingly successful in producing such annotations. One key challenge remains
A measurement of disorder in binary sequences
Gong, Longyan; Wang, Haihong; Cheng, Weiwen; Zhao, Shengmei
2015-03-01
We propose a complex quantity, AL, to characterize the degree of disorder of L-length binary symbolic sequences. As examples, we respectively apply it to typical random and deterministic sequences. One kind of random sequences is generated from a periodic binary sequence and the other is generated from the logistic map. The deterministic sequences are the Fibonacci and Thue-Morse sequences. In these analyzed sequences, we find that the modulus of AL, denoted by |AL | , is a (statistically) equivalent quantity to the Boltzmann entropy, the metric entropy, the conditional block entropy and/or other quantities, so it is a useful quantitative measure of disorder. It can be as a fruitful index to discern which sequence is more disordered. Moreover, there is one and only one value of |AL | for the overall disorder characteristics. It needs extremely low computational costs. It can be easily experimentally realized. From all these mentioned, we believe that the proposed measure of disorder is a valuable complement to existing ones in symbolic sequences.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gur Yaari
Full Text Available The long lasting debate initiated by Gilovich, Vallone and Tversky in [Formula: see text] is revisited: does a "hot hand" phenomenon exist in sports? Hereby we come back to one of the cases analyzed by the original study, but with a much larger data set: all free throws taken during five regular seasons ([Formula: see text] of the National Basketball Association (NBA. Evidence supporting the existence of the "hot hand" phenomenon is provided. However, while statistical traces of this phenomenon are observed in the data, an open question still remains: are these non random patterns a result of "success breeds success" and "failure breeds failure" mechanisms or simply "better" and "worse" periods? Although free throws data is not adequate to answer this question in a definite way, we speculate based on it, that the latter is the dominant cause behind the appearance of the "hot hand" phenomenon in the data.
Yaari, Gur; Eisenmann, Shmuel
2011-01-01
The long lasting debate initiated by Gilovich, Vallone and Tversky in [Formula: see text] is revisited: does a "hot hand" phenomenon exist in sports? Hereby we come back to one of the cases analyzed by the original study, but with a much larger data set: all free throws taken during five regular seasons ([Formula: see text]) of the National Basketball Association (NBA). Evidence supporting the existence of the "hot hand" phenomenon is provided. However, while statistical traces of this phenomenon are observed in the data, an open question still remains: are these non random patterns a result of "success breeds success" and "failure breeds failure" mechanisms or simply "better" and "worse" periods? Although free throws data is not adequate to answer this question in a definite way, we speculate based on it, that the latter is the dominant cause behind the appearance of the "hot hand" phenomenon in the data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henderson, Calen B.; Stassun, Keivan G.
2012-01-01
We have conducted a long-term, wide-field, high-cadence photometric monitoring survey of ∼50,000 stars in the Lagoon Nebula H II region. This first paper presents rotation periods for 290 low-mass stars in NGC 6530, the young cluster illuminating the nebula, and for which we assemble a catalog of infrared and spectroscopic disk indicators, estimated masses and ages, and X-ray luminosities. The distribution of rotation periods we measure is broadly uniform for 0.5 days X /L bol ≈ –3.3). However, we find a significant positive correlation between L X /L bol and corotation radius, suggesting that the observed X-ray luminosities are regulated by centrifugal stripping of the stellar coronae. The period-mass relationship in NGC 6530 is broadly similar to that of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC), but the slope of the relationship among the slowest rotators differs from that in the ONC and other young clusters. We show that the slope of the period-mass relationship for the slowest rotators can be used as a proxy for the age of a young cluster, and we argue that NGC 6530 may be slightly younger than the ONC, making it a particularly important touchstone for models of angular momentum evolution in young, low-mass stars.
Janssen, Anke M; Kremer, Stefanie; van Stipriaan, Willeke L; Noort, Martijn W J; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Temme, Elisabeth H M
2015-10-01
Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of consuming reduced-sodium lunches on 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. A single-blind randomized controlled pretest-posttest design with two parallel treatment groups was used. Participants chose foods in an experimental real-life canteen setting at the Restaurant of the Future in Wageningen, the Netherlands, from May 16 until July 1, 2011. After a run-in period with regular foods for both groups, the intervention group (n=36) consumed foods with 29% to 61% sodium reduction (some were partially flavor compensated). The control group (n=38) continued consuming regular foods. Outcomes for assessment of acceptance were the amount of foods consumed, energy and sodium intake, remembered food liking, and intensity of sensory aspects. Influence on daily dietary sodium intake was assessed by 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Between and within-subject comparisons were assessed by analysis of covariance. Energy intake and amount consumed of each food category per lunch remained similar for both groups. Compared with the control group, the intervention group's sodium intake per lunch was significantly reduced by -1,093 mg (adjusted difference) (95% CI -1,285 to -901), equivalent to 43 mmol sodium. Remembered food liking, taste intensity, and saltiness were scored similarly for almost all of the reduced-sodium foods compared with the regular foods. After consuming reduced-sodium lunches, compared with the control group, intervention participants' 24-hour urinary sodium excretion was significantly lower by -40 mEq (adjusted difference) (95% CI -63 to -16) than after consuming regular lunches, and this reflects a decreased daily sodium intake of 1 g. Comparing the two treatment groups, consumption of reduced
Chae, Dong Woo; Son, Mijeong; Kim, Yukyung; Son, Hankil; Jang, Seong Bok; Seo, Jeong Min; Nam, Su Youn; Park, Kyungsoo
2015-10-01
As hypertension and dyslipidemia are frequent comorbidities, antihypertensive drugs and lipid-lowering agents are often prescribed together for their treatment. Telmisartan and rosuvastatin are widely used together to treat hypertension and dyslipidemia. A combination formulation of these two drugs would improve patient compliance due to ease of dosing. The purpose of this study was to assess bioequivalence of single-dose administration of a newly-developed fixed-dose combination (FDC) tablet containing telmisartan/rosuvastatin 80/20 mg (test treatment) and coadministration of a telmisartan 80-mg tablet and a rosuvastatin 20-mg tablet (reference treatment) in healthy Korean male volunteers. This was a single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study enrolling healthy males aged 20 - 50 years with BMI between 18.5 and 25 kg/m2. Each subject received a single dose of the reference and test treatments with a 14-day washout period. Blood sampling was performed at prespecified intervals for up to 72 hours after dosing. Primary pharmacokinetic parameters were Cmax, AUClast, and AUC0-∞ of telmisartan, rosuvastatin, and N-desmethyl rosuvastatin. Bioequivalence was assessed by determining whether the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean ratios (test treatment/reference treatment) of these parameters were within the standard range of 80% to 125%. Adverse events were monitored via regular interviews with the subjects and by physical examinations. 60 subjects were enrolled and 55 completed the study. The 90% CIs of the geometric mean ratios of Cmax, AUClast, and AUC00-∞ were 0.9262-1.1498, 0.9294-1.0313, and 0.9312-1.0320 for telmisartan, 0.9041-1.0428, 0.9262-1.0085, and 0.9307-1.0094 for rosuvastatin, and 0.8718-1.0022, 0.8901-0.9904, and 0.8872-0.9767 for N-desmethyl rosuvastatin, respectively. There was no statistical difference in the incidence of adverse events (AEs) (all of which were mild or moderate) between the reference and test
McCullough, Jeffrey J; Klokkevold, Perry R
2017-10-01
Available literature suggests there is a transient drop in implant stability from approximately week 0 to week 3-4 as a result of peri-implant bone remodeling as it transitions from a primary, mechanical stability to a secondary, biological stability. Research investigating the influence of macro-thread design on this process is scant. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate the role of macro-thread design on implant stability in the early post-operative healing period using resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Seven patients, each missing at least two posterior teeth in the same arch, were included in the study. Three patients qualified for four implants resulting in a total of 10 matched pairs. All sites were healed (>6 months), non-grafted sites with sufficient bone to place implants. Each site in a matched pair was randomly assigned to receive either a control (Megagen EZ Plus Internal; EZ) or test (Megagen AnyRidge; AR) implant. The test implant incorporates a novel thread design with a wide thread depth and increased thread pitch. RFA was used to determine implant stability quotient (ISQ) values for each implant at the time of placement and weekly for the first 8 weeks. Implants consistently achieved a relatively high insertion torque (30-45 N/cm) and high initial ISQ value (79.8 ± 1.49). Baseline ISQ values for test (AR; 79.55 ± 1.61) and control (EZ; 80.05 ± 1.37) implants were similar. A general pattern of stability from baseline through all eight follow-up evaluations was observed for the test implants. A pattern of decreasing ISQ values was observed for the control implants across the early follow-up evaluations up to week four, where the value plateaued. There was a statistically significant main effect due to implant type (P implant type and time (P implants performed differently at certain time points. Within the limitations of this study, macro-thread design appears to play a role in implant stability in the early post
Shimada, Hitoshi; Nilsson, Catarina; Noda, Yoshinori; Kim, Hyosung; Lundström, Torbjörn; Yajima, Toshitaka
2017-09-01
Omega-3-carboxylic acids (OM3-CA) contain omega-3 free fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as carboxylic acids. Food intake is known to affect the bioavailability of ethyl ester fatty acid formulations. We conducted a phase I study to investigate the effects of the timing of OM3-CA administration relative to food intake on the pharmacokinetics of EPA and DHA. In this randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study, Japanese healthy male subjects were administered 4×1 g OM3-CA capsules with continued fasting, before a meal, or after a meal. All subjects fasted for ≥10 h prior to drug/meal administration. The primary objective was to examine the effect of meal timing on the pharmacokinetics of EPA and DHA after OM3-CA administration. The secondary objectives were to examine the safety and tolerability of OM3-CA. A total of 42 Japanese subjects was enrolled in the study. The baseline-adjusted maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 72 h for EPA, DHA, and EPA +DHA were lower in the fasting and before meal conditions than in the after meal condition. The maximum total EPA, total DHA, and total EPA+DHA concentrations were reached later when administered in fasting conditions than in fed conditions, indicating slower absorption in fasting conditions. Diarrhea was reported by five, six, and no subjects in the fasting, before meal, and after meal conditions, respectively. The timing of OM3-CA administration relative to food intake influences the systemic bioavailability of EPA and DHA in healthy Japanese male subjects. NCT02372344.
Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle
2015-10-15
This study's objective was to investigate healthy aging in older French adults 5 years after a period of daily nutritional-dose supplementation with antioxidant nutrients. The study was based on the double-blind, randomized trial, Supplementation with Antioxidant Vitamins and Minerals (SU.VI.MAX) Study (1994-2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 Follow-up Study (2007-2009). During 1994-2002, participants received a daily combination of vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 µg), and zinc (20 mg) or placebo. Healthy aging was assessed in 2007-2009 by using multiple criteria, including the absence of major chronic disease and good physical and cognitive functioning. Data from a subsample of the SU.VI.MAX 2 cohort, initially free of major chronic disease, with a mean age of 65.3 years in 2007-2009 (n = 3,966), were used to calculate relative risks. Supplementation was associated with a greater healthy aging probability among men (relative risk = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.29) but not among women (relative risk = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 1.11) or all participants (relative risk = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.16). Moreover, exploratory subgroup analyses indicated effect modification by initial serum concentrations of zinc and vitamin C. In conclusion, an adequate supply of antioxidant nutrients (equivalent to quantities provided by a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables) may have a beneficial role for healthy aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Borcherdt, R.D.
1986-01-01
A ten-station array of broad-band digital instrumentation (GEOS) was deployed by the U. S. Geological Survey with partial support provided by Electric Power Research Institute to record the aftershock sequence of the moderate (mb ~ 4.9) earthquake that occurred on January 31, 1986 (16:46:43 UTC) near Painesville, Ohio. The occurrence of the event has raised questions concerning possible contributory factors to the occurrence of the event and questions concerning the character of earthquake-induced high-frequency ground motions in the area. To aid in the timely resolution of the implications of some of these questions, this preliminary report provides copies of the ground motion time-histories and corresponding spectra for the six identified aftershocks and two events, thought to be quarry blasts, recorded as of February 10, 1986. Recording station locations and epicenter locations based on two preliminary estimates of local seismic velocity structure are provided.
Yokota, Shin-ichi; Konno, Mutsuko; Fujiwara, Shin-ichi; Toita, Nariaki; Takahashi, Michiko; Yamamoto, Soh; Ogasawara, Noriko; Shiraishi, Tsukasa
2015-10-01
The infection route of Helicobacter pylori has been recognized to be mainly intrafamilial, preferentially mother-to-child, especially in developed countries. To determine the transmission route, we examined whether multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was useful for analysis of intrafamilial infection. The possibility of intraspousal infection was also evaluated. Clonal relationships between strains derived from 35 index Japanese pediatric patients, and their family members were analyzed by two genetic typing procedures, MLST and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting. Mostly coincident results were obtained by MLST and RAPD. By MLST, the allele of loci in the isolates mostly matched between the index child and both the father and mother for 9 (25.7%) of the 35 patients, between the index child and the mother for 25 (60.0%) of the 35 patients. MLST is useful for analyzing the infection route of H. pylori as a highly reproducible method. Intrafamilial, especially mother-to-children and sibling, infection is the dominant transmission route. Intraspousal infection is also thought to occur in about a quarter in the Japanese families. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lee, Ji Heui; Kim, Yunkwang; Lee, Kye Hyeok; Rim, Sung Kyu; Lee, Ji Yeon; Lee, Cheong
2015-06-01
The main aims of rapid sequence induction (RSI) are prompt and adequate muscle relaxation for tracheal intubation and hemodynamic stability during and after intubation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of nicardipine and esmolol on the action of rocuronium and intubation conditions during RSI. Adult patients (n = 82) were randomly allocated to one of three groups. One minute prior to the induction of sevoflurane-based general anesthesia, patients received 20 μg/kg of nicardipine (N group; n = 27) or 0.5 mg/kg of esmolol (E group; n = 27), or 5 ml of saline (C group; n = 28). Patients were assessed according to intubation conditions, the onset time of rocuronium, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) during RSI. The intubation conditions and score were significantly better in the C and N groups than in the E group (P rocuronium was shortened in the N group and prolonged in the E group when compared to the C group (P rocuronium and attenuated changes in MAP after intubation. Esmolol may disturb intubation conditions and the onset of action of rocuronium, despite being effective in alleviating responses of HR after RSI.
Custodio, E.; Jódar, J.; Herrera, C.; Custodio-Ayala, J.; Medina, A.
2018-01-01
The concentration of atmospheric tracers in groundwater samples collected from springs and deep wells is, in most cases, the result of a mixture of waters with a wide range of residence times in the ground. Such is the case of an unconfined aquifer recharged over all its surface area. Concentrations greatly differ from the homogeneous residence time case. Data interpretation relies on knowledge of the groundwater flow pattern. To study relatively large systems, the conservative ion chloride and the decaying radiocarbon (14C) are considered. Radiocarbon (14C) activity in groundwater, after correction to discount the non-biogenic contribution, is often taken as an indication of water age, while chloride can be used to quantify recharge. In both cases, the observed tracer content in groundwater is an average value over a wide range which is related to water renewal time in the ground. This is shown considering an unconfined aquifer recharged all over its area under arid conditions, in which a period of greater recharge happened some millennia ago. The mathematical solution is given. As the solution cannot be made general, to show and discuss the changes in water reserve and in chloride and radiocarbon concentration (apparent ages), two scenarios are worked out, which are loosely related to current conditions in Northern Chile. It is shown that tracer concentration and the estimated water age are not directly related to the time since recharge took place. The existence of a previous wetter-than-present period has an important and lasting effect on current aquifer water reserves and chloride concentration, although the effect on radiocarbon activity is less pronounced. Chloride concentrations are smaller than in current recharge and apparent 14C ages do not coincide with the timing, duration and characteristics of the wet period, except in the case in which recharge before and after the wet period is negligible and dead aquifer reserves are non-significant. The use of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ardeleanu, L.; Radulian, M.; Sileny, J.; Panza, G. F.
2002-01-01
High-frequency seismograms from the Romanian telemetered local network are inverted to retrieve the seismic moment tensor of five weak earthquakes (2.9 ≤ M L ≤ 3.6) belonging to the seismic sequence of Ramnicu Sarat (Romania) of 21-22 February 1983. A grossly simplified 1-D approximation of the crust - the horizontally layered inelastic earth model - is used to construct the Green's function by modal summation. The deviation from the real velocity structure originates the error in forward modelling, which is roughly estimated from the differences in the moment tensor rate functions obtained from subsets of the complete station network. This error is transformed into estimates of confidence regions of the time function, moment tensor and its principal axes, and error bars of the scalar moment. The 1-D approximation of the crust results in a large uncertainty of the source time function, which is almost completely undetermined. The mechanism is more confident, especially the determination of the orientation of its deviatoric part. The most robust source parameter from the three investigated items is the scalar moment. (authors)
Chu, Nannan; Xu, Hongrong; Wang, Guoqin; Wang, Jiangdian; Chen, Weili; Yuan, Fei; Yang, Mengjie; Li, Xuening
2015-02-01
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether there was clinically significant pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction between finasteride and tamsulosin in healthy Chinese male subjects. This was an open-label, randomized, 3-period, crossover study. Subjects received single and multiple doses of 5 mg finasteride alone, single and multiple doses of 0.2 mg tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained-release capsule alone, and single and multiple doses of 5 mg finasteride with 0.2 mg tamsulosin hydrochloride, in an order determined by a computerized randomization schedule. Blood samples were collected up to 48 hours after dosing on study day 1 and up to 24 hours after dosing on study day 9 for determination of plasma concentrations with a validated LC-MS/MS method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated via noncompartmental methods. Tolerability was evaluated by monitoring adverse events, laboratory assays, vital signs, and 12-lead ECG. Fifteen subjects were enrolled, and 14 completed the study. The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) (90% CIs) of AUC(τ,ss) and C(max,ss) values of finasteride at steady state between coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and finasteride alone were 1.14 (1.05-1.23) and 1.06 (0.99-1.14), respectively. The GMRs (90% CIs) for AUC(0-t) and C(max) values of finasteride for a single dose of coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and finasteride alone were 1.02 (0.94-1.11) and 1.06 (1.01-1.11), respectively. The GMRs (90% CIs) for AUC(τ,ss) and C(max,ss) values of tamsulosin at steady-state for coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and tamsulosin hydrochloride alone were 1.18 (1.05-1.33) and 1.23 (1.06-1.43), respectively. The GMRs (90% CIs) for AUC(0-t) and C(max) values of tamsulosin for a single dose of coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and tamsulosin hydrochloride alone were 1.04 (0.97-1.10) and 1.04 (0.98-1.11), respectively. Statistical analyses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mason, Jay W; Moon, Thomas E; O’Boyle, Erin; Dietz, Albert
2014-01-01
Regulatory concern about potential QT-interval prolongation by serotonin-receptor antagonist antiemetics prompted product-label changes. The first-generation serotonin-receptor antagonist granisetron is available in oral (PO), intravenous (IV), and transdermal formulations. APF530 is a formulation that provides sustained release of granisetron when administered as a single subcutaneous (SC) injection. The Phase I study reported here evaluated effects of APF530 on electrocardiographic intervals. This single-site, double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-period crossover trial randomized healthy men and women to receive varying sequences of APF530 1 g SC, granisetron 50 μg/kg IV, moxifloxacin 400 mg PO, and placebo. Subjects were assessed for 49 hours after each treatment. The primary objective was to evaluate differences between baseline-adjusted, heart rate-corrected QT-interval change using the Fridericia rate correction (dQTcF) for APF530 1 g SC and placebo. Electrocardiograms were performed at various times throughout the assessment period. Pharmacokinetics and safety were evaluated. The upper one-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) for mean baseline-adjusted dQTcF at each post-dose time point between APF530 and placebo excluded 10 ms, indicating that APF530 1 g SC had no clinically significant effect on QTcF. Maximum observed QTcF change was 4.15 ms (90% CI, 0.94 to 7.36) at Hour 3. No clinically significant changes in other electrocardiogram intervals were observed. APF530 SC pharmacokinetics were as expected, with slow absorption (maximum plasma concentration 35.8 ng/mL, median time to maximum plasma concentration 11.1 hours) and slow elimination (mean half-life 18.6 hours; systemic clearance 20.2 L/hour) of granisetron versus the expected early peak concentration and elimination of granisetron IV. APF530 SC was well tolerated. Adverse events, most commonly constipation and SC injection-site reactions, were generally mild and quickly resolved. APF530 1 g SC did
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mason JW
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Jay W Mason,1 Thomas E Moon,2 Erin O’Boyle,3 Albert Dietz41Department of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 2Tarizona eHealth Services, Inc., San Carlos, CA, 3AP Pharma, Redwood City, CA, 4Spaulding Clinical Research, West Bend, WI, USABackground: Regulatory concern about potential QT-interval prolongation by serotonin-receptor antagonist antiemetics prompted product-label changes. The first-generation serotonin-receptor antagonist granisetron is available in oral (PO, intravenous (IV, and transdermal formulations. APF530 is a formulation that provides sustained release of granisetron when administered as a single subcutaneous (SC injection. The Phase I study reported here evaluated effects of APF530 on electrocardiographic intervals.Methods: This single-site, double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-period crossover trial randomized healthy men and women to receive varying sequences of APF530 1 g SC, granisetron 50 μg/kg IV, moxifloxacin 400 mg PO, and placebo. Subjects were assessed for 49 hours after each treatment. The primary objective was to evaluate differences between baseline-adjusted, heart rate-corrected QT-interval change using the Fridericia rate correction (dQTcF for APF530 1 g SC and placebo. Electrocardiograms were performed at various times throughout the assessment period. Pharmacokinetics and safety were evaluated.Results: The upper one-sided 95% confidence interval (CI for mean baseline-adjusted dQTcF at each post-dose time point between APF530 and placebo excluded 10 ms, indicating that APF530 1 g SC had no clinically significant effect on QTcF. Maximum observed QTcF change was 4.15 ms (90% CI, 0.94 to 7.36 at Hour 3. No clinically significant changes in other electrocardiogram intervals were observed. APF530 SC pharmacokinetics were as expected, with slow absorption (maximum plasma concentration 35.8 ng/mL, median time to maximum plasma concentration 11.1 hours and slow elimination (mean half-life 18.6 hours
Morton, Kayce; Knight, Katelin; Kalman, Douglas; Hewlings, Susan
2018-04-16
Coffee is a primary dietary source of the chlorogenic acids (CGAs) of phenolic compounds. Coffee contains caffeine and other phytonutrients, including CGAs. Caffeine on its own has been well characterized and descried pharmacokinetically in the literature, less so for CGAs. The purpose of this double-blind crossover study was to determine the comparative pharmacokinetics of CGAs with caffeine (natural extract) with synthetic caffeine (US Pharmacopeia [USP] standard). Sixteen healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to take 1 dose of product 1, 60 mg of botanically sourced caffeine from 480 mg of green coffee bean extract, or product 2, 60 mg of synthetic USP caffeine, with 5 days between. Blood analysis was done to determine the levels of CGA compounds, more specifically 3-, 4-, and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), and serum caffeine. The natural caffeine extract exhibited mean peak concentrations (C max ) of 3-CQA (11.4 ng/mL), 4-CQA (6.84 ng/mL), and 5-CQA (7.20 ng/mL). The mean systemic 4-hour exposure (AUC 0-4 h ) was 3-CQA (27.3 ng·h/mL), 4-CQA (16.1 ng·h/mL), and 5-CQA (15.7 ng·h/mL). The median t max was 3-CQA (1.00 hour), 4-CQA (1.00 hour), and 5-CQA (1.50 hours). The t max of caffeine was 0.75 hours (natural extract) and 0.63 hours (synthetic caffeine). C max and AUC 0-4 h of serum caffeine were statistically equivalent between products. The geometric least-squares mean ratios (GMRs) of C max and AUC 0-4 h of caffeine were 97.77% (natural extract) and 98.33% (synthetic caffeine). It would appear that CGA compounds from the natural caffeine extract are bioavailable, and 3-CGA may be the compound most absorbed. In addition, caffeine sourced from natural extract versus synthetic were statistically similar for pharmacokinetic parameters. There were no adverse events or safety concerns. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vishal Koparde
Full Text Available Quantitative relationship between the magnitude of variation in minor histocompatibility antigens (mHA and graft versus host disease (GVHD pathophysiology in stem cell transplant (SCT donor-recipient pairs (DRP is not established. In order to elucidate this relationship, whole exome sequencing (WES was performed on 27 HLA matched related (MRD, & 50 unrelated donors (URD, to identify nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. An average 2,463 SNPs were identified in MRD, and 4,287 in URD DRP (p<0.01; resulting peptide antigens that may be presented on HLA class I molecules in each DRP were derived in silico (NetMHCpan ver2.0 and the tissue expression of proteins these were derived from determined (GTex. MRD DRP had an average 3,670 HLA-binding-alloreactive peptides, putative mHA (pmHA with an IC50 of <500 nM, and URD, had 5,386 (p<0.01. To simulate an alloreactive donor cytotoxic T cell response, the array of pmHA in each patient was considered as an operator matrix modifying a hypothetical cytotoxic T cell clonal vector matrix; each responding T cell clone's proliferation was determined by the logistic equation of growth, accounting for HLA binding affinity and tissue expression of each alloreactive peptide. The resulting simulated organ-specific alloreactive T cell clonal growth revealed marked variability, with the T cell count differences spanning orders of magnitude between different DRP. Despite an estimated, uniform set of constants used in the model for all DRP, and a heterogeneously treated group of patients, higher total and organ-specific T cell counts were associated with cumulative incidence of moderate to severe GVHD in recipients. In conclusion, exome wide sequence differences and the variable alloreactive peptide binding to HLA in each DRP yields a large range of possible alloreactive donor T cell responses. Our findings also help understand the apparent randomness observed in the development of alloimmune responses.
Lefèvre, Gilbert; Bhad, Prafulla; Jain, Jay Prakash; Kalluri, Sampath; Cheng, Yi; Dave, Hardik; Stein, Daniel S
2013-09-08
Artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem; AL) is a standard of care for malaria treatment as an oral six-dose regimen, given twice daily over three days with one to four tablets (20/120 mg) per dose, depending on patient body weight. In order to reduce the pill burden at each dose and potentially enhance compliance, two novel fixed-dose tablet formulations (80/480 mg and 60/360 mg) have been developed and tested in this study for bioequivalence with their respective number of standard tablets. A randomized, open-label, two-period, single-dose, within formulation crossover bioequivalence study comparing artemether and lumefantrine exposure between the novel 80/480 mg tablet and four standard tablets, and the novel 60/360 mg tablet and three standard tablets, was conducted in 120 healthy subjects under fed conditions. Artemether, dihydroartemisinin, and lumefantrine were measured in plasma by HPLC/UPLC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were determined by non-compartmental analyses. Adjusted geometric mean AUClast for artemether were 345 and 364 ng·h/mL (geometric mean ratio (GMR) 0.95; 90% CI 0.89-1.01) and for lumefantrine were 219 and 218 μg·h/mL (GMR 1.00; 90% CI 0.93-1.08) for 80/480 mg tablet versus four standard tablets, respectively. Corresponding Cmax for artemether were 96.8 and 99.7 ng/mL (GMR 0.97; 90% CI 0.89-1.06) and for lumefantrine were 8.42 and 8.71 μg/mL (GMR 0.97; 90% CI 0.89-1.05). For the 60/360 mg tablet versus three standard tablets, adjusted geometric mean AUClast for artemether were 235 and 231 ng·h/mL (GMR 1.02; 90% CI 0.94-1.10), and for lumefantrine were 160 and 180 μg·h/mL (GMR 0.89; 90% CI 0.83-0.96), respectively. Corresponding Cmax for artemether were 75.5 and 71.5 ng/mL (GMR 1.06; 90% CI 0.95-1.18), and for lumefantrine were 6.64 and 7.61 μg/mL (GMR 0.87; 90% CI 0.81-0.94), respectively. GMR for Cmax and AUClast for artemether and lumefantrine for all primary comparisons were within the bioequivalence acceptance criteria (0
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Ya'nan; Jin Dapeng; Zhao Dixin; Liu Zhen'an; Qiao Qiao; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing
2007-01-01
Due to the randomness of radioactive decay and nuclear reaction, the signals from detectors are random in time. But normal pulse generator generates periodical pulses. To measure the performances of nuclear electronic devices under random inputs, a random generator is necessary. Types of random pulse generator are reviewed, 2 digital random pulse generators are introduced. (authors)
Atalay, Altay; Koc, Ayse Nedret; Suel, Ahmet; Sav, Hafize; Demir, Gonca; Elmali, Ferhan; Cakir, Nuri; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba
2016-09-01
Aspergillus species cause a wide range of diseases in humans, including allergies, localized infections, or fatal disseminated diseases. Rapid detection and identification of Aspergillus spp. facilitate effective patient management. In the current study we compared conventional morphological methods with PCR sequencing, rep-PCR, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for the identification of Aspergillus strains. A total of 24 consecutive clinical isolates of Aspergillus were collected during 2012-2014. Conventional morphology and rep-PCR were performed in our Mycology Laboratory. The identification, evaluation, and reporting of strains using MALDI-TOF-MS were performed by BioMérieux Diagnostic, Inc. in Istanbul. DNA sequence analysis of the clinical isolates was performed by the BMLabosis laboratory in Ankara. Samples consisted of 18 (75%) lower respiratory tract specimens, 3 otomycosis (12.5%) ear tissues, 1 sample from keratitis, and 1 sample from a cutaneous wound. According to DNA sequence analysis, 12 (50%) specimens were identified as A. fumigatus, 8 (33.3%) as A. flavus, 3 (12.5%) as A. niger, and 1 (4.2%) as A. terreus. Statistically, there was good agreement between the conventional morphology and rep-PCR and MALDI-TOF methods; kappa values were κ = 0.869, 0.871, and 0.916, respectively (P < 0.001). The good level of agreement between the methods included in the present study and sequence method could be due to the identification of Aspergillus strains that were commonly encountered. Therefore, it was concluded that studies conducted with a higher number of isolates, which include other Aspergillus strains, are required. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yucemen, S.
1991-02-01
The general theory of stationary random functions is utilized to assess the seismic hazard associated with a linearly extending seismic source. The past earthquake occurrence data associated with a portion of the North Anatolian fault are used to demonstrate the implementation of the proposed model. 18 refs, figs and tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yucemen, S [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Statistics
1991-02-01
The general theory of stationary random functions is utilized to assess the seismic hazard associated with a linearly extending seismic source. The past earthquake occurrence data associated with a portion of the North Anatolian fault are used to demonstrate the implementation of the proposed model. 18 refs, figs and tabs.
Pandis, N.; Fleming, P.S.; Kloukos, D.; Polychronopoulou, A.; Katsaros, C.; Eliades, T.
2013-01-01
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this trial was to compare the survival rates of mandibular lingual retainers bonded with either chemically cured or light-cured adhesive after orthodontic treatment. METHODS: Patients having undergone orthodontic treatment at a private orthodontic office were randomly
Network clustering coefficient approach to DNA sequence analysis
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Gerhardt, Guenther J.L. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul-Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350/sala 2040/90035-003 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica e Quimica da Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Rua Francisco Getulio Vargas 1130, 95001-970 Caxias do Sul (Brazil); Lemke, Ney [Programa Interdisciplinar em Computacao Aplicada, Unisinos, Av. Unisinos, 950, 93022-000 Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil); Corso, Gilberto [Departamento de Biofisica e Farmacologia, Centro de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario, 59072 970 Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: corso@dfte.ufrn.br
2006-05-15
In this work we propose an alternative DNA sequence analysis tool based on graph theoretical concepts. The methodology investigates the path topology of an organism genome through a triplet network. In this network, triplets in DNA sequence are vertices and two vertices are connected if they occur juxtaposed on the genome. We characterize this network topology by measuring the clustering coefficient. We test our methodology against two main bias: the guanine-cytosine (GC) content and 3-bp (base pairs) periodicity of DNA sequence. We perform the test constructing random networks with variable GC content and imposed 3-bp periodicity. A test group of some organisms is constructed and we investigate the methodology in the light of the constructed random networks. We conclude that the clustering coefficient is a valuable tool since it gives information that is not trivially contained in 3-bp periodicity neither in the variable GC content.
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Wangchao Lou
Full Text Available Developing an efficient method for determination of the DNA-binding proteins, due to their vital roles in gene regulation, is becoming highly desired since it would be invaluable to advance our understanding of protein functions. In this study, we proposed a new method for the prediction of the DNA-binding proteins, by performing the feature rank using random forest and the wrapper-based feature selection using forward best-first search strategy. The features comprise information from primary sequence, predicted secondary structure, predicted relative solvent accessibility, and position specific scoring matrix. The proposed method, called DBPPred, used Gaussian naïve Bayes as the underlying classifier since it outperformed five other classifiers, including decision tree, logistic regression, k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine with polynomial kernel, and support vector machine with radial basis function. As a result, the proposed DBPPred yields the highest average accuracy of 0.791 and average MCC of 0.583 according to the five-fold cross validation with ten runs on the training benchmark dataset PDB594. Subsequently, blind tests on the independent dataset PDB186 by the proposed model trained on the entire PDB594 dataset and by other five existing methods (including iDNA-Prot, DNA-Prot, DNAbinder, DNABIND and DBD-Threader were performed, resulting in that the proposed DBPPred yielded the highest accuracy of 0.769, MCC of 0.538, and AUC of 0.790. The independent tests performed by the proposed DBPPred on completely a large non-DNA binding protein dataset and two RNA binding protein datasets also showed improved or comparable quality when compared with the relevant prediction methods. Moreover, we observed that majority of the selected features by the proposed method are statistically significantly different between the mean feature values of the DNA-binding and the non DNA-binding proteins. All of the experimental results indicate that
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Recht, A; Come, SE; Silver, B; Gelman, RS; Hayes, DF; Shulman, LN; Henderson, IC; Harris, JR
1995-07-01
Purpose: To determine the effects of different sequences of CT and RT following CS for pts with clinical Stage I or II breast carcinoma. Methods and Materials: From 6/84-12/92, 244 pts were randomized following CS to receive CT (4 cycles of CAMFP at 3-wk intervals) either before or after RT. Median pt age was 45 yrs (range, 20-68). 164 pts were pre-, 18 pts peri-, and 62 pts were postmenopausal. 209 pts were node-positive (61 had 4 or more positive nodes); after 6/88, 35 selected node-negative pts were also included. 45 Gy was prescribed to the entire breast, followed by a boost of 16 Gy; nodal RT was optional. The medians ( and ranges) of the surgery-radiotherapy interval (SRI) according to assigned arm were: RT-first, 36 days (14-234); CT-first, 126 days (98-185). Drug doses were based on ideal body weight. Doses (per square meter) and schedule were: methotrexate, 200 mg, d.1 and 15; leucovorin, 10 mg, q6H x 12, start d.2 and 16; 5-fluorouracil, 500 mg, d.1; cyclophosphamide, 500 mg, d.1; prednisone, 40 mg/day x 5d, start d.1; and doxorubicin, 45 mg, d.3. All except leucovorin and prednisone were given by IV bolus. Dose reductions were based on the granulocyte nadir from the previous cycle, with an attempt to reescalate doses in subsequent cycles. Tamoxifen 10 mg BID was prescribed to postmenopausal pts with ER+ tumors following both RT and CT. 4 pts were ineligible due to prior malignancies, 2 pts on the RT-first arm refused their assigned sequence and received CT first, 2 pts on the RT-first arm and 1 pt on the CT-first arm refused to start or complete CT, 1 pt on the CT-arm underwent elective mastectomy prior to starting RT, and 1 pt on each arm received nonprotocol CT. Possible prognostic factors including age, menopausal status, ERP status, nodal status, and lymphatic vessel invasion were distributed nearly uniformly between the 2 arms. There was an excess of pts with EIC-positive tumors on the RT-first arm (25%) compared to the CT-first arm (11%) (p-bar=0
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recht, A; Come, SE; Silver, B; Gelman, RS; Hayes, DF; Shulman, LN; Henderson, IC; Harris, JR
1995-01-01
Purpose: To determine the effects of different sequences of CT and RT following CS for pts with clinical Stage I or II breast carcinoma. Methods and Materials: From 6/84-12/92, 244 pts were randomized following CS to receive CT (4 cycles of CAMFP at 3-wk intervals) either before or after RT. Median pt age was 45 yrs (range, 20-68). 164 pts were pre-, 18 pts peri-, and 62 pts were postmenopausal. 209 pts were node-positive (61 had 4 or more positive nodes); after 6/88, 35 selected node-negative pts were also included. 45 Gy was prescribed to the entire breast, followed by a boost of 16 Gy; nodal RT was optional. The medians ( and ranges) of the surgery-radiotherapy interval (SRI) according to assigned arm were: RT-first, 36 days (14-234); CT-first, 126 days (98-185). Drug doses were based on ideal body weight. Doses (per square meter) and schedule were: methotrexate, 200 mg, d.1 and 15; leucovorin, 10 mg, q6H x 12, start d.2 and 16; 5-fluorouracil, 500 mg, d.1; cyclophosphamide, 500 mg, d.1; prednisone, 40 mg/day x 5d, start d.1; and doxorubicin, 45 mg, d.3. All except leucovorin and prednisone were given by IV bolus. Dose reductions were based on the granulocyte nadir from the previous cycle, with an attempt to reescalate doses in subsequent cycles. Tamoxifen 10 mg BID was prescribed to postmenopausal pts with ER+ tumors following both RT and CT. 4 pts were ineligible due to prior malignancies, 2 pts on the RT-first arm refused their assigned sequence and received CT first, 2 pts on the RT-first arm and 1 pt on the CT-first arm refused to start or complete CT, 1 pt on the CT-arm underwent elective mastectomy prior to starting RT, and 1 pt on each arm received nonprotocol CT. Possible prognostic factors including age, menopausal status, ERP status, nodal status, and lymphatic vessel invasion were distributed nearly uniformly between the 2 arms. There was an excess of pts with EIC-positive tumors on the RT-first arm (25%) compared to the CT-first arm (11%) (p-bar=0
Kadowaki, Takashi; Kondo, Kazuoki; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Miyayama, Kyoko; Yokota, Shoko; Terata, Ryuji; Gouda, Maki
2017-09-01
To assess the efficacy and safety of teneligliptin as add-on to insulin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In a 16-week, double-blind period, 148 Japanese T2DM patients with inadequate glycemic control with insulin and diet/exercise therapies were randomized to placebo or teneligliptin 20 mg. In a subsequent 36-week, open-label period, all patients received teneligliptin once daily. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA1c at the end of the double-blind period. The difference between placebo and teneligliptin in change in HbA1c in the double-blind period (least squares mean ± SE) was -0.80% ± 0.11%; teneligliptin was superior (ANCOVA, P 1). The HbA1c-lowering effect of teneligliptin was maintained throughout the open-label period. The incidence of adverse events was 53.5% with placebo and 44.2% with teneligliptin in the double-blind period, 66.7% in the placebo/teneligliptin group in the open-label period, and 77.9% in the teneligliptin/teneligliptin group over both double-blind/open-label periods. The incidence of hypoglycemic symptoms was 11.1% in the placebo/teneligliptin group in the open-label period and 27.3% in the teneligliptin/teneligliptin group over both double-blind/open-label periods. Teneligliptin was effective and well tolerated in Japanese T2DM patients with inadequate glycemic control. NCT02081599.
Hong, Keun-Sik; Kwon, Sun U; Lee, Sang Hun; Lee, Ji Sung; Kim, Yong-Jae; Song, Tae-Jin; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Man-Seok; Kim, Eung-Gyu; Cha, Jae-Kwan; Sung, Sang Min; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Bang, Oh Young; Seo, Woo-Keun; Hwang, Yang-Ha; Ahn, Seong Hwan; Kang, Dong-Wha; Kang, Hyun Goo; Yu, Kyung-Ho
2017-10-01
In atrial fibrillation (AF)-related acute ischemic stroke, the optimal oral anticoagulation strategy remains unclear. To test whether rivaroxaban or warfarin sodium is safer and more effective for preventing early recurrent stroke in patients with AF-related acute ischemic stroke. A randomized, multicenter, open-label, blinded end point evaluation, comparative phase 2 trial was conducted from April 28, 2014, to December 7, 2015, at 14 academic medical centers in South Korea among patients with mild AF-related stroke within the previous 5 days who were deemed suitable for early anticoagulation. Analysis was performed on a modified intent-to-treat basis. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive rivaroxaban, 10 mg/d for 5 days followed by 15 or 20 mg/d, or warfarin with a target international normalized ratio of 2.0-3.0, for 4 weeks. The primary end point was the composite of new ischemic lesion or new intracranial hemorrhage seen on results of magnetic resonance imaging at 4 weeks. Primary analysis was performed in patients who received at least 1 dose of study medications and completed follow-up magnetic resonance imaging. Key secondary end points were individual components of the primary end point and hospitalization length. Of 195 patients randomized, 183 individuals (76 women and 107 men; mean [SD] age, 70.4 [10.4] years) completed magnetic resonance imaging follow-up and were included in the primary end point analysis. The rivaroxaban group (n = 95) and warfarin group (n = 88) showed no differences in the primary end point (47 [49.5%] vs 48 [54.5%]; relative risk, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.69-1.20; P = .49) or its individual components (new ischemic lesion: 28 [29.5%] vs 31 of 87 [35.6%]; relative risk, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.54-1.26; P = .38; new intracranial hemorrhage: 30 [31.6%] vs 25 of 87 [28.7%]; relative risk, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.70-1.71; P = .68). Each group had 1 clinical ischemic stroke, and all new intracranial hemorrhages were asymptomatic
Ghasemi Gojani, Marzieh; Kordi, Masoumeh; Asgharipour, Negar; Esmaeili, Habibollah
2018-04-01
The outcomes of fertility treatments are unpredictable, and levels of depressive symptoms increase in patients during the waiting period of the result of intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a positive reappraisal coping intervention (PRCI) and problem-solving skills training (PSS) on depression during the waiting period of the result of IUI Treatment. This randomized control clinical trial was done among 108 women undergoing IUI treatment. In the control group, the women received routine care. In the PRCI group, women attended two training sessions and were asked to complete coping thoughts cards and fill out daily monitoring forms during the waiting period. In the PSS group, PSS were taught over three sessions. The depression was measured by the beck depression inventory. On the 10 th th day of the IUI waiting period, there were significant differences between the control group (21.42 ± 11.42) and the PSS group (12.52 ± 8.05) and PRCI groups (13.14 ± 9.7) (P<0.001), but no significant difference between the PRCI group and the PSS group. According to the results of this randomized control trial there is no difference between a PRCI and PSS on depression during the waiting period of the result of IUI treatment. This suggests that both interventions can be used to help infertile women combat depression during the waiting period of the result of fertility treatments (Registration number: IRCT2016020926490N1). Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.
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Marzieh Ghasemi gojani, , ,
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Background The outcomes of fertility treatments are unpredictable, and levels of depressive symptoms increase in patients during the waiting period of the result of intrauterine insemination (IUI treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a positive reappraisal coping intervention (PRCI and problem-solving skills training (PSS on depression during the waiting period of the result of IUI Treatment. Materials and Methods This randomized control clinical trial was done among 108 women undergoing IUI treat- ment. In the control group, the women received routine care. In the PRCI group, women attended two training sessions and were asked to complete coping thoughts cards and fill out daily monitoring forms during the waiting period. In the PSS group, PSS were taught over three sessions. The depression was measured by the beck depression inventory. Results On the 10th day of the IUI waiting period, there were significant differences between the control group (21.42 ± 11.42 and the PSS group (12.52 ± 8.05 and PRCI groups (13.14 ± 9.7 (P<0.001, but no significant difference between the PRCI group and the PSS group. Conclusion According to the results of this randomized control trial there is no difference between a PRCI and PSS on depression during the waiting period of the result of IUI treatment. This suggests that both interventions can be used to help infertile women combat depression during the waiting period of the result of fertility treatments (Registration number: IRCT2016020926490N1.
Detection of M-Sequences from Spike Sequence in Neuronal Networks
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Yoshi Nishitani
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In circuit theory, it is well known that a linear feedback shift register (LFSR circuit generates pseudorandom bit sequences (PRBS, including an M-sequence with the maximum period of length. In this study, we tried to detect M-sequences known as a pseudorandom sequence generated by the LFSR circuit from time series patterns of stimulated action potentials. Stimulated action potentials were recorded from dissociated cultures of hippocampal neurons grown on a multielectrode array. We could find several M-sequences from a 3-stage LFSR circuit (M3. These results show the possibility of assembling LFSR circuits or its equivalent ones in a neuronal network. However, since the M3 pattern was composed of only four spike intervals, the possibility of an accidental detection was not zero. Then, we detected M-sequences from random spike sequences which were not generated from an LFSR circuit and compare the result with the number of M-sequences from the originally observed raster data. As a result, a significant difference was confirmed: a greater number of “0–1” reversed the 3-stage M-sequences occurred than would have accidentally be detected. This result suggests that some LFSR equivalent circuits are assembled in neuronal networks.
The MIXMAX random number generator
Savvidy, Konstantin G.
2015-11-01
In this paper, we study the randomness properties of unimodular matrix random number generators. Under well-known conditions, these discrete-time dynamical systems have the highly desirable K-mixing properties which guarantee high quality random numbers. It is found that some widely used random number generators have poor Kolmogorov entropy and consequently fail in empirical tests of randomness. These tests show that the lowest acceptable value of the Kolmogorov entropy is around 50. Next, we provide a solution to the problem of determining the maximal period of unimodular matrix generators of pseudo-random numbers. We formulate the necessary and sufficient condition to attain the maximum period and present a family of specific generators in the MIXMAX family with superior performance and excellent statistical properties. Finally, we construct three efficient algorithms for operations with the MIXMAX matrix which is a multi-dimensional generalization of the famous cat-map. First, allowing to compute the multiplication by the MIXMAX matrix with O(N) operations. Second, to recursively compute its characteristic polynomial with O(N2) operations, and third, to apply skips of large number of steps S to the sequence in O(N2 log(S)) operations.
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H.A. El Maghraby
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Objective: To compare metformin and combined oral contraceptive pill (COC effects over 24 months in adolescent PCOS. Design: Randomized controlled study. Setting: Alexandria ICSI centre. Patients: 117 adolescent girls with PCOS, were randomized to: group A (n = 40: metformin, group B (n = 40: COC, and group C (n = 39: control. Interventions: Group A: received metformin, group B: received combined oral contraceptives. Main outcome measures: Improvement in cycle rhythm and hirsutism. Results: In group B a significant decline in serum testosterone reached the lowest value by the end of the second year (0.7 ± 0.2 versus 1.3 ± 0.5 μg/ml. By the end of the study, group A showed a significant decline in fasting (18.6 ± 3.0–10.0 ± 3.0 μIU/ml and after-load insulin levels (126 ± 43–64 ± 15 μIU/ml with a significant rise in glucose/insulin ratio (GIR from 4.1 ± 0.3 to 4.6 ± 0.5. Group B showed a significant rise in fasting and after-load insulin (from 15.0 ± 3.0 μIU/ml and 103.0 ± 91.0 μIU/ml to 19.0 ± 4.0 and 187.0 ± 22.0 μIU/ml, respectively and GIR dropped significantly from 4.4 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.3. Metformin was associated with a significant loss of weight from 87.0 ± 6.0 to 72.0 ± 0.5 kg while COC was associated with a non-significant gain in weight (from 84.0 ± 6.0 to 91.0 ± 9.0 kg. Conclusions: Metformin and COC have comparable therapeutic effectiveness on cycle regularity and hirsutism. Metformin was associated with a significant improvement in metabolic syndrome, while COC was associated with a deterioration of metabolic syndrome.
Random matrices and random difference equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uppuluri, V.R.R.
1975-01-01
Mathematical models leading to products of random matrices and random difference equations are discussed. A one-compartment model with random behavior is introduced, and it is shown how the average concentration in the discrete time model converges to the exponential function. This is of relevance to understanding how radioactivity gets trapped in bone structure in blood--bone systems. The ideas are then generalized to two-compartment models and mammillary systems, where products of random matrices appear in a natural way. The appearance of products of random matrices in applications in demography and control theory is considered. Then random sequences motivated from the following problems are studied: constant pulsing and random decay models, random pulsing and constant decay models, and random pulsing and random decay models
Tsutsumi, Rie; Kakuta, Nami; Kadota, Takako; Oyama, Takuro; Kume, Katsuyoshi; Hamaguchi, Eisuke; Niki, Noriko; Tanaka, Katsuya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo M
2016-10-01
Enhanced recovery after surgery is increasingly desired nowadays, and preoperative nutrient intake may be beneficial for this purpose. In this study, we investigated whether the intake of preoperative carbohydrate with amino acid (ONS) solution can improve starvation status and lipid catabolism before the induction of anesthesia. This randomized, prospective clinical trial included 24 patients who were divided into two groups before surgery under general anesthesia: a control group, comprising patients who fasted after their last meal the day before surgery (permitted to drink only water), and an ONS group, comprising patients who consumed ONS solution 2 h before surgery. Biochemical markers, the respiratory quotient, and psychosomatic scores were assessed at the initiation of anesthesia. Compared with the control group, the ONS group showed significantly lower serum free fatty acid levels [control group: 828 (729, 1004) µEq/L, ONS group: 479 (408, 610) µEq/L, P = 0.0002, median (25th, 75th percentile)] and total ketone bodies [control group: 119 (68, 440) µmol/L, ONS group: 40 [27, 64] µmol/L, P = 0.037]. In addition, analysis using the Visual Analog Scale showed higher preoperative scores for anxiety, hunger, and thirst for the control group, with no differences in any other measure of subjective well-being between groups. The results of this study suggest that preoperative ONS intake improves lipid catabolism and starvation status before the induction of anesthesia. Furthermore, it can provide better preoperative mental health compared with complete fasting.
Murphy, Glenn S; Szokol, Joseph W; Avram, Michael J; Greenberg, Steven B; Shear, Torin; Vender, Jeffery S; Gray, Jayla; Landry, Elizabeth
2014-06-01
The effect of single low-dose dexamethasone therapy on perioperative blood glucose concentrations has not been well characterized. In this investigation, we examined the effect of 2 commonly used doses of dexamethasone (4 and 8 mg at induction of anesthesia) on blood glucose concentrations during the first 24 hours after administration. Two hundred women patients were randomized to 1 of 6 groups: Early-control (saline); Early-4 mg (4 mg dexamethasone); Early-8 mg (8 mg dexamethasone); Late-control (saline); Late-4 mg (4 mg dexamethasone); and Late-8 mg (8 mg dexamethasone). Blood glucose concentrations were measured at baseline and 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after administration in the early groups and at baseline and 8 and 24 hours after administration in the late groups. The incidence of hyperglycemic events (the number of patients with at least 1 blood glucose concentration >180 mg/dL) was determined. Blood glucose concentrations increased significantly over time in all control and dexamethasone groups (from median baselines of 94 to 102 mg/dL to maximum medians ranging from 141 to 161.5 mg/dL, all P < 0.001). Blood glucose concentrations did not differ significantly between the groups receiving dexamethasone (either 4 or 8 mg) and those receiving saline at any measurement time. The incidence of hyperglycemic events did not differ in any of the early (21%-28%, P = 0.807) or late (13%-24%, P = 0.552) groups. Because blood glucose concentrations during the first 24 hours after administration of single low-dose dexamethasone did not differ from those observed after saline administrations, these results suggest clinicians need not avoid using dexamethasone for nausea and vomiting prophylaxis out of concerns related to hyperglycemia.
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Huijuan Cao
Full Text Available About 85.3% of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN is caused by maternal-fetal ABO blood group incompatibility. However, there is currently no recommended "best" therapy for ABO incompatibility during pregnancy.To systematically assess the safety and effectiveness of oral Chinese herbal medicine (CHM for preventing HDN due to ABO incompatibility.The protocol of this review was registered on the PROSPERO website (No. CRD42016038637.Six databases were searched from inception to April 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs of CHM for maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility were included. The primary outcome was incidence of HDN. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Risk ratios (RR and mean differences with 95% confidence interval were used as effect measures. Meta-analyses using Revman 5.3 software were conducted if there were sufficient trials without obvious clinical or statistical heterogeneity available.Totally 28 RCTs involving3413 women were included in the review. The majority of the trials had unclear or high risk of bias. Our study found that the rate of HDN and the incidence of neonatal jaundice might be 70% lower in the herbal medicine group compared with the usual care group (RR from 0.25 to 0.30.After treatment with herbal medicine, women were twice as likely to have antibody titers lower than 1:64 compared with women who received usual care(RR from 2.15 to 3.14 and the umbilical cord blood bilirubin level in the herbal medicine group was 4umol/L lower than in those receiving usual care. There was no difference in Apgar scores or birthweights between the two groups.This review found very low-quality evidence that CHM prevented HDN caused by maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility. No firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness or safety of CHM for this condition.
Cao, Huijuan; Wu, Ruohan; Han, Mei; Caldwell, Patrina Ha Yuen; Liu, Jian-Ping
2017-01-01
About 85.3% of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is caused by maternal-fetal ABO blood group incompatibility. However, there is currently no recommended "best" therapy for ABO incompatibility during pregnancy. To systematically assess the safety and effectiveness of oral Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for preventing HDN due to ABO incompatibility. The protocol of this review was registered on the PROSPERO website (No. CRD42016038637).Six databases were searched from inception to April 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHM for maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility were included. The primary outcome was incidence of HDN. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Risk ratios (RR) and mean differences with 95% confidence interval were used as effect measures. Meta-analyses using Revman 5.3 software were conducted if there were sufficient trials without obvious clinical or statistical heterogeneity available. Totally 28 RCTs involving3413 women were included in the review. The majority of the trials had unclear or high risk of bias. Our study found that the rate of HDN and the incidence of neonatal jaundice might be 70% lower in the herbal medicine group compared with the usual care group (RR from 0.25 to 0.30).After treatment with herbal medicine, women were twice as likely to have antibody titers lower than 1:64 compared with women who received usual care(RR from 2.15 to 3.14) and the umbilical cord blood bilirubin level in the herbal medicine group was 4umol/L lower than in those receiving usual care. There was no difference in Apgar scores or birthweights between the two groups. This review found very low-quality evidence that CHM prevented HDN caused by maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility. No firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness or safety of CHM for this condition.
Frequency response testing at Experimental Breeder Reactor II using discrete-level periodic signals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rhodes, W.D.; Larson, H.A.
1990-01-01
The Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 (EBR-2) reactivity-to-power frequency-response function was measured with pseudo-random, discrete-level, periodic signals. The reactor power deviation was small with insignificant perturbation of normal operation and in-place irradiation experiments. Comparison of results with measured rod oscillator data and with theoretical predictions show good agreement. Moreover, measures of input signal quality (autocorrelation function and energy spectra) confirm the ability to enable this type of frequency response determination at EBR-2. Measurements were made with the pseudo-random binary sequence, quadratic residue binary sequence, pseudo-random ternary sequence, and the multifrequency binary sequence. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs
Liu, Yun; Zhang, Meng-qi; Jia, Jing-ying; Liu, Yan-mei; Liu, Gang-yi; Li, Shui-jun; Wang, Wei; Weng, Li-ping; Yu, Chen
2013-03-01
Risperidone is a benzisoxazole derivate and is effective in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses in adults and children. Although there are a few reports in the literature regarding the pharmacokinetic characteristics of risperidone, insufficient data on its pharmacokinetic properties in a Chinese population are available. To meet the requirements for marketing a new generic product, this study was designed to compare the pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of two 2 mg tablet formulations of risperidone: a newly developed generic formulation (test) and a branded formulation (reference) in healthy adult male Chinese volunteers. A single-dose, open-label, randomized-sequence, 2 × 2 crossover study was conducted in fasted healthy male Chinese volunteers. Eligible participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive 1 tablet (2 mg each) of the test formulation (Risperidone tablet; Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd., Hyderabad, India) or the reference formulation (Risperdal(®) tablet; Xian-Janssen Pharmaceutical Ltd., Xi-an, China), followed by a 2-week washout period and subsequent administration of the alternate formulation. The study drugs were administered after a 10-hour overnight fast. Plasma samples were collected over 96 hours. Plasma concentrations of the parent drug, risperidone, and its active metabolite, 9-hydroxy-risperidone, were analyzed by a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The formulations would be considered bioequivalent if the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of the natural log-transformed values were within the predetermined 80-125% equivalence range for the maximum plasma drug concentration (Cmax) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), in accordance with guidelines issued by the US Food and Drug Administration. Assessment of tolerability was based on recording of adverse events (AEs), monitoring of vital signs, electrocardiograms, and laboratory tests at baseline
Note on Marsaglia\\'s Xorshift Random Number Generators
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Richard P. Brent
2004-08-01
Full Text Available Marsaglia (2003 has described a class of Xorshift random number generators (RNGs with periods 2n - 1 for n = 32, 64, etc. We show that the sequences generated by these RNGs are identical to the sequences generated by certain linear feedback shift register (LFSR generators using "exclusive or" (xor operations on n-bit words, with a recurrence defined by a primitive polynomial of degree n.
Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Chen, Meng-Chu; Lin, Yen-Sheng; Lu, Ming-Yen; Lin, Kuang-I.; Cheng, Yung-Chen
2017-11-01
The features of eight-period In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN quantum wells (QWs) with silicon (Si) doping in the first two to five quantum barriers (QBs) in the growth sequence of blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are explored. Epilayers of QWs' structures are grown on 20 pairs of In0.02Ga0.98N/GaN superlattice acting as strain relief layers (SRLs) on patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs) by a low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD) system. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra, current versus voltage ( I- V) curves, light output power versus injection current ( L- I) curves, and images of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) of epilayers are measured. The consequences show that QWs with four Si-doped QBs have larger carrier localization energy (41 meV), lower turn-on (3.27 V) and breakdown (- 6.77 V) voltages, and higher output power of light of blue LEDs at higher injection current than other samples. Low barrier height of QBs in a four-Si-doped QB sample results in soft confinement potential of QWs and lower turn-on and breakdown voltages of the diode. HRTEM images give the evidence that this sample has relatively diffusive interfaces of QWs. Uniform spread of carriers among eight QWs and superior localization of carriers in each well are responsible for the enhancement of light output power, in particular, for high injection current in the four-Si-doped QB sample. The results demonstrate that four QBs of eight In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN QWs with Si doping not only reduce the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) but also improve the distribution and localization of carriers in QWs for better optical performance of blue LEDs.
... ovary syndrome. Read our information on PCOS for teens , and see your doctor if you think you may have PCOS. Major weight loss. Girls who have anorexia will often stop having periods. When to see ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arcangeli, Giorgio; Pinnaro, Paola; Rambone, Rita; Giannarelli, Diana; Benassi, Marcello
2006-01-01
Purpose: To compare two different timings of radiation treatment in patients with breast cancer who underwent conservative surgery and were candidates to receive adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF) chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 206 patients who had quadrantectomy and axillary dissection for breast cancer and were planned to receive adjuvant CMF chemotherapy were randomized to concurrent or sequential radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was delivered only to the whole breast through tangential fields to a dose of 50 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks, followed by an electron boost of 10-15 Gy in 4-6 fractions to the tumor bed. Results: No differences in 5-year breast recurrence-free, metastasis-free, disease-free, and overall survival were observed in the two treatment groups. All patients completed the planned radiotherapy. No evidence of an increased risk of toxicity was observed between the two arms. No difference in radiotherapy and in the chemotherapy dose intensity was observed in the two groups. Conclusions: In patients with negative surgical margins receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy can be delayed to up to 7 months. Concurrent administration of CMF chemotherapy and radiotherapy is safe and might be reserved for patients at high risk of local recurrence, such as those with positive surgical margins or larger tumor diameters
Information decomposition method to analyze symbolical sequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korotkov, E.V.; Korotkova, M.A.; Kudryashov, N.A.
2003-01-01
The information decomposition (ID) method to analyze symbolical sequences is presented. This method allows us to reveal a latent periodicity of any symbolical sequence. The ID method is shown to have advantages in comparison with application of the Fourier transformation, the wavelet transform and the dynamic programming method to look for latent periodicity. Examples of the latent periods for poetic texts, DNA sequences and amino acids are presented. Possible origin of a latent periodicity for different symbolical sequences is discussed
Random and externally controlled occurrences of Dansgaard–Oeschger events
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Lohmann
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO events constitute the most pronounced mode of centennial to millennial climate variability of the last glacial period. Since their discovery, many decades of research have been devoted to understand the origin and nature of these rapid climate shifts. In recent years, a number of studies have appeared that report emergence of DO-type variability in fully coupled general circulation models via different mechanisms. These mechanisms result in the occurrence of DO events at varying degrees of regularity, ranging from periodic to random. When examining the full sequence of DO events as captured in the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP ice core record, one can observe high irregularity in the timing of individual events at any stage within the last glacial period. In addition to the prevailing irregularity, certain properties of the DO event sequence, such as the average event frequency or the relative distribution of cold versus warm periods, appear to be changing throughout the glacial. By using statistical hypothesis tests on simple event models, we investigate whether the observed event sequence may have been generated by stationary random processes or rather was strongly modulated by external factors. We find that the sequence of DO warming events is consistent with a stationary random process, whereas dividing the event sequence into warming and cooling events leads to inconsistency with two independent event processes. As we include external forcing, we find a particularly good fit to the observed DO sequence in a model where the average residence time in warm periods are controlled by global ice volume and cold periods by boreal summer insolation.
Random and externally controlled occurrences of Dansgaard-Oeschger events
Lohmann, Johannes; Ditlevsen, Peter D.
2018-05-01
Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events constitute the most pronounced mode of centennial to millennial climate variability of the last glacial period. Since their discovery, many decades of research have been devoted to understand the origin and nature of these rapid climate shifts. In recent years, a number of studies have appeared that report emergence of DO-type variability in fully coupled general circulation models via different mechanisms. These mechanisms result in the occurrence of DO events at varying degrees of regularity, ranging from periodic to random. When examining the full sequence of DO events as captured in the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) ice core record, one can observe high irregularity in the timing of individual events at any stage within the last glacial period. In addition to the prevailing irregularity, certain properties of the DO event sequence, such as the average event frequency or the relative distribution of cold versus warm periods, appear to be changing throughout the glacial. By using statistical hypothesis tests on simple event models, we investigate whether the observed event sequence may have been generated by stationary random processes or rather was strongly modulated by external factors. We find that the sequence of DO warming events is consistent with a stationary random process, whereas dividing the event sequence into warming and cooling events leads to inconsistency with two independent event processes. As we include external forcing, we find a particularly good fit to the observed DO sequence in a model where the average residence time in warm periods are controlled by global ice volume and cold periods by boreal summer insolation.
多重随机序列在算术编码中的应用%Application of Multiple Random Sequence in Arithmetic Coding
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周明; 冯民富
2012-01-01
Arithmetic coding, for its high compression ratio and moderate coding efficiency, plays an important role in the standard of image compression technology. This algorithm depends on only one argument： the occurrence probability of information source symbols. This probability determines the efficiency of compression, and the interval of information source symbols as well. However, the classical arithmetic coding considers no internal structure of the input sequence of information source symbols, but only the probability of single symbols. Finally to which special combinations the coding intervals should be allocated, and whether there exists an effective allocation algorithm, these are still problems to been considered and settled.%算术编码凭借其高效的压缩比以及适度的编码效率，在图像压缩技术标准（比如JPEG等）中有着重要的地位。该算法仅仅依赖于一个参数：信源符号出现的概率。该概率决定了压缩编码的效率，同时也决定了编码过程中信源符号的间隔。然而，经典的算术编码都没有考虑信源符号输入序列的内在结构，仅仅是考虑单个的符号。这些连续的输入组合中的某些组合若大量出现在信源符号中，就有必要考虑这些组合的出现概率了。而最终需要给哪些特定的组合分配编码区间，以及是否有行之有效的分配算法，都需要考虑。
Direct generation of all-optical random numbers from optical pulse amplitude chaos.
Li, Pu; Wang, Yun-Cai; Wang, An-Bang; Yang, Ling-Zhen; Zhang, Ming-Jiang; Zhang, Jian-Zhong
2012-02-13
We propose and theoretically demonstrate an all-optical method for directly generating all-optical random numbers from pulse amplitude chaos produced by a mode-locked fiber ring laser. Under an appropriate pump intensity, the mode-locked laser can experience a quasi-periodic route to chaos. Such a chaos consists of a stream of pulses with a fixed repetition frequency but random intensities. In this method, we do not require sampling procedure and external triggered clocks but directly quantize the chaotic pulses stream into random number sequence via an all-optical flip-flop. Moreover, our simulation results show that the pulse amplitude chaos has no periodicity and possesses a highly symmetric distribution of amplitude. Thus, in theory, the obtained random number sequence without post-processing has a high-quality randomness verified by industry-standard statistical tests.
ERP Indices of Stimulus Prediction in Letter Sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edith Kaan
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Given the current focus on anticipation in perception, action and cognition, including language processing, there is a need for a method to tap into predictive processing in situations in which cue and feedback stimuli are not explicitly marked as such. To this aim, event related potentials (ERPs were obtained while participants viewed alphabetic letter sequences (“A”, “B”, “C”, “D”, “E”, …, in which the letters were highly predictable, and random sequences (“S”, “B”, “A”, “I”, “F”, “M”, …, without feedback. Occasionally, the presentation of a letter in a sequence was delayed by 300 ms. During this delay period, an increased negativity was observed for predictive versus random sequences. In addition, the early positivity following the delay was larger for predictive compared with random sequences. These results suggest that expectation-sensitive ERP modulations can be elicited in anticipation of stimuli that are not explicit targets, rewards, feedback or instructions, and that a delay can strengthen the prediction for a particular stimulus. Applications to language processing will be discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Zhizhong; Zhang Chuanzeng; Wang Yuesheng
2011-01-01
The band structures of in-plane elastic waves propagating in two-dimensional phononic crystals with one-dimensional random disorder and aperiodicity are analyzed in this paper. The localization of wave propagation is discussed by introducing the concept of the localization factor, which is calculated by the plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method. By treating the random disorder and aperiodicity as the deviation from the periodicity in a special way, three kinds of aperiodic phononic crystals that have normally distributed random disorder, Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro sequence in one direction and translational symmetry in the other direction are considered and the band structures are characterized using localization factors. Besides, as a special case, we analyze the band gap properties of a periodic planar layered composite containing a periodic array of square inclusions. The transmission coefficients based on eigen-mode matching theory are also calculated and the results show the same behaviors as the localization factor does. In the case of random disorders, the localization degree of the normally distributed random disorder is larger than that of the uniformly distributed random disorder although the eigenstates are both localized no matter what types of random disorders, whereas, for the case of Thue-Morse and Rudin-Shapiro structures, the band structures of Thue-Morse sequence exhibit similarities with the quasi-periodic (Fibonacci) sequence not present in the results of the Rudin-Shapiro sequence.
Schmickler, Jan; Wurbs, Sabine; Wurbs, Susanne; Kramer, Katharina; Rinke, Sven; Hornecker, Else; Mausberg, Rainer F; Ziebolz, Dirk
2016-12-01
This randomized clinical trial investigated the influence of the utilization time of brush heads from different types of power toothbrushes [oscillating rotating (OR) and sonic action (SA)93; on oral hygiene (plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation) over a 6-month observation period. 49 participants were randomly allocated into two groups: use of the same brush head over 6 months (NR: non-replacement) or replacement of brush head every 4 weeks over 6 months (R: replacement). Each group was subdivided into two subgroups according to kind of toothbrush (TB) used (OR and SA). Modified Quigley-Hein plaque index (QHI), papilla bleeding index (PBI), and gingival index (GI) were recorded at baseline and 2, 8, 12, 16, and 24 weeks after baseline. After 24 weeks, participants of both groups (R and NR) received a new brush head. At week 26, final QHI, PBI, and GI were recorded. QHI decreased between baseline and follow-up visits in R groups (P 0.05). There was no significant effect of time on PBI or GI in any of R subgroups (P> 0.05). In NR oscillating/rotating TB: significant increase in PBI and GI was detected 24 weeks after baseline (PBI: P= 0.02, GI: P= 0.03); sonic action TBs showed significant decrease in PBI at every follow-up visit (P< 0.05), except at 24 weeks after baseline (P= 0.73). GI was significantly decreased at 2 weeks after baseline only (P< 0.01). Six-month use of the same brush head reduced effectiveness in removing plaque, and gingival inflammation appeared to increase after a utilization time of over 4 months. Replacing brush heads is advised after 4 months.
Merckaert, Isabelle; Lewis, Florence; Delevallez, France; Herman, Sophie; Caillier, Marie; Delvaux, Nicole; Libert, Yves; Liénard, Aurore; Nogaret, Jean-Marie; Ogez, David; Scalliet, Pierre; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Van Houtte, Paul; Razavi, Darius
2017-08-01
To compare in a multicenter randomized controlled trial the benefits in terms of anxiety regulation of a 15-session single-component group intervention (SGI) based on support with those of a 15-session multiple-component structured manualized group intervention (MGI) combining support with cognitive-behavioral and hypnosis components. Patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer were randomly assigned at the beginning of the survivorship period to the SGI (n = 83) or MGI (n = 87). Anxiety regulation was assessed, before and after group interventions, through an anxiety regulation task designed to assess their ability to regulate anxiety psychologically (anxiety levels) and physiologically (heart rates). Questionnaires were used to assess psychological distress, everyday anxiety regulation, and fear of recurrence. Group allocation was computer generated and concealed till baseline completion. Compared with patients in the SGI group (n = 77), patients attending the MGI group (n = 82) showed significantly reduced anxiety after a self-relaxation exercise (P = .006) and after exposure to anxiety triggers (P = .013) and reduced heart rates at different time points throughout the task (P = .001 to P = .047). The MGI participants also reported better everyday anxiety regulation (P = .005), greater use of fear of recurrence-related coping strategies (P = .022), and greater reduction in fear of recurrence-related psychological distress (P = .017) compared with the SGI group. This study shows that an MGI combining support with cognitive-behavioral techniques and hypnosis is more effective than an SGI based only on support in improving anxiety regulation in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, D.E.; Johnson, R.P.
1989-01-01
The Colliding Beam Sequencer (CBS) is a computer program used to operate the pbar-p Collider by synchronizing the applications programs and simulating the activities of the accelerator operators during filling and storage. The Sequencer acts as a meta-program, running otherwise stand alone applications programs, to do the set-up, beam transfers, acceleration, low beta turn on, and diagnostics for the transfers and storage. The Sequencer and its operational performance will be described along with its special features which include a periodic scheduler and command logger. 14 refs., 3 figs
Blind sequence-length estimation of low-SNR cyclostationary sequences
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Vlok, JD
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Several existing direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) detection and estimation algorithms assume prior knowledge of the symbol period or sequence length, although very few sequence-length estimation techniques are available in the literature...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guziolowski Carito
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background: We present the N-map method, a pairwise and asymmetrical approach which allows us to compare sequences by taking into account evolutionary events that produce shuffled, reversed or repeated elements. Basically, the optimal N-map of a sequence s over a sequence t is the best way of partitioning the first sequence into N parts and placing them, possibly complementary reversed, over the second sequence in order to maximize the sum of their gapless alignment scores. Results: We introduce an algorithm computing an optimal N-map with time complexity O (|s| × |t| × N using O (|s| × |t| × N memory space. Among all the numbers of parts taken in a reasonable range, we select the value N for which the optimal N-map has the most significant score. To evaluate this significance, we study the empirical distributions of the scores of optimal N-maps and show that they can be approximated by normal distributions with a reasonable accuracy. We test the functionality of the approach over random sequences on which we apply artificial evolutionary events. Practical Application: The method is illustrated with four case studies of pairs of sequences involving non-standard evolutionary events.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria
2009-01-01
Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies and...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sato, Shusei; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj
2014-01-01
The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based on transcr......The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based...
Wesnes, Keith A; Barrett, Marilyn L; Udani, Jay K
2013-08-01
Energy drinks are widely available mostly containing glucose, and several have been demonstrated to improve alertness and cognitive function; these effects generally being identified 30-60min after administration. The present study assessed whether an energy shot without carbohydrates would affect major aspects of cognitive function and also mood in volunteers over a 6h time period. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled,crossover study compared the acute effects of the energy shot with a matching placebo in 94 healthy volunteers. Cognitive function was assessed with a widely used set of automated tests of attention and memory. Mood was assessed with the Bond-Lader, Beck Anxiety Index, Beck Depression Index, Chalder Fatigue Scales (CFS), and the POMS. The volunteers were requested to limit their sleep to between 3 and 6h the night before each testing day. Compared to the placebo, the energy shot significantly improved 6 validated composite cognitive function measures from the CDR System as well as self-rated alertness; the benefits on 4 of the cognitive measures still remaining at 6h. The overall effect sizes of the performance improvements were in the small to medium range and thus notable in this field. In conclusion, an energy shot can significantly improve important aspects of cognitive function for up to 6h compared to placebo in partially sleep-deprived healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
How random are random numbers generated using photons?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solis, Aldo; Angulo Martínez, Alí M; Ramírez Alarcón, Roberto; Cruz Ramírez, Hector; U’Ren, Alfred B; Hirsch, Jorge G
2015-01-01
Randomness is fundamental in quantum theory, with many philosophical and practical implications. In this paper we discuss the concept of algorithmic randomness, which provides a quantitative method to assess the Borel normality of a given sequence of numbers, a necessary condition for it to be considered random. We use Borel normality as a tool to investigate the randomness of ten sequences of bits generated from the differences between detection times of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion. These sequences are shown to fulfil the randomness criteria without difficulties. As deviations from Borel normality for photon-generated random number sequences have been reported in previous work, a strategy to understand these diverging findings is outlined. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morteza Shojaei Moghadam
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Six strains of bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus plantarum (TL1, RG11, RS5, UL4, RG14 and RI11 isolated from Malaysian foods were investigated for their structural bacteriocin genes. A new combination of plantaricin EF and plantaricin W bacteriocin structural genes was successfully amplified from all studied strains, suggesting that they were novel bacteriocin-producing L. plantarum strains. A four-base pair variable region was detected in the short 16S-23S intergenic spacer regions of the studied strains by a comparative analysis with 17 L. plantarum strains deposited in the GenBank, implying they were new genotypes. The studied L. plantarum strains were subsequently differentiated into four groups on the basis of the detected four-base pair variable region of the short 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. Further analysis of the DNA sequence of 23S-5S intergenic spacer region revealed only one type of 23S-5S intergenic spacer region present in the studied strains, indicating it was highly conserved among the studied L. plantarum strains. Three randomly amplified polymorphic DNA experiments using three different combinations of arbitrary primers successfully differentiated the studied L. plantarum strains from each other, confirming they were different strains. In conclusion, the studied L. plantarum strains were shown to be novel bacteriocin producers and high level of strain discrimination could be achieved with a combination of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and the analysis of the variable region of short 16S-23S intergenic spacer region present in L. plantarum strains.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacqueline Kerr
Full Text Available Prolonged sitting is associated with cardiometabolic and vascular disease. Despite emerging evidence regarding the acute health benefits of interrupting prolonged sitting time, the effectiveness of different modalities in older adults (who sit the most is unclear.In preparation for a future randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 10 sedentary, overweight or obese, postmenopausal women (mean age 66 years ±9; mean body mass index 30.6 kg/m2 ±4.2 in a 4-condition, 4-period crossover feasibility pilot study in San Diego to test 3 different sitting interruption modalities designed to improve glucoregulatory and vascular outcomes compared to a prolonged sitting control condition. The interruption modalities included: a 2 minutes standing every 20 minutes; b 2 minutes walking every hour; and c 10 minutes standing every hour. During each 5-hr condition, participants consumed two identical, standardized meals. Blood samples, blood pressure, and heart rate were collected every 30 minutes. Endothelial function of the superficial femoral artery was measured at baseline and end of each 5-hr condition using flow-mediated dilation (FMD. Participants completed each condition on separate days, in randomized order. This feasibility pilot study was not powered to detect statistically significant differences in the various outcomes, however, analytic methods (mixed models were used to test statistical significance within the small sample size.Nine participants completed all 4 study visits, one participant completed 3 study visits and then was lost to follow up. Net incremental area under the curve (iAUC values for postprandial plasma glucose and insulin during the 5-hr sitting interruption conditions were not significantly different compared to the control condition. Exploratory analyses revealed that the 2-minute standing every 20 minutes and the 2-minute walking every hour conditions were associated with a significantly lower glycemic response to the second
Frelinger, Andrew L; Lee, Ronald D; Mulford, Darcy J; Wu, Jingtao; Nudurupati, Sai; Nigam, Anu; Brooks, Julie K; Bhatt, Deepak L; Michelson, Alan D
2012-04-03
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of different proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on the steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel. Metabolism of clopidogrel requires cytochrome P450s (CYPs), including CYP2C19. However, PPIs may inhibit CYP2C19, potentially reducing the effectiveness of clopidogrel. A randomized, open-label, 2-period, crossover study of healthy subjects (n = 160, age 18 to 55 years, homozygous for CYP2C19 extensive metabolizer genotype, confined, standardized diet) was conducted. Clopidogrel 75 mg with or without a PPI (dexlansoprazole 60 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg, esomeprazole 40 mg, or, as a positive control to maximize potential interaction and demonstrate assay sensitivity, omeprazole 80 mg) was given daily for 9 days. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were assessed on days 9 and 10. Pharmacodynamic end-points were vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein P2Y(12) platelet reactivity index, maximal platelet aggregation to 5 and 20 μmol/l adenosine diphosphate, and VerifyNow P2Y12 platelet response units. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses with omeprazole demonstrated assay sensitivity. The area under the curve for clopidogrel active metabolite decreased significantly with esomeprazole but not with dexlansoprazole or lansoprazole. Similarly, esomeprazole but not dexlansoprazole or lansoprazole significantly reduced the effect of clopidogrel on vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein platelet reactivity index. All PPIs decreased the peak plasma concentration of clopidogrel active metabolite (omeprazole > esomeprazole > lansoprazole > dexlansoprazole) and showed a corresponding order of potency for effects on maximal platelet aggregation and platelet response units. Generation of clopidogrel active metabolite and inhibition of platelet function were reduced less by the coadministration of dexlansoprazole or lansoprazole with clopidogrel than by the coadministration of esomeprazole or omeprazole. These
Slingerland, Marije; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Rosing, Hilde; Scheulen, Max E; van Warmerdam, Laurence J C; Beijnen, Jos H; Gelderblom, Hans
2013-12-01
Preclinical studies comparing paclitaxel formulated with polyethoxylated castor oil with the sonicated formulation of liposome-entrapped paclitaxel (LEP) have demonstrated that LEP was associated with reduced toxicity while maintaining similar efficacy. Preliminary studies on the pharmacokinetics in patients support earlier preclinical data, which suggested that the LEP Easy-to-Use (LEP-ETU) formulation and paclitaxel formulated with castor oil may have comparable pharmacokinetic properties. Our objectives were: (1) to determine bioequivalence of paclitaxel pharmaceutically formulated as LEP-ETU (test) and paclitaxel formulated with castor oil (reference); and (2) to assess the tolerability of LEP-ETU following intravenous administration. Patients with advanced cancer were studied in a randomized, 2-period crossover bioequivalence study. Patients received paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) administered as an intravenous infusion over 180 minutes, either as a single-treatment cycle of the test formulation followed by a single-treatment cycle of the reference formulation, or vice versa. Thirty-two of 58 patients were evaluable and were included in the analysis for bioequivalence. Mean total paclitaxel Cmax values for the test and reference formulations were 4955.0 and 5108.8 ng/mL, respectively. Corresponding AUC0-∞ values were 15,853.8 and 18,550.8 ng·h/mL, respectively. Treatment ratios of the geometric means were 97% (90% CI, 91%-103%) for Cmax and 84% (90% CI, 80%-90%) for AUC0-∞. These results met the required 80% to 125% bioequivalence criteria. The most frequently reported adverse events after LEP-ETU administration were fatigue, alopecia, and myalgia. At the studied dose regimen, LEP-ETU showed bioequivalence with paclitaxel formulated with polyethoxylated castor oil. © 2013 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.
Study on random number generator in Monte Carlo code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oya, Kentaro; Kitada, Takanori; Tanaka, Shinichi
2011-01-01
The Monte Carlo code uses a sequence of pseudo-random numbers with a random number generator (RNG) to simulate particle histories. A pseudo-random number has its own period depending on its generation method and the period is desired to be long enough not to exceed the period during one Monte Carlo calculation to ensure the correctness especially for a standard deviation of results. The linear congruential generator (LCG) is widely used as Monte Carlo RNG and the period of LCG is not so long by considering the increasing rate of simulation histories in a Monte Carlo calculation according to the remarkable enhancement of computer performance. Recently, many kinds of RNG have been developed and some of their features are better than those of LCG. In this study, we investigate the appropriate RNG in a Monte Carlo code as an alternative to LCG especially for the case of enormous histories. It is found that xorshift has desirable features compared with LCG, and xorshift has a larger period, a comparable speed to generate random numbers, a better randomness, and good applicability to parallel calculation. (author)
Parallel motif extraction from very long sequences
Sahli, Majed; Mansour, Essam; Kalnis, Panos
2013-01-01
Motifs are frequent patterns used to identify biological functionality in genomic sequences, periodicity in time series, or user trends in web logs. In contrast to a lot of existing work that focuses on collections of many short sequences, modern
Short sequence motifs, overrepresented in mammalian conservednon-coding sequences
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Minovitsky, Simon; Stegmaier, Philip; Kel, Alexander; Kondrashov,Alexey S.; Dubchak, Inna
2007-02-21
Background: A substantial fraction of non-coding DNAsequences of multicellular eukaryotes is under selective constraint. Inparticular, ~;5 percent of the human genome consists of conservednon-coding sequences (CNSs). CNSs differ from other genomic sequences intheir nucleotide composition and must play important functional roles,which mostly remain obscure.Results: We investigated relative abundancesof short sequence motifs in all human CNSs present in the human/mousewhole-genome alignments vs. three background sets of sequences: (i)weakly conserved or unconserved non-coding sequences (non-CNSs); (ii)near-promoter sequences (located between nucleotides -500 and -1500,relative to a start of transcription); and (iii) random sequences withthe same nucleotide composition as that of CNSs. When compared tonon-CNSs and near-promoter sequences, CNSs possess an excess of AT-richmotifs, often containing runs of identical nucleotides. In contrast, whencompared to random sequences, CNSs contain an excess of GC-rich motifswhich, however, lack CpG dinucleotides. Thus, abundance of short sequencemotifs in human CNSs, taken as a whole, is mostly determined by theiroverall compositional properties and not by overrepresentation of anyspecific short motifs. These properties are: (i) high AT-content of CNSs,(ii) a tendency, probably due to context-dependent mutation, of A's andT's to clump, (iii) presence of short GC-rich regions, and (iv) avoidanceof CpG contexts, due to their hypermutability. Only a small number ofshort motifs, overrepresented in all human CNSs are similar to bindingsites of transcription factors from the FOX family.Conclusion: Human CNSsas a whole appear to be too broad a class of sequences to possess strongfootprints of any short sequence-specific functions. Such footprintsshould be studied at the level of functional subclasses of CNSs, such asthose which flank genes with a particular pattern of expression. Overallproperties of CNSs are affected by
Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer
Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.
2013-01-01
Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard; Sørensen, Majken Vildrik
2006-01-01
Random numbers are used for a great variety of applications in almost any field of computer and economic sciences today. Examples ranges from stock market forecasting in economics, through stochastic traffic modelling in operations research to photon and ray tracing in graphics. The construction...... distributions into others with most of the required characteristics. In essence, a uniform sequence which is transformed into a new sequence with the required distribution. The subject of this article is to consider the well known highly uniform Halton sequence and modifications to it. The intent is to generate...
Edgington, Eugene
2007-01-01
Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene
2017-01-01
Sub-Neptunes around FGKM dwarfs are evenly distributed in log orbital period down to ∼10 days, but dwindle in number at shorter periods. Both the break at ∼10 days and the slope of the occurrence rate down to ∼1 day can be attributed to the truncation of protoplanetary disks by their host star magnetospheres at corotation. We demonstrate this by deriving planet occurrence rate profiles from empirical distributions of pre-main-sequence stellar rotation periods. Observed profiles are better reproduced when planets are distributed randomly in disks—as might be expected if planets formed in situ—rather than piled up near disk edges, as would be the case if they migrated in by disk torques. Planets can be brought from disk edges to ultra-short (<1 day) periods by asynchronous equilibrium tides raised on their stars. Tidal migration can account for how ultra-short-period planets are more widely spaced than their longer-period counterparts. Our picture provides a starting point for understanding why the sub-Neptune population drops at ∼10 days regardless of whether the host star is of type FGK or early M. We predict planet occurrence rates around A stars to also break at short periods, but at ∼1 day instead of ∼10 days because A stars rotate faster than stars with lower masses (this prediction presumes that the planetesimal building blocks of planets can drift inside the dust sublimation radius).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail: evelee@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)
2017-06-10
Sub-Neptunes around FGKM dwarfs are evenly distributed in log orbital period down to ∼10 days, but dwindle in number at shorter periods. Both the break at ∼10 days and the slope of the occurrence rate down to ∼1 day can be attributed to the truncation of protoplanetary disks by their host star magnetospheres at corotation. We demonstrate this by deriving planet occurrence rate profiles from empirical distributions of pre-main-sequence stellar rotation periods. Observed profiles are better reproduced when planets are distributed randomly in disks—as might be expected if planets formed in situ—rather than piled up near disk edges, as would be the case if they migrated in by disk torques. Planets can be brought from disk edges to ultra-short (<1 day) periods by asynchronous equilibrium tides raised on their stars. Tidal migration can account for how ultra-short-period planets are more widely spaced than their longer-period counterparts. Our picture provides a starting point for understanding why the sub-Neptune population drops at ∼10 days regardless of whether the host star is of type FGK or early M. We predict planet occurrence rates around A stars to also break at short periods, but at ∼1 day instead of ∼10 days because A stars rotate faster than stars with lower masses (this prediction presumes that the planetesimal building blocks of planets can drift inside the dust sublimation radius).
Pseudo-random number generator based on asymptotic deterministic randomness
Wang, Kai; Pei, Wenjiang; Xia, Haishan; Cheung, Yiu-ming
2008-06-01
A novel approach to generate the pseudorandom-bit sequence from the asymptotic deterministic randomness system is proposed in this Letter. We study the characteristic of multi-value correspondence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness constructed by the piecewise linear map and the noninvertible nonlinearity transform, and then give the discretized systems in the finite digitized state space. The statistic characteristics of the asymptotic deterministic randomness are investigated numerically, such as stationary probability density function and random-like behavior. Furthermore, we analyze the dynamics of the symbolic sequence. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the symbolic sequence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness possesses very good cryptographic properties, which improve the security of chaos based PRBGs and increase the resistance against entropy attacks and symbolic dynamics attacks.
Pseudo-random number generator based on asymptotic deterministic randomness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Kai; Pei Wenjiang; Xia Haishan; Cheung Yiuming
2008-01-01
A novel approach to generate the pseudorandom-bit sequence from the asymptotic deterministic randomness system is proposed in this Letter. We study the characteristic of multi-value correspondence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness constructed by the piecewise linear map and the noninvertible nonlinearity transform, and then give the discretized systems in the finite digitized state space. The statistic characteristics of the asymptotic deterministic randomness are investigated numerically, such as stationary probability density function and random-like behavior. Furthermore, we analyze the dynamics of the symbolic sequence. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the symbolic sequence of the asymptotic deterministic randomness possesses very good cryptographic properties, which improve the security of chaos based PRBGs and increase the resistance against entropy attacks and symbolic dynamics attacks
Lee, Donghwan; Lim, Lay Ahyoung; Jang, Seong Bok; Lee, Yoon Jung; Chung, Jae Yong; Choi, Jong Rak; Kim, Kiyoon; Park, Jin Woo; Yoon, Hosang; Lee, Jaeyong; Park, Min Soo; Park, Kyungsoo
2011-12-01
A sustained-release (SR) formulation of cilostazol was recently developed in Korea and was expected to yield a lower C(max) and a similar AUC to the immediate-release (IR) formulation. The goal of the present study was to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of a newly developed SR formulation and an IR formulation of cilostazol after single- and multiple-dose administration and to evaluate the influence of food in healthy Korean subjects. This study was developed as part of a product development project at the request of the Korean regulatory agency. This was a randomized, 3-part, sequential, open-label, 2-period crossover study. Each part consisted of different subjects between the ages of 19 and 55 years. In part 1, each subject received a single dose of SR (200 mg × 1 tablet, once daily) and IR (100 mg × 2 tablets, BID) formulations of cilostazol orally 7 days apart in a fasted state. In part 2, each subject received a single dose of the SR (200 mg × 1 tablet, once daily) formulation of cilostazol 7 days apart in a fasted and a fed state. In part 3, each subject received multiple doses of the 2 formulations for 8 consecutive days 21 days apart. Blood samples were taken for 72 hours after the dose. Cilostazol pharmacokinetics were determined for both the parent drug and its metabolites (OPC-13015 and OPC-13213). Adverse events were evaluated through interviews and physical examinations. Among the 92 enrolled subjects (66 men, 26 women; part 1, n = 26; part 2, n = 26; part 3, n = 40), 87 completed the study. In part 1, all the primary pharmacokinetic parameters satisfied the criterion for assumed bioequivalence both in cilostazol and its metabolites, yielding 90% CI ratios of 0.9624 to 1.2323, 0.8873 to 1.1208, and 0.8919 to 1.1283 for C(max) and 0.8370 to 1.0134, 0.8204 to 0.9807, and 0.8134 to 0.9699 for AUC(0-last) of cilostazol, OPC-13015, and OPC-13213, respectively. In part 2, food intake increased C(max) and AUC significantly (P food and 23 with a high
Random walk centrality for temporal networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rocha, Luis E C; Masuda, Naoki
2014-01-01
Nodes can be ranked according to their relative importance within a network. Ranking algorithms based on random walks are particularly useful because they connect topological and diffusive properties of the network. Previous methods based on random walks, for example the PageRank, have focused on static structures. However, several realistic networks are indeed dynamic, meaning that their structure changes in time. In this paper, we propose a centrality measure for temporal networks based on random walks under periodic boundary conditions that we call TempoRank. It is known that, in static networks, the stationary density of the random walk is proportional to the degree or the strength of a node. In contrast, we find that, in temporal networks, the stationary density is proportional to the in-strength of the so-called effective network, a weighted and directed network explicitly constructed from the original sequence of transition matrices. The stationary density also depends on the sojourn probability q, which regulates the tendency of the walker to stay in the node, and on the temporal resolution of the data. We apply our method to human interaction networks and show that although it is important for a node to be connected to another node with many random walkers (one of the principles of the PageRank) at the right moment, this effect is negligible in practice when the time order of link activation is included. (paper)
Random walk centrality for temporal networks
Rocha, Luis E. C.; Masuda, Naoki
2014-06-01
Nodes can be ranked according to their relative importance within a network. Ranking algorithms based on random walks are particularly useful because they connect topological and diffusive properties of the network. Previous methods based on random walks, for example the PageRank, have focused on static structures. However, several realistic networks are indeed dynamic, meaning that their structure changes in time. In this paper, we propose a centrality measure for temporal networks based on random walks under periodic boundary conditions that we call TempoRank. It is known that, in static networks, the stationary density of the random walk is proportional to the degree or the strength of a node. In contrast, we find that, in temporal networks, the stationary density is proportional to the in-strength of the so-called effective network, a weighted and directed network explicitly constructed from the original sequence of transition matrices. The stationary density also depends on the sojourn probability q, which regulates the tendency of the walker to stay in the node, and on the temporal resolution of the data. We apply our method to human interaction networks and show that although it is important for a node to be connected to another node with many random walkers (one of the principles of the PageRank) at the right moment, this effect is negligible in practice when the time order of link activation is included.
Randomness at the root of things 1: Random walks
Ogborn, Jon; Collins, Simon; Brown, Mick
2003-09-01
This is the first of a pair of articles about randomness in physics. In this article, we use some variations on the idea of a `random walk' to consider first the path of a particle in Brownian motion, and then the random variation to be expected in radioactive decay. The arguments are set in the context of the general importance of randomness both in physics and in everyday life. We think that the ideas could usefully form part of students' A-level work on random decay and quantum phenomena, as well as being good for their general education. In the second article we offer a novel and simple approach to Poisson sequences.
Deroost, Natacha; Coomans, Daphné
2018-02-01
We examined the role of sequence awareness in a pure perceptual sequence learning design. Participants had to react to the target's colour that changed according to a perceptual sequence. By varying the mapping of the target's colour onto the response keys, motor responses changed randomly. The effect of sequence awareness on perceptual sequence learning was determined by manipulating the learning instructions (explicit versus implicit) and assessing the amount of sequence awareness after the experiment. In the explicit instruction condition (n = 15), participants were instructed to intentionally search for the colour sequence, whereas in the implicit instruction condition (n = 15), they were left uninformed about the sequenced nature of the task. Sequence awareness after the sequence learning task was tested by means of a questionnaire and the process-dissociation-procedure. The results showed that the instruction manipulation had no effect on the amount of perceptual sequence learning. Based on their report to have actively applied their sequence knowledge during the experiment, participants were subsequently regrouped in a sequence strategy group (n = 14, of which 4 participants from the implicit instruction condition and 10 participants from the explicit instruction condition) and a no-sequence strategy group (n = 16, of which 11 participants from the implicit instruction condition and 5 participants from the explicit instruction condition). Only participants of the sequence strategy group showed reliable perceptual sequence learning and sequence awareness. These results indicate that perceptual sequence learning depends upon the continuous employment of strategic cognitive control processes on sequence knowledge. Sequence awareness is suggested to be a necessary but not sufficient condition for perceptual learning to take place. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The RANDOM computer program: A linear congruential random number generator
Miles, R. F., Jr.
1986-01-01
The RANDOM Computer Program is a FORTRAN program for generating random number sequences and testing linear congruential random number generators (LCGs). The linear congruential form of random number generator is discussed, and the selection of parameters of an LCG for a microcomputer described. This document describes the following: (1) The RANDOM Computer Program; (2) RANDOM.MOD, the computer code needed to implement an LCG in a FORTRAN program; and (3) The RANCYCLE and the ARITH Computer Programs that provide computational assistance in the selection of parameters for an LCG. The RANDOM, RANCYCLE, and ARITH Computer Programs are written in Microsoft FORTRAN for the IBM PC microcomputer and its compatibles. With only minor modifications, the RANDOM Computer Program and its LCG can be run on most micromputers or mainframe computers.
Motor sequence learning-induced neural efficiency in functional brain connectivity.
Karim, Helmet T; Huppert, Theodore J; Erickson, Kirk I; Wollam, Mariegold E; Sparto, Patrick J; Sejdić, Ervin; VanSwearingen, Jessie M
2017-02-15
Previous studies have shown the functional neural circuitry differences before and after an explicitly learned motor sequence task, but have not assessed these changes during the process of motor skill learning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging activity was measured while participants (n=13) were asked to tap their fingers to visually presented sequences in blocks that were either the same sequence repeated (learning block) or random sequences (control block). Motor learning was associated with a decrease in brain activity during learning compared to control. Lower brain activation was noted in the posterior parietal association area and bilateral thalamus during the later periods of learning (not during the control). Compared to the control condition, we found the task-related motor learning was associated with decreased connectivity between the putamen and left inferior frontal gyrus and left middle cingulate brain regions. Motor learning was associated with changes in network activity, spatial extent, and connectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Perfect sequences over the real quaternions
Kuznetsov, Oleg
2017-01-01
In this Thesis, perfect sequences over the real quaternions are first considered. Definitions for the right and left periodic autocorrelation functions are given, and right and left perfect sequences introduced. It is shown that the right (left) perfection of any sequence implies the left (right) perfection, so concepts of right and left perfect sequences over the real quaternions are equivalent. Unitary transformations of the quaternion space ℍ are then considered. Using the equivalence of t...
Memory and learning with rapid audiovisual sequences
Keller, Arielle S.; Sekuler, Robert
2015-01-01
We examined short-term memory for sequences of visual stimuli embedded in varying multisensory contexts. In two experiments, subjects judged the structure of the visual sequences while disregarding concurrent, but task-irrelevant auditory sequences. Stimuli were eight-item sequences in which varying luminances and frequencies were presented concurrently and rapidly (at 8 Hz). Subjects judged whether the final four items in a visual sequence identically replicated the first four items. Luminances and frequencies in each sequence were either perceptually correlated (Congruent) or were unrelated to one another (Incongruent). Experiment 1 showed that, despite encouragement to ignore the auditory stream, subjects' categorization of visual sequences was strongly influenced by the accompanying auditory sequences. Moreover, this influence tracked the similarity between a stimulus's separate audio and visual sequences, demonstrating that task-irrelevant auditory sequences underwent a considerable degree of processing. Using a variant of Hebb's repetition design, Experiment 2 compared musically trained subjects and subjects who had little or no musical training on the same task as used in Experiment 1. Test sequences included some that intermittently and randomly recurred, which produced better performance than sequences that were generated anew for each trial. The auditory component of a recurring audiovisual sequence influenced musically trained subjects more than it did other subjects. This result demonstrates that stimulus-selective, task-irrelevant learning of sequences can occur even when such learning is an incidental by-product of the task being performed. PMID:26575193
Memory and learning with rapid audiovisual sequences.
Keller, Arielle S; Sekuler, Robert
2015-01-01
We examined short-term memory for sequences of visual stimuli embedded in varying multisensory contexts. In two experiments, subjects judged the structure of the visual sequences while disregarding concurrent, but task-irrelevant auditory sequences. Stimuli were eight-item sequences in which varying luminances and frequencies were presented concurrently and rapidly (at 8 Hz). Subjects judged whether the final four items in a visual sequence identically replicated the first four items. Luminances and frequencies in each sequence were either perceptually correlated (Congruent) or were unrelated to one another (Incongruent). Experiment 1 showed that, despite encouragement to ignore the auditory stream, subjects' categorization of visual sequences was strongly influenced by the accompanying auditory sequences. Moreover, this influence tracked the similarity between a stimulus's separate audio and visual sequences, demonstrating that task-irrelevant auditory sequences underwent a considerable degree of processing. Using a variant of Hebb's repetition design, Experiment 2 compared musically trained subjects and subjects who had little or no musical training on the same task as used in Experiment 1. Test sequences included some that intermittently and randomly recurred, which produced better performance than sequences that were generated anew for each trial. The auditory component of a recurring audiovisual sequence influenced musically trained subjects more than it did other subjects. This result demonstrates that stimulus-selective, task-irrelevant learning of sequences can occur even when such learning is an incidental by-product of the task being performed.
Subjective randomness as statistical inference.
Griffiths, Thomas L; Daniels, Dylan; Austerweil, Joseph L; Tenenbaum, Joshua B
2018-06-01
Some events seem more random than others. For example, when tossing a coin, a sequence of eight heads in a row does not seem very random. Where do these intuitions about randomness come from? We argue that subjective randomness can be understood as the result of a statistical inference assessing the evidence that an event provides for having been produced by a random generating process. We show how this account provides a link to previous work relating randomness to algorithmic complexity, in which random events are those that cannot be described by short computer programs. Algorithmic complexity is both incomputable and too general to capture the regularities that people can recognize, but viewing randomness as statistical inference provides two paths to addressing these problems: considering regularities generated by simpler computing machines, and restricting the set of probability distributions that characterize regularity. Building on previous work exploring these different routes to a more restricted notion of randomness, we define strong quantitative models of human randomness judgments that apply not just to binary sequences - which have been the focus of much of the previous work on subjective randomness - but also to binary matrices and spatial clustering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hilário, M.; Hollander, den W.Th.F.; Sidoravicius, V.; Soares dos Santos, R.; Teixeira, A.
2014-01-01
In this paper we study a random walk in a one-dimensional dynamic random environment consisting of a collection of independent particles performing simple symmetric random walks in a Poisson equilibrium with density ¿¿(0,8). At each step the random walk performs a nearest-neighbour jump, moving to
QUASI-RANDOM TESTING OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. V. Yarmolik
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Various modified random testing approaches have been proposed for computer system testing in the black box environment. Their effectiveness has been evaluated on the typical failure patterns by employing three measures, namely, P-measure, E-measure and F-measure. A quasi-random testing, being a modified version of the random testing, has been proposed and analyzed. The quasi-random Sobol sequences and modified Sobol sequences are used as the test patterns. Some new methods for Sobol sequence generation have been proposed and analyzed.
IDENTIFICATION OF AVIAN-SPECIFIC FECAL METAGENOMIC SEQUENCES USING GENOME FRAGMENT ENRICHMENTS
Sequence analysis of microbial genomes has provided biologists the opportunity to compare genetic differences between closely related microorganisms. While random sequencing has also been used to study natural microbial communities, metagenomic comparisons via sequencing analysis...
Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jimmy Efird
2010-12-01
Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.
An investigation of the uniform random number generator
Temple, E. C.
1982-01-01
Most random number generators that are in use today are of the congruential form X(i+1) + AX(i) + C mod M where A, C, and M are nonnegative integers. If C=O, the generator is called the multiplicative type and those for which C/O are called mixed congruential generators. It is easy to see that congruential generators will repeat a sequence of numbers after a maximum of M values have been generated. The number of numbers that a procedure generates before restarting the sequence is called the length or the period of the generator. Generally, it is desirable to make the period as long as possible. A detailed discussion of congruential generators is given. Also, several promising procedures that differ from the multiplicative and mixed procedure are discussed.
Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.
Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin
2015-09-14
Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tahir-Kheli, R.A.
1975-01-01
A few simple problems relating to random magnetic systems are presented. Translational symmetry, only on the macroscopic scale, is assumed for these systems. A random set of parameters, on the microscopic scale, for the various regions of these systems is also assumed. A probability distribution for randomness is obeyed. Knowledge of the form of these probability distributions, is assumed in all cases [pt
Locomotor sequence learning in visually guided walking
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo
2016-01-01
walking. In addition, we determined how age (i.e., healthy young adults vs. children) and biomechanical factors (i.e., walking speed) affected the rate and magnitude of locomotor sequence learning. The results showed that healthy young adults (age 24 ± 5 years, N = 20) could learn a specific sequence...... of step lengths over 300 training steps. Younger children (age 6-10 years, N = 8) have lower baseline performance, but their magnitude and rate of sequence learning was the same compared to older children (11-16 years, N = 10) and healthy adults. In addition, learning capacity may be more limited...... to modify step length from one trial to the next. Our sequence learning paradigm is derived from the serial reaction-time (SRT) task that has been used in upper limb studies. Both random and ordered sequences of step lengths were used to measure sequence-specific and sequence non-specific learning during...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bilan Stepan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available To date, there are many tasks that are aimed at studying the dynamic changes in physical processes. These tasks do not give advance known result. The solution of such problems is based on the construction of a dynamic model of the object. Successful structural and functional implementation of the object model can give a positive result in time. This approach uses the task of constructing artificial biological objects. To solve such problems, pseudo-random number generators are used, which also find wide application for information protection tasks. Such generators should have good statistical properties and give a long repetition period of the generated pseudo-random bit sequence. This work is aimed at improving these characteristics. The paper considers the method of forming pseudo-random sequences of numbers on the basis of aperiodic cellular automata with two active cells. A pseudo-random number generator is proposed that generates three bit sequences. The first two bit sequences are formed by the corresponding two active cells in the cellular automaton. The third bit sequence is the result of executing the XOR function over the bits of the first two sequences and it has better characteristics compared to them. The use of cellular automata with two active cells allowed to improve the statistical properties of the formed bit sequence, as well as its repetition period. This is proved by using graphical tests for generators built based on cellular automata using the neighborhoods of von Neumann and Moore. The tests showed high efficiency of the generator based on an asynchronous cellular automaton with the neighborhood of Moore. The proposed pseudo-random number generators have good statistical properties, which makes it possible to use them in information security systems, as well as for simulation tasks of various dynamic processes.
Periodicity, the Canon and Sport
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas F. Scanlon
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The topic according to this title is admittedly a broad one, embracing two very general concepts of time and of the cultural valuation of artistic products. Both phenomena are, in the present view, largely constructed by their contemporary cultures, and given authority to a great extent from the prestige of the past. The antiquity of tradition brings with it a certain cachet. Even though there may be peripheral debates in any given society which question the specifics of periodization or canonicity, individuals generally accept the consensus designation of a sequence of historical periods and they accept a list of highly valued artistic works as canonical or authoritative. We will first examine some of the processes of periodization and of canon-formation, after which we will discuss some specific examples of how these processes have worked in the sport of two ancient cultures, namely Greece and Mesoamerica.
Multineuronal Spike Sequences Repeat with Millisecond Precision
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koki eMatsumoto
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Cortical microcircuits are nonrandomly wired by neurons. As a natural consequence, spikes emitted by microcircuits are also nonrandomly patterned in time and space. One of the prominent spike organizations is a repetition of fixed patterns of spike series across multiple neurons. However, several questions remain unsolved, including how precisely spike sequences repeat, how the sequences are spatially organized, how many neurons participate in sequences, and how different sequences are functionally linked. To address these questions, we monitored spontaneous spikes of hippocampal CA3 neurons ex vivo using a high-speed functional multineuron calcium imaging technique that allowed us to monitor spikes with millisecond resolution and to record the location of spiking and nonspiking neurons. Multineuronal spike sequences were overrepresented in spontaneous activity compared to the statistical chance level. Approximately 75% of neurons participated in at least one sequence during our observation period. The participants were sparsely dispersed and did not show specific spatial organization. The number of sequences relative to the chance level decreased when larger time frames were used to detect sequences. Thus, sequences were precise at the millisecond level. Sequences often shared common spikes with other sequences; parts of sequences were subsequently relayed by following sequences, generating complex chains of multiple sequences.
Digital chaotic sequence generator based on coupled chaotic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shu-Bo, Liu; Jing, Sun; Jin-Shuo, Liu; Zheng-Quan, Xu
2009-01-01
Chaotic systems perform well as a new rich source of cryptography and pseudo-random coding. Unfortunately their digital dynamical properties would degrade due to the finite computing precision. Proposed in this paper is a modified digital chaotic sequence generator based on chaotic logistic systems with a coupling structure where one chaotic subsystem generates perturbation signals to disturb the control parameter of the other one. The numerical simulations show that the length of chaotic orbits, the output distribution of chaotic system, and the security of chaotic sequences have been greatly improved. Moreover the chaotic sequence period can be extended at least by one order of magnitude longer than that of the uncoupled logistic system and the difficulty in decrypting increases 2 128 *2 128 times indicating that the dynamical degradation of digital chaos is effectively improved. A field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation of an algorithm is given and the corresponding experiment shows that the output speed of the generated chaotic sequences can reach 571.4 Mbps indicating that the designed generator can be applied to the real-time video image encryption. (general)
Randomized random walk on a random walk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, P.A.
1983-06-01
This paper discusses generalizations of the model introduced by Kehr and Kunter of the random walk of a particle on a one-dimensional chain which in turn has been constructed by a random walk procedure. The superimposed random walk is randomised in time according to the occurrences of a stochastic point process. The probability of finding the particle in a particular position at a certain instant is obtained explicitly in the transform domain. It is found that the asymptotic behaviour for large time of the mean-square displacement of the particle depends critically on the assumed structure of the basic random walk, giving a diffusion-like term for an asymmetric walk or a square root law if the walk is symmetric. Many results are obtained in closed form for the Poisson process case, and these agree with those given previously by Kehr and Kunter. (author)
The recurrence sequences via Sylvester matrices
Karaduman, Erdal; Deveci, Ömür
2017-07-01
In this work, we define the Pell-Jacobsthal-Slyvester sequence and the Jacobsthal-Pell-Slyvester sequence by using the Slyvester matrices which are obtained from the characteristic polynomials of the Pell and Jacobsthal sequences and then, we study the sequences defined modulo m. Also, we obtain the cyclic groups and the semigroups from the generating matrices of these sequences when read modulo m and then, we derive the relationships among the orders of the cyclic groups and the periods of the sequences. Furthermore, we redefine Pell-Jacobsthal-Slyvester sequence and the Jacobsthal-Pell-Slyvester sequence by means of the elements of the groups and then, we examine them in the finite groups.
Noncoding sequence classification based on wavelet transform analysis: part I
Paredes, O.; Strojnik, M.; Romo-Vázquez, R.; Vélez Pérez, H.; Ranta, R.; Garcia-Torales, G.; Scholl, M. K.; Morales, J. A.
2017-09-01
DNA sequences in human genome can be divided into the coding and noncoding ones. Coding sequences are those that are read during the transcription. The identification of coding sequences has been widely reported in literature due to its much-studied periodicity. Noncoding sequences represent the majority of the human genome. They play an important role in gene regulation and differentiation among the cells. However, noncoding sequences do not exhibit periodicities that correlate to their functions. The ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA elements) and Epigenomic Roadmap Project projects have cataloged the human noncoding sequences into specific functions. We study characteristics of noncoding sequences with wavelet analysis of genomic signals.
Langhammer, Birgitta; Lindmark, Birgitta; Stanghelle, Johan K
2014-01-01
Physical activity is mandatory if patients are to remain healthy and independent after stroke. Maintenance of motor function, tone, grip strength, balance, mobility, gait, independence in personal and instrumental activities of daily living, health-related quality-of-life and an active lifestyle 4 years post-stroke. A prospective randomized controlled trial. Four years post-stroke, 37 of the 75 participating persons were eligible for follow-up; 19 (54.3%) from the intensive exercise group and 18 (45%) from the regular exercise group. Both groups were performing equally well with no significant differences in total scores on the BI (p = 0.3), MAS (p = 0.4), BBS (p = 0.1), TUG (p = 0.08), 6MWT (p = 0.1), bilateral grip strength (affected hand, p = 0.8; non-affected hand, p = 0.9) nor in the items of NHP (p > 0.005). Independence in performing the IADL was 40%, while 60% had help from relatives or community-based services. This longitudinal study shows that persons with stroke in two groups with different exercise regimes during the first year after stroke did not differ in long-term outcomes. Both groups maintained function and had a relatively active life style 4 years after the acute incident. The results underline the importance of follow-up testing and encouragement to exercise, to motivate and sustain physical activity patterns, to maintain physical function, not only in the acute but also in the chronic phase of stroke.
Baldassarre, Maria Elisabetta; Di Mauro, Antonio; Mastromarino, Paola; Fanelli, Margherita; Martinelli, Domenico; Urbano, Flavia; Capobianco, Daniela; Laforgia, Nicola
2016-10-27
Probiotic supplementation to women during pregnancy and lactation can modulate breast milk composition, with immune benefits being transferred to their infants. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of high-dose probiotic supplementation to women during late pregnancy and lactation on cytokine profile and secretory IgA (sIgA) in breast milk and thus to study if differences in breast milk composition can affect lactoferrin and sIgA levels in stool samples of newborns. The safety of maternal probiotic administration on neonatal growth pattern and gastrointestinal symptoms were also evaluated. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, 66 women took either the probiotic ( n = 33) or a placebo ( n = 33) daily. Levels of interleukins (IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and sIgA in breast milk; and the level of sIgA and lactoferrin in newborn stool samples were analyzed at birth and then again at one month of life. Antropometrical evaluation and analysis of gastrointestinal events in newborns was also performed. Probiotic maternal consumption had a significant impact on IL6 mean values in colostrum and on IL10 and TGF-β1 mean values in mature breast milk. Fecal sIgA mean values were higher in newborns whose mothers took the probiotic product than in the control group. Probiotic maternal supplementation seems to decrease incidence of infantile colic and regurgitation in infants. High-dose multi-strain probiotic administration to women during pregnancy influences breast milk cytokines pattern and sIgA production in newborns, and seems to improve gastrointestinal functional symptoms in infants.
Random number generation and creativity.
Bains, William
2008-01-01
A previous paper suggested that humans can generate genuinely random numbers. I tested this hypothesis by repeating the experiment with a larger number of highly numerate subjects, asking them to call out a sequence of digits selected from 0 through 9. The resulting sequences were substantially non-random, with an excess of sequential pairs of numbers and a deficit of repeats of the same number, in line with previous literature. However, the previous literature suggests that humans generate random numbers with substantial conscious effort, and distractions which reduce that effort reduce the randomness of the numbers. I reduced my subjects' concentration by asking them to call out in another language, and with alcohol - neither affected the randomness of their responses. This suggests that the ability to generate random numbers is a 'basic' function of the human mind, even if those numbers are not mathematically 'random'. I hypothesise that there is a 'creativity' mechanism, while not truly random, provides novelty as part of the mind's defence against closed programming loops, and that testing for the effects seen here in people more or less familiar with numbers or with spontaneous creativity could identify more features of this process. It is possible that training to perform better at simple random generation tasks could help to increase creativity, through training people to reduce the conscious mind's suppression of the 'spontaneous', creative response to new questions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Hammer, Karin
1998-01-01
A library of synthetic promoters for Lactococcus lactis was constructed, in which the known consensus sequences were kept constant while the sequences of the separating spacers were randomized. The library consists of 38 promoters which differ in strength from 0.3 relative units, and up to more t......-reactors and cell factories....
The Polytopic-k-Step Fibonacci Sequences in Finite Groups
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ömür Deveci
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We study the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences, the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences modulo m, and the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences in finite groups. Also, we examine the periods of the polytopic-k-step Fibonacci sequences in semidihedral group SD2m.
Neumann, Peter; Klimontovich, Yuri; Nabarro, Frank; Brailsford, Alan; Siegel, Edward
2011-06-01
Glassy fast-fracture instabilities and patterns, long-known semi-infinite crack-propagation sub-terminal-velocity Rayleigh-wave-speed versus ``2''-D linear-elasticity theory predictions, but rather asymptotic to maximum-speed < 0.6 v(Rayleigh), explicitly experimentally identifies a fast-fracture DYNAMIC-instability(FFDI) not included within fracture linear-elasticity theory. FFDI causes PERIODIC-BAE[E. S.:MSE 8.310(71); PSS:(a) 5, 601/ 607 (71); Xl..-Latt. Defects 5, 277(74);Scripta-Met.:6,785(72);8, 587/617(74); 3rd Tokyo A.-E. Symp. (76); Acta- Met.25,383(77); JMMM 7,312(78); ...] emitted/radiated from advancing-crack in addition to crack-velocity fluctuations causing such low sub-Rayleigh crack-velocities, hinting at dimensionality-dominance in 2-D VS. 3-D lattice-``models'' very-provacatively yet another special-case subset of Siegel[MRS Fall-Mtg.,Boston:Symp. On Fractals(89)-5-papers!!!; Symp. On Scaling(90)] SPD/FUZZYICS. Hirth-Lothe-Nabarro-Weertman-... provocative finite Burgers-vector dislocations/line-defects singularities terminal-velocity special-case of Einstein's special-relativity, almost word-for-word Jackson electromagnetics, replaces light-speed by sound-speed!!! Siegel[3rd Tokyo A.-E. Symp.(76); Intl.Quantum-Electronics Conf., Boston (80)
Application of random numbers at computerized simulation of proton magnetic resonance signals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Populyakh, S.N.; Sapiga, A.V.
2006-01-01
One calculated numerically spectra of proton magnetic resonance of water molecules diffusing along the regular positions in a natrolite. One reached adequate conformity of the experimental and the calculated spectra within wide temperature range including a transition region. To ensure calculations one used generators of the pseudorandom Markov sequences. The numerical analysis, in particular, has shown that at the binary Markov process the time period when physical value remains unchanged is described by the random value with exponential distribution [ru
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.
2009-06-01
A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.
Randomizer for High Data Rates
Garon, Howard; Sank, Victor J.
2018-01-01
NASA as well as a number of other space agencies now recognize that the current recommended CCSDS randomizer used for telemetry (TM) is too short. When multiple applications of the PN8 Maximal Length Sequence (MLS) are required in order to fully cover a channel access data unit (CADU), spectral problems in the form of elevated spurious discretes (spurs) appear. Originally the randomizer was called a bit transition generator (BTG) precisely because it was thought that its primary value was to insure sufficient bit transitions to allow the bit/symbol synchronizer to lock and remain locked. We, NASA, have shown that the old BTG concept is a limited view of the real value of the randomizer sequence and that the randomizer also aids in signal acquisition as well as minimizing the potential for false decoder lock. Under the guidelines we considered here there are multiple maximal length sequences under GF(2) which appear attractive in this application. Although there may be mitigating reasons why another MLS sequence could be selected, one sequence in particular possesses a combination of desired properties which offsets it from the others.
Random walks in Euclidean space
Varjú, Péter Pál
2012-01-01
Consider a sequence of independent random isometries of Euclidean space with a previously fixed probability law. Apply these isometries successively to the origin and consider the sequence of random points that we obtain this way. We prove a local limit theorem under a suitable moment condition and a necessary non-degeneracy condition. Under stronger hypothesis, we prove a limit theorem on a wide range of scales: between e^(-cl^(1/4)) and l^(1/2), where l is the number of steps.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wollenberg LA
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Lance A Wollenberg,1 Donald T Corson,2,3 Courtney A Nugent,1 Farran L Peterson,1 Ann M Ptaszynski,1 Alisha Arrigo,2,3 Coralee G Mannila,2,3 Kevin S Litwiler,1 Stacie J Bell1,4 1Array BioPharma, Boulder, 2Array BioPharma, Longmont, CO, 3Avista Pharma Solutions, Longmont, CO, 4Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, Ellicott City, MD, USA Background: Pexmetinib (ARRY-614 is a dual inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and Tie2 signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes. Previous clinical experience in a Phase I dose-escalation study of myelodysplastic syndrome patients using pexmetinib administered as neat powder-in-capsule (PIC exhibited high variability in pharmacokinetics and excessive pill burden, prompting an effort to improve the formulation of pexmetinib. Methods: A relative bioavailability assessment encompassed three parallel treatment cohorts of unique subjects comparing the two new formulations (12 subjects per cohort, a liquid oral suspension (LOS and liquid-filled capsule (LFC and the current clinical PIC formulation (six subjects in a fasted state. The food-effect assessment was conducted as a crossover of the LOS and LFC formulations administered under fed and fasted conditions. Subjects were divided into two groups of equal size to evaluate potential period effects on the food-effect assessment. Results: The geometric mean values of the total plasma exposures based upon area-under-the-curve to the last quantifiable sample (AUClast of pexmetinib were approximately four- and twofold higher after administration of the LFC and LOS formulations, respectively, than after the PIC formulation, when the formulations were administered in the fasted state. When the LFC formulation was administered in the fed state, pexmetinib AUClast decreased by <5% compared with the fasted state. After administration of the LOS formulation in the fed state, pexmetinib AUClast was 34% greater than observed in the fasted
Kemény, Ferenc; Meier, Beat
2016-02-01
While sequence learning research models complex phenomena, previous studies have mostly focused on unimodal sequences. The goal of the current experiment is to put implicit sequence learning into a multimodal context: to test whether it can operate across different modalities. We used the Task Sequence Learning paradigm to test whether sequence learning varies across modalities, and whether participants are able to learn multimodal sequences. Our results show that implicit sequence learning is very similar regardless of the source modality. However, the presence of correlated task and response sequences was required for learning to take place. The experiment provides new evidence for implicit sequence learning of abstract conceptual representations. In general, the results suggest that correlated sequences are necessary for implicit sequence learning to occur. Moreover, they show that elements from different modalities can be automatically integrated into one unitary multimodal sequence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Sequence Read Archive (SRA) stores raw sequencing data from the next generation of sequencing platforms including Roche 454 GS System®, Illumina Genome...
Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Christiansen, P; Cuthbertson, D J; Hardman, C A; Robinson, E; Halford, J C G
2017-02-01
Acute and medium-term intervention studies suggest that non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are beneficial for weight loss, however there is limited human data on the long-term effects of consuming NNS on weight loss, maintenance, and appetite. Further research is therefore required to elucidate the prolonged impact of NNS consumption on these outcome measures. A randomized parallel groups design will be used to assess whether regular NNS beverage intake is equivalent to a water control in promoting weight loss over 12-weeks (weekly weight loss sessions; Phase I), then supporting weight maintenance over 40-weeks (monthly sessions; Phase II) and subsequently independent weight maintenance over 52-weeks (Phase III) in 432 participants. A subset of these participants (n=116) will complete laboratory-based appetite probe days (15 sessions; 3 sessions each at baseline, at the start of phase I and the end of each phase). A separate subset (n=50) will complete body composition scans (DXA) at baseline and at the end of each phase. All participants will regularly be weighed and will complete questionnaires and cognitive tasks to assess changes in body weight and appetitive behaviours. Measures of physical activity and biochemical markers will also be taken. The trial will assess the efficacy of NNS beverages compared to water during a behavioural weight loss and maintenance programme. We aim to understand whether the impact of NNS on weight, dietary adherence and well-being are beneficial or transient and effects on prolonged successful weight loss and weight maintenance through sustained changes in appetite and eating behaviour. Clinical Trials: NCT02591134; registered: 23.10.2015. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vanmarcke, Erik
1983-03-01
Random variation over space and time is one of the few attributes that might safely be predicted as characterizing almost any given complex system. Random fields or "distributed disorder systems" confront astronomers, physicists, geologists, meteorologists, biologists, and other natural scientists. They appear in the artifacts developed by electrical, mechanical, civil, and other engineers. They even underlie the processes of social and economic change. The purpose of this book is to bring together existing and new methodologies of random field theory and indicate how they can be applied to these diverse areas where a "deterministic treatment is inefficient and conventional statistics insufficient." Many new results and methods are included. After outlining the extent and characteristics of the random field approach, the book reviews the classical theory of multidimensional random processes and introduces basic probability concepts and methods in the random field context. It next gives a concise amount of the second-order analysis of homogeneous random fields, in both the space-time domain and the wave number-frequency domain. This is followed by a chapter on spectral moments and related measures of disorder and on level excursions and extremes of Gaussian and related random fields. After developing a new framework of analysis based on local averages of one-, two-, and n-dimensional processes, the book concludes with a chapter discussing ramifications in the important areas of estimation, prediction, and control. The mathematical prerequisite has been held to basic college-level calculus.
Gene Discovery through Genomic Sequencing of Brucella abortus
Sánchez, Daniel O.; Zandomeni, Ruben O.; Cravero, Silvio; Verdún, Ramiro E.; Pierrou, Ester; Faccio, Paula; Diaz, Gabriela; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Agüero, Fernán; Frasch, Alberto C. C.; Andersson, Siv G. E.; Rossetti, Osvaldo L.; Grau, Oscar; Ugalde, Rodolfo A.
2001-01-01
Brucella abortus is the etiological agent of brucellosis, a disease that affects bovines and human. We generated DNA random sequences from the genome of B. abortus strain 2308 in order to characterize molecular targets that might be useful for developing immunological or chemotherapeutic strategies against this pathogen. The partial sequencing of 1,899 clones allowed the identification of 1,199 genomic sequence surveys (GSSs) with high homology (BLAST expect value < 10−5) to sequences deposit...
Nonlinear analysis of sequence repeats of multi-domain proteins
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang Yanzhao [Biomolecular Physics and Modeling Group, Department of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Li Mingfeng [Biomolecular Physics and Modeling Group, Department of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Xiao Yi [Biomolecular Physics and Modeling Group, Department of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)]. E-mail: lmf_bill@sina.com
2007-11-15
Many multi-domain proteins have repetitive three-dimensional structures but nearly-random amino acid sequences. In the present paper, by using a modified recurrence plot proposed by us previously, we show that these amino acid sequences have hidden repetitions in fact. These results indicate that the repetitive domain structures are encoded by the repetitive sequences. This also gives a method to detect the repetitive domain structures directly from amino acid sequences.
Evolutionary dynamics of incubation periods.
Ottino-Loffler, Bertrand; Scott, Jacob G; Strogatz, Steven H
2017-12-21
The incubation period for typhoid, polio, measles, leukemia and many other diseases follows a right-skewed, approximately lognormal distribution. Although this pattern was discovered more than sixty years ago, it remains an open question to explain its ubiquity. Here, we propose an explanation based on evolutionary dynamics on graphs. For simple models of a mutant or pathogen invading a network-structured population of healthy cells, we show that skewed distributions of incubation periods emerge for a wide range of assumptions about invader fitness, competition dynamics, and network structure. The skewness stems from stochastic mechanisms associated with two classic problems in probability theory: the coupon collector and the random walk. Unlike previous explanations that rely crucially on heterogeneity, our results hold even for homogeneous populations. Thus, we predict that two equally healthy individuals subjected to equal doses of equally pathogenic agents may, by chance alone, show remarkably different time courses of disease.
Mathematical Use Of Polynomials Of Different End Periods Of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper focused on how polynomials of different end period of random numbers can be used in the application of encryption and decryption of a message. Eight steps were used in generating information on how polynomials of different end periods of random numbers in the application of encryption and decryption of a ...
Time fluctuation analysis of forest fire sequences
Vega Orozco, Carmen D.; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Tonini, Marj; Golay, Jean; Pereira, Mário J. G.
2013-04-01
Forest fires are complex events involving both space and time fluctuations. Understanding of their dynamics and pattern distribution is of great importance in order to improve the resource allocation and support fire management actions at local and global levels. This study aims at characterizing the temporal fluctuations of forest fire sequences observed in Portugal, which is the country that holds the largest wildfire land dataset in Europe. This research applies several exploratory data analysis measures to 302,000 forest fires occurred from 1980 to 2007. The applied clustering measures are: Morisita clustering index, fractal and multifractal dimensions (box-counting), Ripley's K-function, Allan Factor, and variography. These algorithms enable a global time structural analysis describing the degree of clustering of a point pattern and defining whether the observed events occur randomly, in clusters or in a regular pattern. The considered methods are of general importance and can be used for other spatio-temporal events (i.e. crime, epidemiology, biodiversity, geomarketing, etc.). An important contribution of this research deals with the analysis and estimation of local measures of clustering that helps understanding their temporal structure. Each measure is described and executed for the raw data (forest fires geo-database) and results are compared to reference patterns generated under the null hypothesis of randomness (Poisson processes) embedded in the same time period of the raw data. This comparison enables estimating the degree of the deviation of the real data from a Poisson process. Generalizations to functional measures of these clustering methods, taking into account the phenomena, were also applied and adapted to detect time dependences in a measured variable (i.e. burned area). The time clustering of the raw data is compared several times with the Poisson processes at different thresholds of the measured function. Then, the clustering measure value
Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy
2013-01-01
The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…
Ettelt, Harold J.
All recent issues of periodicals found which contain indexed book reviews are listed in this compilation from Drake Memorial Library at the New York State University at Brockport. The periodicals are listed by 29 subject headings in this informal guide designed to be used at Drake Library. The number of reviews in the periodical in a recent year…
The Discrete Beverton-Holt Model with Periodic Harvesting in a Periodically Fluctuating Environment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ziyad AlSharawi
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the effect of constant and periodic harvesting on the Beverton-Holt model in a periodically fluctuating environment. We show that in a periodically fluctuating environment, periodic harvesting gives a better maximum sustainable yield compared to constant harvesting. However, if one can also fix the environment, then constant harvesting in a constant environment can be a better option, especially for sufficiently large initial populations. Also, we investigate the combinatorial structure of the periodic sequence of carrying capacities and its effect on the maximum sustainable yield. Finally, we leave some questions worth further investigations.
Randomly modulated periodicity in the US stock market
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hinich, Melvin J. [Applied Research Laboratories, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78713-8029 (United States); Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta., T2N 1N4 (Canada)], E-mail: Serletis@ucalgary.ca
2008-05-15
This paper extends the work in Serletis and Shintani [Serletis A, Shintani M. No evidence of chaos but some evidence of dependence in the US stock market. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2003;17:449-454], Elder and Serletis [Elder J, Serletis A. On fractional integrating dynamics in the US stock market. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals [forthcoming, 2007
Randomly modulated periodicity in the US stock market
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinich, Melvin J.; Serletis, Apostolos
2008-01-01
This paper extends the work in Serletis and Shintani [Serletis A, Shintani M. No evidence of chaos but some evidence of dependence in the US stock market. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2003;17:449-454], Elder and Serletis [Elder J, Serletis A. On fractional integrating dynamics in the US stock market. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals [forthcoming, 2007
Visual Perceptual Echo Reflects Learning of Regularities in Rapid Luminance Sequences.
Chang, Acer Y-C; Schwartzman, David J; VanRullen, Rufin; Kanai, Ryota; Seth, Anil K
2017-08-30
A novel neural signature of active visual processing has recently been described in the form of the "perceptual echo", in which the cross-correlation between a sequence of randomly fluctuating luminance values and occipital electrophysiological signals exhibits a long-lasting periodic (∼100 ms cycle) reverberation of the input stimulus (VanRullen and Macdonald, 2012). As yet, however, the mechanisms underlying the perceptual echo and its function remain unknown. Reasoning that natural visual signals often contain temporally predictable, though nonperiodic features, we hypothesized that the perceptual echo may reflect a periodic process associated with regularity learning. To test this hypothesis, we presented subjects with successive repetitions of a rapid nonperiodic luminance sequence, and examined the effects on the perceptual echo, finding that echo amplitude linearly increased with the number of presentations of a given luminance sequence. These data suggest that the perceptual echo reflects a neural signature of regularity learning.Furthermore, when a set of repeated sequences was followed by a sequence with inverted luminance polarities, the echo amplitude decreased to the same level evoked by a novel stimulus sequence. Crucially, when the original stimulus sequence was re-presented, the echo amplitude returned to a level consistent with the number of presentations of this sequence, indicating that the visual system retained sequence-specific information, for many seconds, even in the presence of intervening visual input. Altogether, our results reveal a previously undiscovered regularity learning mechanism within the human visual system, reflected by the perceptual echo. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT How the brain encodes and learns fast-changing but nonperiodic visual input remains unknown, even though such visual input characterizes natural scenes. We investigated whether the phenomenon of "perceptual echo" might index such learning. The perceptual echo is a
The period-luminosity relation for Cepheids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodie, J.P.
1980-01-01
Numerical simulations of the empirical determination of the period-luminosity-colour relation for classical Cepheids are presented. In this study the quantitative effects of random errors, reddening, sample size and the presence of both colour and period cut-offs (imposed by the finite extent of the instability strip) on the observational redetermination of the original relation are evaluated. Both random errors in the photometry and correlated errors in the reddening corrections are shown to have systematic effects. Especially sensitive to these errors is the colour coefficient in the period-luminosity-colour relation, where the ratio of the error to the width of the instability strip is the determining factor. With present observations only broad confidence limits can be placed on present knowledge of the intrinsic period-luminosity-colour relation and/or its variations from galaxy to galaxy. (author)
Nonparametric combinatorial sequence models.
Wauthier, Fabian L; Jordan, Michael I; Jojic, Nebojsa
2011-11-01
This work considers biological sequences that exhibit combinatorial structures in their composition: groups of positions of the aligned sequences are "linked" and covary as one unit across sequences. If multiple such groups exist, complex interactions can emerge between them. Sequences of this kind arise frequently in biology but methodologies for analyzing them are still being developed. This article presents a nonparametric prior on sequences which allows combinatorial structures to emerge and which induces a posterior distribution over factorized sequence representations. We carry out experiments on three biological sequence families which indicate that combinatorial structures are indeed present and that combinatorial sequence models can more succinctly describe them than simpler mixture models. We conclude with an application to MHC binding prediction which highlights the utility of the posterior distribution over sequence representations induced by the prior. By integrating out the posterior, our method compares favorably to leading binding predictors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeong, C.L.; Torquato, S.
1998-01-01
We formulate a procedure to reconstruct the structure of general random heterogeneous media from limited morphological information by extending the methodology of Rintoul and Torquato [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 186, 467 (1997)] developed for dispersions. The procedure has the advantages that it is simple to implement and generally applicable to multidimensional, multiphase, and anisotropic structures. Furthermore, an extremely useful feature is that it can incorporate any type and number of correlation functions in order to provide as much morphological information as is necessary for accurate reconstruction. We consider a variety of one- and two-dimensional reconstructions, including periodic and random arrays of rods, various distribution of disks, Debye random media, and a Fontainebleau sandstone sample. We also use our algorithm to construct heterogeneous media from specified hypothetical correlation functions, including an exponentially damped, oscillating function as well as physically unrealizable ones. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Pseudo random number generator based on quantum chaotic map
Akhshani, A.; Akhavan, A.; Mobaraki, A.; Lim, S.-C.; Hassan, Z.
2014-01-01
For many years dissipative quantum maps were widely used as informative models of quantum chaos. In this paper, a new scheme for generating good pseudo-random numbers (PRNG), based on quantum logistic map is proposed. Note that the PRNG merely relies on the equations used in the quantum chaotic map. The algorithm is not complex, which does not impose high requirement on computer hardware and thus computation speed is fast. In order to face the challenge of using the proposed PRNG in quantum cryptography and other practical applications, the proposed PRNG is subjected to statistical tests using well-known test suites such as NIST, DIEHARD, ENT and TestU01. The results of the statistical tests were promising, as the proposed PRNG successfully passed all these tests. Moreover, the degree of non-periodicity of the chaotic sequences of the quantum map is investigated through the Scale index technique. The obtained result shows that, the sequence is more non-periodic. From these results it can be concluded that, the new scheme can generate a high percentage of usable pseudo-random numbers for simulation and other applications in scientific computing.
Genome Sequence Databases (Overview): Sequencing and Assembly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lapidus, Alla L.
2009-01-01
From the date its role in heredity was discovered, DNA has been generating interest among scientists from different fields of knowledge: physicists have studied the three dimensional structure of the DNA molecule, biologists tried to decode the secrets of life hidden within these long molecules, and technologists invent and improve methods of DNA analysis. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of DNA occupies a special place among the methods developed. Thanks to the variety of sequencing technologies available, the process of decoding the sequence of genomic DNA (or whole genome sequencing) has become robust and inexpensive. Meanwhile the assembly of whole genome sequences remains a challenging task. In addition to the need to assemble millions of DNA fragments of different length (from 35 bp (Solexa) to 800 bp (Sanger)), great interest in analysis of microbial communities (metagenomes) of different complexities raises new problems and pushes some new requirements for sequence assembly tools to the forefront. The genome assembly process can be divided into two steps: draft assembly and assembly improvement (finishing). Despite the fact that automatically performed assembly (or draft assembly) is capable of covering up to 98% of the genome, in most cases, it still contains incorrectly assembled reads. The error rate of the consensus sequence produced at this stage is about 1/2000 bp. A finished genome represents the genome assembly of much higher accuracy (with no gaps or incorrectly assembled areas) and quality ({approx}1 error/10,000 bp), validated through a number of computer and laboratory experiments.
Random Item Generation Is Affected by Age
Multani, Namita; Rudzicz, Frank; Wong, Wing Yiu Stephanie; Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; van Lieshout, Pascal
2016-01-01
Purpose: Random item generation (RIG) involves central executive functioning. Measuring aspects of random sequences can therefore provide a simple method to complement other tools for cognitive assessment. We examine the extent to which RIG relates to specific measures of cognitive function, and whether those measures can be estimated using RIG…
Aspects of insertion in random trees
Bagchi, Arunabha; Reingold, E.M.
1982-01-01
A method formulated by Yao and used by Brown has yielded bounds on the fraction of nodes with specified properties in trees bult by a sequence of random internal nodes in a random tree built by binary search and insertion, and show that in such a tree about bounds better than those now known. We
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsallis, C.
1980-03-01
The 'ingredients' which control a phase transition in well defined system as well as in random ones (e.g. random magnetic systems) are listed and discussed within a somehow unifying perspective. Among these 'ingredients' we find the couplings and elements responsible for the cooperative phenomenon, the topological connectivity as well as possible topological incompatibilities, the influence of new degrees of freedom, the order parameter dimensionality, the ground state degeneracy and finally the 'quanticity' of the system. The general trends, though illustrated in magnetic systems, essentially hold for all phase transitions, and give a basis for connection of this area with Field theory, Theory of dynamical systems, etc. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsallis, C.
1981-01-01
The 'ingredients' which control a phase transition in well defined systems as well as in random ones (e.q. random magnetic systems) are listed and discussed within a somehow unifying perspective. Among these 'ingredients' the couplings and elements responsible for the cooperative phenomenon, the topological connectivity as well as possible topological incompatibilities, the influence of new degrees of freedom, the order parameter dimensionality, the ground state degeneracy and finally the 'quanticity' of the system are found. The general trends, though illustrated in magnetic systems, essentially hold for all phase transitions, and give a basis for connection of this area with Field theory, Theory of dynamical systems, etc. (Author) [pt
Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... into two groups, depending on the cause: Primary dysmenorrhea Secondary dysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sarri, Kalliopi
1999-01-01
and their quality was improved considerably toward the end of this period. The profound cultural innovations of the Middle Helladic period were initially interpreted as a result of violent population movement and troubles provoked by the coming of the first Indo-European races. However, this matter does no more...... Helladic period is considered as a period of economic and social decline it was the time during which the mainland features merged with the insular influence, that is all the Aegean elements which led to the creation of the Mycenaean civilization were mixed in a creative way....
Selective retrieval of memory and concept sequences through neuro-windows
Kakeya, Hideki; Okabe, Yoichi
1999-01-01
This letter presents a crosscorrelational associative memory model which realizes selective retrieval of pattern sequences. When hierarchically correlated sequences are memorized, sequences of the correlational centers can be defined as the concept sequences. The authors propose a modified neuro-window method which enables selective retrieval of memory sequences and concept sequences. It is also shown that the proposed model realizes capacity expansion of the memory which stores random sequen...
Random number generators in support of Monte Carlo problems in physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dyadkin, I.G.
1993-01-01
The ability to support a modern users' expectations of random number generators to solve problems in physics is analyzed. The capabilities of the newest concepts and the old pseudo-random algorithms are compared. The author is in favor of multiplicative generators. Due to the 64-bit arithmetic of a modern PC, multiplicative generators have a sufficient number of periods (up to 2 62 ) and are quicker to generate and to govern independent sequences for parallel processing. In addition they are able to replicate sub-sequences (without storing their seeds) for each standard trial in any code and to simulate spatial and planar directions and EXP(-x) distributions often needed as ''bricks'' for simulating events in physics. Hundreds of multipliers for multiplicative generators have been tabulated and tested, and the required speeds have been obtained. (author)
Long sequence correlation coprocessor
Gage, Douglas W.
1994-09-01
A long sequence correlation coprocessor (LSCC) accelerates the bitwise correlation of arbitrarily long digital sequences by calculating in parallel the correlation score for 16, for example, adjacent bit alignments between two binary sequences. The LSCC integrated circuit is incorporated into a computer system with memory storage buffers and a separate general purpose computer processor which serves as its controller. Each of the LSCC's set of sequential counters simultaneously tallies a separate correlation coefficient. During each LSCC clock cycle, computer enable logic associated with each counter compares one bit of a first sequence with one bit of a second sequence to increment the counter if the bits are the same. A shift register assures that the same bit of the first sequence is simultaneously compared to different bits of the second sequence to simultaneously calculate the correlation coefficient by the different counters to represent different alignments of the two sequences.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bell, G.I.
1991-12-31
The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.
Anomaly Detection in Sequences
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a set of novel algorithms which we call sequenceMiner, that detect and characterize anomalies in large sets of high-dimensional symbol sequences that...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cook-Deegan, R.M. [Georgetown Univ., Kennedy Inst. of Ethics, Washington, DC (United States); Venter, J.C. [National Inst. of Neurological Disorders and Strokes, Bethesda, MD (United States); Gilbert, W. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Mulligan, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Mansfield, B.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
1991-06-19
This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Detecting and describing anomalies in large repositories of discrete symbol sequences. sequenceMiner has been open-sourced! Download the file below to try it out....
All-optical fast random number generator.
Li, Pu; Wang, Yun-Cai; Zhang, Jian-Zhong
2010-09-13
We propose a scheme of all-optical random number generator (RNG), which consists of an ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) chaotic laser, an all-optical sampler and an all-optical comparator. Free from the electric-device bandwidth, it can generate 10Gbit/s random numbers in our simulation. The high-speed bit sequences can pass standard statistical tests for randomness after all-optical exclusive-or (XOR) operation.
Law of Iterated Logarithm for NA Sequences with Non-Identical ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Based on a law of the iterated logarithm for independent random variables sequences, an iterated logarithm theorem for NA sequences with non-identical distributions is obtained. The proof is based on a Kolmogrov-type exponential inequality.
Application of quasi-random numbers for simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazachenko, O.N.; Takhtamyshev, G.G.
1985-01-01
Application of the Monte-Carlo method for multidimensional integration is discussed. The main goal is to check the statement that the application of quasi-random numbers instead of regular pseudo-random numbers provides more rapid convergency. The Sobol, Richtmayer and Halton algorithms of quasi-random sequences are described. Over 50 tests to compare these quasi-random numbers as well as pseudo-random numbers were fulfilled. In all cases quasi-random numbers have clearly demonstrated a more rapid convergency as compared with pseudo-random ones. Positive test results on quasi-random trend in Monte-Carlo method seem very promising
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asmussen, J.C.; Ibrahim, S.R.; Brincker, Rune
Abstraet Thispaper demansirates how to use the Random Decrement (RD) technique for identification o flinear structures subjected to ambient excitation. The theory behind the technique will be presented and guidelines how to choose the different variables will be given. This is done by introducing...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune
This paper demonstrates how to use the Random Decrement (RD) technique for identification of linear structures subjected to ambient excitation. The theory behind the technique will be presented and guidelines how to choose the different variables will be given. This is done by introducing a new...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, R.; Brincker, Rune
1998-01-01
This paper demonstrates how to use the Random Decrement (RD) technique for identification of linear structures subjected to ambient excitation. The theory behind the technique will be presented and guidelines how to choose the different variables will be given. This is done by introducing a new...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bennett, D.L.; Brene, N.; Nielsen, H.B.
1986-06-01
The goal of random dynamics is the derivation of the laws of Nature as we know them (standard model) from inessential assumptions. The inessential assumptions made here are expressed as sets of general models at extremely high energies: gauge glass and spacetime foam. Both sets of models lead tentatively to the standard model. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bennett, D.L.
1987-01-01
The goal of random dynamics is the derivation of the laws of Nature as we know them (standard model) from inessential assumptions. The inessential assumptions made here are expressed as sets of general models at extremely high energies: Gauge glass and spacetime foam. Both sets of models lead tentatively to the standard model. (orig.)
Bennett, D. L.; Brene, N.; Nielsen, H. B.
1987-01-01
The goal of random dynamics is the derivation of the laws of Nature as we know them (standard model) from inessential assumptions. The inessential assumptions made here are expressed as sets of general models at extremely high energies: gauge glass and spacetime foam. Both sets of models lead tentatively to the standard model.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sorokin, Sergey V.
2015-01-01
The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim o...
Nahlik, Mary Schrodt
2005-01-01
To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…
Huber, Annette
2017-01-01
This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...
Calibration of Correlation Radiometers Using Pseudo-Random Noise Signals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sebastián Pantoja
2009-08-01
Full Text Available The calibration of correlation radiometers, and particularly aperture synthesis interferometric radiometers, is a critical issue to ensure their performance. Current calibration techniques are based on the measurement of the cross-correlation of receivers’ outputs when injecting noise from a common noise source requiring a very stable distribution network. For large interferometric radiometers this centralized noise injection approach is very complex from the point of view of mass, volume and phase/amplitude equalization. Distributed noise injection techniques have been proposed as a feasible alternative, but are unable to correct for the so-called “baseline errors” associated with the particular pair of receivers forming the baseline. In this work it is proposed the use of centralized Pseudo-Random Noise (PRN signals to calibrate correlation radiometers. PRNs are sequences of symbols with a long repetition period that have a flat spectrum over a bandwidth which is determined by the symbol rate. Since their spectrum resembles that of thermal noise, they can be used to calibrate correlation radiometers. At the same time, since these sequences are deterministic, new calibration schemes can be envisaged, such as the correlation of each receiver’s output with a baseband local replica of the PRN sequence, as well as new distribution schemes of calibration signals. This work analyzes the general requirements and performance of using PRN sequences for the calibration of microwave correlation radiometers, and particularizes the study to a potential implementation in a large aperture synthesis radiometer using an optical distribution network.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos A. Berenstein
1980-01-01
Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.
Reliability analysis of structures under periodic proof tests in service
Yang, J.-N.
1976-01-01
A reliability analysis of structures subjected to random service loads and periodic proof tests treats gust loads and maneuver loads as random processes. Crack initiation, crack propagation, and strength degradation are treated as the fatigue process. The time to fatigue crack initiation and ultimate strength are random variables. Residual strength decreases during crack propagation, so that failure rate increases with time. When a structure fails under periodic proof testing, a new structure is built and proof-tested. The probability of structural failure in service is derived from treatment of all the random variables, strength degradations, service loads, proof tests, and the renewal of failed structures. Some numerical examples are worked out.
Sequence complexity and work extraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merhav, Neri
2015-01-01
We consider a simplified version of a solvable model by Mandal and Jarzynski, which constructively demonstrates the interplay between work extraction and the increase of the Shannon entropy of an information reservoir which is in contact with a physical system. We extend Mandal and Jarzynski’s main findings in several directions: first, we allow sequences of correlated bits rather than just independent bits. Secondly, at least for the case of binary information, we show that, in fact, the Shannon entropy is only one measure of complexity of the information that must increase in order for work to be extracted. The extracted work can also be upper bounded in terms of the increase in other quantities that measure complexity, like the predictability of future bits from past ones. Third, we provide an extension to the case of non-binary information (i.e. a larger alphabet), and finally, we extend the scope to the case where the incoming bits (before the interaction) form an individual sequence, rather than a random one. In this case, the entropy before the interaction can be replaced by the Lempel–Ziv (LZ) complexity of the incoming sequence, a fact that gives rise to an entropic meaning of the LZ complexity, not only in information theory, but also in physics. (paper)
Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)
Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...
Vaginal bleeding between periods
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...
Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad
2018-04-01
In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huffman, F.C.
1978-01-01
The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered
Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.
1995-01-01
Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)
Saturnelli, Annette
1985-01-01
Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)
Supersymmetrically transformed periodic potentials
C, David J. Fernandez
2003-01-01
The higher order supersymmetric partners of a stationary periodic potential are studied. The transformation functions associated to the band edges do not change the spectral structure. However, when the transformation is implemented for factorization energies inside of the forbidden bands, the final potential will have again the initial band structure but it can have bound states encrusted into the gaps, giving place to localized periodicity defects.
Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan; Suresh Rama Chandran; Geetha Thirumalnesan; Nedumaran Doraisamy
2011-01-01
This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recove...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Procassini, R J; Beck, B R
2004-01-01
It might be assumed that use of a ''high-quality'' random number generator (RNG), producing a sequence of ''pseudo random'' numbers with a ''long'' repetition period, is crucial for producing unbiased results in Monte Carlo particle transport simulations. While several theoretical and empirical tests have been devised to check the quality (randomness and period) of an RNG, for many applications it is not clear what level of RNG quality is required to produce unbiased results. This paper explores the issue of RNG quality in the context of parallel, Monte Carlo transport simulations in order to determine how ''good'' is ''good enough''. This study employs the MERCURY Monte Carlo code, which incorporates the CNPRNG library for the generation of pseudo-random numbers via linear congruential generator (LCG) algorithms. The paper outlines the usage of random numbers during parallel MERCURY simulations, and then describes the source and criticality transport simulations which comprise the empirical basis of this study. A series of calculations for each test problem in which the quality of the RNG (period of the LCG) is varied provides the empirical basis for determining the minimum repetition period which may be employed without producing a bias in the mean integrated results
Mining olive genome through library sequencing and bioinformatics ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
As one of the initial steps of olive (Olea europaea L.) genome analysis, a small insert genomic DNA library was constructed (digesting olive genomic DNA with SmaI and cloning the digestion products into pUC19 vector) and randomly picked 83 colonies were sequenced. Analysis of the insert sequences revealed 12 clones ...
Chaotic generation of PN sequences : a VLSI implementation
Dornbusch, A.; Pineda de Gyvez, J.
1999-01-01
Generation of repeatable pseudo-random sequences with chaotic analog electronics is not feasible using standard circuit topologies. Component variation caused by imperfect fabrication causes the same divergence of output sequences as does varying initial conditions. By quantizing the output of a
Complete genome sequences of six measles virus strains
Phan, M.V.T. (My V.T.); C.M.E. Schapendonk (Claudia); B.B. Oude Munnink (Bas B.); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); R.L. de Swart (Rik); Cotten, M. (Matthew)
2018-01-01
textabstractGenetic characterization of wild-type measles virus (MV) strains is a critical component of measles surveillance and molecular epidemiology. We have obtained complete genome sequences of six MV strains belonging to different genotypes, using random-primed next generation sequencing.
Extending generalized Fibonacci sequences and their binet-type formula
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saeki Osamu
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We study the extension problem of a given sequence defined by a finite order recurrence to a sequence defined by an infinite order recurrence with periodic coefficient sequence. We also study infinite order recurrence relations in a strong sense and give a complete answer to the extension problem. We also obtain a Binet-type formula, answering several open questions about these sequences and their characteristic power series.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakraborty, Brahmananda
2009-01-01
Random number plays an important role in any Monte Carlo simulation. The accuracy of the results depends on the quality of the sequence of random numbers employed in the simulation. These include randomness of the random numbers, uniformity of their distribution, absence of correlation and long period. In a typical Monte Carlo simulation of particle transport in a nuclear reactor core, the history of a particle from its birth in a fission event until its death by an absorption or leakage event is tracked. The geometry of the core and the surrounding materials are exactly modeled in the simulation. To track a neutron history one needs random numbers for determining inter collision distance, nature of the collision, the direction of the scattered neutron etc. Neutrons are tracked in batches. In one batch approximately 2000-5000 neutrons are tracked. The statistical accuracy of the results of the simulation depends on the total number of particles (number of particles in one batch multiplied by the number of batches) tracked. The number of histories to be generated is usually large for a typical radiation transport problem. To track a very large number of histories one needs to generate a long sequence of independent random numbers. In other words the cycle length of the random number generator (RNG) should be more than the total number of random numbers required for simulating the given transport problem. The number of bits of the machine generally limits the cycle length. For a binary machine of p bits the maximum cycle length is 2 p . To achieve higher cycle length in the same machine one has to use either register arithmetic or bit manipulation technique
Photometric Analysis and Period Investigation of the EW Type ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Photometric Analysis and Period Investigation of the EW Type. Eclipsing ... binary with the less massive secondary component filling the inner Roche lobe. ..... Cox 2000) assuming that the primary component is a normal main sequence star.
On the Periods of Biperiodic Fibonacci and Biperiodic Lucas Numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dursun Tascı
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with periods of Biperiodic Fibonacci and Biperiodic Lucas sequences taken as modulo prime and prime power. By using Fermat’s little theorem, quadratic reciprocity, many results are obtained.
Algebraic polynomials with random coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Farahmand
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This paper provides an asymptotic value for the mathematical expected number of points of inflections of a random polynomial of the form a0(ω+a1(ω(n11/2x+a2(ω(n21/2x2+…an(ω(nn1/2xn when n is large. The coefficients {aj(w}j=0n, w∈Ω are assumed to be a sequence of independent normally distributed random variables with means zero and variance one, each defined on a fixed probability space (A,Ω,Pr. A special case of dependent coefficients is also studied.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hollow, M R; Parkes, M J; Clutton-Brock, T H
2011-01-01
Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is known to be attenuated by inspiration and all the original BRS methodologies took this into account by measuring only in expiration. Spontaneous sequence analysis (SSA) is a non-invasive clinical tool widely used to estimate BRS in Man but does not take breathing into account. We have therefore modified it to test whether it too can detect inspiratory attenuation. Traditional SSA is also entangled with issues of distinguishing causal from random relationships between blood pressure and heart period and of the optimum choice of data filter settings. We have also tested whether the sequences our modified SSA rejects do behave as random relationships and show the limitations of the absence of filter standardization. SSA was performed on eupneic data from 1 h periods in 20 healthy subjects. Applying SSA traditionally produced a mean BRS of 23 ± 3 ms mmHg −1 . After modification to measure breathing, SSA detected significant inspiratory attenuation (11 ± 1 ms mmHg −1 ), and the mean expiratory BRS was significantly higher (26 ± 5 ms mmHg −1 ). Traditional SSA therefore underestimates BRS by an amount (3 ms mmHg −1 ) as big as the major physiological and clinical factors known to alter BRS. We show that the sequences rejected by SSA do behave like random associations between pressure and period. We also show the minimal effect of the r 2 filter and the biases that some pressure and heart period filters can introduce. We discuss whether SSA might be improved by standardization of filter settings and by also measuring breathing
Probabilistic Motor Sequence Yields Greater Offline and Less Online Learning than Fixed Sequence.
Du, Yue; Prashad, Shikha; Schoenbrun, Ilana; Clark, Jane E
2016-01-01
It is well acknowledged that motor sequences can be learned quickly through online learning. Subsequently, the initial acquisition of a motor sequence is boosted or consolidated by offline learning. However, little is known whether offline learning can drive the fast learning of motor sequences (i.e., initial sequence learning in the first training session). To examine offline learning in the fast learning stage, we asked four groups of young adults to perform the serial reaction time (SRT) task with either a fixed or probabilistic sequence and with or without preliminary knowledge (PK) of the presence of a sequence. The sequence and PK were manipulated to emphasize either procedural (probabilistic sequence; no preliminary knowledge (NPK)) or declarative (fixed sequence; with PK) memory that were found to either facilitate or inhibit offline learning. In the SRT task, there were six learning blocks with a 2 min break between each consecutive block. Throughout the session, stimuli followed the same fixed or probabilistic pattern except in Block 5, in which stimuli appeared in a random order. We found that PK facilitated the learning of a fixed sequence, but not a probabilistic sequence. In addition to overall learning measured by the mean reaction time (RT), we examined the progressive changes in RT within and between blocks (i.e., online and offline learning, respectively). It was found that the two groups who performed the fixed sequence, regardless of PK, showed greater online learning than the other two groups who performed the probabilistic sequence. The groups who performed the probabilistic sequence, regardless of PK, did not display online learning, as indicated by a decline in performance within the learning blocks. However, they did demonstrate remarkably greater offline improvement in RT, which suggests that they are learning the probabilistic sequence offline. These results suggest that in the SRT task, the fast acquisition of a motor sequence is driven
DNA Sequences of RAPD Fragments in the Egyptian cotton ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs) is a DNA polymorphism assay based on the amplification of random DNA segments with single primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequence. Despite the fact that the RAPD technique has become a very powerful tool and has found use in numerous applications, yet, the nature of ...
Fibonacci order in the period-doubling cascade to chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linage, G.; Montoya, Fernando; Sarmiento, A.; Showalter, K.; Parmananda, P.
2006-01-01
In this contribution, we describe how the Fibonacci sequence appears within the Feigenbaum scaling of the period-doubling cascade to chaos. An important consequence of this discovery is that the ratio of successive Fibonacci numbers converges to the golden mean in every period-doubling sequence and therefore the convergence to φ, the most irrational number, occurs in concert with the onset of deterministic chaos
Fibonacci order in the period-doubling cascade to chaos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linage, G. [Facultad de Ciencias UAEM, Avenida Universidad 1001, Colonia Chamilpa, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Montoya, Fernando [Facultad de Ciencias UAEM, Avenida Universidad 1001, Colonia Chamilpa, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sarmiento, A. [Instituto de Matematicas, UNAM, Colonia Chamilpa, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Showalter, K. [Department of Chemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6045 (United States); Parmananda, P. [Facultad de Ciencias UAEM, Avenida Universidad 1001, Colonia Chamilpa, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: punit@servm.fc.uaem.mx
2006-12-11
In this contribution, we describe how the Fibonacci sequence appears within the Feigenbaum scaling of the period-doubling cascade to chaos. An important consequence of this discovery is that the ratio of successive Fibonacci numbers converges to the golden mean in every period-doubling sequence and therefore the convergence to {phi}, the most irrational number, occurs in concert with the onset of deterministic chaos.
Simulation of a directed random-walk model: the effect of pseudo-random-number correlations
Shchur, L. N.; Heringa, J. R.; Blöte, H. W. J.
1996-01-01
We investigate the mechanism that leads to systematic deviations in cluster Monte Carlo simulations when correlated pseudo-random numbers are used. We present a simple model, which enables an analysis of the effects due to correlations in several types of pseudo-random-number sequences. This model provides qualitative understanding of the bias mechanism in a class of cluster Monte Carlo algorithms.
Spreading Sequences Generated Using Asymmetrical Integer-Number Maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Sebesta
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Chaotic sequences produced by piecewise linear maps can be transformed to binary sequences. The binary sequences are optimal for the asynchronous DS/CDMA systems in case of certain shapes of the maps. This paper is devoted to the one-to-one integer-number maps derived from the suitable asymmetrical piecewise linear maps. Such maps give periodic integer-number sequences, which can be transformed to the binary sequences. The binary sequences produced via proposed modified integer-number maps are perfectly balanced and embody good autocorrelation and crosscorrelation properties. The number of different binary sequences is sizable. The sequences are suitable as spreading sequences in DS/CDMA systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fluck, E.; Heumann, K.G.
1985-01-01
Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF) [de
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly.
Experimental Rugged Fitness Landscape in Protein Sequence Space
HAYASHI, Yuuki; 相田, 拓洋; TOYOTA, Hitoshi; 伏見, 譲; URABE, Itaru; YOMO, Tetsuya
2006-01-01
The fitness landscape in sequence space determines the process of biomolecular evolution. To plot the fitness landscape of protein function, we carried out in vitro molecular evolution beginning with a defective fd phage carrying a random polypeptide of 139 amino acids in place of the g3p minor coat protein D2 domain, which is essential for phage infection. After 20 cycles of random substitution at sites 12-130 of the initial random polypeptide and selection for infectivity, the selected phag...
CMOS Compressed Imaging by Random Convolution
Jacques, Laurent; Vandergheynst, Pierre; Bibet, Alexandre; Majidzadeh, Vahid; Schmid, Alexandre; Leblebici, Yusuf
2009-01-01
We present a CMOS imager with built-in capability to perform Compressed Sensing. The adopted sensing strategy is the random Convolution due to J. Romberg. It is achieved by a shift register set in a pseudo-random configuration. It acts as a convolutive filter on the imager focal plane, the current issued from each CMOS pixel undergoing a pseudo-random redirection controlled by each component of the filter sequence. A pseudo-random triggering of the ADC reading is finally applied to comp...
The randomly renewed general item and the randomly inspected item with exponential life distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneeweiss, W.G.
1979-01-01
For a randomly renewed item the probability distributions of the time to failure and of the duration of down time and the expectations of these random variables are determined. Moreover, it is shown that the same theory applies to randomly checked items with exponential probability distribution of life such as electronic items. The case of periodic renewals is treated as an example. (orig.) [de
Multi-Period Trading via Convex Optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boyd, Stephen; Busseti, Enzo; Diamond, Steve
2017-01-01
We consider a basic model of multi-period trading, which can be used to evaluate the performance of a trading strategy. We describe a framework for single-period optimization, where the trades in each period are found by solving a convex optimization problem that trades oﬀ expected return, risk......, transaction cost and holding cost such as the borrowing cost for shorting assets. We then describe a multi-period version of the trading method, where optimization is used to plan a sequence of trades, with only the ﬁrst one executed, using estimates of future quantities that are unknown when the trades....... In this paper, we do not address a critical component in a trading algorithm, the predictions or forecasts of future quantities. The methods we describe in this paper can be thought of as good ways to exploit predictions, no matter how they are made. We have also developed a companion open-source software...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roniram Pereira da Silva
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The planting of diversified crops during the sugarcane fallow period can improve the chemical and physical properties and increase the production potential of the soil for the next sugarcane cycle. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the influence of various soil uses during the sugarcane fallow period on soil chemical and physical properties and productivity after the first sugarcane harvest. The experiment was conducted in two areas located in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil (21º 14' 05'' S, 48º 17' 09'' W with two different soil types, namely: an eutroferric Red Latosol (RLe with high-clay texture (clay content = 680 g kg-1 and an acric Red Latosol (RLa with clayey texture (clay content = 440 g kg-1. A randomized block design with five replications and four treatments (crop sequences was used. The crop sequences during the sugarcane fallow period were soybean/millet/soybean, soybean/sunn hemp/soybean, soybean/fallow/soybean, and soybean. Soil use was found not to affect chemical properties and sugarcane productivity of RLe or RLa. The soybean/millet/soybean sequence improved aggregation in the acric Latosol.
Gurau, Razvan
2017-01-01
Written by the creator of the modern theory of random tensors, this book is the first self-contained introductory text to this rapidly developing theory. Starting from notions familiar to the average researcher or PhD student in mathematical or theoretical physics, the book presents in detail the theory and its applications to physics. The recent detections of the Higgs boson at the LHC and gravitational waves at LIGO mark new milestones in Physics confirming long standing predictions of Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity. These two experimental results only reinforce today the need to find an underlying common framework of the two: the elusive theory of Quantum Gravity. Over the past thirty years, several alternatives have been proposed as theories of Quantum Gravity, chief among them String Theory. While these theories are yet to be tested experimentally, key lessons have already been learned. Whatever the theory of Quantum Gravity may be, it must incorporate random geometry in one form or another....
Johnson, Franklin K; Stark, Jeffrey G; Bieberdorf, Frederick A; Stauffer, Joe
2010-06-01
Morphine sulfate/sequestered naltrexone hydrochloride (HCl) (MS-sNT) extended-release fixed-dose combination capsules, approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in August 2009 for chronic moderate to severe pain, contain extended-release morphine pellets with a sequestered core of the opioid antagonist naltrexone. MS-sNT was designed so that if the product is tampered with by crushing, the naltrexone becomes bioavailable to mitigate morphine-induced subjective effects, rendering the product less attractive for tampering. The primary aim of this study was to compare the oral bioavailability of naltrexone and its metabolite 6-beta-naltrexol, derived from crushed pellets from MS-sNT capsules, to naltrexone solution. This study also assessed the relative bioavailability of morphine from crushed pellets from MS-sNT capsules and that from the whole, intact product. This single-dose, randomized-sequence, open-label, 3-period, 3-treatment crossover trial was conducted in healthy volunteers. Adults admitted to the study center underwent a 10-hour overnight fast before study drug administration. Each subject received all 3 of the following treatments, 1 per session, separated by a 14-day washout: tampered pellets (crushed for >or=2 minutes with a mortar and pestle) from a 60-mg MS-sNT capsule (60 mg morphine/2.4 mg naltrexone); 60-mg whole, intact MS-sNT capsule; and oral naltrexone HCl (2.4 mg) solution. Plasma concentrations of naltrexone and 6-beta-naltrexol were measured 0 to 168 hours after administration. Morphine pharmaco-kinetics of crushed and whole pellets were determined 0 to 72 hours after administration. The analysis of relative bioavailability was based on conventional FDA criteria for assuming bioequivalence; that is, 90% CIs for ratios of geometric means (natural logarithm [In]-transformed C(max) and AUC) fell within the range of 80% to 125%. Subjects underwent physical examinations, clinical laboratory tests, and ECG at screening and study
Simulating efficiently the evolution of DNA sequences.
Schöniger, M; von Haeseler, A
1995-02-01
Two menu-driven FORTRAN programs are described that simulate the evolution of DNA sequences in accordance with a user-specified model. This general stochastic model allows for an arbitrary stationary nucleotide composition and any transition-transversion bias during the process of base substitution. In addition, the user may define any hypothetical model tree according to which a family of sequences evolves. The programs suggest the computationally most inexpensive approach to generate nucleotide substitutions. Either reproducible or non-repeatable simulations, depending on the method of initializing the pseudo-random number generator, can be performed. The corresponding options are offered by the interface menu.
Ancestral sequence alignment under optimal conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brown Daniel G
2005-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple genome alignment is an important problem in bioinformatics. An important subproblem used by many multiple alignment approaches is that of aligning two multiple alignments. Many popular alignment algorithms for DNA use the sum-of-pairs heuristic, where the score of a multiple alignment is the sum of its induced pairwise alignment scores. However, the biological meaning of the sum-of-pairs of pairs heuristic is not obvious. Additionally, many algorithms based on the sum-of-pairs heuristic are complicated and slow, compared to pairwise alignment algorithms. An alternative approach to aligning alignments is to first infer ancestral sequences for each alignment, and then align the two ancestral sequences. In addition to being fast, this method has a clear biological basis that takes into account the evolution implied by an underlying phylogenetic tree. In this study we explore the accuracy of aligning alignments by ancestral sequence alignment. We examine the use of both maximum likelihood and parsimony to infer ancestral sequences. Additionally, we investigate the effect on accuracy of allowing ambiguity in our ancestral sequences. Results We use synthetic sequence data that we generate by simulating evolution on a phylogenetic tree. We use two different types of phylogenetic trees: trees with a period of rapid growth followed by a period of slow growth, and trees with a period of slow growth followed by a period of rapid growth. We examine the alignment accuracy of four ancestral sequence reconstruction and alignment methods: parsimony, maximum likelihood, ambiguous parsimony, and ambiguous maximum likelihood. Additionally, we compare against the alignment accuracy of two sum-of-pairs algorithms: ClustalW and the heuristic of Ma, Zhang, and Wang. Conclusion We find that allowing ambiguity in ancestral sequences does not lead to better multiple alignments. Regardless of whether we use parsimony or maximum likelihood, the
Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram
2010-02-01
Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.
Hereditary periodic fever syndromes
McDermott, MF; Frenkel, J
Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are defined by recurrent attacks of generalised inflammation for which no infectious or auto-immune cause can be identified. For most of these disorders, the molecular basis has recently been elucidated. This has opened the prospect of novel therapeutic
Almost periodic Schroedinger operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bellissard, J.; Lima, R.
1984-01-01
These lectures are devoted to recent developments in the theory of almost-periodic Schroedinger Operators. We specially describe the algebraic point of view, with applications to gap-labelling theorems. Particular models are also presented which exhibit various spectral properties. (orig.)
Astrophysical implications of periodicity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muller, R.A.
1988-01-01
Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed
Johnson, Mike
1998-01-01
Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…
Herrenden-Harker, B. D.
1997-01-01
Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)
Sequence memory based on coherent spin-interaction neural networks.
Xia, Min; Wong, W K; Wang, Zhijie
2014-12-01
Sequence information processing, for instance, the sequence memory, plays an important role on many functions of brain. In the workings of the human brain, the steady-state period is alterable. However, in the existing sequence memory models using heteroassociations, the steady-state period cannot be changed in the sequence recall. In this work, a novel neural network model for sequence memory with controllable steady-state period based on coherent spininteraction is proposed. In the proposed model, neurons fire collectively in a phase-coherent manner, which lets a neuron group respond differently to different patterns and also lets different neuron groups respond differently to one pattern. The simulation results demonstrating the performance of the sequence memory are presented. By introducing a new coherent spin-interaction sequence memory model, the steady-state period can be controlled by dimension parameters and the overlap between the input pattern and the stored patterns. The sequence storage capacity is enlarged by coherent spin interaction compared with the existing sequence memory models. Furthermore, the sequence storage capacity has an exponential relationship to the dimension of the neural network.
Sequences for Student Investigation
Barton, Jeffrey; Feil, David; Lartigue, David; Mullins, Bernadette
2004-01-01
We describe two classes of sequences that give rise to accessible problems for undergraduate research. These problems may be understood with virtually no prerequisites and are well suited for computer-aided investigation. The first sequence is a variation of one introduced by Stephen Wolfram in connection with his study of cellular automata. The…
Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; DelGuercio, Chris
2008-01-01
The Sequence History Update Tool performs Web-based sequence statistics archiving for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Using a single UNIX command, the software takes advantage of sequencing conventions to automatically extract the needed statistics from multiple files. This information is then used to populate a PHP database, which is then seamlessly formatted into a dynamic Web page. This tool replaces a previous tedious and error-prone process of manually editing HTML code to construct a Web-based table. Because the tool manages all of the statistics gathering and file delivery to and from multiple data sources spread across multiple servers, there is also a considerable time and effort savings. With the use of The Sequence History Update Tool what previously took minutes is now done in less than 30 seconds, and now provides a more accurate archival record of the sequence commanding for MRO.
Communication with spatial periodic chaos synchronization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, J.; Huang, H.B.; Qi, G.X.; Yang, P.; Xie, X.
2005-01-01
Based on the spatial periodic chaos synchronization in coupled ring and linear arrays, we proposed a random high-dimensional chaotic encryption scheme. The transmitter can choose hyperchaotic signals randomly from the ring at any different time and simultaneously transmit the information of chaotic oscillators in the ring to receiver through public channel, so that the message can be masked by different hyperchaotic signals in different time intervals during communication, and the receiver can decode the message based on chaos synchronization but the attacker does not know the random hyperchaotic dynamics and cannot decode the message. Furthermore, the high sensitivity to the symmetry of the coupling structure makes the attacker very difficult to obtain any useful message from the channel
The additive congruential random number generator--A special case of a multiple recursive generator
Wikramaratna, Roy S.
2008-07-01
This paper considers an approach to generating uniformly distributed pseudo-random numbers which works well in serial applications but which also appears particularly well-suited for application on parallel processing systems. Additive Congruential Random Number (ACORN) generators are straightforward to implement for arbitrarily large order and modulus; if implemented using integer arithmetic, it becomes possible to generate identical sequences on any machine. Previously published theoretical analysis has demonstrated that a kth order ACORN sequence approximates to being uniformly distributed in up to k dimensions, for any given k. ACORN generators can be constructed to give period lengths exceeding any given number (for example, with period length in excess of 230p, for any given p). Results of empirical tests have demonstrated that, if p is greater than or equal to 2, then the ACORN generator can be used successfully for generating double precision uniform random variates. This paper demonstrates that an ACORN generator is a particular case of a multiple recursive generator (and, therefore, also a special case of a matrix generator). Both these latter approaches have been widely studied, and it is to be hoped that the results given in the present paper will lead to greater confidence in using the ACORN generators.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.
1986-01-01
A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself
About the cumulants of periodic signals
Barrau, Axel; El Badaoui, Mohammed
2018-01-01
This note studies cumulants of time series. These functions originating from the probability theory being commonly used as features of deterministic signals, their classical properties are examined in this modified framework. We show additivity of cumulants, ensured in the case of independent random variables, requires here a different hypothesis. Practical applications are proposed, in particular an analysis of the failure of the JADE algorithm to separate some specific periodic signals.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Foley, Brian Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leitner, Thomas Kenneth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Apetrei, Cristian [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hahn, Beatrice [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mizrachi, Ilene [National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mullins, James [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rambaut, Andrew [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wolinsky, Steven [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-10-05
This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. We try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2015. Hence, though it is published in 2015 and called the 2015 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2014 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing. In total, at the end of 2014, there were 624,121 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 7% since the previous year. This is the first year that the number of new sequences added to the database has decreased compared to the previous year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 5834 by end of 2014. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a fraction of these. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.
Optimization of periodical interrogation of transducers of radioisotope measuring systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivashchenko, A.S.; Kaznakov, V.P.; Korolev, V.M.
1978-01-01
Certain methods are examined of optimizing periodic interrogation of sensors connected in a definite sequence to device for data processing in a system for controlling production processes. It is shown that in designing multiinput radioisotope measurement systems with a centralized data processing, the choice of the method of organizing periodic interrogation should be made with account for the conditions existing in each specific case
Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.
2015-09-01
Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C →U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.
Visuospatial working memory training facilitates visually-aided explicit sequence learning.
Chan, John S Y; Wu, Qiaofeng; Liang, Danxia; Yan, Jin H
2015-10-01
Finger sequence learning requires visuospatial working memory (WM). However, the dynamics between age, WM training, and motor skill acquisition are unclear. Therefore, we examined how visuospatial WM training improves finger movement sequential accuracy in younger (n=26, 21.1±1.37years) and older adults (n=22, 70.6±4.01years). After performing a finger sequence learning exercise and numerical and spatial WM tasks, participants in each age group were randomly assigned to either the experimental (EX) or control (CO) groups. For one hour daily over a 10-day period, the EX group practiced an adaptive n-back spatial task while those in the CO group practiced a non-adaptive version. As a result of WM practice, the EX participants increased their accuracy in the spatial n-back tasks, while accuracy remained unimproved in the numerical n-back tasks. In all groups, reaction times (RT) became shorter in most numerical and spatial n-back tasks. The learners in the EX group - but not in the CO group - showed improvements in their retention of finger sequences. The findings support our hypothesis that computerized visuospatial WM training improves finger sequence learning both in younger and in older adults. We discuss the theoretical implications and clinical relevance of this research for motor learning and functional rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Phylogenetic Trees From Sequences
Ryvkin, Paul; Wang, Li-San
In this chapter, we review important concepts and approaches for phylogeny reconstruction from sequence data.We first cover some basic definitions and properties of phylogenetics, and briefly explain how scientists model sequence evolution and measure sequence divergence. We then discuss three major approaches for phylogenetic reconstruction: distance-based phylogenetic reconstruction, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood. In the third part of the chapter, we review how multiple phylogenies are compared by consensus methods and how to assess confidence using bootstrapping. At the end of the chapter are two sections that list popular software packages and additional reading.
Multiple sequence alignment accuracy and phylogenetic inference.
Ogden, T Heath; Rosenberg, Michael S
2006-04-01
Phylogenies are often thought to be more dependent upon the specifics of the sequence alignment rather than on the method of reconstruction. Simulation of sequences containing insertion and deletion events was performed in order to determine the role that alignment accuracy plays during phylogenetic inference. Data sets were simulated for pectinate, balanced, and random tree shapes under different conditions (ultrametric equal branch length, ultrametric random branch length, nonultrametric random branch length). Comparisons between hypothesized alignments and true alignments enabled determination of two measures of alignment accuracy, that of the total data set and that of individual branches. In general, our results indicate that as alignment error increases, topological accuracy decreases. This trend was much more pronounced for data sets derived from more pectinate topologies. In contrast, for balanced, ultrametric, equal branch length tree shapes, alignment inaccuracy had little average effect on tree reconstruction. These conclusions are based on average trends of many analyses under different conditions, and any one specific analysis, independent of the alignment accuracy, may recover very accurate or inaccurate topologies. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian, in general, outperformed neighbor joining and maximum parsimony in terms of tree reconstruction accuracy. Results also indicated that as the length of the branch and of the neighboring branches increase, alignment accuracy decreases, and the length of the neighboring branches is the major factor in topological accuracy. Thus, multiple-sequence alignment can be an important factor in downstream effects on topological reconstruction.
Polysheroidal periodic functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Truskova, N.F.
1985-01-01
Separation of variables in the Helmholtz N-dimensional (N≥4) equation in polyspheroidal coordinate systems leads to the necessity of solving equations going over into equations for polyspheroidal periodic functions used for solving the two-centre problem in quantum mechanics, the three-body problem with Coulomb interaction, etc. For these functions the expansions are derived in terms of the Jacobi polynomials and Bessel functions. Their basic properties, asymptotics are considered. The algorithm of their computer calculations is developed. The results of numerical calculations are given
Deciphering Periodic Methanol Masers
Stecklum, Bringfried; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus; Hopp, Ulrich; Kraus, Alex; Linz, Hendrik; Sanna, Alberto; Sobolev, Andrej; Wolf, Verena
2018-05-01
Impressive progress has been made in recent years on massive star formation, yet the involved high optical depths even at submm/mm wavelengths make it difficult to reveal its details. Recently, accretion bursts of massive YSOs have been identified to cause flares of Class II methanol masers (methanol masers for short) due to enhanced mid-IR pumping. This opens a new window to protostellar accretion variability, and implies that periodic methanol masers hint at cyclic accretion. Pinning down the cause of the periodicity requires joint IR and radio monitoring. We derived the first IR light curve of a periodic maser host from NEOWISE data. The source, G107.298+5.639, is an intermediate-mass YSO hosting methanol and water masers which flare every 34.5 days. Our recent joint K-band and radio observations yielded first but marginal evidence for a phase lag between the rise of IR and maser emission, respectively, and revealed that both NEOWISE and K-band light curves are strongly affected by the light echo from the ambient dust. Both the superior resolution of IRAC over NEOWISE and the longer wavelengths compared to our ground-based imaging are required to inhibit the distractive contamination by the light echo. Thus, we ask for IRAC monitoring of G107 to cover one flare cycle, in tandem with 100-m Effelsberg and 2-m Wendelstein radio and NIR observations to obtain the first high-quality synoptic measurements of this kind of sources. The IR-maser phase lag, the intrinsic shape of the IR light curves and their possible color variation during the cycle allow us to constrain models for the periodic maser excitation. Since methanol masers are signposts of intermediate-mass and massive YSOs, deciphering their variability offers a clue to the dynamics of the accretion-mediated growth of massive stars and their feedback onto the immediate natal environment. The Spitzer light curve of such a maser-hosting YSO would be a legacy science product of the mission.
Detecting change in stochastic sound sequences.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benjamin Skerritt-Davis
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Our ability to parse our acoustic environment relies on the brain's capacity to extract statistical regularities from surrounding sounds. Previous work in regularity extraction has predominantly focused on the brain's sensitivity to predictable patterns in sound sequences. However, natural sound environments are rarely completely predictable, often containing some level of randomness, yet the brain is able to effectively interpret its surroundings by extracting useful information from stochastic sounds. It has been previously shown that the brain is sensitive to the marginal lower-order statistics of sound sequences (i.e., mean and variance. In this work, we investigate the brain's sensitivity to higher-order statistics describing temporal dependencies between sound events through a series of change detection experiments, where listeners are asked to detect changes in randomness in the pitch of tone sequences. Behavioral data indicate listeners collect statistical estimates to process incoming sounds, and a perceptual model based on Bayesian inference shows a capacity in the brain to track higher-order statistics. Further analysis of individual subjects' behavior indicates an important role of perceptual constraints in listeners' ability to track these sensory statistics with high fidelity. In addition, the inference model facilitates analysis of neural electroencephalography (EEG responses, anchoring the analysis relative to the statistics of each stochastic stimulus. This reveals both a deviance response and a change-related disruption in phase of the stimulus-locked response that follow the higher-order statistics. These results shed light on the brain's ability to process stochastic sound sequences.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — DNA sequence data for several genetic loci. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: It's already publicly available on GenBank. It can be accessed through...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Piskur, Jure; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold
2004-01-01
For decades, unicellular yeasts have been general models to help understand the eukaryotic cell and also our own biology. Recently, over a dozen yeast genomes have been sequenced, providing the basis to resolve several complex biological questions. Analysis of the novel sequence data has shown...... of closely related species helps in gene annotation and to answer how many genes there really are within the genomes. Analysis of non-coding regions among closely related species has provided an example of how to determine novel gene regulatory sequences, which were previously difficult to analyse because...... they are short and degenerate and occupy different positions. Comparative genomics helps to understand the origin of yeasts and points out crucial molecular events in yeast evolutionary history, such as whole-genome duplication and horizontal gene transfer(s). In addition, the accumulating sequence data provide...
1983-12-01
D-136 548 DYNAMIIC SEQUENCE ASSIGNMENT(U) ADVANCED INFORMATION AND 1/2 DECISION SYSTEMS MOUNTAIN YIELW CA C A 0 REILLY ET AL. UNCLSSIIED DEC 83 AI/DS...I ADVANCED INFORMATION & DECISION SYSTEMS Mountain View. CA 94040 84 u ,53 V,..’. Unclassified _____ SCURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE REPORT...reviews some important heuristic algorithms developed for fas- ter solution of the sequence assignment problem. 3.1. DINAMIC MOGRAMUNIG FORMULATION FOR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuiken, Carla [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Foley, Brian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leitner, Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Apetrei, Christian [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hahn, Beatrice [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Mizrachi, Ilene [National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mullins, James [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rambaut, Andrew [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wolinsky, Steven [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2010-12-31
This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. In these compendia we try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2010. Hence, though it is called the 2010 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2009 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing exponentially. In total, at the time of printing, there were 339,306 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 45% since last year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 2576 by end of 2009, reflecting a smaller increase than in previous years. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a small fraction of these. Included in the alignments are a small number of sequences representing each of the subtypes and the more prevalent circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) such as 01 and 02, as well as a few outgroup sequences (group O and N and SIV-CPZ). Of the rarer CRFs we included one representative each. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html. Reprints are available from our website in the form of both HTML and PDF files. As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.
Billal, Masum
2015-01-01
In this paper,we have characterized sequences which maintain the same property described in Lifting the Exponent Lemma. Lifting the Exponent Lemma is a very powerful tool in olympiad number theory and recently it has become very popular. We generalize it to all sequences that maintain a property like it i.e. if p^{\\alpha}||a_k and p^\\b{eta}||n, then p^{{\\alpha}+\\b{eta}}||a_{nk}.
Pairwise Sequence Alignment Library
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2015-05-20
Vector extensions, such as SSE, have been part of the x86 CPU since the 1990s, with applications in graphics, signal processing, and scientific applications. Although many algorithms and applications can naturally benefit from automatic vectorization techniques, there are still many that are difficult to vectorize due to their dependence on irregular data structures, dense branch operations, or data dependencies. Sequence alignment, one of the most widely used operations in bioinformatics workflows, has a computational footprint that features complex data dependencies. The trend of widening vector registers adversely affects the state-of-the-art sequence alignment algorithm based on striped data layouts. Therefore, a novel SIMD implementation of a parallel scan-based sequence alignment algorithm that can better exploit wider SIMD units was implemented as part of the Parallel Sequence Alignment Library (parasail). Parasail features: Reference implementations of all known vectorized sequence alignment approaches. Implementations of Smith Waterman (SW), semi-global (SG), and Needleman Wunsch (NW) sequence alignment algorithms. Implementations across all modern CPU instruction sets including AVX2 and KNC. Language interfaces for C/C++ and Python.
Periodic cluster mutations and related integrable maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fordy, Allan P
2014-01-01
One of the remarkable properties of cluster algebras is that any cluster, obtained from a sequence of mutations from an initial cluster, can be written as a Laurent polynomial in the initial cluster (known as the ‘Laurent phenomenon’). There are many nonlinear recurrences which exhibit the Laurent phenomenon and thus unexpectedly generate integer sequences. The mutation of a typical quiver will not generate a recurrence, but rather an erratic sequence of exchange relations. How do we ‘design’ a quiver which gives rise to a given recurrence? A key role is played by the concept of ‘periodic cluster mutation’, introduced in 2009. Each recurrence corresponds to a finite dimensional map. In the context of cluster mutations, these are called ‘cluster maps’. What properties do cluster maps have? Are they integrable in some standard sense?In this review I describe how integrable maps arise in the context of cluster mutations. I first explain the concept of ‘periodic cluster mutation’, giving some classification results. I then give a review of what is meant by an integrable map and apply this to cluster maps. Two classes of integrable maps are related to interesting monodromy problems, which generate interesting Poisson algebras of functions, used to prove complete integrability and a linearization. A connection to the Hirota–Miwa equation is explained. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Cluster algebras in mathematical physics’. (review)
Effects of changing the random number stride in Monte Carlo calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hendricks, J.S.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on a common practice in Monte Carlo radiation transport codes which is to start each random walk a specified number of steps up the random number sequence from the previous one. This is called the stride in the random number sequence between source particles. It is used for correlated sampling or to provide tree-structured random numbers. A new random number generator algorithm for the major Monte Carlo code MCNP has been written to allow adjustment of the random number stride. This random number generator is machine portable. The effects of varying the stride for several sample problems are examined
Periodically modulated dark states
Han, Yingying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenxian
2018-04-01
Phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (PEIT) may be interpreted by the Autler-Townes Splitting (ATS), where the coupled states are split by the coupling laser field, or by the quantum destructive interference (QDI), where the atomic phases caused by the coupling laser and the probe laser field cancel. We propose modulated experiments to explore the PEIT in an alternative way by periodically modulating the coupling and the probe fields in a Λ-type three-level system initially in a dark state. Our analytical and numerical results rule out the ATS interpretation and show that the QDI interpretation is more appropriate for the modulated experiments. Interestingly, dark state persists in the double-modulation situation where control and probe fields never occur simultaneously, which is significant difference from the traditional dark state condition. The proposed experiments are readily implemented in atomic gases, artificial atoms in superconducting quantum devices, or three-level meta-atoms in meta-materials.
A spatio-temporal synchronization of periodic markets: evidence ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This study seeks to identify the 'rings' of periodic market days in Akwa Ibom State, using eighteen periodic markets as case study The entire landmass of the state was covered with a network of grids. These grids were numbered and a table of random numbers was used in selecting a target population of eighteen ...
Random number generators tested on quantum Monte Carlo simulations.
Hongo, Kenta; Maezono, Ryo; Miura, Kenichi
2010-08-01
We have tested and compared several (pseudo) random number generators (RNGs) applied to a practical application, ground state energy calculations of molecules using variational and diffusion Monte Carlo metheds. A new multiple recursive generator with 8th-order recursion (MRG8) and the Mersenne twister generator (MT19937) are tested and compared with the RANLUX generator with five luxury levels (RANLUX-[0-4]). Both MRG8 and MT19937 are proven to give the same total energy as that evaluated with RANLUX-4 (highest luxury level) within the statistical error bars with less computational cost to generate the sequence. We also tested the notorious implementation of linear congruential generator (LCG), RANDU, for comparison. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Error Analysis of Deep Sequencing of Phage Libraries: Peptides Censored in Sequencing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wadim L. Matochko
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing techniques empower selection of ligands from phage-display libraries because they can detect low abundant clones and quantify changes in the copy numbers of clones without excessive selection rounds. Identification of errors in deep sequencing data is the most critical step in this process because these techniques have error rates >1%. Mechanisms that yield errors in Illumina and other techniques have been proposed, but no reports to date describe error analysis in phage libraries. Our paper focuses on error analysis of 7-mer peptide libraries sequenced by Illumina method. Low theoretical complexity of this phage library, as compared to complexity of long genetic reads and genomes, allowed us to describe this library using convenient linear vector and operator framework. We describe a phage library as N×1 frequency vector n=ni, where ni is the copy number of the ith sequence and N is the theoretical diversity, that is, the total number of all possible sequences. Any manipulation to the library is an operator acting on n. Selection, amplification, or sequencing could be described as a product of a N×N matrix and a stochastic sampling operator (Sa. The latter is a random diagonal matrix that describes sampling of a library. In this paper, we focus on the properties of Sa and use them to define the sequencing operator (Seq. Sequencing without any bias and errors is Seq=Sa IN, where IN is a N×N unity matrix. Any bias in sequencing changes IN to a nonunity matrix. We identified a diagonal censorship matrix (CEN, which describes elimination or statistically significant downsampling, of specific reads during the sequencing process.
Quasi-periodicity in deep redshift surveys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weygaert, R. van de
1991-01-01
The recent result by Broadhurst et al., (1990. Nature 343, 726) showing a striking, nearly periodic, galaxy redshift distribution in a narrow pencil-beam survey, is explained within the Voronoi cellular model of clustering of galaxies. Galaxies, whose luminosities are selected from a Schechter luminosity function, are placed randomly within the walls of this cellular model. Narrow and deep, magnitude-limited, pencil-beam surveys through these structures are simulated. Some 15 per cent of these beams show that observed regular pattern, with a spacing between the peaks of the order of 105 h -1 -150 h -1 Mpc, but most pencil-beams show peaks in the redshift distribution without periodicity, so we may conclude that, even within a cellular universe, periodicity is not a common phenomenon. (author)
Topics in random walks in random environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sznitman, A.-S.
2004-01-01
Over the last twenty-five years random motions in random media have been intensively investigated and some new general methods and paradigms have by now emerged. Random walks in random environment constitute one of the canonical models of the field. However in dimension bigger than one they are still poorly understood and many of the basic issues remain to this day unresolved. The present series of lectures attempt to give an account of the progresses which have been made over the last few years, especially in the study of multi-dimensional random walks in random environment with ballistic behavior. (author)
Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers
Uchida, Atsushi; Amano, Kazuya; Inoue, Masaki; Hirano, Kunihito; Naito, Sunao; Someya, Hiroyuki; Oowada, Isao; Kurashige, Takayuki; Shiki, Masaru; Yoshimori, Shigeru; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki; Davis, Peter
2008-12-01
Random number generators in digital information systems make use of physical entropy sources such as electronic and photonic noise to add unpredictability to deterministically generated pseudo-random sequences. However, there is a large gap between the generation rates achieved with existing physical sources and the high data rates of many computation and communication systems; this is a fundamental weakness of these systems. Here we show that good quality random bit sequences can be generated at very fast bit rates using physical chaos in semiconductor lasers. Streams of bits that pass standard statistical tests for randomness have been generated at rates of up to 1.7 Gbps by sampling the fluctuating optical output of two chaotic lasers. This rate is an order of magnitude faster than that of previously reported devices for physical random bit generators with verified randomness. This means that the performance of random number generators can be greatly improved by using chaotic laser devices as physical entropy sources.
Waiting Time Distributions for Pattern Occurrence in a Constrained Sequence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valeri Stefanov
2007-01-01
Full Text Available A binary sequence of zeros and ones is called a (d,k-sequence if it does not contain runs of zeros of length either less than d or greater than k, where d and k are arbitrary, but fixed, non-negative integers and d < k. Such sequences find an abundance of applications in communications, in particular for magnetic and optical recording. Occasionally, one requires that (d,k-sequences do not contain a specific pattern w. Therefore, distribution results concerning pattern occurrence in (d,k-sequences are of interest. In this paper we study the distribution of the waiting time until the r th occurrence of a pattern w in a random (d,k-sequence generated by a Markov source. Numerical examples are also provided.
Adaptive Processing for Sequence Alignment
Zidan, Mohammed A.; Bonny, Talal; Salama, Khaled N.
2012-01-01
Disclosed are various embodiments for adaptive processing for sequence alignment. In one embodiment, among others, a method includes obtaining a query sequence and a plurality of database sequences. A first portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a central processing unit (CPU) and a second portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a graphical processing unit (GPU) based upon a predetermined splitting ratio associated with the plurality of database sequences, where the database sequences of the first portion are shorter than the database sequences of the second portion. A first alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the CPU based upon the first portion of the plurality of database sequences and a second alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the GPU based upon the second portion of the plurality of database sequences.
Adaptive Processing for Sequence Alignment
Zidan, Mohammed A.
2012-01-26
Disclosed are various embodiments for adaptive processing for sequence alignment. In one embodiment, among others, a method includes obtaining a query sequence and a plurality of database sequences. A first portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a central processing unit (CPU) and a second portion of the plurality of database sequences is distributed to a graphical processing unit (GPU) based upon a predetermined splitting ratio associated with the plurality of database sequences, where the database sequences of the first portion are shorter than the database sequences of the second portion. A first alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the CPU based upon the first portion of the plurality of database sequences and a second alignment score for the query sequence is determined with the GPU based upon the second portion of the plurality of database sequences.
[Childhood periodic syndromes].
Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A
2010-01-01
This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis
Exploring the correlations between sequence evolution rate and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2012-10-15
Oct 15, 2012 ... The vast functional divergence within mammalian lineages that ... Keywords. Phylogenetics; molecular clock; sequence evolutionary rate; phenotypic evolution; morphology; genomics .... entire lineages during periods with ecosystem-level commu- ... increases from fish to amphibians to birds to mammals.
Some limit theorems for negatively associated random variables
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
random sampling without replacement, and (i) joint distribution of ranks. ... wide applications in multivariate statistical analysis and system reliability, the ... strong law of large numbers for negatively associated sequences under the case where.
Conversion of the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Conversion of the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker UBC#116 linked to Fusarium crown and root rot resistance gene (Frl) into a co-dominant sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for marker-assisted selection of tomato.
Variable depth recursion algorithm for leaf sequencing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siochi, R. Alfredo C.
2007-01-01
The processes of extraction and sweep are basic segmentation steps that are used in leaf sequencing algorithms. A modified version of a commercial leaf sequencer changed the way that the extracts are selected and expanded the search space, but the modification maintained the basic search paradigm of evaluating multiple solutions, each one consisting of up to 12 extracts and a sweep sequence. While it generated the best solutions compared to other published algorithms, it used more computation time. A new, faster algorithm selects one extract at a time but calls itself as an evaluation function a user-specified number of times, after which it uses the bidirectional sweeping window algorithm as the final evaluation function. To achieve a performance comparable to that of the modified commercial leaf sequencer, 2-3 calls were needed, and in all test cases, there were only slight improvements beyond two calls. For the 13 clinical test maps, computation speeds improved by a factor between 12 and 43, depending on the constraints, namely the ability to interdigitate and the avoidance of the tongue-and-groove under dose. The new algorithm was compared to the original and modified versions of the commercial leaf sequencer. It was also compared to other published algorithms for 1400, random, 15x15, test maps with 3-16 intensity levels. In every single case the new algorithm provided the best solution
Random digital encryption secure communication system
Doland, G. D. (Inventor)
1982-01-01
The design of a secure communication system is described. A product code, formed from two pseudorandom sequences of digital bits, is used to encipher or scramble data prior to transmission. The two pseudorandom sequences are periodically changed at intervals before they have had time to repeat. One of the two sequences is transmitted continuously with the scrambled data for synchronization. In the receiver portion of the system, the incoming signal is compared with one of two locally generated pseudorandom sequences until correspondence between the sequences is obtained. At this time, the two locally generated sequences are formed into a product code which deciphers the data from the incoming signal. Provision is made to ensure synchronization of the transmitting and receiving portions of the system.
Bordism, stable homotopy and adams spectral sequences
Kochman, Stanley O
1996-01-01
This book is a compilation of lecture notes that were prepared for the graduate course "Adams Spectral Sequences and Stable Homotopy Theory" given at The Fields Institute during the fall of 1995. The aim of this volume is to prepare students with a knowledge of elementary algebraic topology to study recent developments in stable homotopy theory, such as the nilpotence and periodicity theorems. Suitable as a text for an intermediate course in algebraic topology, this book provides a direct exposition of the basic concepts of bordism, characteristic classes, Adams spectral sequences, Brown-Peter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunish, W.M.; Guzik, J.A.; Willson, L.A.; Bowen, G.
1987-01-01
It has been hypothesized that variable stars may experience mass loss, driven, at least in part, by oscillations. The class of stars we are discussing here are the δ Scuti variables. These are variable stars with masses between about 1.2 and 2.25 M/sub θ/, lying on or very near the main sequence. According to this theory, high rotation rates enhance the rate of mass loss, so main sequence stars born in this mass range would have a range of mass loss rates, depending on their initial rotation velocity and the amplitude of the oscillations. The stars would evolve rapidly down the main sequence until (at about 1.25 M/sub θ/) a surface convection zone began to form. The presence of this convective region would slow the rotation, perhaps allowing magnetic braking to occur, and thus sharply reduce the mass loss rate. 7 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, Heung Ryeol
2010-03-01
The contents of the book are introduction of control system, like classification and control signal, introduction of electricity power switch, such as push-button and detection switch sensor for induction type and capacitance type machinery for control, solenoid valve, expression of sequence and type of electricity circuit about using diagram, time chart, marking and term, logic circuit like Yes, No, and, or and equivalence logic, basic electricity circuit, electricity sequence control, added condition, special program control about choice and jump of program, motor control, extra circuit on repeat circuit, pause circuit in a conveyer, safety regulations and rule about classification of electricity disaster and protective device for insulation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rieneck, Klaus; Bak, Mads; Jønson, Lars
2013-01-01
, Illumina); several millions of PCR sequences were analyzed. RESULTS: The results demonstrated the feasibility of diagnosing the fetal KEL1 or KEL2 blood group from cell-free DNA purified from maternal plasma. CONCLUSION: This method requires only one primer pair, and the large amount of sequence...... information obtained allows well for statistical analysis of the data. This general approach can be integrated into current laboratory practice and has numerous applications. Besides DNA-based predictions of blood group phenotypes, platelet phenotypes, or sickle cell anemia, and the determination of zygosity...
RDNAnalyzer: A tool for DNA secondary structure prediction and sequence analysis.
Afzal, Muhammad; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Shehzadi, Abida; Nadeem, Shahid; Husnain, Tayyab
2012-01-01
RDNAnalyzer is an innovative computer based tool designed for DNA secondary structure prediction and sequence analysis. It can randomly generate the DNA sequence or user can upload the sequences of their own interest in RAW format. It uses and extends the Nussinov dynamic programming algorithm and has various application for the sequence analysis. It predicts the DNA secondary structure and base pairings. It also provides the tools for routinely performed sequence analysis by the biological scientists such as DNA replication, reverse compliment generation, transcription, translation, sequence specific information as total number of nucleotide bases, ATGC base contents along with their respective percentages and sequence cleaner. RDNAnalyzer is a unique tool developed in Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 using Microsoft Visual C# and Windows Presentation Foundation and provides user friendly environment for sequence analysis. It is freely available. http://www.cemb.edu.pk/sw.html RDNAnalyzer - Random DNA Analyser, GUI - Graphical user interface, XAML - Extensible Application Markup Language.
Effects of Colored Noise on Periodic Orbits in a One-Dimensional Map
Li, Feng-Guo; Ai, Bao-Quan
2011-06-01
Noise can induce inverse period-doubling transition and chaos. The effects of the colored noise on periodic orbits, of the different periodic sequences in the logistic map, are investigated. It is found that the dynamical behaviors of the orbits, induced by an exponentially correlated colored noise, are different in the mergence of transition, and the effects of the noise intensity on their dynamical behaviors are different from the effects of the correlation time of noise. Remarkably, the noise can induce new periodic orbits, namely, two new orbits emerge in the period-four sequence at the bifurcation parameter value μ = 3.5, four new orbits in the period-eight sequence at μ = 3.55, and three new orbits in the period-six sequence at μ = 3.846, respectively. Moreover, the dynamical behaviors of the new orbits clearly show the resonancelike response to the colored noise.
Effects of Colored Noise on Periodic Orbits in a One-Dimensional Map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Fengguo; Ai Baoquan
2011-01-01
Noise can induce inverse period-doubling transition and chaos. The effects of the colored noise on periodic orbits, of the different periodic sequences in the logistic map, are investigated. It is found that the dynamical behaviors of the orbits, induced by an exponentially correlated colored noise, are different in the mergence of transition, and the effects of the noise intensity on their dynamical behaviors are different from the effects of the correlation time of noise. Remarkably, the noise can induce new periodic orbits, namely, two new orbits emerge in the period-four sequence at the bifurcation parameter value μ = 3.5, four new orbits in the period-eight sequence at μ = 3.55, and three new orbits in the period-six sequence at μ = 3.846, respectively. Moreover, the dynamical behaviors of the new orbits clearly show the resonancelike response to the colored noise. (general)
Parallel motif extraction from very long sequences
Sahli, Majed
2013-01-01
Motifs are frequent patterns used to identify biological functionality in genomic sequences, periodicity in time series, or user trends in web logs. In contrast to a lot of existing work that focuses on collections of many short sequences, modern applications require mining of motifs in one very long sequence (i.e., in the order of several gigabytes). For this case, there exist statistical approaches that are fast but inaccurate; or combinatorial methods that are sound and complete. Unfortunately, existing combinatorial methods are serial and very slow. Consequently, they are limited to very short sequences (i.e., a few megabytes), small alphabets (typically 4 symbols for DNA sequences), and restricted types of motifs. This paper presents ACME, a combinatorial method for extracting motifs from a single very long sequence. ACME arranges the search space in contiguous blocks that take advantage of the cache hierarchy in modern architectures, and achieves almost an order of magnitude performance gain in serial execution. It also decomposes the search space in a smart way that allows scalability to thousands of processors with more than 90% speedup. ACME is the only method that: (i) scales to gigabyte-long sequences; (ii) handles large alphabets; (iii) supports interesting types of motifs with minimal additional cost; and (iv) is optimized for a variety of architectures such as multi-core systems, clusters in the cloud, and supercomputers. ACME reduces the extraction time for an exact-length query from 4 hours to 7 minutes on a typical workstation; handles 3 orders of magnitude longer sequences; and scales up to 16, 384 cores on a supercomputer. Copyright is held by the owner/author(s).
Testing periodically integrated autoregressive models
Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
1997-01-01
textabstractPeriodically integrated time series require a periodic differencing filter to remove the stochastic trend. A non-periodic integrated time series needs the first-difference filter for similar reasons. When the changing seasonal fluctuations for the non-periodic integrated series can be
Security Flaws in an Efficient Pseudo-Random Number Generator for Low-Power Environments
Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Hernandez-Castro, Julio C.; Tapiador, Juan M. E.; Millán, Enrique San; van der Lubbe, Jan C. A.
In 2004, Settharam and Rhee tackled the design of a lightweight Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) suitable for low-power environments (e.g. sensor networks, low-cost RFID tags). First, they explicitly fixed a set of requirements for this primitive. Then, they proposed a PRNG conforming to these requirements and using a free-running timer [9]. We analyze this primitive discovering important security faults. The proposed algorithm fails to pass even relatively non-stringent batteries of randomness such as ENT (i.e. a pseudorandom number sequence test program). We prove that their recommended PRNG has a very short period due to the flawed design of its core. The internal state can be easily revealed, compromising its backward and forward security. Additionally, the rekeying algorithm is defectively designed mainly related to the unpractical value proposed for this purpose.
Amour, Julien; Marmion, Frédéric; Birenbaum, Aurélie; Nicolas-Robin, Armelle; Coriat, Pierre; Riou, Bruno; Langeron, Olivier
2006-01-01
Plastic single-use laryngoscope blades are inexpensive and carry a lower risk of infection compared with metal reusable blades, but their efficiency during rapid sequence induction remains a matter of debate. The authors therefore compared plastic and metal blades during rapid sequence induction in a prospective randomized trial. Two hundred eighty-four adult patients undergoing general anesthesia requiring rapid sequence induction were randomly assigned on a weekly basis to either plastic single-use or reusable metal blades (cluster randomization). After induction, a 60-s period was allowed to complete intubation. In the case of failed intubation, a second attempt was performed using metal blade. The primary endpoint of the study was the rate of failed intubations, and the secondary endpoint was the incidence of complications (oxygen desaturation, lung aspiration, and oropharynx trauma). Both groups were similar in their main characteristics, including risk factors for difficult intubation. On the first attempt, the rate of failed intubation was significantly increased in plastic blade group (17 vs. 3%; P < 0.01). In metal blade group, 50% of failed intubations were still difficult after the second attempt. In plastic blade group, all initial failed intubations were successfully intubated using metal blade, with an improvement in Cormack and Lehane grade. There was a significant increase in the complication rate in plastic group (15 vs. 6%; P < 0.05). In rapid sequence induction of anesthesia, the plastic laryngoscope blade is less efficient than a metal blade and thus should not be recommended for use in this clinical setting.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mie, Masayasu; Shimizu, Shun; Takahashi, Fumio; Kobatake, Eiry
2008-01-01
The 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of mRNAs functions as a translation enhancer, promoting translation efficiency. Many in vitro translation systems exhibit a reduced efficiency in protein translation due to decreased translation initiation. The use of a 5'-UTR sequence with high translation efficiency greatly enhances protein production in these systems. In this study, we have developed an in vitro selection system that favors 5'-UTRs with high translation efficiency using a ribosome display technique. A 5'-UTR random library, comprised of 5'-UTRs tagged with a His-tag and Renilla luciferase (R-luc) fusion, were in vitro translated in rabbit reticulocytes. By limiting the translation period, only mRNAs with high translation efficiency were translated. During translation, mRNA, ribosome and translated R-luc with His-tag formed ternary complexes. They were collected with translated His-tag using Ni-particles. Extracted mRNA from ternary complex was amplified using RT-PCR and sequenced. Finally, 5'-UTR with high translation efficiency was obtained from random 5'-UTR library
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Durbin, Richard; Eddy, Sean; Krogh, Anders Stærmose
This book provides an up-to-date and tutorial-level overview of sequence analysis methods, with particular emphasis on probabilistic modelling. Discussed methods include pairwise alignment, hidden Markov models, multiple alignment, profile searches, RNA secondary structure analysis, and phylogene...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
VAN ZEIJTS, J.; DOTTAVIO, T.; FRAK, B.; MICHNOFF, R.
2001-01-01
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has a high level asynchronous time-line driven by a controlling program called the ''Sequencer''. Most high-level magnet and beam related issues are orchestrated by this system. The system also plays an important task in coordinated data acquisition and saving. We present the program, operator interface, operational impact and experience
Twin anemia polycythemia sequence
Slaghekke, Femke
2014-01-01
In this thesis we describe that Twin Anemia Polycythemia Sequence (TAPS) is a form of chronic feto-fetal transfusion in monochorionic (identical) twins based on a small amount of blood transfusion through very small anastomoses. For the antenatal diagnosis of TAPS, Middle Cerebral Artery – Peak
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In the present study, 78 mapped simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers representing 11 linkage groups of adzuki bean were evaluated for transferability to mungbean and related Vigna spp. 41 markers amplified characteristic bands in at least one Vigna species. The transferability percentage across the genotypes ranged ...
Random Generators and Normal Numbers
Bailey, David H.; Crandall, Richard E.
2002-01-01
Pursuant to the authors' previous chaotic-dynamical model for random digits of fundamental constants, we investigate a complementary, statistical picture in which pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) are central. Some rigorous results are achieved: We establish b-normality for constants of the form $\\sum_i 1/(b^{m_i} c^{n_i})$ for certain sequences $(m_i), (n_i)$ of integers. This work unifies and extends previously known classes of explicit normals. We prove that for coprime $b,c>1$ the...
Targeted sequencing of plant genomes
Mark D. Huynh
2014-01-01
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the field of genetics by providing a means for fast and relatively affordable sequencing. With the advancement of NGS, wholegenome sequencing (WGS) has become more commonplace. However, sequencing an entire genome is still not cost effective or even beneficial in all cases. In studies that do not require a whole-...
Almost convergence of triple sequences
Ayhan Esi; M.Necdet Catalbas
2013-01-01
In this paper we introduce and study the concepts of almost convergence and almost Cauchy for triple sequences. Weshow that the set of almost convergent triple sequences of 0's and 1's is of the first category and also almost everytriple sequence of 0's and 1's is not almost convergent.Keywords: almost convergence, P-convergent, triple sequence.
A few Smarandache Integer Sequences
Ibstedt, Henry
2010-01-01
This paper deals with the analysis of a few Smarandache Integer Sequences which first appeared in Properties or the Numbers, F. Smarandache, University or Craiova Archives, 1975. The first four sequences are recurrence generated sequences while the last three are concatenation sequences.
Allele Re-sequencing Technologies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Byrne, Stephen; Farrell, Jacqueline Danielle; Asp, Torben
2013-01-01
The development of next-generation sequencing technologies has made sequencing an affordable approach for detection of genetic variations associated with various traits. However, the cost of whole genome re-sequencing still remains too high to be feasible for many plant species with large...... alternative to whole genome re-sequencing to identify causative genetic variations in plants. One challenge, however, will be efficient bioinformatics strategies for data handling and analysis from the increasing amount of sequence information....
How edge-reinforced random walk arises naturally
Rolles, S.W.W.
2003-01-01
We give a characterization of a modified edge-reinforced random walk in terms of certain partially exchangeable sequences. In particular, we obtain a characterization of an edge-reinforced random walk (introduced by Coppersmith and Diaconis) on a 2-edge-connected graph. Modifying the notion of
Rapid-Sequence Serial Sexual Homicides.
Schlesinger, Louis B; Ramirez, Stephanie; Tusa, Brittany; Jarvis, John P; Erdberg, Philip
2017-03-01
Serial sexual murderers have been described as committing homicides in a methodical manner, taking substantial time between offenses to elude the authorities. The results of our study of the temporal patterns (i.e., the length of time between homicides) of a nonrandom national sample of 44 serial sexual murderers and their 201 victims indicate that this representation may not always be accurate. Although 25 offenders (56.8%) killed with longer than a 14-day period between homicides, a sizeable subgroup was identified: 19 offenders (43.2%) who committed homicides in rapid-sequence fashion, with fewer than 14 days between all or some of the murders. Six offenders (13.6%) killed all their victims in one rapid-sequence, spree-like episode, with homicides just days apart or sometimes two murders in the same day. Thirteen offenders (29.5%) killed in one or two rapid-sequence clusters (i.e., more than one murder within a 14-day period, as well as additional homicides with greater than 14 days between each). The purpose of our study was to describe this subgroup of rapid-sequence offenders who have not been identified until now. These findings argue for accelerated forensic assessments of dangerousness and public safety when a sexual murder is detected. Psychiatric disorders with rapidly occurring symptom patterns, or even atypical mania or mood dysregulation, may serve as exemplars for understanding this extraordinary group of offenders. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
Information-Theoretical Analysis of EEG Microstate Sequences in Python
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frederic von Wegner
2018-06-01
Full Text Available We present an open-source Python package to compute information-theoretical quantities for electroencephalographic data. Electroencephalography (EEG measures the electrical potential generated by the cerebral cortex and the set of spatial patterns projected by the brain's electrical potential on the scalp surface can be clustered into a set of representative maps called EEG microstates. Microstate time series are obtained by competitively fitting the microstate maps back into the EEG data set, i.e., by substituting the EEG data at a given time with the label of the microstate that has the highest similarity with the actual EEG topography. As microstate sequences consist of non-metric random variables, e.g., the letters A–D, we recently introduced information-theoretical measures to quantify these time series. In wakeful resting state EEG recordings, we found new characteristics of microstate sequences such as periodicities related to EEG frequency bands. The algorithms used are here provided as an open-source package and their use is explained in a tutorial style. The package is self-contained and the programming style is procedural, focusing on code intelligibility and easy portability. Using a sample EEG file, we demonstrate how to perform EEG microstate segmentation using the modified K-means approach, and how to compute and visualize the recently introduced information-theoretical tests and quantities. The time-lagged mutual information function is derived as a discrete symbolic alternative to the autocorrelation function for metric time series and confidence intervals are computed from Markov chain surrogate data. The software package provides an open-source extension to the existing implementations of the microstate transform and is specifically designed to analyze resting state EEG recordings.
Belén, Ana; Pavón, Ibarz; Maiden, Martin C.J.
2009-01-01
Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was first proposed in 1998 as a typing approach that enables the unambiguous characterization of bacterial isolates in a standardized, reproducible, and portable manner using the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis as the exemplar organism. Since then, the approach has been applied to a large and growing number of organisms by public health laboratories and research institutions. MLST data, shared by investigators over the world via the Internet, have been ...
Makmun, Dadang
2001-01-01
We report a case of carcinoma of the esophagus in a 58 years old woman with achalasia, who has been diagnosed since 30 years ago, which initiated by surgical treatment (myotomy) and the symptoms recurred since 3 years ago. According to the progress of the disease, Malignancy was strongly suspected due to prolonged stasis and mucosal irritation caused by achalasia (achalasia carcinoma sequence). Because of these contributing factors for the development of serious complications such as Malignan...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gukov, Sergei [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Mathematik,Vivatsgasse 7, D-53111 Bonn (Germany); Nawata, Satoshi [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Centre for Quantum Geometry of Moduli Spaces, University of Aarhus,Nordre Ringgade 1, DK-8000 (Denmark); Saberi, Ingmar [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stošić, Marko [CAMGSD, Departamento de Matemática, Instituto Superior Técnico,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Mathematical Institute SANU,Knez Mihajlova 36, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Sułkowski, Piotr [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)
2016-03-02
This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincaré polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel “sliding” property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identification of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N=2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. Lastly, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar; Stošić, Marko; Sułkowski, Piotr
2016-01-01
This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincaré polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel “sliding” property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identification of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N=2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. Lastly, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.
1981-01-01
The processing of image sequences has a broad spectrum of important applica tions including target tracking, robot navigation, bandwidth compression of TV conferencing video signals, studying the motion of biological cells using microcinematography, cloud tracking, and highway traffic monitoring. Image sequence processing involves a large amount of data. However, because of the progress in computer, LSI, and VLSI technologies, we have now reached a stage when many useful processing tasks can be done in a reasonable amount of time. As a result, research and development activities in image sequence analysis have recently been growing at a rapid pace. An IEEE Computer Society Workshop on Computer Analysis of Time-Varying Imagery was held in Philadelphia, April 5-6, 1979. A related special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Pattern Anal ysis and Machine Intelligence was published in November 1980. The IEEE Com puter magazine has also published a special issue on the subject in 1981. The purpose of this book ...
PILOT DECONTAMINATION THROUGH PILOT SEQUENCE HOPPING IN MASSIVE MIMO SYSTEMS
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2015-01-01
path between one of the users and one of the base stations define one of the channels. The system comprises a pilot generation unit configured to assign pilot sequences randomly among the users and a pilot processing unit configured to filter the pilot sequences received from a user of interest so...... that the channel coefficient of the channel of the user of interest is determined. The pilot sequences received from the user of interest are contaminated by other non-orthogonal or identical pilot sequences from other users of the cell of interest or other cells. The filter is configured so that the contamination...... caused by the other non-orthogonal or identical pilot sequences from the other users is reduced....
Abstracting Sequences: Reasoning That Is a Key to Academic Achievement.
Pasnak, Robert; Kidd, Julie K; Gadzichowski, K Marinka; Gallington, Debbie A; Schmerold, Katrina Lea; West, Heather
2015-01-01
The ability to understand sequences of items may be an important cognitive ability. To test this proposition, 8 first-grade children from each of 36 classes were randomly assigned to four conditions. Some were taught sequences that represented increasing or decreasing values, or were symmetrical, or were rotations of an object through 6 or 8 positions. Control children received equal numbers of sessions on mathematics, reading, or social studies. Instruction was conducted three times weekly in 15-min sessions for seven months. In May, the children taught sequences applied their understanding to novel sequences, and scored as well or better on three standardized reading tests as the control children. They outscored all children on tests of mathematics concepts, and scored better than control children on some mathematics scales. These findings indicate that developing an understanding of sequences is a form of abstraction, probably involving fluid reasoning, that provides a foundation for academic achievement in early education.
Periodic feedback stabilization for linear periodic evolution equations
Wang, Gengsheng
2016-01-01
This book introduces a number of recent advances regarding periodic feedback stabilization for linear and time periodic evolution equations. First, it presents selected connections between linear quadratic optimal control theory and feedback stabilization theory for linear periodic evolution equations. Secondly, it identifies several criteria for the periodic feedback stabilization from the perspective of geometry, algebra and analyses respectively. Next, it describes several ways to design periodic feedback laws. Lastly, the book introduces readers to key methods for designing the control machines. Given its coverage and scope, it offers a helpful guide for graduate students and researchers in the areas of control theory and applied mathematics.
Random broadcast on random geometric graphs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elsasser, Robert [UNIV OF PADERBORN; Friedrich, Tobias [ICSI/BERKELEY; Sauerwald, Tomas [ICSI/BERKELEY
2009-01-01
In this work, we consider the random broadcast time on random geometric graphs (RGGs). The classic random broadcast model, also known as push algorithm, is defined as: starting with one informed node, in each succeeding round every informed node chooses one of its neighbors uniformly at random and informs it. We consider the random broadcast time on RGGs, when with high probability: (i) RGG is connected, (ii) when there exists the giant component in RGG. We show that the random broadcast time is bounded by {Omicron}({radical} n + diam(component)), where diam(component) is a diameter of the entire graph, or the giant component, for the regimes (i), or (ii), respectively. In other words, for both regimes, we derive the broadcast time to be {Theta}(diam(G)), which is asymptotically optimal.
Quantumness, Randomness and Computability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solis, Aldo; Hirsch, Jorge G
2015-01-01
Randomness plays a central role in the quantum mechanical description of our interactions. We review the relationship between the violation of Bell inequalities, non signaling and randomness. We discuss the challenge in defining a random string, and show that algorithmic information theory provides a necessary condition for randomness using Borel normality. We close with a view on incomputablity and its implications in physics. (paper)
Asymptotic Properties of Multistate Random Walks. I. Theory
Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Shuler, K.E.
1985-01-01
A calculation is presented of the long-time behavior of various random walk properties (moments, probability of return to the origin, expected number of distinct sites visited) for multistate random walks on periodic lattices. In particular, we consider inhomogeneous periodic lattices, consisting of
Data verification and materials accountancy for two accounting periods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beedgen, R.
1985-01-01
In the framework of near-real-time accountancy for nuclear materials, safeguards statistical analysis based on the operator's data of a sequence of materials balance periods has been performed. Up to now, it is assumed that the operator's data are correct. A statistical model is presented that enables inspector verification measurements for a sequence of accounting periods to be included into a safeguards procedure. The analysis uses a two balance period and statistical concepts which are applied in the case of one accounting period. The interconnection of different safeguards measures shall be studied to get a basic idea about the procedure and it is shown that there might be fundamental differences to the one balance case
The redoubtable ecological periodic table
Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...
How random is a random vector?
Eliazar, Iddo
2015-12-01
Over 80 years ago Samuel Wilks proposed that the "generalized variance" of a random vector is the determinant of its covariance matrix. To date, the notion and use of the generalized variance is confined only to very specific niches in statistics. In this paper we establish that the "Wilks standard deviation" -the square root of the generalized variance-is indeed the standard deviation of a random vector. We further establish that the "uncorrelation index" -a derivative of the Wilks standard deviation-is a measure of the overall correlation between the components of a random vector. Both the Wilks standard deviation and the uncorrelation index are, respectively, special cases of two general notions that we introduce: "randomness measures" and "independence indices" of random vectors. In turn, these general notions give rise to "randomness diagrams"-tangible planar visualizations that answer the question: How random is a random vector? The notion of "independence indices" yields a novel measure of correlation for Lévy laws. In general, the concepts and results presented in this paper are applicable to any field of science and engineering with random-vectors empirical data.
How random is a random vector?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2015-01-01
Over 80 years ago Samuel Wilks proposed that the “generalized variance” of a random vector is the determinant of its covariance matrix. To date, the notion and use of the generalized variance is confined only to very specific niches in statistics. In this paper we establish that the “Wilks standard deviation” –the square root of the generalized variance–is indeed the standard deviation of a random vector. We further establish that the “uncorrelation index” –a derivative of the Wilks standard deviation–is a measure of the overall correlation between the components of a random vector. Both the Wilks standard deviation and the uncorrelation index are, respectively, special cases of two general notions that we introduce: “randomness measures” and “independence indices” of random vectors. In turn, these general notions give rise to “randomness diagrams”—tangible planar visualizations that answer the question: How random is a random vector? The notion of “independence indices” yields a novel measure of correlation for Lévy laws. In general, the concepts and results presented in this paper are applicable to any field of science and engineering with random-vectors empirical data.
Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort Modeling and Prediction - BAMP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Volker J. Schmid
2007-10-01
Full Text Available The software package BAMP provides a method of analyzing incidence or mortality data on the Lexis diagram, using a Bayesian version of an age-period-cohort model. A hierarchical model is assumed with a binomial model in the first-stage. As smoothing priors for the age, period and cohort parameters random walks of first and second order, with and without an additional unstructured component are available. Unstructured heterogeneity can also be included in the model. In order to evaluate the model fit, posterior deviance, DIC and predictive deviances are computed. By projecting the random walk prior into the future, future death rates can be predicted.
Gene Expression Profiling in the Pituitary Gland of Laying Period and Ceased Period Huoyan Geese
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinhong Luan
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Huoyan goose is a Chinese local breed famous for its higher laying performance, but the problems of variety degeneration have emerged recently, especially a decrease in the number of eggs laid. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism that underlies egg laying in Huoyan geese, gene profiles in the pituitary gland of Huoyan geese taken during the laying period and ceased period were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH method. Total RNA was extracted from pituitary glands of ceased period and laying period geese. The cDNA in the pituitary glands of ceased geese was subtracted from the cDNA in the pituitary glands of laying geese (forward subtraction; the reverse subtraction was also performed. After sequencing and annotation, a total of 30 and 24 up and down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These genes mostly related to biosynthetic process, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, transport, cell differentiation, cellular protein modification process, signal transduction, small molecule metabolic process. Furthermore, eleven genes were selected for further analyses by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. The qRT-PCR results for the most part were consistent with the SSH results. Among these genes, Synaptotagmin-1 (SYT1 and Stathmin-2 (STMN2 were substantially over-expressed in laying period compared to ceased period. These results could serve as an important reference for elucidating the molecular mechanism of higher laying performance in Huoyan geese.
Multiformity of inherent randomicity and visitation density in n symbolic dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yagang; Wang Changjiang
2007-01-01
The multiformity of inherent randomicity and visitation density in n symbolic dynamics will be clarified in this paper. These stochastic symbolic sequences bear three features. The distribution of frequency, inter-occurrence times and the alignment of two random sequences are amplified in detail. The features of visitation density in surjective maps presents catholicity and the catholicity in n letters randomicity has the same measure foundation. We hope to offer a symbolic platform that satisfies these stochastic properties and to attempt to study certain properties of DNA base sequences, 20 amino acids symbolic sequences of proteid structure, and the time series that can be symbolic in finance market et al
Foundations of Sequence-to-Sequence Modeling for Time Series
Kuznetsov, Vitaly; Mariet, Zelda
2018-01-01
The availability of large amounts of time series data, paired with the performance of deep-learning algorithms on a broad class of problems, has recently led to significant interest in the use of sequence-to-sequence models for time series forecasting. We provide the first theoretical analysis of this time series forecasting framework. We include a comparison of sequence-to-sequence modeling to classical time series models, and as such our theory can serve as a quantitative guide for practiti...
Periodic waves in nonlinear metamaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Jing-Hua; Yan, Jie-Yun; Tian, Bo
2012-01-01
Periodic waves are presented in this Letter. With symbolic computation, equations for monochromatic waves are studied, and analytic periodic waves are obtained. Factors affecting properties of periodic waves are analyzed. Nonlinear metamaterials, with the continuous distribution of the dielectric permittivity obtained, are different from the ones with the discrete distribution. -- Highlights: ► Equations for the monochromatic waves in transverse magnetic polarization have been studied. ► Analytic periodic waves for the equations have been obtained. ► Periodic waves are theoretically presented and studied in the nonlinear metamaterials.
Secure self-calibrating quantum random-bit generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiorentino, M.; Santori, C.; Spillane, S. M.; Beausoleil, R. G.; Munro, W. J.
2007-01-01
Random-bit generators (RBGs) are key components of a variety of information processing applications ranging from simulations to cryptography. In particular, cryptographic systems require 'strong' RBGs that produce high-entropy bit sequences, but traditional software pseudo-RBGs have very low entropy content and therefore are relatively weak for cryptography. Hardware RBGs yield entropy from chaotic or quantum physical systems and therefore are expected to exhibit high entropy, but in current implementations their exact entropy content is unknown. Here we report a quantum random-bit generator (QRBG) that harvests entropy by measuring single-photon and entangled two-photon polarization states. We introduce and implement a quantum tomographic method to measure a lower bound on the 'min-entropy' of the system, and we employ this value to distill a truly random-bit sequence. This approach is secure: even if an attacker takes control of the source of optical states, a secure random sequence can be distilled
Comparative effectiveness of inter-simple sequence repeat and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A study to compare the effectiveness of inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling was carried out with a total of 65 DNA samples using 12 species of Indian Garcinia. ISSR and RAPD profiling were performed with 19 and 12 primers, respectively. ISSR markers ...
Novel expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats (EST ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Using different bioinformatic criteria, the SUCEST database was used to mine for simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Among 42,189 clusters, 1,425 expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) were identified in silico. Trinucleotide repeats were the most abundant SSRs detected. Of 212 primer pairs ...
Explore Stochastic Instabilities of Periodic Points by Transition Path Theory
Cao, Yu; Lin, Ling; Zhou, Xiang
2016-06-01
We consider the noise-induced transitions from a linearly stable periodic orbit consisting of T periodic points in randomly perturbed discrete logistic map. Traditional large deviation theory and asymptotic analysis at small noise limit cannot distinguish the quantitative difference in noise-induced stochastic instabilities among the T periodic points. To attack this problem, we generalize the transition path theory to the discrete-time continuous-space stochastic process. In our first criterion to quantify the relative instability among T periodic points, we use the distribution of the last passage location related to the transitions from the whole periodic orbit to a prescribed disjoint set. This distribution is related to individual contributions to the transition rate from each periodic points. The second criterion is based on the competency of the transition paths associated with each periodic point. Both criteria utilize the reactive probability current in the transition path theory. Our numerical results for the logistic map reveal the transition mechanism of escaping from the stable periodic orbit and identify which periodic point is more prone to lose stability so as to make successful transitions under random perturbations.
Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin Wei; Chen Tianping
2005-01-01
In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases
Knopp, Konrad
1956-01-01
One of the finest expositors in the field of modern mathematics, Dr. Konrad Knopp here concentrates on a topic that is of particular interest to 20th-century mathematicians and students. He develops the theory of infinite sequences and series from its beginnings to a point where the reader will be in a position to investigate more advanced stages on his own. The foundations of the theory are therefore presented with special care, while the developmental aspects are limited by the scope and purpose of the book. All definitions are clearly stated; all theorems are proved with enough detail to ma
Period doubling in a model of magnetoconvection with Ohmic heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osman, M. B. H.
2000-01-01
In this work it has been studied an idealized model of rotating nonlinear magneto convection to investigate the effects of Ohmic heating. In the over stable region it was found that Ohmic heating can lead to a period-doubling sequence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christiane Alves Ferreira
2011-01-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of the Qualis database in identifying the levels of scientific evidence and the quality of randomized controlled trials indexed in the Lilacs database. METHODS: We selected 40 open-access journals and performed a page-by-page hand search, to identify published articles according to the type of study during a period of six years. Classification of studies was performed by independent reviewers assessed for their reliability. Randomized controlled trials were identified for separate evaluation of risk of bias using four dimensions: generation of allocation sequence, allocation concealment, blinding, and incomplete outcome data. The Qualis classification was considered to be the outcome variable. The statistical tests used included Kappa, Spearman's correlation, Kendall-tau and ordinal regressions. RESULTS: Studies with low levels of scientific evidence received similar Qualis classifications when compared to studies with high levels of evidence. In addition, randomized controlled trials with a high risk of bias for the generation of allocation sequences and allocation concealment were more likely to be published in journals with higher Qualis levels. DISCUSSION: The hierarchy level of the scientific evidence as classified by type of research design, as well as by the validity of studies according to the bias control level, was not correlated or associated with Qualis stratification. CONCLUSION: Qualis classifications for journals are not an approximate or indirect predictor of the validity of randomized controlled trials published in these journals and are therefore not a legitimate or appropriate indicator of the validity of randomized controlled trials.