WorldWideScience

Sample records for periodic mechanical stimulus

  1. Dendrites Enable a Robust Mechanism for Neuronal Stimulus Selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazé, Romain D; Jarvis, Sarah; Foust, Amanda J; Schultz, Simon R

    2017-09-01

    Hearing, vision, touch: underlying all of these senses is stimulus selectivity, a robust information processing operation in which cortical neurons respond more to some stimuli than to others. Previous models assume that these neurons receive the highest weighted input from an ensemble encoding the preferred stimulus, but dendrites enable other possibilities. Nonlinear dendritic processing can produce stimulus selectivity based on the spatial distribution of synapses, even if the total preferred stimulus weight does not exceed that of nonpreferred stimuli. Using a multi-subunit nonlinear model, we demonstrate that stimulus selectivity can arise from the spatial distribution of synapses. We propose this as a general mechanism for information processing by neurons possessing dendritic trees. Moreover, we show that this implementation of stimulus selectivity increases the neuron's robustness to synaptic and dendritic failure. Importantly, our model can maintain stimulus selectivity for a larger range of loss of synapses or dendrites than an equivalent linear model. We then use a layer 2/3 biophysical neuron model to show that our implementation is consistent with two recent experimental observations: (1) one can observe a mixture of selectivities in dendrites that can differ from the somatic selectivity, and (2) hyperpolarization can broaden somatic tuning without affecting dendritic tuning. Our model predicts that an initially nonselective neuron can become selective when depolarized. In addition to motivating new experiments, the model's increased robustness to synapses and dendrites loss provides a starting point for fault-resistant neuromorphic chip development.

  2. Effects of age, gender, and stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimi, Mitsunobu

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on age-related changes in visual short-term memory using visual stimuli that did not allow verbal encoding. Experiment 1 examined the effects of age and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. Experiment 2 examined the effects of age, gender, and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. The worst memory performance and the largest performance difference between the age groups were observed in the shortest stimulus presentation period conditions. The performance difference between the age groups became smaller as the stimulus presentation period became longer; however, it did not completely disappear. Although gender did not have a significant effect on d' regardless of the presentation period in the young group, a significant gender-based difference was observed for stimulus presentation periods of 500 ms and 1,000 ms in the older group. This study indicates that the decline in visual short-term memory observed in the older group is due to the interaction of several factors.

  3. Effect of occlusal (mechanical) stimulus on bone remodelling in rat mandibular condyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, D; Ehrlich, J; Kohen, Y; Bab, I

    1987-09-01

    Mechanical load influences the remodelling of skeletal tissues. In the mandibular condyle, occlusal alterations and the consequent mechanical stimulus induce changes in chondrocytes and cartilage mineralization. In the present study we quantified in the mandibular condyle the effect of occlusal interference on remodelling of the subchondral bone. Computerized histomorphometry after 5-21-day exposure to the influence of a unilateral occlusal splint revealed an increased rate of trabecular remodelling, consisting of enhancement in osteoblast and osteoclast numbers and activities. The bone formation parameters reached their high values on Days 5 or 9 and remained stable thereafter. Bone resorption showed a gradual increase throughout the experimental period. These results further characterize the temporomandibular joint reaction to occlusal alterations. It is suggested that the present increase in bone turnover together with the known enhancement in chondrogenesis are part of a process of functional adaptation in response to mechanical stimulus.

  4. Real-time observations of mechanical stimulus-induced enhancements of mechanical properties in osteoblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xu; Liu Xiaoli; Sun Jialun; He Shuojie; Lee, Imshik; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Osteoblast, playing a key role in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis, is one of the mechanical stress sensitive cells. The effects of mechanical load-induced changes of mechanical properties in osteoblast cells were studied at real-time. Osteoblasts obtained from young Wister rats were exposed to mechanical loads in different frequencies and resting intervals generated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe tip and simultaneously measured the changes of the mechanical properties by AFM. The enhancement of the mechanical properties was observed and quantified by the increment of the apparent Young's modulus, E * . The observed mechanical property depended on the frequency of applied tapping loads. For the resting interval is 50 s, the mechanical load-induced enhancement of E * -values disappears. It seems that the enhanced mechanical property was recover able under no additional mechanical stimulus

  5. Does air gas aesthesiometry generate a true mechanical stimulus for corneal sensitivity measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosch, Daniela S; Pult, Heiko; Albon, Julie; Purslow, Christine; Murphy, Paul J

    2018-03-01

    Belmonte Ocular Pain Meter (OPM) air jet aesthesiometry overcomes some of the limitations of the Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer. However, for true mechanical corneal sensitivity measurement, the airflow stimulus temperature of the aesthesiometer must equal ocular surface temperature (OST), to avoid additional response from temperature-sensitive nerves. The aim of this study was to determine: (A) the stimulus temperature inducing no or least change in OST; and (B) to evaluate if OST remains unchanged with different stimulus durations and airflow rates. A total of 14 subjects (mean age 25.14 ± 2.18 years; seven women) participated in this clinical cohort study: (A) OST was recorded using an infrared camera (FLIR A310) during the presentation of airflow stimuli, at five temperatures, ambient temperature (AT) +5°C, +10°C, +15°C, +20°C and +30°C, using the OPM aesthesiometer (duration three seconds; over a four millimetre distance; airflow rate 60 ml/min); and (B) OST measurements were repeated with two stimulus temperatures (AT +10°C and +15°C) while varying stimulus durations (three seconds and five seconds) and airflow rates (30, 60, 80 and 100 ml/min). Inclusion criteria were age measures (analysis of variance) and appropriate post-hoc t-tests were applied. (A) Stimulus temperatures of AT +10°C and +15°C induced the least changes in OST (-0.20 ± 0.13°C and 0.08 ± 0.05°C). (B) OST changes were statistically significant with both stimulus temperatures and increased with increasing airflow rates (p air stimulus of the Belmonte OPM because its air jet stimulus with mechanical setting is likely to have a thermal component. Appropriate stimulus selection for an air jet aesthesiometer must incorporate stimulus temperature control that can vary with stimulus duration and airflow rate. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  6. Temporal neural mechanisms underlying conscious access to different levels of facial stimulus contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shen-Mou; Yang, Yu-Fang

    2018-04-01

    An important issue facing the empirical study of consciousness concerns how the contents of incoming stimuli gain access to conscious processing. According to classic theories, facial stimuli are processed in a hierarchical manner. However, it remains unclear how the brain determines which level of stimulus content is consciously accessible when facing an incoming facial stimulus. Accordingly, with a magnetoencephalography technique, this study aims to investigate the temporal dynamics of the neural mechanism mediating which level of stimulus content is consciously accessible. Participants were instructed to view masked target faces at threshold so that, according to behavioral responses, their perceptual awareness alternated from consciously accessing facial identity in some trials to being able to consciously access facial configuration features but not facial identity in other trials. Conscious access at these two levels of facial contents were associated with a series of differential neural events. Before target presentation, different patterns of phase angle adjustment were observed between the two types of conscious access. This effect was followed by stronger phase clustering for awareness of facial identity immediately during stimulus presentation. After target onset, conscious access to facial identity, as opposed to facial configural features, was able to elicit more robust late positivity. In conclusion, we suggest that the stages of neural events, ranging from prestimulus to stimulus-related activities, may operate in combination to determine which level of stimulus contents is consciously accessed. Conscious access may thus be better construed as comprising various forms that depend on the level of stimulus contents accessed. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study investigates how the brain determines which level of stimulus contents is consciously accessible when facing an incoming facial stimulus. Using magnetoencephalography, we show that prestimulus

  7. Periodicity during hypercapnic and hypoxic stimulus is crucial in distinct aspects of phrenic nerve plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipica, I; Pavlinac Dodig, I; Pecotic, R; Dogas, Z; Valic, Z; Valic, M

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine pattern sensitivity of phrenic nerve plasticity in respect to different respiratory challenges. We compared long-term effects of intermittent and continuous hypercapnic and hypoxic stimuli, and combined intermittent hypercapnia and hypoxia on phrenic nerve plasticity. Adult, male, urethane-anesthetized, vagotomized, paralyzed, mechanically ventilated Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to: acute intermittent hypercapnia (AIHc or AIHc(O2)), acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH), combined intermittent hypercapnia and hypoxia (AIHcH), continuous hypercapnia (CHc), or continuous hypoxia (CH). Peak phrenic nerve activity (pPNA) and burst frequency were analyzed during baseline (T0), hypercapnia or hypoxia exposures, at 15, 30, and 60 min (T60) after the end of the stimulus. Exposure to acute intermittent hypercapnia elicited decrease of phrenic nerve frequency from 44.25+/-4.06 at T0 to 35.29+/-5.21 at T60, (P=0.038, AIHc) and from 45.5+/-2.62 to 37.17+/-3.68 breaths/min (P=0.049, AIHc(O2)), i.e. frequency phrenic long term depression was induced. Exposure to AIH elicited increase of pPNA at T60 by 141.0+/-28.2 % compared to baseline (P=0.015), i.e. phrenic long-term facilitation was induced. Exposure to AIHcH, CHc, or CH protocols failed to induce long-term plasticity of the phrenic nerve. Thus, we conclude that intermittency of the hypercapnic or hypoxic stimuli is needed to evoke phrenic nerve plasticity.

  8. Chronic Lateral Epicondylalgia Does Not Exhibit Mechanical Pain Modulation in Response to Noxious Conditioning Heat Stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Edwin Choon Wyn; Sterling, Michele; Vicenzino, Bill

    2017-10-01

    The impaired attenuation of pain by the application of a noxious conditioning stimulus at a segmentally distinct site, known as conditioned pain modulation (CPM), has been implicated in clinical pain states. Chronic lateral epicondylalgia (LE), which is characterized by lower pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at sites remote to the affected elbow and spinal cord hyperexcitability, is a clinical pain state that might plausibly involve less efficacious CPM. This study aimed to determine whether LE exhibits a less efficacious CPM compared with that in pain-free controls. Results: Twenty participants with LE, aged 50.7 years (SD=7.05) and who had their condition for 10.2 months (range: 2 to 80 mo), were matched by age and sex to 22 pain-free participants. All participants indicated their PPT over the lateral epicondyle(s) before and during a conditioning noxious heat stimulus that was applied over the calf. A CPM score was calculated as the difference between the PPT before and during the heat pain-conditioning stimulus expressed as a percentage of PPT before the heat pain-conditioning stimulus. The condition (LE vs. control) by side (affected vs. unaffected) analysis of variance revealed a significant condition effect (P=0.001), but not side effect (P=0.192) or side-by-condition interaction effect (P=0.951). Follow-up tests for the effect of condition revealed a mean deficit in CPM of -24.5% (95% confidence interval, -38.0 to -11.0) in LE compared with that in pain-free participants. The results that suggest an impaired ability to modulate pain might be associated with the previously observed spinal cord hyperexcitability and the mechanical hyperalgesia that characterizes LE.

  9. Occipital Alpha and Gamma Oscillations Support Complementary Mechanisms for Processing Stimulus Value Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Tom R; den Boer, Sebastiaan; Cools, Roshan; Jensen, Ole; Fallon, Sean James; Zumer, Johanna M

    2018-01-01

    Selective attention is reflected neurally in changes in the power of posterior neural oscillations in the alpha (8-12 Hz) and gamma (40-100 Hz) bands. Although a neural mechanism that allows relevant information to be selectively processed has its advantages, it may lead to lucrative or dangerous information going unnoticed. Neural systems are also in place for processing rewarding and punishing information. Here, we examine the interaction between selective attention (left vs. right) and stimulus's learned value associations (neutral, punished, or rewarded) and how they compete for control of posterior neural oscillations. We found that both attention and stimulus-value associations influenced neural oscillations. Whereas selective attention had comparable effects on alpha and gamma oscillations, value associations had dissociable effects on these neural markers of attention. Salient targets (associated with positive and negative outcomes) hijacked changes in alpha power-increasing hemispheric alpha lateralization when salient targets were attended, decreasing it when they were being ignored. In contrast, hemispheric gamma-band lateralization was specifically abolished by negative distractors. Source analysis indicated occipital generators of both attentional and value effects. Thus, posterior cortical oscillations support both the ability to selectively attend while at the same time retaining the ability to remain sensitive to valuable features in the environment. Moreover, the versatility of our attentional system to respond separately to salient from merely positively valued stimuli appears to be carried out by separate neural processes reflected in different frequency bands.

  10. Parametric study of control mechanism of cortical bone remodeling under mechanical stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanan; Qin, Qing-Hua

    2010-03-01

    The control mechanism of mechanical bone remodeling at cellular level was investigated by means of an extensive parametric study on a theoretical model described in this paper. From a perspective of control mechanism, it was found that there are several control mechanisms working simultaneously in bone remodeling which is a complex process. Typically, an extensive parametric study was carried out for investigating model parameter space related to cell differentiation and apoptosis which can describe the fundamental cell lineage behaviors. After analyzing all the combinations of 728 permutations in six model parameters, we have identified a small number of parameter combinations that can lead to physiologically realistic responses which are similar to theoretically idealized physiological responses. The results presented in the work enhanced our understanding on mechanical bone remodeling and the identified control mechanisms can help researchers to develop combined pharmacological-mechanical therapies to treat bone loss diseases such as osteoporosis.

  11. Geometric mechanics of periodic pleated origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z Y; Guo, Z V; Dudte, L; Liang, H Y; Mahadevan, L

    2013-05-24

    Origami structures are mechanical metamaterials with properties that arise almost exclusively from the geometry of the constituent folds and the constraint of piecewise isometric deformations. Here we characterize the geometry and planar and nonplanar effective elastic response of a simple periodically folded Miura-ori structure, which is composed of identical unit cells of mountain and valley folds with four-coordinated ridges, defined completely by two angles and two lengths. We show that the in-plane and out-of-plane Poisson's ratios are equal in magnitude, but opposite in sign, independent of material properties. Furthermore, we show that effective bending stiffness of the unit cell is singular, allowing us to characterize the two-dimensional deformation of a plate in terms of a one-dimensional theory. Finally, we solve the inverse design problem of determining the geometric parameters for the optimal geometric and mechanical response of these extreme structures.

  12. Mechanisms underlying effects of approach-avoidance training on stimulus evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dessel, Pieter; Eder, Andreas B; Hughes, Sean

    2018-04-12

    Over the past decade an increasing number of studies across a range of domains have shown that the repeated performance of approach and avoidance (AA) actions in response to a stimulus leads to changes in the evaluation of that stimulus. The dominant (motivational-systems) account in this area claims that these effects are caused by a rewiring of mental associations between stimulus representations and AA systems that evolved to regulate distances to positive and negative stimuli. In contrast, two recently forwarded alternative accounts postulate that AA effects are caused by inferences about the valence of actions and stimuli (inferential account) or a transfer of valenced action codes to stimulus representations (common-coding account). Across four experiments we set out to test these three competing accounts against each other. Experiments 1-3 illustrate that changes in stimulus evaluations can occur when people perform valenced actions that bear no relation to a distance regulation, such as moving a manikin upward or downward. The observed evaluative effects were dependent on the evaluative implication of the instructed movement goal rather than whether the action implied a movement toward or away from the stimuli. These results could not be explained with a rewiring of associations to motivational systems. Experiment 4 showed that changes in stimulus evaluations occurred after participants passively observed approach-avoidance movements, supporting an explanation in terms of cognitive inferences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. [Neural Mechanisms That Facilitate Adaptive Behavior Based on Acquired Stimulus-Outcome Information].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Masaaki

    2017-11-01

    In response to changing internal and external situations, we always need to adapt our behavior based on previous experiences, particularly, acquired stimulus-outcome information. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a prefrontal cortical region, is critical for this type of decision-making. The current understanding of the fundamental functions of the OFC has been reviewed by introducing, as an example, how the OFC contributes to the processing of uncertain rewards. Furthermore, the importance of revealing context and temporally specific causal roles of neural circuits including the OFC in decision-making, as well as the techniques to achieve the goal, have been discussed.

  14. Detection of stimulus deviance within primate primary auditory cortex: intracortical mechanisms of mismatch negativity (MMN) generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javitt, D C; Steinschneider, M; Schroeder, C E; Vaughan, H G; Arezzo, J C

    1994-12-26

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a cognitive, auditory event-related potential (AEP) that reflects preattentive detection of stimulus deviance and indexes the operation of the auditory sensory ('echoic') memory system. MMN is elicited most commonly in an auditory oddball paradigm in which a sequence of repetitive standard stimuli is interrupted infrequently and unexpectedly by a physically deviant 'oddball' stimulus. Electro- and magnetoencephalographic dipole mapping studies have localized the generators of MMN to supratemporal auditory cortex in the vicinity of Heschl's gyrus, but have not determined the degree to which MMN reflects activation within primary auditory cortex (AI) itself. The present study, using moveable multichannel electrodes inserted acutely into superior temporal plane, demonstrates a significant contribution of AI to scalp-recorded MMN in the monkey, as reflected by greater response of AI to loud or soft clicks presented as deviants than to the same stimuli presented as repetitive standards. The MMN-like activity was localized primarily to supragranular laminae within AI. Thus, standard and deviant stimuli elicited similar degrees of initial, thalamocortical excitation. In contrast, responses within supragranular cortex were significantly larger to deviant stimuli than to standards. No MMN-like activity was detected in a limited number to passes that penetrated anterior and medial to AI. AI plays a well established role in the decoding of the acoustic properties of individual stimuli. The present study demonstrates that primary auditory cortex also plays an important role in processing the relationships between stimuli, and thus participates in cognitive, as well as purely sensory, processing of auditory information.

  15. To be selected or not to be selected : a modeling and behavioral study of the mechanisms underlying stimulus-driven and top-down visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort van der Kleij, van der Gwendid T.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates the mechanisms of stimulus-driven visual attention (global saliency), the mechanisms of top-down visual attention, and the interaction between these mechanisms, in visual search. Following the outline of an existing model of top-down visual attention, namely the Closed-Loop

  16. Occipital Alpha and Gamma Oscillations Support Complementary Mechanisms for Processing Stimulus Value Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, T.R.; Boer, Sebastiaan den; Cools, R.; Jensen, O.; Fallon, S.J.; Zumer, J.

    2018-01-01

    Selective attention is reflected neurally in changes in the power of posterior neural oscillations in the alpha (8–12 Hz) and gamma (40–100 Hz) bands. Although a neural mechanism that allows relevant information to be selectively processed has its advantages, it may lead to lucrative or dangerous

  17. Common and differential electrophysiological mechanisms underlying semantic object memory retrieval probed by features presented in different stimulus types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Eroh, Justin; Spence, Jeffrey S; Motes, Michael A; Maguire, Mandy J; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Brier, Matthew R; Hart, John; Kraut, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    How the brain combines the neural representations of features that comprise an object in order to activate a coherent object memory is poorly understood, especially when the features are presented in different modalities (visual vs. auditory) and domains (verbal vs. nonverbal). We examined this question using three versions of a modified Semantic Object Retrieval Test, where object memory was probed by a feature presented as a written word, a spoken word, or a picture, followed by a second feature always presented as a visual word. Participants indicated whether each feature pair elicited retrieval of the memory of a particular object. Sixteen subjects completed one of the three versions (N=48 in total) while their EEG were recorded simultaneously. We analyzed EEG data in four separate frequency bands (delta: 1-4Hz, theta: 4-7Hz; alpha: 8-12Hz; beta: 13-19Hz) using a multivariate data-driven approach. We found that alpha power time-locked to response was modulated by both cross-modality (visual vs. auditory) and cross-domain (verbal vs. nonverbal) probing of semantic object memory. In addition, retrieval trials showed greater changes in all frequency bands compared to non-retrieval trials across all stimulus types in both response-locked and stimulus-locked analyses, suggesting dissociable neural subcomponents involved in binding object features to retrieve a memory. We conclude that these findings support both modality/domain-dependent and modality/domain-independent mechanisms during semantic object memory retrieval. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Response to various periods of mechanical stimuli in Physarum plasmodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umedachi, Takuya; Ito, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ishiguro, Akio; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Response to mechanical stimuli is a fundamental and critical ability for living cells to survive in hazardous conditions or to form adaptive and functional structures against force(s) from the environment. Although this ability has been extensively studied by molecular biology strategies, it is also important to investigate the ability from the viewpoint of biological rhythm phenomena so as to reveal the mechanisms that underlie these phenomena. Here, we use the plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum as the experimental system for investigating this ability. The plasmodium was repetitively stretched for various periods during which its locomotion speed was observed. Since the plasmodium has inherent oscillation cycles of protoplasmic streaming and thickness variation, how the plasmodium responds to various periods of external stretching stimuli can shed light on the other biological rhythm phenomena. The experimental results show that the plasmodium exhibits response to periodic mechanical stimulation and changes its locomotion speed depending on the period of the stretching stimuli. (paper)

  19. Intrinsic periodicity: the forgotten lesson of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolce, Donatello

    2013-01-01

    Wave-particle duality, together with the concept of elementary particles, was introduced by de Broglie in terms of intrinsically periodic phenomena. However, after nearly 90 years, the physical origin of such undulatory mechanics remains unrevealed. We propose a natural realization of the de Broglie periodic phenomenon in terms of harmonic vibrational modes associated to space-time periodicities. In this way we find that, similarly to a vibrating string or a particle in a box, the intrinsic recurrence imposed as a constraint to elementary particles represents a fully consistent quantization condition. The resulting cyclic dynamics formally match ordinary relativistic Quantum Mechanics in both the canonical and Feynman formulations. Interactions are introduced in a geometrodynamical way, similarly to general relativity, by simply considering that variations of kinematical state can be equivalently described in terms of modulations of space-time recurrences, as known from undulatory mechanics. We present this novel quantization prescription from an historical prospective.

  20. Self-isospectral periodic potentials and supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, G.; Feinberg, J.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss supersymmetric quantum mechanical models with periodic potentials. The important new feature is that it is possible for both isospectral potentials to support zero modes, in contrast with the standard nonperiodic case where either one or neither (but not both) of the isospectral pair has a zero mode. Thus it is possible to have supersymmetry unbroken and yet also have a vanishing Witten index. We present some explicit exactly soluble examples for which the isospectral potentials have identical band spectra, and which are open-quotes self-isospectralclose quotes in the sense that the potentials have identical shape, but are translated by one half-period relative to one another. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. The wave attenuation mechanism of the periodic local resonant metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I.-Ling; Liang, Zhen-Xian; Kao, Hao-Wei; Chang, Shih-Hsiang; Yang, Chih-Ying

    2018-01-01

    This research discusses the wave propagation behavior and attenuation mechanism of the elastic metamaterial with locally resonant sub-structure. The dispersion relation of the single resonance system, i.e., periodic spring mass system with sub-structure, could be derived based on lattice dynamics and the band gap could be easily identified. The dynamically equivalent properties, i.e., mass and elastic property, of the single resonance system are derived and found to be frequency dependent. Negative effective properties are found in the vicinity of the local resonance. It is examined whether the band gap always coincides with the frequency range of negative effective properties. The wave attenuation mechanism and the characteristic dynamic behavior of the elastic metamaterial are also studied from the energy point of view. From the analysis, it is clarified that the coupled Bragg-resonance band gap is much wider than the narrow-banded local resonance and the corresponding effective material properties at band gap could be either positive or negative. However, the band gap is totally overlapping with the frequency range of negative effective properties for the metamaterial with band gap purely caused by local resonance. The presented analysis can be extended to other forms of elastic metamaterials involving periodic resonator structures.

  2. Spatial relationship between bone formation and mechanical stimulus within cortical bone: Combining 3D fluorochrome mapping and poroelastic finite element modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieroa, A; Pereirab, A F; Wilson, A J; Castagno, S; Javaheri, B; Pitsillides, A A; Marenzana, M; Shefelbine, S J

    2018-06-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue and adapts its architecture in response to biological and mechanical factors. Here we investigate how cortical bone formation is spatially controlled by the local mechanical environment in the murine tibia axial loading model (C57BL/6). We obtained 3D locations of new bone formation by performing 'slice and view' 3D fluorochrome mapping of the entire bone and compared these sites with the regions of high fluid velocity or strain energy density estimated using a finite element model, validated with ex-vivo bone surface strain map acquired ex-vivo using digital image correlation. For the comparison, 2D maps of the average bone formation and peak mechanical stimulus on the tibial endosteal and periosteal surface across the entire cortical surface were created. Results showed that bone formed on the periosteal and endosteal surface in regions of high fluid flow. Peak strain energy density predicted only the formation of bone periosteally. Understanding how the mechanical stimuli spatially relates with regions of cortical bone formation in response to loading will eventually guide loading regime therapies to maintain or restore bone mass in specific sites in skeletal pathologies.

  3. Mechanical invariants are implicated in dynamic touch as a function of their salience in the stimulus flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Langenberg, R.W.; Kingma, I.; Beek, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated the mechanical basis of length perception through dynamic touch using specially designed rods in which the various moments of mass distribution (mass, static moment, and rotational inertia) were varied independently. In a series of 4 experiments, exploration style and rod

  4. Suppressing non-periodically repeating disturbances in mechanical servo systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tousain, R.L.; Boissy, J.C.; Norg, M.L.; Steinbuch, M.; Bosgra, O.H.

    1998-01-01

    Non-periodically repeating (NPR) disturbances are fixed-shape disturbances that occur randomly in time. We can provide a control system with the capability to suppress this type of disturbance by adding in parallel to the input of the nominal feedback controller a learning look-up-table based

  5. Mechanical characterisation of a periodic auxetic structure produced by SEBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwerdtfeger, J. [Institute of Advanced Materials and Processes (ZMP), University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Dr.-Mack-Str. 81, 90762 Fuerth (Germany); Schury, F.; Stingl, M.; Wein, F. [Institute of Applied Mathematics 2 (AM2), University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Martensstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Singer, R.F.; Koerner, C. [Institute of Materials Science and Technology (WTM), University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Martensstr. 5, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    We present a thorough investigation of the mechanical behaviour of a non-stochastic cellular auxetic structure. A combination of experimental and numerical methods is used to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanical behaviour and its dependence on the geometric properties of the cellular structure. The experimental samples are built from Ti-6Al-4V using selective electron beam melting, an additive manufacturing process giving the possibility to vary the geometry of the structure in a highly controlled manner. The use of finite element simulations and mathematical homogenisation allows us also to investigate off-axis properties of the cellular material. This leads to a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanical behaviour of the auxetics. Ultimately, the gained knowledge can be used to tailor auxetic materials to specific applications. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. The Stimulus test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofek, L.; Rapidis, P.; Reinhard, A.; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The Stimulus Test Stand was originally constructed and assembled for testing the SVX2 ASIC readout and then upgraded for SVX3 ASIC prototyping and testing. We have modified this system for SVX4 ASIC [1] prototype testing. We described the individual components below. Additional details for other hardware for SVX4 testing can be found in reference [2]. We provide a description of the Stimulus Test Stand used for prototype testing of the SVX4 chip

  7. Suboptimal Choice in Pigeons: Stimulus Value Predicts Choice over Frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron P Smith

    Full Text Available Pigeons have shown suboptimal gambling-like behavior when preferring a stimulus that infrequently signals reliable reinforcement over alternatives that provide greater reinforcement overall. As a mechanism for this behavior, recent research proposed that the stimulus value of alternatives with more reliable signals for reinforcement will be preferred relatively independently of their frequencies. The present study tested this hypothesis using a simplified design of a Discriminative alternative that, 50% of the time, led to either a signal for 100% reinforcement or a blackout period indicative of 0% reinforcement against a Nondiscriminative alternative that always led to a signal that predicted 50% reinforcement. Pigeons showed a strong preference for the Discriminative alternative that remained despite reducing the frequency of the signal for reinforcement in subsequent phases to 25% and then 12.5%. In Experiment 2, using the original design of Experiment 1, the stimulus following choice of the Nondiscriminative alternative was increased to 75% and then to 100%. Results showed that preference for the Discriminative alternative decreased only when the signals for reinforcement for the two alternatives predicted the same probability of reinforcement. The ability of several models to predict this behavior are discussed, but the terminal link stimulus value offers the most parsimonious account of this suboptimal behavior.

  8. Oscillatory Mechanisms of Stimulus Processing and Selection in the Visual and Auditory Systems: State-of-the-Art, Speculations and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Zoefel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available All sensory systems need to continuously prioritize and select incoming stimuli in order to avoid overflow or interference, and provide a structure to the brain's input. However, the characteristics of this input differ across sensory systems; therefore, and as a direct consequence, each sensory system might have developed specialized strategies to cope with the continuous stream of incoming information. Neural oscillations are intimately connected with this selection process, as they can be used by the brain to rhythmically amplify or attenuate input and therefore represent an optimal tool for stimulus selection. In this paper, we focus on oscillatory processes for stimulus selection in the visual and auditory systems. We point out both commonalities and differences between the two systems and develop several hypotheses, inspired by recently published findings: (1 The rhythmic component in its input is crucial for the auditory, but not for the visual system. The alignment between oscillatory phase and rhythmic input (phase entrainment is therefore an integral part of stimulus selection in the auditory system whereas the visual system merely adjusts its phase to upcoming events, without the need for any rhythmic component. (2 When input is unpredictable, the visual system can maintain its oscillatory sampling, whereas the auditory system switches to a different, potentially internally oriented, “mode” of processing that might be characterized by alpha oscillations. (3 Visual alpha can be divided into a faster occipital alpha (10 Hz and a slower frontal alpha (7 Hz that critically depends on attention.

  9. Working memory delay period activity marks a domain-unspecific attention mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katus, Tobias; Müller, Matthias M

    2016-03-01

    Working memory (WM) recruits neural circuits that also perform perception- and action-related functions. Among the functions that are shared between the domains of WM and perception is selective attention, which supports the maintenance of task-relevant information during the retention delay of WM tasks. The tactile contralateral delay activity (tCDA) component of the event-related potential (ERP) marks the attention-based rehearsal of tactile information in somatosensory brain regions. We tested whether the tCDA reflects the competition for shared attention resources between a WM task and a perceptual task under dual-task conditions. The two tasks were always performed on opposite hands. In different blocks, the WM task had higher or lower priority than the perceptual task. The tCDA's polarity consistently reflected the hand where the currently prioritized task was performed. This suggests that the process indexed by the tCDA is not specific to the domain of WM, but mediated by a domain-unspecific attention mechanism. The analysis of transient ERP components evoked by stimuli in the two tasks further supports the interpretation that the tCDA marks a goal-directed bias in the allocation of selective attention. Larger spatially selective modulations were obtained for stimulus material related to the high-, as compared to low-priority, task. While our results generally indicate functional overlap between the domains of WM and perception, we also found evidence suggesting that selection in internal (mnemonic) and external (perceptual) stimulus representations involves processes that are not active during shifts of preparatory attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanical Engineering Department technical abstracts for the period January-June 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the abstracts from 116 reports produced by the Mechanical Engineering Department of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the period January - June, 1985. The Mechanical Engineering Department is reponsible for the design, analysis, fabrication, testing, and field installation of all mechanical components and systems required by Defence Systems, Lasers, Magnetic Fusion Energy, Physics, and Biomedical and Environmental Research. Similar support is provided to the Chemistry and Computation Departments. Keyword, author, and report-number indices are included

  11. Temporal and spectral profiles of stimulus-stimulus and stimulus-response conflict processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Li, Qi; Zheng, Ya; Wang, Hongbin; Liu, Xun

    2014-04-01

    The ability to detect and resolve conflict is an essential function of cognitive control. Laboratory studies often use stimulus-response-compatibility (SRC) tasks to examine conflict processing in order to elucidate the mechanism and modular organization of cognitive control. Inspired by two influential theories regarding cognitive control, the conflict monitoring theory (Botvinick, Braver, Barch, Carter, & Cohen, 2001) and dimensional overlap taxonomy (Kornblum, Hasbroucq, & Osman, 1990), we explored the temporal and spectral similarities and differences between processing of stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (S-R) conflicts with event related potential (ERP) and time-frequency measures. We predicted that processing of S-S conflict starts earlier than that of S-R conflict and that the two types of conflict may involve different frequency bands. Participants were asked to perform two parallel SRC tasks, both combining the Stroop task (involving S-S conflict) and Simon task (involving S-R conflict). ERP results showed pronounced SRC effects (incongruent vs. congruent) on N2 and P3 components for both S-S and S-R conflicts. In both tasks, SRC effects of S-S conflict took place earlier than those of S-R conflict. Time-frequency analysis revealed that both types of SRC effects modulated theta and alpha bands, while S-R conflict effects additionally modulated power in the beta band. These results indicated that although S-S and S-R conflict processing shared considerable ERP and time-frequency properties, they differed in temporal and spectral dynamics. We suggest that the modular organization of cognitive control should take both commonality and distinction of S-S and S-R conflict processing into consideration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of strategies, goals and stimulus material on the neural mechanisms of emotion regulation: A meta-analysis of fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawetz, Carmen; Bode, Stefan; Derntl, Birgit; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2017-01-01

    Emotion regulation comprises all extrinsic and intrinsic control processes whereby people monitor, evaluate and modify the occurrence, intensity and duration of emotional reactions. Here we sought to quantitatively summarize the existing neuroimaging literature to investigate a) whether different emotion regulation strategies are based on different or the same neural networks; b) which brain regions in particular support the up- and down-regulation of emotions, respectively; and c) to which degree the neural networks realising emotion regulation depend on the stimulus material used to elicit emotions. The left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), the anterior insula and the supplementary motor area were consistently activated independent of the regulation strategy. VLPFC and posterior cingulate cortex were the main regions consistently found to be recruited during the up-regulation as well as the down-regulation of emotion. The down-regulation compared to the up-regulation of emotions was associated with more right-lateralized activity while up-regulating emotions more strongly modulated activity in the ventral striatum. Finally, the process of emotion regulation appeared to be unaffected by stimulus material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of tellurium (IV) by periodate in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, K.; Vani, P.; Dikshitulu, L.S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Detailed kinetic study of the oxidation of tellurium (IV) by periodate in alkaline medium has been carried out to compare the mechanisms of oxidation in the acid and alkaline media. It is interesting to note that the rate step involves a two-electron transfer from tellurium (IV) to periodate in alkaline medium although the kinetic pattern is somewhat different from that in the acid medium. 7 refs., 1 tab

  14. Stimulus control: Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Dinsmoor, James A.

    1995-01-01

    In his effort to distinguish operant from respondent conditioning, Skinner stressed the lack of an eliciting stimulus and rejected the prevailing stereotype of Pavlovian “stimulus—response” psychology. But control by antecedent stimuli, whether classified as conditional or discriminative, is ubiquitous in the natural setting. With both respondent and operant behavior, symmetrical gradients of generalization along unrelated dimensions may be obtained following differential reinforcement in the...

  15. Detecting method for crude oil price fluctuation mechanism under different periodic time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiangyun; Fang, Wei; An, Feng; Wang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed the concept of autoregressive modes to indicate the fluctuation patterns. • We constructed transmission networks for studying the fluctuation mechanism. • There are different fluctuation mechanism under different periodic time series. • Only a few types of autoregressive modes control the fluctuations in crude oil price. • There are cluster effects during the fluctuation mechanism of autoregressive modes. - Abstract: Current existing literatures can characterize the long-term fluctuation of crude oil price time series, however, it is difficult to detect the fluctuation mechanism specifically under short term. Because each fluctuation pattern for one short period contained in a long-term crude oil price time series have dynamic characteristics of diversity; in other words, there exhibit various fluctuation patterns in different short periods and transmit to each other, which reflects the reputedly complicate and chaotic oil market. Thus, we proposed an incorporated method to detect the fluctuation mechanism, which is the evolution of the different fluctuation patterns over time from the complex network perspective. We divided crude oil price time series into segments using sliding time windows, and defined autoregressive modes based on regression models to indicate the fluctuation patterns of each segment. Hence, the transmissions between different types of autoregressive modes over time form a transmission network that contains rich dynamic information. We then capture transmission characteristics of autoregressive modes under different periodic time series through the structure features of the transmission networks. The results indicate that there are various autoregressive modes with significantly different statistical characteristics under different periodic time series. However, only a few types of autoregressive modes and transmission patterns play a major role in the fluctuation mechanism of the crude oil price, and these

  16. A new type of sandwich panel with periodic cellular metal cores and its mechanical performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chae-Hong; Jeon, Insu; Kang, Ki-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have been performed on the mechanical properties and optimization of truss PCMs (periodic cellular metals), but those on the fabrication process, which is one of key factors determining the survivability of PCMs in the market, have been relatively limited. This study introduces a new idea on the fabrication of quasi Kagome truss cored sandwich panels, which is based on the expanded-metal process. And the mechanical behavior of the sandwich panels is to be evaluated. The mechanical strengths and failure mechanisms under compression and bending load are estimated based on elementary mechanics of materials, and the optimal design is derived. Its validity is proved by comparison with the results of experiments. The results showed that the new idea is promising with respect to all three requirements, i.e., the morphology, fabrication cost, and raw materials. The simple mechanical analysis was sufficiently effective and accurate for estimating the performance and failure mode of the sandwich panels. In the experiments, sandwich panel specimens of three different designs were compared in their bending behaviors to demonstrate sensitivity of geometric parameters. Namely, although all the designs had little difference in their load capacity-per-weight, the failure mechanisms and the behaviors after a peak load were totally different.

  17. Computation of Quasi-Periodic Normally Hyperbolic Invariant Tori: Algorithms, Numerical Explorations and Mechanisms of Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadell, Marta; Haro, Àlex

    2017-12-01

    We present several algorithms for computing normally hyperbolic invariant tori carrying quasi-periodic motion of a fixed frequency in families of dynamical systems. The algorithms are based on a KAM scheme presented in Canadell and Haro (J Nonlinear Sci, 2016. doi: 10.1007/s00332-017-9389-y), to find the parameterization of the torus with prescribed dynamics by detuning parameters of the model. The algorithms use different hyperbolicity and reducibility properties and, in particular, compute also the invariant bundles and Floquet transformations. We implement these methods in several 2-parameter families of dynamical systems, to compute quasi-periodic arcs, that is, the parameters for which 1D normally hyperbolic invariant tori with a given fixed frequency do exist. The implementation lets us to perform the continuations up to the tip of the quasi-periodic arcs, for which the invariant curves break down. Three different mechanisms of breakdown are analyzed, using several observables, leading to several conjectures.

  18. Mechanism design of reverse auction on concession period and generalized quality for PPP projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianjia WANG; Shiwei WU

    2017-01-01

    Reverse auctions of PPP projects usually require the bid to specify several characteristics of quality and the concession period to be fulfilled.This paper sets up a summary function of generalized quality,which contributes to reducing the dimensions of information.Thus,the multidimensional reverse auction model of a PPP project can be replaced by a two-dimensional direct mechanism based on the concession period and the generalized quality.Based on the theory of the revelation principle,the feasibility conditions,equilibrium solution and generalized quality requirements of such a mechanism,considering the influence of a variable investment structure are described.Moreover,two feasible multidimensional reverse auctions for implementing such a direct mechanism:Adjusting the scoring function and establishing a special reverse auction rule are built.The analysis shows that in these types of reverse auctions,optimal allocation can be achieved,the social benefit under the incomplete information will be maximized,and the private sector with the highest integrated management level wins the bid.In such a direct mechanism,the investment and financial pressure of the public sector can be reduced.

  19. Energy storage and dispersion of surface acoustic waves trapped in a periodic array of mechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown previously that surface acoustic waves can be efficiently trapped and slowed by steep ridges on a piezoelectric substrate, giving rise to two families of shear-horizontal and vertically polarized surface waves. The mechanisms of energy storage and dispersion are explored by using...... the finite element method to model surface acoustic waves generated by high aspect ratio electrodes. A periodic model is proposed including a perfectly matched layer to simulate radiation conditions away from the sources, from which the modal distributions are found. The ratio of the mechanical energy...... confined to the electrode as compared to the total mechanical energy is calculated and is found to be increasing for increasing aspect ratio and to tend to a definite limit for the two families of surface waves. This observation is in support of the interpretation that high aspect ratio electrodes act...

  20. Highly Reconfigurable Beamformer Stimulus Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaviļina E.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a highly reconfigurable beamformer stimulus generator of radar antenna array, which includes three main blocks: settings of antenna array, settings of objects (signal sources and a beamforming simulator. Following from the configuration of antenna array and object settings, different stimulus can be generated as the input signal for a beamformer. This stimulus generator is developed under a greater concept with two utterly independent paths where one is the stimulus generator and the other is the hardware beamformer. Both paths can be complemented in final and in intermediate steps as well to check and improve system performance. This way the technology development process is promoted by making each of the future hardware steps more substantive. Stimulus generator configuration capabilities and test results are presented proving the application of the stimulus generator for FPGA based beamforming unit development and tuning as an alternative to an actual antenna system.

  1. Highly Reconfigurable Beamformer Stimulus Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaviļina, E.; Gaigals, G.

    2018-02-01

    The present paper proposes a highly reconfigurable beamformer stimulus generator of radar antenna array, which includes three main blocks: settings of antenna array, settings of objects (signal sources) and a beamforming simulator. Following from the configuration of antenna array and object settings, different stimulus can be generated as the input signal for a beamformer. This stimulus generator is developed under a greater concept with two utterly independent paths where one is the stimulus generator and the other is the hardware beamformer. Both paths can be complemented in final and in intermediate steps as well to check and improve system performance. This way the technology development process is promoted by making each of the future hardware steps more substantive. Stimulus generator configuration capabilities and test results are presented proving the application of the stimulus generator for FPGA based beamforming unit development and tuning as an alternative to an actual antenna system.

  2. Proteomics approach reveals mechanism underlying susceptibility of loquat fruit to sunburn during color changing period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ji-Mou; Lin, Yong-Xiang; Chen, Yi-Yong; Deng, Chao-Jun; Gong, Hui-Wen; Xu, Qi-Zhi; Zheng, Shao-Quan; Chen, Wei

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate why loquat fruit peels are more sensitive to high temperature and strong sunlight, making them highly susceptible to sunburn, during the color changing period (CCP). Two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) of the fruit peel proteins was performed over three developmental periods, namely green fruit period (GFP), color changing period and yellow ripening period (YRP). Fifty-five protein spots with at least 2-fold differences in abundance were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS. The identified proteins were divided into categories related to heat-shock response, stress response and defense, energy metabolism, photosynthesis and protein biosynthesis. The results showed that expression of proteins related to anaerobic respiration and photorespiration were increased while the proteins related to ROS scavenging, polyamine biosynthesis, defense pathogens and photosynthesis were decreased during CCP under heat stress. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of loquat fruit susceptible to sunburn during CCP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anticipation increases tactile stimulus processing in the ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ede, Freek; de Lange, Floris P; Maris, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Stimulus anticipation improves perception. To account for this improvement, we investigated how stimulus processing is altered by anticipation. In contrast to a large body of previous work, we employed a demanding perceptual task and investigated sensory responses that occur beyond early evoked activity in contralateral primary sensory areas: Stimulus-induced modulations of neural oscillations. For this, we recorded magnetoencephalography in 19 humans while they performed a cued tactile identification task involving the identification of either a proximal or a distal stimulation on the fingertips. We varied the cue-target interval between 0 and 1000 ms such that tactile targets occurred at various degrees of anticipation. This allowed us to investigate the influence of anticipation on stimulus processing in a parametric fashion. We observed that anticipation increases the stimulus-induced response (suppression of beta-band oscillations) originating from the ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex. This occurs in the period in which the tactile memory trace is analyzed and is correlated with the anticipation-induced improvement in tactile perception. We propose that this ipsilateral response indicates distributed processing across bilateral primary sensory cortices, of which the extent increases with anticipation. This constitutes a new and potentially important mechanism contributing to perception and its improvement following anticipation. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Cortical Representations during and after Stimulus Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Esther van de Nieuwenhuijzen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is a spatiotemporally complex process. In this study, we investigated cortical dynamics during and after stimulus presentation. We observed that visual category information related to the difference between faces and objects became apparent in the occipital lobe after 63 ms. Within the next 110 ms, activation spread out to include the temporal lobe before returning to residing mainly in the occipital lobe again. After stimulus offset, a peak in information was observed, comparable to the peak after stimulus onset. Moreover, similar processes, albeit not identical, seemed to underlie both peaks. Information about the categorical identity of the stimulus remained present until 677 ms after stimulus offset, during which period the stimulus had to be retained in working memory. Activation patterns initially resembled those observed during stimulus presentation. After about 200 ms, however, this representation changed and class-specific activity became more equally distributed over the four lobes. These results show that, although there are common processes underlying stimulus representation both during and after stimulus presentation, these representations change depending on the specific stage of perception and maintenance.

  5. Mechanical low-frequency filter via modes separation in 3D periodic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, L.; Belloni, E.; Ardito, R.; Braghin, F.; Corigliano, A.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a strategy to design three-dimensional elastic periodic structures endowed with complete bandgaps, the first of which is ultra-wide, where the top limits of the first two bandgaps are overstepped in terms of wave transmission in the finite structure. Thus, subsequent bandgaps are merged, approaching the behaviour of a three-dimensional low-pass mechanical filter. This result relies on a proper organization of the modal characteristics, and it is validated by performing numerical and analytical calculations over the unit cell. A prototype of the analysed layout, made of Nylon by means of additive manufacturing, is experimentally tested to assess the transmission spectrum of the finite structure, obtaining good agreement with numerical predictions. The presented strategy paves the way for the development of a class of periodic structures to be used in robust and reliable wave attenuation over a wide frequency band.

  6. Using the Enhanced Daily Load Stimulus Model to Quantify the Mechanical Load and Bone Mineral Density Changes Experienced by Crew Members on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, K. O.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Kuklis, M. M.; Maender, C. C.; Rice, A. J.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the use of exercise countermeasures during long-duration space missions, bone mineral density (BMD) and predicted bone strength of astronauts continue to show decreases in the lower extremities and spine. This site-specific bone adaptation is most likely caused by the effects of microgravity on the mechanical loading environment of the crew member. There is, therefore, a need to quantify the mechanical loading experienced on Earth and on-orbit to define the effect of a given "dose" of loading on bone homeostasis. Gene et al. recently proposed an enhanced DLS (EDLS) model that, when used with entire days of in-shoe forces, takes into account recently developed theories on the importance of factors such as saturation, recovery, and standing and their effects on the osteogenic response of bone to daily physical activity. This algorithm can also quantify the tinting and type of activity (sit/unload, stand, walk, run or other loaded activity) performed throughout the day. The purpose of the current study was to use in-shoe force measurements from entire typical work days on Earth and on-orbit in order to quantify the type and amount of loading experienced by crew members. The specific aim was to use these measurements as inputs into the EDLS model to determine activity timing/type and the mechanical "dose" imparted on the musculoskeletal system of crew members and relate this dose to changes in bone homeostasis.

  7. Effects of stimulus-driven synchronization on sensory perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holden Jameson K

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A subject's ability to differentiate the loci of two points on the skin depends on the stimulus-evoked pericolumnar lateral inhibitory interactions which increase the spatial contrast between regions of SI cortex that are activated by stimulus-evoked afferent drive. Nevertheless, there is very little known about the impact that neuronal interactions – such as those evoked by mechanical skin stimuli that project to and coordinate synchronized activity in adjacent and/or near-adjacent cortical columns – could have on sensory information processing. Methods The temporal order judgment (TOJ and temporal discriminative threshold (TDT of 20 healthy adult subjects were assessed both in the absence and presence of concurrent conditions of tactile stimulation. These measures were obtained across a number of paired sites – two unilateral and one bilateral – and several conditions of adapting stimuli were delivered both prior to and concurrently with the TOJ and TDT tasks. The pairs of conditioning stimuli were synchronized and periodic, synchronized and non-periodic, or asynchronous and non-periodic. Results In the absence of any additional stimuli, TOJ and TDT results obtained from the study were comparable across a number of pairs of stimulus sites – unilateral as well as bilateral. In the presence of a 25 Hz conditioning sinusoidal stimulus which was delivered both before, concurrently and after the TOJ task, there was a significant change in the TOJ measured when the two stimuli were located unilaterally on digits 2 and 3. However, in the presence of the same 25 Hz conditioning stimulus, the TOJ obtained when the two stimuli were delivered bilaterally was not impacted. TDT measures were not impacted to the same degree by the concurrent stimuli that were delivered to the unilateral or bilateral stimulus sites. This led to the speculation that the impact that the conditioning stimuli – which were sinusoidal, periodic and

  8. Characteristics and formation mechanism for stainless steel fiber with periodic micro-fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tao; Wan, Zhenping; Lu, Longsheng; Tang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Metal fibers have been widely used in many industrial applications due to their unique advantages. In certain applications, such as catalyst supports or orthopedic implants, a rough surface or tiny outshoots on the surface of metal fibers to increase surface area are needed. However, it has not been concerned about the surface morphologies of metal fiber in the current research of metal fiber manufacturing. In this paper, a special multi-tooth tool composed of a row of triangular tiny teeth is designed. The entire cutting layer of multi-tooth tool bifurcates into several thin cutting layers due to tiny teeth involved in cutting. As a result, several stainless steel fibers with periodic micro-fins are produced simultaneously. Morphology of periodic micro-fins is found to be diverse and can be classified into three categories: unilateral plane, unilateral tapering and bilateral. There are two forming mechanisms for the micro-fins. One is that periodic burrs remained on the free side of cutting layer of a tiny tooth create micro-fins of stainless steel fiber produced by the next neighboring tiny tooth; the other is that the connections between two fibers stuck together come to be micro-fins if the two fibers are finally detached. Influence of cutting conditions on formation of micro-fins is investigated. Experimental results show that cutting depth has no significant effect on micro-fin formation, high cutting speed is conducive to micro-fin formation, and feed should be between 0.12 mm/r and 0.2 mm/r to reliably obtain stainless steel fiber with micro-fins. This research presents a new pattern of stainless steel fiber characterized by periodic micro-fins formed on the edge of fiber and its manufacturing method.

  9. Stimulus size dependence of hue changes induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Christian Johannes; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround induces a change in the perceived hue of a stimulus. This shift in hue depends on the chromatic difference between the stimulus and the surround. We investigated how chromatic induction varies with stimulus size and whether the size dependence depends on the surround hue. Subjects performed asymmetric matching of color stimuli with different sizes in surrounds of different chromaticities. Generally, induced hue shifts decreased with increasing stimulus size. This decrease was quantitatively different for different surround hues. However, when size effects were normalized to an overall induction strength, the chromatic specificity was largely reduced. The separability of inducer chromaticity and stimulus size suggests that these effects are mediated by different neural mechanisms.

  10. The transition mechanism from a symmetric single period discharge to a period-doubling discharge in atmospheric helium dielectric-barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dingzong; Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Dezhen

    2013-01-01

    Period-doubling and chaos phenomenon have been frequently observed in atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier discharges. However, how a normal single period discharge bifurcates into period-doubling state is still unclear. In this paper, by changing the driving frequency, we study numerically the transition mechanisms from a normal single period discharge to a period-doubling state using a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model. The results show that before a discharge bifurcates into a period-doubling state, it first deviates from its normal operation and transforms into an asymmetric single period discharge mode. Then the weaker discharge in this asymmetric discharge will be enhanced gradually with increasing of the frequency until it makes the subsequent discharge weaken and results in the discharge entering a period-doubling state. In the whole transition process, the spatial distribution of the charged particle density and the electric field plays a definitive role. The conclusions are further confirmed by changing the gap width and the amplitude of the applied voltage

  11. The transition mechanism from a symmetric single period discharge to a period-doubling discharge in atmospheric helium dielectric-barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dingzong; Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Period-doubling and chaos phenomenon have been frequently observed in atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier discharges. However, how a normal single period discharge bifurcates into period-doubling state is still unclear. In this paper, by changing the driving frequency, we study numerically the transition mechanisms from a normal single period discharge to a period-doubling state using a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model. The results show that before a discharge bifurcates into a period-doubling state, it first deviates from its normal operation and transforms into an asymmetric single period discharge mode. Then the weaker discharge in this asymmetric discharge will be enhanced gradually with increasing of the frequency until it makes the subsequent discharge weaken and results in the discharge entering a period-doubling state. In the whole transition process, the spatial distribution of the charged particle density and the electric field plays a definitive role. The conclusions are further confirmed by changing the gap width and the amplitude of the applied voltage.

  12. Mechanism for boundary crises in quasiperiodically forced period-doubling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Woochang

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the mechanism for boundary crises in the quasiperiodically forced logistic map which is a representative model for quasiperiodically forced period-doubling systems. For small quasiperiodic forcing ε, a chaotic attractor disappears suddenly via a 'standard' boundary crisis when it collides with the smooth unstable torus. However, when passing a threshold value of ε, a basin boundary metamorphosis occurs, and then the smooth unstable torus is no longer accessible from the interior of the basin of the attractor. For this case, using the rational approximations to the quasiperiodic forcing, it is shown that a nonchaotic attractor (smooth torus or strange nonchaotic attractor) as well as a chaotic attractor is destroyed abruptly through a new type of boundary crisis when it collides with an invariant 'ring-shaped' unstable set which has no counterpart in the unforced case

  13. Mechanism for boundary crises in quasiperiodically forced period-doubling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Yoon [Department of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, Kangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: sykim@kangwon.ac.kr; Lim, Woochang [Department of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, Kangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: wclim@kwnu.kangwon.ac.kr

    2005-01-10

    We investigate the mechanism for boundary crises in the quasiperiodically forced logistic map which is a representative model for quasiperiodically forced period-doubling systems. For small quasiperiodic forcing {epsilon}, a chaotic attractor disappears suddenly via a 'standard' boundary crisis when it collides with the smooth unstable torus. However, when passing a threshold value of {epsilon}, a basin boundary metamorphosis occurs, and then the smooth unstable torus is no longer accessible from the interior of the basin of the attractor. For this case, using the rational approximations to the quasiperiodic forcing, it is shown that a nonchaotic attractor (smooth torus or strange nonchaotic attractor) as well as a chaotic attractor is destroyed abruptly through a new type of boundary crisis when it collides with an invariant 'ring-shaped' unstable set which has no counterpart in the unforced case.

  14. Evolution and mechanism of the periodical structures formed on Ti plate under femtosecond laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dong, E-mail: ld20501@126.com; Chen, Chuansong, E-mail: chencs@sdnu.edu.cn; Man, Baoyuan, E-mail: byman@sdnu.edu.cn; Meng, Xue; Sun, Yanna, E-mail: sunyuannaa@163.com; Li, Feifei

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Investigate the evolution and succession of three types of fs-laser induced periodic surface structures (FLIPSSs). • Achieve the laser processing window of each type of the FLIPSS. • Explain the formation and evolvement of the ripple structure in the respective of surface plasma wave (SPW). • Ascribe the interaction between the transmitted laser and the reflected laser at the two surfaces of the biconvex lens to the formation of ring structure. - Abstract: This work investigates the femtosencond laser (fs-laser) induced periodical surface structures (FLIPSS) on titanium plate including the concentric rings, microgrooves and subwavelength ripples. The evolution of the three types of the structures at different laser fluence and shot number is investigated experimentally in detail. The competition mechanisms exist among the different FLIPSS. A processing window for each resulting FLIPSS is obtained. In order to give an overall understanding of the FLIPSS, the formation mechanisms of each type of FLIPSS are discussed. The formation of the ripples is well explained by the propagating of the surface plasma wave (SPW) on the air/Ti interface. The evolutions of the ripple distribution are well understood according to this model as well. It is concluded that the interaction of the scattered wave of the laser light with the surface wave is concluded to give rise to the microgroove structure. According to our observation, the shape of the concentric rings does not change with the variation of the laser fluence and pulse number. The structure could be originated from the optical interference between the transmitted and reflected laser beams by the two surfaces of the biconvex lens. This investigation could not only make a further understanding of the formations of FLIPSS but also provide the possibility to control the surface morphologies in laser processing.

  15. Quantum mechanical analysis of fractal conductance fluctuations: a picture using self-similar periodic orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Tatsuo; Miyamoto, Masanori; Budiyono, Agung; Nakamura, Katsuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Fractal magnetoconductance fluctuations are often observed in experiments on ballistic quantum dots. Although the analysis of the exact self-affine fractal has been given by the semiclassical theory using self-similar periodic orbits in systems with a soft-walled potential with a saddle, there has been no corresponding quantum mechanical investigation. We numerically calculate the quantum conductance with use of the recursive Green's function method applied to open cavities characterized by a Henon-Heiles type potential. The conductance fluctuations show exact self-affinity just as in some of the experimental observations. The enlargement factor for the horizontal axis can be explained by the scaling factor of the area of self-similar periodic orbits, and therefore be attributed to the curvature of the saddle in the cavity potential. The fractal dimension obtained through the box counting method agrees with those evaluated with use of the Hurst exponent, and coincides with the semiclassical prediction. We further investigate the variation of the fractal dimension by changing the control parameters between the classical and quantum domains. (fast track communication)

  16. Spatio-temporal brain dynamics in a combined stimulus-stimulus and stimulus-response conflict task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühholz, Sascha; Godde, Ben; Finke, Mareike; Herrmann, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    It is yet not well known whether different types of conflicts share common or rely on distinct brain mechanisms of conflict processing. We used a combined Flanker (stimulus-stimulus; S-S) and Simon (stimulus-response; S-R) conflict paradigm both in an fMRI and an EEG study. S-S conflicts induced stronger behavioral interference effects compared to S-R conflicts and the latter decayed with increasing response latencies. Besides some similar medial frontal activity across all conflict trials, which was, however, not statically consistent across trials, we especially found distinct activations depending on the type of conflict. S-S conflicts activated the anterior cingulate cortex and modulated the N2 and early P3 component with underlying source activity in inferior frontal cortex. S-R conflicts produced distinct activations in the posterior cingulate cortex and modulated the late P3b component with underlying source activity in superior parietal cortex. Double conflict trials containing both S-S and S-R conflicts revealed, first, distinct anterior frontal activity representing a meta-processing unit and, second, a sequential modulation of the N2 and the P3b component. The N2 modulation during double conflict trials was accompanied by increased source activity in the medial frontal gyrus (MeFG). In summary, S-S and S-R conflict processing mostly rely on distinct mechanisms of conflict processing and these conflicts differentially modulate the temporal stages of stimulus processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reliability of mechanisms with periodic random modal frequencies using an extreme value-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, Gordon J.; Zhang, Xufang; Son, Young Kap; Pandey, Mahesh D.

    2016-01-01

    Resonance in a dynamic system is to be avoided since it often leads to impaired performance, overstressing, fatigue fracture and adverse human reactions. Thus, it is necessary to know the modal frequencies and ensure they do not coincide with any applied periodic loadings. For a rotating planar mechanism, the coefficients in the mass and stiffness matrices are periodically varying, and if the underlying geometry and material properties are treated as random variables then the modal frequencies are both position-dependent and probabilistic. The avoidance of resonance is now a complex problem. Herein, free vibration analysis helps determine ranges of modal frequencies that in turn, identify the running speeds of the mechanism to be avoided. This paper presents an efficient and accurate sample-based approach to determine probabilistic minimum and maximum extremes of the fundamental frequencies and the angular positions of their occurrence. Then, given critical lower and upper frequency constraints it is straightforward to determine reliability in terms of probability of exceedance. The novelty of the proposed approach is that the original expensive and implicit mechanistic model is replaced by an explicit meta-model that captures the tolerances of the design variables over the entire range of angular positions: position-dependent eigenvalues can be found easily and quickly. Extreme-value statistics of the modal frequencies and extreme-value statistics of the angular positions are readily computed through MCS. Limit-state surfaces that connect the frequencies to the design variables may be easily constructed. Error analysis identifies three errors and the paper presents ways to control them so the methodology can be sufficiently accurate. A numerical example of a flexible four-bar linkage shows the proposed methodology has engineering applications. The impact of the proposed methodology is two-fold: it presents a safe-side analysis based on free vibration methods to

  18. Probabilistic encoding of stimulus strength in astrocyte global calcium signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Wayne; Reusch, Katharina; Tilunaite, Agne; Russell, Noah A; Thul, Rüdiger; Bellamy, Tomas C

    2016-04-01

    Astrocyte calcium signals can range in size from subcellular microdomains to waves that spread through the whole cell (and into connected cells). The differential roles of such local or global calcium signaling are under intense investigation, but the mechanisms by which local signals evolve into global signals in astrocytes are not well understood, nor are the computational rules by which physiological stimuli are transduced into a global signal. To investigate these questions, we transiently applied receptor agonists linked to calcium signaling to primary cultures of cerebellar astrocytes. Astrocytes repetitively tested with the same stimulus responded with global signals intermittently, indicating that each stimulus had a defined probability for triggering a response. The response probability varied between agonists, increased with agonist concentration, and could be positively and negatively modulated by crosstalk with other signaling pathways. To better understand the processes determining the evolution of a global signal, we recorded subcellular calcium "puffs" throughout the whole cell during stimulation. The key requirement for puffs to trigger a global calcium wave following receptor activation appeared to be the synchronous release of calcium from three or more sites, rather than an increasing calcium load accumulating in the cytosol due to increased puff size, amplitude, or frequency. These results suggest that the concentration of transient stimuli will be encoded into a probability of generating a global calcium response, determined by the likelihood of synchronous release from multiple subcellular sites. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Bone Growth, Mechanical Stimulus and IGF-1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilsanz, Vicente

    2006-01-01

    ... in the weight bearing skeleton of young adult females with low bone density. Ultimately, this information could be of great benefit to enhance musculoskeletal development and decrease the risk for stress fractures in military recruits...

  20. Recrudescence mechanisms and gene expression profile of the reproductive tracts from chickens during the molting period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooyoung Jeong

    Full Text Available The reproductive system of chickens undergoes dynamic morphological and functional tissue remodeling during the molting period. The present study identified global gene expression profiles following oviductal tissue regression and regeneration in laying hens in which molting was induced by feeding high levels of zinc in the diet. During the molting and recrudescence processes, progressive morphological and physiological changes included regression and re-growth of reproductive organs and fluctuations in concentrations of testosterone, progesterone, estradiol and corticosterone in blood. The cDNA microarray analysis of oviductal tissues revealed the biological significance of gene expression-based modulation in oviductal tissue during its remodeling. Based on the gene expression profiles, expression patterns of selected genes such as, TF, ANGPTL3, p20K, PTN, AvBD11 and SERPINB3 exhibited similar patterns in expression with gradual decreases during regression of the oviduct and sequential increases during resurrection of the functional oviduct. Also, miR-1689* inhibited expression of Sp1, while miR-17-3p, miR-22* and miR-1764 inhibited expression of STAT1. Similarly, chicken miR-1562 and miR-138 reduced the expression of ANGPTL3 and p20K, respectively. These results suggest that these differentially regulated genes are closely correlated with the molecular mechanism(s for development and tissue remodeling of the avian female reproductive tract, and that miRNA-mediated regulation of key genes likely contributes to remodeling of the avian reproductive tract by controlling expression of those genes post-transcriptionally. The discovered global gene profiles provide new molecular candidates responsible for regulating morphological and functional recrudescence of the avian reproductive tract, and provide novel insights into understanding the remodeling process at the genomic and epigenomic levels.

  1. Carving Executive Control at Its Joints: Working Memory Capacity Predicts Stimulus-Stimulus, but Not Stimulus-Response, Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matt E.; Kane, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and 2 different forms of cognitive conflict: stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (S-R) interference. Our goal was to test whether WMC's relation to conflict-task performance is mediated by stimulus-identification processes (captured by S-S conflict),…

  2. An Optical Fiber Viscometer Based on Long-Period Fiber Grating Technology and Capillary Tube Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Neng Wang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the development and assessment of a fiber optical viscometer using a simple and low-cost long-period fiber grating (LPFG level sensor and a capillary tube mechanism. Previous studies of optical viscosity sensors were conducted by using different optical sensing methods. The proposed optical viscometer consists of an LPFG sensor, a temperature-controlled chamber, and a cone-shaped reservoir where gravitational force could cause fluid to flow through the capillary tube. We focused on the use of LPFGs as level sensors and the wavelength shifts were not used to quantify the viscosity values of asphalt binders. When the LPFG sensor was immersed in the constant volume (100 mL AC-20 asphalt binder, a wavelength shift was observed and acquired using LabVIEW software and GPIB controller. The time spent between empty and 100 mL was calculated to determine the discharge time. We simultaneously measured the LPFG-induced discharge time and the transmission spectra both in hot air and AC-20 asphalt binder at five different temperatures, 60, 80, 100, 135, and 170 Celsius. An electromechanical rotational viscometer was also used to measure the viscosities, 0.15–213.80 Pa·s, of the same asphalt binder at the above five temperatures. A non-linear regression analysis was performed to convert LPFG-induced discharge time into viscosities. Comparative analysis shows that the LPFG-induced discharge time agreed well with the viscosities obtained from the rotational viscometer.

  3. High-speed landslide mechanism extracted from long-period surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan

    2016-04-01

    Long-period seismic signals gathered at stations far from landslide area can be used to recover the landslide source force applied on ground during the rapid sliding process. This force history is helpful to improve our ability to deduce the characteristics of the event as well as the dynamic properties of bulk motion. We use source mechanism inversion to analyse two different large landslides. Seismic waves generated by these two events have been recorded respectively by more than 5 stations, with the distance range from 69km to 1325km. The first event is the sudden failure happened at Qianjiangping village (30.97°N, 110.61°E) on 13 July 2003, on the bank of the Qinggan river. The landslide flow brought about 20 million cubic meters rock and soil masses right into the river in a short time. It moved about 250 meters in the main sliding direction of S45°E before stopped by the opposite bank. It is a typical reservoir landslide, which has been compared to the 1963 Vaiont landslide in Italy. The other event is the Xiaolin (120.64°E; 23.16°N) deep-seated landslide, located in southwestern Taiwan and had volume of about 27 million cubic meters. The landslide moved in the westward direction, divided into two streams at about the middle of the run-out, because there had been a small ridge and two valleys extended from the west side of the ridge. The deposit spreading length of this landslide is about 2300 meters. We discuss the different characteristics of the two events in both geological structure and movement mode based on the field survey. Then we show that those differences are also revealed by the source force-time functions from inversion.

  4. Stimulus Effects on Local Preference: Stimulus-Response Contingencies, Stimulus-Food Pairing, and Stimulus-Food Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Michael; Baum, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained in a procedure in which concurrent-schedule food ratios changed unpredictably across seven unsignaled components after 10 food deliveries. Additional green-key stimulus presentations also occurred on the two alternatives, sometimes in the same ratio as the component food ratio, and sometimes in the inverse ratio. In eight…

  5. Nanoscale theranostics for physical stimulus-responsive cancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Ke, Hengte; Dai, Zhifei; Liu, Zhuang

    2015-12-01

    Physical stimulus-responsive therapies often employing multifunctional theranostic agents responsive to external physical stimuli such as light, magnetic field, ultra-sound, radiofrequency, X-ray, etc., have been widely explored as novel cancer therapy strategies, showing encouraging results in many pre-clinical animal experiments. Unlike conventional cancer chemotherapy which often accompanies with severe toxic side effects, physical stimulus-responsive agents usually are non-toxic by themselves and would destruct cancer cells only under specific external stimuli, and thus could offer greatly reduced toxicity and enhanced treatment specificity. In addition, physical stimulus-responsive therapies can also be combined with other traditional therapeutics to achieve synergistic anti-tumor effects via a variety of mechanisms. In this review, we will summarize the latest progress in the development of physical stimulus-responsive therapies, and discuss the important roles of nanoscale theranostic agents involved in those non-conventional therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. VARIASI STIMULUS DALAM PELATIHAN KEWIRAUSAHAAN STIMULUS VARIATION IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarippudin Sarippudin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship training aims to prepare participants for entrepreneurship. This training is important because entrepreneurship is not an easy case. Training becomes a way to inculcate the entrepreneurial mentality to be determined to start a business, to face some risks and to be tenacious. In order to create this training succeed, instructors as training spearheads must have skills in conveying materials, even inspiring the participants. The stimulus variation is a form of instructors’ skill. Stimulus variation makes the learning process works well the training becomes fun, so that participants can be comfortable and voluntarily follow the learning process. Training is not a monotonous activity. The instructor can be an inspiration in the classroom, no longer just as a transmitter of learning materials.

  7. Formation mechanisms of periodic longitudinal microstructure and texture patterns in friction stir welded magnesium AZ80

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiscocks, J., E-mail: j.hiscocks@queensu.ca [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Diak, B.J. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Gerlich, A.P. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Waterloo University, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Daymond, M.R. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    Many studies of friction stir welding have shown that periodicity of metal flow around the tool pin may result in the formation of periodic differences in microstructure and texture in the weld nugget area correlated with the weld pitch. The current work investigates the periodicity of magnesium weld microtexture in the nugget region and its association with material flow using optical and electron microscopy. Two welds created in AZ80 at different processing conditions are presented in detail, one illustrating periodic longitudinal texture change, and one showing for the first time that periodic variations in texture, grain size, or composition are not defining features of periodic nugget flow. While nugget texture is dominated by shear deformation, it was found here to be affected to a lesser degree by compaction of material behind the welding tool, which led to reduction in intensity of the shear texture fiber. The decreased tendency for magnesium based alloys to form periodic patterns as compared to aluminum based alloys is explained with reference to the shear textures. - Highlights: •It is shown here that periodic material flow in the nugget does not necessitate longitudinal texture patterns. •Longitudinal texture patterns are shown to be present or absent in Mg AZ80 based on processing conditions. •Texture in the nugget is mainly dictated by shear deformation, but has measurable effects from other deformation modes. •Explanation of why longitudinal texture change is frequently reported in aluminum but not magnesium alloys is provided. •A new vector visualization of material flow based on EBSD data analysis is shown.

  8. Stimulus-dependent modulation of spontaneous low-frequency oscillations in the rat visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liangming; Liu, Yadong; Gui, Jianjun; Li, Ming; Hu, Dewen

    2014-08-06

    Research on spontaneous low-frequency oscillations is important to reveal underlying regulatory mechanisms in the brain. The mechanism for the stimulus modulation of low-frequency oscillations is not known. Here, we used the intrinsic optical imaging technique to examine stimulus-modulated low-frequency oscillation signals in the rat visual cortex. The stimulation was presented monocularly as a flashing light with different frequencies and intensities. The phases of low-frequency oscillations in different regions tended to be synchronized and the rhythms typically accelerated within a 30-s period after stimulation. These phenomena were confined to visual stimuli with specific flashing frequencies (12.5-17.5 Hz) and intensities (5-10 mA). The acceleration and synchronization induced by the flashing frequency were more marked than those induced by the intensity. These results show that spontaneous low-frequency oscillations can be modulated by parameter-dependent flashing lights and indicate the potential utility of the visual stimulus paradigm in exploring the origin and function of low-frequency oscillations.

  9. Existence and asymptotic estimates of periodic solutions of El Niño mechanism of atmospheric physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Jing, Li

    2010-01-01

    This paper is devoted to studying the El Niño mechanism of atmospheric physics. The existence and asymptotic estimates of periodic solutions for its model are obtained by employing the technique of upper and lower solution, and using the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory. (general)

  10. Effective mechanical means of uterine cervix accelerating maturity in pregnant women of first mature age period of different somatotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakovleva О.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose is to evaluate the effectiveness of stimulation of delivery in first mature age period of pregnant women mechanically in different somatotypes. Materials and Methods: 658 patients at 38-41 weeks of gestation of the first period of mature age (22-35 years have been considered. Differentiation by somatotypes has been performed by the method of HT Kaarma (1991. All patients of each somatotype have been divided into primiparous (n = 402 and multiparous (n = 256. Preparation for delivery by mechanical means: on the 1 st day it was introduced into the cervical canal for 16 hours, on the 2nd day — Foley catheter for 8-16 hours (before the birth. Results: In multiparous women the application of mechanical preparation of the birth canal has been effective regardless of somatotype. The percentage of operative delivery in mechanical induction has been lower in multiparous women and also not related to somatotype. In nulliparous women of asthenic and normosthenic type greater efficiency of mechanical induction in preparation for delivery has been revealed. In asthenic and pyknictype mechanical induction has been inefficient and therefore has not been recommended for the use. Conclusion: Application of mechanical means of stimulation of delivery in nulliparous pregnant women should be performed according to their somatotype.

  11. Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

    1993-01-01

    Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed...

  12. Adaptive stimulus optimization for sensory systems neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    DiMattina, Christopher; Zhang, Kechen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review several lines of recent work aimed at developing practical methods for adaptive on-line stimulus generation for sensory neurophysiology. We consider various experimental paradigms where on-line stimulus optimization is utilized, including the classical optimal stimulus paradigm where the goal of experiments is to identify a stimulus which maximizes neural responses, the iso-response paradigm which finds sets of stimuli giving rise to constant responses, and the system...

  13. Stimulus-Elicited Connectivity Influences Resting-State Connectivity Years Later in Human Development: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabard-Durnam, Laurel Joy; Gee, Dylan Grace; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Telzer, Eva; Humphreys, Kathryn Leigh; Lumian, Daniel Stephen; Fareri, Dominic Stephen; Caldera, Christina; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-04-27

    Although the functional architecture of the brain is indexed by resting-state connectivity networks, little is currently known about the mechanisms through which these networks assemble into stable mature patterns. The current study posits and tests the long-term phasic molding hypothesis that resting-state networks are gradually shaped by recurring stimulus-elicited connectivity across development by examining how both stimulus-elicited and resting-state functional connections of the human brain emerge over development at the systems level. Using a sequential design following 4- to 18-year-olds over a 2 year period, we examined the predictive associations between stimulus-elicited and resting-state connectivity in amygdala-cortical circuitry as an exemplar case (given this network's protracted development across these ages). Age-related changes in amygdala functional connectivity converged on the same regions of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and inferior frontal gyrus when elicited by emotional stimuli and when measured at rest. Consistent with the long-term phasic molding hypothesis, prospective analyses for both connections showed that the magnitude of an individual's stimulus-elicited connectivity unidirectionally predicted resting-state functional connectivity 2 years later. For the amygdala-mPFC connection, only stimulus-elicited connectivity during childhood and the transition to adolescence shaped future resting-state connectivity, consistent with a sensitive period ending with adolescence for the amygdala-mPFC circuit. Together, these findings suggest that resting-state functional architecture may arise from phasic patterns of functional connectivity elicited by environmental stimuli over the course of development on the order of years. A fundamental issue in understanding the ontogeny of brain function is how resting-state (intrinsic) functional networks emerge and relate to stimulus-elicited functional connectivity. Here, we posit and test the long

  14. 77 FR 2988 - Extension of Public Comment Period; Mechanisms of Compliance With United States Citizenship...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... with a wide variety of complex organizational structures and trading practices. DATES: Comments and... mechanisms employed by companies that utilize a wide variety of organizational structures, and the additional... on the ``Submit a Comment'' box, which will then become highlighted in blue. In the ``Document Type...

  15. On a possible mechanism of quasi periodic pulses of the quiet Sun decametric radio emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, B.N.; Snegireva, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    The observed fluctuations of the quiet Sun decametric radio emission are interpreted on the basis of the plasma mechanism of generation. These fluctuations may be caused by modulation of the optical depth of the radio source due to propagation of the sound wave packet through the corona

  16. Stimulus intensity and the psychological refractory period II auditive stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, W.G.; Schuur, van R.

    1970-01-01

    In experiments in which stimuli are presented closely spaced in time, subjects exhibit a limitation in the transmission of the signals. The result is either a delayed response or a less accurate response. This phenomenon has been called the psychological refractory phase (Telford, 1931). It is

  17. Periodic, Quasi-Periodic and Chaotic Motions in Celestial Mechanics: Theory and Applications Selected papers from the Fourth Meeting on Celestial Mechanics, CELMEC IV San Martino al Cimino (Italy), 11–16 September 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Celletti, A

    2006-01-01

    The book provides the most recent advances of Celestial Mechanics, as provided by high-level scientists working in this field. It covers theoretical investigations as well as applications to concrete problems. Outstanding review papers are included in the book and they introduce the reader to leading subjects, like the variational approaches to find periodic orbits, the stability theory of the N-body problem, the spin-orbit resonances and chaotic dynamics, the space debris polluting the circumterrestrial space.

  18. Tsallis non-extensive statistical mechanics in the ionospheric detrended total electron content during quiet and storm periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsua, B. O.; Laoye, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the Tsallis non-extensive q-statistics in ionospheric dynamics was investigated using the total electron content (TEC) obtained from two Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver stations. This investigation was carried out considering the geomagnetically quiet and storm periods. The micro density variation of the ionospheric total electron content was extracted from the TEC data by method of detrending. The detrended total electron content, which represent the variation in the internal dynamics of the system was further analyzed using for non-extensive statistical mechanics using the q-Gaussian methods. Our results reveals that for all the analyzed data sets the Tsallis Gaussian probability distribution (q-Gaussian) with value q > 1 were obtained. It was observed that there is no distinct difference in pattern between the values of qquiet and qstorm. However the values of q varies with geophysical conditions and possibly with local dynamics for the two stations. Also observed are the asymmetric pattern of the q-Gaussian and a highly significant level of correlation for the q-index values obtained for the storm periods compared to the quiet periods between the two GPS receiver stations where the TEC was measured. The factors responsible for this variation can be mostly attributed to the varying mechanisms resulting in the self-reorganization of the system dynamics during the storm periods. The result shows the existence of long range correlation for both quiet and storm periods for the two stations.

  19. Short-period atmospheric gravity waves - A study of their statistical properties and source mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedzelman, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Gravity waves for the one year period beginning 19 October 1976 around Palisades, New York, are investigated to determine their statistical properties and sources. The waves have typical periods of 10 min, pressure amplitudes of 3 Pa and velocities of 30 m/s. In general, the largest, amplitude waves occur during late fall and early winter when the upper tropospheric winds directly overhead are fastest and the static stability of the lower troposphere is greatest. Mean wave amplitudes correlate highly with the product of the mean maximum wind speed and the mean low level stratification directly aloft. A distinct diurnal variation of wave amplitudes with the largest waves occurring in the pre-dawn hours is also observed as a result of the increased static stability then. The majority of waves are generated by shear instability; however, a number of waves are generated by distant sources such as nuclear detonations or large thunderstorms. The waves with distant sources can be distinguished on the basis of their generally much higher coherency across the grid and velocities that depart markedly from the wind velocity at any point in the sounding.

  20. Imitation in Infancy: The Wealth of the Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Elizabeth; Heyes, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Imitation requires the imitator to solve the correspondence problem--to translate visual information from modelled action into matching motor output. It has been widely accepted for some 30 years that the correspondence problem is solved by a specialized, innate cognitive mechanism. This is the conclusion of a poverty of the stimulus argument,…

  1. The mechanics of green power : emission benefits and credits in voluntary and commitment periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyndman, R.

    1998-01-01

    The challenge facing the electric power industry in reducing greenhouse gas emissions under the Kyoto Protocol was discussed. The paper illustrates the emission reduction incentives prior to and during the commitment period, with particular focus on pricing. It was noted that in the absence of greenhouse gas emission reduction incentives and prices, coal has a lower running cost and would be dispatched ahead of oil and natural gas. The same situation exists with respect to nuclear, hydro and wind, all of which have lower marginal running costs than fossil fuel plants, thus will run ahead of fossil fuel plants wherever they are available. Various models of the electricity market in North America were demonstrated. The issue of how to determine the amount of greenhouse gas offset and its significance was also addressed. figs

  2. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  3. Physiological Mechanisms Mediating the Coupling between Heart Period and Arterial Pressure in Response to Postural Changes in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Silvani, Alessandro; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Johnson, Blair D.; van Helmond, Noud; Barletta, Giorgio; Cecere, Anna G.; Joyner, Michael J.; Cortelli, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    The upright posture strengthens the coupling between heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) consistently with a greater contribution of the arterial baroreflex to cardiac control, while paradoxically decreasing cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS). To investigate the physiological mechanisms that mediate the coupling between HP and SAP in response to different postures, we analyzed the cross-correlation functions between low-frequency HP and SAP fluctuations and estimated cBR...

  4. Quantum mechanical analysis of the equilateral triangle billiard: Periodic orbit theory and wave packet revivals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doncheski, M.A.; Robinett, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Using the fact that the energy eigenstates of the equilateral triangle infinite well (or billiard) are available in closed form, we examine the connections between the energy eigenvalue spectrum and the classical closed paths in this geometry, using both periodic orbit theory and the short-term semi-classical behavior of wave packets. We also discuss wave packet revivals and show that there are exact revivals, for all wave packets, at times given by T rev =9μa 2 /4(h/2π) where a and μ are the length of one side and the mass of the point particle, respectively. We find additional cases of exact revivals with shorter revival times for zero-momentum wave packets initially located at special symmetry points inside the billiard. Finally, we discuss simple variations on the equilateral (60 deg. -60 deg. -60 deg. ) triangle, such as the half equilateral (30 deg. -60 deg. -90 deg.) triangle and other 'foldings', which have related energy spectra and revival structures

  5. Conditioned [corrected] stimulus informativeness governs conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus associability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ryan D; Gallistel, C R; Jensen, Greg; Richards, Vanessa L; Fairhurst, Stephen; Balsam, Peter D

    2012-07-01

    In a conditioning protocol, the onset of the conditioned stimulus ([CS]) provides information about when to expect reinforcement (unconditioned stimulus [US]). There are two sources of information from the CS in a delay conditioning paradigm in which the CS-US interval is fixed. The first depends on the informativeness, the degree to which CS onset reduces the average expected time to onset of the next US. The second depends only on how precisely a subject can represent a fixed-duration interval (the temporal Weber fraction). In three experiments with mice, we tested the differential impact of these two sources of information on rate of acquisition of conditioned responding (CS-US associability). In Experiment 1, we showed that associability (the inverse of trials to acquisition) increased in proportion to informativeness. In Experiment 2, we showed that fixing the duration of the US-US interval or the CS-US interval or both had no effect on associability. In Experiment 3, we equated the increase in information produced by varying the C/T ratio with the increase produced by fixing the duration of the CS-US interval. Associability increased with increased informativeness, but, as in Experiment 2, fixing the CS-US duration had no effect on associability. These results are consistent with the view that CS-US associability depends on the increased rate of reward signaled by CS onset. The results also provide further evidence that conditioned responding is temporally controlled when it emerges.

  6. Poverty of the stimulus revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Robert C; Pietroski, Paul; Yankama, Beracah; Chomsky, Noam

    2011-01-01

    A central goal of modern generative grammar has been to discover invariant properties of human languages that reflect "the innate schematism of mind that is applied to the data of experience" and that "might reasonably be attributed to the organism itself as its contribution to the task of the acquisition of knowledge" (Chomsky, 1971). Candidates for such invariances include the structure dependence of grammatical rules, and in particular, certain constraints on question formation. Various "poverty of stimulus" (POS) arguments suggest that these invariances reflect an innate human endowment, as opposed to common experience: Such experience warrants selection of the grammars acquired only if humans assume, a priori, that selectable grammars respect substantive constraints. Recently, several researchers have tried to rebut these POS arguments. In response, we illustrate why POS arguments remain an important source of support for appeal to a priori structure-dependent constraints on the grammars that humans naturally acquire. Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Periodic Density Functional Theory Study of the Structure, Raman Spectrum, and Mechanical Properties of Schoepite Mineral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenero, Francisco; Cobos, Joaquín; Timón, Vicente

    2018-04-16

    The structure and Raman spectrum of schoepite mineral, [(UO 2 ) 8 O 2 (OH) 12 ]·12H 2 O, was studied by means of theoretical calculations. The computations were carried out by using density functional theory with plane waves and pseudopotentials. A norm-conserving pseudopotential specific for the U atom developed in a previous work was employed. Because it was not possible to locate H atoms directly from X-ray diffraction (XRD) data by structure refinement in previous experimental studies, all of the positions of the H atoms in the full unit cell were determined theoretically. The structural results, including the lattice parameters, bond lengths, bond angles, and powder XRD pattern, were found to be in good agreement with their experimental counterparts. However, the calculations performed using the unit cell designed by Ostanin and Zeller in 2007, involving half of the atoms of the full unit cell, led to significant errors in the computed powder XRD pattern. Furthermore, Ostanin and Zeller's unit cell contains hydronium ions, H 3 O + , which are incompatible with the experimental information. Therefore, while the use of this schoepite model may be a very useful approximation requiring a much smaller amount of computational effort, the full unit cell should be used to study this mineral accurately. The Raman spectrum was also computed by means of density functional perturbation theory and compared with the experimental spectrum. The results were also in agreement with the experimental data. A normal-mode analysis of the theoretical spectra was performed to assign the main bands of the Raman spectrum. This assignment significantly improved the current empirical assignment of the bands of the Raman spectrum of schoepite mineral. In addition, the equation of state and elastic properties of this mineral were determined. The crystal structure of schoepite was found to be stable mechanically and dynamically. Schoepite can be described as a brittle material exhibiting

  8. Noradrenergic modulation of neural erotic stimulus perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Heiko; Wiegers, Maike; Metzger, Coraline Danielle; Walter, Martin; Grön, Georg; Abler, Birgit

    2017-09-01

    We recently investigated neuromodulatory effects of the noradrenergic agent reboxetine and the dopamine receptor affine amisulpride in healthy subjects on dynamic erotic stimulus processing. Whereas amisulpride left sexual functions and neural activations unimpaired, we observed detrimental activations under reboxetine within the caudate nucleus corresponding to motivational components of sexual behavior. However, broadly impaired subjective sexual functioning under reboxetine suggested effects on further neural components. We now investigated the same sample under these two agents with static erotic picture stimulation as alternative stimulus presentation mode to potentially observe further neural treatment effects of reboxetine. 19 healthy males were investigated under reboxetine, amisulpride and placebo for 7 days each within a double-blind cross-over design. During fMRI static erotic picture were presented with preceding anticipation periods. Subjective sexual functions were assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. Neural activations were attenuated within the caudate nucleus, putamen, ventral striatum, the pregenual and anterior midcingulate cortex and in the orbitofrontal cortex under reboxetine. Subjective diminished sexual arousal under reboxetine was correlated with attenuated neural reactivity within the posterior insula. Again, amisulpride left neural activations along with subjective sexual functioning unimpaired. Neither reboxetine nor amisulpride altered differential neural activations during anticipation of erotic stimuli. Our results verified detrimental effects of noradrenergic agents on neural motivational but also emotional and autonomic components of sexual behavior. Considering the overlap of neural network alterations with those evoked by serotonergic agents, our results suggest similar neuromodulatory effects of serotonergic and noradrenergic agents on common neural pathways relevant for sexual behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and

  9. Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

    1993-05-01

    Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed each to provide the delivery of a tactile stimulus, a repetitive light tapping, at different locations (spaced 10.0 cm apart) along the horse's back. Two preliminary steps were necessary before generalization testing: training a measurable response (lip pressing) and training on several reinforcement schedules in the presence of a training stimulus (tapping by one of the solenoids). We then gave each horse two generalization test sessions. Results indicated that the horses' behavior was effectively controlled by the training stimulus. Horses made the greatest number of responses to the training stimulus, and the tendency to respond to the other test stimuli diminished as the stimuli became farther away from the training stimulus. These findings are discussed in the context of behavioral principles and their relevance to the training of horses.

  10. Mechanical and tribological properties of a-C/a-C:Ti multilayer films with various bilayer periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, W.Q.; Cai, J.B.; Wang, X.L., E-mail: wangxl@zju.edu.cn; Wang, D.H.; Gu, C.D.; Tu, J.P., E-mail: tujp@zju.edu.cn

    2014-05-02

    Thick a-C/a-C:Ti multilayer films with bilayer periods of 12–70 nm were deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy substrate by means of closed field unbalance magnetron sputtering. The morphology and microstructure of the multilayer films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Nanocrystalline TiC was distributed in the a-C:Ti layer and at the interface between the two adjacent layers. The mechanical and tribological properties were evaluated by Rockwell and scratch tests, a nanoindentor and a ball-on-disk tribometer. The multilayer film with a bilayer period of 12 nm showed the highest adhesion strength, hardness (26 GPa) and elastic modulus (232 GPa); it also had the lowest average coefficient of friction (0.09) and a wear rate of 8.06 × 10{sup −17} m{sup 3} N{sup −1} m{sup −1}. - Highlights: • a-C/a-C:Ti multilayers with various bilayer periods were prepared. • Nanocrystalline TiCs were confirmed in the a-C:Ti layer and at the interface. • These multilayers show fine ability to comply with substrate deformation. • The multilayer with a bilayer period of 12 nm exhibits the best properties.

  11. Mechanical properties of ceramic structures based on Triply Periodic Minimal Surface (TPMS) processed by 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, S.; Ocampo, S.; Ramírez, J. A.; Paucar, C.; García, C.

    2017-12-01

    Repairing tissues and organs has been the main goal of surgical procedures. Since the 1990s, the main goal of tissue engineering has been reparation, using porous scaffolds that serve as a three-dimensional template for the initial fixation of cells and subsequent tissue formation both in vitro and in vivo. A scaffold must have specific characteristics of porosity, interconnectivity, surface area, pore volume, surface tortuosity, permeability and mechanical properties, which makes its design, manufacturing and characterization a complex process. Inspired by nature, triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) have emerged as an alternative for the manufacture of porous pieces with design requirements, such as scaffolds for tissue repair. In the present work, we used the technique of 3D printing to obtain ceramic structures with Gyroid, Schwarz Primitive and Schwarz Diamond Surfaces shapes, three TPMS that fulfil the geometric requirements of a bone tissue scaffold. The main objective of this work is to compare the mechanical properties of ceramic pieces of three different forms of TPMS printed in 3D using a commercial ceramic paste. In this way it will be possible to clarify which is the TPMS with appropriate characteristics to construct scaffolds of ceramic materials for bone repair. A dependence of the mechanical properties with the geometry was found being the Primitive Surface which shows the highest mechanical properties.

  12. Stimulus Probability Effects in Absolute Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of stimulus presentation probability on accuracy and response times in an absolute identification task. Three schedules of presentation were used to investigate the interaction between presentation probability and stimulus position within the set. Data from individual participants indicated strong effects of…

  13. The stimulus integration area for horizontal vergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Robert S; Howard, Ian P; Fang, Xueping

    2004-06-01

    Over what region of space are horizontal disparities integrated to form the stimulus for vergence? The vergence system might be expected to respond to disparities within a small area of interest to bring them into the range of precise stereoscopic processing. However, the literature suggests that disparities are integrated over a fairly large parafoveal area. We report the results of six experiments designed to explore the spatial characteristics of the stimulus for vergence. Binocular eye movements were recorded using magnetic search coils. Each dichoptic display consisted of a central target stimulus that the subject attempted to fuse, and a competing stimulus with conflicting disparity. In some conditions the target was stationary, providing a fixation stimulus. In other conditions, the disparity of the target changed to provide a vergence-tracking stimulus. The target and competing stimulus were combined in a variety of conditions including those in which (1) a transparent textured-disc target was superimposed on a competing textured background, (2) a textured-disc target filled the centre of a competing annular background, and (3) a small target was presented within the centre of a competing annular background of various inner diameters. In some conditions the target and competing stimulus were separated in stereoscopic depth. The results are consistent with a disparity integration area with a diameter of about 5 degrees. Stimuli beyond this integration area can drive vergence in their own right, but they do not appear to be summed or averaged with a central stimulus to form a combined disparity signal. A competing stimulus had less effect on vergence when separated from the target by a disparity pedestal. As a result, we propose that it may be more useful to think in terms of an integration volume for vergence rather than a two-dimensional retinal integration area.

  14. Adaptive stimulus optimization for sensory systems neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMattina, Christopher; Zhang, Kechen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review several lines of recent work aimed at developing practical methods for adaptive on-line stimulus generation for sensory neurophysiology. We consider various experimental paradigms where on-line stimulus optimization is utilized, including the classical optimal stimulus paradigm where the goal of experiments is to identify a stimulus which maximizes neural responses, the iso-response paradigm which finds sets of stimuli giving rise to constant responses, and the system identification paradigm where the experimental goal is to estimate and possibly compare sensory processing models. We discuss various theoretical and practical aspects of adaptive firing rate optimization, including optimization with stimulus space constraints, firing rate adaptation, and possible network constraints on the optimal stimulus. We consider the problem of system identification, and show how accurate estimation of non-linear models can be highly dependent on the stimulus set used to probe the network. We suggest that optimizing stimuli for accurate model estimation may make it possible to successfully identify non-linear models which are otherwise intractable, and summarize several recent studies of this type. Finally, we present a two-stage stimulus design procedure which combines the dual goals of model estimation and model comparison and may be especially useful for system identification experiments where the appropriate model is unknown beforehand. We propose that fast, on-line stimulus optimization enabled by increasing computer power can make it practical to move sensory neuroscience away from a descriptive paradigm and toward a new paradigm of real-time model estimation and comparison.

  15. Stimulus-response coupling in platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of stimulus-response coupling in platelets, the potentiating effect of succinate and lithium on platelet activation was examined. The action of succinate was immediate; preincubation with succinate did not lead to desensitization. Succinate was comparable to ADP in lowering cAMP levels previously elevated by PGl 2 . Since inhibition of cAMP is not a prerequisite for platelet activation, the mechanism of potentiation of succinate remains undefined. Lithium has also been shown to inhibit adenylate cyclase in PGl 2 -pretreated platelets. Lithium, however, can also inhibit inositol phosphate (InsP) phosphatase and lead to an accumulation of InsP. In human platelets, lithium also enhanced the thrombin-induced accumulation of [ 3 H]inositol-labelled inositol trisphosphate (InsP 3 ), and inositol bisphosphate (InsP 2 ). One hour after thrombin addition, all 3 inositol phosphates returned to near basal levels. In the presence of lithium, while labelled InsP 2 and InsP 3 returned to their respective basal levels, the InsP level remained elevated, consistent with the known inhibitory effect of lithium on InsP phosphatase. In thrombin-stimulated platelets prelabeled with [ 32 P]phosphate, lithium led to a decrease in labelled phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) as well as an enhanced production of labelled lysophosphatidylinositol, suggesting multiple effects of lithium on platelet phosphoinositide metabolism. These observed effects, however, occurred too slowly to be the mechanism by which lithium potentiated agonist-induced platelet activation. To study the agonist-receptor interaction, the effect of the specific, high affinity thrombin inhibitor, hirudin, on thrombin-induced accumulation of [ 3 H]inositol-labelled inositol phosphates was studied

  16. Analysis of Seismotektonic Patterns in Sumatra Region Based on the Focal Mechanism of Earthquake Period 1976-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indah, F. P.; Syafriani, S.; Andiyansyah, Z. S.

    2018-04-01

    Sumatra is in an active subduction zone between the indo-australian plate and the eurasian plate and is located at a fault along the sumatra fault so that sumatra is vulnerable to earthquakes. One of the ways to find out the cause of earthquake can be done by identifying the type of earthquake-causing faults based on earthquake of focal mechanism. The data used to identify the type of fault cause of earthquake is the earth tensor moment data which is sourced from global cmt period 1976-2016. The data used in this research using magnitude m ≥ 6 sr. This research uses gmt software (generic mapping tolls) to describe the form of fault. From the research result, it is found that the characteristics of fault field that formed in every region in sumatera island based on data processing and data of earthquake history of 1976-2016 period that the type of fault in sumatera fault is strike slip, fault type in mentawai fault is reverse fault (rising faults) and dip-slip, while the fault type in the subduction zone is dip-slip.

  17. Periodic driving control of Raman-induced spin-orbit coupling in Bose-Einstein condensates: The heating mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez Llorente, J. M.; Plata, J.

    2016-06-01

    We focus on a technique recently implemented for controlling the magnitude of synthetic spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in ultracold atoms in the Raman-coupling scenario. This technique uses a periodic modulation of the Raman-coupling amplitude to tune the SOC. Specifically, it has been shown that the effect of a high-frequency sinusoidal modulation of the Raman-laser intensity can be incorporated into the undriven Hamiltonian via effective parameters, whose adiabatic variation can therefore be used to tune the SOC. Here, we characterize the heating mechanisms that can be relevant to this method. We identify the main mechanism responsible for the heating observed in the experiments as basically rooted in driving-induced transfer of population to excited states. Characteristics of that process determined by the harmonic trapping, the decay of the excited states, and the technique used for preparing the system are discussed. Additional heating, rooted in departures from adiabaticity in the variation of the effective parameters, is also described. Our analytical study provides some clues that may be useful in the design of strategies for curbing the effects of heating on the efficiency of the control methods.

  18. Continuous- and Discrete-Time Stimulus Sequences for High Stimulus Rate Paradigm in Evoked Potential Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain reliable transient auditory evoked potentials (AEPs from EEGs recorded using high stimulus rate (HSR paradigm, it is critical to design the stimulus sequences of appropriate frequency properties. Traditionally, the individual stimulus events in a stimulus sequence occur only at discrete time points dependent on the sampling frequency of the recording system and the duration of stimulus sequence. This dependency likely causes the implementation of suboptimal stimulus sequences, sacrificing the reliability of resulting AEPs. In this paper, we explicate the use of continuous-time stimulus sequence for HSR paradigm, which is independent of the discrete electroencephalogram (EEG recording system. We employ simulation studies to examine the applicability of the continuous-time stimulus sequences and the impacts of sampling frequency on AEPs in traditional studies using discrete-time design. Results from these studies show that the continuous-time sequences can offer better frequency properties and improve the reliability of recovered AEPs. Furthermore, we find that the errors in the recovered AEPs depend critically on the sampling frequencies of experimental systems, and their relationship can be fitted using a reciprocal function. As such, our study contributes to the literature by demonstrating the applicability and advantages of continuous-time stimulus sequences for HSR paradigm and by revealing the relationship between the reliability of AEPs and sampling frequencies of the experimental systems when discrete-time stimulus sequences are used in traditional manner for the HSR paradigm.

  19. Occlusion for stimulus deprivation amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Santos, Aileen; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Hatt, Sarah R; Powell, Christine

    2014-02-06

    Stimulus deprivation amblyopia (SDA) develops due to an obstruction to the passage of light secondary to a condition such as cataract. The obstruction prevents formation of a clear image on the retina. SDA can be resistant to treatment, leading to poor visual prognosis. SDA probably constitutes less than 3% of all amblyopia cases, although precise estimates of prevalence are unknown. In developed countries, most patients present under the age of one year; in less developed parts of the world patients are likely to be older at the time of presentation. The mainstay of treatment is removal of the cataract and then occlusion of the better-seeing eye, but regimens vary, can be difficult to execute, and traditionally are believed to lead to disappointing results. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of occlusion therapy for SDA in an attempt to establish realistic treatment outcomes. Where data were available, we also planned to examine evidence of any dose response effect and to assess the effect of the duration, severity, and causative factor on the size and direction of the treatment effect. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2013), the Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2013), PubMed (January 1946 to October 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com ), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 28 October 2013. We planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled

  20. Periodic Viscous Shear Heating Instability in Fine-Grained Shear Zones: Possible Mechanism for Intermediate Depth Earthquakes and Slow Earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Hirth, G.

    2004-12-01

    creep and grain boundary sliding as a function of stress and strain, and undergoes diffusive growth during diffusion creep. For strain rates ca E-13 per second and initial temperatures ca 600 to 850 C, this model produces periodic viscous shear heating events with periods of 100's of years. Strain rates during these events approach 1 per second as temperatures reach 1400 C, so future models will incorporate inertial terms in the stress. Cooling between events returns the shear zone almost to its initial temperature, but ultimately shear zone temperature between events exceeds 850 C resulting in stable viscous creep. Back of the envelope calculations based on model results support the view that viscous deformation in both shear zone and host will be mainly via grain-size sensitive creep, and thus deformation will remain localized in shear zones. Similarly, we infer that inertial terms will remain small. Future models will test and quantify these inferences. The simple model described above provides an attractive explanation for intermediate-depth earthquakes, especially those in subduction zones that occur in a narrow thermal window (e.g., Hacker et al JGR 2003). We think that a "smoother"periodic instability might be produced via the same mechanism in weaker materials, which could provide a viscous mechanism for some slow earthquakes. By AGU, we will construct a second, simple model using quartz rheology to investigate this. Finally, coupling of viscous shear heating instabilities in the shallow mantle with brittle stick-slip deformation in the weaker, overlying crust may influence earthquake frequency.

  1. Ultrasound as a stimulus for musculoskeletal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound is an inaudible form of acoustic sound wave at 20 kHz or above that is widely used in the medical field with applications including medical imaging and therapeutic stimulation. In therapeutic ultrasound, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS is the most widely used and studied form that generally uses acoustic waves at an intensity of 30 mW/cm2, with 200 ms pulses and 1.5 MHz. In orthopaedic applications, it is used as a biophysical stimulus for musculoskeletal tissue repair to enhance tissue regeneration. LIPUS has been shown to enhance fracture healing by shortening the time to heal and reestablishment of mechanical properties through enhancing different phases of the healing process, including the inflammatory phase, callus formation, and callus remodelling phase. Reports from in vitro studies reveal insights in the mechanism through which acoustic stimulations activate cell surface integrins that, in turn, activate various mechanical transduction pathways including FAK (focal adhesion kinase, ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase, PI3K, and Akt. It is then followed by the production of cyclooxygenase 2 and prostaglandin E2 to stimulate further downstream angiogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic cytokines, explaining the different enhancements observed in animal and clinical studies. Furthermore, LIPUS has also been shown to have remarkable effects on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs in musculoskeletal injuries and tissue regeneration. The recruitment of MSCs to injury sites by LIPUS requires the SDF-1 (stromal cell derived factor-1/CXCR-4 signalling axis. MSCs would then differentiate differently, and this is regulated by the presence of different cytokines, which determines their fates. Other musculoskeletal applications including bone–tendon junction healing, and distraction osteogenesis are also explored, and the results are promising. However, the use of LIPUS is controversial in treating osteoporosis, with negative

  2. Thermo-Mechanical Effect on Poly Crystalline Boron Nitride Tool Life During Friction Stir Welding (Dwell Period)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoussawi, M.; Smith, A. J.

    2018-03-01

    Poly Crystalline Boron Nitride (PCBN) tool wear during the friction stir welding of high melting alloys is an obstacle to commercialize the process. This work simulates the friction stir welding process and tool wear during the plunge/dwell period of 14.8 mm EH46 thick plate steel. The Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model was used for simulation and the wear of the tool is estimated from temperatures and shear stress profile on the tool surface. Two sets of tool rotational speeds were applied including 120 and 200 RPM. Seven plunge/dwell samples were prepared using PCBN FSW tool, six thermocouples were also embedded around each plunge/dwell case in order to record the temperatures during the welding process. Infinite focus microscopy technique was used to create macrographs for each case. The CFD result has been shown that a shear layer around the tool shoulder and probe-side denoted as thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) was formed and its size increase with tool rotational speed increase. Maximum peak temperature was also found to increase with tool rotational speed increase. PCBN tool wear under shoulder was found to increase with tool rotational speed increase as a result of tool's binder softening after reaching to a peak temperature exceeds 1250 °C. Tool wear also found to increase at probe-side bottom as a result of high shear stress associated with the decrease in the tool rotational speed. The amount of BN particles revealed by SEM in the TMAZ were compared with the CFD model.

  3. Thermo-Mechanical Effect on Poly Crystalline Boron Nitride Tool Life During Friction Stir Welding (Dwell Period)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoussawi, M.; Smith, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Poly Crystalline Boron Nitride (PCBN) tool wear during the friction stir welding of high melting alloys is an obstacle to commercialize the process. This work simulates the friction stir welding process and tool wear during the plunge/dwell period of 14.8 mm EH46 thick plate steel. The Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model was used for simulation and the wear of the tool is estimated from temperatures and shear stress profile on the tool surface. Two sets of tool rotational speeds were applied including 120 and 200 RPM. Seven plunge/dwell samples were prepared using PCBN FSW tool, six thermocouples were also embedded around each plunge/dwell case in order to record the temperatures during the welding process. Infinite focus microscopy technique was used to create macrographs for each case. The CFD result has been shown that a shear layer around the tool shoulder and probe-side denoted as thermo-mechanical affected zone (TMAZ) was formed and its size increase with tool rotational speed increase. Maximum peak temperature was also found to increase with tool rotational speed increase. PCBN tool wear under shoulder was found to increase with tool rotational speed increase as a result of tool's binder softening after reaching to a peak temperature exceeds 1250 °C. Tool wear also found to increase at probe-side bottom as a result of high shear stress associated with the decrease in the tool rotational speed. The amount of BN particles revealed by SEM in the TMAZ were compared with the CFD model.

  4. Physiological Mechanisms Mediating the Coupling between Heart Period and Arterial Pressure in Response to Postural Changes in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvani, Alessandro; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Johnson, Blair D; van Helmond, Noud; Barletta, Giorgio; Cecere, Anna G; Joyner, Michael J; Cortelli, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    The upright posture strengthens the coupling between heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) consistently with a greater contribution of the arterial baroreflex to cardiac control, while paradoxically decreasing cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS). To investigate the physiological mechanisms that mediate the coupling between HP and SAP in response to different postures, we analyzed the cross-correlation functions between low-frequency HP and SAP fluctuations and estimated cBRS with the sequence technique in healthy male subjects during passive head-up tilt test (HUTT, n = 58), during supine wakefulness, supine slow-wave sleep (SWS), and in the seated and active standing positions ( n = 8), and during progressive loss of 1 L blood ( n = 8) to decrease central venous pressure in the supine position. HUTT, SWS, the seated, and the standing positions, but not blood loss, entailed significant increases in the positive correlation between HP and the previous SAP values, which is the expected result of arterial baroreflex control, compared with baseline recordings in the supine position during wakefulness. These increases were mirrored by increases in the low-frequency variability of SAP in each condition but SWS. cBRS decreased significantly during HUTT, in the seated and standing positions, and after blood loss compared with baseline during wakefulness. These decreases were mirrored by decreases in the RMSSD index, which reflects cardiac vagal modulation. These results support the view that the cBRS decrease associated with the upright posture is a byproduct of decreased cardiac vagal modulation, triggered by the arterial baroreflex in response to central hypovolemia. Conversely, the greater baroreflex contribution to cardiac control associated with upright posture may be explained, at least in part, by enhanced fluctuations of SAP, which elicit a more effective entrainment of HP fluctuations by the arterial baroreflex. These SAP fluctuations may result

  5. Periodic mechanical stress activates EGFR-dependent Rac1 mitogenic signals in rat nucleus pulpous cells via ERK1/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Gongming; Shen, Nan; Jiang, Xuefeng; Sun, Huiqing; Xu, Nanwei; Zhou, Dong; Nong, Luming; Ren, Kewei

    2016-01-01

    The mitogenic effects of periodic mechanical stress on nucleus pulpous cells have been studied extensively but the mechanisms whereby nucleus pulpous cells sense and respond to mechanical stimulation remain a matter of debate. We explored this question by performing cell culture experiments in our self-developed periodic stress field and perfusion culture system. Under periodic mechanical stress, rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation was significantly increased (p < 0.05 for each) and was associated with increases in the phosphorylation and activation of EGFR, Rac1, and ERK1/2 (p < 0.05 for each). Pretreatment with the ERK1/2 selective inhibitor PD98059 reduced periodic mechanical stress-induced nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each), while the activation levels of EGFR and Rac1 were not inhibited. Proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were inhibited after pretreatment with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 in nucleus pulpous cells in response to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each), while the phosphorylation site of EGFR was not affected. Inhibition of EGFR activity with AG1478 abrogated nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each) and attenuated Rac1 and ERK1/2 activation in nucleus pulpous cells subjected to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each). These findings suggest that periodic mechanical stress promotes nucleus pulpous cell proliferation in part through the EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which links these three important signaling molecules into a mitogenic cascade. - Highlights: • The mechanism involved in nucleus pulpous cells to respond to mechanical stimuli. • Periodic mechanical stress can stimulate the phosphorylation of EGFR. • EGFR activates Rac1 and leads to rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation. • EGFR and Rac1 activate ERK1/2 mitogenic signals in nucleus pulpous cells. • EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 is constitutes at least one critical signal transduction pathway.

  6. Periodic mechanical stress activates EGFR-dependent Rac1 mitogenic signals in rat nucleus pulpous cells via ERK1/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Gongming [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Changzhou No. 2 Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Shen, Nan [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, The Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical School, Jiangyin 214400 (China); Jiang, Xuefeng; Sun, Huiqing [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical School, Jiangyin 214400 (China); Xu, Nanwei; Zhou, Dong [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Changzhou No. 2 Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Nong, Luming, E-mail: lumingnong@hotmail.com [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Changzhou No. 2 Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Ren, Kewei, E-mail: keweiren@hotmail.com [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical School, Jiangyin 214400 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The mitogenic effects of periodic mechanical stress on nucleus pulpous cells have been studied extensively but the mechanisms whereby nucleus pulpous cells sense and respond to mechanical stimulation remain a matter of debate. We explored this question by performing cell culture experiments in our self-developed periodic stress field and perfusion culture system. Under periodic mechanical stress, rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation was significantly increased (p < 0.05 for each) and was associated with increases in the phosphorylation and activation of EGFR, Rac1, and ERK1/2 (p < 0.05 for each). Pretreatment with the ERK1/2 selective inhibitor PD98059 reduced periodic mechanical stress-induced nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each), while the activation levels of EGFR and Rac1 were not inhibited. Proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were inhibited after pretreatment with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 in nucleus pulpous cells in response to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each), while the phosphorylation site of EGFR was not affected. Inhibition of EGFR activity with AG1478 abrogated nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each) and attenuated Rac1 and ERK1/2 activation in nucleus pulpous cells subjected to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each). These findings suggest that periodic mechanical stress promotes nucleus pulpous cell proliferation in part through the EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which links these three important signaling molecules into a mitogenic cascade. - Highlights: • The mechanism involved in nucleus pulpous cells to respond to mechanical stimuli. • Periodic mechanical stress can stimulate the phosphorylation of EGFR. • EGFR activates Rac1 and leads to rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation. • EGFR and Rac1 activate ERK1/2 mitogenic signals in nucleus pulpous cells. • EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 is constitutes at least one critical signal transduction pathway.

  7. Enhanced stimulus-induced gamma activity in humans during propofol-induced sedation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Saxena

    Full Text Available Stimulus-induced gamma oscillations in the 30-80 Hz range have been implicated in a wide number of functions including visual processing, memory and attention. While occipital gamma-band oscillations can be pharmacologically modified in animal preparations, pharmacological modulation of stimulus-induced visual gamma oscillations has yet to be demonstrated in non-invasive human recordings. Here, in fifteen healthy humans volunteers, we probed the effects of the GABAA agonist and sedative propofol on stimulus-related gamma activity recorded with magnetoencephalography, using a simple visual grating stimulus designed to elicit gamma oscillations in the primary visual cortex. During propofol sedation as compared to the normal awake state, a significant 60% increase in stimulus-induced gamma amplitude was seen together with a 94% enhancement of stimulus-induced alpha suppression and a simultaneous reduction in the amplitude of the pattern-onset evoked response. These data demonstrate, that propofol-induced sedation is accompanied by increased stimulus-induced gamma activity providing a potential window into mechanisms of gamma-oscillation generation in humans.

  8. Carving Executive Control At Its Joints: Working Memory Capacity Predicts Stimulus-Stimulus, But Not Stimulus-Response, Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matt E.; Kane, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments examined the relation between working memory capacity (WMC) and two different forms of cognitive conflict: stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (SR) interference. Our goal was to test whether WMC’s relation to conflict-task performance is mediated by stimulus-identification processes (captured by S-S conflict), response-selection processes (captured by S-R conflict), or both. In Experiment 1, subjects completed a single task presenting both S-S and S-R conflict trials, plus trials that combined the two conflict types. We limited ostensible goal-maintenance contributions to performance by requiring the same goal for all trial types and by presenting frequent conflict trials that reinforced the goal. WMC predicted resolution of S-S conflict as expected: Higher-WMC subjects showed reduced response time interference. Although WMC also predicted S-R interference, here, higher-WMC subjects showed increased error interference. Experiment 2A replicated these results in a version of the conflict task without combined S-S/S-R trials. Experiment 2B increased the proportion of congruent (non-conflict) trials to promote reliance on goal-maintenance processes. Here, higher-WMC subjects resolved both S-S and S-R conflict more successfully than did lower-WMC subjects. The results were consistent with Kane and Engle’s (2003) two-factor theory of cognitive control, according to which WMC predicts executive-task performance through goal-maintenance and conflict-resolution processes. However, the present results add specificity to the account by suggesting that higher-WMC subjects better resolve cognitive conflict because they more efficiently select relevant stimulus features against irrelevant, distracting ones. PMID:26120774

  9. Exercise following a short immobilization period is detrimental to tendon properties and joint mechanics in a rat rotator cuff injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, Cathryn D; Sarver, Joseph J; Dourte, Leann M; Würgler-Hauri, Carola C; Williams, Gerald R; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2010-07-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a common clinical problem that can result in pain and disability. Previous studies in a rat model showed enhanced tendon to bone healing with postoperative immobilization. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of postimmobilization activity level on insertion site properties and joint mechanics in a rat model. Our hypothesis was that exercise following a short period of immobilization will cause detrimental changes in insertion site properties compared to cage activity following the same period of immobilization, but that passive shoulder mechanics will not be affected. We detached and repaired the supraspinatus tendon of 22 Sprague-Dawley rats, and the injured shoulder was immobilized postoperatively for 2 weeks. Following immobilization, rats were prescribed cage activity or exercise for 12 weeks. Passive shoulder mechanics were determined, and following euthanasia, tendon cross-sectional area and mechanical properties were measured. Exercise following immobilization resulted in significant decreases compared to cage activity in range of motion, tendon stiffness, modulus, percent relaxation, and several parameters from both a structurally based elastic model and a quasi-linear viscoelastic model. Therefore, we conclude that after a short period of immobilization, increased activity is detrimental to both tendon mechanical properties and shoulder joint mechanics, presumably due to increased scar production. (c) 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  10. Antagonism of a (+)N-allylnormetazocine stimulus by (-)PPAP and several structurally related analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, R A; Young, R; Herndon, J L

    1993-08-01

    Employing rats trained to discriminate 5 mg/kg of the benzomorphan opioid (+)N-allylnormetazocine [(+)NANM] from vehicle, tests of stimulus generalization and antagonism were conducted to determine the influence of several potential sigma-receptor ligands. It has been previously suggested that the (+)NANM stimulus may involve concurrent action at sigma- and phencyclidine (PCP) receptors. Although the low-affinity sigma-antagonist rimcazole was without stimulus-attenuating effect, three novel sigma-ligands--(-)PPAP, CNS 3018, and CNS 3093 (ID50 doses = 3.2, 6.7, and 4.5 mg/kg, respectively)--antagonized the (+)NANM stimulus in a dose-related fashion. The nonselective serotonergic agent 1-(3-trifluoromethyl)phenylpiperazine (TFMPP) produced partial generalization in (+)NANM-trained animals whereas buspirone, a 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5-HT1A) agonist, attenuated (to 27% drug-appropriate responding) the (+)NANM stimulus. Because the prototypic 5-HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) failed to attenuate the (+)NANM stimulus at pharmacologically relevant doses, it seems unlikely that the (+)NANM stimulus involves a 5-HT1A mechanism. TFMPP and buspirone display modest affinity for sigma-receptors and this may account for the present findings with these agents. The present results neither establish a role for sigma involvement in the stimulus properties of (+)NANM nor eliminate a role for PCP receptors. They do, however, demonstrate that sigma-ligands with little to no affinity for PCP receptors are capable of antagonizing the (+)NANM stimulus.

  11. Conditioned pain modulation is minimally influenced by cognitive evaluation or imagery of the conditioning stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernaba M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mario Bernaba, Kevin A Johnson, Jiang-Ti Kong, Sean MackeyStanford Systems Neuroscience and Pain Laboratory, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USAPurpose: Conditioned pain modulation (CPM is an experimental approach for probing endogenous analgesia by which one painful stimulus (the conditioning stimulus may inhibit the perceived pain of a subsequent stimulus (the test stimulus. Animal studies suggest that CPM is mediated by a spino–bulbo–spinal loop using objective measures such as neuronal firing. In humans, pain ratings are often used as the end point. Because pain self-reports are subject to cognitive influences, we tested whether cognitive factors would impact on CPM results in healthy humans.Methods: We conducted a within-subject, crossover study of healthy adults to determine the extent to which CPM is affected by 1 threatening and reassuring evaluation and 2 imagery alone of a cold conditioning stimulus. We used a heat stimulus individualized to 5/10 on a visual analog scale as the testing stimulus and computed the magnitude of CPM by subtracting the postconditioning rating from the baseline pain rating of the heat stimulus.Results: We found that although evaluation can increase the pain rating of the conditioning stimulus, it did not significantly alter the magnitude of CPM. We also found that imagery of cold pain alone did not result in statistically significant CPM effect.Conclusion: Our results suggest that CPM is primarily dependent on sensory input, and that the cortical processes of evaluation and imagery have little impact on CPM. These findings lend support for CPM as a useful tool for probing endogenous analgesia through subcortical mechanisms.Keywords: conditioned pain modulation, endogenous analgesia, evaluation, imagery, cold presser test, CHEPS, contact heat-evoked potential stimulator

  12. The Poverty of the Mayan Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Clifton

    2012-01-01

    Poverty of the stimulus (POS) arguments have instigated considerable debate in the recent linguistics literature. This article uses the comparative method to challenge the logic of POS arguments. Rather than question the premises of POS arguments, the article demonstrates how POS arguments for individual languages lead to a "reductio ad absurdum"…

  13. Crisis, Stimulus Package and Migration in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csanádi, Maria; Nie, Zihan; Li, Shi

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the short-term and long-term effects that the global economic crisis and the investment priorities of the Chinese Government's stimulus package had on Chinese migrant flows between 2008 and 2014. Combining micro-level household survey data and macro-level statistics, the

  14. Bigrams and the Richness of the Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Xuan-Nga Cao; Stoyneshka, Iglika; Tornyova, Lidiya; Fodor, Janet D.; Sakas, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Recent challenges to Chomsky's "poverty of the stimulus" thesis for language acquisition suggest that children's primary data may carry "indirect evidence" about linguistic constructions despite containing no instances of them. Indirect evidence is claimed to suffice for grammar acquisition, without need for innate knowledge. This article reports…

  15. Priming makes a stimulus more salient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J.; van der Burg, E.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used visual prior entry to determine which of two stimuli received attention first. Observers were asked to judge whether two test stimuli across a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) were synchronized or not (simultaneity judgment task; SJ), or to report the temporal order

  16. Stimulus-driven capture and contingent capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Belopolsky, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    Whether or not certain physical events can capture attention has been one of the most debated issues in the study of attention. This discussion is concerned with how goal-directed and stimulus-driven processes interact in perception and cognition. On one extreme of the spectrum is the idea that

  17. Control technique of spontaneous combustion in fully mechan ized stope during period of end caving under complex mining influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Benqing

    2018-01-01

    In view of the phenomenon of spontaneous combustion of coal seam occurring during the period of end caving under complex mining conditions, taking the 1116 (3) stope of Guqiao mine as the object of study, the causes of spontaneous combustion during the period of end caving are analyzed, according to the specific geological conditions of the stope to develop corresponding fire prevention measures, including the reduction of air supply and air leakage in goaf, reduce the amount of coal left, reasonable drainage, nitrogen injection for spontaneous combustion prevention, grouting for spontaneous combustion prevention and permanent closure, fundamentally eliminates the potential for spontaneous combustion during the period of 1116(3) stope end caving. The engineering practice shows that this kind of measure has reference value for the prevention and control of spontaneous combustion during the period of stope end caving.

  18. Physiological Mechanisms Mediating the Coupling between Heart Period and Arterial Pressure in Response to Postural Changes in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvani, A.; Calandra-Buonaura, G.; Johnson, B.D.; Helmond, N. van; Barletta, G.; Cecere, A.G.; Joyner, M.J.; Cortelli, P.

    2017-01-01

    The upright posture strengthens the coupling between heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) consistently with a greater contribution of the arterial baroreflex to cardiac control, while paradoxically decreasing cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS). To investigate the physiological

  19. Dissecting stimulus-response binding effects: Grouping by color separately impacts integration and retrieval processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Ruth; Frings, Christian; Moeller, Birte

    2018-04-23

    In selection tasks, target and distractor features can be encoded together with the response into the same short-lived memory trace, or event file (see Hommel, 2004), leading to bindings between stimulus and response features. The repetition of a stored target or distractor feature can lead to the retrieval of the entire episode, including the response-so-called "binding effects." Binding effects due to distractor repetition are stronger for grouped than for nongrouped target and distractor stimulus configurations. Modulation of either of two mechanisms that lead to the observed binding effects might be responsible here: Grouping may influence either stimulus-response integration or stimulus-response retrieval. In the present study we investigated the influences of grouping on both mechanisms independently. In two experiments, target and distractor letters were grouped (or nongrouped) via color (dis)similarity separately during integration and retrieval. Grouping by color similarity affected integration and retrieval mechanisms independently and in different ways. Color dissimilarity enhanced distractor-based retrieval, whereas color similarity enhanced distractor integration. We concluded that stimulus grouping is relevant for binding effects, but that the mechanisms that contribute to binding effects should be carefully separated.

  20. Working memory accuracy for multiple targets is driven by reward expectation and stimulus contrast with different time-courses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, P. Christiaan; Jeurissen, Danique; Theeuwes, Jan; Denys, Damiaan; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2017-01-01

    The richness of sensory input dictates that the brain must prioritize and select information for further processing and storage in working memory. Stimulus salience and reward expectations influence this prioritization but their relative contributions and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood.

  1. Distinguishing stimulus and response codes in theta oscillations in prefrontal areas during inhibitory control of automated responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mückschel, Moritz; Dippel, Gabriel; Beste, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Response inhibition mechanisms are mediated via cortical and subcortical networks. At the cortical level, the superior frontal gyrus, including the supplementary motor area (SMA) and inferior frontal areas, is important. There is an ongoing debate about the functional roles of these structures during response inhibition as it is unclear whether these structures process different codes or contents of information during response inhibition. In the current study, we examined this question with a focus on theta frequency oscillations during response inhibition processes. We used a standard Go/Nogo task in a sample of human participants and combined different EEG signal decomposition methods with EEG beamforming approaches. The results suggest that stimulus coding during inhibitory control is attained by oscillations in the upper theta frequency band (∼7 Hz). In contrast, response selection codes during inhibitory control appear to be attained by the lower theta frequency band (∼4 Hz). Importantly, these different codes seem to be processed in distinct functional neuroanatomical structures. Although the SMA may process stimulus codes and response selection codes, the inferior frontal cortex may selectively process response selection codes during inhibitory control. Taken together, the results suggest that different entities within the functional neuroanatomical network associated with response inhibition mechanisms process different kinds of codes during inhibitory control. These codes seem to be reflected by different oscillations within the theta frequency band. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5681-5690, 2017. © 2017 Wiley-Liss, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effect of modulation periods on the microstructure and mechanical properties of DLC/TiC multilayer films deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhaoying; Sun, H.; Leng, Y.X.; Li, Xueyuan; Yang, Wenmao; Huang, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • DLC/TiC multilayer films with different modulation periods at same modulation ratio 1:1 were deposited by FCVA. • The residual stress of DLC/TiC multilayer films decreases with the modulation periods decrease. • The hardness of the multilayer DLC films decreases with modulation periods increasing. - Abstract: The high stress of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film limits its thickness and adhesion on substrate. Multilayer structure is one approach to overcome this disadvantage. In this paper, the DLC/TiC multilayer films with different modulation periods (80 nm, 106 nm or 160 nm) at same modulation ratio of 1:1 were deposited on Si(1 0 0) wafer and Ti-6Al-4V substrate by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) technology. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoindention and wear test were employed to investigate the effect of modulation periods on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the multilayer films. The results showed that the residual stress of the DLC/TiC multilayer films could be effectively reduced and the residual stress decreased with the modulation periods decreasing. The hardness of the DLC/TiC multilayer films increased with modulation periods decreasing. The DLC/TiC multilayer film with modulation period of 106 nm had the best wear resistance due to the good combination of hardness, ductility and low compressive stress

  3. Stimulus induced bursts in severe postanoxic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjepkema-Cloostermans, Marleen C; Wijers, Elisabeth T; van Putten, Michel J A M

    2016-11-01

    To report on a distinct effect of auditory and sensory stimuli on the EEG in comatose patients with severe postanoxic encephalopathy. In two comatose patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with severe postanoxic encephalopathy and burst-suppression EEG, we studied the effect of external stimuli (sound and touch) on the occurrence of bursts. In patient A bursts could be induced by either auditory or sensory stimuli. In patient B bursts could only be induced by touching different facial regions (forehead, nose and chin). When stimuli were presented with relatively long intervals, bursts persistently followed the stimuli, while stimuli with short intervals (encephalopathy can be induced by external stimuli, resulting in stimulus-dependent burst-suppression. Stimulus induced bursts should not be interpreted as prognostic favourable EEG reactivity. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Discrimination learning with variable stimulus 'salience'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treviño Mario

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In nature, sensory stimuli are organized in heterogeneous combinations. Salient items from these combinations 'stand-out' from their surroundings and determine what and how we learn. Yet, the relationship between varying stimulus salience and discrimination learning remains unclear. Presentation of the hypothesis A rigorous formulation of the problem of discrimination learning should account for varying salience effects. We hypothesize that structural variations in the environment where the conditioned stimulus (CS is embedded will be a significant determinant of learning rate and retention level. Testing the hypothesis Using numerical simulations, we show how a modified version of the Rescorla-Wagner model, an influential theory of associative learning, predicts relevant interactions between varying salience and discrimination learning. Implications of the hypothesis If supported by empirical data, our model will help to interpret critical experiments addressing the relations between attention, discrimination and learning.

  5. Electrophysiological Correlates of Changes in Reaction Time Based on Stimulus Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhani, Bimal; Vette, Albert H.; Mansfield, Avril; Miyasike-daSilva, Veronica; McIlroy, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although reaction time is commonly used as an indicator of central nervous system integrity, little is currently understood about the mechanisms that determine processing time. In the current study, we are interested in determining the differences in electrophysiological events associated with significant changes in reaction time that could be elicited by changes in stimulus intensity. The primary objective is to assess the effect of increasing stimulus intensity on the latency and amplitude of afferent inputs to the somatosensory cortex, and their relation to reaction time. Methods Median nerve stimulation was applied to the non-dominant hand of 12 healthy young adults at two different stimulus intensities (HIGH & LOW). Participants were asked to either press a button as fast as possible with their dominant hand or remain quiet following the stimulus. Electroencephalography was used to measure somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and event related potentials (ERPs). Electromyography from the flexor digitorum superficialis of the button-pressing hand was used to assess reaction time. Response time was the time of button press. Results Reaction time and response time were significantly shorter following the HIGH intensity stimulus compared to the LOW intensity stimulus. There were no differences in SEP (N20 & P24) peak latencies and peak-to-peak amplitude for the two stimulus intensities. ERPs, locked to response time, demonstrated a significantly larger pre-movement negativity to positivity following the HIGH intensity stimulus over the Cz electrode. Discussion This work demonstrates that rapid reaction times are not attributable to the latency of afferent processing from the stimulated site to the somatosensory cortex, and those latency reductions occur further along the sensorimotor transformation pathway. Evidence from ERPs indicates that frontal planning areas such as the supplementary motor area may play a role in transforming the elevated sensory

  6. Performance breakdown in optimal stimulus decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubomir Kostal; Lansky, Petr; Pilarski, Stevan

    2015-06-01

    One of the primary goals of neuroscience is to understand how neurons encode and process information about their environment. The problem is often approached indirectly by examining the degree to which the neuronal response reflects the stimulus feature of interest. In this context, the methods of signal estimation and detection theory provide the theoretical limits on the decoding accuracy with which the stimulus can be identified. The Cramér-Rao lower bound on the decoding precision is widely used, since it can be evaluated easily once the mathematical model of the stimulus-response relationship is determined. However, little is known about the behavior of different decoding schemes with respect to the bound if the neuronal population size is limited. We show that under broad conditions the optimal decoding displays a threshold-like shift in performance in dependence on the population size. The onset of the threshold determines a critical range where a small increment in size, signal-to-noise ratio or observation time yields a dramatic gain in the decoding precision. We demonstrate the existence of such threshold regions in early auditory and olfactory information coding. We discuss the origin of the threshold effect and its impact on the design of effective coding approaches in terms of relevant population size.

  7. Impact of stimulus uncanniness on speeded response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske eTakahashi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the uncanny valley phenomenon, the causes of the feeling of uncanniness as well as the impact of the uncanniness on behavioral performances still remain open. The present study investigated the behavioral effects of stimulus uncanniness, particularly with respect to speeded response. Pictures of fish were used as visual stimuli. Participants engaged in direction discrimination, spatial cueing, and dot-probe tasks. The results showed that pictures rated as strongly uncanny delayed speeded response in the discrimination of the direction of the fish. In the cueing experiment, where a fish served as a task-irrelevant and unpredictable cue for a peripheral target, we again observed that the detection of a target was slowed when the cue was an uncanny fish. Conversely, the dot-probe task suggested that uncanny fish, unlike threatening stimulus, did not capture visual spatial attention. These results suggested that stimulus uncanniness resulted in the delayed response, and importantly this modulation was not mediated by the feelings of threat.

  8. LONG-ORBITAL-PERIOD PREPOLARS CONTAINING EARLY K-TYPE DONOR STARS. BOTTLENECK ACCRETION MECHANISM IN ACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovmassian, G.; González–Buitrago, D.; Zharikov, S.; Reichart, D. E.; Haislip, J. B.; Ivarsen, K. M.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Moore, J. P.; Miroshnichenko, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    We studied two objects identified as cataclysmic variables (CVs) with periods exceeding the natural boundary for Roche-lobe-filling zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) secondary stars. We present observational results for V1082 Sgr with a 20.82 hr orbital period, an object that shows a low luminosity state when its flux is totally dominated by a chromospherically active K star with no signs of ongoing accretion. Frequent accretion shutoffs, together with characteristics of emission lines in a high state, indicate that this binary system is probably detached, and the accretion of matter on the magnetic white dwarf takes place through stellar wind from the active donor star via coupled magnetic fields. Its observational characteristics are surprisingly similar to V479 And, a 14.5 hr binary system. They both have early K-type stars as donor stars. We argue that, similar to the shorter-period prepolars containing M dwarfs, these are detached binaries with strong magnetic components. Their magnetic fields are coupled, allowing enhanced stellar wind from the K star to be captured and channeled through the bottleneck connecting the two stars onto the white dwarf’s magnetic pole, mimicking a magnetic CV. Hence, they become interactive binaries before they reach contact. This will help to explain an unexpected lack of systems possessing white dwarfs with strong magnetic fields among detached white+red dwarf systems

  9. LONG-ORBITAL-PERIOD PREPOLARS CONTAINING EARLY K-TYPE DONOR STARS. BOTTLENECK ACCRETION MECHANISM IN ACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovmassian, G.; González–Buitrago, D.; Zharikov, S. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 877, Ensenada, Baja California, 22800 México (Mexico); Reichart, D. E.; Haislip, J. B.; Ivarsen, K. M.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Moore, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Campus Box 3255, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Miroshnichenko, A. S., E-mail: gag@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: dgonzalez@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: zhar@astro.unam.mx [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, NC 27402-6170 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We studied two objects identified as cataclysmic variables (CVs) with periods exceeding the natural boundary for Roche-lobe-filling zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) secondary stars. We present observational results for V1082 Sgr with a 20.82 hr orbital period, an object that shows a low luminosity state when its flux is totally dominated by a chromospherically active K star with no signs of ongoing accretion. Frequent accretion shutoffs, together with characteristics of emission lines in a high state, indicate that this binary system is probably detached, and the accretion of matter on the magnetic white dwarf takes place through stellar wind from the active donor star via coupled magnetic fields. Its observational characteristics are surprisingly similar to V479 And, a 14.5 hr binary system. They both have early K-type stars as donor stars. We argue that, similar to the shorter-period prepolars containing M dwarfs, these are detached binaries with strong magnetic components. Their magnetic fields are coupled, allowing enhanced stellar wind from the K star to be captured and channeled through the bottleneck connecting the two stars onto the white dwarf’s magnetic pole, mimicking a magnetic CV. Hence, they become interactive binaries before they reach contact. This will help to explain an unexpected lack of systems possessing white dwarfs with strong magnetic fields among detached white+red dwarf systems.

  10. Contact angle hysteresis on doubly periodic smooth rough surfaces in Wenzel's regime: The role of the contact line depinning mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Stanimir; Pesheva, Nina; Iliev, Pavel

    2018-04-01

    We report here on the contact angle hysteresis, appearing when a liquid meniscus is in contact with doubly sinusoidal wavelike patterned surfaces in Wenzel's wetting regime. Using the full capillary model we obtain numerically the contact angle hysteresis as a function of the surface roughness factor and the equilibrium contact angle for a block case and a kink case contact line depinning mechanism. We find that the dependencies of the contact angle hysteresis on the surface roughness factor are different for the different contact line depinning mechanisms. These dependencies are different also for the two types of rough surfaces we studied. The relations between advancing, receding, and equilibrium contact angles are investigated. A comparison with the existing asymptotical, numerical, and experimental results is carried out.

  11. Synergetic effect of topological cue and periodic mechanical tension-stress on osteogenic differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Yang, Guang; Ji, Huanzhong; Xiang, Tao; Luo, En; Zhou, Shaobing

    2017-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to self-renew and differentiate into tissues of mesenchymal origin, making them to be significant for cell-based therapies, such as metabolic bone diseases and bone repair. Regulating the differentiation of MSCs is significant for bone regeneration. Electrospun fibers mimicking natural extracellular matrix (ECM), is an effective artificial ECM to regulate the behaviors and fates of MSCs. The aligned electrospun fibers can modulate polar cell pattern of bone mesenchymal stem cells, which leads to more obvious osteogenic differentiation. Apart from the topographic effect of electrospun fibers, mechanical cues can also intervene the cell behaviors. In this study, the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells was evaluated, which were cultured on aligned/random electrospun fiber mats materials under mechanical tension intervention. Scanning electron microscope and immune-fluorescent staining were used to directly observe the polarity changing of cellular morphology and cytoskeleton. The results proved that aligned electrospun fibers could be more conducive to promote osteogenic differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells and this promotion of osteogenic differentiation was enhanced by tension intervention. These results were correlated to the quantitative real-time PCR assay. In general, culturing rat bone mesenchymal stem cells on electrospun fibers under the intervention of mechanical tension is an effective way to mimic a more real cellular microenvironment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of temperature of the short-period heat treatment on mechanical properties of the NiTi alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Čapek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The equiatomic alloy of nickel and titanium, known as nitinol, possesses unique properties such as superelasticity, pseudoplasticity, shape memory, while maintaining good corrosion resistance and sufficient biocompatibility. Therefore it is used for production of various devices including surgery implants. Heat treatment of nickel-rich NiTi alloys can result in precipitation of nickel-rich phases, which strongly influence tensile and fatigue behaviour of the material.In this work we have studied influence of short-period heat treatment on tensile behaviour and fatigue life of the NiTi (50.9 at. % Ni wire intended for fabrication of surgery stents.

  13. [Mechanism of renal elimination of 2 elements of group IIIA of the periodic table : aluminum and indium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, P

    1981-01-05

    Aluminium and indium, two elements of group IIIA of the periodic table, are concentrated by the kidney inside lysosomes of proximal tubule cell. In these lysosomes, aluminium and indium are precipitated as non-soluble phosphate salts and these precipitates are then expelled in the tubular lumen and eliminated with the urinary flow. These data have been visualized by analytical microscopy (ion microscopy and X ray microanalysis). Local acid phosphatases are assumed to permit the concentration of aluminium and indium salts inside the lysosomes.

  14. Bone Growth Mechanical Stimulus and IGF-I

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilsanz, Vicente

    2003-01-01

    .... This study also examines the possible relations between the cross-sectional properties of bone and circulating levels of IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3, and IGF-I genotypes in teenagers ages 15 to 20...

  15. Bone Growth, Mechanical Stimulus and IGF-I

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilsanz, Vicente

    2002-01-01

    ... exercise intervention or no intervention. This study also examines the possible relations between the cross-sectional properties of bone and circulating levels of IGF-I, JGF-binding protein-3, and IGF-I genotypes in teenagers...

  16. Periodicity in the autocorrelation function as a mechanism for regularly occurring zero crossings or extreme values of a Gaussian process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lorna R M; Hopcraft, Keith I

    2017-12-01

    The problem of zero crossings is of great historical prevalence and promises extensive application. The challenge is to establish precisely how the autocorrelation function or power spectrum of a one-dimensional continuous random process determines the density function of the intervals between the zero crossings of that process. This paper investigates the case where periodicities are incorporated into the autocorrelation function of a smooth process. Numerical simulations, and statistics about the number of crossings in a fixed interval, reveal that in this case the zero crossings segue between a random and deterministic point process depending on the relative time scales of the periodic and nonperiodic components of the autocorrelation function. By considering the Laplace transform of the density function, we show that incorporating correlation between successive intervals is essential to obtaining accurate results for the interval variance. The same method enables prediction of the density function tail in some regions, and we suggest approaches for extending this to cover all regions. In an ever-more complex world, the potential applications for this scale of regularity in a random process are far reaching and powerful.

  17. Periodicity in the autocorrelation function as a mechanism for regularly occurring zero crossings or extreme values of a Gaussian process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lorna R. M.; Hopcraft, Keith I.

    2017-12-01

    The problem of zero crossings is of great historical prevalence and promises extensive application. The challenge is to establish precisely how the autocorrelation function or power spectrum of a one-dimensional continuous random process determines the density function of the intervals between the zero crossings of that process. This paper investigates the case where periodicities are incorporated into the autocorrelation function of a smooth process. Numerical simulations, and statistics about the number of crossings in a fixed interval, reveal that in this case the zero crossings segue between a random and deterministic point process depending on the relative time scales of the periodic and nonperiodic components of the autocorrelation function. By considering the Laplace transform of the density function, we show that incorporating correlation between successive intervals is essential to obtaining accurate results for the interval variance. The same method enables prediction of the density function tail in some regions, and we suggest approaches for extending this to cover all regions. In an ever-more complex world, the potential applications for this scale of regularity in a random process are far reaching and powerful.

  18. Individualized Sampling Parameters for Behavioral Observations: Enhancing the Predictive Validity of Competing Stimulus Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Toole, Lisa M.; Gutshall, Katharine A.; Bowman, Lynn G.

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have used pretreatment analyses, termed competing stimulus assessments, to identify items that most effectively displace the aberrant behavior of individuals with developmental disabilities. In most studies, there appeared to have been no systematic basis for selecting the sampling period (ranging from 30 s to 10 min) in which items…

  19. Effects of electron beam irradiation on properties of corn starch undergone periodate oxidation mechanism blended with polyvinyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Soo-Tueen; Sin, Lee Tin; Ratnam, C. T.; Yap, Bee-Fen; Rahmat, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    This work was performed to examine the properties of pristine PVOH and PVOH-starch blends under exposure of different irradiation dosages. The periodate oxidation method was used to produce dialdehyde starch. The application of low dosages of electron beam irradiation (≤10 kGy) has improved the tensile strength by forming crosslinking networks. However, the tensile strength drastically declined when radiated at 30 kGy due to the reduction of available hydroxyl groups inside polymer matrix for intermolecular interaction. Also, the incorporation of corn starch and dialdehyde starch has significantly reduced the melting temperature and enthalpy of melting of PVOH blends due to cessation of the hydrogen bonding between PVOH and starch molecules. The crystallite size for deflection planes (1 0 1), (1 0 1) and (2 0 0) for all PVOH blends was significant reduced when irradiated. The electron beam irradiation has also weakened the hydrophilic characteristic of all PVOH blends as evidenced in infrared and microscopy analysis.

  20. Periodic repression by the bHLH factor Hes7 is an essential mechanism for the somite segmentation clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, Yasumasa; Hirata, Hiromi; Masamizu, Yoshito; Kageyama, Ryoichiro

    2003-01-01

    Hes7, a bHLH gene essential for somitogenesis, displays cyclic expression of mRNA in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). Here, we show that Hes7 protein is also expressed in a dynamic manner, which depends on proteasome-mediated degradation. Spatial comparison revealed that Hes7 and Lunatic fringe (Lfng) transcription occurs in the Hes7 protein-negative domains. Furthermore, Hes7 and Lfng transcription is constitutively up-regulated in the absence of Hes7 protein and down-regulated by stabilization of Hes7 protein. Thus, periodic repression by Hes7 protein is critical for the cyclic transcription of Hes7 and Lfng, and this negative feedback represents a molecular basis for the segmentation clock. PMID:12783854

  1. The Honolulu posttraumatic stress disorder stimulus set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, C M; Roitblat, H L; Hamada, R S; Carlson, J G; Muraoka, M Y; Bauer, G B

    1997-04-01

    We present word and picture stimuli constituting a validated stimulus set appropriate for cognitive investigations of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Combat related and neutral words and pictures were rated by Vietnam veterans with PTSD and by three comparison groups along four dimensions: unpleasantness, Vietnam relevance, stressfulness, and memorability. There were distinctive patterns of responses by the PTSD group which efficiently discriminated the individuals in this group from those in the control groups. These stimuli have the potential to be developed as a diagnostic instrument.

  2. On the mechanism of vomiting in the primary reaction period following whole-body irradiation at high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirosov, K.S.; Grigor'ev, Yu.G.; Zorin, V.V.; Norkin, I.M.

    1997-01-01

    In the experiments of dogs exposed to ionizing radiations at doses of 50 and 70 Gy, an essential role of the central mechanism in the origin of early postradiation vomiting has been confirmed. Insufficient efficiency of dimethpramide, a dophaminolytics, in this case may be connected either with initiation of other (non-dophaminosensitive) structures of the chemoreceptor trigger zone or with a growing role of the reflex way of vomiting arising due to a considerable intestinal injury that causes diarrhea. The inhibition of intestinal M-cholinoreceptors by methacine prevented diarrhea but didn't change the intensity of the vomiting reaction which, however, dose not eliminate the possibility of afferentation from receptors that respond to others biologically active substances. (author)

  3. Computational and experimental fluid mechanics. Progress report no. 5 for period January 1. to December 31. 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The general purpose of the program is the development of efficient algorithms, their implementation in codes of Computational Fluid Mechanics (CFD), and the experimental verification of these codes. Flows of both fundamental and applied nature will be investigated, including flows in industrial process equipment, about aerodynamics structures and ships, and flows over bed forms of importance for sediment transport. The experimental work will include the development of improved techniques, emphasizing optical methods. The objectives will be met through a coordinated experimental and theoretical/computational research program, organized in 7 specific projects: 1. CFD-methods and algorithms. 2. Spectral element simulation of ultrafiltration. 3. Turbulent swirling flows. 4. Near-wall models of turbulence. 5. Flow over bed forms. 6. Flow past ship hull. 7. Development of experimental techniques. (EG) 10 refs.

  4. On the respective contributions of awareness of unconditioned stimulus valence and unconditioned stimulus identity in attitude formation through evaluative conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Christoph; Unkelbach, Christian; Corneille, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) is a central mechanism for both classic and current theories of attitude formation. In contrast to Pavlovian conditioning, it is often conceptualized as a form of evaluative learning that occurs without awareness of the conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) contingencies. In the present research, the authors directly address this point by assessing the respective roles of US valence awareness and US identity awareness in attitude formation through EC. Across 4 experiments, EC was assessed with evaluative ratings as well as evaluative priming measures, and the impact of valence and identity awareness on EC was evaluated. EC effects on priming and rating measures occurred only for CSs for which participants could report the associated US valence, and US identity awareness did not further contribute to EC. This finding was obtained both for semantically meaningless (i.e., nonword letter sequences) and meaningful (i.e., consumer products) CSs. These results provide further support for the critical role of contingency awareness in EC, albeit valence awareness, not identity awareness. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Searching for the optimal stimulus eliciting auditory brainstem responses in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobel, Oliver; Dau, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    -chirp, was based on estimates of human basilar membrane (BM) group delays derived from stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAE) at a sound pressure level of 40 dB [Shera and Guinan, in Recent Developments in Auditory Mechanics (2000)]. The other chirp, referred to as the A-chirp, was derived from latency...

  6. Different responses of spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha activity to ambient luminance changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Alessandro; Lozano-Soldevilla, Diego; VanRullen, Rufin

    2017-12-04

    Alpha oscillations are particularly important in determining our percepts and have been implicated in fundamental brain functions. Oscillatory activity can be spontaneous or stimulus-related. Furthermore, stimulus-related responses can be phase- or non-phase-locked to the stimulus. Non-phase-locked (induced) activity can be identified as the average amplitude changes in response to a stimulation, while phase-locked activity can be measured via reverse-correlation techniques (echo function). However, the mechanisms and the functional roles of these oscillations are far from clear. Here, we investigated the effect of ambient luminance changes, known to dramatically modulate neural oscillations, on spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha. We investigated the effect of ambient luminance on EEG alpha during spontaneous human brain activity at rest (experiment 1) and during visual stimulation (experiment 2). Results show that spontaneous alpha amplitude increased by decreasing ambient luminance, while alpha frequency remained unaffected. In the second experiment, we found that under low-luminance viewing, the stimulus-related alpha amplitude was lower, and its frequency was slightly faster. These effects were evident in the phase-locked part of the alpha response (echo function), but weaker or absent in the induced (non-phase-locked) alpha responses. Finally, we explored the possible behavioural correlates of these modulations in a monocular critical flicker frequency task (experiment 3), finding that dark adaptation in the left eye decreased the temporal threshold of the right eye. Overall, we found that ambient luminance changes impact differently on spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha expression. We suggest that stimulus-related alpha activity is crucial in determining human temporal segmentation abilities. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Factors associated to the length of time on mechanical ventilation in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fonseca

    Full Text Available Our objective was to identify factors associated with the duration of mechanical ventilation (MV postoperative to cardiac surgery and assess the association between duration of endotracheal intubation, length of stay in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU and hospital. Longitudinal, retrospective study of medical records of 116 adults undergoing cardiac surgery from March 2012 to May 2013. The mean age was 57±14 years, predominantly male and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (52.6%. The MV time was 15.25(7.66 to 23.68 hours. Associated with longer MV was the age (r=0.5,p<0.001, comorbidities (r=0.344,p<0.001, cardiopulmonary bypass time (r=0.244,p=0.008, duration of continuous sedation (r=0.607,p<0.001, sedative doses (r=0.4, p<0.001, time of vasoconstrictors and vasodilators (r=0.711, p< 0.001, r=0.368, p<0.001, drainage of the 1st time (r=0.201, p<0.031, presence of drains (r=0.445, p<0.001, postoperative complications (r=0.524, p< 0.001 and hospital stay. Our data confirms that both preoperative, transoperative and postoperative variables prolong the VM and therefore the hospital stay.

  8. Trends and molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in clinical staphylococci isolated from companion animals over a 16 year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Natacha; Monchique, Cláudia; Belas, Adriana; Marques, Cátia; Gama, Luís T; Pomba, Constança

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the evolution of resistance to antimicrobials, corresponding mechanisms and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus spp., between 1999 and 2014. Susceptibility to 38 antimicrobials was determined for 632 clinical staphylococcal isolates obtained from companion animals (dogs, cats, horses and other animals). Twenty antimicrobial resistance genes, including mecA and mecC, were screened by PCR. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci were characterized by spa (Staphylococcus aureus), SCCmec, MLST and PFGE typing. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS v9.3 and differences were considered relevant if P ≤ 0.05. The mecA gene was identified in 74 staphylococcal isolates (11.6%): 11 MRSA (40.7%), 40 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP; 8.7%) and 23 methicillin-resistant CoNS (26.7%). Resistance to the majority of antimicrobials and the number of mecA-positive isolates increased significantly over time. Eighteen spa types were identified, including two new ones. MRSA isolates were divided into three PFGE clusters that included ST22-IV, ST105-II, ST398-V and ST5-VI. Most methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates were of clonal complex (CC) 5, including a new ST, and clustered in eight PFGE clusters. MRSP were grouped into five PFGE clusters and included ST45-NT, ST71-II-III, ST195-III, ST196-V, ST339-NT, ST342-IV and the new ST400-III. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus clustered in two PFGE clusters. The significant increase in antimicrobial-resistant and mecA-positive isolates in recent years is worrying. Furthermore, several isolates are MDR, which complicates antimicrobial treatment and increases the risk of transfer to humans or human isolates. Several clonal lineages of MRSA and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis circulating in human hospitals and the community were found, suggesting that companion animals can become infected with and contribute to the

  9. Stimulus Ratio and Level Dependence of Low- and Mid-Frequency Distortion-Product Otoacoustic Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    ratios f2/f1 (1.05-1.50) and three stimulus sound pressure levels L1/L2 (65/45, 65/55, 70/60) were measured in each configuration. The DPOAE response was isolated with the discrete Fourier transformation (DFT). The DFT measures the DPOAE response accurately only when the DPOAE frequency and both stimulus...... examples of low-frequency DPOAEs exist in the literature. Overcoming the decreasing response level and increasing noise level with decreasing frequency may provide a non-invasive window into the inner-ear mechanics of low-frequency hearing. Eighteen out of 21 young human adults screened (19-30 years) had......-frequency range. The stimulus level has similar effects in both frequency ranges, that is, the ratio-magnitude response increases and broadens with increasing level. The combined observations could indicate a difference between apical and basal cochlear physiology....

  10. Transfers of stimulus function during roulette wagering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R; Enoch, Mary Rachel; Belisle, Jordan

    2017-10-01

    Twenty-five recreational gamblers were initially asked to place bets on either red or black positions on a roulette board in a simulated casino setting. Each participant was then exposed to a stimulus pairing observing procedure which attempted to develop equivalence classes between one color (black or red) and traditionally positive words (e.g., love, happy, sex) and another color (black or red) and traditionally negative words (e.g., death, cancer, taxes), in the absence of consequence manipulations. Twenty-one of the twenty-five participants demonstrated greater response allocation to the color position on the roulette board that participated in a relational network with the positive words. Variations in sequencing of experimental conditions had no impact on poststimulus-pairing wagers, but did impact tests for equivalence accuracy. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. Source mechanisms of persistent shallow earthquakes during eruptive and non-eruptive periods between 1981 and 2011 at Mount St. Helens, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Heather L.; Roman, Diana C.; Moran, Seth C.

    2013-01-01

    Shallow seismicity between 0 and 3-km depth has persisted at Mount St. Helens, Washington (MSH) during both eruptive and non-eruptive periods for at least the past thirty years. In this study we investigate the source mechanisms of shallow volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes at MSH by calculating high-quality hypocenter locations and fault plane solutions (FPS) for all VT events recorded during two eruptive periods (1981–1986 and 2004–2008) and two non-eruptive periods (1987–2004 and 2008–2011). FPS show a mixture of normal, reverse, and strike-slip faulting during all periods, with a sharp increase in strike-slip faulting observed in 1987–1997 and an increase in normal faulting in 1998–2004. FPS P-axis orientations show a ~ 90° rotation with respect to regional σ1 (N23°E) during 1981–1986 and 2004–2008, bimodal orientations (~ N-S and ~ E-W) during 1987–2004, and bimodal orientations at ~ N-E and ~ S-W from 2008–2011. We interpret these orientations to likely be due to pressurization accompanying the shallow intrusion and subsequent eruption of magma as domes during 1981–1986 and 2004–2008 and the buildup of pore pressure beneath a seismogenic volume (located at 0–1 km) with a smaller component due to the buildup of tectonic forces during 1987–2004 and 2008–2011.

  12. A new mechanism for periodic bursting of the recirculation region in the flow through a sudden expansion in a circular pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Benoit; Nguyen, Minh Quan; Peixinho, Jorge; Shadloo, Mostafa Safdari; Hadjadj, Abdellah

    2018-03-01

    We report the results of a combined experimental and numerical study of specific finite-amplitude disturbances for transition to turbulence in the flow through a circular pipe with a sudden expansion. The critical amplitude thresholds for localized turbulent patch downstream of the expansion scale with the Reynolds number with a power law exponent of -2.3 for experiments and -2.8 for simulations. A new mechanism for the periodic bursting of the recirculation region is uncovered where the asymmetric recirculation flow develops a periodic dynamics: a secondary recirculation breaks the symmetry along the pipe wall and bursts into localized turbulence, which travels downstream and relaminarises. Flow visualizations show a simple flow pattern of three waves forming, growing, and bursting.

  13. The third-stimulus temporal discrimination threshold: focusing on the temporal processing of sensory input within primary somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leodori, Giorgio; Formica, Alessandra; Zhu, Xiaoying; Conte, Antonella; Belvisi, Daniele; Cruccu, Giorgio; Hallett, Mark; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    The somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) has been used in recent years to investigate time processing of sensory information, but little is known about the physiological correlates of somatosensory temporal discrimination. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the time interval required to discriminate between two stimuli varies according to the number of stimuli in the task. We used the third-stimulus temporal discrimination threshold (ThirdDT), defined as the shortest time interval at which an individual distinguishes a third stimulus following a pair of stimuli delivered at the STDT. The STDT and ThirdDT were assessed in 31 healthy subjects. In a subgroup of 10 subjects, we evaluated the effects of the stimuli intensity on the ThirdDT. In a subgroup of 16 subjects, we evaluated the effects of S1 continuous theta-burst stimulation (S1-cTBS) on the STDT and ThirdDT. Results show that ThirdDT is shorter than STDT. We found a positive correlation between STDT and ThirdDT values. As long as the stimulus intensity was within the perceivable and painless range, it did not affect ThirdDT values. S1-cTBS significantly affected both STDT and ThirdDT, although the latter was affected to a greater extent and for a longer period of time. We conclude that the interval needed to discriminate between time-separated tactile stimuli is related to the number of stimuli used in the task. STDT and ThirdDT are encoded in S1, probably by a shared tactile temporal encoding mechanism whose performance rapidly changes during the perception process. ThirdDT is a new method to measure somatosensory temporal discrimination. NEW & NOTEWORTHY To investigate whether the time interval required to discriminate between stimuli varies according to changes in the stimulation pattern, we used the third-stimulus temporal discrimination threshold (ThirdDT). We found that the somatosensory temporal discrimination acuity varies according to the number of stimuli in the

  14. Parallel and orthogonal stimulus in ultradiluted neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobral, G. A. Jr.; Vieira, V. M.; Lyra, M. L.; Silva, C. R. da

    2006-01-01

    Extending a model due to Derrida, Gardner, and Zippelius, we have studied the recognition ability of an extreme and asymmetrically diluted version of the Hopfield model for associative memory by including the effect of a stimulus in the dynamics of the system. We obtain exact results for the dynamic evolution of the average network superposition. The stimulus field was considered as proportional to the overlapping of the state of the system with a particular stimulated pattern. Two situations were analyzed, namely, the external stimulus acting on the initialization pattern (parallel stimulus) and the external stimulus acting on a pattern orthogonal to the initialization one (orthogonal stimulus). In both cases, we obtained the complete phase diagram in the parameter space composed of the stimulus field, thermal noise, and network capacity. Our results show that the system improves its recognition ability for parallel stimulus. For orthogonal stimulus two recognition phases emerge with the system locking at the initialization or stimulated pattern. We confront our analytical results with numerical simulations for the noiseless case T=0

  15. Emotionally negative pictures increase attention to a subsequent auditory stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartar, Jaime L; de Almeida, Kristen; McIntosh, Roger C; Rosselli, Monica; Nash, Allan J

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally negative stimuli serve as a mechanism of biological preparedness to enhance attention. We hypothesized that emotionally negative stimuli would also serve as motivational priming to increase attention resources for subsequent stimuli. To that end, we tested 11 participants in a dual sensory modality task, wherein emotionally negative pictures were contrasted with emotionally neutral pictures and each picture was followed 600 ms later by a tone in an auditory oddball paradigm. Each trial began with a picture displayed for 200 ms; half of the trials began with an emotionally negative picture and half of the trials began with an emotionally neutral picture; 600 ms following picture presentation, the participants heard either an oddball tone or a standard tone. At the end of each trial (picture followed by tone), the participants categorized, with a button press, the picture and tone combination. As expected, and consistent with previous studies, we found an enhanced visual late positive potential (latency range=300-700 ms) to the negative picture stimuli. We further found that compared to neutral pictures, negative pictures resulted in early attention and orienting effects to subsequent tones (measured through an enhanced N1 and N2) and sustained attention effects only to the subsequent oddball tones (measured through late processing negativity, latency range=400-700 ms). Number pad responses to both the picture and tone category showed the shortest response latencies and greatest percentage of correct picture-tone categorization on the negative picture followed by oddball tone trials. Consistent with previous work on natural selective attention, our results support the idea that emotional stimuli can alter attention resource allocation. This finding has broad implications for human attention and performance as it specifically shows the conditions in which an emotionally negative stimulus can result in extended stimulus evaluation. Copyright © 2011

  16. Nicotine as a discriminative stimulus for ethanol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Brett C; Levy, Simon A; Lamb, R J

    2018-01-01

    Abused drugs reinforce behavior; i.e., they increase the probability of the behavior preceding their administration. Abused drugs can also act as discriminative stimuli; i.e., they can set the occasion for responding reinforced by another event. Thus, one abused drug could come to set the occasion for the use of another and this functional relationship may play a role in polysubstance abuse, where common patterns of use could result in this relationship. Here we establish nicotine (0.4mg/kg, ip 5-min pre-session) as a discriminative stimulus for behavior reinforced by ethanol (0.1ml 8% w/v po, versus food) and determine the ability of nicotine (0.02-0.4mg/kg), varenicline (0.1-3.0mg/kg), and ethanol (250 and 500mg/kg) to control responding for ethanol. We compare these results to those from rats where nicotine signaled food was available (and ethanol was not). Nicotine came to function as a discriminative stimulus. Nicotine and varenicline produced dose-dependent increases in responding on the nicotine-appropriate lever while ethanol produced responding on the vehicle-appropriate lever. Whether this responding occurred on the lever that produced ethanol or food access depended on the training condition. These results demonstrate that a drug can come to set the occasion for use of another and suggest that this behavioral mechanism could play an important role in the maintenance of and recovery from polysubstance abuse, depending on the pattern of use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A common microstructure in behavioral hearing thresholds and stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, James B; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2017-11-01

    Behavioral hearing thresholds and otoacoustic emission (OAE) spectra often exhibit quasiperiodic fluctuations with frequency. For behavioral and OAE responses to single tones-the latter referred to as stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs)-this microstructure has been attributed to intracochlear reflections of SFOAE energy between its region of generation and the middle ear boundary. However, the relationship between behavioral and SFOAE microstructures, as well as their presumed dependence on the properties of the SFOAE-generation mechanism, have yet to be adequately examined. To address this, behavioral thresholds and SFOAEs evoked by near-threshold tones were compared in 12 normal-hearing female subjects. The microstructures observed in thresholds and both SFOAE amplitudes and delays were found to be strikingly similar. SFOAE phase accumulated an integer number of cycles between the frequencies of microstructure maxima, consistent with a dependence of microstructure periodicity on SFOAE propagation delays. Additionally, microstructure depth was correlated with SFOAE magnitude in a manner resembling that predicted by the intracochlear reflection framework, after assuming reasonable values of parameters related to middle ear transmission. Further exploration of this framework may yield more precise estimates of such parameters and provide insight into their frequency dependence.

  18. Controlling absence seizures by deep brain stimulus applied on substantia nigra pars reticulata and cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bing; Wang, Qingyun

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a typical neural disease in nervous system, and the control of seizures is very important for treating the epilepsy. It is well known that the drug treatment is the main strategy for controlling the epilepsy. However, there are about 10–15 percent of patients, whose seizures cannot be effectively controlled by means of the drug. Alternatively, the deep brain stimulus (DBS) technology is a feasible method to control the serious seizures. However, theoretical explorations of DBS are still absent, and need to be further made. Presently, we will explore to control the absence seizures by introducing the DBS to a basal ganglia thalamocortical network model. In particular, we apply DBS onto substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and the cortex to explore its effects on controlling absence seizures, respectively. We can find that the absence seizure can be well controlled within suitable parameter ranges by tuning the period and duration of current stimulation as DBS is implemented in the SNr. And also, as the DBS is applied onto the cortex, it is shown that for the ranges of present parameters, only adjusting the duration of current stimulation is an effective control method for the absence seizures. The obtained results can have better understanding for the mechanism of DBS in the medical treatment.

  19. [The P300 based brain-computer interface: effect of stimulus position in a stimulus train].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganin, I P; Shishkin, S L; Kochetova, A G; Kaplan, A Ia

    2012-01-01

    The P300 brain-computer interface (BCI) is currently the most efficient BCI. This interface is based on detection of the P300 wave of the brain potentials evoked when a symbol related to the intended input is highlighted. To increase operation speed of the P300 BCI, reduction of the number of stimuli repetitions is needed. This reduction leads to increase of the relative contribution to the input symbol detection from the reaction to the first target stimulus. It is known that the event-related potentials (ERP) to the first stimulus presentations can be different from the ERP to stimuli presented latter. In particular, the amplitude of responses to the first stimulus presentations is often increased, which is beneficial for their recognition by the BCI. However, this effect was not studied within the BCI framework. The current study examined the ERP obtained from healthy participants (n = 14) in the standard P300 BCI paradigm using 10 trials, as well as in the modified P300 BCI with stimuli presented on moving objects in triple-trial (n = 6) and single-trial (n = 6) stimulation modes. Increased ERP amplitude was observed in response to the first target stimuli in both conditions, as well as in the single-trial mode comparing to triple-trial. We discuss the prospects of using the specific features of the ERP to first stimuli and the single-trial ERP for optimizing the high-speed modes in the P300 BCIs.

  20. Brain bases for auditory stimulus-driven figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Sundeep; Chait, Maria; Kumar, Sukhbinder; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2011-01-05

    Auditory figure-ground segregation, listeners' ability to selectively hear out a sound of interest from a background of competing sounds, is a fundamental aspect of scene analysis. In contrast to the disordered acoustic environment we experience during everyday listening, most studies of auditory segregation have used relatively simple, temporally regular signals. We developed a new figure-ground stimulus that incorporates stochastic variation of the figure and background that captures the rich spectrotemporal complexity of natural acoustic scenes. Figure and background signals overlap in spectrotemporal space, but vary in the statistics of fluctuation, such that the only way to extract the figure is by integrating the patterns over time and frequency. Our behavioral results demonstrate that human listeners are remarkably sensitive to the appearance of such figures. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, aimed at investigating preattentive, stimulus-driven, auditory segregation mechanisms, naive subjects listened to these stimuli while performing an irrelevant task. Results demonstrate significant activations in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the superior temporal sulcus related to bottom-up, stimulus-driven figure-ground decomposition. We did not observe any significant activation in the primary auditory cortex. Our results support a role for automatic, bottom-up mechanisms in the IPS in mediating stimulus-driven, auditory figure-ground segregation, which is consistent with accumulating evidence implicating the IPS in structuring sensory input and perceptual organization.

  1. Bamboo-like 3C-SiC nanowires with periodical fluctuating diameter: Homogeneous synthesis, synergistic growth mechanism, and their luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Jian [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266061 (China); Li, Zhenjiang, E-mail: zhenjiangli@qust.edu.cn [School of Sino-German Science and Technology, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, China (China); Yu, Hongyuan [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266061 (China); Wang, Yaqi [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266042 (China); Meng, Alan, E-mail: alanmengqust@163.com [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266042 (China); Li, Qingdang [School of Sino-German Science and Technology, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, China (China)

    2016-11-15

    Herein, bamboo-like 3C-SiC nanowires have been successfully fabricated on homogeneous 6H-SiC substrate by a simple chemical vapor reaction (CVR) approach. The obtained 3C-SiC nanostructure with periodical fluctuating diameter, is composed of two alternating structure units, the typical normal-sized stem segment with perfect crystallinity and obvious projecting nodes segment having high-density stacking faults. The formation of the interesting morphology is significantly subjected to the peculiar growth condition provided by the homogeneous substrate as well as the varying growth elastic energy. Furthermore, the photoluminescence (PL) performance measured on the bamboo-like SiC nanowire shows an intensive emission peaks centered at 451 nm and 467 nm, which has been expected to make a positive progress toward the optical application of the SiC-based one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures, such as light emission diode (LED). - Graphical abstract: Based on the synergistic growth mechanism from homogeneous substrate and elastic energy, bamboo-like 3C-SiC nanowires with periodically fluctuating diameter have been synthesized on 6H-SiC. The blue-violet light emission properties of the bamboo-like nanowires have also been investigated for exploring their peculiar optical application. - Highlights: • Bamboo-like 3C-SiC nanowires with periodically fluctuating diameter have been synthesized on 6H-SiC. • A synergistic growth mechanism from homogeneous substrate and elastic energy has been proposed firstly. • The blue-violet light emission properties of the products displayed peculiar optical application.

  2. Bamboo-like 3C-SiC nanowires with periodical fluctuating diameter: Homogeneous synthesis, synergistic growth mechanism, and their luminescence properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Jian; Li, Zhenjiang; Yu, Hongyuan; Wang, Yaqi; Meng, Alan; Li, Qingdang

    2016-01-01

    Herein, bamboo-like 3C-SiC nanowires have been successfully fabricated on homogeneous 6H-SiC substrate by a simple chemical vapor reaction (CVR) approach. The obtained 3C-SiC nanostructure with periodical fluctuating diameter, is composed of two alternating structure units, the typical normal-sized stem segment with perfect crystallinity and obvious projecting nodes segment having high-density stacking faults. The formation of the interesting morphology is significantly subjected to the peculiar growth condition provided by the homogeneous substrate as well as the varying growth elastic energy. Furthermore, the photoluminescence (PL) performance measured on the bamboo-like SiC nanowire shows an intensive emission peaks centered at 451 nm and 467 nm, which has been expected to make a positive progress toward the optical application of the SiC-based one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures, such as light emission diode (LED). - Graphical abstract: Based on the synergistic growth mechanism from homogeneous substrate and elastic energy, bamboo-like 3C-SiC nanowires with periodically fluctuating diameter have been synthesized on 6H-SiC. The blue-violet light emission properties of the bamboo-like nanowires have also been investigated for exploring their peculiar optical application. - Highlights: • Bamboo-like 3C-SiC nanowires with periodically fluctuating diameter have been synthesized on 6H-SiC. • A synergistic growth mechanism from homogeneous substrate and elastic energy has been proposed firstly. • The blue-violet light emission properties of the products displayed peculiar optical application.

  3. Pigeons learn stimulus identity and stimulus relations when both serve as redundant, relevant cues during same-different discrimination training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Brett M; Wasserman, Edward A

    2003-01-01

    The authors taught pigeons to discriminate displays of 16 identical items from displays of 16 nonidentical items. Unlike most same-different discrimination studies--where only stimulus relations could serve a discriminative function--both the identity of the items and the relations among the items were discriminative features of the displays. The pigeons learned about both stimulus identity and stimulus relations when these 2 sources of information served as redundant, relevant cues. In tests of associative competition, identity cues exerted greater stimulus control than relational cues. These results suggest that the pigeon can respond to both specific stimuli and general relations in the environment.

  4. Perpendicularity misjudgments caused by contextual stimulus elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatov, Aleksandr; Bulatova, Natalija; Surkys, Tadas

    2012-10-15

    It has been demonstrated in previous studies that the illusions of extent of the Brentano type can be explained by the perceptual positional shifts of the stimulus terminators in direction of the centers-of-masses (centroids) of adjacent contextual flanks [Bulatov, A. et al. (2011). Contextual flanks' tilting and magnitude of illusion of extent. Vision Research, 51(1), 58-64]. In the present study, the applicability of the centroid approach to explain the right-angle misjudgments was tested psychophysically using stimuli composed of three small disks (dots) forming an imaginary rectangular triangle. Stimuli comprised the Müller-Lyer wings or line segments (bars) as the contextual distracters rotated around the vertices of the triangle, and changes in the magnitude of the illusion of perpendicularity were measured in a set of experiments. A good resemblance between the experimental data and theoretical predictions obtained strongly supports the suggestion regarding the common "centroid" origin of the illusions of extent of the Brentano type and misperception of the perpendicularity investigated. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

  5. Alteration of neural action potential patterns by axonal stimulation: the importance of stimulus location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crago, Patrick E; Makowski, Nathaniel S

    2014-10-01

    Stimulation of peripheral nerves is often superimposed on ongoing motor and sensory activity in the same axons, without a quantitative model of the net action potential train at the axon endpoint. We develop a model of action potential patterns elicited by superimposing constant frequency axonal stimulation on the action potentials arriving from a physiologically activated neural source. The model includes interactions due to collision block, resetting of the neural impulse generator, and the refractory period of the axon at the point of stimulation. Both the mean endpoint firing rate and the probability distribution of the action potential firing periods depend strongly on the relative firing rates of the two sources and the intersite conduction time between them. When the stimulus rate exceeds the neural rate, neural action potentials do not reach the endpoint and the rate of endpoint action potentials is the same as the stimulus rate, regardless of the intersite conduction time. However, when the stimulus rate is less than the neural rate, and the intersite conduction time is short, the two rates partially sum. Increases in stimulus rate produce non-monotonic increases in endpoint rate and continuously increasing block of neurally generated action potentials. Rate summation is reduced and more neural action potentials are blocked as the intersite conduction time increases. At long intersite conduction times, the endpoint rate simplifies to being the maximum of either the neural or the stimulus rate. This study highlights the potential of increasing the endpoint action potential rate and preserving neural information transmission by low rate stimulation with short intersite conduction times. Intersite conduction times can be decreased with proximal stimulation sites for muscles and distal stimulation sites for sensory endings. The model provides a basis for optimizing experiments and designing neuroprosthetic interventions involving motor or sensory stimulation.

  6. Stimulus-driven attentional capture by subliminal onset cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeberl, T.; Fuchs, I.; Theeuwes, J.; Ansorge, U.

    2015-01-01

    In two experiments, we tested whether subliminal abrupt onset cues capture attention in a stimulus-driven way. An onset cue was presented 16 ms prior to the stimulus display that consisted of clearly visible color targets. The onset cue was presented either at the same side as the target (the valid

  7. Motormouth: Mere Exposure Depends on Stimulus-Specific Motor Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    The authors apply an embodied account to mere exposure, arguing that through the repeated exposure of a particular stimulus, motor responses specifically associated to that stimulus are repeatedly simulated, thus trained, and become increasingly fluent. This increased fluency drives preferences for repeated stimuli. This hypothesis was tested by…

  8. Visual training improves perceptual grouping based on basic stimulus features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylo, Daniel D; Waxman, Richard; Kidron, Rachel; Silverstein, Steven M

    2017-10-01

    Training on visual tasks improves performance on basic and higher order visual capacities. Such improvement has been linked to changes in connectivity among mediating neurons. We investigated whether training effects occur for perceptual grouping. It was hypothesized that repeated engagement of integration mechanisms would enhance grouping processes. Thirty-six participants underwent 15 sessions of training on a visual discrimination task that required perceptual grouping. Participants viewed 20 × 20 arrays of dots or Gabor patches and indicated whether the array appeared grouped as vertical or horizontal lines. Across trials stimuli became progressively disorganized, contingent upon successful discrimination. Four visual dimensions were examined, in which grouping was based on similarity in luminance, color, orientation, and motion. Psychophysical thresholds of grouping were assessed before and after training. Results indicate that performance in all four dimensions improved with training. Training on a control condition, which paralleled the discrimination task but without a grouping component, produced no improvement. In addition, training on only the luminance and orientation dimensions improved performance for those conditions as well as for grouping by color, on which training had not occurred. However, improvement from partial training did not generalize to motion. Results demonstrate that a training protocol emphasizing stimulus integration enhanced perceptual grouping. Results suggest that neural mechanisms mediating grouping by common luminance and/or orientation contribute to those mediating grouping by color but do not share resources for grouping by common motion. Results are consistent with theories of perceptual learning emphasizing plasticity in early visual processing regions.

  9. Autonomous stimulus triggered self-healing in smart structural composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, C J; White, J A P; McCombe, G; Chatterjee, P; Bond, I P; Trask, R S

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the ability of biological systems to sense and autonomously heal damage, this research has successfully demonstrated the first autonomous, stimulus triggered, self-healing system in a structural composite material. Both the sensing and healing mechanisms are reliant on microvascular channels incorporated within a laminated composite material. For the triggering mechanism, a single air filled vessel was pressurized, sealed and monitored. Upon drop weight impact (10 J), delamination and microcrack connectivity between the pressurized vessel and those open to ambient led to a pressure loss which, with the use of a suitable sensor, triggered a pump to deliver a healing agent to the damage zone. Using this autonomous healing approach, near full recovery of post-impact compression strength was achieved (94% on average). A simplified alternative system with healing agent continuously flowing through the vessels, akin to blood flow, was found to offer 100% recovery of the material’s virgin strength. Optical microscopy and ultrasonic C-scanning provided further evidence of large-scale infusion of matrix damage with the healing agent. The successful implementation of this bioinspired technology could substantially enhance the integrity and reliability of aerospace structures, whilst offering benefits through improved performance/weight ratios and extended lifetimes. (paper)

  10. Source mechanism of small long-period events at Mount St. Helens in July 2005 using template matching, phase-weighted stacking, and full-waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoza, Robin S.; Chouet, Bernard A.; Dawson, Phillip B.; Shearer, Peter M.; Haney, Matthew M.; Waite, Gregory P.; Moran, Seth C.; Mikesell, T. Dylan

    2015-01-01

    Long-period (LP, 0.5-5 Hz) seismicity, observed at volcanoes worldwide, is a recognized signature of unrest and eruption. Cyclic LP “drumbeating” was the characteristic seismicity accompanying the sustained dome-building phase of the 2004–2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens (MSH), WA. However, together with the LP drumbeating was a near-continuous, randomly occurring series of tiny LP seismic events (LP “subevents”), which may hold important additional information on the mechanism of seismogenesis at restless volcanoes. We employ template matching, phase-weighted stacking, and full-waveform inversion to image the source mechanism of one multiplet of these LP subevents at MSH in July 2005. The signal-to-noise ratios of the individual events are too low to produce reliable waveform-inversion results, but the events are repetitive and can be stacked. We apply network-based template matching to 8 days of continuous velocity waveform data from 29 June to 7 July 2005 using a master event to detect 822 network triggers. We stack waveforms for 359 high-quality triggers at each station and component, using a combination of linear and phase-weighted stacking to produce clean stacks for use in waveform inversion. The derived source mechanism pointsto the volumetric oscillation (~10 m3) of a subhorizontal crack located at shallow depth (~30 m) in an area to the south of Crater Glacier in the southern portion of the breached MSH crater. A possible excitation mechanism is the sudden condensation of metastable steam from a shallow pressurized hydrothermal system as it encounters cool meteoric water in the outer parts of the edifice, perhaps supplied from snow melt.

  11. Potential of acute phase proteins as predictor of postpartum uterine infections during transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manimaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the various systemic reactions against infection or injury, the acute phase response is the cascade of reaction and mostly coordinated by cytokines-mediated acute phase proteins (APPs production. Since APPs are sensitive innate immune molecules, they are useful for early detection of inflammation in bovines and believed to be better discriminators than routine hematological parameters. Therefore, the possibility of using APPs as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of inflammation in major bovine health disorders including postpartum uterine infection has been explored by many workers. In this review, we discussed specifically importance of postpartum uterine infection, the role of energy balance in uterine infections and potential of APPs as a predictor of postpartum uterine infections during the transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle.

  12. Spatial probability aids visual stimulus discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Druker

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether the statistical predictability of a target's location would influence how quickly and accurately it was classified. Recent results have suggested that spatial probability can be a cue for the allocation of attention in visual search. One explanation for probability cuing is spatial repetition priming. In our two experiments we used probability distributions that were continuous across the display rather than relying on a few arbitrary screen locations. This produced fewer spatial repeats and allowed us to dissociate the effect of a high probability location from that of short-term spatial repetition. The task required participants to quickly judge the color of a single dot presented on a computer screen. In Experiment 1, targets were more probable in an off-center hotspot of high probability that gradually declined to a background rate. Targets garnered faster responses if they were near earlier target locations (priming and if they were near the high probability hotspot (probability cuing. In Experiment 2, target locations were chosen on three concentric circles around fixation. One circle contained 80% of targets. The value of this ring distribution is that it allowed for a spatially restricted high probability zone in which sequentially repeated trials were not likely to be physically close. Participant performance was sensitive to the high-probability circle in addition to the expected effects of eccentricity and the distance to recent targets. These two experiments suggest that inhomogeneities in spatial probability can be learned and used by participants on-line and without prompting as an aid for visual stimulus discrimination and that spatial repetition priming is not a sufficient explanation for this effect. Future models of attention should consider explicitly incorporating the probabilities of targets locations and features.

  13. Methanol to olefin Conversion on HSAPO-34 zeolite from periodic density functional theory calculations: a complete cycle of side chain hydrocarbon pool mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.M.; Wang, Y.D.; Xie, Z.K.; Liu, Z.P. [SINOPEC, Shanghai (China)

    2009-03-15

    For its unique position in the coal chemical industry, the methanol to olefin (MTO) reaction has been a hot topic in zeolite catalysis. Due to the complexities of catalyst structure and reaction networks, many questions such as how the olefin chain is built from methanol remain elusive. On the basis of periodic density functional theory calculations, this work establishes the first complete catalytic cycle for MTO reaction via hexamethylbenzene (HMB) trapped in HSAPO-34 zeolite based on the so-called side chain hydrocarbon pool mechanism. The cycle starts from the methylation of HMB that leads to heptamethylbenzenium ion (heptaMB{sup +}) intermediate. This is then followed by the growth of side chain via repeated deprotonation of benzenium ions and methylation of the exocyclic double bond. Ethene and propene can finally be released from the side ethyl and isopropyl groups of benzenium ions by deprotonation and subsequent protonation steps. We demonstrate that (i) HMB/HSAPO-34 only yields propene as the primary product based on the side chain hydrocarbon pool mechanism and (ii) an indirect proton-shift step mediated by water that is always available in the system is energetically more favorable than the traditionally regarded internal hydrogen-shift step. Finally, the implications of our results toward understanding the effect of acidity of zeolite on MTO activity are also discussed.

  14. Stimulus specificity of a steady-state visual-evoked potential-based brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kian B.; Bradley, Andrew P.; Cunnington, Ross

    2012-06-01

    The mechanisms of neural excitation and inhibition when given a visual stimulus are well studied. It has been established that changing stimulus specificity such as luminance contrast or spatial frequency can alter the neuronal activity and thus modulate the visual-evoked response. In this paper, we study the effect that stimulus specificity has on the classification performance of a steady-state visual-evoked potential-based brain-computer interface (SSVEP-BCI). For example, we investigate how closely two visual stimuli can be placed before they compete for neural representation in the cortex and thus influence BCI classification accuracy. We characterize stimulus specificity using the four stimulus parameters commonly encountered in SSVEP-BCI design: temporal frequency, spatial size, number of simultaneously displayed stimuli and their spatial proximity. By varying these quantities and measuring the SSVEP-BCI classification accuracy, we are able to determine the parameters that provide optimal performance. Our results show that superior SSVEP-BCI accuracy is attained when stimuli are placed spatially more than 5° apart, with size that subtends at least 2° of visual angle, when using a tagging frequency of between high alpha and beta band. These findings may assist in deciding the stimulus parameters for optimal SSVEP-BCI design.

  15. Circadian Clock Synchronization of the Cell Cycle in Zebrafish Occurs through a Gating Mechanism Rather Than a Period-phase Locking Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjeiro, Ricardo; Tamai, T Katherine; Letton, William; Hamilton, Noémie; Whitmore, David

    2018-04-01

    Studies from a number of model systems have shown that the circadian clock controls expression of key cell cycle checkpoints, thus providing permissive or inhibitory windows in which specific cell cycle events can occur. However, a major question remains: Is the clock actually regulating the cell cycle through such a gating mechanism or, alternatively, is there a coupling process that controls the speed of cell cycle progression? Using our light-responsive zebrafish cell lines, we address this issue directly by synchronizing the cell cycle in culture simply by changing the entraining light-dark (LD) cycle in the incubator without the need for pharmacological intervention. Our results show that the cell cycle rapidly reentrains to a shifted LD cycle within 36 h, with changes in p21 expression and subsequent S phase timing occurring within the first few hours of resetting. Reentrainment of mitosis appears to lag S phase resetting by 1 circadian cycle. The range of entrainment of the zebrafish clock to differing LD cycles is large, from 16 to 32 hour periods. We exploited this feature to explore cell cycle entrainment at both the population and single cell levels. At the population level, cell cycle length is shortened or lengthened under corresponding T-cycles, suggesting that a 1:1 coupling mechanism is capable of either speeding up or slowing down the cell cycle. However, analysis at the single cell level reveals that this, in fact, is not true and that a gating mechanism is the fundamental method of timed cell cycle regulation in zebrafish. Cell cycle length at the single cell level is virtually unaltered with varying T-cycles.

  16. ERP Indices of Stimulus Prediction in Letter Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Kaan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the current focus on anticipation in perception, action and cognition, including language processing, there is a need for a method to tap into predictive processing in situations in which cue and feedback stimuli are not explicitly marked as such. To this aim, event related potentials (ERPs were obtained while participants viewed alphabetic letter sequences (“A”, “B”, “C”, “D”, “E”, …, in which the letters were highly predictable, and random sequences (“S”, “B”, “A”, “I”, “F”, “M”, …, without feedback. Occasionally, the presentation of a letter in a sequence was delayed by 300 ms. During this delay period, an increased negativity was observed for predictive versus random sequences. In addition, the early positivity following the delay was larger for predictive compared with random sequences. These results suggest that expectation-sensitive ERP modulations can be elicited in anticipation of stimuli that are not explicit targets, rewards, feedback or instructions, and that a delay can strengthen the prediction for a particular stimulus. Applications to language processing will be discussed.

  17. Stimulus-response mappings shape inhibition processes: a combined EEG-fMRI study of contextual stopping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina F Lavallee

    whereby the most infrequent stimulus demanded inhibition, indicating that the frequency of the stop-signal interacts with the current stimulus-response contingency. These results demonstrate that response inhibition is prone to influence from other cognitive functions, making it difficult to dissociate real inhibitory capabilities from the influence of moderating mechanisms.

  18. The Periodic Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  19. Size matters: Perceived depth magnitude varies with stimulus height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Wilcox, Laurie M; Allison, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Both the upper and lower disparity limits for stereopsis vary with the size of the targets. Recently, Tsirlin, Wilcox, and Allison (2012) suggested that perceived depth magnitude from stereopsis might also depend on the vertical extent of a stimulus. To test this hypothesis we compared apparent depth in small discs to depth in long bars with equivalent width and disparity. We used three estimation techniques: a virtual ruler, a touch-sensor (for haptic estimates) and a disparity probe. We found that depth estimates were significantly larger for the bar stimuli than for the disc stimuli for all methods of estimation and different configurations. In a second experiment, we measured perceived depth as a function of the height of the bar and the radius of the disc. Perceived depth increased with increasing bar height and disc radius suggesting that disparity is integrated along the vertical edges. We discuss size-disparity correlation and inter-neural excitatory connections as potential mechanisms that could account for these results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilization of reward-prospect enhances preparatory attention and reduces stimulus conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Berry; Krebs, Ruth M; Lorist, Monicque M; Woldorff, Marty G

    2014-06-01

    The prospect of gaining money is an incentive widely at play in the real world. Such monetary motivation might have particularly strong influence when the cognitive system is challenged, such as when needing to process conflicting stimulus inputs. Here, we employed manipulations of reward-prospect and attentional-preparation levels in a cued-Stroop stimulus conflict task, along with the high temporal resolution of electrical brain recordings, to provide insight into the mechanisms by which reward-prospect and attention interact and modulate cognitive task performance. In this task, the cue indicated whether or not the participant needed to prepare for an upcoming Stroop stimulus and, if so, whether there was the potential for monetary reward (dependent on performance on that trial). Both cued attention and cued reward-prospect enhanced preparatory neural activity, as reflected by increases in the hallmark attention-related negative-polarity ERP slow wave (contingent negative variation [CNV]) and reductions in oscillatory Alpha activity, which was followed by enhanced processing of the subsequent Stroop stimulus. In addition, similar modulations of preparatory neural activity (larger CNVs and reduced Alpha) predicted shorter versus longer response times (RTs) to the subsequent target stimulus, consistent with such modulations reflecting trial-to-trial variations in attention. Particularly striking were the individual differences in the utilization of reward-prospect information. In particular, the size of the reward effects on the preparatory neural activity correlated across participants with the degree to which reward-prospect both facilitated overall task performance (shorter RTs) and reduced conflict-related behavioral interference. Thus, the prospect of reward appears to recruit attentional preparation circuits to enhance processing of task-relevant target information.

  1. Glucocorticoids mediate stress-induced impairment of retrieval of stimulus-response memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsak, Piray; Guenzel, Friederike M; Kantar-Gok, Deniz; Zalachoras, Ioannis; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Meijer, Onno C; Quirarte, Gina L; Wolf, Oliver T; Schwabe, Lars; Roozendaal, Benno

    2016-05-01

    Acute stress and elevated glucocorticoid hormone levels are well known to impair the retrieval of hippocampus-dependent 'declarative' memory. Recent findings suggest that stress might also impair the retrieval of non-hippocampal memories. In particular, stress shortly before retention testing was shown to impair the retrieval of striatal stimulus-response associations in humans. However, the mechanism underlying this stress-induced retrieval impairment of non-hippocampal stimulus-response memory remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated whether an acute elevation in glucocorticoid levels mediates the impairing effects of stress on retrieval of stimulus-response memory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on a stimulus-response task in an eight-arm radial maze until they learned to associate a stimulus, i.e., cue, with a food reward in one of the arms. Twenty-four hours after successful acquisition, they received a systemic injection of vehicle, corticosterone (1mg/kg), the corticosterone-synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (35mg/kg) or were left untreated 1h before retention testing. We found that the corticosterone injection impaired the retrieval of stimulus-response memory. We further found that the systemic injection procedure per se was stressful as the vehicle administration also increased plasma corticosterone levels and impaired the retrieval of stimulus-response memory. However, memory retrieval was not impaired when rats were tested 2min after the systemic vehicle injection, before any stress-induced elevation in corticosterone levels had occurred. Moreover, metyrapone treatment blocked the effect of injection stress on both plasma corticosterone levels and memory retrieval impairment, indicating that the endogenous corticosterone response mediates the stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. None of the treatments affected rats' locomotor activity or motivation to search for the food reward within the maze. These findings show that stress

  2. CPM Test-Retest Reliability: "Standard" vs "Single Test-Stimulus" Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Yelena; Miller-Barmak, Adi; Goldstein, Oren; Sprecher, Elliot; Yarnitsky, David

    2016-03-01

    Assessment of pain inhibitory mechanisms using conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is relevant clinically in prediction of pain and analgesic efficacy. Our objective is to provide necessary estimates of intersession CPM reliability, to enable transformation of the CPM paradigm into a clinical tool. Two cohorts of young healthy subjects (N = 65) participated in two dual-session studies. In Study I, a Bath-Thermode CPM protocol was used, with hot water immersion and contact heat as conditioning- and test-stimuli, respectively, in a classical parallel CPM design introducing test-stimulus first, and then the conditioning- and repeated test-stimuli in parallel. Study II consisted of two CPM protocols: 1) Two-Thermodes, one for each of the stimuli, in the same parallel design as above, and 2) single test-stimulus (STS) protocol with a single administration of a contact heat test-stimulus, partially overlapped in time by a remote shorter contact heat as conditioning stimulus. Test-retest reliability was assessed within 3-7 days. The STS-CPM had superior reliability intraclass correlation (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.59) over Bath-Thermode (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.34) or Two-Thermodes (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.21) protocols. The hand immersion conditioning pain had higher reliability than thermode pain (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.76 vs ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.16). Conditioned test-stimulus pain scores were of good (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.62) or fair (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.43) reliability for the Bath-Thermode and the STS, respectively, but not for the Two-Thermodes protocol (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.20). The newly developed STS-CPM paradigm was more reliable than other CPM protocols tested here, and should be further investigated for its clinical relevance. It appears that large contact size of the conditioning-stimulus and use of single rather than dual test-stimulus pain contribute to augmentation of CPM reliability. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  3. Conditioned pain modulation is affected by occlusion cuff conditioning stimulus intensity, but not duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A; Pedler, A

    2018-01-01

    Various conditioned pain modulation (CPM) methodologies have been used to investigate diffuse noxious inhibitory control pain mechanisms in healthy and clinical populations. Occlusion cuff parameters have been poorly studied. We aimed to investigate whether occlusion cuff intensity and/or duration influenced CPM magnitudes. We also investigated the role of physical activity levels on CPM magnitude. Two studies were performed to investigate the role of intensity and duration of occlusion cuff conditioning stimulus on test stimulus (tibialis anterior pressure pain thresholds). In Study 1, conditioning stimulus intensity of 2/10 or 5/10 (duration CPM magnitude. In Study 1, 27 healthy volunteers (mean ± SD: 24.9 years (±4.5); eight female) demonstrated that an occlusion cuff applied to the upper arm eliciting 5/10 local pain resulted in a significant (mean ± SD: 17% ± 46%) increase in CPM magnitude, when compared to 2/10 intensity (-3% ± 38%, p = 0.026), whereas in Study 2, 25 healthy volunteers (22.5 years (±2.7); 13 female) demonstrated that 3 min of 2/10 CS intensity did not result in a significant change in CPM (p = 0.21). There was no significant relationship between physical activity levels and CPM in either study (p > 0.22). This study demonstrated that an occlusion cuff of 5/10 conditioning stimulus intensity, when compared to 2/10, significantly increased CPM magnitude. Maintaining 2/10 conditioning stimulus for 3 min did not increase CPM magnitude. Dysfunctional conditioned pain modulation (CPM) has been associated with poor health outcomes. Various factors can influence CPM outcomes. The role of occlusion cuff conditioning stimulus intensity and duration has not been previously investigated. Intensity (5/10), but not duration of lower intensity (2/10) conditioning stimulus, affects CPM magnitude. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  4. Influence of temperature histories during reactor startup periods on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasahara, Shigeki, E-mail: kasahara.shigeki@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kitsunai, Yuji [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development, 2163 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Chimi, Yasuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Chatani, Kazuhiro; Koshiishi, Masato [Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development, 2163 Narita-cho, Oarai-machi, Higashi-ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Nishiyama, Yutaka [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    This paper addresses influence of two different temperature profiles during startup periods in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor and a boiling water reactor upon microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel irradiated with neutrons to about 1 dpa and 3 dpa. One of the temperature profiles was that the specimens experienced neutron irradiation in both reactors, under which the irradiation temperature transiently increased to 290 °C from room temperature with increasing reactor power during reactor startup periods. Another was that the specimens were pre-heated to about 150 °C prior to the irradiation to suppress the transient temperature increase. Tensile tests at 290 °C and Vickers hardness tests at room temperature were carried out, and their microstructures were observed by FEG-TEM. Difference of the temperature profiles was observed obviously in interstitial cluster formation, in particular, growth of Frank loops. Although influence of neutron irradiation involving transient temperature increase to 290 °C from room temperature on the yield strength and the Vickers hardness is buried in the trend curves of existing data, the influence was also found certainly in increment of in yield strength, existence of modest yield drop, and loss of strain hardening capacity and ductility. As a result, Frank loops, which were observed in austenitic stainless steel irradiated at doses of 1 dpa or more, seemed to have important implications regarding the interpretation of not irradiation hardening, but deformation of the austenitic stainless steel.

  5. Repeated touch and needle-prick stimulation in the neonatal period increases the baseline mechanical sensitivity and postinjury hypersensitivity of adult spinal sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoogen, Nynke J; Patijn, Jacob; Tibboel, Dick; Joosten, Bert A; Fitzgerald, Maria; Kwok, Charlie H T

    2018-03-08

    Noxious stimulation at critical stages of development has long-term consequences on somatosensory processing in later life, but it is not known whether this developmental plasticity is restricted to nociceptive pathways. Here, we investigate the effect of repeated neonatal noxious or innocuous hind paw stimulation on adult spinal dorsal horn cutaneous mechanical sensitivity. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes received 4 unilateral left hind paw needle pricks (NPs, n = 13) or 4 tactile (cotton swab touch) stimuli, per day (TC, n = 11) for the first 7 days of life. Control pups were left undisturbed (n = 17). When adult (6-8 weeks), lumbar wide-dynamic-range neuron activity in laminae III-V was recorded using in vivo extracellular single-unit electrophysiology. Spike activity evoked by cutaneous dynamic tactile (brush), pinch and punctate (von Frey hair) stimulation, and plantar receptive field areas were recorded, at baseline and 2 and 5 days after left plantar hind paw incision. Baseline brush receptive fields, von Frey hair, and pinch sensitivity were significantly enhanced in adult NP and TC animals compared with undisturbed controls, although effects were greatest in NP rats. After incision, injury sensitivity of adult wide-dynamic-range neurons to both noxious and dynamic tactile hypersensitivity was significantly greater in NP animals compared with TC and undisturbed controls. We conclude that both repeated touch and needle-prick stimulation in the neonatal period can alter adult spinal sensory neuron sensitivity to both innocuous and noxious mechanical stimulation. Thus, spinal sensory circuits underlying touch and pain processing are shaped by a range of early-life somatosensory experiences.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  6. Stimulus Modality and Smoking Behavior: Moderating Role of Implicit Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Valentine C; Mefoh, Philip

    2015-07-20

    This study investigated whether stimulus modality influences smoking behavior among smokers in South Eastern Nigeria and also whether implicit attitudes moderate the relationship between stimulus modality and smoking behavior. 60 undergraduate students of University of Nigeria, Nsukka were used. Participants were individually administered the IAT task as a measure of implicit attitude toward smoking and randomly assigned into either image condition that paired images of cigarette with aversive images of potential health consequences or text condition that paired images of cigarette with aversive texts of potential health consequences. A one- predictor and one-moderator binary logistic analysis indicates that stimulus modality significantly predicts smoking behavior (p = smoke with greater probability than the text condition. The interaction between stimulus modality and IAT scores was also significant (p = attitudes towards smoking. The finding shows the urgent need to introduce the use of aversive images of potential health consequences on cigarette packs in Nigeria.

  7. Stimulus Predifferentiation and Modification of Children's Racial Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Phyllis A.

    1973-01-01

    The most significant finding is that stimulus-predifferentiation training elicited lower prejudice scores for children on two indices of ethnic attitudes than did a no-label control condition. (Author)

  8. Automatic detection of frequency changes depends on auditory stimulus intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, S; Lang, A H; Aaltonen, O; Lertola, K; Kärki, T

    1999-06-01

    A cortical cognitive auditory evoked potential, mismatch negativity (MMN), reflects automatic discrimination and echoic memory functions of the auditory system. For this study, we examined whether this potential is dependent on the stimulus intensity. The MMN potentials were recorded from 10 subjects with normal hearing using a sine tone of 1000 Hz as the standard stimulus and a sine tone of 1141 Hz as the deviant stimulus, with probabilities of 90% and 10%, respectively. The intensities were 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 dB HL for both standard and deviant stimuli in separate blocks. Stimulus intensity had a statistically significant effect on the mean amplitude, rise time parameter, and onset latency of the MMN. Automatic auditory discrimination seems to be dependent on the sound pressure level of the stimuli.

  9. Decoding stimulus features in primate somatosensory cortex during perceptual categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Manuel; Zainos, Antonio; Romo, Ranulfo

    2015-01-01

    Neurons of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) respond as functions of frequency or amplitude of a vibrotactile stimulus. However, whether S1 neurons encode both frequency and amplitude of the vibrotactile stimulus or whether each sensory feature is encoded by separate populations of S1 neurons is not known, To further address these questions, we recorded S1 neurons while trained monkeys categorized only one sensory feature of the vibrotactile stimulus: frequency, amplitude, or duration. The results suggest a hierarchical encoding scheme in S1: from neurons that encode all sensory features of the vibrotactile stimulus to neurons that encode only one sensory feature. We hypothesize that the dynamic representation of each sensory feature in S1 might serve for further downstream processing that leads to the monkey’s psychophysical behavior observed in these tasks. PMID:25825711

  10. [Microcomputer control of a LED stimulus display device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmoto, S; Kikuchi, T; Kumada, T

    1987-02-01

    A visual stimulus display system controlled by a microcomputer was constructed at low cost. The system consists of a LED stimulus display device, a microcomputer, two interface boards, a pointing device (a "mouse") and two kinds of software. The first software package is written in BASIC. Its functions are: to construct stimulus patterns using the mouse, to construct letter patterns (alphabet, digit, symbols and Japanese letters--kanji, hiragana, katakana), to modify the patterns, to store the patterns on a floppy disc, to translate the patterns into integer data which are used to display the patterns in the second software. The second software package, written in BASIC and machine language, controls display of a sequence of stimulus patterns in predetermined time schedules in visual experiments.

  11. Psilocybin-induced stimulus control in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, J.C.; Rice, K.C.; Amorosi, D.J.; Rabin, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Although psilocybin has been trained in the rat as a discriminative stimulus, little is known of the pharmacological receptors essential for stimulus control. In the present investigation rats were trained with psilocybin and tests were then conducted employing a series of other hallucinogens and presumed antagonists. An intermediate degree of antagonism of psilocybin was observed following treatment with the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, M100907. In contrast, no significant antagonism was obse...

  12. High-Precision Locations and the Stress Field from Instrumental Seismicity, Moment Tensors, and Short-Period Mechanisms through the Mina Deflection, Central Walker Lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, C. J.; Smith, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    well as available and developed short-period focal mechanisms are compiled to evaluate the stress field to assess mechanisms of slip accommodation. Based on the complex distribution of fault orientations, the stress field varies locally northward from the SWL throughout the MD; however, in many cases, fault plane alignments can be isolated from high-precision locations, providing better constraints on stress and slip orientations.

  13. A Novel Two-Tier Cooperative Caching Mechanism for the Optimization of Multi-Attribute Periodic Queries in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, ZhangBing; Zhao, Deng; Shu, Lei; Tsang, Kim-Fung

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks, serving as an important interface between physical environments and computational systems, have been used extensively for supporting domain applications, where multiple-attribute sensory data are queried from the network continuously and periodically. Usually, certain sensory data may not vary significantly within a certain time duration for certain applications. In this setting, sensory data gathered at a certain time slot can be used for answering concurrent queries and may be reused for answering the forthcoming queries when the variation of these data is within a certain threshold. To address this challenge, a popularity-based cooperative caching mechanism is proposed in this article, where the popularity of sensory data is calculated according to the queries issued in recent time slots. This popularity reflects the possibility that sensory data are interested in the forthcoming queries. Generally, sensory data with the highest popularity are cached at the sink node, while sensory data that may not be interested in the forthcoming queries are cached in the head nodes of divided grid cells. Leveraging these cooperatively cached sensory data, queries are answered through composing these two-tier cached data. Experimental evaluation shows that this approach can reduce the network communication cost significantly and increase the network capability. PMID:26131665

  14. Alterations to multisensory and unisensory integration by stimulus competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluta, Scott R; Rowland, Benjamin A; Stanford, Terrence R; Stein, Barry E

    2011-12-01

    In environments containing sensory events at competing locations, selecting a target for orienting requires prioritization of stimulus values. Although the superior colliculus (SC) is causally linked to the stimulus selection process, the manner in which SC multisensory integration operates in a competitive stimulus environment is unknown. Here we examined how the activity of visual-auditory SC neurons is affected by placement of a competing target in the opposite hemifield, a stimulus configuration that would, in principle, promote interhemispheric competition for access to downstream motor circuitry. Competitive interactions between the targets were evident in how they altered unisensory and multisensory responses of individual neurons. Responses elicited by a cross-modal stimulus (multisensory responses) proved to be substantially more resistant to competitor-induced depression than were unisensory responses (evoked by the component modality-specific stimuli). Similarly, when a cross-modal stimulus served as the competitor, it exerted considerably more depression than did its individual component stimuli, in some cases producing more depression than predicted by their linear sum. These findings suggest that multisensory integration can help resolve competition among multiple targets by enhancing orientation to the location of cross-modal events while simultaneously suppressing orientation to events at alternate locations.

  15. Intranasal localizability of odorants: influence of stimulus volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, J; Hummel, T; Berg, J; Huang, G; Doty, R L

    2011-05-01

    When an odorant is presented to one side of the nose and air to the other, the ability to localize which side received the odorant depends upon trigeminal nerve stimulation. It has been shown that performance on this lateralization task increases as stimulus concentration increases. In this study, we determined the influences of stimulus volume and sex on the ability to localize each of 8 odorants presented at neat concentrations: anethole, geraniol, limonene, linalool, menthol, methyl salicylate, phenyl ethanol, and vanillin. At a low stimulus volume (11 mL), only menthol was localized at an above-chance level. At a high stimulus volume (21 mL), above-chance localization occurred for all odorants except vanillin. Women were significantly better than men in localizing menthol. Stimuli rated as most intense were those that were most readily localized. The detection performance measures, as well as rated intensity values, significantly correlated with earlier findings of the trigeminal detectability of odorants presented to anosmic and normosmic subjects. This study suggests that differences in stimulus volume may explain some discrepant findings within the trigeminal chemosensory literature and supports the concept that vanillin may be a "relatively pure" olfactory stimulus.

  16. Strategic allocation of attention reduces temporally predictable stimulus conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, L. Gregory; Boehler, Carsten N.; Won, Robert; Davis, Lauren; Woldorff, Marty G.

    2013-01-01

    Humans are able to continuously monitor environmental situations and adjust their behavioral strategies to optimize performance. Here we investigate the behavioral and brain adjustments that occur when conflicting stimulus elements are, or are not, temporally predictable. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were collected while manual-response variants of the Stroop task were performed in which the stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between the relevant-color and irrelevant-word stimulus components were either randomly intermixed, or held constant, within each experimental run. Results indicated that the size of both the neural and behavioral effects of stimulus incongruency varied with the temporal arrangement of the stimulus components, such that the random-SOA arrangements produced the greatest incongruency effects at the earliest irrelevant-first SOA (−200 ms) and the constant-SOA arrangements produced the greatest effects with simultaneous presentation. These differences in conflict processing were accompanied by rapid (~150 ms) modulations of the sensory ERPs to the irrelevant distracter components when they occurred consistently first. These effects suggest that individuals are able to strategically allocate attention in time to mitigate the influence of a temporally predictable distracter. As these adjustments are instantiated by the subjects without instruction, they reveal a form of rapid strategic learning for dealing with temporally predictable stimulus incongruency. PMID:22360623

  17. Pre-stimulus BOLD-network activation modulates EEG spectral activity during working memory retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara eKottlow

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM processes depend on our momentary mental state and therefore exhibit considerable fluctuations. Here, we investigate the interplay of task-preparatory and task-related brain activity as represented by pre-stimulus BOLD-fluctuations and spectral EEG from the retention periods of a visual WM task. Visual WM is used to maintain sensory information in the brain enabling the performance of cognitive operations and is associated with mental health.We tested 22 subjects simultaneously with EEG and fMRI while performing a visuo-verbal Sternberg task with two different loads, allowing for the temporal separation of preparation, encoding, retention and retrieval periods.Four temporally coherent networks - the default mode network (DMN, the dorsal attention, the right and the left WM network - were extracted from the continuous BOLD data by means of a group ICA. Subsequently, the modulatory effect of these networks’ pre-stimulus activation upon retention-related EEG activity in the theta, alpha and beta frequencies was analyzed. The obtained results are informative in the context of state-dependent information processing.We were able to replicate two well-known load-dependent effects: the frontal-midline theta increase during the task and the decrease of pre-stimulus DMN activity. As our main finding, these two measures seem to depend on each other as the significant negative correlations at frontal-midline channels suggested. Thus, suppressed pre-stimulus DMN levels facilitated later task related frontal midline theta increases. In general, based on previous findings that neuronal coupling in different frequency bands may underlie distinct functions in WM retention, our results suggest that processes reflected by spectral oscillations during retention seem not only to be online synchronized with activity in different attention-related networks but are also modulated by activity in these networks during preparation intervals.

  18. Corporate Tax Stimulus and Investment in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo, Arturo; Melendez, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses a yearly dataset of plant-level investment in Colombian firms during the period 1997 to 2007 to assess the impact of a tax incentive for firms that invest in fixed assets implemented in 2004. A positive and statistically significant correlation is found between the boom observed in investment and the adoption of the tax policy. However, the correlation vanishes when year-specific effects are controlled for. This result is robust to changes in the empirical specification, chang...

  19. The Possible Role of CO2 in Producing A Post-Stimulus CBF and BOLD Undershoot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Meryem A.; Devor, Anna; Akin, Ata; Boas, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Comprehending the underlying mechanisms of neurovascular coupling is important for understanding the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases related to uncoupling. Moreover, it elucidates the casual relation between the neural signaling and the hemodynamic responses measured with various imaging modalities such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). There are mainly two hypotheses concerning this mechanism: a metabolic hypothesis and a neurogenic hypothesis. We have modified recent models of neurovascular coupling adding the effects of both NO (nitric oxide) kinetics, which is a well-known neurogenic vasodilator, and CO2 kinetics as a metabolic vasodilator. We have also added the Hodgkin–Huxley equations relating the membrane potentials to sodium influx through the membrane. Our results show that the dominant factor in the hemodynamic response is NO, however CO2 is important in producing a brief post-stimulus undershoot in the blood flow response that in turn modifies the fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent post-stimulus undershoot. Our results suggest that increased cerebral blood flow during stimulation causes CO2 washout which then results in a post-stimulus hypocapnia induced vasoconstrictive effect. PMID:20027233

  20. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, J P Den

    1961-01-01

    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  1. How does reward compete with goal-directed and stimulus-driven shifts of attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Alexia; Neveu, Rémi; Bayle, Dimitri J; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2017-01-01

    In order to behave adaptively, attention can be directed in space either voluntarily (i.e. endogenously) according to strategic goals, or involuntarily (i.e. exogenously) through reflexive capture by salient or novel events. The emotional or motivational values of stimuli can also influence attentional orienting. However, little is known about how reward-related effects compete or interact with endogenous and exogenous attention mechanisms. Here we designed a visual search paradigm in which goal-driven and stimulus-driven shifts of attention were manipulated by classic spatial cueing procedures, while an irrelevant, but previously rewarded stimulus also appeared as a distractor and hence competed with both types of spatial attention during search. Our results demonstrated that stimuli previously associated with a high monetary reward received higher attentional priority in the subsequent visual search task, even though these stimuli and reward were no longer task-relevant, mitigating the attentional orienting induced by both endogenous and exogenous cues.

  2. Stimulus-driven attention, threat bias, and sad bias in youth with a history of an anxiety disorder or depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Chad M.; Hudziak, James J.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Barch, Deanna M.; Luby, Joan L.

    2015-01-01

    Attention biases towards threatening and sad stimuli are associated with pediatric anxiety and depression, respectively. The basic cognitive mechanisms associated with attention biases in youth, however, remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that threat bias (selective attention for threatening versus neutral stimuli) but not sad bias relies on stimulus-driven attention. We collected measures of stimulus-driven attention, threat bias, sad bias, and current clinical symptoms in youth with a history of an anxiety disorder and/or depression (ANX/DEP; n=40) as well as healthy controls (HC; n=33). Stimulus-driven attention was measured with a non-emotional spatial orienting task, while threat bias and sad bias were measured at a short time interval (150 ms) with a spatial orienting task using emotional faces and at a longer time interval (500 ms) using a dot-probe task. In ANX/DEP but not HC, early attention bias towards threat was negatively correlated with later attention bias to threat, suggesting that early threat vigilance was associated with later threat avoidance. Across all subjects, stimulus-driven orienting was not correlated with early threat bias but was negatively correlated with later threat bias, indicating that rapid stimulus-driven orienting is linked to later threat avoidance. No parallel relationships were detected for sad bias. Current symptoms of depression but not anxiety were related to decreased stimulus-driven attention. Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that threat bias but not sad bias relies on stimulus-driven attention. These results inform the design of attention bias modification programs that aim to reverse threat biases and reduce symptoms associated with pediatric anxiety and depression. PMID:25702927

  3. Stimulus-Driven Attention, Threat Bias, and Sad Bias in Youth with a History of an Anxiety Disorder or Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Chad M; Hudziak, James J; Gaffrey, Michael S; Barch, Deanna M; Luby, Joan L

    2016-02-01

    Attention biases towards threatening and sad stimuli are associated with pediatric anxiety and depression, respectively. The basic cognitive mechanisms associated with attention biases in youth, however, remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that threat bias (selective attention for threatening versus neutral stimuli) but not sad bias relies on stimulus-driven attention. We collected measures of stimulus-driven attention, threat bias, sad bias, and current clinical symptoms in youth with a history of an anxiety disorder and/or depression (ANX/DEP; n = 40) as well as healthy controls (HC; n = 33). Stimulus-driven attention was measured with a non-emotional spatial orienting task, while threat bias and sad bias were measured at a short time interval (150 ms) with a spatial orienting task using emotional faces and at a longer time interval (500 ms) using a dot-probe task. In ANX/DEP but not HC, early attention bias towards threat was negatively correlated with later attention bias to threat, suggesting that early threat vigilance was associated with later threat avoidance. Across all subjects, stimulus-driven orienting was not correlated with early threat bias but was negatively correlated with later threat bias, indicating that rapid stimulus-driven orienting is linked to later threat avoidance. No parallel relationships were detected for sad bias. Current symptoms of depression but not anxiety were related to decreased stimulus-driven attention. Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that threat bias but not sad bias relies on stimulus-driven attention. These results inform the design of attention bias modification programs that aim to reverse threat biases and reduce symptoms associated with pediatric anxiety and depression.

  4. A sled push stimulus potentiates subsequent 20-m sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Laurent B; Mina, Minas A; Haff, G Gregory

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the potentiating effects of performing a single sprint-style sled push on subsequent unresisted 20m sprint performance. Randomized crossover design. Following a familiarization session, twenty rugby league players performed maximal unresisted 20m sprints before and 15s, 4, 8 and 12min after a single sled push stimulus loaded with either 75 or 125% body mass. The two sled push conditions were performed in a randomized order over a one-week period. The fastest sprint time recorded before each sled push was compared to that recorded at each time point after to determine the post-activation potentiation (PAP) effect. After the 75% body mass sled push, sprint time was 0.26±1.03% slower at the 15s time point (effect size [ES]=0.07) but faster at the 4 (-0.95±2.00%; ES=-0.22), 8 (-1.80±1.43%; ES=-0.42) and 12 (-1.54±1.54%; ES=-0.36)min time points. Sprint time was slower at all the time points after the 125% body mass sled (1.36±2.36%-2.59±2.90%; ESs=0.34-0.64). Twenty-meter sprint performance is potentiated 4-12min following a sled push loaded with 75% body mass while it is impaired after a 125% body mass sled. These results are of great importance for coaches seeking to potentiate sprint performance with the sled push exercise. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The choroid plexus response to a repeated peripheral inflammatory stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palha Joana A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic systemic inflammation triggers alterations in the central nervous system that may relate to the underlying inflammatory component reported in neurodegenerative disorders such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. However, it is far from being understood whether and how peripheral inflammation contributes to induce brain inflammatory response in such illnesses. As part of the barriers that separate the blood from the brain, the choroid plexus conveys inflammatory immune signals into the brain, largely through alterations in the composition of the cerebrospinal fluid. Results In the present study we investigated the mouse choroid plexus gene expression profile, using microarray analyses, in response to a repeated inflammatory stimulus induced by the intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide every two weeks for a period of three months; mice were sacrificed 3 and 15 days after the last lipopolysaccharide injection. The data show that the choroid plexus displays a sustained response to the repeated inflammatory stimuli by altering the expression profile of several genes. From a total of 24,000 probes, 369 are up-regulated and 167 are down-regulated 3 days after the last lipopolysaccharide injection, while at 15 days the number decreases to 98 and 128, respectively. The pathways displaying the most significant changes include those facilitating entry of cells into the cerebrospinal fluid, and those participating in the innate immune response to infection. Conclusion These observations contribute to a better understanding of the brain response to peripheral inflammation and pave the way to study their impact on the progression of several disorders of the central nervous system in which inflammation is known to be implicated.

  6. Stimulus-Response Compatibility effect in the near-far dimension: A developmental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Richez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the developmental aspect of stimulus-response compatibility effect in 8 to 11-years-old children. The task consisted in manually responding to the colour of a pawn presented on a chessboard at different distances. Manual responses were provided by reaching a proximal or distal location depending on the colour of the stimulus. We found that reaction time was affected by the conflict generated by the response suggested by the location of the stimulus and the response required according to its colour. This was not the case for movement time despite we found a higher rate of long duration movements in the incongruent than in the congruent spatial condition. The SRC effect was however observed in children older than 10 years old. These findings provide additional evidence for a reorganization of the perceptual system during the period of 8 to 10 years, integrating progressively multimodal information and preparing more efficiently the body to act in the environment.

  7. Audiovisual Modulation in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex Depends on Cross-Modal Stimulus Configuration and Congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Guido T; Montijn, Jorrit S; Pennartz, Cyriel M A; Lansink, Carien S

    2017-09-06

    The sensory neocortex is a highly connected associative network that integrates information from multiple senses, even at the level of the primary sensory areas. Although a growing body of empirical evidence supports this view, the neural mechanisms of cross-modal integration in primary sensory areas, such as the primary visual cortex (V1), are still largely unknown. Using two-photon calcium imaging in awake mice, we show that the encoding of audiovisual stimuli in V1 neuronal populations is highly dependent on the features of the stimulus constituents. When the visual and auditory stimulus features were modulated at the same rate (i.e., temporally congruent), neurons responded with either an enhancement or suppression compared with unisensory visual stimuli, and their prevalence was balanced. Temporally incongruent tones or white-noise bursts included in audiovisual stimulus pairs resulted in predominant response suppression across the neuronal population. Visual contrast did not influence multisensory processing when the audiovisual stimulus pairs were congruent; however, when white-noise bursts were used, neurons generally showed response suppression when the visual stimulus contrast was high whereas this effect was absent when the visual contrast was low. Furthermore, a small fraction of V1 neurons, predominantly those located near the lateral border of V1, responded to sound alone. These results show that V1 is involved in the encoding of cross-modal interactions in a more versatile way than previously thought. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The neural substrate of cross-modal integration is not limited to specialized cortical association areas but extends to primary sensory areas. Using two-photon imaging of large groups of neurons, we show that multisensory modulation of V1 populations is strongly determined by the individual and shared features of cross-modal stimulus constituents, such as contrast, frequency, congruency, and temporal structure. Congruent

  8. Modeling stimulus variation in three common implicit attitude tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsiefer, Katie; Westfall, Jacob; Judd, Charles M

    2017-08-01

    We explored the consequences of ignoring the sampling variation due to stimuli in the domain of implicit attitudes. A large literature in psycholinguistics has examined the statistical treatment of random stimulus materials, but the recommendations from this literature have not been applied to the social psychological literature on implicit attitudes. This is partly because of inherent complications in applying crossed random-effect models to some of the most common implicit attitude tasks, and partly because no work to date has demonstrated that random stimulus variation is in fact consequential in implicit attitude measurement. We addressed this problem by laying out statistically appropriate and practically feasible crossed random-effect models for three of the most commonly used implicit attitude measures-the Implicit Association Test, affect misattribution procedure, and evaluative priming task-and then applying these models to large datasets (average N = 3,206) that assess participants' implicit attitudes toward race, politics, and self-esteem. We showed that the test statistics from the traditional analyses are substantially (about 60 %) inflated relative to the more-appropriate analyses that incorporate stimulus variation. Because all three tasks used the same stimulus words and faces, we could also meaningfully compare the relative contributions of stimulus variation across the tasks. In an appendix, we give syntax in R, SAS, and SPSS for fitting the recommended crossed random-effects models to data from all three tasks, as well as instructions on how to structure the data file.

  9. Different involvement of medial prefrontal cortex and dorso-lateral striatum in automatic and controlled processing of a future conditioned stimulus

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Díaz, Francisco; Díaz, Estrella; Sánchez, Natividad; Vargas, Juan Pedro; Pearce, John M.; López, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies support the idea that stimulus processing in latent inhibition can vary during the course of preexposure. Controlled attentional mechanisms are said to be important in the early stages of preexposure, while in later stages animals adopt automatic processing of the stimulus to be used for conditioning. Given this distinction, it is possible that both types of processing are governed by different neural systems, affecting differentially the retrieval of information about the stim...

  10. Dissociable effects of inter-stimulus interval and presentation duration on rapid face categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retter, Talia L; Jiang, Fang; Webster, Michael A; Rossion, Bruno

    2018-04-01

    Fast periodic visual stimulation combined with electroencephalography (FPVS-EEG) has unique sensitivity and objectivity in measuring rapid visual categorization processes. It constrains image processing time by presenting stimuli rapidly through brief stimulus presentation durations and short inter-stimulus intervals. However, the selective impact of these temporal parameters on visual categorization is largely unknown. Here, we presented natural images of objects at a rate of 10 or 20 per second (10 or 20 Hz), with faces appearing once per second (1 Hz), leading to two distinct frequency-tagged EEG responses. Twelve observers were tested with three squarewave image presentation conditions: 1) with an ISI, a traditional 50% duty cycle at 10 Hz (50-ms stimulus duration separated by a 50-ms ISI); 2) removing the ISI and matching the rate, a 100% duty cycle at 10 Hz (100-ms duration with 0-ms ISI); 3) removing the ISI and matching the stimulus presentation duration, a 100% duty cycle at 20 Hz (50-ms duration with 0-ms ISI). The face categorization response was significantly decreased in the 20 Hz 100% condition. The conditions at 10 Hz showed similar face-categorization responses, peaking maximally over the right occipito-temporal (ROT) cortex. However, the onset of the 10 Hz 100% response was delayed by about 20 ms over the ROT region relative to the 10 Hz 50% condition, likely due to immediate forward-masking by preceding images. Taken together, these results help to interpret how the FPVS-EEG paradigm sets temporal constraints on visual image categorization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Shifts of Gamma Phase across Primary Visual Cortical Sites Reflect Dynamic Stimulus-Modulated Information Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besserve, Michel; Lowe, Scott C; Logothetis, Nikos K; Schölkopf, Bernhard; Panzeri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Distributed neural processing likely entails the capability of networks to reconfigure dynamically the directionality and strength of their functional connections. Yet, the neural mechanisms that may allow such dynamic routing of the information flow are not yet fully understood. We investigated the role of gamma band (50-80 Hz) oscillations in transient modulations of communication among neural populations by using measures of direction-specific causal information transfer. We found that the local phase of gamma-band rhythmic activity exerted a stimulus-modulated and spatially-asymmetric directed effect on the firing rate of spatially separated populations within the primary visual cortex. The relationships between gamma phases at different sites (phase shifts) could be described as a stimulus-modulated gamma-band wave propagating along the spatial directions with the largest information transfer. We observed transient stimulus-related changes in the spatial configuration of phases (compatible with changes in direction of gamma wave propagation) accompanied by a relative increase of the amount of information flowing along the instantaneous direction of the gamma wave. These effects were specific to the gamma-band and suggest that the time-varying relationships between gamma phases at different locations mark, and possibly causally mediate, the dynamic reconfiguration of functional connections.

  12. Significance of a notch in the otoacoustic emission stimulus spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenner, J

    2012-09-01

    To explain a clinical observation: a notch in the stimulus spectrum during transient evoked otoacoustic emission measurement in ears with secretory otitis media. The effects of tympanic under-pressure were investigated using a pressure chamber. A model of the ear canal was also studied. Tympanic membrane reflectance increased as a consequence of increased stiffness, causing a notch in the stimulus spectrum. In an adult, the notch could be clearly distinguished at an under-pressure of approximately -185 daPa. The sound frequency of the notch corresponded to a wavelength four times the ear canal length. The ear canal of infants was too short to cause a notch within the displayed frequency range. The notch was demonstrated using both Otodynamics and Madsen equipment. A notch in the otoacoustic emission stimulus spectrum can be caused by increased stiffness of the tympanic membrane, raising suspicion of low middle-ear pressure or secretory otitis media. This finding is not applicable to infants.

  13. Stimulus-dependent effects on tactile spatial acuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommerdahl M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that spatio-tactile acuity is influenced by the clarity of the cortical response in primary somatosensory cortex (SI. Stimulus characteristics such as frequency, amplitude, and location of tactile stimuli presented to the skin have been shown to have a significant effect on the response in SI. The present study observes the effect of changing stimulus parameters of 25 Hz sinusoidal vertical skin displacement stimulation ("flutter" on a human subject's ability to discriminate between two adjacent or near-adjacent skin sites. Based on results obtained from recent neurophysiological studies of the SI response to different conditions of vibrotactile stimulation, we predicted that the addition of 200 Hz vibration to the same site that a two-point flutter stimulus was delivered on the skin would improve a subject's spatio-tactile acuity over that measured with flutter alone. Additionally, similar neurophysiological studies predict that the presence of either a 25 Hz flutter or 200 Hz vibration stimulus on the unattended hand (on the opposite side of the body from the site of two-point limen testing – the condition of bilateral stimulation – which has been shown to evoke less SI cortical activity than the contralateral-only stimulus condition would decrease a subject's ability to discriminate between two points on the skin. Results A Bekesy tracking method was employed to track a subject's ability to discriminate between two-point stimuli delivered to the skin. The distance between the two points of stimulation was varied on a trial-by-trial basis, and several different stimulus conditions were examined: (1 The "control" condition, in which 25 Hz flutter stimuli were delivered simultaneously to the two points on the skin of the attended hand, (2 the "complex" condition, in which a combination of 25 Hz flutter and 200 Hz vibration stimuli were delivered to the two points on the attended hand, and (3 a

  14. Reinforcing and discriminative stimulus properties of music in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Ono, Haruka; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigated whether music has reinforcing and discriminative stimulus properties in goldfish. Experiment 1 examined the discriminative stimulus properties of music. The subjects were successfully trained to discriminate between two pieces of music--Toccata and Fugue in D minor (BWV 565) by J. S. Bach and The Rite of Spring by I. Stravinsky. Experiment 2 examined the reinforcing properties of sounds, including BWV 565 and The Rite of Spring. We developed an apparatus for measuring spontaneous sound preference in goldfish. Music or noise stimuli were presented depending on the subject's position in the aquarium, and the time spent in each area was measured. The results indicated that the goldfish did not show consistent preferences for music, although they showed significant avoidance of noise stimuli. These results suggest that music has discriminative but not reinforcing stimulus properties in goldfish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stimulus driver for epilepsy seizure suppression with adaptive loading impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Ming-Dou; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Wei-Ling

    2011-10-01

    A stimulus driver circuit for a micro-stimulator used in an implantable device is presented in this paper. For epileptic seizure control, the target of the driver was to output 30 µA stimulus currents when the electrode impedance varied between 20 and 200 kΩ. The driver, which consisted of the output stage, control block and adaptor, was integrated in a single chip. The averaged power consumption of the stimulus driver was 0.24-0.56 mW at 800 Hz stimulation rate. Fabricated in a 0.35 µm 3.3 V/24 V CMOS process and applied to a closed-loop epileptic seizure monitoring and controlling system, the proposed design has been successfully verified in the experimental results of Long-Evans rats with epileptic seizures.

  16. Source mechanism of Vulcanian degassing at Popocatépetl Volcano, Mexico, determined from waveform inversions of very long period signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouet, Bernard A.; Dawson, Phillip B.; Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra

    2005-01-01

    The source mechanism of very long period (VLP) signals accompanying volcanic degassing bursts at Popocatépetl is analyzed in the 15–70 s band by minimizing the residual error between data and synthetics calculated for a point source embedded in a homogeneous medium. The waveforms of two eruptions (23 April and 23 May 2000) representative of mild Vulcanian activity are well reproduced by our inversion, which takes into account volcano topography. The source centroid is positioned 1500 m below the western perimeter of the summit crater, and the modeled source is composed of a shallow dipping crack (sill with easterly dip of 10°) intersecting a steeply dipping crack (northeast striking dike dipping 83° northwest), whose surface extension bisects the vent. Both cracks undergo a similar sequence of inflation, deflation, and reinflation, reflecting a cycle of pressurization, depressurization, and repressurization within a time interval of 3–5 min. The largest moment release occurs in the sill, showing a maximum volume change of 500–1000 m3, pressure drop of 3–5 MPa, and amplitude of recovered pressure equal to 1.2 times the amplitude of the pressure drop. In contrast, the maximum volume change in the dike is less (200–300 m3), with a corresponding pressure drop of 1–2 MPa and pressure recovery equal to the pressure drop. Accompanying these volumetric sources are single-force components with magnitudes of 108 N, consistent with melt advection in response to pressure transients. The source time histories of the volumetric components of the source indicate that significant mass movement starts within the sill and triggers a mass movement response in the dike within a few seconds. Such source behavior is consistent with the opening of a pathway for escape of pent-up gases from slow pressurization of the sill driven by magma crystallization. The opening of this pathway and associated rapid evacuation of volcanic gases induces the pressure drop. Pressure

  17. Dentin and pulp sense cold stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Masayuki; Tatsuyama, Shoko; Fujisawa, Mari; Morimoto-Yamashita, Yoko; Kawakami, Yoshiko; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Torii, Mistuso

    2015-05-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is a common symptom, and recent convergent evidences have reported transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in odontoblasts act as mechanical and thermal molecular sensor, which detect stimulation applied on the exposed dentin surface, to drive multiple odontoblastic cellular functions, such as sensory transduction and/or dentin formation. In the present study, we confirmed expression of TRP melastatin subfamily member-8 (TRPM8) channels in primary cultured cells derived from human dental pulp cells (HPCs) and mouse odontoblast-lineage cells (OLCs) as well as in dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) positive acutely isolated rat odontoblasts from dental pulp tissue slice culture by immunohistochemical analyses. In addition, we detected TRPM8 channel expression on HPCs and OLCs by RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. These results indicated that both odontoblasts and dental pulp cells express TRPM8 channels in rat, mouse and human, and therefore we hypothesize they may contribute as cold sensor in tooth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pre-stimulus thalamic theta power predicts human memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Zaehle, Tino; Voges, Jürgen; Schmitt, Friedhelm C; Buentjen, Lars; Kopitzki, Klaus; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Knight, Robert T; Rugg, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    Pre-stimulus theta (4-8Hz) power in the hippocampus and neocortex predicts whether a memory for a subsequent event will be formed. Anatomical studies reveal thalamus-hippocampal connectivity, and lesion, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological studies show that memory processing involves the dorsomedial (DMTN) and anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN). The small size and deep location of these nuclei have limited real-time study of their activity, however, and it is unknown whether pre-stimulus theta power predictive of successful memory formation is also found in these subcortical structures. We recorded human electrophysiological data from the DMTN and ATN of 7 patients receiving deep brain stimulation for refractory epilepsy. We found that greater pre-stimulus theta power in the right DMTN was associated with successful memory encoding, predicting both behavioral outcome and post-stimulus correlates of successful memory formation. In particular, significant correlations were observed between right DMTN theta power and both frontal theta and right ATN gamma (32-50Hz) phase alignment, and frontal-ATN theta-gamma cross-frequency coupling. We draw the following primary conclusions. Our results provide direct electrophysiological evidence in humans of a role for the DMTN as well as the ATN in memory formation. Furthermore, prediction of subsequent memory performance by pre-stimulus thalamic oscillations provides evidence that post-stimulus differences in thalamic activity that index successful and unsuccessful encoding reflect brain processes specifically underpinning memory formation. Finally, the findings broaden the understanding of brain states that facilitate memory encoding to include subcortical as well as cortical structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. StimDuino: an Arduino-based electrophysiological stimulus isolator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinin, Anton; Lavi, Ayal; Michaelevski, Izhak

    2015-03-30

    Electrical stimulus isolator is a widely used device in electrophysiology. The timing of the stimulus application is usually automated and controlled by the external device or acquisition software; however, the intensity of the stimulus is adjusted manually. Inaccuracy, lack of reproducibility and no automation of the experimental protocol are disadvantages of the manual adjustment. To overcome these shortcomings, we developed StimDuino, an inexpensive Arduino-controlled stimulus isolator allowing highly accurate, reproducible automated setting of the stimulation current. The intensity of the stimulation current delivered by StimDuino is controlled by Arduino, an open-source microcontroller development platform. The automatic stimulation patterns are software-controlled and the parameters are set from Matlab-coded simple, intuitive and user-friendly graphical user interface. The software also allows remote control of the device over the network. Electrical current measurements showed that StimDuino produces the requested current output with high accuracy. In both hippocampal slice and in vivo recordings, the fEPSP measurements obtained with StimDuino and the commercial stimulus isolators showed high correlation. Commercial stimulus isolators are manually managed, while StimDuino generates automatic stimulation patterns with increasing current intensity. The pattern is utilized for the input-output relationship analysis, necessary for assessment of excitability. In contrast to StimuDuino, not all commercial devices are capable for remote control of the parameters and stimulation process. StimDuino-generated automation of the input-output relationship assessment eliminates need for the current intensity manually adjusting, improves stimulation reproducibility, accuracy and allows on-site and remote control of the stimulation parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Recent Visual Experience Shapes Visual Processing in Rats through Stimulus-Specific Adaptation and Response Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Kasper; Vogels, Rufin; Op de Beeck, Hans

    2017-03-20

    From an ecological point of view, it is generally suggested that the main goal of vision in rats and mice is navigation and (aerial) predator evasion [1-3]. The latter requires fast and accurate detection of a change in the visual environment. An outstanding question is whether there are mechanisms in the rodent visual system that would support and facilitate visual change detection. An experimental protocol frequently used to investigate change detection in humans is the oddball paradigm, in which a rare, unexpected stimulus is presented in a train of stimulus repetitions [4]. A popular "predictive coding" theory of cortical responses states that neural responses should decrease for expected sensory input and increase for unexpected input [5, 6]. Despite evidence for response suppression and enhancement in noninvasive scalp recordings in humans with this paradigm [7, 8], it has proven challenging to observe both phenomena in invasive action potential recordings in other animals [9-11]. During a visual oddball experiment, we recorded multi-unit spiking activity in rat primary visual cortex (V1) and latero-intermediate area (LI), which is a higher area of the rodent ventral visual stream. In rat V1, there was only evidence for response suppression related to stimulus-specific adaptation, and not for response enhancement. However, higher up in area LI, spiking activity showed clear surprise-based response enhancement in addition to stimulus-specific adaptation. These results show that neural responses along the rat ventral visual stream become increasingly sensitive to changes in the visual environment, suggesting a system specialized in the detection of unexpected events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Multimodal Presentation and Stimulus Familiarity on Auditory and Visual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Christopher W.; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of multimodal presentation and stimulus familiarity on auditory and visual processing. In Experiment 1, 10-month-olds were habituated to either an auditory stimulus, a visual stimulus, or an auditory-visual multimodal stimulus. Processing time was assessed during the habituation phase, and discrimination of…

  2. Problem Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovary syndrome. Read our information on PCOS for teens , and see your doctor if you think you may have PCOS. Major weight loss. Girls who have anorexia will often stop having periods. When to see ...

  3. Aural, visual, and pictorial stimulus formats in false recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Heather M

    2002-12-01

    The present investigation is an initial simultaneous examination of the influence of three stimulus formats on false memories. Several pilot tests were conducted to develop new category associate stimulus lists. 73 women and 26 men (M age=21.1 yr.) were in one of three conditions: they either heard words, were shown words, or were shown pictures highly related to critical nonpresented items. As expected, recall of critical nonpresented stimuli was significantly greater for aural lists than for visually presented words and pictorial images. These findings demonstrate that the accuracy of memory is influenced by the format of the information encoded.

  4. Stimulus Sensitivity of a Spiking Neural Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Julien

    2018-02-01

    Some recent papers relate the criticality of complex systems to their maximal capacity of information processing. In the present paper, we consider high dimensional point processes, known as age-dependent Hawkes processes, which have been used to model spiking neural networks. Using mean-field approximation, the response of the network to a stimulus is computed and we provide a notion of stimulus sensitivity. It appears that the maximal sensitivity is achieved in the sub-critical regime, yet almost critical for a range of biologically relevant parameters.

  5. Simple 3-D stimulus for motion parallax and its simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroshi; Chornenkyy, Yevgen; D'Amour, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Simulation of a given stimulus situation should produce the same perception as the original. Rogers et al (2009 Perception 38 907-911) simulated Wheeler's (1982, PhD thesis, Rutgers University, NJ) motion parallax stimulus and obtained quite different perceptions. Wheeler's observers were unable to reliably report the correct direction of depth, whereas Rogers's were. With three experiments we explored the possible reasons for the discrepancy. Our results suggest that Rogers was able to see depth from the simulation partly due to his experience seeing depth with random dot surfaces.

  6. Reliability and validity of a simple and clinically applicable pain stimulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Søren; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Manniche, Claus

    2014-01-01

    and after conditioned pain modulation by cold-pressor test (CPT). Correlation to pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the infraspinatus muscle and cold-pressor test pain intensity, time to pain onset and time to non-tolerance, was examined. Test/re-test reliability of clamp pain was also assessed...... and the stimulus-response relationship was examined with a set of 6 different clamps.Conclusions: Clamp pain was sensitive to changes in pain sensitivity provoked by conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Test/re-test reliability of the spring-clamp pain was better for healthy volunteers over a period of days, than...

  7. Effects of lesions of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle on conditioned suppression to a CS and to a contextual background stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, E; Schugens, M M; Gray, J A

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine whether the dorsal noradrenergic bundle (DB) plays a role in conditioning to context. Rats received either bilateral lesions of the DB by local injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, vehicle injections only, or sham operations. All animals were then trained to barpress for food on a variable interval (VI) schedule. Two 5-min intrusion periods were superimposed on the VI baseline during each session. An 'envelope' stimulus (flashing light) was on throughout each intrusion period. In addition, embedded in the two intrusion periods of each session, there occurred 8 presentations of a 'punctate' conditioned stimulus (CS) (a 15-s clicker), and 8 presentations of a 0.5-s footshock. Within each surgical condition rats were randomly allocated to one of three conditioning groups, receiving 100%, 50% or 0% temporal association between CS and shock. Conditioning to the punctate CS and to the context provided by the envelope stimulus was assessed by the degree of suppression of the barpress response relative to the VI baseline. Responding was most suppressed in the punctate CS in the 100 and 50% conditions, and most suppressed in the envelope stimulus in the 0% condition. DB lesions released response suppression to the punctate CS, had no effect on suppression to the envelope stimulus, and reduced sensitivity to CS-shock probability as measured by response suppression during the punctate CS. These results confirm previous reports that DB lesions alleviate response suppression to shock-associated cues, identify some of the parameters that affect this phenomenon, but fail to support a role for the DB in contextual conditioning.

  8. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, W

    1979-01-01

    When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How­ ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri­ ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element­ ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...

  9. Performance effects of nicotine during selective attention, divided attention, and simple stimulus detection: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Britta; Ross, Thomas J; Wolkenberg, Frank A; Shakleya, Diaa M; Huestis, Marilyn A; Stein, Elliot A

    2009-09-01

    Attention-enhancing effects of nicotine appear to depend on the nature of the attentional function. Underlying neuroanatomical mechanisms, too, may vary depending on the function modulated. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study recorded blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity in minimally deprived smokers during tasks of simple stimulus detection, selective attention, or divided attention after single-blind application of a transdermal nicotine (21 mg) or placebo patch. Smokers' performance in the placebo condition was unimpaired as compared with matched nonsmokers. Nicotine reduced reaction time (RT) in the stimulus detection and selective attention but not divided attention condition. Across all task conditions, nicotine reduced activation in frontal, temporal, thalamic, and visual regions and enhanced deactivation in so-called "default" regions. Thalamic effects correlated with RT reduction selectively during stimulus detection. An interaction with task condition was observed in middle and superior frontal gyri, where nicotine reduced activation only during stimulus detection. A visuomotor control experiment provided evidence against nonspecific effects of nicotine. In conclusion, although prefrontal activity partly displayed differential modulation by nicotine, most BOLD effects were identical across tasks, despite differential performance effects, suggesting that common neuronal mechanisms can selectively benefit different attentional functions. Overall, the effects of nicotine may be explained by increased functional efficiency and downregulated task-independent "default" functions.

  10. Spatiotemporal dynamics of cortical representations during and after stimulus presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijzen, M.E. van de; Borne, E.W.P. van den; Jensen, O.; Gerven, M.A.J. van

    2016-01-01

    Visual perception is a spatiotemporally complex process. In this study, we investigated cortical dynamics during and after stimulus presentation. We observed that visual category information related to the difference between faces and objects became apparent in the occipital lobe after 63 ms. Within

  11. Promoting Response Variability and Stimulus Generalization in Martial Arts Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jay W.; Wacker, David P.; Berg, Wendy K.; Rick, Gary; Lee, John F.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of reinforcement and extinction on response variability and stimulus generalization in the punching and kicking techniques of 2 martial arts students were evaluated across drill and sparring conditions. During both conditions, the students were asked to demonstrate different techniques in response to an instructor's punching attack.…

  12. Stimulus-dependent maximum entropy models of neural population codes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Granot-Atedgi

    Full Text Available Neural populations encode information about their stimulus in a collective fashion, by joint activity patterns of spiking and silence. A full account of this mapping from stimulus to neural activity is given by the conditional probability distribution over neural codewords given the sensory input. For large populations, direct sampling of these distributions is impossible, and so we must rely on constructing appropriate models. We show here that in a population of 100 retinal ganglion cells in the salamander retina responding to temporal white-noise stimuli, dependencies between cells play an important encoding role. We introduce the stimulus-dependent maximum entropy (SDME model-a minimal extension of the canonical linear-nonlinear model of a single neuron, to a pairwise-coupled neural population. We find that the SDME model gives a more accurate account of single cell responses and in particular significantly outperforms uncoupled models in reproducing the distributions of population codewords emitted in response to a stimulus. We show how the SDME model, in conjunction with static maximum entropy models of population vocabulary, can be used to estimate information-theoretic quantities like average surprise and information transmission in a neural population.

  13. Effects of stimulus duration on gustatory evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotvel, Camilla Arndal; Møller, Stine; Kivisaar, Kätlin

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of tastant stimulus duration on the brain response. The brain response was measured by electroencephalography (EEG) which measures neural processes with high temporal resolution and may therefore complement sensory panel assessments...

  14. Psilocybin-induced stimulus control in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J C; Rice, K C; Amorosi, D J; Rabin, R A

    2007-10-01

    Although psilocybin has been trained in the rat as a discriminative stimulus, little is known of the pharmacological receptors essential for stimulus control. In the present investigation rats were trained with psilocybin and tests were then conducted employing a series of other hallucinogens and presumed antagonists. An intermediate degree of antagonism of psilocybin was observed following treatment with the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist, M100907. In contrast, no significant antagonism was observed following treatment with the 5-HT(1A/7) receptor antagonist, WAY-100635, or the DA D(2) antagonist, remoxipride. Psilocybin generalized fully to DOM, LSD, psilocin, and, in the presence of WAY-100635, DMT while partial generalization was seen to 2C-T-7 and mescaline. LSD and MDMA partially generalized to psilocybin and these effects were completely blocked by M-100907; no generalization of PCP to psilocybin was seen. The present data suggest that psilocybin induces a compound stimulus in which activity at the 5-HT(2A) receptor plays a prominent but incomplete role. In addition, psilocybin differs from closely related hallucinogens such as 5-MeO-DMT in that agonism at 5-HT(1A) receptors appears to play no role in psilocybin-induced stimulus control.

  15. Anticipating Stimulus Money for Campus Projects, Colleges Get "Shovel Ready"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Help for colleges may be on the way in the $825-billion stimulus package being pressed by Congressional leaders. The bill that House Democrats introduced this month includes $7-billion for higher-education modernization, renovation, and repair that could kick-start projects like upgrading heating and cooling systems, fixing roofs, and doing…

  16. Teaching Brain-Behavior Relations Economically with Stimulus Equivalence Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienup, Daniel M.; Covey, Daniel P.; Critchfield, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional interventions based on stimulus equivalence provide learners with the opportunity to acquire skills that are not directly taught, thereby improving the efficiency of instructional efforts. The present report describes a study in which equivalence-based instruction was used to teach college students facts regarding brain anatomy and…

  17. BAHAN AJAR MENULIS CERITA FABEL DENGAN STIMULUS FILM FINDING NEMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Noviana Qostantia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research objectives were (1 describing instructional material of writing fable story using stimulus of finding nemo movie and (2 describing instructional material feasibility of writing fable story using stimulus of Finding Nemo movie that obtained from expert test and practitioner (teacher and student test. The developed instructional material was complementary book of writing fable story for students with material, language, and book display that adjusted with student’s needs. Those objectives could be made as guidance in developing the instructional material which including material content feasibility, language, and complementary book display aspect. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (1 mengembangkan bahan ajar menulis cerita fabel dengan stimulus film finding nemo, (2 mendeskripsikan kelayakan bahan ajar menulis cerita fabel dengan stimulus film Finding Nemo yang diperoleh dari uji ahli, uji praktisi guru, dan siswa. Bahan ajar yang dikembangkan berupa buku pelengkap menulis cerita fabel untuk siswa dengan materi, bahasa, dan penyajian buku yang disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan siswa. Tujuan tersebut dapat dijadikan panduan dalam mengembangkan bahan ajar yang mencakup aspek kelayakan isi materi, bahasa, dan penyajian buku pelengkap.

  18. Compound Stimulus Extinction Reduces Spontaneous Recovery in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Cesar A. O.; Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Fear-related behaviors are prone to relapse following extinction. We tested in humans a compound extinction design ("deepened extinction") shown in animal studies to reduce post-extinction fear recovery. Adult subjects underwent fear conditioning to a visual and an auditory conditioned stimulus (CSA and CSB, respectively) separately…

  19. Continuous Flash Suppression: Stimulus Fractionation rather than Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Pieter; Hesselmann, Guido; Wagemans, Johan; van Ee, Raymond

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies using continuous flash suppression suggest that invisible stimuli are processed as integrated, semantic entities. We challenge the viability of this account, given recent findings on the neural basis of interocular suppression and replication failures of high-profile CFS studies. We conclude that CFS reveals stimulus fractionation in visual cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stimulus Characteristics Affect Humor Processing in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hegenloh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The present paper aims to investigate whether individuals with Asperger syndrome (AS) show global humor processing deficits or whether humor comprehension and appreciation depends on stimulus characteristics. Non-verbal visual puns, semantic and Theory of Mind cartoons were rated on comprehension, funniness and the punchlines were explained. AS…

  1. Characterization of the discriminative stimulus produced by the dopamine antagonist tiapride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, C; Sanger, D J; Perrault, G

    1997-11-01

    The ability of tiapride, a selective D2/D3 dopamine receptor antagonist, to exert discriminative stimulus control of responding was investigated by training rats to discriminate this drug (30 mg/kg) from saline in a two-lever, food-reinforcement procedure. Acquisition of tiapride discrimination required a relatively lengthy training period (mean of 76 sessions) but stable performance was maintained throughout the 18- month study. The dose of tiapride eliciting 50% tiapride-lever choice (ED50) was 2.2 mg/kg. After determination of the dose-effect curve with tiapride, substitution tests with several dopamine antagonists and other reference compounds were performed. All dopamine antagonists, including amisulpride (ED50 4 mg/kg), sulpiride (18 mg/kg), sultopride (1.5 mg/kg), clebopride (0.13 mg/kg), raclopride (0.16 mg/kg), metoclopramide (1.4 mg/kg), remoxipride (4.8 mg/kg), pimozide (2.7 mg/kg), thioridazine (3.4 mg/kg), olanzapine (0.97 mg/kg), chlorpromazine (1.9 mg/kg), risperidone (0.22 mg/kg) and haloperidol (0.14 mg/kg), except clozapine (>10 mg/kg), produced dose-dependent substitution for tiapride. Tiapride-like stimulus effects were observed at doses that decreased response rates. However, ED50 values for substitution by tiapride, amisulpride, sulpiride, sultopride, pimozide, clebopride and thioridazine were lower than ED50 values for decreasing responding. Additional studies were conducted to evaluate the ability of direct and indirect dopamine agonists to attenuate the tiapride discriminative stimulus. Pretreatment with d-amphetamine and nomifensine antagonized the discriminative stimulus effects of tiapride. Quinpirole, 7-OH-DPAT, bromocriptine and apomorphine partially blocked the stimulus effects of tiapride whereas SKF 38393 did not affect the discrimination. These results from substitution and antagonism tests indicated that the discriminative effects of tiapride are mediated by activity at D2/D3 dopamine receptors.

  2. Mechanisms of Plastic and Fracture Instabilities for Alloy Development of Fusion Materials. Final Project Report for period July 15, 1998 - July 14, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoniem, N. M.

    2003-07-14

    The main objective of this research was to develop new computational tools for the simulation and analysis of plasticity and fracture mechanisms of fusion materials, and to assist in planning and assessment of corresponding radiation experiments.

  3. Mechanisms of Plastic and Fracture Instabilities for Alloy Development of Fusion Materials. Final Project Report for period July 15, 1998 - July 14, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoniem, N.M.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to develop new computational tools for the simulation and analysis of plasticity and fracture mechanisms of fusion materials, and to assist in planning and assessment of corresponding radiation experiments

  4. Sex and the stimulus-movement effect: Differences in acquisition of autoshaped responding in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nathaniel C; Makar, Jennifer R; Myers, Todd M

    2017-03-15

    The stimulus-movement effect refers to the phenomenon in which stimulus discrimination or acquisition of a response is facilitated by moving stimuli as opposed to stationary stimuli. The effect has been found in monkeys, rats, and humans, but the experiments conducted did not provide adequate female representation to investigate potential sex differences. The current experiment analyzed acquisition of stimulus touching in a progressive series of classical conditioning procedures in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) as a function of sex and stimulus movement. Classical conditioning tasks arrange two or more stimuli in relation to each other with different temporal and predictive relations. Autoshaping procedures overlay operant contingencies onto a classical-conditioning stimulus arrangement. In the present case, a neutral stimulus (a small gray square displayed on a touchscreen) functioned as the conditional stimulus and a food pellet functioned as the unconditional stimulus. Although touching is not required to produce food, with repeated stimulus pairings subjects eventually touch the stimulus. Across conditions of increasing stimulus correlation and temporal contiguity, male monkeys acquired the response faster with a moving stimulus. In contrast, females acquired the response faster with a stationary stimulus. These results demonstrate that the stimulus-movement effect may be differentially affected by sex and indicate that additional experiments with females are needed to determine how sex interacts with behavioral phenomena discovered and elaborated almost exclusively using males. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Mass Media as a Remedy for Poverty of the Stimulus in the Foreign Language Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Tarighat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study is intended to determine how extensive exposure to target language mass media can affect foreign language learning and the poverty of the stimulus problem in the foreign language context. For this purpose, an EFL learner was studied for the period of one month and was asked to have extensive exposure to English language mass media only. The case was also asked to record her experience in a journal on a daily basis. The results indicated tangible improvement in her English speaking, listening, pronunciation and vocabulary but hardly any improvement on her English writing. A more profound impact was reported on the subject’s four-year-old son who was not initially the focus of this study. The results suggest that considering the authentic, lengthy language input it provides, foreign language mass media can compensate for the problem of poverty of the stimulus in foreign language learning. It is concluded that formal language instruction and exposure to foreign language mass media outside the class can complement one another and promote foreign language learning on the whole. It is also evident that the impact of extensive language input varies with the age of the language learner, with young learners bearing more influence than adult learners as the effects of the critical period hypothesis.

  6. Stress Induces a Shift Towards Striatum-Dependent Stimulus-Response Learning via the Mineralocorticoid Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susanne; Klumpers, Floris; Schröder, Tobias Navarro; Oplaat, Krista T; Krugers, Harm J; Oitzl, Melly S; Joëls, Marian; Doeller, Christian F; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-05-01

    Stress is assumed to cause a shift from flexible 'cognitive' memory to more rigid 'habit' memory. In the spatial memory domain, stress impairs place learning depending on the hippocampus whereas stimulus-response learning based on the striatum appears to be improved. While the neural basis of this shift is still unclear, previous evidence in rodents points towards cortisol interacting with the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to affect amygdala functioning. The amygdala is in turn assumed to orchestrate the stress-induced shift in memory processing. However, an integrative study testing these mechanisms in humans is lacking. Therefore, we combined functional neuroimaging of a spatial memory task, stress-induction, and administration of an MR-antagonist in a full-factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled between-subjects design in 101 healthy males. We demonstrate that stress-induced increases in cortisol lead to enhanced stimulus-response learning, accompanied by increased amygdala activity and connectivity to the striatum. Importantly, this shift was prevented by an acute administration of the MR-antagonist spironolactone. Our findings support a model in which the MR and the amygdala play an important role in the stress-induced shift towards habit memory systems, revealing a fundamental mechanism of adaptively allocating neural resources that may have implications for stress-related mental disorders.

  7. Modeling for analysis of the effect of Young's modulus on soft active hydrogels subject to pH stimulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hua; Ng, Teng Yong; Yew, Yong Kin

    2009-01-01

    Modeling is conducted in this paper for analysis of the influence of Young's modulus on the response of soft active hydrogels to environmental solution pH changes. A chemo–electro–mechanical formulation termed the multi-effect-coupling pH-stimulus (MECpH) model, which was developed previously according to linear elastic theory for small deformation description, is improved in this paper through incorporation of the finite deformation formulation into the mechanical equilibrium equation. The model is expressed by coupled nonlinear partial differential equations and solved via the meshless Hermite-cloud method with the modified Newton iteration technique. The improved MECpH model is examined by comparison between the computational and published experimental results. Numerical studies are then done on the influence of Young's modulus on the distributive variations of the diffusive ion concentrations and electric potential, and on the deformation variations of the pH-stimulus-responsive hydrogels within different buffered solutions

  8. Resting state glutamate predicts elevated pre-stimulus alpha during self-relatedness: A combined EEG-MRS study on "rest-self overlap".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Nakao, Takashi; Xu, Jiameng; Qin, Pengmin; Chaves, Pedro; Heinzel, Alexander; Duncan, Niall; Lane, Timothy; Yen, Nai-Shing; Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated neural overlap between resting state activity and self-referential processing. This "rest-self" overlap occurs especially in anterior cortical midline structures like the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (PACC). However, the exact neurotemporal and biochemical mechanisms remain to be identified. Therefore, we conducted a combined electroencephalography (EEG)-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study. EEG focused on pre-stimulus (e.g., prior to stimulus presentation or perception) power changes to assess the degree to which those changes can predict subjects' perception (and judgment) of subsequent stimuli as high or low self-related. MRS measured resting state concentration of glutamate, focusing on PACC. High pre-stimulus (e.g., prior to stimulus presentation or perception) alpha power significantly correlated with both perception of stimuli judged to be highly self-related and with resting state glutamate concentrations in the PACC. In sum, our results show (i) pre-stimulus (e.g., prior to stimulus presentation or perception) alpha power and resting state glutamate concentration to mediate rest-self overlap that (ii) dispose or incline subjects to assign high degrees of self-relatedness to perceptual stimuli.

  9. Does supernormal stimulus influence parental behaviour of the cuckoo's host?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grim, T.; Honza, Marcel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2001), s. 322-329 ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6087801; GA AV ČR KSK2005601; GA MŠk VS96019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : brood parasitism * supernormal stimulus * parental care Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2001

  10. Discriminative stimulus effects of alpidem, a new imidazopyridine anxiolytic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, D J; Zivkovic, B

    1994-01-01

    Alpidem in an imidazopyridine derivative which binds selectively to the omega 1 (BZ1) receptor subtype. It is active in some, but not all, behavioural tests sensitive to benzodiazepine anxiolytics and has clinical anti-anxiety effects. However, in a previous study, it was shown that alpidem did not substitute for chlordiazepoxide in rats trained to discriminate this benzodiazepine. The present experiments were carried out to investigate the discriminative stimulus properties of alpidem in greater detail. In the first experiment rats learned to discriminate a dose of 10 mg/kg alpidem from saline. Acquisition of the discrimination was long and performance unstable. Chlordiazepoxide, clorazepate and zolpidem substituted only partially for alpidem but the effects of the training dose of alpidem were blocked by 10 mg/kg flumazenil. The second experiment established stimulus control more rapidly to a dose of 30 mg/kg alpidem. Alpidem induced dose-related stimulus control, and dose-related and complete substitution for alpidem was produced by zolpidem, abecarnil, CL 218,872, triazolam and suriclone. Partial substitution occurred with chlordiazepoxide, clorazepate and pentobarbital. In most cases, high levels of substitution were produced only by doses which greatly reduced response rates even though the training dose of alpidem produced only modest decreases in rates. Ethanol, buspirone and bretazenil produced very little substitution for alpidem and both flumazenil and bretazenil antagonised the effects of alpidem. In two further experiments alpidem was found to substitute for the stimulus produced by zolpidem (2 mg/kg) but not for that produced by ethanol (1.5 g/kg).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Compound stimulus extinction reduces spontaneous recovery in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Cesar A.O.; Dunsmoor, Joseph E.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Fear-related behaviors are prone to relapse following extinction. We tested in humans a compound extinction design (“deepened extinction”) shown in animal studies to reduce post-extinction fear recovery. Adult subjects underwent fear conditioning to a visual and an auditory conditioned stimulus (CSA and CSB, respectively) separately paired with an electric shock. The target CS (CSA) was extinguished alone followed by compound presentations of the extinguished CSA and nonextinguished CSB. Reco...

  12. Temporal and identity prediction in visual-auditory events: Electrophysiological evidence from stimulus omissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laarhoven, Thijs; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J; Vroomen, Jean

    2017-04-15

    A rare omission of a sound that is predictable by anticipatory visual information induces an early negative omission response (oN1) in the EEG during the period of silence where the sound was expected. It was previously suggested that the oN1 was primarily driven by the identity of the anticipated sound. Here, we examined the role of temporal prediction in conjunction with identity prediction of the anticipated sound in the evocation of the auditory oN1. With incongruent audiovisual stimuli (a video of a handclap that is consistently combined with the sound of a car horn) we demonstrate in Experiment 1 that a natural match in identity between the visual and auditory stimulus is not required for inducing the oN1, and that the perceptual system can adapt predictions to unnatural stimulus events. In Experiment 2 we varied either the auditory onset (relative to the visual onset) or the identity of the sound across trials in order to hamper temporal and identity predictions. Relative to the natural stimulus with correct auditory timing and matching audiovisual identity, the oN1 was abolished when either the timing or the identity of the sound could not be predicted reliably from the video. Our study demonstrates the flexibility of the perceptual system in predictive processing (Experiment 1) and also shows that precise predictions of timing and content are both essential elements for inducing an oN1 (Experiment 2). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Temporal characteristics of gustatory responses in rat parabrachial neurons vary by stimulus and chemosensitive neuron type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geran, Laura; Travers, Susan

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that temporal features of spike trains can increase the amount of information available for gustatory processing. However, the nature of these temporal characteristics and their relationship to different taste qualities and neuron types are not well-defined. The present study analyzed the time course of taste responses from parabrachial (PBN) neurons elicited by multiple applications of "sweet" (sucrose), "salty" (NaCl), "sour" (citric acid), and "bitter" (quinine and cycloheximide) stimuli in an acute preparation. Time course varied significantly by taste stimulus and best-stimulus classification. Across neurons, the ensemble code for the three electrolytes was similar initially but quinine diverged from NaCl and acid during the second 500 ms of stimulation and all four qualities became distinct just after 1s. This temporal evolution was reflected in significantly broader tuning during the initial response. Metric space analyses of quality discrimination by individual neurons showed that increases in information (H) afforded by temporal factors was usually explained by differences in rate envelope, which had a greater impact during the initial 2s (22.5% increase in H) compared to the later response (9.5%). Moreover, timing had a differential impact according to cell type, with between-quality discrimination in neurons activated maximally by NaCl or citric acid most affected. Timing was also found to dramatically improve within-quality discrimination (80% increase in H) in neurons that responded optimally to bitter stimuli (B-best). Spikes from B-best neurons were also more likely to occur in bursts. These findings suggest that among PBN taste neurons, time-dependent increases in mutual information can arise from stimulus- and neuron-specific differences in response envelope during the initial dynamic period. A stable rate code predominates in later epochs.

  14. The effects of compound stimulus extinction and inhibition of noradrenaline reuptake on the renewal of alcohol seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, T M; Pan, M J; Corbit, L H

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related stimuli can trigger relapse of alcohol-seeking behaviors even after extended periods of abstinence. Extinction of such stimuli can reduce their impact on relapse; however, the expression of extinction can be disrupted when testing occurs outside the context where extinction learning took place, an effect termed renewal. Behavioral and pharmacological methods have recently been shown to augment extinction learning; yet, it is not known whether the improved expression of extinction following these treatments remains context-dependent. Here we examined whether two methods, compound–stimulus extinction and treatment with the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine, would reduce the vulnerability of extinction to a change in context. Following alcohol self-administration, responding was extinguished in a distinct context. After initial extinction, further extinction was given to a target stimulus presented in compound with another alcohol-predictive stimulus intended to augment prediction error (Experiment 1) or after a systemic injection of atomoxetine (1.0 mg kg−1; Experiment 2). A stimulus extinguished as part of a compound elicited less responding than a stimulus receiving equal extinction alone regardless of whether animals were tested in the training or extinction context; however, reliable renewal was not observed in this paradigm. Importantly, atomoxetine enhanced extinction relative to controls even in the presence of a reliable renewal effect. Thus, extinction of alcohol-seeking behavior can be improved by extinguishing multiple alcohol-predictive stimuli or enhancing noradrenaline neurotransmission during extinction training. Importantly, both methods improve extinction even when the context is changed between extinction training and test, and thus could be utilized to enhance the outcome of extinction-based treatments for alcohol-use disorders. PMID:26327688

  15. Complex discriminative stimulus properties of (+)lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in C57Bl/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benneyworth, Michael A; Smith, Randy L; Barrett, Robert J; Sanders-Bush, Elaine

    2005-06-01

    The drug discrimination procedure is the most frequently used in vivo model of hallucinogen activity. Historically, most drug discrimination studies have been conducted in the rat. With the development of genetically modified mice, a powerful new tool has become available for investigating the mechanisms of drug-induced behavior. The current paper is part of an ongoing effort to determine the utility of the drug discrimination technique for evaluating hallucinogenic drugs in mice. To establish the training procedures and characterize the stimulus properties of (+)lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in mice. Using a two-lever drug discrimination procedure, C57Bl/6J mice were trained to discriminate 0.45 mg/kg LSD vs saline on a VI30 sec schedule of reinforcement, with vanilla-flavored Ensure serving as the reinforcer. As in rats, acquisition was orderly, but the training dose was nearly five-fold higher for mice than rats. LSD lever selection was dose-dependent. Time-course studies revealed a rapid loss of the LSD stimulus effects. The 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor agonist, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine [(-)DOB] (1.0 mg/kg), substituted fully for LSD and the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin (8-OH-DPAT) (1.6 mg/kg), substituted partially for LSD. Pretreatment with the 5-HT(2A) receptor-selective antagonist, MDL 100907, or the 5-HT(1A)-selective antagonist WAY 100635, showed that each antagonist only partially blocked LSD discrimination. Substitution of 1.0 mg/kg (-)DOB for LSD was fully blocked by pretreatment with MDL 100907 but unaltered by WAY 100635 pretreatment. These data suggest that in mice the stimulus effects of LSD have both a 5-HT(2A) receptor and a 5-HT(1A) receptor component.

  16. Auditory-visual stimulus pairing enhances perceptual learning in a songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch; Schleuss; Todt

    1999-07-01

    In many oscine birds, song learning is affected by social variables, for example the behaviour of a tutor. This implies that both auditory and visual perceptual systems should be involved in the acquisition process. To examine whether and how particular visual stimuli can affect song acquisition, we tested the impact of a tutoring design in which the presentation of auditory stimuli (i.e. species-specific master songs) was paired with a well-defined nonauditory stimulus (i.e. stroboscope light flashes: Strobe regime). The subjects were male hand-reared nightingales, Luscinia megarhynchos. For controls, males were exposed to tutoring without a light stimulus (Control regime). The males' singing recorded 9 months later showed that the Strobe regime had enhanced the acquisition of song patterns. During this treatment birds had acquired more songs than during the Control regime; the observed increase in repertoire size was from 20 to 30% in most cases. Furthermore, the copy quality of imitations acquired during the Strobe regime was better than that of imitations developed from the Control regime, and this was due to a significant increase in the number of 'perfect' song copies. We conclude that these effects were mediated by an intrinsic component (e.g. attention or arousal) which specifically responded to the Strobe regime. Our findings also show that mechanisms of song learning are well prepared to process information from cross-modal perception. Thus, more detailed enquiries into stimulus complexes that are usually referred to as social variables are promising. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  17. Chemical mechanisms of /sup 60/Co transport in ground water from intermediate-level liquid waste trench 7: progress report for period ending June 30, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Means, J.L.; Crerar, D.A.; Duguid, J.O.

    1976-11-01

    A seep approximately 50 meters east of trench 7 within the ORNL restricted area contains /sup 60/Co in concentrations of 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 6/ dpm/g in the soil and 10/sup 3/ dpm/ml in the water. Traces of /sup 125/Sb and various transuranics have also been detected in the soil. However, because the volume of water discharge from the seep is small, the total radionuclide contribution from the trench 7 area to White Oak Creek and the Clinch River is insignificant. The /sup 60/Co is transported in the ground-water from the trench to the seep as organic complexes and is absorbed by manganese oxides and to a lesser extent by iron sesquioxides in the shale and soil. In the absence of these organic complexing agents, /sup 60/Co mobilization would be negligible because the sediment absorption capacity for inorganic forms of /sup 60/Co is extremely high. The primary objective of this study has been to investigate /sup 60/Co transport and absorption mechanisms as observed in the study area. Because the organic complexing characteristics of transition metals and transuranics are similar, the mechanisms of /sup 60/Co transport determined in this study may also apply to plutonium and other alpha-emitters. Also the experimental and analytical methods employed in this study apply to the identification of other migrating radionuclide complexes from other disposal trenches and pits at ORNL. The increased knowledge of transport and adsorption mechanisms will provide insight into methods of controlling the movement of radionuclides from these and future disposal areas.

  18. Chemical mechanisms of 60Co transport in ground water from intermediate-level liquid waste trench 7: progress report for period ending June 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Means, J.L.; Crerar, D.A.; Duguid, J.O.

    1976-11-01

    A seep approximately 50 meters east of trench 7 within the ORNL restricted area contains 60 Co in concentrations of 10 4 to 10 6 dpm/g in the soil and 10 3 dpm/ml in the water. Traces of 125 Sb and various transuranics have also been detected in the soil. However, because the volume of water discharge from the seep is small, the total radionuclide contribution from the trench 7 area to White Oak Creek and the Clinch River is insignificant. The 60 Co is transported in the ground-water from the trench to the seep as organic complexes and is absorbed by manganese oxides and to a lesser extent by iron sesquioxides in the shale and soil. In the absence of these organic complexing agents, 60 Co mobilization would be negligible because the sediment absorption capacity for inorganic forms of 60 Co is extremely high. The primary objective of this study has been to investigate 60 Co transport and absorption mechanisms as observed in the study area. Because the organic complexing characteristics of transition metals and transuranics are similar, the mechanisms of 60 Co transport determined in this study may also apply to plutonium and other alpha-emitters. Also the experimental and analytical methods employed in this study apply to the identification of other migrating radionuclide complexes from other disposal trenches and pits at ORNL. The increased knowledge of transport and adsorption mechanisms will provide insight into methods of controlling the movement of radionuclides from these and future disposal areas

  19. The mechanism and theoretical basis of the management of intensity of the heat transfer control through periodic influences on the turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalnogov, Vladislav N.; Fedorov, Ruslan V.; Khakhaleva, Larisa V.; Chukalin, Andrey V.; Bondarenko, Aleksandr A.; Kovrizhnykh, Evgeny N.

    2017-07-01

    Generalization of classical model of a displacement way on the transfer of heat exchange and mass exchange of a stream in the boundary layer, confirmed by the control action of the different nature, is undertaken. Here are given the results of numerical research which have allowed explaining the mechanism, to reveal efficiency and limits of various ways of management of intensity in exchange processes. The possibility of management of intensity in processes of a thermolysis and friction by use of the perforated surface with the damping cavities is analyzed.

  20. The Influence of Good Corporate Governance Mechanism on Earnings Management: Empirical Study in Indonesian Stock Exchange Listed Company for Periods of 2006-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermiyetti Hermiyetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of good corporate governance mechanism about earnings management in companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2006 to 2010. The independent variables include the size of commissioner board, independent commissioner board percentage, size of audit committee, and commissioner meeting frequency. The dependent variable is earnings management which is measured by discretionary revenue model (Stubben, 2010. Size of company is used as the control variable in this research. The population of this research is 465 samples from companies listed at Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2006 to 2010. The sampling method used in this research is purposive sampling method. In addition, the data analysis method used is regression analysis and descriptive statistics. The result of this research indicates that the mechanism of good corporate governance which is represented by the size of commissioner board, independent commissioner board percentage, size of audit committee, and commissioner meeting frequency do not have any significant impact on earnings management. However, the result shows that company size gave positive influence toward earning management. Keywords: Good corporate governance, size of commissioner board, independent commissioner board percentage, size of audit committee, commissioner meeting frequency, earnings management

  1. Contingent capture of visual-spatial attention depends on capacity-limited central mechanisms: evidence from human electrophysiology and the psychological refractory period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Benoit; Leblanc, Emilie; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2009-02-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that a lateralized distractor that matches the individual's top-down control settings elicits an N2pc wave, an electrophysiological index of the focus of visual-spatial attention, indicating that contingent capture has a visual-spatial locus. Here, we investigated whether contingent capture required capacity-limited central resources by incorporating a contingent capture task as the second task of a psychological refractory period (PRP) dual-task paradigm. The N2pc was used to monitor where observers were attending while they performed concurrent central processing known to cause the PRP effect. The N2pc elicited by the lateralized distractor that matched the top-down control settings was attenuated in high concurrent central load conditions, indicating that although involuntary, the deployment of visual-spatial attention occurring during contingent capture depends on capacity-limited central resources.

  2. Amygdala Contributions to Stimulus-Reward Encoding in the Macaque Medial and Orbital Frontal Cortex during Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudebeck, Peter H; Ripple, Joshua A; Mitz, Andrew R; Averbeck, Bruno B; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2017-02-22

    Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), medial frontal cortex (MFC), and amygdala mediate stimulus-reward learning, but the mechanisms through which they interact are unclear. Here, we investigated how neurons in macaque OFC and MFC signaled rewards and the stimuli that predicted them during learning with and without amygdala input. Macaques performed a task that required them to evaluate two stimuli and then choose one to receive the reward associated with that option. Four main findings emerged. First, amygdala lesions slowed the acquisition and use of stimulus-reward associations. Further analyses indicated that this impairment was due, at least in part, to ineffective use of negative feedback to guide subsequent decisions. Second, the activity of neurons in OFC and MFC rapidly evolved to encode the amount of reward associated with each stimulus. Third, amygdalectomy reduced encoding of stimulus-reward associations during the evaluation of different stimuli. Reward encoding of anticipated and received reward after choices were made was not altered. Fourth, amygdala lesions led to an increase in the proportion of neurons in MFC, but not OFC, that encoded the instrumental response that monkeys made on each trial. These correlated changes in behavior and neural activity after amygdala lesions strongly suggest that the amygdala contributes to the ability to learn stimulus-reward associations rapidly by shaping encoding within OFC and MFC. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Altered functional interactions among orbital frontal cortex (OFC), medial frontal cortex (MFC), and amygdala are thought to underlie several psychiatric conditions, many related to reward learning. Here, we investigated the causal contribution of the amygdala to the development of neuronal activity in macaque OFC and MFC related to rewards and the stimuli that predict them during learning. Without amygdala inputs, neurons in both OFC and MFC showed decreased encoding of stimulus-reward associations. MFC also showed

  3. Contributions from eye movement potentials to stimulus preceding negativity during anticipation of auditory stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engdahl, Lis; Bjerre, Vicky K; Christoffersen, Gert R J

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive anticipation of a stimulus has been associated with an ERP called "stimulus preceding negativity" (SPN). A new auditory delay task without stimulus-related motor activity demonstrated a prefrontal SPN, present during attentive anticipation of sounds with closed eyes, but absent during d...

  4. Evaluation of a Multiple-Stimulus Presentation Format for Assessing Reinforcer Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Iwata, Brian A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of seven adults with profound developmental disabilities compared methods for presenting stimuli during reinforcer-preference assessments. It found that a multiple-stimulus format in which selections were made without replacement may share the advantages of a paired-stimulus format and a multiple-stimulus format with replacement, while…

  5. The investigation of molecular mechanisms in photodynamic action and radiobiology with nanosecond flash photolysis and pulse radiolysis: Final report for period April 1, 1972-June 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossweiner, L.I.

    1987-07-01

    Laser flash was employed to investigate initial photolysis mechanisms in enzymes and constituent aromatic amino acids. The key role of photoionization and solvated electron generation was demonstrated. The photochemistry of furocoumarins employed for phototherapy of skin diseases was investigated, emphasizing the production and subsequent reactions of singlet molecular oxygen. The photochemistry of porphyrins employed for photodynamic therapy of malignant tumors was studied, emphasizing photosensitization of model membranes, liposomes and resealed red blood cell membranes. Photosensitization in light-scattering media was investigated in a tissue model, consisting of polystyrene microspheres in an aqueous dye solution and analyzed with the diffusion approximation to radiative transfer. The diffusion approximation was employed to develop a dosimetry model for photodynamic therapy

  6. Computational and experimental fluid mechanics. Draft version of annex to final report for period January 1st 1993 to December 31st 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The general purpose of the program has been the development of efficient algorithms, their implementation in codes of Computational Fluid Mechanics (CFD), and the experimental verification of these codes. Flows of both fundamental and applied nature has been investigated, including flows in industrial process equipment, about aerodynamics structures and ships, and flows over bed forms of importance for sediment transport. The experimental work has included the development of improved techniques, emphasizing optical methods. The objectives were realized through a coordinated experimental and theoretical/computation research program, organized in 6 specific projects: 1. CFD-methods and algorithms. 2. Special element simulation of ultrafiltration. 3. Turbulent swirling flows; 4. Near-wall models of turbulence and development of experimental techniques. 5. Flow over bed forms. 6. Flow past ship hull. (au)

  7. [Difference of anti-fracture mechanical characteristics between lateral-root branches and adjacent upper straight roots of four plant species in vigorous growth period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng-fei; Liu, Jing; Zhu, Hong-hui; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Ge; Li, You-fang; Su, Yu; Wang, Chen-jia

    2016-01-01

    Taking four plant species, Caragana korshinskii, Salix psammophila, Hippophae rhamnides and Artemisia sphaerocephala, which were 3-4 years old and in vigorous growth period, as test materials, the anti-fracture forces of lateral-root branches and adjacent upper straight roots were measured with the self-made fixture and the instrument of TY 8000. The lateral-root branches were vital and the diameters were 1-4 mm. The results showed that the anti-fracture force and anti-fracture strength of lateral-root branches were lesser than those of the adjacent upper straight roots even though the average diameter of lateral-root branches was greater. The ratios of anti-fracture strength of lateral-root branches to the adjacent upper straight roots were 71.5% for C. korshinskii, 62.9% for S. psammophila, 45.4% for H. rhamnides and 35.4% for A. sphaerocephala. For the four plants, the anti-fracture force positively correlated with the diameter in a power function, while the anti-fracture strength negatively correlated with diameter in a power function. The anti-fracture strengths of lateral-root branches and adjacent upper straight roots for the four species followed the sequence of C. korshinskii (33.66 and 47.06 MPa) > S. psammophila (17.31 and 27.54 MPa) > H. rhamnides (3.97 and 8.75 MPa) > A. sphaerphala (2.18 and 6.15 MPa).

  8. The Primary Visual Cortex Is Differentially Modulated by Stimulus-Driven and Top-Down Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekisz, Marek; Bogdan, Wojciech; Ghazaryan, Anaida; Waleszczyk, Wioletta J.; Kublik, Ewa; Wróbel, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention can be focused either volitionally, by top-down signals derived from task demands, or automatically, by bottom-up signals from salient stimuli. Because the brain mechanisms that underlie these two attention processes are poorly understood, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from primary visual cortical areas of cats as they performed stimulus-driven and anticipatory discrimination tasks. Consistent with our previous observations, in both tasks, we found enhanced beta activity, which we have postulated may serve as an attention carrier. We characterized the functional organization of task-related beta activity by (i) cortical responses (EPs) evoked by electrical stimulation of the optic chiasm and (ii) intracortical LFP correlations. During the anticipatory task, peripheral stimulation that was preceded by high-amplitude beta oscillations evoked large-amplitude EPs compared with EPs that followed low-amplitude beta. In contrast, during the stimulus-driven task, cortical EPs preceded by high-amplitude beta oscillations were, on average, smaller than those preceded by low-amplitude beta. Analysis of the correlations between the different recording sites revealed that beta activation maps were heterogeneous during the bottom-up task and homogeneous for the top-down task. We conclude that bottom-up attention activates cortical visual areas in a mosaic-like pattern, whereas top-down attentional modulation results in spatially homogeneous excitation. PMID:26730705

  9. Caffeine induces differential cross tolerance to the amphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects of dopaminergic agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raka; Holtzman, Stephen G

    2005-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine if caffeine induces cross tolerance to the amphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects of dopaminergic drugs that act through distinct mechanisms (e.g., release, uptake inhibition, direct activation of dopamine D(1)- or D(2)-family receptors). Rats were trained to discriminate 1.0 mg/kg d-amphetamine from saline in a two-choice discrete-trial procedure. Stimulus-generalization curves were generated by cumulative dosing for d-amphetamine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg), methylphenidate (0.3-5.6 mg/kg), SKF 81297 (0.3-3.0 mg/kg), and R-(-)-propylnorapomorphine (NPA; 0.001-1.78 mg/kg), as well as for caffeine (3.0-56 mg/kg); curves were re-determined after twice daily injections of caffeine (30 mg/kg) for 3.5 days. The rats generalized dose dependently to the four dopaminergic drugs, but only to a limited extent to caffeine. Twice daily injections of caffeine induced significant cross tolerance (i.e., increased ED(50)) to the amphetamine-like discriminative effects of methylphenidate and SKF 81297, attenuated non-significantly the effects of NPA, and did not alter the effects of amphetamine. Thus, caffeine produces differential cross tolerance to the amphetamine-like discriminative effects of dopaminergic drugs, a phenomenon in which the dopamine D(1) receptor appears to have an important role.

  10. Segregated encoding of reward-identity and stimulus-reward associations in human orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Flügge, Miriam Cornelia; Barron, Helen Catharine; Brodersen, Kay Henning; Dolan, Raymond J; Behrens, Timothy Edward John

    2013-02-13

    A dominant focus in studies of learning and decision-making is the neural coding of scalar reward value. This emphasis ignores the fact that choices are strongly shaped by a rich representation of potential rewards. Here, using fMRI adaptation, we demonstrate that responses in the human orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) encode a representation of the specific type of food reward predicted by a visual cue. By controlling for value across rewards and by linking each reward with two distinct stimuli, we could test for representations of reward-identity that were independent of associative information. Our results show reward-identity representations in a medial-caudal region of OFC, independent of the associated predictive stimulus. This contrasts with a more rostro-lateral OFC region encoding reward-identity representations tied to the predicate stimulus. This demonstration of adaptation in OFC to reward specific representations opens an avenue for investigation of more complex decision mechanisms that are not immediately accessible in standard analyses, which focus on correlates of average activity.

  11. Effects of rhythmic stimulus presentation on oscillatory brain activity: the physiology of cueing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Woerd, Erik S; Oostenveld, Robert; Bloem, Bastiaan R; de Lange, Floris P; Praamstra, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia play an important role in beat perception and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are impaired in perception of beat-based rhythms. Rhythmic cues are nonetheless beneficial in gait rehabilitation, raising the question how rhythm improves movement in PD. We addressed this question with magnetoencephalography recordings during a choice response task with rhythmic and non-rhythmic modes of stimulus presentation. Analyses focused on (i) entrainment of slow oscillations, (ii) the depth of beta power modulation, and (iii) whether a gain in modulation depth of beta power, due to rhythmicity, is of predictive or reactive nature. The results show weaker phase synchronisation of slow oscillations and a relative shift from predictive to reactive movement-related beta suppression in PD. Nonetheless, rhythmic stimulus presentation increased beta modulation depth to the same extent in patients and controls. Critically, this gain selectively increased the predictive and not reactive movement-related beta power suppression. Operation of a predictive mechanism, induced by rhythmic stimulation, was corroborated by a sensory gating effect in the sensorimotor cortex. The predictive mode of cue utilisation points to facilitation of basal ganglia-premotor interactions, contrasting with the popular view that rhythmic stimulation confers a special advantage in PD, based on recruitment of alternative pathways.

  12. Emotion recognition abilities across stimulus modalities in schizophrenia and the role of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Claire; Pinkham, Amy E; Kelsven, Skylar; Sasson, Noah J

    2013-12-01

    Emotion can be expressed by both the voice and face, and previous work suggests that presentation modality may impact emotion recognition performance in individuals with schizophrenia. We investigated the effect of stimulus modality on emotion recognition accuracy and the potential role of visual attention to faces in emotion recognition abilities. Thirty-one patients who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia (n=8) or schizoaffective disorder (n=23) and 30 non-clinical control individuals participated. Both groups identified emotional expressions in three different conditions: audio only, visual only, combined audiovisual. In the visual only and combined conditions, time spent visually fixating salient features of the face were recorded. Patients were significantly less accurate than controls in emotion recognition during both the audio and visual only conditions but did not differ from controls on the combined condition. Analysis of visual scanning behaviors demonstrated that patients attended less than healthy individuals to the mouth in the visual condition but did not differ in visual attention to salient facial features in the combined condition, which may in part explain the absence of a deficit for patients in this condition. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that patients benefit from multimodal stimulus presentations of emotion and support hypotheses that visual attention to salient facial features may serve as a mechanism for accurate emotion identification. © 2013.

  13. Shutting down sensorimotor interference unblocks the networks for stimulus processing: an SMR neurofeedback training study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kober, Silvia Erika; Witte, Matthias; Stangl, Matthias; Väljamäe, Aleksander; Neuper, Christa; Wood, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated how the electrical activity in the sensorimotor cortex contributes to improved cognitive processing capabilities and how SMR (sensorimotor rhythm, 12-15Hz) neurofeedback training modulates it. Previous evidence indicates that higher levels of SMR activity reduce sensorimotor interference and thereby promote cognitive processing. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups, one experimental (N=10) group receiving SMR neurofeedback training, in which they learned to voluntarily increase SMR, and one control group (N=10) receiving sham feedback. Multiple cognitive functions and electrophysiological correlates of cognitive processing were assessed before and after 10 neurofeedback training sessions. The experimental group but not the control group showed linear increases in SMR power over training runs, which was associated with behavioural improvements in memory and attentional performance. Additionally, increasing SMR led to a more salient stimulus processing as indicated by increased N1 and P3 event-related potential amplitudes after the training as compared to the pre-test. Finally, functional brain connectivity between motor areas and visual processing areas was reduced after SMR training indicating reduced sensorimotor interference. These results indicate that SMR neurofeedback improves stimulus processing capabilities and consequently leads to improvements in cognitive performance. The present findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying SMR neurofeedback training and cognitive processing and implicate that SMR neurofeedback might be an effective cognitive training tool. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brief-stimulus presentations on multiform tandem schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Phil

    1994-01-01

    Three experiments examined the influence of a brief stimulus (a light) on the behavior of food-deprived rats whose lever pressing on tandem schedules comprising components of different schedule types resulted in food presentation. In Experiment 1, either a tandem variable-ratio variable-interval or a tandem variable-interval variable-ratio schedule was used. The variable-interval requirement in the tandem variable-ratio variable-interval schedule was yoked to the time taken to complete the va...

  15. The poverty of the stimulus: Quine and Wittgenstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Sullivan Michael

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quine and Wittgenstein were dominant figures in philosophy in the middle of the twentieth century. Many readers, like Quine himself, have felt that there are deep similarities between the two thinkers, though those similarities are difficult to articulate. I argue that they share the project of understanding the meaning of utterances by reference to the environment of the speaker, though they understand that environment in radically different ways. In particular, Quine has a much thinner conception of the environment than does Wittgenstein. For Quine, the stimulus is impoverished in a way that it is not for Wittgenstein. I also argue that they share a certain deflationary approach to ontology.

  16. Impaired mismatch negativity (MMN) generation in schizophrenia as a function of stimulus deviance, probability, and interstimulus/interdeviant interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javitt, D C; Grochowski, S; Shelley, A M; Ritter, W

    1998-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder associated with disturbances in perception and cognition. Event-related potentials (ERP) provide a mechanism for evaluating potential mechanisms underlying neurophysiological dysfunction in schizophrenia. Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a short-duration auditory cognitive ERP component that indexes operation of the auditory sensory ('echoic') memory system. Prior studies have demonstrated impaired MMN generation in schizophrenia along with deficits in auditory sensory memory performance. MMN is elicited in an auditory oddball paradigm in which a sequence of repetitive standard tones is interrupted infrequently by a physically deviant ('oddball') stimulus. The present study evaluates MMN generation as a function of deviant stimulus probability, interstimulus interval, interdeviant interval and the degree of pitch separation between the standard and deviant stimuli. The major findings of the present study are first, that MMN amplitude is decreased in schizophrenia across a broad range of stimulus conditions, and second, that the degree of deficit in schizophrenia is largest under conditions when MMN is normally largest. The pattern of deficit observed in schizophrenia differs from the pattern observed in other conditions associated with MMN dysfunction, including Alzheimer's disease, stroke, and alcohol intoxication.

  17. How Does Awareness Modulate Goal-Directed and Stimulus-Driven Shifts of Attention Triggered by Value Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Bourgeois

    Full Text Available In order to behave adaptively, attention can be directed in space either voluntarily (i.e., endogenously according to strategic goals, or involuntarily (i.e., exogenously through reflexive capture by salient or novel events. The emotional or motivational value of stimuli can also strongly influence attentional orienting. However, little is known about how reward-related effects compete or interact with endogenous and exogenous attention mechanisms, particularly outside of awareness. Here we developed a visual search paradigm to study subliminal value-based attentional orienting. We systematically manipulated goal-directed or stimulus-driven attentional orienting and examined whether an irrelevant, but previously rewarded stimulus could compete with both types of spatial attention during search. Critically, reward was learned without conscious awareness in a preceding phase where one among several visual symbols was consistently paired with a subliminal monetary reinforcement cue. Our results demonstrated that symbols previously associated with a monetary reward received higher attentional priority in the subsequent visual search task, even though these stimuli and reward were no longer task-relevant, and despite reward being unconsciously acquired. Thus, motivational processes operating independent of conscious awareness may provide powerful influences on mechanisms of attentional selection, which could mitigate both stimulus-driven and goal-directed shifts of attention.

  18. How Does Awareness Modulate Goal-Directed and Stimulus-Driven Shifts of Attention Triggered by Value Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Alexia; Neveu, Rémi; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    In order to behave adaptively, attention can be directed in space either voluntarily (i.e., endogenously) according to strategic goals, or involuntarily (i.e., exogenously) through reflexive capture by salient or novel events. The emotional or motivational value of stimuli can also strongly influence attentional orienting. However, little is known about how reward-related effects compete or interact with endogenous and exogenous attention mechanisms, particularly outside of awareness. Here we developed a visual search paradigm to study subliminal value-based attentional orienting. We systematically manipulated goal-directed or stimulus-driven attentional orienting and examined whether an irrelevant, but previously rewarded stimulus could compete with both types of spatial attention during search. Critically, reward was learned without conscious awareness in a preceding phase where one among several visual symbols was consistently paired with a subliminal monetary reinforcement cue. Our results demonstrated that symbols previously associated with a monetary reward received higher attentional priority in the subsequent visual search task, even though these stimuli and reward were no longer task-relevant, and despite reward being unconsciously acquired. Thus, motivational processes operating independent of conscious awareness may provide powerful influences on mechanisms of attentional selection, which could mitigate both stimulus-driven and goal-directed shifts of attention.

  19. Focal Mechanism of a Catastrophic Earthquake of the Last Rococo Period (1783) in Southern Italy Retrieved by Inverting Historical Information on Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirovich, L.; Pettenati, F.

    2007-05-01

    Using geophysical inversion to discover the fault source of a blind earthquake, that took place before the invention of the seismograph, seemed impossible. We demonstrated that sometimes it is possible using our simplified KF model (Sirovich, 1996) through automatic genetic inversion (Gentile et al., 2004 in BSSA; Sirovich and Pettenati, 2004 in JGR), and determined it conclusively by treating the Coalinga 1983, Loma Prieta 1989, and Northridge 1994 earthquakes (Pettenati and Sirovich, 2007 in BSSA). KF is able to simulate the body-wave radiation from a linear source, and eleven source parameters are retrieved: the three nucleation coordinates, the fault-plane solution, the seismic moment, the rupture velocities and lengths along-strike and anti-strike, the shear wave velocity in the half-space. To find the minima on the hypersurface of the residuals in the multi-parameter model space, we use a genetic process with niching since we have already shown that the problem is bimodal for pure dip-slip mechanisms. The objective function of the nonlinear inversion is the sum of the squared residuals (calculated-minus-observed intensity at all sites). Here, we use the very good intensity data provided in the MCS scale by the INGV of Italy for the M 6.9 earthquake of Feb. 5, 1783 (see the Italian intensity data bank on http:emidius.mi.ingv.it/DOM/consultazione.html). The data of 1783 were created by seismologists and historians who interpreted the reports of the time and many other historical sources. Given the limitations of the KF approach, we limited our inversion to a square area of 200 by 200 km around the most heavily damaged zone. 341 surveyed towns and hamlets received intensity degrees by INGV (we discarded 6 of them as statistical outliers according to the classical Chauvenet method). Thus, 335 data were inverted. The match between experimental and synthetic isoseismals is really noteworthy. The found mechanism is almost pure dip-slip and, thus, the problem is

  20. Nav 1.8-null mice show stimulus-dependent deficits in spinal neuronal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood John N

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The voltage gated sodium channel Nav 1.8 has a highly restricted expression pattern to predominantly nociceptive peripheral sensory neurones. Behaviourally Nav 1.8-null mice show an increased acute pain threshold to noxious mechanical pressure and also deficits in inflammatory and visceral, but not neuropathic pain. Here we have made in vivo electrophysiology recordings of dorsal horn neurones in intact anaesthetised Nav 1.8-null mice, in response to a wide range of stimuli to further the understanding of the functional roles of Nav 1.8 in pain transmission from the periphery to the spinal cord. Results Nav 1.8-null mice showed marked deficits in the coding by dorsal horn neurones to mechanical, but not thermal, -evoked responses over the non-noxious and noxious range compared to littermate controls. Additionally, responses evoked to other stimulus modalities were also significantly reduced in Nav 1.8-null mice where the reduction observed to pinch > brush. The occurrence of ongoing spontaneous neuronal activity was significantly less in mice lacking Nav 1.8 compared to control. No difference was observed between groups in the evoked activity to electrical activity of the peripheral receptive field. Conclusion This study demonstrates that deletion of the sodium channel Nav 1.8 results in stimulus-dependent deficits in the dorsal horn neuronal coding to mechanical, but not thermal stimuli applied to the neuronal peripheral receptive field. This implies that Nav 1.8 is either responsible for, or associated with proteins involved in mechanosensation.

  1. Control over the Strength of Connections Between Modules: A Double Dissociation Between Stimulus Format and Task Revealed by Granger Causality Mapping in fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt eAnderson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on theoretical and computational work with the localist Dual Route reading model and results from behavioral studies, Besner, Moroz, and O'Malley (2011 proposed that the ability to perform tasks that require overriding stimulus-specific defaults (e.g., semantics when naming Arabic numerals, and phonology when evaluating the parity of number words necessitate the ability to modulate the strength of connections between cognitive modules for lexical representation, semantics, and phonology on a task- and stimulus-specific basis. We used fMRI to evaluate this account by assessing changes in functional connectivity while participants performed tasks that did and did not require such stimulus-task default overrides. The occipital region showing the greatest modulation of BOLD signal strength for the two stimulus types was used as the seed region for Granger Causality Mapping (GCM. Our GCM analysis revealed a region of rostromedial frontal cortex with a crossover interaction. When participants performed tasks that required overriding stimulus type defaults (i.e., parity judgments of number words and naming Arabic numerals functional connectivity between the occipital region and rostromedial frontal cortex was present. Statistically significant functional connectivity was absent when the tasks were the default for the stimulus type (i.e., parity judgments of Arabic numerals and reading number words. This frontal region (BA 10 has previously been shown to be involved in goal-directed behaviour and maintenance of a specific task-set. We conclude that overriding stimulus-task defaults requires a modulation of connection strengths between cognitive modules and that the override mechanism predicted from cognitive theory is instantiated by frontal modulation of neural activity of brain regions specialized for sensory processing.

  2. Utility-based early modulation of processing distracting stimulus information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Mike; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2014-12-10

    Humans are selective information processors who efficiently prevent goal-inappropriate stimulus information to gain control over their actions. Nonetheless, stimuli, which are both unnecessary for solving a current task and liable to cue an incorrect response (i.e., "distractors"), frequently modulate task performance, even when consistently paired with a physical feature that makes them easily discernible from target stimuli. Current models of cognitive control assume adjustment of the processing of distractor information based on the overall distractor utility (e.g., predictive value regarding the appropriate response, likelihood to elicit conflict with target processing). Although studies on distractor interference have supported the notion of utility-based processing adjustment, previous evidence is inconclusive regarding the specificity of this adjustment for distractor information and the stage(s) of processing affected. To assess the processing of distractors during sensory-perceptual phases we applied EEG recording in a stimulus identification task, involving successive distractor-target presentation, and manipulated the overall distractor utility. Behavioral measures replicated previously found utility modulations of distractor interference. Crucially, distractor-evoked visual potentials (i.e., posterior N1) were more pronounced in high-utility than low-utility conditions. This effect generalized to distractors unrelated to the utility manipulation, providing evidence for item-unspecific adjustment of early distractor processing to the experienced utility of distractor information. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416720-06$15.00/0.

  3. Effects of stimulus response compatibility on covert imitation of vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adank, Patti; Nuttall, Helen; Bekkering, Harold; Maegherman, Gwijde

    2018-03-13

    When we observe someone else speaking, we tend to automatically activate the corresponding speech motor patterns. When listening, we therefore covertly imitate the observed speech. Simulation theories of speech perception propose that covert imitation of speech motor patterns supports speech perception. Covert imitation of speech has been studied with interference paradigms, including the stimulus-response compatibility paradigm (SRC). The SRC paradigm measures covert imitation by comparing articulation of a prompt following exposure to a distracter. Responses tend to be faster for congruent than for incongruent distracters; thus, showing evidence of covert imitation. Simulation accounts propose a key role for covert imitation in speech perception. However, covert imitation has thus far only been demonstrated for a select class of speech sounds, namely consonants, and it is unclear whether covert imitation extends to vowels. We aimed to demonstrate that covert imitation effects as measured with the SRC paradigm extend to vowels, in two experiments. We examined whether covert imitation occurs for vowels in a consonant-vowel-consonant context in visual, audio, and audiovisual modalities. We presented the prompt at four time points to examine how covert imitation varied over the distracter's duration. The results of both experiments clearly demonstrated covert imitation effects for vowels, thus supporting simulation theories of speech perception. Covert imitation was not affected by stimulus modality and was maximal for later time points.

  4. Does bimodal stimulus presentation increase ERP components usable in BCIs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlings, Marieke E.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Van Erp, Jan B. F.; Blankertz, Benjamin; Werkhoven, Peter J.

    2012-08-01

    Event-related potential (ERP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) employ differences in brain responses to attended and ignored stimuli. Typically, visual stimuli are used. Tactile stimuli have recently been suggested as a gaze-independent alternative. Bimodal stimuli could evoke additional brain activity due to multisensory integration which may be of use in BCIs. We investigated the effect of visual-tactile stimulus presentation on the chain of ERP components, BCI performance (classification accuracies and bitrates) and participants’ task performance (counting of targets). Ten participants were instructed to navigate a visual display by attending (spatially) to targets in sequences of either visual, tactile or visual-tactile stimuli. We observe that attending to visual-tactile (compared to either visual or tactile) stimuli results in an enhanced early ERP component (N1). This bimodal N1 may enhance BCI performance, as suggested by a nonsignificant positive trend in offline classification accuracies. A late ERP component (P300) is reduced when attending to visual-tactile compared to visual stimuli, which is consistent with the nonsignificant negative trend of participants’ task performance. We discuss these findings in the light of affected spatial attention at high-level compared to low-level stimulus processing. Furthermore, we evaluate bimodal BCIs from a practical perspective and for future applications.

  5. Two Pathways to Stimulus Encoding in Category Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tyler; Love, Bradley C.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Category learning theorists tacitly assume that stimuli are encoded by a single pathway. Motivated by theories of object recognition, we evaluate a dual-pathway account of stimulus encoding. The part-based pathway establishes mappings between sensory input and symbols that encode discrete stimulus features, whereas the image-based pathway applies holistic templates to sensory input. Our experiments use rule-plus-exception structures in which one exception item in each category violates a salient regularity and must be distinguished from other items. In Experiment 1, we find that discrete representations are crucial for recognition of exceptions following brief training. Experiments 2 and 3 involve multi-session training regimens designed to encourage either part or image-based encoding. We find that both pathways are able to support exception encoding, but have unique characteristics. We speculate that one advantage of the part-based pathway is the ability to generalize across domains, whereas the image-based pathway provides faster and more effortless recognition. PMID:19460948

  6. Stimulus homogeneity enhances implicit learning: evidence from contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Tobias; Schubö, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Visual search for a target object is faster if the target is embedded in a repeatedly presented invariant configuration of distractors ('contextual cueing'). It has also been shown that the homogeneity of a context affects the efficiency of visual search: targets receive prioritized processing when presented in a homogeneous context compared to a heterogeneous context, presumably due to grouping processes at early stages of visual processing. The present study investigated in three Experiments whether context homogeneity also affects contextual cueing. In Experiment 1, context homogeneity varied on three levels of the task-relevant dimension (orientation) and contextual cueing was most pronounced for context configurations with high orientation homogeneity. When context homogeneity varied on three levels of the task-irrelevant dimension (color) and orientation homogeneity was fixed, no modulation of contextual cueing was observed: high orientation homogeneity led to large contextual cueing effects (Experiment 2) and low orientation homogeneity led to low contextual cueing effects (Experiment 3), irrespective of color homogeneity. Enhanced contextual cueing for homogeneous context configurations suggest that grouping processes do not only affect visual search but also implicit learning. We conclude that memory representation of context configurations are more easily acquired when context configurations can be processed as larger, grouped perceptual units. However, this form of implicit perceptual learning is only improved by stimulus homogeneity when stimulus homogeneity facilitates grouping processes on a dimension that is currently relevant in the task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Memory Mechanisms in Grasping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Constanze; Franz, Volker H.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of visual information influences the execution of goal-directed movements. This is very prominent in memory conditions, where a delay is introduced between stimulus presentation and execution of the movement. The corresponding effects could be due to a decay of the visual information or to different processing mechanisms used for…

  8. A systematic analysis of the Braitenberg vehicle 2b for point-like stimulus sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rañó, Iñaki

    2012-01-01

    Braitenberg vehicles have been used experimentally for decades in robotics with limited empirical understanding. This paper presents the first mathematical model of the vehicle 2b, displaying so-called aggression behaviour, and analyses the possible trajectories for point-like smooth stimulus sources. This sensory-motor steering control mechanism is used to implement biologically grounded target approach, target-seeking or obstacle-avoidance behaviour. However, the analysis of the resulting model reveals that complex and unexpected trajectories can result even for point-like stimuli. We also prove how the implementation of the controller and the vehicle morphology interact to affect the behaviour of the vehicle. This work provides a better understanding of Braitenberg vehicle 2b, explains experimental results and paves the way for a formally grounded application on robotics as well as for a new way of understanding target seeking in biology. (paper)

  9. The effects of stimulus competition and voluntary attention on colour-graphemic synaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Anina N; Mattingley, Jason B

    2003-10-06

    Colour-graphemic synaesthetes experience vivid colours when reading letters, digits and words. We examined the effect of stimulus competition and attention on these unusual colour experiences in 14 synaesthetes and 14 non-synaesthetic controls. Participants named the colour of hierarchical local-global stimuli in which letters at each level elicited synaesthetic colours that were congruent or incongruent with the display colour. Synaesthetes were significantly slower to name display colours when either level was incongruent than when both levels were congruent. This effect was significantly reduced when synaesthetes focused attention on one level while the congruency of letters at the ignored level was varied. These findings suggest that competition between multiple inducers and mechanisms of voluntary attention influence colour-graphemic synaesthesia.

  10. Different involvement of medial prefrontal cortex and dorso-lateral striatum in automatic and controlled processing of a future conditioned stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, Francisco; Díaz, Estrella; Sánchez, Natividad; Vargas, Juan Pedro; Pearce, John M; López, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies support the idea that stimulus processing in latent inhibition can vary during the course of preexposure. Controlled attentional mechanisms are said to be important in the early stages of preexposure, while in later stages animals adopt automatic processing of the stimulus to be used for conditioning. Given this distinction, it is possible that both types of processing are governed by different neural systems, affecting differentially the retrieval of information about the stimulus. In the present study we tested if a lesion to the dorso-lateral striatum or to the medial prefrontal cortex has a selective effect on exposure to the future conditioned stimulus (CS). With this aim, animals received different amounts of exposure to the future CS. The results showed that a lesion to the medial prefrontal cortex enhanced latent inhibition in animals receiving limited preexposure to the CS, but had no effect in animals receiving extended preexposure to the CS. The lesion of the dorso-lateral striatum produced a decrease in latent inhibition, but only in animals with an extended exposure to the future conditioned stimulus. These results suggest that the dorsal striatum and medial prefrontal cortex play essential roles in controlled and automatic processes. Automatic attentional processes appear to be impaired by a lesion to the dorso-lateral striatum and facilitated by a lesion to the prefrontal cortex.

  11. A history of alternative reinforcement reduces stimulus generalization of ethanol-seeking in a rat recovery model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Brett C.; Lamb, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Longer periods of recovery reduce the likelihood of relapse, which may be due to a reduced ability of various stimuli to occasion alcohol or drug seeking. However, this hypothesis remains largely uninvestigated. METHODS Here we assessed the ability of intermediate stimuli to occasion responding for ethanol in rats trained to discriminate an 8kHz tone signaling a food fixed-ratio (FR) of 5 and an ethanol FR5, from a 16kHz tone signaling a food FR150 and ethanol FR5. In the presence of the 8kHz tone responding for food predominates, and in the presence of the 16 kHz tone, responding for ethanol predominates. RESULTS In the context of alternation between these conditions, varying the tone from 8 to 16kHz produces a graded increase in ethanol (versus food) responding, consistent with a stimulus generalization function. A recent history of responding under food-predominant choice conditions, either during the test session or in the four sessions that precede it shifts the generalization function downwards. Extending this history to nine sessions shifts the curve further downwards. The stimulus generalization function was similar in a separate group, trained with different relative ratios for food and ethanol, but with similar behavioral allocation under each discriminative stimulus. Finally, withholding access to food and ethanol for 4 or 16 sessions did not affect the stimulus generalization gradient. CONCLUSION These results suggest that longer histories of reinforced alternative behavior might reduce the likelihood of relapse by decreasing the control exerted over alcohol- or drug-seeking by stimuli similar to those that previously occasioned alcohol- or drug-seeking. PMID:23122598

  12. Memory and convulsive stimulation: effects of stimulus waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanis, C W; Squire, L R

    1981-09-01

    Electrical stimulation with brief pulses can produce a seizure requiring less energy than conventional sine-wave stimulation, and it has been suggested that brief-pulse stimulation might reduce the memory loss associated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The authors evaluated the effects of electroconvulsive shock (ECS) on memory in mice by using various waveforms, current intensities, training-ECS intervals, pulse widths, and stimulus durations. When equated for ability to produce seizures, low-energy, brief-pulse stimulation caused as much amnesia as sine-wave stimulation and sometimes more. In the absence of comparisons of the amnesic effects of brief-pulse and sine-wave stimulation in humans, the use of brief pulses for administering ECT is unwarranted.

  13. Benefits of stimulus congruency for multisensory facilitation of visual learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn S Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of perceptual learning have largely focused on unisensory stimuli. However, multisensory interactions are ubiquitous in perception, even at early processing stages, and thus can potentially play a role in learning. Here, we examine the effect of auditory-visual congruency on visual learning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Subjects were trained over five days on a visual motion coherence detection task with either congruent audiovisual, or incongruent audiovisual stimuli. Comparing performance on visual-only trials, we find that training with congruent audiovisual stimuli produces significantly better learning than training with incongruent audiovisual stimuli or with only visual stimuli. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This advantage from stimulus congruency during training suggests that the benefits of multisensory training may result from audiovisual interactions at a perceptual rather than cognitive level.

  14. Stimulus-dependent suppression of chaos in recurrent neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, Kanaka; Abbott, L. F.; Sompolinsky, Haim

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal activity arises from an interaction between ongoing firing generated spontaneously by neural circuits and responses driven by external stimuli. Using mean-field analysis, we ask how a neural network that intrinsically generates chaotic patterns of activity can remain sensitive to extrinsic input. We find that inputs not only drive network responses, but they also actively suppress ongoing activity, ultimately leading to a phase transition in which chaos is completely eliminated. The critical input intensity at the phase transition is a nonmonotonic function of stimulus frequency, revealing a 'resonant' frequency at which the input is most effective at suppressing chaos even though the power spectrum of the spontaneous activity peaks at zero and falls exponentially. A prediction of our analysis is that the variance of neural responses should be most strongly suppressed at frequencies matching the range over which many sensory systems operate.

  15. Levels of processing and Eye Movements: A Stimulus driven approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvey, Fiona Bríd

    2014-01-01

    movements can be controlled either by bottom up stimulus properties or by top down cognitive control, studies have compared eye movements in real world tasks and searched for indicators of cognitive load or level of attention when task demands increase. Extracting the effects of cognitive processing on eye......The aim of this research is to investigate the explication of levels of attention through eye movement parameters. Previous research from disparate fields have suggested that eye movements are related to cognitive processing, however, the exact nature of the relationship is unclear. Since eye...... to investigate individual differences in levels of processing within the normal population using existing constructs and tests of cognitive style. Study 4 investigates these stimuli and the eye movements of a clinical group with known interruption to the dorsal stream of processing, and subsequent isolated...

  16. Energy-efficient housing stimulus that pays for itself

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevin, Rick

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an energy-efficient housing stimulus strategy that can: (1) quickly provide large-scale job creation; (2) reduce home energy bills by 30-50% with associated reductions in emissions and energy assistance spending; (3) stabilize home values and reduce foreclosure inventory; (4) help to eliminate childhood lead poisoning; and (5) implement regulatory reforms that highlight market incentives for cost effective energy efficiency and alternative home energy investments. These benefits, far in excess of costs, can be achieved by combining 'lead-safe window replacement' with other weatherization activities and simple regulatory and market reforms. This strategy can help to coordinate American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding for energy efficiency, the $75 billion Making Home Affordable plan to reduce foreclosures, and the recently announced partnership between the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to streamline weatherization efforts and spur job creation. (author)

  17. Reversible pH Stimulus-Response Material Based on Amphiphilic Block Polymer Self-Assembly and Its Electrochemical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyi Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stimulus-responsive microporous solid thin films were successfully fabricated by simple molecular self-assembly via an amphiphilic block polymer, polystryene–b–polyacrylic acid (PS–b–PAA. The solid thin films exhibit different surface morphologies in response to external stimuli, such as environments with different pH values in aqueous solutions. The experiments have successfully applied atomic force microscope (AFM technology to observe in-situ surface morphological changes. There is a reversible evolution of the microstructures in buffer solutions over a pH range of 2.4–9.2. These observations have been explained by positing that there is no conventional PAA swelling but that the PAA chains in the micropores stretch and contract with changes in the pH of the solution environment. The hydrophobicity of the solid thin film surface was transformed into super-hydrophilicity, as captured by optical contact angle measurements. The stimulus-responsive dynamics of pore sizes was described by a two-stage mechanism. A promising electrochemical application of this film is suggested via combination with an electrochemical impedance technique. This study is aimed at strategies for the functionalization of stimulus-responsive microporous solid thin films with reversible tunable surface morphologies, and exploring new smart materials with switch-on/switch-off behavior.

  18. Oscillatory Hierarchy Controlling Cortical Excitability and Stimulus Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A. S.; Lakatos, P.; McGinnis, T.; O'Connell, N.; Mills, A.; Knuth, K. H.; Chen, C.; Karmos, G.; Schroeder, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    Cortical gamma band oscillations have been recorded in sensory cortices of cats and monkeys, and are thought to aid in perceptual binding. Gamma activity has also been recorded in the rat hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, where it has been shown, that field gamma power is modulated at theta frequency. Since the power of gamma activity in the sensory cortices is not constant (gamma-bursts). we decided to examine the relationship between gamma power and the phase of low frequency oscillation in the auditory cortex of the awake macaque. Macaque monkeys were surgically prepared for chronic awake electrophysiological recording. During the time of the experiments. linear array multielectrodes were inserted in area AI to obtain laminar current source density (CSD) and multiunit activity profiles. Instantaneous theta and gamma power and phase was extracted by applying the Morlet wavelet transformation to the CSD. Gamma power was averaged for every 1 degree of low frequency oscillations to calculate power-phase relation. Both gamma and theta-delta power are largest in the supragranular layers. Power modulation of gamma activity is phase locked to spontaneous, as well as stimulus-related local theta and delta field oscillations. Our analysis also revealed that the power of theta oscillations is always largest at a certain phase of delta oscillation. Auditory stimuli produce evoked responses in the theta band (Le., there is pre- to post-stimulus addition of theta power), but there is also indication that stimuli may cause partial phase re-setting of spontaneous delta (and thus also theta and gamma) oscillations. We also show that spontaneous oscillations might play a role in the processing of incoming sensory signals by 'preparing' the cortex.

  19. Stimulus-response functions of single avian olfactory bulb neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, Dorothy E F; Demmers, Theodorus G M; Wathes, Christopher M; Jones, R Bryan; Gentle, Michael J

    2002-10-25

    This study investigated olfactory processing in a functional context by examining the responses of single avian olfactory bulb neurones to two biologically important gases over relevant concentration ranges. Recordings of extracellular spike activity were made from 80 single units in the left olfactory bulb of 11 anaesthetised, freely breathing adult hens (Gallus domesticus). The units were spontaneously active, exhibiting widely variable firing rates (0.07-47.28 spikes/s) and variable temporal firing patterns. Single units were tested for their response to an ascending concentration series of either ammonia (2.5-100 ppm) or hydrogen sulphide (1-50 ppm), delivered directly to the olfactory epithelium. Stimulation with a calibrated gas delivery system resulted in modification of spontaneous activity causing either inhibition (47% of units) or excitation (53%) of firing. For ammonia, 20 of the 35 units tested exhibited a response, while for hydrogen sulphide, 25 of the 45 units tested were responsive. Approximate response thresholds for ammonia (median threshold 3.75 ppm (range 2.5-60 ppm, n=20)) and hydrogen sulphide (median threshold 1 ppm (range 1-10 ppm, n=25)) were determined with most units exhibiting thresholds near the lower end of these ranges. Stimulus response curves were constructed for 23 units; 16 (the most complete) were subjected to a linear regression analysis to determine whether they were best fitted by a linear, log or power function. No single function provided the best fit for all the curves (seven were linear, eight were log, one was power). These findings show that avian units respond to changes in stimulus concentration in a manner generally consistent with reported responses in mammalian olfactory bulb neurones. However, this study illustrates a level of fine-tuning to small step changes in concentration (<5 ppm) not previously demonstrated in vertebrate single olfactory bulb neurones.

  20. Dynamics and stimulus-dependence of pacemaker control during behavioral modulations in the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, J

    1987-08-01

    1. Weakly electric fish generate around their bodies low-amplitude, AC electric fields which are used both for the detection of objects and intraspecific communication. The types of modulation in this signal of which the high-frequency wave-type gymnotiform, Apteronotus, is capable are relatively few and stereotyped. Chief among these is the chirp, a signal used in courtship and agonistic displays. Chirps are brief and rapid accelerations in the normally highly regular electric organ discharge (EOD) frequency. 2. Chirping can be elicited artificially in these animals by the use of a stimulus regime identical to that typically used to elicit another behavior, the jamming avoidance response (JAR). The neuronal basis for the JAR, a much slower and lesser alteration in EOD frequency, is well understood. Examination of the stimulus features which induce chirping show that, like the JAR, there is a region of frequency differences between the fish's EOD and the interfering signal that maximally elicits the response. Moreover, the response is sex-specific with regard to the sign of the frequency difference, with females chirping preferentially on the positive and most males on the negative Df. These features imply that the sensory mechanisms involved in the triggering of these communicatory behaviors are fundamentally similar to those explicated for the JAR. 3. Additionally, two other modulatory behaviors of unknown significance are described. The first is a non-selective rise in EOD frequency associated with a JAR stimulus, occurring regardless of the sign of the Df. This modulation shares many characteristics with the JAR. The second behavior, which we have termed a 'yodel', is distinct from and kinetically intermediate to chirping and the JAR. Moreover, unlike the other studied electromotor behaviors it is generally produced only after the termination of the eliciting stimulus.

  1. Behavioral responses to a repetitive visual threat stimulus express a persistent state of defensive arousal in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, William T; Gonzalez, Carlos R; Fernandez, Conchi; Ramasamy, Lakshminarayanan; Tabachnik, Tanya; Du, Rebecca R; Felsen, Panna D; Maire, Michael R; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J

    2015-06-01

    The neural circuit mechanisms underlying emotion states remain poorly understood. Drosophila offers powerful genetic approaches for dissecting neural circuit function, but whether flies exhibit emotion-like behaviors has not been clear. We recently proposed that model organisms may express internal states displaying "emotion primitives," which are general characteristics common to different emotions, rather than specific anthropomorphic emotions such as "fear" or "anxiety." These emotion primitives include scalability, persistence, valence, and generalization to multiple contexts. Here, we have applied this approach to determine whether flies' defensive responses to moving overhead translational stimuli ("shadows") are purely reflexive or may express underlying emotion states. We describe a new behavioral assay in which flies confined in an enclosed arena are repeatedly exposed to an overhead translational stimulus. Repetitive stimuli promoted graded (scalable) and persistent increases in locomotor velocity and hopping, and occasional freezing. The stimulus also dispersed feeding flies from a food resource, suggesting both negative valence and context generalization. Strikingly, there was a significant delay before the flies returned to the food following stimulus-induced dispersal, suggestive of a slowly decaying internal defensive state. The length of this delay was increased when more stimuli were delivered for initial dispersal. These responses can be mathematically modeled by assuming an internal state that behaves as a leaky integrator of stimulus exposure. Our results suggest that flies' responses to repetitive visual threat stimuli express an internal state exhibiting canonical emotion primitives, possibly analogous to fear in mammals. The mechanistic basis of this state can now be investigated in a genetically tractable insect species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Expectancy bias in a selective conditioning procedure: trait anxiety increases the threat value of a blocked stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddez, Yannick; Vervliet, Bram; Baeyens, Frank; Lauwers, Stephanie; Hermans, Dirk; Beckers, Tom

    2012-06-01

    In a blocking procedure, a single conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US), such as electric shock, in the first stage. During the subsequent stage, the CS is presented together with a second CS and this compound is followed by the same US. Fear conditioning studies in non-human animals have demonstrated that fear responding to the added second CS typically remains low, despite its being paired with the US. Accordingly, the blocking procedure is well suited as a laboratory model for studying (deficits in) selective threat appraisal. The present study tested the relation between trait anxiety and blocking in human aversive conditioning. Healthy participants filled in a trait anxiety questionnaire and underwent blocking treatment in the human aversive conditioning paradigm. Threat appraisal was measured through shock expectancy ratings and skin conductance. As hypothesized, trait anxiety was positively associated with shock expectancy ratings to the blocked stimulus. In skin conductance responding, no significant effects of stimulus type could be detected during blocking training or testing. The current study does not allow strong claims to be made regarding the theoretical process underlying the expectancy bias we observed. The observed shock expectancy bias might be one of the mechanisms leading to non-specific fear in individuals at risk for developing anxiety disorders. A deficit in blocking, or a deficit in selective threat appraisal at the more general level, indeed results in fear becoming non-specific and disconnected from the most likely causes or predictors of danger. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Is conscious stimulus identification dependent on knowledge of the perceptual modality? Testing the "source misidentification hypothesis"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Lindeløv, Jonas Kristoffer; Svejstrup, Stinna

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment intended to test a particular hypothesis derived from blindsight research, which we name the “source misidentification hypothesis.” According to this hypothesis, a subject may be correct about a stimulus without being correct about how she had access...... to this knowledge (whether the stimulus was visual, auditory, or something else). We test this hypothesis in healthy subjects, asking them to report whether a masked stimulus was presented auditorily or visually, what the stimulus was, and how clearly they experienced the stimulus using the Perceptual Awareness...... experience of the stimulus. To demonstrate that particular levels of reporting accuracy are obtained, we employ a statistical strategy, which operationally tests the hypothesis of non-equality, such that the usual rejection of the null-hypothesis admits the conclusion of equivalence....

  4. The perception of regularity in an isochronous stimulus in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Aa, Jeroen; Honing, Henkjan; ten Cate, Carel

    2015-06-01

    Perceiving temporal regularity in an auditory stimulus is considered one of the basic features of musicality. Here we examine whether zebra finches can detect regularity in an isochronous stimulus. Using a go/no go paradigm we show that zebra finches are able to distinguish between an isochronous and an irregular stimulus. However, when the tempo of the isochronous stimulus is changed, it is no longer treated as similar to the training stimulus. Training with three isochronous and three irregular stimuli did not result in improvement of the generalization. In contrast, humans, exposed to the same stimuli, readily generalized across tempo changes. Our results suggest that zebra finches distinguish the different stimuli by learning specific local temporal features of each individual stimulus rather than attending to the global structure of the stimuli, i.e., to the temporal regularity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of spontaneous activity on stimulus processing in primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schölvinck, M L; Friston, K J; Rees, G

    2012-02-01

    Spontaneous activity in the resting human brain has been studied extensively; however, how such activity affects the local processing of a sensory stimulus is relatively unknown. Here, we examined the impact of spontaneous activity in primary visual cortex on neuronal and behavioural responses to a simple visual stimulus, using functional MRI. Stimulus-evoked responses remained essentially unchanged by spontaneous fluctuations, combining with them in a largely linear fashion (i.e., with little evidence for an interaction). However, interactions between spontaneous fluctuations and stimulus-evoked responses were evident behaviourally; high levels of spontaneous activity tended to be associated with increased stimulus detection at perceptual threshold. Our results extend those found in studies of spontaneous fluctuations in motor cortex and higher order visual areas, and suggest a fundamental role for spontaneous activity in stimulus processing. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Neurotranscriptomics: The Effects of Neonatal Stimulus Deprivation on the Rat Pineal Transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W Hartley

    Full Text Available The term neurotranscriptomics is used here to describe genome-wide analysis of neural control of transcriptomes. In this report, next-generation RNA sequencing was using to analyze the effects of neonatal (5-days-of-age surgical stimulus deprivation on the adult rat pineal transcriptome. In intact animals, more than 3000 coding genes were found to exhibit differential expression (adjusted-p < 0.001 on a night/day basis in the pineal gland (70% of these increased at night, 376 genes changed more than 4-fold in either direction. Of these, more than two thousand genes were not previously known to be differentially expressed on a night/day basis. The night/day changes in expression were almost completely eliminated by neonatal removal (SCGX or decentralization (DCN of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG, which innervate the pineal gland. Other than the loss of rhythmic variation, surgical stimulus deprivation had little impact on the abundance of most genes; of particular interest, expression levels of the melatonin-synthesis-related genes Tph1, Gch1, and Asmt displayed little change (less than 35% following DCN or SCGX. However, strong and consistent changes were observed in the expression of a small number of genes including the gene encoding Serpina1, a secreted protease inhibitor that might influence extracellular architecture. Many of the genes that exhibited night/day differential expression in intact animals also exhibited similar changes following in vitro treatment with norepinephrine, a superior cervical ganglia transmitter, or with an analog of cyclic AMP, a norepinephrine second messenger in this tissue. These findings are of significance in that they establish that the pineal-defining transcriptome is established prior to the neonatal period. Further, this work expands our knowledge of the biological process under neural control in this tissue and underlines the value of RNA sequencing in revealing how neurotransmission influences cell

  7. ASYMMETRIC EFFECTS OF ADDED VERSUS DELETED FEATURE OF STIMULUS ON RECOGNITION MEMORY

    OpenAIRE

    内野, 八潮; 箱田, 裕司

    2000-01-01

    This article reviewed a number of studies which revealed superiority of addition over deletion. Such an asymmetric effect was found in picture recognitioa memory, discrimination learning, proofreading for misspellings and so on. However, few studies have controlled typicality of original stimulus or the effect of addition and deletion on typicality of changed stimulus. Therefore this article focussed particularly on the studies in which addition and deletion applied to original stimulus was d...

  8. Do People Take Stimulus Correlations into Account in Visual Search (Open Source)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-10

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Do People Take Stimulus Correlations into Account in Visual Search? Manisha Bhardwaj1, Ronald van den Berg2,3, Wei Ji Ma2,4...journal.pone.0149402 March 10, 2016 1 / 16 OPEN ACCESS Citation: Bhardwaj M, van den Berg R, Ma WJ, Josić K (2016) Do People Take Stimulus Correlations into...different values of ρ, larger set sizes, and more extensive training could shed more light on how exactly people misestimate stimulus correlations in

  9. Learning to fear a second-order stimulus following vicarious learning

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, G; Field, AP; Askew, C

    2015-01-01

    Vicarious fear learning refers to the acquisition of fear via observation of the fearful responses of others. The present study aims to extend current knowledge by exploring whether second-order vicarious fear learning can be demonstrated in children. That is, whether vicariously learnt fear responses for one stimulus can be elicited in a second stimulus associated with that initial stimulus. Results demonstrated that children’s (5–11 years) fear responses for marsupials and caterpillars incr...

  10. Model Stimulus-Organism-Response: Penentu Perilaku Pembelian Konsumen Secara Situasional

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena, Nonie

    2005-01-01

    Understanding about consumer purchase behavior is an essential aspect for developing organization bussiness strategic, especially in retailing. S-O-R (Stimulus-Organism-Response) model helps the practision and academics to understand which stimulus will influence consumers and the reaction that comsumer gave. One of the stimulus that explained in this article is the situation. Situation is an aspect that had change and hardly to predict. In other words, situation will determine consumer purch...

  11. [Two traditions in the scientific learning of the world. A case study of creation and reception of quantum mechanics over the period 1925-1927, on the bases of discussion between Werner Heisenberg and Albert Einstein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajniak, Wiktor

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is the analyses of discussion between Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg in the period 1925-1927. Their disputes, relating to the sources of scientific knowledge, its methods and the value of knowledge acquired in this way, are part of the characteristic for the European science discourse between rationalism and empirism. On the basis of some sources and literature on the subject, the epistemological positions of both scholars in the period were reconstructed. This episode, yet poorly known, is a unique example of scientific disputes, whose range covers a broad spectrum of methodological problems associated with the historical development of science. The conducted analysis sheds some light on the source of popularity of logical empirism in the first half of the 20th century. A particular emphasis is placed on the impact of the neopositivist ideas which reflect Heisenberg's research program, being the starting point for the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. The main assumption of logical empirism, concerning acquisition of scientific knowledge only by means of empirical procedures and logical analysis of the language of science, in view of the voiced by Einstein arguments, bears little relationship with actual testing practices in the historical aspect of the development of science. The criticism of Heisenberg's program, carried out by Einstein, provided arguments for the main critics of the neopositivist ideal and contributed to the bankruptcy of the idea of logical empirism, thereby starting a period of critical rationalism prosperity, arising from criticism of neopositivism and alluding to Einstein's ideas.

  12. Rational-emotive behavior therapy and the formation of stimulus equivalence classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaud, J J; Gaither, G A; Weller, L A; Bigwood, S J; Barth, J; von Duvillard, S P

    1998-08-01

    Stimulus equivalence is a behavioral approach to analyzing the "meaning" of stimulus sets and has an implication for clinical psychology. The formation of three-member (A --> B --> C) stimulus equivalence classes was used to investigate the effects of three different sets of sample and comparison stimuli on emergent behavior. The three stimulus sets were composed of Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)-related words, non-REBT emotionally charged words, and a third category of neutral words composed of flower labels. Sixty-two women and men participated in a modified matching-to-sample experiment. Using a mixed cross-over design, and controlling for serial order effects, participants received conditional training and emergent relationship training in the three stimulus set conditions. Results revealed a significant interaction between the formation of stimulus equivalence classes and stimulus meaning, indicating consistently biased responding in favor of reaching criterion responding more slowly for REBT-related and non-REBT emotionally charged words. Results were examined in the context of an analysis of the importance of stimulus meaning on behavior and the relation of stimulus meaning to behavioral and cognitive theories, with special appraisal given to the influence of fear-related discriminative stimuli on behavior.

  13. Specificity of Mechanisms of Memory Reconsolidation in Snails Trained for Rejection of Two Types of Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, V P; Kozyrev, S A; Solntseva, S V

    2017-01-01

    Specificity of behavioral and neuronal mechanisms of impairment of long-term memory reconsolidation was studied in edible snails trained for associative skill of rejection of two types of food: raw carrots (conditioned stimulus 1) and apple (conditioned stimulus 2). In 2 days after training, the snails received protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide and a reminder (conditioned stimulus 1 or 2). In 3 and 14 days after cycloheximide/reminder, we observed the absence of aversive responses to the conditioned stimulus used as the reminder and preserved responses to the conditioned stimulus not used as the reminder. Moreover, we observed specific suppression of synaptic responses of command neurons of snail defensive behavior induced by the conditioned stimulus used as the reminder after cycloheximide injection and preserved synaptic responses of neurons to the other conditioned stimulus. It was hypothesized that protein synthesis-dependent synapse-specific plasticity of command neurons can be a mechanism of selective preservation of conditioned food aversion memory in snails.

  14. Hyperosmotic stimulus induces reversible angiogenesis within the hypothalamic magnocellular nuclei of the adult rat: a potential role for neuronal vascular endothelial growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Anne

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mammals, the CNS vasculature is established during the postnatal period via active angiogenesis, providing different brain regions with capillary networks of various densities that locally supply adapted metabolic support to neurons. Thereafter this vasculature remains essentially quiescent excepted for specific pathologies. In the adult rat hypothalamus, a particularly dense network of capillary vessels is associated with the supraoptic (SON and paraventricular (PVN nuclei containing the magnocellular neurons secreting vasopressin and oxytocin, two neurohormones involved in the control of the body fluid homoeostasis. In the seventies, it was reported that proliferation of astrocytes and endothelial cells occurs within these hypothalamic nuclei when strong metabolic activation of the vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic neurons was induced by prolonged hyperosmotic stimulation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether such proliferative response to osmotic stimulus is related to local angiogenesis and to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. Results Our results provide evidence that cell proliferation occurring within the SON of osmotically stimulated adult rats corresponds to local angiogenesis. We show that 1 a large majority of the SON proliferative cells is associated with capillary vessels, 2 this proliferative response correlates with a progressive increase in density of the capillary network within the nucleus, and 3 SON capillary vessels exhibit an increased expression of nestin and vimentin, two markers of newly formed vessels. Contrasting with most adult CNS neurons, hypothalamic magnocellular neurons were found to express vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, a potent angiogenic factor whose production was increased by osmotic stimulus. When VEGF was inhibited by dexamethasone treatment or by the local application of a blocking antibody, the angiogenic response was strongly

  15. Gamma oscillation maintains stimulus structure-dependent synchronization in cat visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonds, Jason M; Bonds, A B

    2005-01-01

    Visual cortical cells demonstrate both oscillation and synchronization, although the underlying causes and functional significance of these behaviors remain uncertain. We simultaneously recorded single-unit activity with microelectrode arrays in supragranular layers of area 17 of cats paralyzed and anesthetized with propofol and N(2)O. Rate-normalized autocorrelograms of 24 cells reveal bursting (100%) and gamma oscillation (63%). Renewal density analysis, used to explore the source of oscillation, suggests a contribution from extrinsic influences such as feedback. However, a bursting refractory period, presumably membrane-based, could also encourage oscillatory firing. When we investigated the source of synchronization for 60 cell pairs we found only moderate correlation of synchrony with bursts and oscillation. We did, nonetheless, discover a possible functional role for oscillation. In all cases of cross-correlograms that exhibited oscillation, the strength of the synchrony was maintained throughout the stimulation period. When no oscillation was apparent, 75% of the cell pairs showed decay in their synchronization. The synchrony between cells is strongly dependent on similar response onset latencies. We therefore propose that structured input, which yields tight organization of latency, is a more likely candidate for the source of synchronization than oscillation. The reliable synchrony at response onset could be driven by spatial and temporal correlation of the stimulus that is preserved through the earlier stages of the visual system. Oscillation then contributes to maintenance of the synchrony to enhance reliable transmission of the information for higher cognitive processing.

  16. Visual awareness suppression by pre-stimulus brain stimulation; a neural effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Christianne; Goebel, Rainer; Sack, Alexander T

    2012-01-02

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has established the functional relevance of early visual cortex (EVC) for visual awareness with great temporal specificity non-invasively in conscious human volunteers. Many studies have found a suppressive effect when TMS was applied over EVC 80-100 ms after the onset of the visual stimulus (post-stimulus TMS time window). Yet, few studies found task performance to also suffer when TMS was applied even before visual stimulus presentation (pre-stimulus TMS time window). This pre-stimulus TMS effect, however, remains controversially debated and its origin had mainly been ascribed to TMS-induced eye-blinking artifacts. Here, we applied chronometric TMS over EVC during the execution of a visual discrimination task, covering an exhaustive range of visual stimulus-locked TMS time windows ranging from -80 pre-stimulus to 300 ms post-stimulus onset. Electrooculographical (EoG) recordings, sham TMS stimulation, and vertex TMS stimulation controlled for different types of non-neural TMS effects. Our findings clearly reveal TMS-induced masking effects for both pre- and post-stimulus time windows, and for both objective visual discrimination performance and subjective visibility. Importantly, all effects proved to be still present after post hoc removal of eye blink trials, suggesting a neural origin for the pre-stimulus TMS suppression effect on visual awareness. We speculate based on our data that TMS exerts its pre-stimulus effect via generation of a neural state which interacts with subsequent visual input. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Polysheroidal periodic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truskova, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    Separation of variables in the Helmholtz N-dimensional (N≥4) equation in polyspheroidal coordinate systems leads to the necessity of solving equations going over into equations for polyspheroidal periodic functions used for solving the two-centre problem in quantum mechanics, the three-body problem with Coulomb interaction, etc. For these functions the expansions are derived in terms of the Jacobi polynomials and Bessel functions. Their basic properties, asymptotics are considered. The algorithm of their computer calculations is developed. The results of numerical calculations are given

  18. Smoking Patterns and Stimulus Control in Intermittent and Daily Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S.; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah M.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Ferguson, Stuart G.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent smokers (ITS) – who smoke less than daily – comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4–27 days per month) compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5–30 cigarettes daily) who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n = 21,539 smoking episodes); parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n = 26,930 non-smoking occasions). Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or “indulgent” smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS. PMID:24599056

  19. Coding space-time stimulus dynamics in auditory brain maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyan eWang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory maps are often distorted representations of the environment, where ethologically-important ranges are magnified. The implication of a biased representation extends beyond increased acuity for having more neurons dedicated to a certain range. Because neurons are functionally interconnected, non-uniform representations influence the processing of high-order features that rely on comparison across areas of the map. Among these features are time-dependent changes of the auditory scene generated by moving objects. How sensory representation affects high order processing can be approached in the map of auditory space of the owl’s midbrain, where locations in the front are over-represented. In this map, neurons are selective not only to location but also to location over time. The tuning to space over time leads to direction selectivity, which is also topographically organized. Across the population, neurons tuned to peripheral space are more selective to sounds moving into the front. The distribution of direction selectivity can be explained by spatial and temporal integration on the non-uniform map of space. Thus, the representation of space can induce biased computation of a second-order stimulus feature. This phenomenon is likely observed in other sensory maps and may be relevant for behavior.

  20. Control effects of stimulus paradigms on characteristic firings of parkinsonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghui; Wang, Qingyun; Chen, Guanrong

    2014-09-01

    Experimental studies have shown that neuron population located in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primates can exhibit characteristic firings with certain firing rates differing from normal brain activities. Motivated by recent experimental findings, we investigate the effects of various stimulation paradigms on the firing rates of parkinsonism based on the proposed dynamical models. Our results show that the closed-loop deep brain stimulation is superior in ameliorating the firing behaviors of the parkinsonism, and other control strategies have similar effects according to the observation of electrophysiological experiments. In addition, in conformity to physiological experiments, we found that there exists optimal delay of input in the closed-loop GPtrain|M1 paradigm, where more normal behaviors can be obtained. More interestingly, we observed that W-shaped curves of the firing rates always appear as stimulus delay varies. We furthermore verify the robustness of the obtained results by studying three pallidal discharge rates of the parkinsonism based on the conductance-based model, as well as the integrate-and-fire-or-burst model. Finally, we show that short-term plasticity can improve the firing rates and optimize the control effects on parkinsonism. Our conclusions may give more theoretical insight into Parkinson's disease studies.

  1. Smoking patterns and stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Shiffman

    Full Text Available Intermittent smokers (ITS - who smoke less than daily - comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4-27 days per month compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5-30 cigarettes daily who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n=21,539 smoking episodes; parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n=26,930 non-smoking occasions. Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or "indulgent" smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS.

  2. Accessory stimulus modulates executive function during stepping task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tatsunori; Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo; Nojima, Ippei

    2015-07-01

    When multiple sensory modalities are simultaneously presented, reaction time can be reduced while interference enlarges. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of task-irrelevant acoustic accessory stimuli simultaneously presented with visual imperative stimuli on executive function during stepping. Executive functions were assessed by analyzing temporal events and errors in the initial weight transfer of the postural responses prior to a step (anticipatory postural adjustment errors). Eleven healthy young adults stepped forward in response to a visual stimulus. We applied a choice reaction time task and the Simon task, which consisted of congruent and incongruent conditions. Accessory stimuli were randomly presented with the visual stimuli. Compared with trials without accessory stimuli, the anticipatory postural adjustment error rates were higher in trials with accessory stimuli in the incongruent condition and the reaction times were shorter in trials with accessory stimuli in all the task conditions. Analyses after division of trials according to whether anticipatory postural adjustment error occurred or not revealed that the reaction times of trials with anticipatory postural adjustment errors were reduced more than those of trials without anticipatory postural adjustment errors in the incongruent condition. These results suggest that accessory stimuli modulate the initial motor programming of stepping by lowering decision threshold and exclusively under spatial incompatibility facilitate automatic response activation. The present findings advance the knowledge of intersensory judgment processes during stepping and may aid in the development of intervention and evaluation tools for individuals at risk of falls. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Vibration sensory thresholds depend on pressure of applied stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, L M; Hockaday, T D

    1987-01-01

    Vibration sensory thresholds (VSTs) were estimated in 40 healthy subjects and 8 with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A vibrameter and a biothesiometer were used at four sites and at differing pressures. In normal subjects, with the vibrameter at 200 g, mean VST +/- SE for all sites was 1.87 micron +/- 0.22 and at 400 g dropped to 1.08 micron +/- 0.15 (P less than .0001). In 20 of these subjects with a biothesiometer at 200 and 400 g, mean VST fell from 12.8 +/- 1.5 to 11.1 +/- 1.1 (arbitrary units) (P = .01) when the greater pressure was applied. In the 8 subjects with peripheral neuropathy, with the vibrameter at 200 and 400 g, respectively, mean VST fell from 70.7 +/- 26 to 7.2 +/- 1.8. VST in these subjects was estimated again after 1 mo and showed strong correlations with the previous values. Biothesiometer results correlated with vibrameter results at all sites. Thus, VST decreases as the pressure of the applied stimulus is increased and this effect appears to be more marked in peripheral neuropathy. This has important consequences in monitoring this condition.

  4. STIMULUS TO SOCIAL PARTICIPATION IN HEALTH COUNCILS through medicine students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Káritas Rios Lima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The project “Management Strengthining and Stimulus toSocial Participation in Health Councils in Federal Districtthrough Medicine Students and a Strategic Partnership withHealth Family Program Professionals” was developed fromJune to December 2005 in two stages: Area diagnosis of Arealin Taguatinga-DF and Strategic Planning. The objectivewas to qualify and increase the councilors partici pation onthe Health Council making his action more effective. Severalmethodologies were used in the project stages. The Fast PartakingEstimative, the Health center 5 Room of Situation dataanalyses, and the user satisfaction (assessed though questionnaireswere applied during the area diagnosis. The StrategicPlanning was a result of the data analysis collected on thediagnosis stage when the main problems were detected as wellas propositions for their resolutions were made. The resultsreveled socio-economic and cultural contrast, defi cient basicattention to health, ineffective education, inadequate pavementand sewage disposal system. The project provides the medicinestudents an opportunity to get involved in a reality which is achallenge to the social control of public health care policies.

  5. Dynamic binding of visual features by neuronal/stimulus synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, A

    1998-05-01

    When people see a visual scene, certain parts of the visual scene are treated as belonging together and we regard them as a perceptual unit, which is called a "figure". People focus on figures, and the remaining parts of the scene are disregarded as "ground". In Gestalt psychology this process is called "figure-ground segregation". According to current perceptual psychology, a figure is formed by binding various visual features in a scene, and developments in neuroscience have revealed that there are many feature-encoding neurons, which respond to such features specifically. It is not known, however, how the brain binds different features of an object into a coherent visual object representation. Recently, the theory of binding by neuronal synchrony, which argues that feature binding is dynamically mediated by neuronal synchrony of feature-encoding neurons, has been proposed. This review article portrays the problem of figure-ground segregation and features binding, summarizes neurophysiological and psychophysical experiments and theory relevant to feature binding by neuronal/stimulus synchrony, and suggests possible directions for future research on this topic.

  6. Decoupling Stimulus Duration from Brightness in Metacontrast Masking: Data and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lollo, Vincent; Muhlenen, Adrian von; Enns, James T.; Bridgeman, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    A brief target that is visible when displayed alone can be rendered invisible by a trailing stimulus (metacontrast masking). It has been difficult to determine the temporal dynamics of masking to date because increments in stimulus duration have been invariably confounded with apparent brightness (Bloch's law). In the research reported here,…

  7. The perception of regularity in an isochronous stimulus in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, J.; Honing, H.; ten Cate, C.

    2015-01-01

    Perceiving temporal regularity in an auditory stimulus is considered one of the basic features of musicality. Here we examine whether zebra finches can detect regularity in an isochronous stimulus. Using a go/no go paradigm we show that zebra finches are able to distinguish between an isochronous

  8. Positive and negative affect produce opposing task-irrelevant stimulus preexposure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Josef; Kaplan, Oren; Sternberg, Terri; Lubow, R E

    2012-06-01

    In three experiments, groups were exposed to either positive or negative affect video clips, after which they were presented with a series of task-irrelevant stimuli. In the subsequent test task, subjects were required to learn an association between the previously irrelevant stimulus and a consequence, and between a new stimulus and a consequence. Induced positive affect produced a latent inhibition effect (poorer evidence of learning with the previously irrelevant stimulus than with the novel stimulus). In opposition to this, induced negative affect resulted in better evidence of learning with a previously irrelevant stimulus than with a novel stimulus. In general, the opposing effects also were present in participants scoring high on self-report questionnaires of depression (Experiments 2 and 3). These unique findings were predicted and accounted for on the basis of two principles: (a) positive affect broadens the attentional field and negative affect contracts it; and (b) task-irrelevant stimuli are processed in two successive stages, the first encodes stimulus properties, and the second encodes stimulus relationships. The opposing influences of negative and positive mood on the processing of irrelevant stimuli have implications for the role of emotion in general theories of cognition, and possibly for resolving some of the inconsistent findings in research with schizophrenia patients.

  9. Stimulus Competition in Pre/Post and Online Ratings in an Evaluative Learning Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkis, Helena M.; Lipp, Ottmar V.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluative learning is said to differ from Pavlovian associative learning in that it reflects stimulus contiguity, not contingency. Thus, evaluative learning should not be subject to stimulus competition, a proposal tested in the current experiments. Participants were presented in elemental and compound training phases with pictures of shapes as…

  10. The Effects of Stimulus Presentation Rate on the Short-Term Memory of Learning Disabled Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, Sara G.; Ellsworth, Patricia S.

    To test the hypothesis that the developmental lag in verbal rehearsal which has been documented for the learning disabled is due to a naming speed deficit (i.e., slow retrieval of stimulus names), the serial recall performance of 64 learning disabled children at four grade levels (1, 3, 5, and 7) was compared under three stimulus presentation…

  11. Stimulus number, duration and intensity encoding in randomly connected attractor networks with synaptic depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eMiller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Randomly connected recurrent networks of excitatory groups of neurons can possess a multitude of attractor states. When the internal excitatory synapses of these networks are depressing, the attractor states can be destabilized with increasing input. This leads to an itinerancy, where with either repeated transient stimuli, or increasing duration of a single stimulus, the network activity advances through sequences of attractor states. We find that the resulting network state, which persists beyond stimulus offset, can encode the number of stimuli presented via a distributed representation of neural activity with non-monotonic tuning curves for most neurons. Increased duration of a single stimulus is encoded via different distributed representations, so unlike an integrator, the network distinguishes separate successive presentations of a short stimulus from a single presentation of a longer stimulus with equal total duration. Moreover, different amplitudes of stimulus cause new, distinct activity patterns, such that changes in stimulus number, duration and amplitude can be distinguished from each other. These properties of the network depend on dynamic depressing synapses, as they disappear if synapses are static. Thus short-term synaptic depression allows a network to store separately the different dynamic properties of a spatially constant stimulus.

  12. A Fundamental Study on Influence of Concurrently Presented Visual Stimulus Upon Loudness Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Abe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As a basic study on the influence of the dynamic properties of the audio-visual stimuli upon interaction between audition and vision, the effect of the simple movement involved in the visual stimulus on the loudness perception of the audio stimulus was investigated via psychophysical experiment. In this experiment, the visual stimulus given to subjects along with the audio stimulus is a bar appeared on a display, one side of which is flexibly expanding and contracting. The loudness of the audio stimulus with such a visual effect concurrently presented was rated as an absolute numerical value by using the Magnitude Estimation method. The reference of the bar length is determined so as to correspond to the Zwicker's loudness calculated for the given audio stimulus. As a result, the visual stimulus did not affect the loudness perception, when the bar was presented with its length same as the reference. On the other hand, the rating of the loudness for the same audio stimulus was significantly increased when the bar length was longer than the reference. This indicates that the change in the correspondence between the audio and the visual stimuli affect the loudness perception.

  13. Measuring consciousness: Task accuracy and awareness as sigmoid functions of stimulus duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Bibby, Bo Martin; Timmermans, B

    2011-01-01

    certain limitations. In the present article, we propose describing task accuracy and awareness as functions of stimulus intensity (thus obtaining an accuracy and an awareness curve) as suggested by Koch and Preuschoff (2007). The estimated lag between the curves describes how much stimulus intensity must...

  14. Evaluation of an Efficient Method for Training Staff to Implement Stimulus Preference Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Eileen M.; Fisher, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    We used a brief training procedure that incorporated feedback and role-play practice to train staff members to conduct stimulus preference assessments, and we used group-comparison methods to evaluate the effects of training. Staff members were trained to implement the multiple-stimulus-without-replacement assessment in a single session and the…

  15. Variables Influencing Stimulus Overselectivity and "Tunnel Vision" in Developmentally Delayed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincover, Arnold; Ducharme, Joseph M.

    1987-01-01

    Three variables (diagnosis, location of cues, and mental age of learners) influencing stimulus control and stimulus overselectivity were assessed with eight autistic children (mean age 12 years) and eight average children matched for mean age. Among results were that autistic subjects tended to respond overselectively only in the extra-stimulus…

  16. Effects of Stimulus Characteristics and Background Music on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning and Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Annette M. B.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of three stimulus variables and background music on paired-associate learning of foreign language (FL) vocabulary. The stimulus variables were the frequency and concreteness of the native language (L1) words and the (phonotactical) typicality of the FL words. Sixty-four L1-FL pairs were presented for learning six…

  17. Varieties of Stimulus Control in Matching-to-Sample: A Kernel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Lanny; Garruto, Michelle; Watanabe, Mari

    2010-01-01

    Conditional discrimination or matching-to-sample procedures have been used to study a wide range of complex psychological phenomena with infrahuman and human subjects. In most studies, the percentage of trials in which a subject selects the comparison stimulus that is related to the sample stimulus is used to index the control exerted by the…

  18. Pavlovian-Instrumental Transfer of the Discriminative Stimulus Effects of Nicotine and Ethanol in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Joseph R., II

    2006-01-01

    To date, only 1 study has evaluated the impact of a Pavlovian drug conditional stimulus (CS) on operant responding. A within-subject operant 1-lever go/no-go (across sessions) design was used to evaluate the impact of Pavlovian contingencies on the discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) and ethanol (800 mg/kg) in male Sprague…

  19. Stimulus responsive hydrogel-coated etched fiber Bragg grating for carcinogenic chromium (VI) sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Pabbisetti Vayu Nandana; Madhuvarasu, Sai Shankar; Moru, Satyanarayana

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a chemo-mechanical-optical sensing approach for the detection of carcinogenic chromium (VI) metal ion using an etched fiber Bragg grating (FBG) coated with stimulus responsive hydrogel. Hydrogel synthesized from the blends of (3-acrylamidopropyl)-trimethylammonium chloride, which is highly responsive to chromium ions suffers a volume change when placed in Cr solution. When the proposed sensor system is exposed to various concentrations of Cr (VI) ion solution, FBG peak shifts due to the mechanical strain induced by the swelling of the hydrogel. The peak shift is correlated with the concentration of the Cr (VI) metal ion. Due to the reduction in the cladding diameter of FBG, wastage of swelling force due to hydrogel on FBG is lowered and utilized for more wavelength peak shift of FBG resulting in the increase in the sensitivity. The resolution of the sensor system is found to be 0.072 ppb. Trace amounts of chromium (VI) ion as low as 10 ppb can be sensed by this method. The sensor has shown good sensitivity, selectivity, and repeatability. The salient features of the sensors are its compact size, light weight, and adoptability for remote monitoring.

  20. Possible mechanisms of perception and realization of gravitation stimulus in cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tairbekov, M.G.; Gabova, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Numerous studies conducted for various types of cells and cell associations (in vivo, in vitro, in citu) under changed gravity (micro-, hypo- and hyperogravity) and using clinostat, centrifuge and conducted on-board of the space vehicles were analyzed. It was shown that the degree of gravitation sensitivity of cells was determined mainly by the level of their metabolic activity, while the morphological characteristics of cells (their type, dimension, form) were of the secondary importance. For single-celled organisms the gravitation sensitivity was in direct proportion to their functional activity, while for multicellular ones - to mass and dimensions of a body. When one tries to visualize how gravity affects biological systems of various arrangement levels one manages to visualize the regularities and the ways of origination and evolution of life on the Earth [ru

  1. Phenomenology and Clinical Correlates of Stimulus-Bound Tics in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Janik

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stimulus-bound tics (SBTs belong to stimulus-induced behaviors and are defined as tics that occur in response to internal or external stimuli. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and associations of SBTs with other stimulus-triggered behaviors, premonitory urges and stimulus sensitization in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS.Methods: We performed a prospective, one-registration study in a cohort of 140 consecutive patients with GTS. Duration of GTS was 10.6 ± 8.7 years (range: 0–39 years. SBTs were diagnosed during the interview.Results: SBTs occurred at some point in the lifetime of 20.7% of patients. The presence of SBTs in adults was four times as frequent as in children (35.5% vs. 9.0% with the most frequent onset in adolescence (58.8% and adulthood (29.4%. These tics started 9.1 ± 4.7 years after the onset of tics. One stimulus and mental stimulus preceded tics most frequently, 44.8 and 33.3%, respectively. There was no established pattern of tics triggered by stimuli. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed significant associations of SBTs with age at evaluation, tic severity, and palilalia but not with any co-morbid psychiatric disorders. 80% of patients showed at least one stimulus-triggered behavior. Premonitory urges and stimulus sensitization were reported by 60.0 and 40.7% of patients, respectively. No significant correlations between SBTs, premonitory urges and stimulus sensitization were found.Conclusion: SBTs are a part of the tic spectrum and should be taken into account by clinicians who deal with GTS patients. These tics fall at the tic end of the continuum of stimulus-induced behaviors.

  2. Stimulus-dependent spiking relationships with the EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    The development and refinement of noninvasive techniques for imaging neural activity is of paramount importance for human neuroscience. Currently, the most accessible and popular technique is electroencephalography (EEG). However, nearly all of what we know about the neural events that underlie EEG signals is based on inference, because of the dearth of studies that have simultaneously paired EEG recordings with direct recordings of single neurons. From the perspective of electrophysiologists there is growing interest in understanding how spiking activity coordinates with large-scale cortical networks. Evidence from recordings at both scales highlights that sensory neurons operate in very distinct states during spontaneous and visually evoked activity, which appear to form extremes in a continuum of coordination in neural networks. We hypothesized that individual neurons have idiosyncratic relationships to large-scale network activity indexed by EEG signals, owing to the neurons' distinct computational roles within the local circuitry. We tested this by recording neuronal populations in visual area V4 of rhesus macaques while we simultaneously recorded EEG. We found substantial heterogeneity in the timing and strength of spike-EEG relationships and that these relationships became more diverse during visual stimulation compared with the spontaneous state. The visual stimulus apparently shifts V4 neurons from a state in which they are relatively uniformly embedded in large-scale network activity to a state in which their distinct roles within the local population are more prominent, suggesting that the specific way in which individual neurons relate to EEG signals may hold clues regarding their computational roles. PMID:26108954

  3. Stimulus-dependent effects on right ear advantage in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smucny J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jason Smucny,1,3 Korey Wylie,3 Jason Tregellas1–31Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Research Science, Denver VA Medical, Center, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USABackground: When presented with different sounds in each ear (dichotic listening, healthy subjects typically show a preference for stimuli heard in the right ear, an effect termed "right ear advantage". Previous studies examining right ear advantage in schizophrenia have been inconsistent, showing either decreased or increased advantage relative to comparison subjects. Given evidence for enhanced semantic processing in schizophrenia, some of this inconsistency may be due to the type of stimuli presented (words or syllables. The present study examined right ear advantage in patients and controls using both words and syllables as stimuli.Methods: Right ear advantage was compared between 20 patients with schizophrenia and 17 healthy controls. Two versions of the task were used, ie, a consonant-vowel pairing task and a fused rhymed words task.Results: A significant group × task interaction was observed. Relative to healthy controls, patients showed a greater difference on the syllable-based task compared with the word-based task. The number of distractors marked during the syllable-based task was inversely correlated with score on the Global Assessment of Function Scale.Conclusion: The findings are consistent with a left hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia, but also suggest that differences may be stimulus-specific, with a relative sparing of the deficit in the context of word stimuli. Performance may be related to measures of social, occupational, and psychological function.Keywords: schizophrenia, right ear advantage, dichotic, distraction

  4. Comparative assessment of intrinsic mechanical stimuli on knee cartilage and compressed agarose constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Completo, A; Bandeiras, C; Fonseca, F

    2017-06-01

    A well-established cue for improving the properties of tissue-engineered cartilage is mechanical stimulation. However, the explicit ranges of mechanical stimuli that correspond to favorable metabolic outcomes are elusive. Usually, these outcomes have only been associated with the applied strain and frequency, an oversimplification that can hide the fundamental relationship between the intrinsic mechanical stimuli and the metabolic outcomes. This highlights two important key issues: the firstly is related to the evaluation of the intrinsic mechanical stimuli of native cartilage; the second, assuming that the intrinsic mechanical stimuli will be important, deals with the ability to replicate them on the tissue-engineered constructs. This study quantifies and compares the volume of cartilage and agarose subjected to a given magnitude range of each intrinsic mechanical stimulus, through a numerical simulation of a patient-specific knee model coupled with experimental data of contact during the stance phase of gait, and agarose constructs under direct-dynamic compression. The results suggest that direct compression loading needs to be parameterized with time-dependence during the initial culture period in order to better reproduce each one of the intrinsic mechanical stimuli developed in the patient-specific cartilage. A loading regime which combines time periods of low compressive strain (5%) and frequency (0.5Hz), in order to approach the maximal principal strain and fluid velocity stimulus of the patient-specific cartilage, with time periods of high compressive strain (20%) and frequency (3Hz), in order to approach the pore pressure values, may be advantageous relatively to a single loading regime throughout the full culture period. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparing different stimulus configurations for population receptive field mapping in human fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan eAlvarez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Population receptive field (pRF mapping is a widely used approach to measuring aggregate human visual receptive field properties by recording non-invasive signals using functional MRI. Despite growing interest, no study to date has systematically investigated the effects of different stimulus configurations on pRF estimates from human visual cortex. Here we compared the effects of three different stimulus configurations on a model-based approach to pRF estimation: size-invariant bars and eccentricity-scaled bars defined in Cartesian coordinates and traveling along the cardinal axes, and a novel simultaneous ‘wedge and ring’ stimulus defined in polar coordinates, systematically covering polar and eccentricity axes. We found that the presence or absence of eccentricity scaling had a significant effect on goodness of fit and pRF size estimates. Further, variability in pRF size estimates was directly influenced by stimulus configuration, particularly for higher visual areas including V5/MT+. Finally, we compared eccentricity estimation between phase-encoded and model-based pRF approaches. We observed a tendency for more peripheral eccentricity estimates using phase-encoded methods, independent of stimulus size. We conclude that both eccentricity scaling and polar rather than Cartesian stimulus configuration are important considerations for optimal experimental design in pRF mapping. While all stimulus configurations produce adequate estimates, simultaneous wedge and ring stimulation produced higher fit reliability, with a significant advantage in reduced acquisition time.

  6. In vivo stimulus presentation to the mouse vomeronasal system: Surgery, experiment, setup, and software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoles-Frenkel, Michal; Cohen, Oksana; Bansal, Rohini; Horesh, Noa; Ben-Shaul, Yoram

    2017-06-15

    Achieving controlled stimulus delivery is a major challenge in the physiological analysis of the vomeronasal system (VNS). We provide a comprehensive description of a setup allowing controlled stimulus delivery into the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of anesthetized mice. VNO suction is achieved via electrical stimulation of the sympathetic nerve trunk (SNT) using cuff electrodes, followed by flushing of the nasal cavity. Successful application of this methodology depends on several aspects including the surgical preparation, fabrication of cuff electrodes, experimental setup modifications, and the stimulus delivery and flushing. Here, we describe all these aspects in sufficient detail to allow other researchers to readily adopt it. We also present a custom written MATLAB based software with a graphical user interface that controls all aspects of the actual experiment, including trial sequencing, hardware control, and data logging. The method allows measurement of stimulus evoked sensory responses in brain regions that receive vomeronasal inputs. An experienced investigator can complete the entire surgical procedure within thirty minutes. This is the only approach that allows repeated and controlled stimulus delivery to the intact VNO, employing the natural mode of stimulus uptake. The approach is economical with respect to stimuli, requiring stimulus volumes as low as 1-2μl. This comprehensive description will allow other investigators to adapt this setup to their own experimental needs and can thus promote our physiological understanding of this fascinating chemosensory system. With minor changes it can also be adapted for other rodent species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reaction time for processing visual stimulus in a computer-assisted rehabilitation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Yerly; Pinzon, David; Zheng, Bin

    2017-10-01

    To examine the reaction time when human subjects process information presented in the visual channel under both a direct vision and a virtual rehabilitation environment when walking was performed. Visual stimulus included eight math problems displayed on the peripheral vision to seven healthy human subjects in a virtual rehabilitation training (computer-assisted rehabilitation environment (CAREN)) and a direct vision environment. Subjects were required to verbally report the results of these math calculations in a short period of time. Reaction time measured by Tobii Eye tracker and calculation accuracy were recorded and compared between the direct vision and virtual rehabilitation environment. Performance outcomes measured for both groups included reaction time, reading time, answering time and the verbal answer score. A significant difference between the groups was only found for the reaction time (p = .004). Participants had more difficulty recognizing the first equation of the virtual environment. Participants reaction time was faster in the direct vision environment. This reaction time delay should be kept in mind when designing skill training scenarios in virtual environments. This was a pilot project to a series of studies assessing cognition ability of stroke patients who are undertaking a rehabilitation program with a virtual training environment. Implications for rehabilitation Eye tracking is a reliable tool that can be employed in rehabilitation virtual environments. Reaction time changes between direct vision and virtual environment.

  8. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  9. Adaptive stimulus optimization and model-based experiments for sensory systems neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher eDiMattina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review several lines of recent work aimed at developing practical methods for adaptive on-line stimulus generation for sensory neurophysiology. We consider various experimental paradigms where on-line stimulus optimization is utilized, including the classical textit{optimal stimulus} paradigm where the goal of experiments is to identify a stimulus which maximizes neural responses, the textit{iso-response} paradigm which finds sets of stimuli giving rise to constant responses, and the textit{system identification} paradigm where the experimental goal is to estimate and possibly compare sensory processing models. We discuss various theoretical and practical aspects of adaptive firing rate optimization, including optimization with stimulus space constraints, firing rate adaptation, and possible network constraints on the optimal stimulus. We consider the problem of system identification, and show how accurate estimation of nonlinear models can be highly dependent on the stimulus set used to probe the network. We suggest that optimizing stimuli for accurate model estimation may make it possible to successfully identify nonlinear models which are otherwise intractable, and summarize several recent studies of this type. Finally, we present a two-stage stimulus design procedure which combines the dual goals of model estimation and model comparison and may be especially useful for system identification experiments where the appropriate model is unknown beforehand. We propose that fast, on-line stimulus optimization enabled by increasing computer power can make it practical to move sensory neuroscience away from a descriptive paradigm and towards a new paradigm of real-time model estimation and comparison.

  10. Stimulus-response correspondence effect as a function of temporal overlap between relevant and irrelevant information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Yuan Debbie; Richard, F Dan; Ray, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    The stimulus-response correspondence (SRC) effect refers to advantages in performance when stimulus and response correspond in dimensions or features, even if the common features are irrelevant to the task. Previous research indicated that the SRC effect depends on the temporal course of stimulus information processing. The current study investigated how the temporal overlap between relevant and irrelevant stimulus processing influences the SRC effect. In this experiment, the irrelevant stimulus (a previously associated tone) preceded the relevant stimulus (a coloured rectangle). The irrelevant and relevant stimuli onset asynchrony was varied to manipulate the temporal overlap between the irrelevant and relevant stimuli processing. Results indicated that the SRC effect size varied as a quadratic function of the temporal overlap between the relevant stimulus and irrelevant stimulus. This finding extends previous experimental observations that the SRC effect size varies in an increasing or decreasing function with reaction time. The current study demonstrated a quadratic function between effect size and the temporal overlap.

  11. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease are associated with dysfunction in stimulus valuation but not action valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piray, Payam; Zeighami, Yashar; Bahrami, Fariba; Eissa, Abeer M; Hewedi, Doaa H; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2014-06-04

    A substantial subset of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suffers from impulse control disorders (ICDs), which are side effects of dopaminergic medication. Dopamine plays a key role in reinforcement learning processes. One class of reinforcement learning models, known as the actor-critic model, suggests that two components are involved in these reinforcement learning processes: a critic, which estimates values of stimuli and calculates prediction errors, and an actor, which estimates values of potential actions. To understand the information processing mechanism underlying impulsive behavior, we investigated stimulus and action value learning from reward and punishment in four groups of participants: on-medication PD patients with ICD, on-medication PD patients without ICD, off-medication PD patients without ICD, and healthy controls. Analysis of responses suggested that participants used an actor-critic learning strategy and computed prediction errors based on stimulus values rather than action values. Quantitative model fits also revealed that an actor-critic model of the basal ganglia with different learning rates for positive and negative prediction errors best matched the choice data. Moreover, whereas ICDs were associated with model parameters related to stimulus valuation (critic), PD was associated with parameters related to action valuation (actor). Specifically, PD patients with ICD exhibited lower learning from negative prediction errors in the critic, resulting in an underestimation of adverse consequences associated with stimuli. These findings offer a specific neurocomputational account of the nature of compulsive behaviors induced by dopaminergic drugs. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347814-11$15.00/0.

  12. Maturation Modulates Pharyngeal-Stimulus Provoked Pharyngeal and Respiratory Rhythms in Human Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenstab, Kathryn A; Sitaram, Swetha; Lang, Ivan M; Shaker, Reza; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R

    2018-02-01

    Pharyngeal-provocation induced aerodigestive symptoms in infants remain an enigma. Sources of pharyngeal provocation can be anterograde as with feeding, and retrograde as in gastroesophageal reflux. We determined maturational and dose-response effects of targeted pharyngeal-stimulus on frequency, stability, and magnitude of pharyngeal and respiratory waveforms during multiple pharyngeal swallowing responses in preterm-born infants when they were of full-term postmenstrual age (PMA). Eighteen infants (11 male) were studied longitudinally at 39.8 ± 4.8 weeks PMA (time-1) and 44.1 ± 5.8 weeks PMA (time-2). Infants underwent concurrent pharyngo-esophageal manometry, respiratory inductance plethysmography, and nasal airflow thermistor methods to test sensory-motor interactions between the pharynx, esophagus, and airway. Linear mixed models were used and data presented as mean ± SEM or %. Overall, responses to 250 stimuli were analyzed. Of the multiple pharyngeal swallowing responses (n = 160), with maturation (a) deglutition apnea duration decreases (p  0.05), and (c) respiratory changes were unaffected (p > 0.05). Initial and subsequent pharyngeal responses and respiratory rhythm interactions become more distinct with maturation. Interval oromotor experiences and volume-dependent increase in adaptive responses may be contributory. These mechanisms may be important in modulating and restoring respiratory rhythm normalcy.

  13. Widespread uncoupling between transcriptome and translatome variations after a stimulus in mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebaldi Toma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classical view on eukaryotic gene expression proposes the scheme of a forward flow for which fluctuations in mRNA levels upon a stimulus contribute to determine variations in mRNA availability for translation. Here we address this issue by simultaneously profiling with microarrays the total mRNAs (the transcriptome and the polysome-associated mRNAs (the translatome after EGF treatment of human cells, and extending the analysis to other 19 different transcriptome/translatome comparisons in mammalian cells following different stimuli or undergoing cell programs. Results Triggering of the EGF pathway results in an early induction of transcriptome and translatome changes, but 90% of the significant variation is limited to the translatome and the degree of concordant changes is less than 5%. The survey of other 19 different transcriptome/translatome comparisons shows that extensive uncoupling is a general rule, in terms of both RNA movements and inferred cell activities, with a strong tendency of translation-related genes to be controlled purely at the translational level. By different statistical approaches, we finally provide evidence of the lack of dependence between changes at the transcriptome and translatome levels. Conclusions We propose a model of diffused independency between variation in transcript abundances and variation in their engagement on polysomes, which implies the existence of specific mechanisms to couple these two ways of regulating gene expression.

  14. Electrohydrodynamic fibrillation governed enhanced thermal transport in dielectric colloids under a field stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Purbarun; Maganti, Lakshmi Sirisha; Harikrishnan, A R

    2018-05-30

    Electrorheological (ER) fluids are known to exhibit enhanced viscous effects under an electric field stimulus. The present article reports the hitherto unreported phenomenon of greatly enhanced thermal conductivity in such electro-active colloidal dispersions in the presence of an externally applied electric field. Typical ER fluids are synthesized employing dielectric fluids and nanoparticles and experiments are performed employing an in-house designed setup. Greatly augmented thermal conductivity under a field's influence was observed. Enhanced thermal conduction along the fibril structures under the field effect is theorized as the crux of the mechanism. The formation of fibril structures has also been experimentally verified employing microscopy. Based on classical models for ER fluids, a mathematical formalism has been developed to predict the propensity of chain formation and statistically feasible chain dynamics at given Mason numbers. Further, a thermal resistance network model is employed to computationally predict the enhanced thermal conduction across the fibrillary colloid microstructure. Good agreement between the mathematical model and the experimental observations is achieved. The domineering role of thermal conductivity over relative permittivity has been shown by proposing a modified Hashin-Shtrikman (HS) formalism. The findings have implications towards better physical understanding and design of ER fluids from both 'smart' viscoelastic as well as thermally active materials points of view.

  15. Face distortion aftereffects evoked by featureless first-order stimulus configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pál eVakli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available After prolonged exposure to a distorted face with expanded or contracted inner features, a subsequently presented normal face appears distorted towards the opposite direction. This phenomenon, termed as face distortion aftereffect (FDAE, is thought to occur as a result of changes in the mechanisms involved in higher order visual processing. However, the extent to which FDAE is mediated by face-specific configural processing is less known. In the present study, we investigated whether similar aftereffects can be induced by stimuli lacking all the typical characteristics of a human face except for its first-order configural properties. We found a significant FDAE after adaptation to a stimulus consisting of three white dots arranged in a triangular fashion and placed in a grey oval. FDAEs occurred also when the adapting and test stimuli differed in size or when the contrast polarity of the adaptor image was changed. However, the inversion of the adapting image as well as the reduction of its contrast abolished the aftereffect entirely. Taken together, our results suggest that higher-level visual areas, which are involved in the processing of facial configurations, mediate the FDAE. Further, while adaptation seems to be largely invariant to contrast polarity, it appears sensitive to orientation and to lower level manipulations that affect the saliency of the inner features.

  16. Concurrent OCT imaging of stimulus evoked retinal neural activation and hemodynamic responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Taeyoon; Wang, Benquan; Lu, Yiming; Chen, Yanjun; Cao, Dingcai; Yao, Xincheng

    2017-02-01

    It is well established that major retinal diseases involve distortions of the retinal neural physiology and blood vascular structures. However, the details of distortions in retinal neurovascular coupling associated with major eye diseases are not well understood. In this study, a multi-modal optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system was developed to enable concurrent imaging of retinal neural activity and vascular hemodynamics. Flicker light stimulation was applied to mouse retinas to evoke retinal neural responses and hemodynamic changes. The OCT images were acquired continuously during the pre-stimulation, light-stimulation, and post-stimulation phases. Stimulus-evoked intrinsic optical signals (IOSs) and hemodynamic changes were observed over time in blood-free and blood regions, respectively. Rapid IOSs change occurred almost immediately after stimulation. Both positive and negative signals were observed in adjacent retinal areas. The hemodynamic changes showed time delays after stimulation. The signal magnitudes induced by light stimulation were observed in blood regions and did not show significant changes in blood-free regions. These differences may arise from different mechanisms in blood vessels and neural tissues in response to light stimulation. These characteristics agreed well with our previous observations in mouse retinas. Further development of the multimodal OCT may provide a new imaging method for studying how retinal structures and metabolic and neural functions are affected by age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), and other diseases, which promises novel noninvasive biomarkers for early disease detection and reliable treatment evaluations of eye diseases.

  17. Effects of heat treatment on the morphology of long-period stacking ordered phase and the corresponding mechanical properties of Mg–9Gd–xEr–1.6Zn–0.6Zr magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jingfeng; Song, Pengfei; Huang, Song; Pan, Fusheng

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of heat treatment on the morphology of long-period stacking ordered phase (LPSO) and the corresponding mechanical properties of Mg–9Gd–xEr–1.6Zn–0.6Zr (1–4 wt%) using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and tensile tests. The microstructure analysis of the as cast alloys showed that the volume fraction of the (Mg, Zn) 3 (Gd, Er) phase increased with increasing Er content. The (Mg, Zn) 3 (Gd, Er) phase in grain boundaries transformed into the 14H-LPSO phase Mg 12 Zn(Gd, Er) after heat treatment between 400 °C and 515 °C. The bulk shaped LPSO phases distributed along the grain boundaries produced isometric crystal grains in and enhanced the ductility of the as-extruded alloys. However, the lamellar LPSO phases precipitating in the grain interior induced strip-shaped grains in and improved the strength of the as-extruded alloys

  18. Stimulus-dependent modulation of spike burst length in cat striate cortical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBusk, B C; DeBruyn, E J; Snider, R K; Kabara, J F; Bonds, A B

    1997-07-01

    Burst activity, defined by groups of two or more spikes with intervals of cats. Bursting varied broadly across a population of 507 simple and complex cells. Half of this population had > or = 42% of their spikes contained in bursts. The fraction of spikes in bursts did not vary as a function of average firing rate and was stationary over time. Peaks in the interspike interval histograms were found at both 3-5 ms and 10-30 ms. In many cells the locations of these peaks were independent of firing rate, indicating a quantized control of firing behavior at two different time scales. The activity at the shorter time scale most likely results from intrinsic properties of the cell membrane, and that at the longer scale from recurrent network excitation. Burst frequency (bursts per s) and burst length (spikes per burst) both depended on firing rate. Burst frequency was essentially linear with firing rate, whereas burst length was a nonlinear function of firing rate and was also governed by stimulus orientation. At a given firing rate, burst length was greater for optimal orientations than for nonoptimal orientations. No organized orientation dependence was seen in bursts from lateral geniculate nucleus cells. Activation of cortical contrast gain control at low response amplitudes resulted in no burst length modulation, but burst shortening at optimal orientations was found in responses characterized by supersaturation. At a given firing rate, cortical burst length was shortened by microinjection of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and bursts became longer in the presence of N-methyl-bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor blocker. These results are consistent with a model in which responses are reduced at nonoptimal orientations, at least in part, by burst shortening that is mediated by GABA. A similar mechanism contributes to response supersaturation at high contrasts via recruitment of inhibitory responses that are tuned to adjacent orientations. Burst length modulation can serve

  19. Stimulus-specific suppression preserves information in auditory short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Annika C; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; Cusack, Rhodri

    2011-08-02

    Philosophers and scientists have puzzled for millennia over how perceptual information is stored in short-term memory. Some have suggested that early sensory representations are involved, but their precise role has remained unclear. The current study asks whether auditory cortex shows sustained frequency-specific activation while sounds are maintained in short-term memory using high-resolution functional MRI (fMRI). Investigating short-term memory representations within regions of human auditory cortex with fMRI has been difficult because of their small size and high anatomical variability between subjects. However, we overcame these constraints by using multivoxel pattern analysis. It clearly revealed frequency-specific activity during the encoding phase of a change detection task, and the degree of this frequency-specific activation was positively related to performance in the task. Although the sounds had to be maintained in memory, activity in auditory cortex was significantly suppressed. Strikingly, patterns of activity in this maintenance period correlated negatively with the patterns evoked by the same frequencies during encoding. Furthermore, individuals who used a rehearsal strategy to remember the sounds showed reduced frequency-specific suppression during the maintenance period. Although negative activations are often disregarded in fMRI research, our findings imply that decreases in blood oxygenation level-dependent response carry important stimulus-specific information and can be related to cognitive processes. We hypothesize that, during auditory change detection, frequency-specific suppression protects short-term memory representations from being overwritten by inhibiting the encoding of interfering sounds.

  20. The effects of stimulus novelty and familiarity on neuronal activity in the amygdala of monkeys performing recognition memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, F A; Rolls, E T

    1993-01-01

    The function of the amygdala in behavioural responses to novel stimuli and its possible function in recognition memory were investigated by recording the responses of 659 amygdaloid neurons in monkeys performing recognition memory and visual discrimination tasks. The aim was to determine the contribution of the amygdala in the encoding of familiarity and therefore its role in supporting memory-related neuronal mechanisms in the basal forebrain. The responses of three groups of neurons reflected different forms of memory. One group (n = 10) responded maximally to novel stimuli and significantly less so to the same stimuli when they were familiar. The calculated memory spans of these neurons were in the range of 2-10 intervening trials, and this short-term retention of information may reflect the operation of a neural mechanism encoding memory for the recency of stimulus presentation. Two other groups responded to the sight of particular categories of familiar stimuli: to foods (n = 6) or to faces (n = 10). The responses of some of these stimulus-selective neurons declined with repeated presentations of foods (3/4 tests) and faces (2/6 tests). The activity of these latter two groups of neurons may be involved in behavioural responses to familiar visual stimuli, particularly when such stimuli have affective or motivational significance. We conclude that the neurophysiological data provide evidence of amygdaloid mechanisms for the recognition of recently seen visual stimuli. However, these amygdaloid mechanisms do not appear to be sufficient to support the performance of long-term recognition memory tasks without additional and complementary functions carried out by other ventromedial temporal, prefrontal and diencephalic structures which also project to the basal forebrain.

  1. Changes in brain activation induced by visual stimulus during and after propofol conscious sedation: a functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohe, Yutaka; Higuchi, Satomi; Sasaki, Makoto; Sato, Masahito; Noda, Mamoru; Joh, Shigeharu; Satoh, Kenichi

    2016-12-07

    Conscious sedation with propofol sometimes causes amnesia while keeping the patient awake. However, it remains unknown how propofol compromises the memory function. Therefore, we investigated the changes in brain activation induced by visual stimulation during and after conscious sedation with propofol using serial functional MRI. Healthy volunteers received a target-controlled infusion of propofol, and underwent functional MRI scans with a block-design paradigm of visual stimulus before, during, and after conscious sedation. Random-effect model analyses were performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping software. Among the areas showing significant activation in response to the visual stimulus, the visual cortex and fusiform gyrus were significantly suppressed in the sedation session and tended to recover in the early-recovery session of ∼20 min (Psedation and early-recovery sessions (Psedation with propofol may cause prolonged suppression of the activation of memory-related structures, such as the hippocampus, during the early-recovery period, which may lead to transient amnesia.

  2. Efficacy of a new charge-balanced biphasic electrical stimulus in the isolated sciatic nerve and the hippocampal slice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Ramekers, D.; Martens, H.C.F.; Wadman, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Most deep brain stimulators apply rectangular monophasic voltage pulses. By modifying the stimulus shape, it is possible to optimize stimulus efficacy and find the best compromise between clinical effect, minimal side effects and power consumption of the stimulus generator. In this study, we

  3. Once on the Lips, Forever on the Hips: A Benefit-Cost Analysis of Fiscal Stimulus in OECD Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bev Dahlby

    2009-01-01

    The author evaluates the fiscal stimulus policies of 20 OECD countries within a simple benefit-cost framework. Among his findings: in Canada, to be justifiable on a benefit-cost basis, a fiscal stimulus project that improves consumptive public services must provide at least 73 cents in benefits for every dollar of fiscal stimulus.

  4. The Mechanism of Dishabituation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Z. Steiner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The dual-process theory of habituation attributes dishabituation, an increase in responding to a habituated stimulus after an interpolated deviant, to sensitisation, a change in arousal. Our previous investigations into elicitation and habituation of the electrodermal Orienting Reflex (OR showed that dishabituation is independent of sensitisation for indifferent stimuli, arguing against dual-process theory’s explanation. However, this could not be tested for significant stimuli in that study, because sensitisation was confounded with incomplete resolution of the preceding OR. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of dishabituation for significant stimuli by extending the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA beyond the time required for the phasic response to resolve. Participants completed an auditory dishabituation task with a random SOA of 13-15 s while their electrodermal activity was recorded. The stimulus sequence was 10 standards, 1 deviant, 2-4 standards; counterbalanced innocuous tones. Two counterbalanced conditions were used: silently count all stimuli (significant and no task (indifferent. Skin conductance responses (SCRs and pre-stimulus skin conductance levels (SCLs both decremented over trials 1-10. In both conditions, SCRs showed response recovery and dishabituation, indicating habituation, and post-deviant SCL sensitisation was apparent. Across all trials, phasic ORs were dependent on the pre-stimulus SCL (arousal level; this did not differ with condition. Importantly, dishabituation was independent of sensitisation for both conditions. Findings indicate that sensitisation, the change in state, is a process separate from phasic response resolution, and that arousal consistently predicts OR magnitude, including the dishabituation response. This argues against dual-process theory’s explanation, and instead suggests that dishabituation is a disruption of the habituation process, with magnitude determined by the current arousal

  5. High voltage with little current as an unconditional stimulus for taste avoidance conditioning in Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigami, Satoshi; Sunada, Hiroshi; Lukowiak, Ken; Sakakibara, Manabu

    2013-10-25

    A new and better taste avoidance conditioning paradigm for Lymnaea has been developed that replaces the previously used tactile unconditional stimulus (US) with an brief electrical stimulus (1000V, 80μA), while continuing to use a sucrose application to the lips as the conditional stimulus (CS). With 15 paired CS-US presentations on a single day, we were able to elicit both short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). The LTM persisted for at least one week. While STM was elicited with 5, 8, or 10 paired presentations of the CS-US on a single day, LTM was not. The new US used here was more consistent than the previously used US, and this stimulus consistency may explain why 15 paired CS-US presentations now result in LTM formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Autoshaping Chicks with Heat Reinforcement: The Role of Stimulus-Reinforcer and Response-Reinforcer Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The present series of experiments attempted to analyze more fully the contributions of stimulus-reinforcer and response-reinforcer relations to autoshaping within a single conditioning situation. (Author)

  7. Encoding efficiency of suprathreshold stochastic resonance on stimulus-specific information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Fabing, E-mail: fabing.duan@gmail.com [Institute of Complexity Science, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Chapeau-Blondeau, François, E-mail: chapeau@univ-angers.fr [Laboratoire Angevin de Recherche en Ingénierie des Systèmes (LARIS), Université d' Angers, 62 avenue Notre Dame du Lac, 49000 Angers (France); Abbott, Derek, E-mail: derek.abbott@adelaide.edu.au [Centre for Biomedical Engineering (CBME) and School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2016-01-08

    In this paper, we evaluate the encoding efficiency of suprathreshold stochastic resonance (SSR) based on a local information-theoretic measure of stimulus-specific information (SSI), which is the average specific information of responses associated with a particular stimulus. The theoretical and numerical analyses of SSIs reveal that noise can improve neuronal coding efficiency for a large population of neurons, which leads to produce increased information-rich responses. The SSI measure, in contrast to the global measure of average mutual information, can characterize the noise benefits in finer detail for describing the enhancement of neuronal encoding efficiency of a particular stimulus, which may be of general utility in the design and implementation of a SSR coding scheme. - Highlights: • Evaluating the noise-enhanced encoding efficiency via stimulus-specific information. • New form of stochastic resonance based on the measure of encoding efficiency. • Analyzing neural encoding schemes from suprathreshold stochastic resonance detailedly.

  8. Primacy Performance of Normal and Retarded Children: Stimulus Familiarity or Spatial Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Lee

    1978-01-01

    Explores the effect of stimulus familiarity on the spatial primacy performance of normal and retarded children. Assumes that serial recall tasks reflect spatial memory rather than verbal rehearsal. (BD)

  9. Dyslexic adults can learn from repeated stimulus presentation but have difficulties in excluding external noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Beattie

    Full Text Available We examined whether the characteristic impairments of dyslexia are due to a deficit in excluding external noise or a deficit in taking advantage of repeated stimulus presentation. We compared non-impaired adults and adults with poor reading performance on a visual letter detection task that varied two aspects: the presence or absence of background visual noise, and a small or large stimulus set. There was no interaction between group and stimulus set size, indicating that the poor readers took advantage of repeated stimulus presentation as well as the non-impaired readers. The poor readers had higher thresholds than non-impaired readers in the presence of high external noise, but not in the absence of external noise. The results support the hypothesis that an external noise exclusion deficit, not a perceptual anchoring deficit, impairs reading for adults.

  10. Approach-Avoidance Training Effects Are Moderated by Awareness of Stimulus-Action Contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dessel, Pieter; De Houwer, Jan; Gast, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Prior research suggests that repeatedly approaching or avoiding a stimulus changes the liking of that stimulus. In two experiments, we investigated the relationship between, on one hand, effects of approach-avoidance (AA) training on implicit and explicit evaluations of novel faces and, on the other hand, contingency awareness as indexed by participants' memory for the relation between stimulus and action. We observed stronger effects for faces that were classified as contingency aware and found no evidence that AA training caused changes in stimulus evaluations in the absence of contingency awareness. These findings challenge the standard view that AA training effects are (exclusively) the product of implicit learning processes, such as the automatic formation of associations in memory. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  11. The modulation of simple reaction time by the spatial probability of a visual stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreiro L.R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple reaction time (SRT in response to visual stimuli can be influenced by many stimulus features. The speed and accuracy with which observers respond to a visual stimulus may be improved by prior knowledge about the stimulus location, which can be obtained by manipulating the spatial probability of the stimulus. However, when higher spatial probability is achieved by holding constant the stimulus location throughout successive trials, the resulting improvement in performance can also be due to local sensory facilitation caused by the recurrent spatial location of a visual target (position priming. The main objective of the present investigation was to quantitatively evaluate the modulation of SRT by the spatial probability structure of a visual stimulus. In two experiments the volunteers had to respond as quickly as possible to the visual target presented on a computer screen by pressing an optic key with the index finger of the dominant hand. Experiment 1 (N = 14 investigated how SRT changed as a function of both the different levels of spatial probability and the subject's explicit knowledge about the precise probability structure of visual stimulation. We found a gradual decrease in SRT with increasing spatial probability of a visual target regardless of the observer's previous knowledge concerning the spatial probability of the stimulus. Error rates, below 2%, were independent of the spatial probability structure of the visual stimulus, suggesting the absence of a speed-accuracy trade-off. Experiment 2 (N = 12 examined whether changes in SRT in response to a spatially recurrent visual target might be accounted for simply by sensory and temporally local facilitation. The findings indicated that the decrease in SRT brought about by a spatially recurrent target was associated with its spatial predictability, and could not be accounted for solely in terms of sensory priming.

  12. Neuronal representations of stimulus associations develop in the temporal lobe during learning

    OpenAIRE

    Messinger, Adam; Squire, Larry R.; Zola, Stuart M.; Albright, Thomas D.

    2001-01-01

    Visual stimuli that are frequently seen together become associated in long-term memory, such that the sight of one stimulus readily brings to mind the thought or image of the other. It has been hypothesized that acquisition of such long-term associative memories proceeds via the strengthening of connections between neurons representing the associated stimuli, such that a neuron initially responding only to one stimulus of an associated pair eventually comes to respond to both. Consistent with...

  13. Isomorphism Between Estes’ Stimulus Fluctuation Model and a Physical- Chemical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Yamaguchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although Estes’ Stimulus Sampling Theory has almost completely lost its influence, its theoretical framework has not been disproved. Particularly, one theory in that framework, Stimulus Fluctuation Model, is still important because it explains spontaneous recovery. In this short note, the process of the theory is shown to be isomorphic to the diffusion of solution between compartments. Envisioning the theory as diffusion will make it appear less artificial and suggest natural extensions.

  14. Effects of rhythmic stimulus presentation on oscillatory brain activity: the physiology of cueing in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik S. te Woerd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia play an important role in beat perception and patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD are impaired in perception of beat-based rhythms. Rhythmic cues are nonetheless beneficial in gait rehabilitation, raising the question how rhythm improves movement in PD. We addressed this question with magnetoencephalography recordings during a choice response task with rhythmic and non-rhythmic modes of stimulus presentation. Analyses focused on (i entrainment of slow oscillations, (ii the depth of beta power modulation, and (iii whether a gain in modulation depth of beta power, due to rhythmicity, is of predictive or reactive nature. The results show weaker phase synchronisation of slow oscillations and a relative shift from predictive to reactive movement-related beta suppression in PD. Nonetheless, rhythmic stimulus presentation increased beta modulation depth to the same extent in patients and controls. Critically, this gain selectively increased the predictive and not reactive movement-related beta power suppression. Operation of a predictive mechanism, induced by rhythmic stimulation, was corroborated by a sensory gating effect in the sensorimotor cortex. The predictive mode of cue utilisation points to facilitation of basal ganglia-premotor interactions, contrasting with the popular view that rhythmic stimulation confers a special advantage in PD, based on recruitment of alternative pathways.

  15. Memory reactivation in healthy aging: evidence of stimulus-specific dedifferentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Laurent, Marie; Abdi, Hervé; Bondad, Ashley; Buchsbaum, Bradley R

    2014-03-19

    We investigated how aging affects the neural specificity of mental replay, the act of conjuring up past experiences in one's mind. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multivariate pattern analysis to quantify the similarity between brain activity elicited by the perception and memory of complex multimodal stimuli. Young and older human adults viewed and mentally replayed short videos from long-term memory while undergoing fMRI. We identified a wide array of cortical regions involved in visual, auditory, and spatial processing that supported stimulus-specific representation at perception as well as during mental replay. Evidence of age-related dedifferentiation was subtle at perception but more salient during mental replay, and age differences at perception could not account for older adults' reduced neural reactivation specificity. Performance on a post-scan recognition task for video details correlated with neural reactivation in young but not in older adults, indicating that in-scan reactivation benefited post-scan recognition in young adults, but that some older adults may have benefited from alternative rehearsal strategies. Although young adults recalled more details about the video stimuli than older adults on a post-scan recall task, patterns of neural reactivation correlated with post-scan recall in both age groups. These results demonstrate that the mechanisms supporting recall and recollection are linked to accurate neural reactivation in both young and older adults, but that age affects how efficiently these mechanisms can support memory's representational specificity in a way that cannot simply be accounted for by degraded sensory processes.

  16. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  17. Learning to fear a second-order stimulus following vicarious learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P; Askew, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Vicarious fear learning refers to the acquisition of fear via observation of the fearful responses of others. The present study aims to extend current knowledge by exploring whether second-order vicarious fear learning can be demonstrated in children. That is, whether vicariously learnt fear responses for one stimulus can be elicited in a second stimulus associated with that initial stimulus. Results demonstrated that children's (5-11 years) fear responses for marsupials and caterpillars increased when they were seen with fearful faces compared to no faces. Additionally, the results indicated a second-order effect in which fear-related learning occurred for other animals seen together with the fear-paired animal, even though the animals were never observed with fearful faces themselves. Overall, the findings indicate that for children in this age group vicariously learnt fear-related responses for one stimulus can subsequently be observed for a second stimulus without it being experienced in a fear-related vicarious learning event. These findings may help to explain why some individuals do not recall involvement of a traumatic learning episode in the development of their fear of a specific stimulus.

  18. The 5-HT1A Receptor and the Stimulus Effects of LSD in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissig, C.J.; Eckler, J.R.; Rabin, R.A.; Winter, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale It has been suggested that the 5-HT1A receptor plays a significant modulatory role in the stimulus effects of the indoleamine hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Objectives The present study sought to characterize the effects of several compounds with known affinity for the 5-HT1A receptor on the discriminative stimulus effects of LSD. Methods 12 Male F-344 rats were trained in a two-lever, fixed ratio10, food reinforced task with LSD (0.1 mg/kg; IP; 15 min pretreatment) as a discriminative stimulus. Combination and substitution tests with the 5-HT1A agonists, 8-OH-DPAT, buspirone, gepirone, and ipsapirone, with LSD-induced stimulus control were then performed. The effects of these 5-HT1A ligands were also tested in the presence of the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100,635 (0.3 mg/kg; SC; 30 min. pretreatment). Results In combination tests stimulus control by LSD was increased by all 5-HT1A receptor ligands with agonist properties. Similarly, in tests of antagonism, the increase in drug-appropriate responding caused by stimulation of the 5-HT1A receptor was abolished by administration of WAY-100,635. Conclusions These data, obtained using a drug discrimination model of the hallucinogenic effects of LSD, provide support for the hypothesis that the 5-HT1A receptor has a significant modulatory role in the stimulus effects of LSD. PMID:16025319

  19. Comparison on driving fatigue related hemodynamics activated by auditory and visual stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zishan; Gao, Yuan; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    As one of the main causes of traffic accidents, driving fatigue deserves researchers' attention and its detection and monitoring during long-term driving require a new technique to realize. Since functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) can be applied to detect cerebral hemodynamic responses, we can promisingly expect its application in fatigue level detection. Here, we performed three different kinds of experiments on a driver and recorded his cerebral hemodynamic responses when driving for long hours utilizing our device based on fNIRS. Each experiment lasted for 7 hours and one of the three specific experimental tests, detecting the driver's response to sounds, traffic lights and direction signs respectively, was done every hour. The results showed that visual stimulus was easier to cause fatigue compared with auditory stimulus and visual stimulus induced by traffic lights scenes was easier to cause fatigue compared with visual stimulus induced by direction signs in the first few hours. We also found that fatigue related hemodynamics caused by auditory stimulus increased fastest, then traffic lights scenes, and direction signs scenes slowest. Our study successfully compared audio, visual color, and visual character stimulus in sensitivity to cause driving fatigue, which is meaningful for driving safety management.

  20. Emotional Picture and Word Processing: An fMRI Study on Effects of Stimulus Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlochtermeier, Lorna H.; Kuchinke, Lars; Pehrs, Corinna; Urton, Karolina; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscientific investigations regarding aspects of emotional experiences usually focus on one stimulus modality (e.g., pictorial or verbal). Similarities and differences in the processing between the different modalities have rarely been studied directly. The comparison of verbal and pictorial emotional stimuli often reveals a processing advantage of emotional pictures in terms of larger or more pronounced emotion effects evoked by pictorial stimuli. In this study, we examined whether this picture advantage refers to general processing differences or whether it might partly be attributed to differences in visual complexity between pictures and words. We first developed a new stimulus database comprising valence and arousal ratings for more than 200 concrete objects representable in different modalities including different levels of complexity: words, phrases, pictograms, and photographs. Using fMRI we then studied the neural correlates of the processing of these emotional stimuli in a valence judgment task, in which the stimulus material was controlled for differences in emotional arousal. No superiority for the pictorial stimuli was found in terms of emotional information processing with differences between modalities being revealed mainly in perceptual processing regions. While visual complexity might partly account for previously found differences in emotional stimulus processing, the main existing processing differences are probably due to enhanced processing in modality specific perceptual regions. We would suggest that both pictures and words elicit emotional responses with no general superiority for either stimulus modality, while emotional responses to pictures are modulated by perceptual stimulus features, such as picture complexity. PMID:23409009

  1. The acute effect of a plyometric stimulus on jump performance in professional rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Daniel P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2014-02-01

    Post-activation potentiation (PAP) is the elevation of motor performance to a higher level in response to a conditioning stimulus. Extensive research exists examining the PAP effect after a heavy resistance exercise. However, there is limited research examining the PAP effect after a plyometric stimulus. This study was designed to examine whether a plyometric stimulus could produce a PAP effect comparable to that typically reported with a heavy resistance protocol. Importantly, it was hypothesized that the PAP effect would exist without the same levels of acute fatigue resulting from a heavy stimulus, thus allowing improvement in performance within a short rest interval range. Twenty professional rugby players were recruited for the study. Subjects performed 2 countermovement jumps (CMJs) at baseline and at 1, 3, and 5 minutes after a plyometric stimulus consisting of 40 jumps. Two separate 1-way repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted to compare the dependent variables CMJ height and peak force at the 4 time points. Results of the Bonferroni adjusted pairwise comparisons indicated that jump height and peak force before plyometric exercises were significantly lower than all other time points (p plyometric exercises causes a significant acute enhancement in CMJ height (p plyometric series induced an improvement in CMJ height comparable to that reported elsewhere after a heavy lifting stimulus but without the need for a prolonged rest interval. Performing repeated series of plyometric jumps appears to be an efficient method of taking advantage of the PAP phenomenon, thus possibly eliminating the need for a complex training protocol.

  2. Retrospective Attention Interacts with Stimulus Strength to Shape Working Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildegger, Theresa; Humphreys, Glyn; Nobre, Anna C

    2016-01-01

    Orienting attention retrospectively to selective contents in working memory (WM) influences performance. A separate line of research has shown that stimulus strength shapes perceptual representations. There is little research on how stimulus strength during encoding shapes WM performance, and how effects of retrospective orienting might vary with changes in stimulus strength. We explore these questions in three experiments using a continuous-recall WM task. In Experiment 1 we show that benefits of cueing spatial attention retrospectively during WM maintenance (retrocueing) varies according to stimulus contrast during encoding. Retrocueing effects emerge for supraliminal but not sub-threshold stimuli. However, once stimuli are supraliminal, performance is no longer influenced by stimulus contrast. In Experiments 2 and 3 we used a mixture-model approach to examine how different sources of error in WM are affected by contrast and retrocueing. For high-contrast stimuli (Experiment 2), retrocues increased the precision of successfully remembered items. For low-contrast stimuli (Experiment 3), retrocues decreased the probability of mistaking a target with distracters. These results suggest that the processes by which retrospective attentional orienting shape WM performance are dependent on the quality of WM representations, which in turn depends on stimulus strength during encoding.

  3. Retrospective Attention Interacts with Stimulus Strength to Shape Working Memory Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Wildegger

    Full Text Available Orienting attention retrospectively to selective contents in working memory (WM influences performance. A separate line of research has shown that stimulus strength shapes perceptual representations. There is little research on how stimulus strength during encoding shapes WM performance, and how effects of retrospective orienting might vary with changes in stimulus strength. We explore these questions in three experiments using a continuous-recall WM task. In Experiment 1 we show that benefits of cueing spatial attention retrospectively during WM maintenance (retrocueing varies according to stimulus contrast during encoding. Retrocueing effects emerge for supraliminal but not sub-threshold stimuli. However, once stimuli are supraliminal, performance is no longer influenced by stimulus contrast. In Experiments 2 and 3 we used a mixture-model approach to examine how different sources of error in WM are affected by contrast and retrocueing. For high-contrast stimuli (Experiment 2, retrocues increased the precision of successfully remembered items. For low-contrast stimuli (Experiment 3, retrocues decreased the probability of mistaking a target with distracters. These results suggest that the processes by which retrospective attentional orienting shape WM performance are dependent on the quality of WM representations, which in turn depends on stimulus strength during encoding.

  4. Dissociating neural variability related to stimulus quality and response times in perceptual decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Stefan; Bennett, Daniel; Sewell, David K; Paton, Bryan; Egan, Gary F; Smith, Philip L; Murawski, Carsten

    2018-03-01

    According to sequential sampling models, perceptual decision-making is based on accumulation of noisy evidence towards a decision threshold. The speed with which a decision is reached is determined by both the quality of incoming sensory information and random trial-by-trial variability in the encoded stimulus representations. To investigate those decision dynamics at the neural level, participants made perceptual decisions while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted. On each trial, participants judged whether an image presented under conditions of high, medium, or low visual noise showed a piano or a chair. Higher stimulus quality (lower visual noise) was associated with increased activation in bilateral medial occipito-temporal cortex and ventral striatum. Lower stimulus quality was related to stronger activation in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). When stimulus quality was fixed, faster response times were associated with a positive parametric modulation of activation in medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex, while slower response times were again related to more activation in PPC, DLPFC and insula. Our results suggest that distinct neural networks were sensitive to the quality of stimulus information, and to trial-to-trial variability in the encoded stimulus representations, but that reaching a decision was a consequence of their joint activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. One for all: The effect of extinction stimulus typicality on return of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheveneels, Sara; Boddez, Yannick; Bennett, Marc Patrick; Hermans, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    During exposure therapy, patients are encouraged to approach the feared stimulus, so they can experience that this stimulus is not followed by the anticipated aversive outcome. However, patients might treat the absence of the aversive outcome as an 'exception to the rule'. This could hamper the generalization of fear reduction when the patient is confronted with similar stimuli not used in therapy. We examined the effect of providing information about the typicality of the extinction stimulus on the generalization of extinction to a new but similar stimulus. In a differential fear conditioning procedure, an animal-like figure was paired with a brief electric shock to the wrist. In a subsequent extinction phase, a different but perceptually similar animal-like figure was presented without the shock. Before testing the generalization of extinction with a third animal-like figure, participants were either instructed that the extinction stimulus was a typical or an atypical member of the animal family. The typicality instruction effectively impacted the generalization of extinction; the third animal-like figure elicited lower shock expectancies in the typical relative to the atypical group. Skin conductance data mirrored these results, but did not reach significance. These findings suggest that verbal information about stimulus typicality can be a promising adjunctive to standard exposure treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Computer Simulation of Noise Effects of the Neighborhood of Stimulus Threshold for a Mathematical Model of Homeostatic Regulation of Sleep-Wake Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuyin Jin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The noise effects on a homeostatic regulation of sleep-wake cycles’ neuronal mathematical model determined by the hypocretin/orexin and the local glutamate interneurons spatiotemporal behaviors are studied within the neighborhood of stimulus threshold in this work; the neuronal noise added to the stimulus, the conductance, and the activation variable of the modulation function are investigated, respectively, based on a circadian input skewed in sine function. The computer simulation results suggested that the increased amplitude of external current input will lead to the fact that awakening time is advanced but the sleepy time remains the same; for the bigger conductance and modulation noise, the regulatory mechanism of the model sometimes will be collapsed and the coupled two neurons of the model show very irregular activities; the falling asleep or wake transform appears at nondeterminate time.

  7. Differences in the Stimulus Accommodative Convergence/Accommodation Ratio using Various Techniques and Accommodative Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Tsukasa; Ito, Misae; Shinomiya, Yuma; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Hara, Naoto; Niida, Takahiro

    2018-04-04

    To investigate differences in the stimulus accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio using various techniques and accommodative stimuli, and to describe a method for determining the stimulus AC/A ratio. A total of 81 subjects with a mean age of 21 years (range, 20-23 years) were enrolled. The relationship between ocular deviation and accommodation was assessed using two methods. Ocular deviation was measured by varying the accommodative requirement using spherical plus/minus lenses to create an accommodative stimulus of 10.00 diopters (D) (in 1.00 D steps). Ocular deviation was assessed using the alternate prism cover test in method 1 at distance (5 m) and near (1/3 m), and the major amblyoscope in method 2. The stimulus AC/A ratios obtained using methods 1 and 2 were calculated and defined as the stimulus AC/A ratios with low and high accommodation, respectively, using the following analysis method. The former was calculated as the difference between the convergence response to an accommodative stimulus of 3 D and 0 D, divided by 3. The latter was calculated as the difference between the convergence response to a maximum (max) accommodative stimulus with distinct vision of the subject and an accommodative stimulus of max minus 3.00 D, divided by 3. The median stimulus AC/A ratio with low accommodation (1.0 Δ/D for method 1 at distance, 2.0 Δ/D for method 1 at near, and 2.7 Δ/D for method 2) differed significantly among the measurement methods (P accommodation (4.0 Δ/D for method 1 at distance, 3.7 Δ/D for method 1 at near, and 4.7 Δ/D for method 2) between method 1 at distance and method 2 were statistically significant (P accommodative stimuli. However, differences caused by measurement technique may be reduced by using a high accommodative stimulus during measurements.

  8. Heterogeneity of reward mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajtha, A; Sershen, H

    2010-06-01

    The finding that many drugs that have abuse potential and other natural stimuli such as food or sexual activity cause similar chemical changes in the brain, an increase in extracellular dopamine (DA) in the shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAccS), indicated some time ago that the reward mechanism is at least very similar for all stimuli and that the mechanism is relatively simple. The presently available information shows that the mechanisms involved are more complex and have multiple elements. Multiple brain regions, multiple receptors, multiple distinct neurons, multiple transmitters, multiple transporters, circuits, peptides, proteins, metabolism of transmitters, and phosphorylation, all participate in reward mechanisms. The system is variable, is changed during development, is sex-dependent, and is influenced by genetic differences. Not all of the elements participate in the reward of all stimuli. Different set of mechanisms are involved in the reward of different drugs of abuse, yet different mechanisms in the reward of natural stimuli such as food or sexual activity; thus there are different systems that distinguish different stimuli. Separate functions of the reward system such as anticipation, evaluation, consummation and identification; all contain function-specific elements. The level of the stimulus also influences the participation of the elements of the reward system, there are possible reactions to even below threshold stimuli, and excessive stimuli can change reward to aversion involving parts of the system. Learning and memory of past reward is an important integral element of reward and addictive behavior. Many of the reward elements are altered by repeated or chronic stimuli, and chronic exposure to one drug is likely to alter the response to another stimulus. To evaluate and identify the reward stimulus thus requires heterogeneity of the reward components in the brain.

  9. Interpretations of Frequency Domain Analyses of Neural Entrainment: Periodicity, Fundamental Frequency, and Harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Melloni, Lucia; Poeppel, David; Ding, Nai

    2016-01-01

    Brain activity can follow the rhythms of dynamic sensory stimuli, such as speech and music, a phenomenon called neural entrainment. It has been hypothesized that low-frequency neural entrainment in the neural delta and theta bands provides a potential mechanism to represent and integrate temporal information. Low-frequency neural entrainment is often studied using periodically changing stimuli and is analyzed in the frequency domain using the Fourier analysis. The Fourier analysis decomposes a periodic signal into harmonically related sinusoids. However, it is not intuitive how these harmonically related components are related to the response waveform. Here, we explain the interpretation of response harmonics, with a special focus on very low-frequency neural entrainment near 1 Hz. It is illustrated why neural responses repeating at f Hz do not necessarily generate any neural response at f Hz in the Fourier spectrum. A strong neural response at f Hz indicates that the time scales of the neural response waveform within each cycle match the time scales of the stimulus rhythm. Therefore, neural entrainment at very low frequency implies not only that the neural response repeats at f Hz but also that each period of the neural response is a slow wave matching the time scale of a f Hz sinusoid.

  10. Minimum period and the gap in periods of Cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paczynski, B.; Sienkiewicz, R.

    1983-01-01

    The 81 minute cutoff to the orbital periods of hydrogen-rich cataclysmic binaries is consistent with evolution of those systems being dominated by angular momentum losses due to gravitational radiation. Unfortunately, many uncertainties, mainly poorly known atmospheric opacities below 2000 K, make is physically impossible to verify the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation by using the observed cutoff at 81 minutes. The upper boundary of the gap in orbital periods observed at about 3 hours is almost certainly due to enhanced angular momentum losses from cataclysmic binaries which have longer periods. The physical mechanism of those losses is not identified, but a possible importance of stellar winds is pointed out. The lower boundary of the gap may be explained with the oldest cataclysmic binaries, whose periods evolved past the minimum at 81 minutes and reached the value of 2 hours within about 12 x 10 9 years after the binary had formed. Those binaries should have secondary components of only 0.02 solar masses, and their periods could be used to estimate ages of the oldest cataclysmic stars, and presumably the age of Galaxy. An alternative explanation for the gap requires that binaries should be detached while crossing the gap. A possible mechanism for this phenomenon is discussed. It requires the secondary components to be about 0.2 solar masses in the binaries just below the gap

  11. Stimulus uncertainty enhances long-term potentiation-like plasticity in human motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Martin V; Nydam, Abbey S; Mattingley, Jason B

    2017-03-01

    Plasticity can be induced in human cortex using paired associative stimulation (PAS), which repeatedly and predictably pairs a peripheral electrical stimulus with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the contralateral motor region. Many studies have reported small or inconsistent effects of PAS. Given that uncertain stimuli can promote learning, the predictable nature of the stimulation in conventional PAS paradigms might serve to attenuate plasticity induction. Here, we introduced stimulus uncertainty into the PAS paradigm to investigate if it can boost plasticity induction. Across two experimental sessions, participants (n = 28) received a modified PAS paradigm consisting of a random combination of 90 paired stimuli and 90 unpaired (TMS-only) stimuli. Prior to each of these stimuli, participants also received an auditory cue which either reliably predicted whether the upcoming stimulus was paired or unpaired (no uncertainty condition) or did not predict the upcoming stimulus (maximum uncertainty condition). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked from abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle quantified cortical excitability before and after PAS. MEP amplitude increased significantly 15 min following PAS in the maximum uncertainty condition. There was no reliable change in MEP amplitude in the no uncertainty condition, nor between post-PAS MEP amplitudes across the two conditions. These results suggest that stimulus uncertainty may provide a novel means to enhance plasticity induction with the PAS paradigm in human motor cortex. To provide further support to the notion that stimulus uncertainty and prediction error promote plasticity, future studies should further explore the time course of these changes, and investigate what aspects of stimulus uncertainty are critical in boosting plasticity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-triggered assistive stimulus training improves step initiation in persons with Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creath Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior studies demonstrated that hesitation-prone persons with Parkinson’s disease (PDs acutely improve step initiation using a novel self-triggered stimulus that enhances lateral weight shift prior to step onset. PDs showed reduced anticipatory postural adjustment (APA durations, earlier step onsets, and faster 1st step speed immediately following stimulus exposure. Objective This study investigated the effects of long-term stimulus exposure. Methods Two groups of hesitation-prone subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD participated in a 6-week step-initiation training program involving one of two stimulus conditions: 1 Drop. The stance-side support surface was lowered quickly (1.5 cm; 2 Vibration. A short vibration (100 ms was applied beneath the stance-side support surface. Stimuli were self-triggered by a 5% reduction in vertical force under the stance foot during the APA. Testing was at baseline, immediately post-training, and 6 weeks post-training. Measurements included timing and magnitude of ground reaction forces, and step speed and length. Results Both groups improved their APA force modulation after training. Contrary to previous results, neither group showed reduced APA durations or earlier step onset times. The vibration group showed 55% increase in step speed and a 39% increase in step length which were retained 6 weeks post-training. The drop group showed no stepping-performance improvements. Conclusions The acute sensitivity to the quickness-enhancing effects of stimulus exposure demonstrated in previous studies was supplanted by improved force modulation following prolonged stimulus exposure. The results suggest a potential approach to reduce the severity of start hesitation in PDs, but further study is needed to understand the relationship between short- and long-term effects of stimulus exposure.

  13. Functional heartburn: the stimulus, the pain, and the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, R; Tougas, G

    2002-01-01

    Functional heartburn is a common disorder and appears to be composed of several distinct subgroups. Identifying the different subgroups based on clinical history only is not achievable at present. The mechanisms responsible for pain, clinical characteristics, and the optimal therapeutic approach remain poorly understood. Response to potent antireflux treatment is relatively limited. Current and future treatment strategies for functional heartburn patients who have failed standard dose proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) include increased PPI dose in some, as well as addition of pain modulators in others. PMID:12427796

  14. Reaction Time of Motor Responses in Two-Stimulus Paradigms Involving Deception and Congruity with Varying Levels of Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. C. Vendemia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Deception research has focused on identifying peripheral nervous system markers while ignoring cognitive mechanisms underlying those markers. Cognitive theorists argue that the process of deception may involve such constructs as attentional capture, working memory load, or perceived incongruity with memory, while psychophysiologists argue for stimulus salience, arousal, and emotion. Three studies were conducted to assess reaction time (RT in relation to deception, response congruity, and preparedness to deceive. Similar to a semantic verification task, participants evaluated sentences that were either true or false, and then made truthful or deceptive evaluations of the sentence’s base truth-value. Findings indicate that deceptive responses have a longer RT than truthful responses, and that this relationship remains constant across response type and preparedness to deceive. The authors use these findings in preliminary support of a comprehensive cognitive model of deception.

  15. Perceptual stimulus-A Bayesian-based integration of multi-visual-cue approach and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE JianRu; ZHENG NanNing; ZHONG XiaoPin; PING LinJiang

    2008-01-01

    With the view that visual cue could be taken as a kind of stimulus, the study of the mechanism in the visual perception process by using visual cues in their probabilistic representation eventually leads to a class of statistical integration of multiple visual cues (IMVC) methods which have been applied widely in perceptual grouping, video analysis, and other basic problems in computer vision. In this paper, a survey on the basic ideas and recent advances of IMVC methods is presented, and much focus is on the models and algorithms of IMVC for video analysis within the framework of Bayesian estimation. Furthermore, two typical problems in video analysis, robust visual tracking and "switching problem" in multi-target tracking (MTT) are taken as test beds to verify a series of Bayesian-based IMVC methods proposed by the authors. Furthermore, the relations between the statistical IMVC and the visual per-ception process, as well as potential future research work for IMVC, are discussed.

  16. Evolution of aerosol chemistry in Xi'an, inland China, during the dust storm period of 2013 - Part 1: Sources, chemical forms and formation mechanisms of nitrate and sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G. H.; Cheng, C. L.; Huang, Y.; Tao, J.; Ren, Y. Q.; Wu, F.; Meng, J. J.; Li, J. J.; Cheng, Y. T.; Cao, J. J.; Liu, S. X.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, R.; Chen, Y. B.

    2014-11-01

    A total suspended particulate (TSP) sample was collected hourly in Xi'an, an inland megacity of China near the Loess Plateau, during a dust storm event of 2013 (9 March 18:00-12 March 10:00 LT), along with a size-resolved aerosol sampling and an online measurement of PM2.5. The TSP and size-resolved samples were determined for elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and nitrogen (WSON), inorganic ions and elements to investigate chemistry evolution of dust particles. Hourly concentrations of Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+ and Ca2+ in the TSP samples reached up to 34, 12, 180, 72 and 28 μg m-3, respectively, when dust peak arrived over Xi'an. Chemical compositions of the TSP samples showed that during the whole observation period NH4+ and NO3- were linearly correlated with each other (r2=0.76) with a molar ratio of 1 : 1, while SO42- and Cl- were well correlated with Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+ (r2 > 0.85). Size distributions of NH4+ and NO3- presented a same pattern, which dominated in the coarse mode (> 2.1 μm) during the event and predominated in the fine mode (hours, but both exhibited two equivalent peaks in both the fine and the coarse modes during the non-event, due to the fine-mode accumulations of secondarily produced SO42- and biomass-burning-emitted Cl- and the coarse-mode enrichments of urban soil-derived SO42- and Cl-. Linear fit regression analysis further indicated that SO42- and Cl- in the dust samples possibly exist as Na2SO4, CaSO4 and NaCl, which directly originated from Gobi desert surface soil, while NH4+ and NO3- in the dust samples exist as NH4NO3. We propose a mechanism to explain these observations in which aqueous phase of dust particle surface is formed via uptake of water vapor by hygroscopic salts such as Na2SO4 and NaCl, followed by heterogeneous formation of nitrate on the liquid phase and subsequent absorption of ammonia. Our data indicate that 54 ± 20% and 60 ± 23% of NH4+ and NO3- during the dust period

  17. Modulations of the executive control network by stimulus onset asynchrony in a Stroop task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Manipulating task difficulty is a useful way of elucidating the functional recruitment of the brain’s executive control network. In a Stroop task, pre-exposing the irrelevant word using varying stimulus onset asynchronies (‘negative’ SOAs) modulates the amount of behavioural interference and facilitation, suggesting disparate mechanisms of cognitive processing in each SOA. The current study employed a Stroop task with three SOAs (−400, -200, 0 ms), using functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate for the first time the neural effects of SOA manipulation. Of specific interest were 1) how SOA affects the neural representation of interference and facilitation; 2) response priming effects in negative SOAs; and 3) attentional effects of blocked SOA presentation. Results The results revealed three regions of the executive control network that were sensitive to SOA during Stroop interference; the 0 ms SOA elicited the greatest activation of these areas but experienced relatively smaller behavioural interference, suggesting that the enhanced recruitment led to more efficient conflict processing. Response priming effects were localized to the right inferior frontal gyrus, which is consistent with the idea that this region performed response inhibition in incongruent conditions to overcome the incorrectly-primed response, as well as more general action updating and response preparation. Finally, the right superior parietal lobe was sensitive to blocked SOA presentation and was most active for the 0 ms SOA, suggesting that this region is involved in attentional control. Conclusions SOA exerted both trial-specific and block-wide effects on executive processing, providing a unique paradigm for functional investigations of the cognitive control network. PMID:23902451

  18. Lateralized delay period activity marks the focus of spatial attention in working memory: evidence from somatosensory event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katus, Tobias; Eimer, Martin

    2015-04-29

    The short-term retention of sensory information in working memory (WM) is known to be associated with a sustained enhancement of neural activity. What remains controversial is whether this neural trace indicates the sustained storage of information or the allocation of attention. To evaluate the storage and attention accounts, we examined sustained tactile contralateral delay activity (tCDA component) of the event-related potential. The tCDA manifests over somatosensory cortex contralateral to task-relevant tactile information during stimulus retention. Two tactile sample sets (S1, S2) were presented sequentially, separated by 1.5 s. Each set comprised two stimuli, one per hand. Human participants memorized the location of one task-relevant stimulus per sample set and judged whether one of these locations was stimulated again at memory test. The two relevant pulses were unpredictably located on the same hand (stay trials) or on different hands (shift trials). Initially, tCDA components emerged contralateral to the relevant S1 pulse. Sequential loading of WM enhanced the tCDA after S2 was presented on stay trials. On shift trials, the tCDA's polarity reversed after S2 presentation, resulting in delay activity that was now contralateral to the task-relevant S2 pulse. The disappearance of a lateralized neural trace for the relevant S1 pulse did not impair memory accuracy for this stimulus on shift trials. These results contradict the storage account and suggest that delay period activity indicates the sustained engagement of an attention-based rehearsal mechanism. In conclusion, somatosensory delay period activity marks the current focus of attention in tactile WM. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356689-07$15.00/0.

  19. Phosphene-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation of occipital but not parietal cortex suppresses stimulus visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Evelina; Mazzi, Chiara; Savazzi, Silvia; Beck, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the occipital lobe approximately 100 ms after the onset of a stimulus decreases its visibility if it appears in the location of the phosphene. Because phosphenes can also be elicited by stimulation of the parietal regions, we asked if the same procedure that is used to reduce visibility of stimuli with occipital TMS will lead to decreased stimulus visibility when TMS is applied to parietal regions. TMS was randomly applied at 0 to 130 ms after the onset of the stimulus (SOA) in steps of 10 ms in occipital and parietal regions. Participants responded to the orientation of the line stimulus and rated its visibility. We replicate previous reports of phosphenes from both occipital and parietal TMS. As previously reported, we also observed visual suppression around the classical 100 ms window both in the objective line orientation and subjective visibility responses with occipital TMS. Parietal stimulation, on the other hand, did not consistently reduce stimulus visibility in any time window. PMID:24584900

  20. Changes in stimulus and response AC/A ratio with vision therapy in Convergence Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Mani, Revathy; Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana

    To evaluate the changes in the stimulus and response Accommodative Convergence to Accommodation (AC/A) ratio following vision therapy (VT) in Convergence Insufficiency (CI). Stimulus and response AC/A ratio were measured on twenty five CI participants, pre and post 10 sessions of VT. Stimulus AC/A ratio was measured using the gradient method and response AC/A ratio was calculated using modified Thorington technique with accommodative responses measured using WAM-5500 open-field autorefractor. The gradient stimulus and response AC/A cross-link ratios were compared with thirty age matched controls. Mean age of the CI and control participants were 23.3±5.2 years and 22.7±4.2 years, respectively. The mean stimulus and response AC/A ratio for CI pre therapy was 2.2±0.72 and 6.3±2.0 PD/D that changed to 4.2±0.9 and 8.28±3.31 PD/D respectively post vision therapy and these changes were statistically significant (paired t-test; paccommodation parameters in subjects with convergence insufficiency. This represents the plasticity of the AC/A crosslink ratios that could be achieved with vision therapy in CI. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of an auditory stimulus on baseline cortisol concentrations in clinically normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, T E; Puchot, M L; Cook, A K

    2018-03-19

    Baseline cortisol concentrations are routinely used to screen dogs for hypoadrenocorticism (HOC); this diagnosis must then be confirmed with an ACTH stimulation test. A baseline cortisol concentration less than 55 nmol/L (2 μg/dL) is highly sensitive for HOC but lacks specificity, with a false positive rate >20%. Many dogs with nonadrenal disease are therefore subjected to unnecessary additional testing. It was hypothesized that exposure to an unpleasant auditory stimulus before sample collection would improve the specificity of baseline cortisol measurements in dogs with nonadrenal disease by triggering cortisol production. Twenty-eight healthy client-owned dogs were included in the study, with a median age of 4 yr (range 2-9 yr) and a median weight of 20 kg (range 10-27 kg). Dogs were ineligible for inclusion if they had received short- or long-acting glucocorticoids within the previous 30 and 90 d, respectively. Dogs were randomly assigned to group 1 (control; no noise; n = 7), group 2 (brief noise: n = 10), or group 3 (long noise: n = 11). Each dog and owner were directed to a secluded area for approximately 15 min. Group 1 sat in relative quiet, exposed only to the background sounds of a veterinary hospital. Group 2 were exposed to the sound of a wet-dry vacuum in an adjacent hallway during the first 3 min of this period. Group 3 were exposed to random bursts of wet-dry vacuum noise during this period. At the end of the test interval, each dog was escorted to an adjacent examination room for blood collection. Samples were processed within 15 min; serum was frozen at -80°C before measurement of cortisol concentrations. Median serum cortisol concentrations and the proportion of dogs with results dogs with apparently normal adrenal function was therefore rejected. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Bodily Expressive Action Stimulus Test (BEAST). Construction and Validation of a Stimulus Basis for Measuring Perception of Whole Body Expression of Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, Beatrice; Van den Stock, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Whole body expressions are among the main visual stimulus categories that are naturally associated with faces and the neuroscientific investigation of how body expressions are processed has entered the research agenda this last decade. Here we describe the stimulus set of whole body expressions termed bodily expressive action stimulus test (BEAST), and we provide validation data for use of these materials by the community of emotion researchers. The database was composed of 254 whole body expressions from 46 actors expressing 4 emotions (anger, fear, happiness, and sadness). In all pictures the face of the actor was blurred and participants were asked to categorize the emotions expressed in the stimuli in a four alternative-forced-choice task. The results show that all emotions are well recognized, with sadness being the easiest, followed by fear, whereas happiness was the most difficult. The BEAST appears a valuable addition to currently available tools for assessing recognition of affective signals. It can be used in explicit recognition tasks as well as in matching tasks and in implicit tasks, combined either with facial expressions, with affective prosody, or presented with affective pictures as context in healthy subjects as well as in clinical populations.

  3. What we expect is not always what we get: evidence for both the direction-of-change and the specific-stimulus hypotheses of auditory attentional capture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatole Nöstl

    Full Text Available Participants were requested to respond to a sequence of visual targets while listening to a well-known lullaby. One of the notes in the lullaby was occasionally exchanged with a pattern deviant. Experiment 1 found that deviants capture attention as a function of the pitch difference between the deviant and the replaced/expected tone. However, when the pitch difference between the expected tone and the deviant tone is held constant, a violation to the direction-of-pitch change across tones can also capture attention (Experiment 2. Moreover, in more complex auditory environments, wherein it is difficult to build a coherent neural model of the sound environment from which expectations are formed, deviations can capture attention but it appears to matter less whether this is a violation from a specific stimulus or a violation of the current direction-of-change (Experiment 3. The results support the expectation violation account of auditory distraction and suggest that there are at least two different expectations that can be violated: One appears to be bound to a specific stimulus and the other would seem to be bound to a more global cross-stimulus rule such as the direction-of-change based on a sequence of preceding sound events. Factors like base-rate probability of tones within the sound environment might become the driving mechanism of attentional capture--rather than violated expectations--in complex sound environments.

  4. What we expect is not always what we get: evidence for both the direction-of-change and the specific-stimulus hypotheses of auditory attentional capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöstl, Anatole; Marsh, John E; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Participants were requested to respond to a sequence of visual targets while listening to a well-known lullaby. One of the notes in the lullaby was occasionally exchanged with a pattern deviant. Experiment 1 found that deviants capture attention as a function of the pitch difference between the deviant and the replaced/expected tone. However, when the pitch difference between the expected tone and the deviant tone is held constant, a violation to the direction-of-pitch change across tones can also capture attention (Experiment 2). Moreover, in more complex auditory environments, wherein it is difficult to build a coherent neural model of the sound environment from which expectations are formed, deviations can capture attention but it appears to matter less whether this is a violation from a specific stimulus or a violation of the current direction-of-change (Experiment 3). The results support the expectation violation account of auditory distraction and suggest that there are at least two different expectations that can be violated: One appears to be bound to a specific stimulus and the other would seem to be bound to a more global cross-stimulus rule such as the direction-of-change based on a sequence of preceding sound events. Factors like base-rate probability of tones within the sound environment might become the driving mechanism of attentional capture--rather than violated expectations--in complex sound environments.

  5. Book Reviews in Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt, Harold J.

    All recent issues of periodicals found which contain indexed book reviews are listed in this compilation from Drake Memorial Library at the New York State University at Brockport. The periodicals are listed by 29 subject headings in this informal guide designed to be used at Drake Library. The number of reviews in the periodical in a recent year…

  6. The Hall-Rodriguez theory of latent inhibition: Further assessment of compound stimulus preexposure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gabriel; Márquez, Raúl; Gil, Marta; Alonso, Gumersinda; Hall, Geoffrey

    2014-10-01

    According to a recent theory (Hall & Rodriguez, 2010), the latent inhibition produced by nonreinforced exposure to a target stimulus (B) will be deepened by subsequent exposure of that stimulus in compound with another (AB). This effect of compound exposure is taken to depend on the addition of a novel A to the familiar B and is not predicted for equivalent preexposure on which AB trials precede the A trials. This prediction was tested in 2 experiments using rats. Experiment 1 used an aversive procedure with flavors as the stimuli; Experiment 2 used an appetitive procedure with visual and auditory stimuli. In both, we found that conditioning with B as the conditioned stimulus proceeded more slowly (i.e., latent inhibition was greater) in subjects given the B-AB sequence in preexposure than in subjects given the AB-B sequence.

  7. Stimulus meanings alter illusory self-motion (vection)--experimental examination of the train illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, Takeharu; Fukuda, Haruaki

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 100 years, numerous studies have examined the effective visual stimulus properties for inducing illusory self-motion (known as vection). This vection is often experienced more strongly in daily life than under controlled experimental conditions. One well-known example of vection in real life is the so-called 'train illusion'. In the present study, we showed that this train illusion can also be generated in the laboratory using virtual computer graphics-based motion stimuli. We also demonstrated that this vection can be modified by altering the meaning of the visual stimuli (i.e., top down effects). Importantly, we show that the semantic meaning of a stimulus can inhibit or facilitate vection, even when there is no physical change to the stimulus.

  8. Stimulus fear-relevance and the vicarious learning pathway to childhood fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Chris; Dunne, Güler; Özdil, Zehra; Reynolds, Gemma; Field, Andy P

    2013-10-01

    Enhanced fear learning for fear-relevant stimuli has been demonstrated in procedures with adults in the laboratory. Three experiments investigated the effect of stimulus fear-relevance on vicarious fear learning in children (aged 6-11 years). Pictures of stimuli with different levels of fear-relevance (flowers, caterpillars, snakes, worms, and Australian marsupials) were presented alone or together with scared faces. In line with previous studies, children's fear beliefs and avoidance preferences increased for stimuli they had seen with scared faces. However, in contrast to evidence with adults, learning was mostly similar for all stimulus types irrespective of fear-relevance. The results support a proposal that stimulus preparedness is bypassed when children observationally learn threat-related information from adults.

  9. The Wada Test: contributions to standardization of the stimulus for language and memory assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäder Maria Joana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wada Test (WT is part of the presurgical evaluation for refractory epilepsy. The WT is not standardized and the protocols differ in important ways, including stimulus type of material presented for memory testing, timing of presentations and methods of assessment. The aim of this study was to contribute to establish parameters for a WT to Brazilian population investigating the performance of 100 normal subjects, without medication. Two parallel models were used based on Montreal Procedure adapted from Gail Risse's (MEG-MN,EUA protocol. The proportions of correct responses of normal subjects submitted to two parallel WT models were investigated and the two models were compared. The results showed that the two models are similar but significant differences among the stimulus type were observed. The results suggest that the stimulus type may influence the results of the WT and should be considered when constructing models and comparing different protocols.

  10. Interactions between visceral afferent signaling and stimulus processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo D Critchley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Visceral afferent signals to the brain influence thoughts, feelings and behaviour. Here we highlight the findings of a set of empirical investigations in humans concerning body-mind interaction that focus on how feedback from states of autonomic arousal shapes cognition and emotion. There is a longstanding debate regarding the contribution of the body, to mental processes. Recent theoretical models broadly acknowledge the role of (autonomically-mediated physiological arousal to emotional, social and motivational behaviours, yet the underlying mechanisms are only partially characterized. Neuroimaging is overcoming this shortfall; first, by demonstrating correlations between autonomic change and discrete patterns of evoked, and task-independent, neural activity; second, by mapping the central consequences of clinical perturbations in autonomic response and; third, by probing how dynamic fluctuations in peripheral autonomic state are integrated with perceptual, cognitive and emotional processes. Building on the notion that an important source of the brain’s representation of physiological arousal is derived from afferent information from arterial baroreceptors, we have exploited the phasic nature of these signals to show their differential contribution to the processing of emotionally-salient stimuli. This recent work highlights the facilitation at neural and behavioral levels of fear and threat processing that contrasts with the more established observations of the inhibition of central pain processing during baroreceptors activation. The implications of this body-brain-mind axis are discussed.

  11. Drosophila Learn Opposing Components of a Compound Food Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gaurav; Klappenbach, Martín; Vrontou, Eleftheria; Perisse, Emmanuel; Clark, Christopher M.; Burke, Christopher J.; Waddell, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Summary Dopaminergic neurons provide value signals in mammals and insects [1–3]. During Drosophila olfactory learning, distinct subsets of dopaminergic neurons appear to assign either positive or negative value to odor representations in mushroom body neurons [4–9]. However, it is not known how flies evaluate substances that have mixed valence. Here we show that flies form short-lived aversive olfactory memories when trained with odors and sugars that are contaminated with the common insect repellent DEET. This DEET-aversive learning required the MB-MP1 dopaminergic neurons that are also required for shock learning [7]. Moreover, differential conditioning with DEET versus shock suggests that formation of these distinct aversive olfactory memories relies on a common negatively reinforcing dopaminergic mechanism. Surprisingly, as time passed after training, the behavior of DEET-sugar-trained flies reversed from conditioned odor avoidance into odor approach. In addition, flies that were compromised for reward learning exhibited a more robust and longer-lived aversive-DEET memory. These data demonstrate that flies independently process the DEET and sugar components to form parallel aversive and appetitive olfactory memories, with distinct kinetics, that compete to guide learned behavior. PMID:25042590

  12. Neurophysiology underlying influence of stimulus reliability on audiovisual integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatzer, Hannah; Shen, Stanley; Kerlin, Jess R; Pitt, Mark A; Shahin, Antoine J

    2018-01-24

    We tested the predictions of the dynamic reweighting model (DRM) of audiovisual (AV) speech integration, which posits that spectrotemporally reliable (informative) AV speech stimuli induce a reweighting of processing from low-level to high-level auditory networks. This reweighting decreases sensitivity to acoustic onsets and in turn increases tolerance to AV onset asynchronies (AVOA). EEG was recorded while subjects watched videos of a speaker uttering trisyllabic nonwords that varied in spectrotemporal reliability and asynchrony of the visual and auditory inputs. Subjects judged the stimuli as in-sync or out-of-sync. Results showed that subjects exhibited greater AVOA tolerance for non-blurred than blurred visual speech and for less than more degraded acoustic speech. Increased AVOA tolerance was reflected in reduced amplitude of the P1-P2 auditory evoked potentials, a neurophysiological indication of reduced sensitivity to acoustic onsets and successful AV integration. There was also sustained visual alpha band (8-14 Hz) suppression (desynchronization) following acoustic speech onsets for non-blurred vs. blurred visual speech, consistent with continuous engagement of the visual system as the speech unfolds. The current findings suggest that increased spectrotemporal reliability of acoustic and visual speech promotes robust AV integration, partly by suppressing sensitivity to acoustic onsets, in support of the DRM's reweighting mechanism. Increased visual signal reliability also sustains the engagement of the visual system with the auditory system to maintain alignment of information across modalities. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Adolescent development of context-dependent stimulus-reward association memory and its neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Joel L; O'Neil, Jonathan T; Kharitonova, Maria; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2015-01-01

    Expression of learned stimulus-reward associations based on context is essential for regulation of behavior to meet situational demands. Contextual regulation improves during development, although the developmental progression of relevant neural and cognitive processes is not fully specified. We therefore measured neural correlates of flexible, contextual expression of stimulus-reward associations in pre/early-adolescent children (ages 9-13 years) and young adults (ages 19-22 years). After reinforcement learning using standard parameters, a contextual reversal manipulation was used whereby contextual cues indicated that stimulus-reward associations were the same as previously reinforced for some trials (consistent trials) or were reversed on other trials (inconsistent trials). Subjects were thus required to respond according to original stimulus-reward associations vs. reversed associations based on trial-specific contextual cues. Children and young adults did not differ in reinforcement learning or in relevant functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) correlates. In contrast, adults outperformed children during contextual reversal, with better performance specifically for inconsistent trials. fMRI signals corresponding to this selective advantage included greater activity in lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), hippocampus, and dorsal striatum for young adults relative to children. Flexible expression of stimulus-reward associations based on context thus improves via adolescent development, as does recruitment of brain regions involved in reward learning and contextual expression of memory. HighlightsEarly-adolescent children and young adults were equivalent in reinforcement learning.Adults outperformed children in contextual expression of stimulus-reward associations.Adult advantages correlated with increased activity of relevant brain regions.Specific neurocognitive developmental changes support better contextual regulation.

  14. Dynamic integration of reward and stimulus information in perceptual decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Juan; Tortell, Rebecca; McClelland, James L

    2011-03-03

    In perceptual decision-making, ideal decision-makers should bias their choices toward alternatives associated with larger rewards, and the extent of the bias should decrease as stimulus sensitivity increases. When responses must be made at different times after stimulus onset, stimulus sensitivity grows with time from zero to a final asymptotic level. Are decision makers able to produce responses that are more biased if they are made soon after stimulus onset, but less biased if they are made after more evidence has been accumulated? If so, how close to optimal can they come in doing this, and how might their performance be achieved mechanistically? We report an experiment in which the payoff for each alternative is indicated before stimulus onset. Processing time is controlled by a "go" cue occurring at different times post stimulus onset, requiring a response within msec. Reward bias does start high when processing time is short and decreases as sensitivity increases, leveling off at a non-zero value. However, the degree of bias is sub-optimal for shorter processing times. We present a mechanistic account of participants' performance within the framework of the leaky competing accumulator model [1], in which accumulators for each alternative accumulate noisy information subject to leakage and mutual inhibition. The leveling off of accuracy is attributed to mutual inhibition between the accumulators, allowing the accumulator that gathers the most evidence early in a trial to suppress the alternative. Three ways reward might affect decision making in this framework are considered. One of the three, in which reward affects the starting point of the evidence accumulation process, is consistent with the qualitative pattern of the observed reward bias effect, while the other two are not. Incorporating this assumption into the leaky competing accumulator model, we are able to provide close quantitative fits to individual participant data.

  15. In support of a distinction between voluntary and stimulus-driven control: A review of the literature on proportion congruent effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M. Bugg

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive control is by now a large umbrella term referring collectively to multiple processes that plan and coordinate actions to meet task goals. A common feature of paradigms that engage cognitive control is the task requirement to select relevant information despite a habitual tendency (or bias to select goal-irrelevant information. At least since the 70s, researchers have employed proportion congruent manipulations to experimentally establish selection biases and evaluate the mechanisms used to control attention. Proportion congruent manipulations vary the frequency with which irrelevant information conflicts (i.e., is incongruent with relevant information. The purpose of this review is to summarize the growing body of literature on proportion congruent effects across selective attention paradigms, beginning first with Stroop, and then describing parallel effects in flanker and task-switching paradigms. The review chronologically tracks the expansion of the proportion congruent manipulation from its initial implementation at the list-wide level, to more recent implementations at the item-specific and context-specific levels. An important theoretical aim is demonstrating that proportion congruent effects at different levels (e.g., list-wide vs. item or context-specific support a distinction between voluntary forms of cognitive control, which operate based on anticipatory information, and relatively automatic or reflexive forms of cognitive control, which are rapidly triggered by the processing of particular stimuli or stimulus features. A further aim is to highlight those proportion congruent manipulations that allow researchers to dissociate stimulus-driven control from other stimulus-driven processes (e.g., S-R responding; episodic retrieval. We conclude by discussing the utility of proportion congruent manipulations for exploring the distinction between voluntary control and stimulus-driven control in other relevant paradigms.

  16. Duration of the Unconditioned Stimulus in Appetitive Conditioning of Honeybees Differentially Impacts Learning, Long-Term Memory Strength, and the Underlying Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marter, Kathrin; Grauel, M. Katharina; Lewa, Carmen; Morgenstern, Laura; Buckemüller, Christina; Heufelder, Karin; Ganz, Marion; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role of stimulus duration in learning and memory formation of honeybees ("Apis mellifera"). In classical appetitive conditioning honeybees learn the association between an initially neutral, conditioned stimulus (CS) and the occurrence of a meaningful stimulus, the unconditioned stimulus (US). Thereby the CS…

  17. Towards Predicting Room Acoustical Effects on Sound-Field ASSR from Stimulus Modulation Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata Rodriguez, Valentina; Laugesen, Søren; Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    ) is considered. Instead of using insert earphones to deliver the stimuli, as is customary, the auditory signals are reproduced from a loudspeaker placed in front of the subject, so as to include the hearing aid in the transmission path. Loudspeaker presentation of the stimulus can lower its effective modulation...... properties of the measurement room has not been considered. The present work explores the relation between the stimulus modulation power and the ASSR amplitude in a simulated sound-field ASSR data set with varying reverberation time. Three rooms were simulated using the Green's function approach...

  18. Discrepancy between stimulus response and tolerance of pain in Alzheimer disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Werner, Mads U; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Affective-motivational and sensory-discriminative aspects of pain were investigated in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy elderly controls using the cold pressor test tolerance and repetitive stimuli of warmth and heat stimuli, evaluating the stimulus....... The results further suggest that the attenuated cold pressor pain tolerance may relate to impairment of coping abilities. Paradoxically, we found an attenuated stimulus-response function, compared to controls, suggesting that AD dementia interferes with pain ratings over time, most likely due to memory...

  19. Autoshaping with common and distinctive stimulus elements, compact and dispersed arrays1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Sally E.; Perkins, Mark E.

    1979-01-01

    Four groups of pigeons were trained with a standard autoshaping procedure in which a brief fixed-duration interval always followed by a grain delivery alternated with a longer variable-duration interval never associated with grain delivery. One of two stimuli was always presented during each interval. One of them contained three black dots and a black star on a green background; the other contained four black dots on a green background. The four elements of each stimulus were arranged in a more compact array for two groups and in a more dispersed array for the other two groups. Which of the two stimuli preceded grain delivery was counterbalanced within each pair of groups. The speed of occurrence of the first autoshaped peck was not affected by whether the stimulus containing the distinctive star element preceded grain delivery, but autoshaping was faster when the stimulus arrays were compact than when they were dispersed. During 560 response-independent training trials that followed the first autoshaped peck, this pattern reversed; both discriminative control over responding and the relative frequency of pecking the stimulus that preceded grain delivery were greater for the two groups where this stimulus contained the discriminative element than for the two groups where it contained only common elements. During subsequent testing with stimuli containing only a single element each, the distinctive feature was responded to proportionately more often by the two groups for which it had been an element of the stimulus preceding grain delivery than by the two groups for which it had been an element of the stimulus complex that never was associated with grain delivery. These data add further support to the hypothesis that the initial occurrence of autoshaped responding and its subsequent maintenance are not affected by the same variables. They also suggest that automaintenance is as sensitive as response-dependent training to the presence or absence of a distinctive

  20. Autoshaping with common and distinctive stimulus elements, compact and dispersed arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, S E; Perkins, M E

    1979-05-01

    Four groups of pigeons were trained with a standard autoshaping procedure in which a brief fixed-duration interval always followed by a grain delivery alternated with a longer variable-duration interval never associated with grain delivery. One of two stimuli was always presented during each interval. One of them contained three black dots and a black star on a green background; the other contained four black dots on a green background. The four elements of each stimulus were arranged in a more compact array for two groups and in a more dispersed array for the other two groups. Which of the two stimuli preceded grain delivery was counterbalanced within each pair of groups. The speed of occurrence of the first autoshaped peck was not affected by whether the stimulus containing the distinctive star element preceded grain delivery, but autoshaping was faster when the stimulus arrays were compact than when they were dispersed. During 560 response-independent training trials that followed the first autoshaped peck, this pattern reversed; both discriminative control over responding and the relative frequency of pecking the stimulus that preceded grain delivery were greater for the two groups where this stimulus contained the discriminative element than for the two groups where it contained only common elements. During subsequent testing with stimuli containing only a single element each, the distinctive feature was responded to proportionately more often by the two groups for which it had been an element of the stimulus preceding grain delivery than by the two groups for which it had been an element of the stimulus complex that never was associated with grain delivery. These data add further support to the hypothesis that the initial occurrence of autoshaped responding and its subsequent maintenance are not affected by the same variables. They also suggest that automaintenance is as sensitive as response-dependent training to the presence or absence of a distinctive

  1. Measurement of erythema and tanning responses in human skin using a tri-stimulus colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, J C; Whitmore, C G

    1988-01-01

    A 'Minolta Tri-Stimulus Colorimeter II' was evaluated for obtaining objective measurements of early changes in erythema and tanning. The meter showed a subtle, continuous transition between the primary erythematous response and the delayed tanning of skin which was below the visual threshold for detection. Thereafter, the a* (redness) value of the meter showed a significant linear correlation with the dermatologist's perception of erythema while the b* (yellow) value showed a significant correlation with the perception of tanning. This capability of the tri-stimulus colorimeter to simultaneously evaluate the hue and saturation of skin color affords an improved opportunity to quantitate the transition from erythema to tanning without subjective bias.

  2. Influence of stimulus intensity on the soleus H-reflex amplitude and modulation during locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Alkjær, Tine; Raffalt, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    -reflex methodology itself. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to study the effect on the soleus H-reflex during walking and running using stimulus intensities normally considered too high (up to 45% Mmax). Using M-waves of 25-45% Mmax as opposed to 5-25% Mmax showed a significant suppression...... of the peak H-reflex during the stance phase of walking, while no changes were observed during running. No differences were observed regarding modulation pattern. So a possible use of too high stimulus intensity cannot explain the differences mentioned. The surprising result in running may be explained...

  3. Tooth pulp stimulation as an unconditioned stimulus in defensive instrumental conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Keller, O; Zieliński, K

    1977-01-01

    In an experiment performed on five cats, stable escape and avoidance reflexes in a bar-pressing situation were established using tooth pulp electric stimulation as the unconditioned stimulus. The influence of changes in parameters of the unconditioned stimulus (current intensity, single pulse and train durations, frequency of pulses and rate of train presentations) on unconditioned and instrumental responses was analysed in three additional subjects. Among other relationships the dependence of the threshold of bar press responses on the amount of charge in a single pulse was determined.

  4. Predicting the threshold of pulse-train electrical stimuli using a stochastic auditory nerve model: the effects of stimulus noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifang; Collins, Leslie M

    2004-04-01

    The incorporation of low levels of noise into an electrical stimulus has been shown to improve auditory thresholds in some human subjects (Zeng et al., 2000). In this paper, thresholds for noise-modulated pulse-train stimuli are predicted utilizing a stochastic neural-behavioral model of ensemble fiber responses to bi-phasic stimuli. The neural refractory effect is described using a Markov model for a noise-free pulse-train stimulus and a closed-form solution for the steady-state neural response is provided. For noise-modulated pulse-train stimuli, a recursive method using the conditional probability is utilized to track the neural responses to each successive pulse. A neural spike count rule has been presented for both threshold and intensity discrimination under the assumption that auditory perception occurs via integration over a relatively long time period (Bruce et al., 1999). An alternative approach originates from the hypothesis of the multilook model (Viemeister and Wakefield, 1991), which argues that auditory perception is based on several shorter time integrations and may suggest an NofM model for prediction of pulse-train threshold. This motivates analyzing the neural response to each individual pulse within a pulse train, which is considered to be the brief look. A logarithmic rule is hypothesized for pulse-train threshold. Predictions from the multilook model are shown to match trends in psychophysical data for noise-free stimuli that are not always matched by the long-time integration rule. Theoretical predictions indicate that threshold decreases as noise variance increases. Theoretical models of the neural response to pulse-train stimuli not only reduce calculational overhead but also facilitate utilization of signal detection theory and are easily extended to multichannel psychophysical tasks.

  5. Definition dependent properties of the cortical silent period in upper-extremity muscles, a methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, A.A. van; Bakker, C.D.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Geurts, A.C.; Stegeman, D.F.; Pasman, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To explore if stimulus-response (S-R) characteristics of the silent period (SP) after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are affected by changing the SP definition and by changing data presentation in healthy individuals. This information would be clinically relevant to predict

  6. Definition dependent properties of the cortical silent period in upper-extremity muscles, a methodological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuijk, A.A.; Bakker, C,; Hendriks, J.J.A.; Geurts, A.H.; Stegeman, D.F.; Pasman, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To explore if stimulus-response (S-R) characteristics of the silent period (SP) after transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are affected by changing the SP definition and by changing data presentation in healthy individuals. This information would be clinically relevant to predict

  7. The influence of common stimulus parameters on distortion product otoacoustic emission fine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tiffany A; Baranowski, Lauren G

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether common approaches to setting stimulus parameters influence the depth of fine structure present in the distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) response. Because the presence of fine structure has been suggested as a possible source of errors, if one of the common parametric approaches results in reduced fine-structure depth, it may be preferred over other approaches. DPOAE responses were recorded in a group of 21 subjects with normal hearing for 1/3-octave intervals surrounding 3 f2s (1, 2, and 4 kHz) at three L2s (30, 45, and 55 dB SPL). For each f2 and L2 combination, L1 and f2/f1 were set according to three commonly used parametric approaches. These included a simple approach, the approach recommended by Kummer et al., and the approach described by Johnson et al. These three approaches primarily differ in the recommended relationship between L1 and L2. For each parametric approach, DPOAE fine structure was evaluated by varying f2 in small steps. Differences in DPOAE level and DPOAE fine-structure depth across f2, L2, and the various stimulus parameters were evaluated using repeated-measures analysis of variance. As expected, significant variations in DPOAE level were observed across the three parametric approaches. For stimulus levels #45 dB SPL, the simple stimuli resulted in lower DPOAE levels than were observed for other approaches. An unexpected finding was that stimulus parameters developed by Johnson et al., which were believed to produce higher DPOAE levels than other approaches, produced the lowest DPOAE levels of the three approaches when f2 = 4 kHz. Significant differences in fine-structure depth were also observed. Greater fine-structure depth was observed with the simple parameters, although this effect was restricted to L2 # 45 dB SPL. When L2 = 55 dB SPL, all three parametric approaches resulted in equivalent fine-structure depth. A significant difference in fine-structure depth across the 3 f2s was also observed. The

  8. A time estimation task as a possible measure of emotions: difference depending on the nature of the stimulus used.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auriane eGros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Time perception is fundamental for human experience. A topic which has attracted the attention of researchers since long time is how the stimulus sensory modality (e.g., images vs. sounds affects time judgments. However, so far, no study has directly compared the effect of two sensory modalities using emotional stimuli on time judgments.Methods: In the present two studies, healthy participants were asked to estimate the duration of a pure sound preceded by the presentation of odors vs. emotional videos as priming stimuli (implicit emotion-eliciting task. During the task, skin conductance (SC was measured as an index of arousal. Results: Olfactory stimuli resulted in an increase in SC and in a constant time overestimation. Video stimuli resulted in an increase SC (emotional arousal, which decreased linearly overtime. Critically, video stimuli resulted in an initial time underestimation, which shifted progressively towards a time overestimation. These results suggest that video stimuli recruited both arousal-related and attention-related mechanisms, and that the role played by these mechanisms changed overtime. Conclusions: These pilot studies highlight the importance of comparing the effect of different kinds on temporal estimation tasks, and suggests that odors are well suited to investigate arousal-related temporal distortions, while videos are ideal to investigate both arousal-related and attention-related mechanisms.

  9. Audio-visual onset differences are used to determine syllable identity for ambiguous audio-visual stimulus pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Oever, Sanne; Sack, Alexander T; Wheat, Katherine L; Bien, Nina; van Atteveldt, Nienke

    2013-01-01

    Content and temporal cues have been shown to interact during audio-visual (AV) speech identification. Typically, the most reliable unimodal cue is used more strongly to identify specific speech features; however, visual cues are only used if the AV stimuli are presented within a certain temporal window of integration (TWI). This suggests that temporal cues denote whether unimodal stimuli belong together, that is, whether they should be integrated. It is not known whether temporal cues also provide information about the identity of a syllable. Since spoken syllables have naturally varying AV onset asynchronies, we hypothesize that for suboptimal AV cues presented within the TWI, information about the natural AV onset differences can aid in speech identification. To test this, we presented low-intensity auditory syllables concurrently with visual speech signals, and varied the stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) of the AV pair, while participants were instructed to identify the auditory syllables. We revealed that specific speech features (e.g., voicing) were identified by relying primarily on one modality (e.g., auditory). Additionally, we showed a wide window in which visual information influenced auditory perception, that seemed even wider for congruent stimulus pairs. Finally, we found a specific response pattern across the SOA range for syllables that were not reliably identified by the unimodal cues, which we explained as the result of the use of natural onset differences between AV speech signals. This indicates that temporal cues not only provide information about the temporal integration of AV stimuli, but additionally convey information about the identity of AV pairs. These results provide a detailed behavioral basis for further neuro-imaging and stimulation studies to unravel the neurofunctional mechanisms of the audio-visual-temporal interplay within speech perception.

  10. Painful menstrual periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... into two groups, depending on the cause: Primary dysmenorrhea Secondary dysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that ...

  11. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    and their quality was improved considerably toward the end of this period. The profound cultural innovations of the Middle Helladic period were initially interpreted as a result of violent population movement and troubles provoked by the coming of the first Indo-European races. However, this matter does no more...... Helladic period is considered as a period of economic and social decline it was the time during which the mainland features merged with the insular influence, that is all the Aegean elements which led to the creation of the Mycenaean civilization were mixed in a creative way....

  12. Return of fear after retrospective inferences about the absence of an unconditioned stimulus during extinction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes, A.K.; de Houwer, J.; Verschuere, B.; de Raedt, R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether the effect of an extinction phase can be influenced retrospectively by information about the cause of the absence of the unconditioned stimulus (US) during that phase. Participants were subjected to a differential fear conditioning procedure, followed by an extinction procedure.

  13. Stimulus threat and exposure context modulate the effect of mere exposure on approach behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Young

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mere-exposure research has found that initially neutral objects made familiar are preferred relative to novel objects. Recent work extends these preference judgments into the behavioral domain by illustrating that mere exposure prompts approach-oriented behavior toward familiar stimuli. However, no investigations have examined the effect of mere exposure on approach-oriented behavior toward threatening stimuli. The current work examines this issue and also explores how exposure context interacts with stimulus threat to influence behavioral tendencies. In two experiments participants were presented with both mere-exposed and novel stimuli and approach speed was assessed. In the first experiment, when stimulus threat was presented in a homogeneous format (i.e., participants viewed exclusively neutral or threatening stimuli, mere-exposure potentiated approach behaviors for both neutral and threatening stimuli. However, in the second experiment, in which stimulus threat was presented in a heterogeneous fashion (i.e., participants viewed both neutral and threatening stimuli, mere exposure facilitated approach only for initially neutral stimuli. These results suggest that mere-exposure effects on approach behaviors are highly context sensitive and depend on both stimulus valence and exposure context. Further implications of these findings for the mere-exposure literature are discussed.

  14. Task- and age-dependent effects of visual stimulus properties on children's explicit numerosity judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defever, Emmy; Reynvoet, Bert; Gebuis, Titia

    2013-10-01

    Researchers investigating numerosity processing manipulate the visual stimulus properties (e.g., surface). This is done to control for the confound between numerosity and its visual properties and should allow the examination of pure number processes. Nevertheless, several studies have shown that, despite different visual controls, visual cues remained to exert their influence on numerosity judgments. This study, therefore, investigated whether the impact of the visual stimulus manipulations on numerosity judgments is dependent on the task at hand (comparison task vs. same-different task) and whether this impact changes throughout development. In addition, we examined whether the influence of visual stimulus manipulations on numerosity judgments plays a role in the relation between performance on numerosity tasks and mathematics achievement. Our findings confirmed that the visual stimulus manipulations affect numerosity judgments; more important, we found that these influences changed with increasing age and differed between the comparison and the same-different tasks. Consequently, direct comparisons between numerosity studies using different tasks and age groups are difficult. No meaningful relationship between the performance on the comparison and same-different tasks and mathematics achievement was found in typically developing children, nor did we find consistent differences between children with and without mathematical learning disability (MLD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Involvement of phosphorylated Apis mellifera CREB in gating a honeybee's behavioral response to an external stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Katrin B.; Heufelder, Karin; Feige, Janina; Bauer, Paul; Dyck, Yan; Ehrhardt, Lea; Kühnemund, Johannes; Bergmann, Anja; Göbel, Josefine; Isecke, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is involved in neuronal plasticity. Phosphorylation activates CREB and an increased level of phosphorylated CREB is regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. In honeybees (Apis mellifera) we recently demonstrated a particular high abundance of the phosphorylated honeybee CREB homolog (pAmCREB) in the central brain and in a subpopulation of mushroom body neurons. We hypothesize that these high pAmCREB levels are related to learning and memory formation. Here, we tested this hypothesis by analyzing brain pAmCREB levels in classically conditioned bees and bees experiencing unpaired presentations of conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). We demonstrate that both behavioral protocols display differences in memory formation but do not alter the level of pAmCREB in bee brains directly after training. Nevertheless, we report that bees responding to the CS during unpaired stimulus presentations exhibit higher levels of pAmCREB than nonresponding bees. In addition, Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor that is thought to enhance histone acetylation by CREB-binding protein, increases the bees’ CS responsiveness. We conclude that pAmCREB is involved in gating a bee's behavioral response driven by an external stimulus. PMID:27084927

  16. Poetry Education Research as an Anchorage of Thought: Using Poetry as Interview Stimulus Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xerri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Interviews in qualitative research may sometimes employ stimulus material as a means of eliciting richer data. However, scant consideration has been given to the use of poetry for this purpose, especially within the field of poetry education research. This article seeks to address the gap in the literature by illustrating how the use of poetry as…

  17. How Stimulus and Task Complexity Affect Monitoring in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, S.; Vissers, C.T.W.M.; Egger, J.I.M.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are able to update and monitor working memory representations of visual input, and whether performance is influenced by stimulus and task complexity. 15 high-functioning adults with ASD and 15 controls were asked to

  18. The impact of stimulus complexity and frequency swapping on stabilization of binocular rivalry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Bahrami, B; Lindeløv, Jonas Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    high-level perceptual content. We conclude that overlaps at low visual stages are the most likely cause of the eye-specific stabilization for both stimulus types. Additionally, we examined the impact of swapping the flicker frequency of the images and found a general impact on stabilization...

  19. Did Fiscal Stimulus Lift Developing Asia Out of the Global Crisis? An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kyun Hur

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The substantial slowdown of economic growth since the global financial crisis of 2008-2009 is rekindling debate on whether developing Asia should use fiscal expansion to boost aggregate demand. A key factor in the debate is the effectiveness of countercyclical fiscal policy in the region. The global crisis, as well as the fiscal stimulus packages implemented by developing Asian countries at that time, give some clues to this important issue. The region weathered the global crisis well and experienced a robust V-shaped recovery. According to conventional wisdom, the fiscal stimulus packages put in place by Asian governments played a key role in the region’s recovery. The central objective of this paper is to empirically test this wisdom by using cross-country panel data. Our main finding is that the stimulus has had a limited but positive impact on developing Asia’s output during the global crisis. This lends some support to the notion that countercyclical fiscal policy can help the region cope with severe external shocks. The broader, more fundamental implication for regional policymakers is that the region’s long-standing commitment to fiscal discipline can yield significant benefits beyond macroeconomic stability. An important consequence of this commitment - relatively healthy fiscal balance sheets - enabled the region’s governments to quickly and decisively embark upon fiscal stimulus programs.

  20. Stimulus-Outcome Learnability Differentially Activates Anterior Cingulate and Hippocampus at Feedback Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    Memory systems are known to be influenced by feedback and error processing, but it is not well known what aspects of outcome contingencies are related to different memory systems. Here we use the Rescorla-Wagner model to estimate prediction errors in an fMRI study of stimulus-outcome association learning. The conditional probabilities of outcomes…

  1. ERP effects of spatial attention and display search with unilateral and bilateral stimulus displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, J.J.; Wijers, A.A.; Mulder, L.J.M.; Mulder, G.

    Two experiments were performed in which the effects of selective spatial attention on the ERPs elicited by unilateral and bilateral stimulus arrays were compared. In Experiment 1, subjects received a series of grating patterns. In the unilateral condition these gratings were presented one at a time,

  2. A tactile stimulus applied to the leg improves postural stability in young, old and neuropathic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Lord, Stephen R; Fitzpatrick, Richard C

    2006-10-02

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the application of passive tactile cues to the lower limb could improve postural stability in healthy young controls, older people and people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Antero-posterior sway was measured with eyes open and closed in 10 healthy young subjects (mean age 27 years, 5 male, 5 female), 10 older subjects without diabetic peripheral neuropathy (mean age 88 years, 2 male, 8 female) and 10 subjects with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (mean age 65 years, 6 male, 4 female) while a small piece of Velcro attached to a flexible mount was applied to three different sites on the leg (ankle, calf, and knee). Across all conditions, the mean sway of the neuropathic subjects was 93% greater than for the young subjects and 11% more than the older subjects. On average, subjects swayed 10% more with the eyes closed than with the eyes open. Each stimulus reduced sway, but the effect increased approximately in proportion to the height of the stimulus above the ankles (ankle 7.6%, calf 13.5%, knee 20.1% reduction compared to the no stimulus condition). This experiment demonstrates that a passive stimulus applied to the skin of the leg, which provides sensory information about body movement, significantly reduces body sway during standing. This applies to older subjects and subjects with peripheral neuropathy as well as healthy young subjects. These results have implications for novel approaches for improving stability in people with peripheral sensory loss.

  3. Pyff---A Pythonic Framework for Feedback Applications and Stimulus Presentation in Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Venthur

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces Pyff, the Pythonic Feedback Framework for feedbackapplications and stimulus presentation. Pyff provides a platform independentframework that allows users to develop and run neuroscientific experiments inthe programming language Python. Existing solutions have mostly beenimplemented in C++, which makes for a rather tedious programming task fornon-computer-scientists, or in Matlab, which is not well suited for moreadvanced visual or auditory applications. Pyff was designed to makeexperimental paradigms (i.e. feedback and stimulus applications easilyprogrammable. It includes base classes for various types of common feedbacksand stimuli as well as useful libraries for external hardware such aseyetrackers. Pyff is also equipped with a steadily growing set of ready-to-usefeedbacks and stimuli. It can be used as a standalone application, for instanceproviding stimulus presentation in psychophysics experiments, or within aclosed loop such as in biofeedback or brain-computer interfacing experiments.Pyff communicates with other systems via a standardized communication protocoland is therefore suitable to be used with any system that may be adapted tosend its data in the specified format. Having such a general, open sourceframework will help foster a fruitful exchange of experimental paradigmsbetween research groups. In particular, it will decrease the need ofreprogramming standard paradigms, ease the reproducibility of publishedresults, and naturally entail some standardization of stimulus presentation.

  4. The interaction between stimulus-driven and goal-driven orienting as revealed by eye movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreij, D.B.B.; Los, S.A.; Theeuwes, J.; Enns, J.T.; Olivers, C.N.L.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally agreed that attention can be captured in a stimulus-driven or in a goal-driven fashion. In studies that investigated both types of capture, the effects on mean manual response time (reaction time [RT]) are generally additive, suggesting two independent underlying processes. However,

  5. Near-field visual acuity of pigeons: effects of head location and stimulus luminance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodos, W; Leibowitz, R W; Bonbright, J C

    1976-03-01

    Two pigeons were trained to discriminate a grating stimulus from a blank stimulus of equivalent luminance in a three-key chamber. The stimuli and blanks were presented behind a transparent center key. The procedure was a conditional discrimination in which pecks on the left key were reinforced if the blank had been present behind the center key and pecks on the right key were reinforced if the grating had been present behind the center key. The spatial frequency of the stimuli was varied in each session from four to 29.5 lines per millimeter in accordance with a variation of the method of constant stimuli. The number of lines per millimeter that the subjects could discriminate at threshold was determined from psychometric functions. Data were collected at five values of stimulus luminance ranging from--0.07 to 3.29 log cd/m2. The distance from the stimulus to the anterior nodal point of the eye, which was determined from measurements taken from high-speed motion-picture photographs of three additional pigeons and published intraocular measurements, was 62.0 mm. This distance and the grating detection thresholds were used to calculate the visual acuity of the birds at each level of luminance. Acuity improved with increasing luminance to a peak value of 0.52, which corresponds to a visual angle of 1.92 min, at a luminance of 2.33 log cd/m2. Further increase in luminance produced a small decline in acuity.

  6. Psychological restoration can depend on stimulus-source attribution: A challenge for the evolutionary account?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Haga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Visiting or viewing nature environments can have restorative psychological effects, while exposure to the built environment typically has less positive effects. A classic view is that this difference in restorative potential of nature and built environments depends on differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the stimuli. In addition, an evolutionary account is often assumed whereby restoration is believed to be a hardwired response to nature’s stimulus-features. Here, we propose the novel hypothesis that the restorative effects of a stimulus do not entirely depend on the stimulus-features per se, but also on the meaning that people assign to the stimulus. Participants conducted cognitively demanding tests prior to and after a brief pause. During the pause, the participants were exposed to an ambiguous sound consisting of pink noise with white noise interspersed. Participants in the nature sound-source condition were told that the sound originated from a nature scene with a waterfall; participants in the industrial sound-source condition were told that the sound originated from an industrial environment with machinery; and participants in the control condition were told nothing about the sound origin. Self-reported mental exhaustion showed that participants in the nature sound-source condition were more psychologically restored after the pause than participants in the industrial sound-source condition. One potential interpretation of the results is that restoration from nature experiences depends on learned, positive associations with nature; not only on hardwired responses shaped by evolution.

  7. The Price of Fame: The Impact of Stimulus Familiarity on Proactive Interference Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Ranjani; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Interference from previously learned information, known as proactive interference (PI), limits our memory retrieval abilities. Previous studies of PI resolution have focused on the role of short-term familiarity, or recency, in causing PI. In the present study, we investigated the impact of long-term stimulus familiarity on PI resolution…

  8. Can Collateral Behavior Account for Transitions in the Stimulus Control of Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David C.

    2017-01-01

    The task of extending Skinner's (1957) interpretation of verbal behavior includes accounting for the moment-to-moment changes in stimulus control as one speaks. A consideration of the behavior of the reader reminds us of the continuous evocative effect of verbal stimuli on readers, listeners, and speakers. Collateral discriminative responses to…

  9. Effects of Stimulus Octave and Timbre on the Tuning Accuracy of Advanced College Instrumentalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byo, James L.; Schlegel, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of octave and timbre on advanced college musicians' (N = 63) ability to tune their instruments. We asked: "Are there differences in tuning accuracy due to octave (B-flat 2, B-flat 4) and stimulus timbre (oboe, clarinet, electronic tuner, tuba)?" and "To what extent do participants'…

  10. Correspondence between Preference Assessment Outcomes and Stimulus Reinforcer Value for Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N.; Hodges, Abby; Weston, Regan; Hogan, Emily; Padilla-Mainor, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    Preferred forms of social interaction were identified using a paired-stimulus format in which two 3-5 s videos of the experimenter providing the social interaction to the participant were presented. Reinforcer efficacy of the high-, medium-, and low-preferred interactions was evaluated using a progressive-ratio schedule to determine the amount of…

  11. Stimulus recognition occurs under high perceptual load: Evidence from correlated flankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, Joshua D; Mordkoff, J Toby; Vecera, Shaun P

    2016-12-01

    A dominant account of selective attention, perceptual load theory, proposes that when attentional resources are exhausted, task-irrelevant information receives little attention and goes unrecognized. However, the flanker effect-typically used to assay stimulus identification-requires an arbitrary mapping between a stimulus and a response. We looked for failures of flanker identification by using a more-sensitive measure that does not require arbitrary stimulus-response mappings: the correlated flankers effect. We found that flanking items that were task-irrelevant but that correlated with target identity produced a correlated flanker effect. Participants were faster on trials in which the irrelevant flanker had previously correlated with the target than when it did not. Of importance, this correlated flanker effect appeared regardless of perceptual load, occurring even in high-load displays that should have abolished flanker identification. Findings from a standard flanker task replicated the basic perceptual load effect, with flankers not affecting response times under high perceptual load. Our results indicate that task-irrelevant information can be processed to a high level (identification), even under high perceptual load. This challenges a strong account of high perceptual load effects that hypothesizes complete failures of stimulus identification under high perceptual load. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Additive Effects of Word Frequency and Stimulus Quality: The Influence of Trial History and Data Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balota, David A.; Aschenbrenner, Andrew J.; Yap, Melvin J.

    2013-01-01

    A counterintuitive and theoretically important pattern of results in the visual word recognition literature is that both word frequency and stimulus quality produce large but additive effects in lexical decision performance. The additive nature of these effects has recently been called into question by Masson and Kliegl (in press), who used linear…

  13. Medial Auditory Thalamic Stimulation as a Conditioned Stimulus for Eyeblink Conditioning in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolattaro, Matthew M.; Halverson, Hunter E.; Freeman, John H.

    2007-01-01

    The neural pathways that convey conditioned stimulus (CS) information to the cerebellum during eyeblink conditioning have not been fully delineated. It is well established that pontine mossy fiber inputs to the cerebellum convey CS-related stimulation for different sensory modalities (e.g., auditory, visual, tactile). Less is known about the…

  14. Clinical, neuropsychological, and pre-stimulus dorsomedial thalamic nucleus electrophysiological data in deep brain stimulation patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Sweeney-Reed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data presented here comprise clinical, neuropsychological, and intrathalamic electrophysiological data from 7 patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy and are related to the article “Pre-stimulus thalamic theta power predicts human memory formation” C.M. Sweeney-Reed, T. Zaehle, J. Voges, F.C. Schmitt, L. Buentjen, K. Kopitzki, et al. (2016 [1]. The patients participated in a memory paradigm after receiving electrodes implanted in the DMTN due to the surgical approach taken in electrode insertion for deep brain stimulation of the anterior thalamic nucleus. Epilepsy duration and pre-operative neuropsychological tests provide an indication of the profile of patients receiving intrathalamic electrode implantation and the memory capabilities in such a patient group. The electrophysiological data were recorded from the right DMTN preceding stimulus presentation during intentional memory encoding. The patients viewed a series of photographic scenes, which they judged as indoors or outdoors. The 900 ms epochs prior to stimulus presentation were labeled as preceding successful or unsuccessful subsequent memory formation according to a subsequent memory test for the items. The difference between theta power preceding successful versus unsuccessful subsequent memory formation is shown against time for each patient individually. Keywords: Memory encoding, Dorsomedial thalamic nucleus, Pre-stimulus theta

  15. A Computer-Based Laboratory Project for the Study of Stimulus Generalization and Peak Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Adam; Loshek, Eevett

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes materials designed for classroom projects on stimulus generalization and peak shift. A computer program (originally written in QuickBASIC) is used for data collection and a Microsoft Excel file with macros organizes the raw data on a spreadsheet and creates generalization gradients. The program is designed for use with human…

  16. Controlling Relations in Baseline Conditional Discriminations as Determinants of Stimulus Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rose, Julio C.; Hidalgo, Matheus; Vasconcellos, Mariliz

    2013-01-01

    Variation in baseline controlling relations is suggested as one of the factors determining variability in stimulus equivalence outcomes. This study used single- comparison trials attempting to control such controlling relations. Four children learned AB, BC, and CD conditional discriminations, with 2 samples and 2 comparison stimuli. In Condition…

  17. Additive and Interactive Effects of Stimulus Degradation: No Challenge for CDP+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Perry, Conrad; Zorzi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    S. O'Malley and D. Besner (2008) showed that additive effects of stimulus degradation and word frequency in reading aloud occur in the presence of nonwords but not in pure word lists. They argued that this dissociation presents a major challenge to interactive computational models of reading aloud and claimed that no currently implemented model is…

  18. Guidelines Sketch Out Use of Aid: Federal Stimulus Allocations to Come Soon, with Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    The eagerly awaited federal guidelines on some $100 billion in stimulus funding for public education aim to pump money out quickly, while giving the U.S. Department of Education leverage to demand improvements from states and districts. But those same states and districts are also warned not to expect the hefty sums for K-12 programs in the…

  19. Finite element modeling of the neuron-electrode interface: stimulus transfer and geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenweg, Jan R.; Rutten, Wim; Marani, Enrico

    1999-01-01

    The relation between stimulus transfer and the geometry of the neuron-electrode interface can not be determined properly using electrical equivalent circuits, since current that flows from the sealing gap through the neuronal membrane is difficult to model in these circuits. Therefore, finite

  20. Use of a Differential Observing Response to Expand Restricted Stimulus Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, Carrie Wallace; Roscoe, Eileen M.; Dube, William V.

    2007-01-01

    This study extends previous work on the use of differential observing responses (DOR) to remediate atypically restricted stimulus control. A participant with autism had high matching-to-sample accuracy scores with printed words that had no letters in common (e.g., "cat," "lid," "bug") but poor accuracy with words that had two letters in common…

  1. A model for the relation between stimulus frequency and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in lizard papillae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Hero P.; van Dijk, Pim; Manley, Geoffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) and stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) have been described from lizard ears. Although there are several models for these systems, none has modeled the characteristics of both of these types of otoacoustic emissions based upon their being

  2. Barriers to Engagement in Sleep Restriction and Stimulus Control in Chronic Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Norah; Lewycky, Samantha; Finnegan, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Sleep restriction (SRT) and stimulus control (SC) have been found to be effective interventions for chronic insomnia (Morgenthaler et al., 2006), and yet adherence to SRT and SC varies widely. The objective of this study was to investigate correlates to adherence to SC/SRT among 40 outpatients with primary or comorbid insomnia using a…

  3. A Preliminary Investigation of Stimulus Control Training for Worry: Effects on Anxiety and Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Sarah Kate; Behar, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    For individuals with generalized anxiety disorder, worry becomes associated with numerous aspects of life (e.g., time of day, specific stimuli, environmental cues) and is thus under poor discriminative stimulus control (SC). In addition, excessive worry is associated with anxiety, depressed mood, and sleep difficulties. This investigation sought…

  4. Developing a Projective Drawing Test: Experiences with the Face Stimulus Assessment (FSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Donna J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the experience of creating and working with the Face Stimulus Assessment (FSA). Six samples of the FSA completed by clients with multiple disabilities are presented. As the FSA is a work in progress and has yet to be established as a valid and reliable assessment, implications for further research are also discussed. (Contains 32…

  5. Selective attention and the auditory vertex potential. 1: Effects of stimulus delivery rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwent, V. L.; Hillyard, S. A.; Galambos, R.

    1975-01-01

    Enhancement of the auditory vertex potentials with selective attention to dichotically presented tone pips was found to be critically sensitive to the range of inter-stimulus intervals in use. Only at the shortest intervals was a clear-cut enhancement of the latency component to stimuli observed for the attended ear.

  6. "Shovel-Ready" Data: The Stimulus Package and State Longitudinal Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewell, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act, commonly referred to simply as "the stimulus package," is poised to pump over $100 billion into U.S. public education in the next few years. This allocation reflects the Obama administration's new commitment to education as a public good, which is embodied in President Obama's ambitious goal of…

  7. Examining the Utility of the Stimulus Pairing Observation Procedure with Preschool Children Learning a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Rocio; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Huffman, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a stimulus pairing observation procedure to facilitate tact and listener relations in preschool children learning a second language. This procedure resulted in the establishment of most listener relations as well as some tact relations. Multiple-exemplar training resulted in the establishment of most of the…

  8. Stimulus-Response Theory of Finite Automata, Technical Report No. 133.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppes, Patrick

    The central aim of this paper and its projected successors is to prove in detail that stimulus-response theory, or at least a mathematically precise version, can give an account of the learning of many phrase-structure grammars. Section 2 is concerned with standard notions of finite and probabilistic automata. An automaton is defined as a device…

  9. Changes in stimulus and response AC/A ratio with vision therapy in Convergence Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Kumar Singh

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: Stimulus and response AC/A ratio increased following VT, accompanied by clinically significant changes in vergence and accommodation parameters in subjects with convergence insufficiency. This represents the plasticity of the AC/A crosslink ratios that could be achieved with vision therapy in CI.

  10. Pyff - a pythonic framework for feedback applications and stimulus presentation in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venthur, Bastian; Scholler, Simon; Williamson, John; Dähne, Sven; Treder, Matthias S; Kramarek, Maria T; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces Pyff, the Pythonic feedback framework for feedback applications and stimulus presentation. Pyff provides a platform-independent framework that allows users to develop and run neuroscientific experiments in the programming language Python. Existing solutions have mostly been implemented in C++, which makes for a rather tedious programming task for non-computer-scientists, or in Matlab, which is not well suited for more advanced visual or auditory applications. Pyff was designed to make experimental paradigms (i.e., feedback and stimulus applications) easily programmable. It includes base classes for various types of common feedbacks and stimuli as well as useful libraries for external hardware such as eyetrackers. Pyff is also equipped with a steadily growing set of ready-to-use feedbacks and stimuli. It can be used as a standalone application, for instance providing stimulus presentation in psychophysics experiments, or within a closed loop such as in biofeedback or brain-computer interfacing experiments. Pyff communicates with other systems via a standardized communication protocol and is therefore suitable to be used with any system that may be adapted to send its data in the specified format. Having such a general, open-source framework will help foster a fruitful exchange of experimental paradigms between research groups. In particular, it will decrease the need of reprogramming standard paradigms, ease the reproducibility of published results, and naturally entail some standardization of stimulus presentation.

  11. Post-stimulus endogenous and exogenous oscillations are differentially modulated by task difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Lou, Bin; Gao, Xiaorong; Sajda, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the modulation of post-stimulus endogenous and exogenous oscillations when a visual discrimination is made more difficult. We use exogenous frequency tagging to induce steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP) while subjects perform a face-car discrimination task, the difficulty of which varies on a trial-to-trial basis by varying the noise (phase coherence) in the image. We simultaneously analyze amplitude modulations of the SSVEP and endogenous alpha activity as a function of task difficulty. SSVEP modulation can be viewed as a neural marker of attention toward/away from the primary task, while modulation of post-stimulus alpha is closely related to cortical information processing. We find that as the task becomes more difficult, the amplitude of SSVEP decreases significantly, approximately 250-450 ms post-stimulus. Significant changes in endogenous alpha amplitude follow SSVEP modulation, occurring at approximately 400-700 ms post-stimulus and, unlike the SSVEP, the alpha amplitude is increasingly suppressed as the task becomes less difficult. Our results demonstrate simultaneous measurement of endogenous and exogenous oscillations that are modulated by task difficulty, and that the specific timing of these modulations likely reflects underlying information processing flow during perceptual decision-making.

  12. Utilization of reward-prospect enhances preparatory attention and reduces stimulus conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Berry; Krebs, Ruth M.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Woldorff, Marty G.

    The prospect of gaining money is an incentive widely at play in the real world. Such monetary motivation might have particularly strong influence when the cognitive system is challenged, such as when needing to process conflicting stimulus inputs. Here, we employed manipulations of reward-prospect

  13. Eye Movement Control in Scene Viewing and Reading: Evidence from the Stimulus Onset Delay Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Steven G.; Nuthmann, Antje; Henderson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used the stimulus onset delay paradigm to investigate eye movement control in reading and in scene viewing in a within-participants design. Short onset delays (0, 25, 50, 200, and 350 ms) were chosen to simulate the type of natural processing difficulty encountered in reading and scene viewing. Fixation duration increased…

  14. Visual Short-Term Memory: is Capacity Dependent on Stimulus Complexity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    complexity - which is dependent on the familiarity of a given stimulus - plays a more important role than the objective visual complexity of the objects stored. In several studies, we explored how familiarity influences the capacity of VSTM and our results indicate that VSTM capacity for familiar items...

  15. Attenuation of cocaine's reinforcing and discriminative stimulus effects via muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptor stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Muscarinic cholinergic receptors modulate dopaminergic function in brain pathways thought to mediate cocaine's abuse-related effects. Here, we sought to confirm and extend in the mouse species findings that nonselective muscarinic receptor antagonists can enhance cocaine's discriminative stimulus...... for cocaine addiction....

  16. Locus of Control, Self-esteem, Stimulus Appraisal, and Depressive Symptoms in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyal, Barbara R.

    1977-01-01

    Variables of self-esteem, locus of control, stimulus appraisal, and depressive symptoms, which are related to depression in adults, were investigated in a sample of nonreferred Grade 5 and Grade 6 children. Grade and sex effects were not significant. All other intervariable correlations were significant. (Author)

  17. Stress Induces a Shift Towards Striatum-Dependent Stimulus-Response Learning via the Mineralocorticoid Receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S.; Klumpers, F.; Navarro Schröder, T.; Oplaat, K.T.; Krugers, H.J.; Oitzl, M.S.; Joëls, M.; Doeller, C.F.; Fernández, G.

    2017-01-01

    Stress is assumed to cause a shift from flexible 'cognitive' memory to more rigid 'habit' memory. In the spatial memory domain, stress impairs place learning depending on the hippocampus whereas stimulus-response learning based on the striatum appears to be improved. While the neural basis of this

  18. Stress induces a shift towards striatum-dependent stimulus-response learning via the mineralocorticoid receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, S.; Klumpers, F.; Navarro Schröder, T.; Oplaat, K.T.; Krugers, H.J.; Oitzl, M.S.; Joëls, M.; Doeller, C.F.; Fernandez, G.

    2017-01-01

    Stress is assumed to cause a shift from flexible 'cognitive' memory to more rigid 'habit' memory. In the spatial memory domain, stress impairs place learning depending on the hippocampus whereas stimulus-response learning based on the striatum appears to be improved. While the neural basis of this

  19. Stress Induces a Shift Towards Striatum-Dependent Stimulus-Response Learning via the Mineralocorticoid Receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Susanne; Klumpers, Floris; Schroeder, Tobias Navarro; Oplaat, Krista T.; Krugers, Harm J.; Oitzl, Melly S.; Joels, Marian; Doeller, Christian F.; Fernandez, Guillen

    Stress is assumed to cause a shift from flexible 'cognitive' memory to more rigid 'habit' memory. In the spatial memory domain, stress impairs place learning depending on the hippocampus whereas stimulus-response learning based on the striatum appears to be improved. While the neural basis of this

  20. Low Lifetime Stress Exposure Is Associated with Reduced Stimulus-Response Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Elizabeth V.; Shields, Grant S.; Daw, Nathaniel D.; Slavich, George M.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to stress throughout life can cumulatively influence later health, even among young adults. The negative effects of high cumulative stress exposure are well-known, and a shift from episodic to stimulus-response memory has been proposed to underlie forms of psychopathology that are related to high lifetime stress. At the other extreme,…

  1. The influence of attention and reward on the learning of stimulus-response associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vartak, Devavrat; Jeurissen, Danique; Self, Matthew W; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2017-01-01

    We can learn new tasks by listening to a teacher, but we can also learn by trial-and-error. Here, we investigate the factors that determine how participants learn new stimulus-response mappings by trial-and-error. Does learning in human observers comply with reinforcement learning theories, which

  2. BOLDSync: a MATLAB-based toolbox for synchronized stimulus presentation in functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Jitesh; Saharan, Sumiti; Mandal, Pravat K

    2014-02-15

    Precise and synchronized presentation of paradigm stimuli in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is central to obtaining accurate information about brain regions involved in a specific task. In this manuscript, we present a new MATLAB-based toolbox, BOLDSync, for synchronized stimulus presentation in fMRI. BOLDSync provides a user friendly platform for design and presentation of visual, audio, as well as multimodal audio-visual (AV) stimuli in functional imaging experiments. We present simulation experiments that demonstrate the millisecond synchronization accuracy of BOLDSync, and also illustrate the functionalities of BOLDSync through application to an AV fMRI study. BOLDSync gains an advantage over other available proprietary and open-source toolboxes by offering a user friendly and accessible interface that affords both precision in stimulus presentation and versatility across various types of stimulus designs and system setups. BOLDSync is a reliable, efficient, and versatile solution for synchronized stimulus presentation in fMRI study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Stimulus Threat and Exposure Context Modulate the Effect of Mere Exposure on Approach Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steven G; Jones, Isaiah F; Claypool, Heather M

    2016-01-01

    Mere-exposure (ME) research has found that initially neutral objects made familiar are preferred relative to novel objects. Recent work extends these preference judgments into the behavioral domain by illustrating that mere exposure prompts approach-oriented behavior toward familiar stimuli. However, no investigations have examined the effect of mere exposure on approach-oriented behavior toward threatening stimuli. The current work examines this issue and also explores how exposure context interacts with stimulus threat to influence behavioral tendencies. In two experiments participants were presented with both mere-exposed and novel stimuli and approach speed was assessed. In the first experiment, when stimulus threat was presented in a homogeneous format (i.e., participants viewed exclusively neutral or threatening stimuli), ME potentiated approach behaviors for both neutral and threatening stimuli. However, in the second experiment, in which stimulus threat was presented in a heterogeneous fashion (i.e., participants viewed both neutral and threatening stimuli), mere exposure facilitated approach only for initially neutral stimuli. These results suggest that ME effects on approach behaviors are highly context sensitive and depend on both stimulus valence and exposure context. Further implications of these findings for the ME literature are discussed.

  4. An Appetitive Conditioned Stimulus Enhances Fear Acquisition and Impairs Fear Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Hiu T.; Holmes, Nathan M.; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments used between- and within-subject designs to examine appetitive-aversive interactions in rats. Experiments 1 and 2 examined the effect of an excitatory appetitive conditioned stimulus (CS) on acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. In Experiment 1, a CS shocked in a compound with an appetitive excitor (i.e., a stimulus…

  5. The effect of stimulus intensity on response time and accuracy in dynamic, temporally constrained environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causer, J; McRobert, A P; Williams, A M

    2013-10-01

    The ability to make accurate judgments and execute effective skilled movements under severe temporal constraints are fundamental to elite performance in a number of domains including sport, military combat, law enforcement, and medicine. In two experiments, we examine the effect of stimulus strength on response time and accuracy in a temporally constrained, real-world, decision-making task. Specifically, we examine the effect of low stimulus intensity (black) and high stimulus intensity (sequin) uniform designs, worn by teammates, to determine the effect of stimulus strength on the ability of soccer players to make rapid and accurate responses. In both field- and laboratory-based scenarios, professional soccer players viewed developing patterns of play and were required to make a penetrative pass to an attacking player. Significant differences in response accuracy between uniform designs were reported in laboratory- and field-based experiments. Response accuracy was significantly higher in the sequin compared with the black uniform condition. Response times only differed between uniform designs in the laboratory-based experiment. These findings extend the literature into a real-world environment and have significant implications for the design of clothing wear in a number of domains. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Stimulus-Driven Attentional Capture by a Static Discontinuity between Perceptual Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Bryan R.; Neely, James H.; Naginsky, Yelena; Thomas, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    After C. L. Folk, R. W. Remington, and J. C. Johnston (1992) proposed their contingent-orienting hypothesis, there has been an ongoing debate over whether purely stimulus-driven attentional capture can occur for visual events that are salient by virtue of a distinctive static property (as opposed to a dynamic property such as abrupt onset). The…

  7. Directional Scanning as a Function of Stimulus Characteristics, Reading Habits, and Directional Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachshon, Israel; And Others

    1977-01-01

    "32 English readers and 32 Hebrew readers were shown stimuli with directional characteristics (English and Hebrew letters) and stimuli with no directional characteristics (arrays of different circles, bars, colors, and geometric figures) for scanning. The results showed that, while directional stimulus characteristics affected the direction…

  8. "Tunnel Vision": A Possible Keystone Stimulus Control Deficit in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincover, Arnold; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Three autistic boys (ages 9-13) were trained to select a card containing a stimulus array comprised of three visual cues. Decreased distance between cues resulted in responses to more cues, increased distance to fewer cues. Distances did not affect the responding of children matched for mental and chronological age. (Author/JW)

  9. Development of a Chirp Stimulus PC-Based Auditory Brainstem Response Audiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AL-Afsaa

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Hearing losses during infancy and childhood have many negative future effects and impacts on the child life and productivity. The earlier detection of hearing losses, the earlier medical intervention and then the greater benefit of remediation will be. During this research a PC-based audiometer is designed and, currently, the audiometer prototype is in its final development steps. It is based on the auditory brainstem response (ABR method. Chirp stimuli instead of traditional click stimuli will be used to invoke the ABR signal. The stimulus is designed to synchronize the hair cells movement when it spreads out over the cochlea. In addition to the available hardware utilization (PC and PCI board, the efforts confined to design and implement a hardware prototype and to develop a software package that enables the system to behave as ABR audiometer. By using such a method and chirp stimulus, it is expected to be able to detect hearing impairment (sensorineural in the first few days of the life and conduct hearing test at low frequency of stimulus. Currently, the intended chirp stimulus has been successfully generated and the implemented module is able to amplify a signal (on the order of ABR signal to a recordable level. Moreover, a NI-DAQ data acquisition board has been chosen to implement the PC-prototype interface.

  10. Source memory that encoding was self-referential: the influence of stimulus characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Kelly A; Mitchell, Karen J; Johnson, Marcia K

    2017-10-01

    Decades of research suggest that encoding information with respect to the self improves memory (self-reference effect, SRE) for items (item SRE). The current study focused on how processing information in reference to the self affects source memory for whether an item was self-referentially processed (a source SRE). Participants self-referentially or non-self-referentially encoded words (Experiment 1) or pictures (Experiment 2) that varied in valence (positive, negative, neutral). Relative to non-self-referential processing, self-referential processing enhanced item recognition for all stimulus types (an item SRE), but it only enhanced source memory for positive words (a source SRE). In fact, source memory for negative and neutral pictures was worse for items processed self-referentially than non-self-referentially. Together, the results suggest that item SRE and source SRE (e.g., remembering an item was encoded self-referentially) are not necessarily the same across stimulus types (e.g., words, pictures; positive, negative). While an item SRE may depend on the overall likelihood the item generates any association, the enhancing effects of self-referential processing on source memory for self-referential encoding may depend on how embedded a stimulus becomes in one's self-schema, and that depends, in part, on the stimulus' valence and format. Self-relevance ratings during encoding provide converging evidence for this interpretation.

  11. Crisis in LAC : Infrastructure Investment, Employment and the Expectations of Stimulus

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Jordan; Andres, Luis; Dragoiu, Georgeta

    2009-01-01

    Infrastructure investment is a central part of the stimulus plans of the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region as it confronts the growing financial crisis. This paper estimates the potential effects on direct, indirect, and induced employment for different types of infrastructure projects with LAC-specific variables. The analysis finds that the direct and indirect short-term employ...

  12. A model for food and stimulus changes that signal time-based contingency changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Sarah; Davison, Michael; Elliffe, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    When the availability of reinforcers depends on time since an event, time functions as a discriminative stimulus. Behavioral control by elapsed time is generally weak, but may be enhanced by added stimuli that act as additional time markers. The present paper assessed the effect of brief and continuous added stimuli on control by time-based changes in the reinforcer differential, using a procedure in which the local reinforcer ratio reversed at a fixed time after the most recent reinforcer delivery. Local choice was enhanced by the presentation of the brief stimuli, even when the stimulus change signalled only elapsed time, but not the local reinforcer ratio. The effect of the brief stimulus presentations on choice decreased as a function of time since the most recent stimulus change. We compared the ability of several versions of a model of local choice to describe these data. The data were best described by a model which assumed that error in discriminating the local reinforcer ratio arose from imprecise discrimination of reinforcers in both time and space, suggesting that timing behavior is controlled not only by discrimination elapsed time, but by discrimination of the reinforcer differential in time. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  13. The role of the right superior temporal gyrus in stimulus-centered spatial processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah-Basak, Priyanka P; Chen, Peii; Caulfield, Kevin; Medina, Jared; Hamilton, Roy H

    2018-05-01

    Although emerging neuropsychological evidence supports the involvement of temporal areas, and in particular the right superior temporal gyrus (STG), in allocentric neglect deficits, the role of STG in healthy spatial processing remains elusive. While several functional brain imaging studies have demonstrated involvement of the STG in tasks involving explicit stimulus-centered judgments, prior rTMS studies targeting the right STG did not find the expected neglect-like rightward bias in size judgments using the conventional landmark task. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether disruption of the right STG using inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) could impact stimulus-centered, allocentric spatial processing in healthy individuals. A lateralized version of the landmark task was developed to accentuate the dissociation between viewer-centered and stimulus-centered reference frames. We predicted that inhibiting activity in the right STG would decrease accuracy because of induced rightward bias centered on the line stimulus irrespective of its viewer-centered or egocentric locations. Eleven healthy, right-handed adults underwent the lateralized landmark task. After viewing each stimulus, participants had to judge whether the line was bisected, or whether the left (left-long trials) or the right segment (right-long trials) of the line was longer. Participants repeated the task before (pre-rTMS) and after (post-rTMS) receiving 20 min of 1 Hz rTMS over the right STG, the right supramarginal gyrus (SMG), and the vertex (a control site) during three separate visits. Linear mixed models for binomial data were generated with either accuracy or judgment errors as dependent variables, to compare 1) performance across trial types (bisection, non-bisection), and 2) pre- vs. post-rTMS performance between the vertex and the STG and the vertex and the SMG. Line eccentricity (z = 4.31, p right-long type by 10.7% on bisection

  14. On some periodicity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim o...

  15. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  16. Stimulus- and state-dependence of systematic bias in spatial attention: additive effects of stimulus-size and time-on-task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benwell, Christopher S Y; Harvey, Monika; Gardner, Stephanie; Thut, Gregor

    2013-03-01

    Systematic biases in spatial attention are a common finding. In the general population, a systematic leftward bias is typically observed (pseudoneglect), possibly as a consequence of right hemisphere dominance for visuospatial attention. However, this leftward bias can cross-over to a systematic rightward bias with changes in stimulus and state factors (such as line length and arousal). The processes governing these changes are still unknown. Here we tested models of spatial attention as to their ability to account for these effects. To this end, we experimentally manipulated both stimulus and state factors, while healthy participants performed a computerized version of a landmark task. State was manipulated by time-on-task (>1 h) leading to increased fatigue and a reliable left- to rightward shift in spatial bias. Stimulus was manipulated by presenting either long or short lines which was associated with a shift of subjective midpoint from a reliable leftward bias for long to a more rightward bias for short lines. Importantly, we found time-on-task and line length effects to be additive suggesting a common denominator for line bisection across all conditions, which is in disagreement with models that assume that bisection decisions in long and short lines are governed by distinct processes (Magnitude estimation vs Global/local distinction). Our findings emphasize the dynamic rather than static nature of spatial biases in midline judgement. They are best captured by theories of spatial attention positing that spatial bias is flexibly modulated, and subject to inter-hemispheric balance which can change over time or conditions to accommodate task demands or reflect fatigue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Periods and Nori motives

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  18. Top-down modulation of human early visual cortex after stimulus offset supports successful postcued report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergent, Claire; Ruff, Christian C; Barbot, Antoine; Driver, Jon; Rees, Geraint

    2011-08-01

    Modulations of sensory processing in early visual areas are thought to play an important role in conscious perception. To date, most empirical studies focused on effects occurring before or during visual presentation. By contrast, several emerging theories postulate that sensory processing and conscious visual perception may also crucially depend on late top-down influences, potentially arising after a visual display. To provide a direct test of this, we performed an fMRI study using a postcued report procedure. The ability to report a target at a specific spatial location in a visual display can be enhanced behaviorally by symbolic auditory postcues presented shortly after that display. Here we showed that such auditory postcues can enhance target-specific signals in early human visual cortex (V1 and V2). For postcues presented 200 msec after stimulus termination, this target-specific enhancement in visual cortex was specifically associated with correct conscious report. The strength of this modulation predicted individual levels of performance in behavior. By contrast, although later postcues presented 1000 msec after stimulus termination had some impact on activity in early visual cortex, this modulation no longer related to conscious report. These results demonstrate that within a critical time window of a few hundred milliseconds after a visual stimulus has disappeared, successful conscious report of that stimulus still relates to the strength of top-down modulation in early visual cortex. We suggest that, within this critical time window, sensory representation of a visual stimulus is still under construction and so can still be flexibly influenced by top-down modulatory processes.

  19. Auditory proactive interference in monkeys: the roles of stimulus set size and intertrial interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2013-09-01

    We conducted two experiments to examine the influences of stimulus set size (the number of stimuli that are used throughout the session) and intertrial interval (ITI, the elapsed time between trials) in auditory short-term memory in monkeys. We used an auditory delayed matching-to-sample task wherein the animals had to indicate whether two sounds separated by a 5-s retention interval were the same (match trials) or different (nonmatch trials). In Experiment 1, we randomly assigned stimulus set sizes of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, or 192 (trial-unique) for each session of 128 trials. Consistent with previous visual studies, overall accuracy was consistently lower when smaller stimulus set sizes were used. Further analyses revealed that these effects were primarily caused by an increase in incorrect "same" responses on nonmatch trials. In Experiment 2, we held the stimulus set size constant at four for each session and alternately set the ITI at 5, 10, or 20 s. Overall accuracy improved when the ITI was increased from 5 to 10 s, but it was the same across the 10- and 20-s conditions. As in Experiment 1, the overall decrease in accuracy during the 5-s condition was caused by a greater number of false "match" responses on nonmatch trials. Taken together, Experiments 1 and 2 showed that auditory short-term memory in monkeys is highly susceptible to proactive interference caused by stimulus repetition. Additional analyses of the data from Experiment 1 suggested that monkeys may make same-different judgments on the basis of a familiarity criterion that is adjusted by error-related feedback.

  20. Stimulus train duration but not attention moderates γ-band entrainment abnormalities in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jordan P.; Bobilev, Anastasia M.; Hayrynen, Lauren K.; Hudgens-Haney, Matthew E.; Oliver, William T.; Parker, David A.; McDowell, Jennifer E.; Buckley, Peter A.; Clementz, Brett A.

    2017-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) studies of auditory steady-state responses (aSSRs) non-invasively probe gamma-band (40-Hz) oscillatory capacity in sensory cortex with high signal-to-noise ratio. Consistent reports of reduced 40-Hz aSSRs in persons with schizophrenia (SZ) indicate its potential as an efficient biomarker for the disease, but studies have been limited to passive or indirect listening contexts with stereotypically short (500ms) stimulus trains. An inability to modulate sensorineural processing in accord with behavioral goals or within the sensory environmental context may represent a fundamental deficit in SZ, but whether and how this deficit relates to reduced aSSRs is unknown. We systematically varied stimulus duration and attentional contexts to further mature the 40-Hz aSSR as biomarker for future translational or mechanistic studies. Eighteen SZ and 18 healthy subjects (H) were presented binaural pure-tones with or without sinusoidal amplitude modulation at 40-Hz. Stimulus duration (500-ms or 1500-ms) and attention (via a button press task) were varied across 4 separate blocks. Evoked potentials recorded with dense-array EEGs were analyzed in the time-frequency domain. SZ displayed reduced 40-Hz aSSRs to typical stimulation parameters, replicating previous findings. In H, aSSRs were reduced when stimuli were presented in longer trains and were slightly enhanced by attention. Only the former modulation was impaired in SZ and correlated with sensory discrimination performance. Thus, gamma-band aSSRs are modulated by both attentional and stimulus duration contexts, but only modulations related to physical stimulus properties are abnormal in SZ, supporting its status as a biomarker of psychotic perceptual disturbance involving non-attentional sensori-cortical circuits. PMID:25868936