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Sample records for periodic double arrays

  1. Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby

    2003-01-01

    We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes...

  2. Coupled mode theory of periodic waveguides arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.

    We apply the scalar coupled mode theory to the case of waveguides array consisting om two periodic waveguides. One of the waveguides is arbitrary shifted along another. A longitudinal shift acts as a parameter in the coupled mode theory. The proposed theory explains peculiarities of modes dispers...... dispersion and transmission in coupled periodic waveguides systems. Analytical results are compared with the numerical ones obtained by the plane wave expansion and FDTD methods....

  3. Double-periodic arrays of vortices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuvshinov, B. N.; Schep, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    Analytical solutions to the sinh-Poisson equation are discussed. This equation plays a role in the theory of vortex dynamics [Mallier and Maslowe, Phys. Fluids A 5, 1074 (1993)] and in the discussion of the most probable states of inviscid two-dimensional flows in fluids and plasmas [Montgomery and

  4. Periodically Driven Array of Single Rydberg Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Sagarika; Chougale, Yashwant; Nath, Rejish

    2018-03-01

    An array of single Rydberg atoms driven by a temporally modulated atom-field detuning is studied. The periodic modulation effectively modifies the Rabi coupling, leading to unprecedented dynamics in the presence of Rydberg-Rydberg interactions, in particular, blockade enhancement, antiblockades, and state-dependent population trapping. Interestingly, the Schrieffer-Wolf transformation reveals a fundamental process in Rydberg gases, correlated Rabi coupling, which stems from the extended nature of the Rydberg-Rydberg interactions. Also, the correlated coupling provides an alternative depiction for the Rydberg blockade, exhibiting a nontrivial behavior in the presence of periodic modulation. The dynamical localization of a many-body configuration in a driven Rydberg lattice is discussed.

  5. Model of tunnelling through periodic array of quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meynster Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several explicitly solvable models of electron tunnelling in a system of single and double two-dimensional periodic arrays of quantum dots with two laterally coupled leads in a homogeneous magnetic field are constructed. First, a model of single layer formed by periodic array of zero-range potentials is described. The Landau operator (the Schrodinger operator with a magnetic field with point-like interactions is the system Hamiltonian. We deal with two types of the layer lattices: square and honeycomb. The periodicity condition gives one an invariance property for the Hamiltonian in respect to magnetic translations group. The consideration of double quantum layer reduces to the replacement of the basic cell for the single layer by a cell including centers of different layers. Two variants of themodel for the double layer are suggested: with direct tunneling between the layers and with the connecting channels (segments in the model between the layers. The theory of self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators is a mathematical background of the model. The third stage of the construction is the description of leads connection. It is made by the operator extensions theory method too. Electron tunneling from input lead to the output lead through the double quantum layer is described. Energy ranges with extremely small (practically, zero transmission were found. Dependencies of the transmission coefficient (particularly, “zero transmission bands” positions on the magnetic field, the energy of electron and the distance between layers are investigated. The results are compared with the corresponding single-layer transmission.

  6. Patch holography using a double layer microphone array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Jesper Skovhus

    a closed local element mesh that surrounds the microphone array, and with a part of the mesh coinciding with a patch, the entire source is not needed in the model. Since the array has two layers, sources/reflections behind the array are also allowed. The Equivalent Source Method (ESM) is another technique...... in which the sound field is represented by a set of monopoles placed inside the source. In this paper these monopoles are distributed so that they surround the array, and the reconstruction is compared with the IBEM-based approach. The comparisons are based on computer simulations with a planar double...... layer array and sources with different shapes....

  7. X-ray scattering from periodic arrays of quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, V; Stangl, J; Lechner, R T; Springholz, G

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional periodic arrays of self-organized quantum dots in semiconductor multilayers are investigated by high-resolution x-ray scattering. We demonstrate that the statistical parameters of the dot array can be determined directly from the scattering data without performing a numerical simulation of the scattered intensity.

  8. Fibonacci order in the period-doubling cascade to chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linage, G.; Montoya, Fernando; Sarmiento, A.; Showalter, K.; Parmananda, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution, we describe how the Fibonacci sequence appears within the Feigenbaum scaling of the period-doubling cascade to chaos. An important consequence of this discovery is that the ratio of successive Fibonacci numbers converges to the golden mean in every period-doubling sequence and therefore the convergence to φ, the most irrational number, occurs in concert with the onset of deterministic chaos

  9. Fibonacci order in the period-doubling cascade to chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linage, G. [Facultad de Ciencias UAEM, Avenida Universidad 1001, Colonia Chamilpa, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Montoya, Fernando [Facultad de Ciencias UAEM, Avenida Universidad 1001, Colonia Chamilpa, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sarmiento, A. [Instituto de Matematicas, UNAM, Colonia Chamilpa, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Showalter, K. [Department of Chemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6045 (United States); Parmananda, P. [Facultad de Ciencias UAEM, Avenida Universidad 1001, Colonia Chamilpa, C.P. 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: punit@servm.fc.uaem.mx

    2006-12-11

    In this contribution, we describe how the Fibonacci sequence appears within the Feigenbaum scaling of the period-doubling cascade to chaos. An important consequence of this discovery is that the ratio of successive Fibonacci numbers converges to the golden mean in every period-doubling sequence and therefore the convergence to {phi}, the most irrational number, occurs in concert with the onset of deterministic chaos.

  10. Transverse impedance of a periodic array of cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Fedotov

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the transverse impedance of a periodic array of cavities in a beam pipe at high frequency. The calculation is an extension of a previous one for the longitudinal impedance of a periodic array of azimuthally symmetric pillboxes, for which only TM modes were needed. In the present case, we must include TE modes as well. In addition, we extend the applicability of the previous calculation by including an extra term in the coupling kernel so that the results are valid for all values of the ratio of the cavity length to the period of the structure (all values of the ratio of iris thickness to structure period. In spite of the presence of TE modes, we find that the high frequency limit of the transverse impedance is simply (2/ka^{2} times the corresponding limit of the longitudinal impedance, just as it is for the resistive wall impedances, a relation which occurs frequently for azimuthally symmetric structures. Finally, we present numerical results as well as approximate expressions for the impedance per period, valid for all ratios of cavity length to structure period.

  11. Fabrication of Periodic Gold Nanocup Arrays Using Colloidal Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVetter, Brent M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan; Alvine, Kyle J.

    2017-01-01

    Within recent years, the field of plasmonics has exploded as researchers have demonstrated exciting applications related to chemical and optical sensing in combination with new nanofabrication techniques. A plasmon is a quantum of charge density oscillation that lends nanoscale metals such as gold and silver unique optical properties. In particular, gold and silver nanoparticles exhibit localized surface plasmon resonances—collective charge density oscillations on the surface of the nanoparticle—in the visible spectrum. Here, we focus on the fabrication of periodic arrays of anisotropic plasmonic nanostructures. These half-shell (or nanocup) structures can exhibit additional unique light-bending and polarization dependent optical properties that simple isotropic nanostructures cannot. Researchers are interested in the fabrication of periodic arrays of nanocups for a wide variety of applications such as low-cost optical devices, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and tamper indication. We present a scalable technique based on colloidal lithography in which it is possible to easily fabricate large periodic arrays of nanocups using spin-coating and self-assembled commercially available polymeric nanospheres. Electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy from the visible to near-IR was performed to confirm successful nanocup fabrication. We conclude with a demonstration of the transfer of nanocups to a flexible, conformal adhesive film.

  12. Period doubling phenomenon in a class of time delay equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.R. de; Malta, C.P.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of the solution of a nonlinear time delayed differential equation (infinite dimension) as function of two parameters: the time delay tau and another parameter A (nonlinearity) are investigated. After a Hopf bifurcation period doubling may occur and is characterized by Feigenbaum's delta. A strange atractor is obtained after the period doubling cascade and the largest Lyapunov exponent is calculated indicating that the attractor has low dimension. The behaviour of this Liapunov exponent as function of tau is different from its behaviour as function of A. (Author) [pt

  13. Universality of the topology of period doubling dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1983-10-01

    The evolution of the topology of the invariant manifolds of the attractors of 3-D autonomous dynamical systems during period doubling is shown to be universal. The overall topology of the nth attractor is shown to depend only on the topology of the first attractor at birth

  14. Amplitude calculation near a period-doubling bifurcation: An example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesenfeld, K.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1987-01-01

    For the rf-driven Josephson junction, the dynamical behavior is studied near a period-doubling transition. The center-manifold theorem simplifies the problem and enables us to study only a first-order system, the parameters of which are expressed in terms of the Josephson-junction parameters....

  15. Period doubling in a model of magnetoconvection with Ohmic heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, M. B. H.

    2000-01-01

    In this work it has been studied an idealized model of rotating nonlinear magneto convection to investigate the effects of Ohmic heating. In the over stable region it was found that Ohmic heating can lead to a period-doubling sequence

  16. C-type period-doubling transition in nephron autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Jakob Lund; Mosekilde, Erik; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The functional units of the kidney, called nephrons, utilize mechanisms that allow the individual nephron to regulate the incoming blood flow in response to fluctuations in the arterial pressure. This regulation tends to be unstable and to generate self-sustained oscillations, period-doubling bif......The functional units of the kidney, called nephrons, utilize mechanisms that allow the individual nephron to regulate the incoming blood flow in response to fluctuations in the arterial pressure. This regulation tends to be unstable and to generate self-sustained oscillations, period......-doubling bifurcations, mode-locking and other nonlinear dynamic phenomena in the tubular pressures and flows. Using a simplified nephron model, the paper examines how the regulatory mechanisms react to an external periodic variation in arterial pressure near a region of resonance with one of the internally generated...

  17. Double-walled ZrO{sub 2} nanotube array. Preparation and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Chaorui; Hu, Shengliang; Chang, Qing; Wang, Yanzhong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan (China); Yang, Jinlong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2017-11-15

    This work demonstrates the formation of self-ordered double-walled ZrO{sub 2} nanotube array via electrochemical anodization in glycerol-based electrolyte. Compared with its counterpart of single-walled ZrO{sub 2} nanotube array, the tube wall of double-walled ZrO{sub 2} nanotube split into outer and inner layers for the decomposition of glycerol during anodization process. Moreover, the double-walled structure showed its advantage of achieving improved utilization of light and higher specific surface area of nanotube array. Due to the unique double-walled structure, the double-walled ZrO{sub 2} nanotube array exhibited better photocatalytic activity than the single-walled ZrO{sub 2} nanotube array. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Vortex Avalanches with Periodic Arrays of Pinning Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, J.; Heckel, T.; Kakalios, J.

    2001-03-01

    Numerical simulations by Nori and co-workers of dynamical phase transitions for magnetic vortices in type II superconductors when the defects which act as pinning sites are arranged in a periodic array have found a dramatic non-linear relationship between vortex voltage and driving current.2,4 In order to experimentally test the predictions of these simulations, a macroscopic physical analog of an array of flux vortices in the presense of an ordered lattice of pinning sites has been constructed. This simple table-top experimental system consists of conventional household magnets, arranged in an ordered grid (serving as the lattice of fixed pinning centers). A plexiglass sheet is positioned above these fixed magnets, and another collection of magnets (representing the magnetic flux vortices), oriented so that they are attracted to the fixed magnets are placed on top of the sheet. The entire apparatus is then tilted to a given angle (the analog of the driving voltage) and the velocity of the avalanching magnets is recorded using the induced voltage in a pick-up coil. By varying the ratio of movable magnets to fixed pinning magnets, the filling fraction can be adjusted, as can the pinning strength, by adjusting the separation of the plexiglass sheet between the fixed and movable magnets. The velocity of the avalanching magnets as the filling fraction is varied displays a jamming transition, with a non-trivial dependence on the pinning strength of the lattice of fixed magnets below the sheet.

  19. Integrated lithography to prepare periodic arrays of nano-objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipos, Áron; Szalai, Anikó; Csete, Mária

    2013-01-01

    We present an integrated lithography method to prepare versatile nano-objects with variable shape and nano-scaled substructure, in wavelength-scaled periodic arrays with arbitrary symmetry. The idea is to illuminate colloid sphere monolayers by polarized beams possessing periodic lateral intensity modulations. Finite element method was applied to determine the effects of the wavelength, polarization and angle of incidence of the incoming beam, and to predict the characteristics of nano-objects, which can be fabricated on thin metal layer covered substrates due to the near-field enhancement under silica colloid spheres. The inter-object distance is controlled by varying the relative orientation of the periodic intensity modulation with respect to the silica colloid sphere monolayer. It is shown that illuminating silica colloid sphere monolayers by two interfering beams, linear patterns made of elliptical holes appear in case of linear polarization, while circularly polarized beams result in co-existent rounded objects, as more circular nano-holes and nano-crescents. The size of the nano-objects and their sub-structure is determined by the spheres diameter and by the wavelength. We present various complex plasmonic patterns made of versatile nano-objects that can be uniquely fabricated applying the inherent symmetry breaking possibilities in the integrated lithography method.

  20. Arrangements of a pair of loudspeakers for sound field control with double-layer arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Jiho; Agerkvist, Finn T.; Olsen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have attempted to control sound fields, and also to reduce room reflections with a circular or spherical array of loudspeakers. One of the attempts was to suppress sound waves propagating to the walls outside the array with a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers. The double-layer...... array represents a set of a monopole and a dipole in the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral equation, and thus the distance between these layers should be short compared with the wavelength. In practice, however, this condition is occasionally hard to satisfy because of the sizes of loudspeaker cabinets...

  1. In-phased second harmonic wave array generation with intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosawa, Kenichi; Shohda, Fumio; Yanagisawa, Takayuki; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2015-03-23

    The Talbot cavity is one promising method to synchronize the phase of a laser array. However, it does not achieve the lowest array mode with the same phase but the highest array mode with the anti-phase between every two adjacent lasers, which is called out-phase locking. Consequently, their far-field images exhibit 2-peak profiles. We propose intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling. By placing a nonlinear crystal in a Talbot cavity, the Talbot cavity generates an out-phased fundamental wave array, which is converted into an in-phase-locked second harmonic wave array at the nonlinear crystal. We demonstrate numerical calculations and experiments on intra-Talbot-cavity frequency-doubling and obtain an in-phase-locked second harmonic wave array for a Nd:YVO₄ array laser.

  2. Calculation of coupling factor for double-period accelerating structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Xiaohao; Chen Huaibi; Zheng Shuxin

    2005-01-01

    In the design of the linear accelerating structure, the coupling factor between cavities is a crucial parameter. The error of coupling factor accounts for the electric or magnetic field error mainly. To accurately design the coupling iris, the accurate calculation of coupling factor is essential. The numerical simulation is widely used to calculate the coupling factor now. By using MAFIA code, two methods have been applied to calculate the dispersion characteristics of the single-period structure, one method is to simulate the traveling wave mode by the period boundary condition; another method is to simulate the standing wave mode by the electrical boundary condition. In this work, the authors develop the two methods to calculate the coupling factor of double-period accelerating structure. Compared to experiment, the results for both methods are very similar, and in agreement with measurement within 15% deviation. (authors)

  3. Period doubling on a non-neutral magnetized electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Low frequency oscillations on a non-neutral magnetized electron beam of very low density are investigated. A perturbation analysis of the slow mode of the rigid rotator equilibrium is developed to illustrate the nature of large amplitude fundamental mode oscillations. The results of this theoretical analysis show two important characteristics: firstly, as the perturbation amplitude is increasedthe waveform ceases to be purely sinusoidal and shows period doubling. Secondly, above a certain threshold, all harmonics of the wave grow and the wave breaks. The results of the former are compared with a simple electron beam experiment and are found to be in good qualitative agreement

  4. Suppression of period-doubling and nonlinear parametric effects in periodically perturbed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.; Wiesenfeld, K.

    1986-01-01

    We consider the effect on a generic period-doubling bifurcation of a periodic perturbation, whose frequency ω 1 is near the period-doubled frequency ω 0 /2. The perturbation is shown to always suppress the bifurcation, shifting the bifurcation point and stabilizing the behavior at the original bifurcation point. We derive an equation characterizing the response of the system to the perturbation, analysis of which reveals many interesting features of the perturbed bifurcation, including (1) the scaling law relating the shift of the bifurcation point and the amplitude of the perturbation, (2) the characteristics of the system's response as a function of bifurcation parameter, (3) parametric amplification of the perturbation signal including nonlinear effects such as gain saturation and a discontinuity in the response at a critical perturbation amplitude, (4) the effect of the detuning (ω 1 -ω 0 /2) on the bifurcation, and (5) the emergence of a closely spaced set of peaks in the response spectrum. An important application is the use of period-doubling systems as small-signal amplifiers, e.g., the superconducting Josephson parametric amplifier

  5. Period doubling induced by thermal noise amplification in genetic circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ruocco, G.

    2014-11-18

    Rhythms of life are dictated by oscillations, which take place in a wide rage of biological scales. In bacteria, for example, oscillations have been proven to control many fundamental processes, ranging from gene expression to cell divisions. In genetic circuits, oscillations originate from elemental block such as autorepressors and toggle switches, which produce robust and noise-free cycles with well defined frequency. In some circumstances, the oscillation period of biological functions may double, thus generating bistable behaviors whose ultimate origin is at the basis of intense investigations. Motivated by brain studies, we here study an “elemental” genetic circuit, where a simple nonlinear process interacts with a noisy environment. In the proposed system, nonlinearity naturally arises from the mechanism of cooperative stability, which regulates the concentration of a protein produced during a transcription process. In this elemental model, bistability results from the coherent amplification of environmental fluctuations due to a stochastic resonance of nonlinear origin. This suggests that the period doubling observed in many biological functions might result from the intrinsic interplay between nonlinearity and thermal noise.

  6. Energy transfer, orbital angular momentum, and discrete current in a double-ring fiber array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeyev, C. N.; Volyar, A. V.; Yavorsky, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    We study energy transfer and orbital angular momentum of supermodes in a double-ring array of evanescently coupled monomode optical fibers. The structure of supermodes and the spectra of their propagation constants are obtained. The geometrical parameters of the array, at which the energy is mostly confined within the layers, are determined. The developed method for finding the supermodes of concentric arrays is generalized for the case of multiring arrays. The orbital angular momentum carried by a supermode of a double-ring array is calculated. The discrete lattice current is introduced. It is shown that the sum of discrete currents over the array is a conserved quantity. The connection of the total discrete current with orbital angular momentum of discrete optical vortices is made.

  7. Energy transfer, orbital angular momentum, and discrete current in a double-ring fiber array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeyev, C. N.; Volyar, A. V. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Prospekt, 4, Simferopol, 95007, Crimea (Ukraine); Yavorsky, M. A. [Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, Vernadsky Prospekt, 4, Simferopol, 95007, Crimea (Ukraine); Universite Bordeaux and CNRS, LOMA, UMR 5798, FR-33400 Talence (France)

    2011-12-15

    We study energy transfer and orbital angular momentum of supermodes in a double-ring array of evanescently coupled monomode optical fibers. The structure of supermodes and the spectra of their propagation constants are obtained. The geometrical parameters of the array, at which the energy is mostly confined within the layers, are determined. The developed method for finding the supermodes of concentric arrays is generalized for the case of multiring arrays. The orbital angular momentum carried by a supermode of a double-ring array is calculated. The discrete lattice current is introduced. It is shown that the sum of discrete currents over the array is a conserved quantity. The connection of the total discrete current with orbital angular momentum of discrete optical vortices is made.

  8. Complementary periodic diffracting metallic nanohole and nanodipole arrays in the mid-infrared range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Feng Ma, Hui; Yao, Jie; Wang, Xudong

    2012-10-01

    Metallic nanohole arrays and metallic nanodipole arrays are fabricated and experimentally characterized. A complementary response is observed in both transmission and reflection. For the metallic nanohole arrays, a peak (dip) in transmission (reflection) is observed at resonance whereas the metallic nanodipole arrays display a dip (peak) in transmission (reflection). The resonant frequency of both the metallic nanohole arrays and the nanodipole arrays depends on the dipole arm length, the incident angle, and the period. The resonant position of the nanohole arrays matches that of its complement, which means that Babinet's principle nearly holds for these structures in the mid-infrared region.

  9. Experimental validation of sound field control with a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Jiho; Jacobsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with experimental validation of a recently proposed method of controlling sound fields with a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers [Chang and Jacobsen, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131(6), 4518-4525 (2012)]. The double-layer of loudspeakers is realized with 20 pairs of closed...

  10. Coulomb gap triptych in a periodic array of metal nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianran; Skinner, Brian; Shklovskii, B I

    2012-09-21

    The Coulomb gap in the single-particle density of states (DOS) is a universal consequence of electron-electron interaction in disordered systems with localized electron states. Here we show that in arrays of monodisperse metallic nanocrystals, there is not one but three identical adjacent Coulomb gaps, which together form a structure that we call a "Coulomb gap triptych." We calculate the DOS and the conductivity in two- and three-dimensional arrays using a computer simulation. Unlike in the conventional Coulomb glass models, in nanocrystal arrays the DOS has a fixed width in the limit of large disorder. The Coulomb gap triptych can be studied via tunneling experiments.

  11. A period-doubling cascade precedes chaos for planar maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Evelyn; Yorke, James A

    2013-09-01

    A period-doubling cascade is often seen in numerical studies of those smooth (one-parameter families of) maps for which as the parameter is varied, the map transitions from one without chaos to one with chaos. Our emphasis in this paper is on establishing the existence of such a cascade for many maps with phase space dimension 2. We use continuation methods to show the following: under certain general assumptions, if at one parameter there are only finitely many periodic orbits, and at another parameter value there is chaos, then between those two parameter values there must be a cascade. We investigate only families that are generic in the sense that all periodic orbit bifurcations are generic. Our method of proof in showing there is one cascade is to show there must be infinitely many cascades. We discuss in detail two-dimensional families like those which arise as a time-2π maps for the Duffing equation and the forced damped pendulum equation.

  12. Regularization of the double period method for experimental data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A. A.; Kalitkin, N. N.

    2017-11-01

    In physical and technical applications, an important task is to process experimental curves measured with large errors. Such problems are solved by applying regularization methods, in which success depends on the mathematician's intuition. We propose an approximation based on the double period method developed for smooth nonperiodic functions. Tikhonov's stabilizer with a squared second derivative is used for regularization. As a result, the spurious oscillations are suppressed and the shape of an experimental curve is accurately represented. This approach offers a universal strategy for solving a broad class of problems. The method is illustrated by approximating cross sections of nuclear reactions important for controlled thermonuclear fusion. Tables recommended as reference data are obtained. These results are used to calculate the reaction rates, which are approximated in a way convenient for gasdynamic codes. These approximations are superior to previously known formulas in the covered temperature range and accuracy.

  13. Fully developed turbulence via Feigenbaum's period-doubling bifurcations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong-van, M.

    1987-08-01

    Since its publication in 1978, Feigenbaum's predictions of the onset of turbulence via period-doubling bifurcations have been thoroughly borne out experimentally. In this paper, Feigenbaum's theory is extended into the regime in which we expect to see fully developed turbulence. We develop a method of averaging that imposes correlations in the fluctuating system generated by this map. With this averaging method, the field variable is obtained by coarse-graining, while microscopic fluctuations are preserved in all averaging scales. Fully developed turbulence will be shown to be a result of microscopic fluctuations with proper averaging. Furthermore, this model preserves Feigenbaum's results on the physics of bifurcations at the onset of turbulence while yielding additional physics both at the onset of turbulence and in the fully developed turbulence regime

  14. Fast commutation of high current in double wire array Z-pinch loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.; Gondarenko, N.A.; Velikovich, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    A dynamic model of multi-MA current commutation in a double wire array Z-pinch load is proposed and studied theoretically. Initially, the load is configured as nested concentric wire arrays, with the current driven through the outer array and imploding it. Once the outer array or the annular plasma shell formed from it approaches the inner array, the imploded plasma might penetrate through the gaps between the wires, but the azimuthal magnetic field is trapped due to both the high conductivity of the inner wires and the inductive coupling between the two parts of the array, causing a rapid switching of the total current to the inner part of the array. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. Collectively-enhanced optomechanical coupling in periodic arrays of scatterers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuereb, André; Genes, Claudiu; Dantan, Aurelien Romain

    2013-01-01

    in linear optomechanical coupling strengths between the cavity field and collective motional modes of the array that may be several orders of magnitude larger than is possible with an equivalent reflective ensemble. We describe and interpret these effects in detail and investigate the nature of the scaling...... laws of the coupling strengths for the different transmissive points in various regimes....

  16. Programming Recognition Arrays through Double Chalcogen-Bonding Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biot, Nicolas; Bonifazi, Davide

    2018-04-11

    In this work, we have programmed and synthesized a recognition motif constructed around a chalcogenazolo-pyridine scaffold (CGP) that, through the formation of frontal double chalcogen-bonding interactions, associates into dimeric EX-type complexes. The reliability of the double chalcogen-bonding interaction has been shown at the solid-state by X-ray analysis, depicting the strongest recognition persistence for a Te-congener. The high recognition fidelity, chemical and thermal stability and easy derivatization at the 2-position makes CGP a convenient motif for constructing supramolecular architectures through programmed chalcogen-bonding interactions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Pure Electric and Pure Magnetic Resonances in Near-Infrared Metal Double-Triangle Metamaterial Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Zhi-Shen; Pan Jian; Chen Zhuo; Zhan Peng; Min Nai-Ben; Wang Zhen-Lin

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally and numerically investigate the optical properties of metamaterial arrays composed of double partially-overlapped metallic nanotriangles fabricated by an angle-resolved nanosphere lithography. We demonstrate that each double-triangle can be viewed as an artificial magnetic element analogous to the conventional metal split-ring-resonator. It is shown that under normal-incidence conditions, individual double-triangle can exhibit a strong local magnetic resonance, but the collective response of the metamaterial arrays is purely electric because magnetic resonances of the two double-triangles in a unit cell having opposite openings are out of phase. For oblique incidences the metamaterial arrays are shown to support a pure magnetic response at the same frequency band. Therefore, switchable electric and magnetic resonances are achieved in double-triangle arrays. Moreover, both the electric and magnetic resonances are shown to allow for a tunability over a large spectral range down to near-infrared. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. Transport and Dispersion of Nanoparticles in Periodic Nanopost Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    He, Kai; Retterer, Scott T.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Conrad, Jacinta C.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles transported through highly confined porous media exhibit faster breakthrough than small molecule tracers. Despite important technological applications in advanced materials, human health, energy, and environment, the microscale mechanisms leading to early breakthrough have not been identified. Here, we measure dispersion of nanoparticles at the single-particle scale in regular arrays of nanoposts and show that for highly confined flows of dilute suspensions of nanoparticles the longitudinal and transverse velocities exhibit distinct scaling behaviors. The distributions of transverse particle velocities become narrower and more non-Gaussian when the particles are strongly confined. As a result, the transverse dispersion of highly confined nanoparticles at low Péclet numbers is significantly less important than longitudinal dispersion, leading to early breakthrough. This finding suggests a fundamental mechanism by which to control dispersion and thereby improve efficacy of nanoparticles applied for advanced polymer nanocomposites, drug delivery, hydrocarbon production, and environmental remediation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  19. Transport and Dispersion of Nanoparticles in Periodic Nanopost Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    He, Kai

    2014-05-27

    Nanoparticles transported through highly confined porous media exhibit faster breakthrough than small molecule tracers. Despite important technological applications in advanced materials, human health, energy, and environment, the microscale mechanisms leading to early breakthrough have not been identified. Here, we measure dispersion of nanoparticles at the single-particle scale in regular arrays of nanoposts and show that for highly confined flows of dilute suspensions of nanoparticles the longitudinal and transverse velocities exhibit distinct scaling behaviors. The distributions of transverse particle velocities become narrower and more non-Gaussian when the particles are strongly confined. As a result, the transverse dispersion of highly confined nanoparticles at low Péclet numbers is significantly less important than longitudinal dispersion, leading to early breakthrough. This finding suggests a fundamental mechanism by which to control dispersion and thereby improve efficacy of nanoparticles applied for advanced polymer nanocomposites, drug delivery, hydrocarbon production, and environmental remediation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  20. Control of sound fields with a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Jiho; Jacobsen, Finn

    2012-01-01

    by the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral theorem a double-layer array of loudspeakers is used. Several solution methods are suggested and examined with computer simulations: pure contrast control, pure pressure matching, and a weighted combination. In order to compare the performance of the methods two performance...

  1. Sound field separation with a double layer velocity transducer array (L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    of the array. The technique has been examined and compared with direct velocity based reconstruction, as well as with a technique based on the measurement of the sound pressure and particle velocity. The double layer velocity method circumvents some of the drawbacks of the pressure-velocity based...

  2. Transmission of light through periodic arrays of square holes : from a metallic wire mesh to an array of tiny holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo-Abad, J.; Martin-Moreno, L.; Garcia-Vidal, F.J.; Hendry, E.; Gómez Rivas, J.

    2007-01-01

    A complete landscape is presented of the electromagnetic coupling between square holes forming a two-dimensional periodic array in a metallic film. By combining both experimental and theoretical results along with a first-principles Fano model, we study the crossover between the physics of metallic

  3. Further results on periods and period doubling for iterates of the trapezoic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, W.A.; Stein, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    The trapezoidal function lambda f/sub e/(x), is defined for fixed e element of (0,1] and for lambda element of [1,2] by lambda f/sub e/ (x) = lambda for /x-1/< 1-e and lambda f/sub e/(x) = lambda(1-/x-1/)/(1-e) for 1 greater than or equal to /x-1/greater than or equal to 1-e. For a fixed e, this is a one parameter family of endomorphisms of the interval [0,2]. The structure of the periods (or cycles) of these mappings is studied. In addition, the metric properties of the corresponding bifurcation diagrams are considered; in particular, the rate of convergence of a sequence of bifurcation points in the (x,lambda) plane is studied. It is shown to be different from that found by Feigenbaum and others for mappings which are not flat at the top. The limiting case e = 1 is of special interest. For cycles and containing a point x element of[e,2-e], the period quadruplicates instead of doubling as it does in the usual case

  4. How universal is the period doubling phenomenon in equations with quadratic nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malta, C.P.; Oliveira, C.R. de.

    1983-09-01

    Varying one parameter, the solution of nonlinear 1 sup(st) order differential equation with time delay tau is Fourier analysed. After the Hopf bifurcation, period-doubling phenomenon always occurs when tau is one of the fixed parameters (both for small and large tau). Varying tau, there are values of the fixed parameters for which no period-doubling occurs. 'Chaos' follows the period-doubling sequence and the rate at which 'chaos' is approached is very close to the universal delta = 4.6692016... characterising the period-doubling sequence to chaos in nonlinear difference equations. (Author) [pt

  5. Vortex lattices in different configurations of periodic pinning line-arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Clessio Leao S.; Cabral, Leonardo R.E.; Souza Silva, Clecio C. de; Aguiar, J. Albino

    2006-01-01

    The vortex lattice (VL) ground-state configurations are found using Monte Carlo (MC) simulated annealing with a local molecular dynamics (MD) in the London limit. We study the field dependence of the melting temperature for commensurate and incommensurate vortex lattices interacting with different periodic arrays of pinning. We also investigated the proliferation of topological defects and its dependence on the periodic pinning array symmetry and temperature

  6. Periodic arrays of pinning centers in thin vanadium films.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueck, S. R. J.; Chung, K.; Crabtree, G.; DeLong, L. E.; Hesketh, P. J.; Ilic, B.; Metlushko, V.; Watkins, B.; Welp, U.; Zhang, Z.

    1997-07-13

    Commensurability effects between the superconducting flux line lattice and a square lattice (period d=1{micro}m and diameter D=0.4{micro}m) of submicron holes in 1500 {angstrom} vanadium films were studied by atomic force microscopy, DC magnetization, AC susceptibility, magnetoresistivity and I-V measurements. Peaks in the magnetization and critical current at matching fields are found to depend nonlinearly upon the value of external AC field or current, as well as the inferred symmetry of the flux line lattice.

  7. First results of neutrinoless double beta decay search with the GERmanium Detector Array "GERDA"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicskó Csáthy, József

    2014-06-01

    The study of neutrinoless double beta decay is the most powerful approach to the fundamental question if the neutrino is a Majorana particle, i.e. its own anti-particle. The observation of the lepton number violating neutrinoless double beta decay would establish the Majorana nature of the neutrino. Until now neutrinoless double beta decay was not observed. The GERmanium Detector Array, GERDA is a double beta decay experiment located at the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy. GERDA operates bare Ge diodes enriched in 76Ge in liquid argon supplemented by a water shield. The exposure accumulated adds up to 21.6 kg· yr with a background level of 1.8 · 10-2 cts/(keV·kg·yr). The results of the Phase I of the experiment are presented and the preparation of the Phase II is briefly discussed.

  8. Three-dimensional vectorial multifocal arrays created by pseudo-period encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Tingting; Chang, Chenliang; Chen, Zhaozhong; Wang, Hui-Tian; Ding, Jianping

    2018-06-01

    Multifocal arrays have been attracting considerable attention recently owing to their potential applications in parallel optical tweezers, parallel single-molecule orientation determination, parallel recording and multifocal multiphoton microscopy. However, the generation of vectorial multifocal arrays with a tailorable structure and polarization state remains a great challenge, and reports on multifocal arrays have hitherto been restricted either to scalar focal spots without polarization versatility or to regular arrays with fixed spacing. In this work, we propose a specific pseudo-period encoding technique to create three-dimensional (3D) vectorial multifocal arrays with the ability to manipulate the position, polarization state and intensity of each focal spot. We experimentally validated the flexibility of our approach in the generation of 3D vectorial multiple spots with polarization multiplicity and position tunability.

  9. Cell force mapping using a double-sided micropillar array based on the moiré fringe method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Anderson, S.; Zheng, X.; Roberts, E.; Qiu, Y.; Liao, R.; Zhang, X.

    2014-07-01

    The mapping of traction forces is crucial to understanding the means by which cells regulate their behavior and physiological function to adapt to and communicate with their local microenvironment. To this end, polymeric micropillar arrays have been used for measuring cell traction force. However, the small scale of the micropillar deflections induced by cell traction forces results in highly inefficient force analyses using conventional optical approaches; in many cases, cell forces may be below the limits of detection achieved using conventional microscopy. To address these limitations, the moiré phenomenon has been leveraged as a visualization tool for cell force mapping due to its inherent magnification effect and capacity for whole-field force measurements. This Letter reports an optomechanical cell force sensor, namely, a double-sided micropillar array (DMPA) made of poly(dimethylsiloxane), on which one side is employed to support cultured living cells while the opposing side serves as a reference pattern for generating moiré patterns. The distance between the two sides, which is a crucial parameter influencing moiré pattern contrast, is predetermined during fabrication using theoretical calculations based on the Talbot effect that aim to optimize contrast. Herein, double-sided micropillar arrays were validated by mapping mouse embryo fibroblast contraction forces and the resulting force maps compared to conventional microscopy image analyses as the reference standard. The DMPA-based approach precludes the requirement for aligning two independent periodic substrates, improves moiré contrast, and enables efficient moiré pattern generation. Furthermore, the double-sided structure readily allows for the integration of moiré-based cell force mapping into microfabricated cell culture environments or lab-on-a-chip devices.

  10. Sound field control with a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Jiho; Jacobsen, Finn

    2012-01-01

    , and their performance is examined using computer simulations. Two performance indices are used in this work, (a) the level difference between the average sound energy density in the listening zone and that in the quiet zone (sometimes called “the acoustic contrast”), and (b) a normalized measure of the deviations...... between the desired and the generated sound field in the listening zone. It is concluded that the best compromise is obtained with a method that combines pure contrast maximization with a pressure matching technique.......This paper describes a method of generating a controlled sound field for listeners inside a circular array of loudspeakers without disturbing people outside the array appreciably. To achieve this objective, a double-layer array of loudspeakers is used. Several solution methods are suggested...

  11. Phase sensitive distributed vibration sensing based on ultraweak fiber Bragg grating array using double-pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Xuping; Zhang, Lin; Yuan, Quan; Liu, Yu; Yan, Zhijun

    2017-08-01

    A distributed vibration sensing technique using double-optical-pulse based on phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (ϕ-OTDR) and an ultraweak fiber Bragg grating (UWFBG) array is proposed for the first time. The single-mode sensing fiber is integrated with the UWFBG array that has uniform spatial interval and ultraweak reflectivity. The relatively high reflectivity of the UWFBG, compared with the Rayleigh scattering, gains a high signal-to-noise ratio for the signal, which can make the system achieve the maximum detectable frequency limited by the round-trip time of the probe pulse in fiber. A corresponding experimental ϕ-OTDR system with a 4.5 km sensing fiber integrated with the UWFBG array was setup for the evaluation of the system performance. Distributed vibration sensing is successfully realized with spatial resolution of 50 m. The sensing range of the vibration frequency can cover from 3 Hz to 9 kHz.

  12. Experimental observation of parametric effects near period doubling in a loss-modulated CO2 laser

    OpenAIRE

    Chizhevsky, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    A number of parametric effects, such as suppression of period doubling, shift of the bifurcation point, scaling law relating the shift and the perturbation amplitude, influence of the detuning on the suppression, reaching of the maximum gain between the original and shifted bifurcation points, and scaling law for idler power are experimentally observed near period doubling bifurcation in a loss-driven CO2 laser that is subjected to periodic loss perturbations at a frequency that is close to a...

  13. Tunable band gaps in acoustic metamaterials with periodic arrays of resonant shunted piezos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sheng-Bing; Wen Ji-Hong; Wang Gang; Wen Xi-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Periodic arrays of resonant shunted piezoelectric patches are employed to control the wave propagation in a two-dimensional (2D) acoustic metamaterial. The performance is characterized by the finite element method. More importantly, we propose an approach to solving the conventional issue of the nonlinear eigenvalue problem, and give a convenient solution to the dispersion properties of 2D metamaterials with periodic arrays of resonant shunts in this article. Based on this modeling method, the dispersion relations of a 2D metamaterial with periodic arrays of resonant shunted piezos are calculated. The results show that the internal resonances of the shunting system split the dispersion curves, thereby forming a locally resonant band gap. However, unlike the conventional locally resonant gap, the vibrations in this locally resonant gap are unable to be completely localized in oscillators consisting of shunting inductors and piezo-patches

  14. Enhanced transmission of transverse electric waves through periodic arrays of structured subwavelength apertures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Peng, Liang; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    Transmission through sub-wavelength apertures in perfect metals is expected to be strongly suppressed. However, by structural engineering of the apertures, we numerically demonstrate that the transmission of transverse electric waves through periodic arrays of subwavelength apertures in a thin...... metallic film can be significantly enhanced. Based on equivalent circuit theory analysis, periodic arrays of square structured subwavelength apertures are obtained with a 1900-fold transmission enhancement factor when the side length a of the apertures is 10 times smaller than the wavelength (a/λ =0...

  15. The effect of scattering on sound field control with a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Jiho; Jacobsen, Finn

    2012-01-01

    A recent study has shown that a circular double-layer array of loudspeakers makes it possible to achieve a sound field control that can generate a controlled field inside the array and reduce sound waves propagating outside the array. This is useful if it is desirable not to disturb people outside...... the array or to prevent the effect of reflections from the room. The study assumed free field condition, however in practice a listener will be located inside the array. The listener scatters sound waves, which propagate outward. Consequently, the scattering effect can be expected to degrade the performance...

  16. Period doubling for trapezoid function iteration: metric theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, W.A.; Stein, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    Iterations of a one-parameter family F(lambda,x) = lambda f(x) of endomorphisms of [0,2] having the form of a trapezoid f(x) = x/e for x belongs to [0,e], f(x) = 1 for x belongs to (e,2 - e) and f(x) = (2 - x)/e for x belongs to [2 - e,2], are investigated. Here lambda belongs to [1,2] and e belongs to (0,1). Let lambda/sub n/ be the smallest value of lambda > 1 for which x = 1 is a periodic point of period 2/sup n/. It is proved that for e < 0.99, lambda/sub n/ - lambda/sub n-1/ approx. = k(lambda/sub infinity//e)/sup -2n/, where k is some constant and lambda/sub infinity/ = lim/sub n→infinity/lambda/sub n/. The same conclusion probably holds for any e < 1. This behavior is substantially different from that found by Feigenbaum and others for the case where f(x) assumes its maximum value for a unique x. Numerical investigations are reported for functions related to the trapezoid function

  17. An analog of photon-assisted tunneling in a periodically modulated waveguide array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Luo, Xiaobing; Yang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Mei; Lü, Xinyou; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically report an analog of photon-assisted tunneling (PAT) originated from dark Floquet state in a periodically driven lattice array without a static biased potential by studying a three-channel waveguide system in a non-high-frequency regime. This analog of PAT can be achieved by only periodically modulating the top waveguide and adjusting the distance between the bottom and its adjacent waveguide. It is numerically shown that the PAT resonances also exist in the five-channel waveguide system and probably exist in the waveguide arrays with other odd numbers of waveguides, but they will become weak as the number of waveguides increases. With origin different from traditional PAT, this type of PAT found in our work is closely linked to the existence of the zero-energy (dark) Floquet states. It is readily observable under currently accessible experimental conditions and may be useful for controlling light propagation in waveguide arrays. PMID:27767189

  18. Flow through a cylindrical pipe with a periodic array of fractal orifices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melick, P.A.J.; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    2013-01-01

    We apply direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations to predict flow through a cylindrical pipe in which a periodic array of orifice plates with a fractal perimeter is mounted. The flow is simulated using a volume penalization immersed boundary method with which

  19. Flow through a cylindrical pipe with a periodic array of fractal orifices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Melick, P.A.J.; Geurts, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    We apply direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations to predict flow through a cylindrical pipe in which a periodic array of orifice plates with a fractal perimeter is mounted. The flow is simulated using a volume penalization immersed boundary method with which

  20. Eigenstates of a particle in an array of hexagons with periodic boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nemati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of a particle in an array of hexagons with periodic boundary condition is solved. Using the projection operators, we categorize eigenfunctions corresponding to each of the irreducible representations of the symmetry group . Based on these results, the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are discussed.

  1. Enhanced field emission properties of vertically aligned double-walled carbon nanotube arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guohai; Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Cheol Jin; Iwasaki, Takayuki; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Vertically aligned double-walled carbon nanotube (VA-DWCNT) arrays were synthesized by point-arc microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on Cr/n-Si and SiO 2 /n-Si substrates. The outer tube diameters of VA-DWCNTs are in the range of 2.5-3.8 nm, and the average interlayer spacing is approximately 0.42 nm. The field emission properties of these VA-DWCNTs were studied. It was found that a VA-DWCNT array grown on a Cr/n-Si substrate had better field emission properties as compared with a VA-DWCNT array grown on a SiO 2 /n-Si substrate and randomly oriented DWCNTs, showing a turn-on field of about 0.85 V μm -1 at the emission current density of 0.1 μA cm -2 and a threshold field of 1.67 V μm -1 at the emission current density of 1.0 mA cm -2 . The better field emission performance of the VA-DWCNT array was mainly attributed to the vertical alignment of DWCNTs on the Cr/n-Si substrate and the low contact resistance between CNTs and the Cr/n-Si substrate

  2. Near-unity transparency of a continuous metal film via cooperative effects of double plasmonic arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhengqi; Liu Guiqiang; Liu Xiaoshan; Huang Kuan; Chen Yuanhao; Fu Guolan; Zhou Haiqing

    2013-01-01

    Metal structures with high optical transparency and conductivity are of great importance for practical applications in optoelectronic devices. Here we investigate the transparency response of a continuous metal film sandwiched by double plasmonic nanoparticle arrays. The upper nanoparticle array shows efficient light trapping of the incident field, acting as a light input coupler, and the lower nanoparticle array shows a light release gate opening at the other side, acting as the light output coupler. The strong near-field light–matter interactions of the nano-scale separated plasmonic nanoparticles, the excitation of surface plasmon waves of the metal film, and their cooperative coupling effects result in broadband scattering cancellation and near-unity transparency (up to 96%) in the optical regime. The transparency response in such a structure can be efficiently modified by varying the gap distance of adjacent nanoparticles, dielectric environments, and the distance between the plasmonic array and the metal film. This motif may provide a new alternative approach to obtain transparent and highly conducting metal structures with potential applications in transparent conductors, plasmonic filters, and highly integrated light input and output components. (paper)

  3. Preparation and regulating cell adhesion of anion-exchangeable layered double hydroxide micropatterned arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Feng; Hu, Hao; Xu, Sailong; Huo, Ruijie; Zhao, Zhiping; Zhang, Fazhi; Xu, Fujian

    2015-02-25

    We describe a reliable preparation of MgAl-layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) micropatterned arrays on gold substrate by combining SO3(-)-terminated self-assembly monolayer and photolithography. The synthesis route is readily extended to prepare LDH arrays on the SO3(-)-terminated polymer-bonded glass substrate amenable for cell imaging. The anion-exchangeable MgAl-LDH micropattern can act both as bioadhesive region for selective cell adhesion and as nanocarrier for drug molecules to regulate cell behaviors. Quantitative analysis of cell adhesion shows that selective HepG2 cell adhesion and spreading are promoted by the micropatterned MgAl-LDH, and also suppressed by methotrexate drug released from the LDH interlayer galleries.

  4. The Milano-Gran Sasso double beta decay experiment: toward a 20-crystal array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrello, A.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Giuliani, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Zanotti, L.

    1996-01-01

    TeO 2 thermal detectors are being used by the Milano group to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 130 Te. An upper limit for neutrinoless decay half life of 2.1 x 10 22 yr at 90% CL obtained with a 334 g TeO 2 detector has been previously reported. To improve the sensitivity of the experiment an array of twenty 340 g TeO 2 crystals will be realised in the next future. As a first step toward the realisation of that experiment a 4 crystal detector has been tested in the Gran Sasso refrigerator. Detector performances, data acquisition and analysis are discussed. (orig.)

  5. A double expansion method for the frequency response of finite-length beams with periodic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Z. G.; Ni, Y. Q.

    2017-03-01

    A double expansion method for the frequency response of finite-length beams with periodic distribution parameters is proposed. The vibration response of the beam with spatial periodic parameters under harmonic excitations is studied. The frequency response of the periodic beam is the function of parametric period and then can be expressed by the series with the product of periodic and non-periodic functions. The procedure of the double expansion method includes the following two main steps: first, the frequency response function and periodic parameters are expanded by using identical periodic functions based on the extension of the Floquet-Bloch theorem, and the period-parametric differential equation for the frequency response is converted into a series of linear differential equations with constant coefficients; second, the solutions to the linear differential equations are expanded by using modal functions which satisfy the boundary conditions, and the linear differential equations are converted into algebraic equations according to the Galerkin method. The expansion coefficients are obtained by solving the algebraic equations and then the frequency response function is finally determined. The proposed double expansion method can uncouple the effects of the periodic expansion and modal expansion so that the expansion terms are determined respectively. The modal number considered in the second expansion can be reduced remarkably in comparison with the direct expansion method. The proposed double expansion method can be extended and applied to the other structures with periodic distribution parameters for dynamics analysis. Numerical results on the frequency response of the finite-length periodic beam with various parametric wave numbers and wave amplitude ratios are given to illustrate the effective application of the proposed method and the new frequency response characteristics, including the parameter-excited modal resonance, doubling-peak frequency response

  6. Weak-periodic stochastic resonance in a parallel array of static nonlinearities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Ma

    Full Text Available This paper studies the output-input signal-to-noise ratio (SNR gain of an uncoupled parallel array of static, yet arbitrary, nonlinear elements for transmitting a weak periodic signal in additive white noise. In the small-signal limit, an explicit expression for the SNR gain is derived. It serves to prove that the SNR gain is always a monotonically increasing function of the array size for any given nonlinearity and noisy environment. It also determines the SNR gain maximized by the locally optimal nonlinearity as the upper bound of the SNR gain achieved by an array of static nonlinear elements. With locally optimal nonlinearity, it is demonstrated that stochastic resonance cannot occur, i.e. adding internal noise into the array never improves the SNR gain. However, in an array of suboptimal but easily implemented threshold nonlinearities, we show the feasibility of situations where stochastic resonance occurs, and also the possibility of the SNR gain exceeding unity for a wide range of input noise distributions.

  7. Phononic thermal resistance due to a finite periodic array of nano-scatterers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trang Nghiêm, T. T.; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier [Univ. Lyon, CNRS, INSA-Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CETHIL UMR5008, F-69621 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-07-28

    The wave property of phonons is employed to explore the thermal transport across a finite periodic array of nano-scatterers such as circular and triangular holes. As thermal phonons are generated in all directions, we study their transmission through a single array for both normal and oblique incidences, using a linear dispersionless time-dependent acoustic frame in a two-dimensional system. Roughness effects can be directly considered within the computations without relying on approximate analytical formulae. Analysis by spatio-temporal Fourier transform allows us to observe the diffraction effects and the conversion of polarization. Frequency-dependent energy transmission coefficients are computed for symmetric and asymmetric objects that are both subject to reciprocity. We demonstrate that the phononic array acts as an efficient thermal barrier by applying the theory of thermal boundary (Kapitza) resistances to arrays of smooth scattering holes in silicon for an exemplifying periodicity of 10 nm in the 5–100 K temperature range. It is observed that the associated thermal conductance has the same temperature dependence as that without phononic filtering.

  8. Fluorescence enhancement in large-scale self-assembled gold nanoparticle double arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekini, M.; Bierwagen, J.; Cunningham, A.; Bürgi, T.; Filter, R.; Rockstuhl, C.

    2015-01-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonances excited in metallic nanoparticles confine and enhance electromagnetic fields at the nanoscale. This is particularly pronounced in dimers made from two closely spaced nanoparticles. When quantum emitters, such as dyes, are placed in the gap of those dimers, their absorption and emission characteristics can be modified. Both processes have to be considered when aiming to enhance the fluorescence from the quantum emitters. This is particularly challenging for dimers, since the electromagnetic properties and the enhanced fluorescence sensitively depend on the distance between the nanoparticles. Here, we use a layer-by-layer method to precisely control the distances in such systems. We consider a dye layer deposited on top of an array of gold nanoparticles or integrated into a central position of a double array of gold nanoparticles. We study the effect of the spatial arrangement and the average distance on the plasmon-enhanced fluorescence. We found a maximum of a 99-fold increase in the fluorescence intensity of the dye layer sandwiched between two gold nanoparticle arrays. The interaction of the dye layer with the plasmonic system also causes a spectral shift in the emission wavelengths and a shortening of the fluorescence life times. Our work paves the way for large-scale, high throughput, and low-cost self-assembled functionalized plasmonic systems that can be used as efficient light sources

  9. Anomalous transmission through heavily doped conducting polymer films with periodic subwavelength hole array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tatsunosuke; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Agrawal, Amit; Nahata, Ajay; Menon, Reghu

    2006-08-01

    We observed resonantly enhanced (or anomalous transmission) terahertz transmission through two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of subwavelength apertures with various periodicities fabricated on metallic organic conducting polymer films of polypyrrole heavily doped with PF 6 molecules [PPy(PF6)]. The anomalous transmission spectra are in good agreement with a model involving surface plasmon polariton excitations on the film surfaces. We also found that the resonantly enhanced transmission peaks are broader in the exotic metallic PPy(PF6) films compared to those formed in 2D aperture array in regular metallic films such as silver, indicating that the surface plasmon polaritons on the PPy(PF6) film surfaces have higher attenuation.

  10. Surface plasmon enhanced absorption and suppressed transmission in periodic arrays of graphene ribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, A. Yu.; Guinea, F.; Garcia-Vidal, F. J.; Martin-Moreno, L.

    2012-02-01

    Resonance diffraction in the periodic array of graphene microribbons is theoretically studied following a recent experiment [L. Ju , Nature Nanotech.1748-338710.1038/nnano.2011.146 6, 630 (2011)]. Systematic studies over a wide range of parameters are presented. It is shown that a much richer resonant picture would be observable for higher relaxation times of charge carriers: More resonances appear and transmission can be totally suppressed. The comparison with the absorption cross-section of a single ribbon shows that the resonant features of the periodic array are associated with leaky plasmonic modes. The longest-wavelength resonance provides the highest visibility of the transmission dip and has the strongest spectral shift and broadening with respect to the single-ribbon resonance, due to collective effects.

  11. Geometric pre-patterning based tuning of the period doubling onset strain during thin film wrinkling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Sourabh K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-16

    Wrinkling of supported thin films is an easy-to-implement and low-cost fabrication technique for generation of stretch-tunable periodic micro and nano-scale structures. However, the tunability of such structures is often limited by the emergence of an undesirable period doubled mode at high strains. Predictively tuning the onset strain for period doubling via existing techniques requires one to have extensive knowledge about the nonlinear pattern formation behavior. Herein, a geometric pre-patterning based technique is introduced to delay the onset of period doubling that can be implemented to predictively tune the onset strain even with limited system knowledge. The technique comprises pre-patterning the film/base bilayer with a sinusoidal pattern that has the same period as the natural wrinkle period of the system. The effectiveness of this technique has been verified via physical and computational experiments on the polydimethylsiloxane/glass bilayer system. It is observed that the period doubling onset strain can be increased from the typical value of 20% for flat films to greater than 30% with a modest pre-pattern aspect ratio (2∙amplitude/period) of 0.15. In addition, finite element simulations reveal that (i) the onset strain can be increased up to a limit by increasing the amplitude of the pre-patterns and (ii) the delaying effect can be captured entirely by the pre-pattern geometry. As a result, one can implement this technique even with limited system knowledge, such as material properties or film thickness, by simply replicating pre-existing wrinkled patterns to generate prepatterned bilayers. Thus, geometric pre-patterning is a practical scheme to suppress period doubling that can increase the operating range of stretch-tunable wrinkle-based devices by at least 50%.

  12. Renormalization of period doubling in symmetric four-dimensional volume-preserving maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, J.; Greene, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    We have determined three maps (truncated at quadratic terms) that are fixed under the renormalization operator of pitchfork period doubling in symmetric four-dimensional volume-preserving maps. Each of these contains the previously known two-dimensional area-preserving map that is fixed under the period-doubling operator. One of these three fixed maps consists of two uncoupled two-dimensional (nonlinear) area-preserving fixed maps. The other two contain also the two-dimensional area-preserving fixed map coupled (in general) with a linear two-dimensional map. The renormalization calculation recovers all numerical results for the pitchfork period doubling in the symmetric four-dimensional volume-preserving maps, reported by Mao and Helleman [Phys. Rev. A 35, 1847 (1987)]. For a large class of nonsymmetric four-dimensional volume-preserving maps, we found that the fixed maps are the same as those for the symmetric maps

  13. Incidence of double ovulation during the early postpartum period in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Hiromi; Miura, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Motohiro; Sakaguchi, Minoru

    2017-03-15

    In lactating cattle, the incidence of twin calving has many negative impacts on production and reproduction in dairy farming. In almost all cases, natural twinning in dairy cattle is the result of double ovulation. It has been suggested that the milk production level of cows influences the number of ovulatory follicles. The objective of the present study was to investigate the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period in relation to the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows. The ovaries of 43 Holstein cows (26 primiparous and 17 multiparous) were ultrasonographically scanned throughout the three postpartum ovulation sequences. The incidence of double ovulation in the unilateral ovaries was 66.7%, with a higher incidence in the right ovary than in the left, whereas that in bilateral ovaries was 33.3%. When double ovulations were counted dividing into each side ovary in which ovulations occurred, the total frequency of ovulations deviated from a 1:1 ratio (60.3% in the right side and 39.7% in the left side, P cows, double ovulation occurred more frequently than in primiparous cows (58.8% vs. 11.5% per cow and 30.0% vs. 3.8% per ovulation, respectively P cows, the double ovulators exhibited higher peak milk yield (P cows. Two multiparous cows that experienced double ovulation during the early postpartum period subsequently conceived twin fetuses. It can be speculated that the incidence of double ovulations during the early postpartum period partly contributes to the increased incidence of undesirable twin births in multiparous dairy cows. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Field theory of a terahertz staggered double-grating arrays waveguide Cerenkov traveling wave amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Wenqiu; He, Fangming [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Zicheng; Luo, Jirun; Zhao, Ding; Liu, Qinglun [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-04-15

    Based on a rectilinear sheet electron beam propagating through the tunnel of a staggered double-grating arrays waveguide (SDGAW) slow-wave structure (SWS), a three dimensional field theory for describing the modes and the beam-wave interaction is presented, in which the higher order terms inside the grooves are retained. The fields' distribution and the conductivity losses are also calculated utilizing the theoretical model. With the optimized parameters of the SWS and the electron beam, a 1 THz SDGAW Cerenkov traveling wave amplifier may obtain a moderate net gain (the peak gain is 12.7 dB/cm) and an ultra 3 dB wideband (0.19 THz) considering the serious Ohmic losses. The theoretical results have been compared with those calculated by 3D HFSS code and CST STUDIO particle-in-cell simulations.

  15. Enhanced electrochemical performance of CoAl-layered double hydroxide nanosheet arrays coated by platinum films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, J.P.; Fang, J.H.; Li, M.; Zhang, W.F.; Liu, F.; Zhang, X.B.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration for the electron transport between the current collector and the active CoAl LDH arrays, where the yellow arrows indicate the high resistance of CoAl LDH, while the green arrows present the high conductivity of Pt films on LDH. -- Highlights: •CoAl layered double hydroxide nanosheet arrays are synthesized by hydrothermal method. •Pt films coated on surface of CoAl nanosheets facilitate fast electron transport. •CoAl LDH nanosheets coated with Pt film for 5 min have an excellent performance. -- Abstract: Three-dimensional network of cobalt and aluminum layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets was synthesized on nickel foam by a simple hydrothermal method. The CoAl-LDH nonosheets were subsequently coated by ion sputtering with thin layers of Pt films to facilitate fast electron transport between current collector and the CoAl-LDH active materials. The optimal thickness of the Pt film acquiring the best performance was identified by applying various sputtering time in controlled experiments. The supercapacitor built by the CoAl-LDH nanosheets coated with Pt film sputtered for 5 min has a high specific capacitance (734.4 F g −1 at 3 A g −1 ), excellent rate capability as well as cycling stability. Moreover, it showed a long life of 77% retention after 6000 cycles and its general morphology was preserved after the test. The synergetic affect of conductive layer of Pt films and CoAl-LDH on the improvement of electrochemical properties was discussed and this would provide a useful clue in designing novel and effective electrode materials for supercapacitors

  16. Photoacoustic technique for the characterization of plasmonic properties of 2D periodic arrays of gold nanoholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Petronijevic

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We apply photo-acoustic (PA technique to examine plasmonic properties of 2D periodic arrays of nanoholes etched in gold/chromium layer upon a glass substrate. The pitch of these arrays lies in the near IR, and this, under appropriate wave vector matching conditions in the visible region, allows for the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP guided along a dielectric – metal surface. SPP offered new approaches in light guiding and local field intensity enhancement, but their detection is often difficult due to the problematic discrimination of their contribution from the overall scattering. Here PA measures the energy absorbed due to the non-radiative decay of SPPs. We report on the absorption enhancement by presenting the spatial mapping of absorption under the incidence angles and wavelength that correspond to the efficient excitation of SPPs. Moreover, a comparison with optical transmission measurements is carried out, underlining the applicability and sensitivity of PA technique.

  17. Periodic Arrays of Film-Coupled Cubic Nanoantennas as Tunable Plasmonic Metasurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Yannopapas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We show theoretically that a two-dimensional periodic array of metallic nanocubes in close proximity to a metallic film acts as a metasurface with tunable absorbance. The presence of a metallic film underneath the array of plasmonic nanocubes leads to an impedance matched plasmonic metasurface enhancing up to 4 times the absorbance of incident radiation, in the spectral region below 500 nm. The absorbance spectrum is weakly dependent on the angle of incidence and state of polarization of incident light a functionality which can find application in thermo-photovoltaics. Our calculations are based on a hybrid layer-multiple-scattering (hLMS method based on a discrete-dipole approximation (DDA/T-matrix point matching method.

  18. A scintillating bolometer array for double beta decay studies: The LUCIFER experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gironi, L., E-mail: luca.gironi@mib.infn.it [Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); INFN – Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    The main goal of the LUCIFER experiment is to study the neutrinoless double beta decay, a rare process allowed if neutrinos are Majorana particles. Although aiming at a discovery, in the case of insufficient sensitivity the LUCIFER technique will be the demonstrator for a higher mass experiment able to probe the entire inverted hierarchy region of the neutrino mass. In order to achieve this challenging result, high resolution detectors with active background discrimination capability are required. This very interesting possibility can be largely fulfilled by scintillating bolometers thanks to the simultaneous read-out of heat and light emitted by the interactions in the detector or by pulse shape analysis. - Highlights: • The LUCIFER technique will be the demonstrator for a higher mass experiment. • Scintillating bolometers allow high energy resolution and background discrimination. • The first choice for the LUCIFER tower are ZnSe crystals. • The LUCIFER setup will consist of an array of 30 individual single module detectors. • An array of ZnMoO4 crystals allowed the bolometric observation of the 2vDBD of {sup 100}Mo.

  19. Metalenses based on the non-parallel double-slit arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hongyan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Jicheng; Pan, Liang; Sang, Tian

    2017-09-01

    Metalenses based on surface plasmon polaritons have played an indispensable role in ultra-thin devices designing. The amplitude, phase and polarization of electromagnetic waves all can be controlled easily by modifying the metasurface structures. Here we propose and investigate a new type of structure with Babinet-inverted nano-antennas which can provide a series of unit-cells with phase-shifts covering 2π and ensure almost same transmittance simultaneously. As a result, the wavefront can be manipulated by arraying the units in course. Metalenses with the linear asymmetrical double slit unit-cell arrays are designed and the simulative results exhibit their perfect focusing characteristics, including single-focus lenses and multi-focus lenses. The small focus size and high numerical aperture make them stand out from the traditional counterparts in application of precision sensing devices. We expect our designs will provide new insights in the practical applications for metasurfaces in data storages, optical information processing and optical holography.

  20. Detection of very long period solar free oscillations in ambient seismic array noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, R.; Pavlis, G. L.; Thomson, D. J.; Vernon, F.

    2017-12-01

    For nearly two decades long-period seismologists have been aware that the Earth's free oscillations are in a constant state of excitement, even in the absence of large earthquakes. This phenomenon is now called the "Earth's hum," and much research has been done to determine what generates this hum. Here we examine a hypothesis first put forward by Thomson et al. in 2007 that a portion of the hum's energy comes from the sun. They hypothesized that solar free oscillations couple into the solid Earth, likely through electromagnetic processes, and produce signals that are observable in the frequency domain. If this is true, then at least some measurement of helioseismic oscillations may be possible using relatively cheap, ground-based instruments rather than spacecraft. In this project we attempt to improve upon previous studies by producing spectra from seismic arrays, rather than a single station. We use data from two arrays: The Homestake Mine 3D array in Lead, SD, and the Pinyon Flats array, which has seismometers in boreholes drilled into bedrock. Both have exceptionally low noise levels at ultra long periods and show easily visible earth tides on horizontal component data filtered to below the microseism band. In the Homestake data, below 500 μHz we have found evidence of what we suggest may be closely spaced solar g-mode lines. Such modes are produced by a density inversion at the top of the solar core. There is no sign of these modes in the Pinyon Flats data, but we find this is likely due to the signal-to-noise ratio of those data, which is significantly lower than Homestake. Significance tests of bands below 500 μHz indicate with probability levels as high as 40σ that these lines are not the result of random processes. Critical examination of our processing steps for sources of bias indicate that the observed line structure is not a processing artifact.

  1. Acoustic transmission resonance and suppression through double-layer subwavelength hole arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhifeng; Jin Guojun

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of acoustic waves passing through double-layer subwavelength hole arrays. The acoustic transmission resonance and suppression are observed. There are three mechanisms responsible for the transmission resonance: the excitation of geometrically induced acoustic surface waves, the Fabry-Perot resonance in a hole cavity (I-FP resonance) and the Fabry-Perot resonance between two plates (II-FP resonance). We can differentiate these mechanisms via the dispersion relation of acoustic modes supported by the double-layer structure. It is confirmed that the coupling between two single-layer perforated plates, associated with longitudinal interval and lateral displacement, plays a crucial role in modulating the transmission properties. The strong coupling between two plates can induce the splitting of the transmission peak, while the decoupling between plates leads to the appearance of transmission suppression. By analyzing the criterion derived for transmission suppression, we conclude that it is the destructive interference between the diffracted waves and the direct transmission waves assisted by the I-FP resonance of the first plate that leads to the decoupling between plates and then the transmission suppression.

  2. Noise reduction in long‐period seismograms by way of array summing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringler, Adam; Wilson, David; Storm, Tyler; Marshall, Benjamin T.; Hutt, Charles R.; Holland, Austin

    2016-01-01

    Long‐period (>100  s period) seismic data can often be dominated by instrumental noise as well as local site noise. When multiple collocated sensors are installed at a single site, it is possible to improve the overall station noise levels by applying stacking methods to their traces. We look at the noise reduction in long‐period seismic data by applying the time–frequency phase‐weighted stacking method of Schimmel and Gallart (2007) as well as the phase‐weighted stacking (PWS) method of Schimmel and Paulssen (1997) to four collocated broadband sensors installed in the quiet Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory underground vault. We show that such stacking methods can improve vertical noise levels by as much as 10 dB over the mean background noise levels at 400 s period, suggesting that greater improvements could be achieved with an array involving multiple sensors. We also apply this method to reduce local incoherent noise on horizontal seismic records of the 2 March 2016 Mw 7.8 Sumatra earthquake, where the incoherent noise levels at very long periods are similar in amplitude to the earthquake signal. To maximize the coherency, we apply the PWS method to horizontal data where relative azimuths between collocated sensors are estimated and compared with a simpler linear stack with no azimuthal rotation. Such methods could help reduce noise levels at various seismic stations where multiple high‐quality sensors have been deployed. Such small arrays may also provide a solution to improving long‐period noise levels at Global Seismographic Network stations.

  3. On period doubling bifurcations of cycles and the harmonic balance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itovich, Griselda R.; Moiola, Jorge L.

    2006-01-01

    This works attempts to give quasi-analytical expressions for subharmonic solutions appearing in the vicinity of a Hopf bifurcation. Starting with well-known tools as the graphical Hopf method for recovering the periodic branch emerging from classical Hopf bifurcation, precise frequency and amplitude estimations of the limit cycle can be obtained. These results allow to attain approximations for period doubling orbits by means of harmonic balance techniques, whose accuracy is established by comparison of Floquet multipliers with continuation software packages. Setting up a few coefficients, the proposed methodology yields to approximate solutions that result from a second period doubling bifurcation of cycles and to extend the validity limits of the graphical Hopf method

  4. Periodic arrays of deep nanopores made in silicon with reactive ion etching and deep UV lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldering, Leon A; Tjerkstra, R Willem; Vos, Willem L; Jansen, Henri V; Setija, Irwan D

    2008-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of periodic arrays of deep nanopores with high aspect ratios in crystalline silicon. The radii and pitches of the pores were defined in a chromium mask by means of deep UV scan and step technology. The pores were etched with a reactive ion etching process with SF 6 , optimized for the formation of deep nanopores. We have realized structures with pitches between 440 and 750 nm, pore diameters between 310 and 515 nm, and depth to diameter aspect ratios up to 16. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest aspect ratio ever reported for arrays of nanopores in silicon made with a reactive ion etching process. Our experimental results show that the etching rate of the nanopores is aspect-ratio-dependent, and is mostly influenced by the angular distribution of the etching ions. Furthermore we show both experimentally and theoretically that, for sub-micrometer structures, reducing the sidewall erosion is the best way to maximize the aspect ratio of the pores. Our structures have potential applications in chemical sensors, in the control of liquid wetting of surfaces, and as capacitors in high-frequency electronics. We demonstrate by means of optical reflectivity that our high-quality structures are very well suited as photonic crystals. Since the process studied is compatible with existing CMOS semiconductor fabrication, it allows for the incorporation of the etched arrays in silicon chips

  5. V 1343 aquilae (SS 433) as a double-periodic star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranskij, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    The new computer method of double periodicity search earlier tested on the Blazhko effect in RR Lyrae type variable stars is applied to define more precise periods of brightness variability of the binary V 1343 Aql (SS 433). Computer program was used in the two-parameter search regime. The obtained periods are P 1 = 13sup(d).074+-0sup(d).008 and P 2 = 163sup(d).8+-1sup(d).2. The periodically repeating brithness curve deeps treated as primary minima (the accretion disc eclipsed by the star) vary their shape with the phase of period P 2 . The expected eclipse at 1979 October 16 did nor occur

  6. Period-doubling bifurcation and chaos control in a discrete-time mosquito model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qamar Din

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the study of some qualitative properties of a discrete-time mosquito Model. It is shown that there exists period-doubling bifurcation for wide range of bifurcation parameter for the unique positive steady-state of given system. In order to control the bifurcation we introduced a feedback strategy. For further confirmation of complexity and chaotic behavior largest Lyapunov exponents are plotted.

  7. Bandgap properties in locally resonant phononic crystal double panel structures with periodically attached spring–mass resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Denghui, E-mail: qdhsd318@163.com; Shi, Zhiyu, E-mail: zyshi@nuaa.edu.cn

    2016-10-07

    Bandgap properties of the locally resonant phononic crystal double panel structure made of a two-dimensional periodic array of a spring–mass resonator surrounded by n springs (n equals to zero at the beginning of the study) connected between the upper and lower plates are investigated in this paper. The finite element method is applied to calculate the band structure, of which the accuracy is confirmed in comparison with the one calculated by the extended plane wave expansion (PWE) method and the transmission spectrum. Numerical results and further analysis demonstrate that two bands corresponding to the antisymmetric vibration mode open a wide band gap but is cut narrower by a band corresponding to the symmetric mode. One of the regulation rules shows that the lowest frequency on the symmetric mode band is proportional to the spring stiffness. Then, a new design idea of adding springs around the resonator in a unit cell (n is not equal to zero now) is proposed in the need of widening the bandwidth and lowering the starting frequency. Results show that the bandwidth of the band gap increases from 50 Hz to nearly 200 Hz. By introducing the quality factor, the regulation rules with the comprehensive consideration of the whole structure quality limitation, the wide band gap and the low starting frequency are also discussed. - Highlights: • The locally resonant double panel structure opens a band gap in the low frequency region. • The band gap is the coupling between the symmetric and antisymmetric vibration modes. • The band structure of the double panel is the evolution of that of the single plate. • By adding springs around the resonator in a unit cell, the bandwidth gets wider. • The band gap can be controlled by tuning the parameters.

  8. Double-sided anodic titania nanotube arrays: a lopsided growth process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lidong; Zhang, Sam; Sun, Xiao Wei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Cai, Yanli

    2010-12-07

    In the past decade, the pore diameter of anodic titania nanotubes was reported to be influenced by a number of factors in organic electrolyte, for example, applied potential, working distance, water content, and temperature. All these were closely related to potential drop in the organic electrolyte. In this work, the essential role of electric field originating from the potential drop was directly revealed for the first time using a simple two-electrode anodizing method. Anodic titania nanotube arrays were grown simultaneously at both sides of a titanium foil, with tube length being longer at the front side than that at the back side. This lopsided growth was attributed to the higher ionic flux induced by electric field at the front side. Accordingly, the nanotube length was further tailored to be comparable at both sides by modulating the electric field. These results are promising to be used in parallel configuration dye-sensitized solar cells, water splitting, and gas sensors, as a result of high surface area produced by the double-sided architecture.

  9. An Optical Wavefront Sensor Based on a Double Layer Microlens Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Chun Wei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine light aberrations, Shack-Hartmann optical wavefront sensors make use of microlens arrays (MLA to divide the incident light into small parts and focus them onto image planes. In this paper, we present the design and fabrication of long focal length MLA with various shapes and arrangements based on a double layer structure for optical wavefront sensing applications. A longer focal length MLA could provide high sensitivity in determining the average slope across each microlens under a given wavefront, and spatial resolution of a wavefront sensor is increased by numbers of microlenses across a detector. In order to extend focal length, we used polydimethysiloxane (PDMS above MLA on a glass substrate. Because of small refractive index difference between PDMS and MLA interface (UV-resin, the incident light is less refracted and focused in further distance. Other specific focal lengths could also be realized by modifying the refractive index difference without changing the MLA size. Thus, the wavefront sensor could be improved with better sensitivity and higher spatial resolution.

  10. Linear theory period ratios for surface helium enhanced double-mode Cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.; Hodson, S.W.; King, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    Linear nonadiabatic theory period ratios for models of double-mode Cepheids with their two periods between 1 and 7 days have been computed, assuming differing amounts and depths of surface helium enhancement. Evolution theory masses and luminosities are found to be consistent with the observed periods. All models give Pi 1 /Pi 0 approx. =0.70 as observed for the 11 known variables, contrary to previous theoretical conclusions. The composition structure that best fits the period ratios has the helium mass fraction in the outer 10 -3 of the stellar mass (T< or =250,000 K) as 0.65, similar to a previous model for the triple-mode pulsator AC And. This enrichment can be established by a Cepheid wind and downward inverted μ gradient instability mixing in the lifetime of these low-mass classical Cepheids

  11. Dynamic Phases in Driven Vortex Lattices in Superconductors with Periodic Pinning Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, C.; Olson, C. J.; Nori, F.

    1997-03-01

    In an extensive series of simulations of driven vortices interacting with periodic pinning arrays, an extremely rich variety of novel plastic flow phases, very distinct from those observed in random arrays, are found as a function of applied driving force. We show that signatures of the transitions between these different dynamical phases appear as pronounced jumps and dips in the I-V curves, coinciding with marked changes in the microscopic structure and flow behavior of the vortex lattice. When the number of vortices is greater than the number of pinning sites, we observe up to six distinct dynamical phases, including a pinned phase, a flow of interstitial vortices between pinned vortices, a disordered flow, a 1D flow along the pinning rows, and a homogeneous flow. By varying a wide range of microscopic pinning parameters, including pinning strength, size, density, and degree of ordering, as well as varying temperature and commensurability, we obtain a series of dynamic phase diagrams. nori>A short video will also be presented to highlight these different dynamic phases.

  12. Nonequilibriun Dynamic Phases of Driven Vortex Lattices in Superconductors with Periodic Pinning Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, C.; Olson, C. J.; Nori, F.

    1998-03-01

    We present results from extensive simulations of driven vortex lattices interacting with periodic pinning arrays. Changing an applied driving force produces an exceptionally rich variety of distinct dynamic phases which include over a dozen well defined plastic flow phases. Transitions between different dynamical phases are marked by sharp jumps in the V(I) curves that coincide with distinct changes in the vortex trajectories and vortex lattice order. A series of dynamical phase diagrams are presented which outline the onset of the different dynamical phases (C. Reichhardt, C.J. Olson, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78), 2648 (1997); and to be published. Videos are avaliable at http://www-personal.engin.umich.edu/ñori/. Using force balance arguments, several of the phase boundaries can be derived analyticaly.

  13. Vortex lattice in effective type-I superconducting films with periodic arrays of submicron holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdiyorov, G.R.; Milosevic, M.V.; Peeters, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    The vortex matter and related phenomena in superconducting films with periodic arrays of microholes (antidots) are studied within the nonlinear Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory. By varying the GL parameter κ, the vortex-vortex interaction is fine tuned, from repulsive to attractive behavior. This interaction is of crucial importance for equilibrium vortex structures, the saturation number of the antidots, and the related quantities, such as critical current. Due to vortex attraction in effectively type-I samples, the giant-vortex state becomes energetically favorable (contrary to the type-II behavior). For the same reason, the number of vortices which can be captured by antidots, increases with decreasing κ. As a result, for given magnetic field, the critical current is larger for effectively type-I superconductors than in conventional type-II cases

  14. Wave Propagation in a coaxial waveguide with a periodic slot array

    CERN Document Server

    Alesini, D; Garganese, C; Migliorati, M; Palumbo, L

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present the numerical and experimental study of the electromagnetic elds that propagate in a coaxial waveguide having periodic slots in the inner conductor. The aim of the work is to estimate the e ects of the holes on the phase velocity of the eld propagating in structures like the LHC liner, and to which extent these elds can be considered synchronous with the generating beam. To this end we have performed a numerical analysis by using the MAFIA simulation code, and have obtained, for a given geometry, the ampli- tude of the slowing down of the phase velocity due to the presence of the slot array. We have then performed a set of measurements of this e ect on a simple coaxial resonator, measuring the shift of the resonance frequencies produced by the slots. This shift, related to the phase velocity, has been compared with the results obtained with the simulations.

  15. Periodic molybdenum disc array for light trapping in amorphous silicon layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jiwei; Deng, Changkai [International Center of Quantum and Molecular Structures, Materials Genome Institute, and Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai, 200444 China (China); Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 99 Haike Road, Shanghai, 201210 China (China); Yang, Kang; Chen, Haiyan, E-mail: chenhy@sari.ac.cn; Li, Dongdong; Chen, Xiaoyuan [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 99 Haike Road, Shanghai, 201210 China (China); Ren, Wei, E-mail: renwei@shu.edu.cn [International Center of Quantum and Molecular Structures, Materials Genome Institute, and Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai, 200444 China (China)

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate the light trapping effect in amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer by inserting a layer of periodic molybdenum disc array (MDA) between the a-Si:H layer and the quartz substrate, which forms a three-layer structure of Si/MDA/SiO{sub 2}. The MDA layer was fabricated by a new cost-effective method based on nano-imprint technology. Further light absorption enhancement was realized through altering the topography of MDA by annealing it at 700°C. The mechanism of light absorption enhancement in a-Si:H interfaced with MDA was analyzed, and the electric field distribution and light absorption curve of the different layers in the Si/MDA structure under light illumination of different wavelengths were simulated by employing numerical finite difference time domain (FDTD) solutions.

  16. The double quasar 0957+561: examination of the gravitational lens hypothesis using the very large array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, P E; Roberts, D H; Burke, B F

    1980-05-02

    A full 12-hour synthesis at 6-centimeter wavelength with the Very Large Array confirms the major features previously reported for the double quasar 0957+561. In addition, the existence of radio jets apparently associated with both quasars is demonstrated. Gravitational lens models are now favored on the basis of recent optical observations, and the radio jets place severe constraints on such models. Further radio observations of the double quasar are needed to establish the expected relative time delay in variations between the images.

  17. The transition mechanism from a symmetric single period discharge to a period-doubling discharge in atmospheric helium dielectric-barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dingzong; Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Dezhen

    2013-01-01

    Period-doubling and chaos phenomenon have been frequently observed in atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier discharges. However, how a normal single period discharge bifurcates into period-doubling state is still unclear. In this paper, by changing the driving frequency, we study numerically the transition mechanisms from a normal single period discharge to a period-doubling state using a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model. The results show that before a discharge bifurcates into a period-doubling state, it first deviates from its normal operation and transforms into an asymmetric single period discharge mode. Then the weaker discharge in this asymmetric discharge will be enhanced gradually with increasing of the frequency until it makes the subsequent discharge weaken and results in the discharge entering a period-doubling state. In the whole transition process, the spatial distribution of the charged particle density and the electric field plays a definitive role. The conclusions are further confirmed by changing the gap width and the amplitude of the applied voltage

  18. The transition mechanism from a symmetric single period discharge to a period-doubling discharge in atmospheric helium dielectric-barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dingzong; Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Period-doubling and chaos phenomenon have been frequently observed in atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier discharges. However, how a normal single period discharge bifurcates into period-doubling state is still unclear. In this paper, by changing the driving frequency, we study numerically the transition mechanisms from a normal single period discharge to a period-doubling state using a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model. The results show that before a discharge bifurcates into a period-doubling state, it first deviates from its normal operation and transforms into an asymmetric single period discharge mode. Then the weaker discharge in this asymmetric discharge will be enhanced gradually with increasing of the frequency until it makes the subsequent discharge weaken and results in the discharge entering a period-doubling state. In the whole transition process, the spatial distribution of the charged particle density and the electric field plays a definitive role. The conclusions are further confirmed by changing the gap width and the amplitude of the applied voltage.

  19. Study of periodically excited bubbly jets by PIV and double optical sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milenkovic, Rade [Laboratorium fuer Thermalhydraulics PSI, Paul Scherrer Institut, OVGA 415, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail: rade.milenkovic@psi.ch; Sigg, Beat [Laboratorium fuer Kerntechnik, ETHZ, ETH Zentrum CLT, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Yadigaroglu, George [Laboratorium fuer Kerntechnik, ETHZ, ETH Zentrum CLT, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-12-15

    Interactions between large coherent structures and bubbles in two-phase flow can be systematically observed in a periodically excited bubbly jet. Controlled excitation at fixed frequency causes large eddy structures to develop at regular intervals. Thus, interactions between large vortices and bubbles can be studied with PIV and double optical sensors (DOS) using phase-averaging techniques. A number of results on the time and space dependence of velocities and void fractions are presented revealing physical interactions between the liquid flow field and bubble movement as well as feedbacks from bubble agglomeration on the development of flow structures. A clear indication of bubble trapping inside the vortex ring is the generation of a bubble ring that travels with the same velocity as the vortex ring. The DOS results indicate clustering of the bubbles in coherent vortex structures, with a periodic variation of void fraction during the excitation period.

  20. Study of periodically excited bubbly jets by PIV and double optical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milenkovic, Rade; Sigg, Beat; Yadigaroglu, George

    2005-01-01

    Interactions between large coherent structures and bubbles in two-phase flow can be systematically observed in a periodically excited bubbly jet. Controlled excitation at fixed frequency causes large eddy structures to develop at regular intervals. Thus, interactions between large vortices and bubbles can be studied with PIV and double optical sensors (DOS) using phase-averaging techniques. A number of results on the time and space dependence of velocities and void fractions are presented revealing physical interactions between the liquid flow field and bubble movement as well as feedbacks from bubble agglomeration on the development of flow structures. A clear indication of bubble trapping inside the vortex ring is the generation of a bubble ring that travels with the same velocity as the vortex ring. The DOS results indicate clustering of the bubbles in coherent vortex structures, with a periodic variation of void fraction during the excitation period

  1. Crystalline and quasi-crystalline patterns in X-Ray diffraction from periodic arrays of quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darhuber, A.A.; Holy, V.; Bauer, G.; Wang, P.D.; Song, Y.P.; Sotomayor Torres, C.M.; Holland, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    The structural properties of a square periodic array of quantum dots of a GaAs/AlAs superlattice were studied by x-ray diffractometry. If the azimuthal direction of the primary beam can be expressed by integer Miller indices, the profile is perfectly periodic. However, if its azimuthal orientation

  2. Steady state conductance in a double quantum dot array: the nonequilibrium equation-of-motion Green function approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Tal J; Rabani, Eran

    2013-04-28

    We study steady state transport through a double quantum dot array using the equation-of-motion approach to the nonequilibrium Green functions formalism. This popular technique relies on uncontrolled approximations to obtain a closure for a hierarchy of equations; however, its accuracy is questioned. We focus on 4 different closures, 2 of which were previously proposed in the context of the single quantum dot system (Anderson impurity model) and were extended to the double quantum dot array, and develop 2 new closures. Results for the differential conductance are compared to those attained by a master equation approach known to be accurate for weak system-leads couplings and high temperatures. While all 4 closures provide an accurate description of the Coulomb blockade and other transport properties in the single quantum dot case, they differ in the case of the double quantum dot array, where only one of the developed closures provides satisfactory results. This is rationalized by comparing the poles of the Green functions to the exact many-particle energy differences for the isolate system. Our analysis provides means to extend the equation-of-motion technique to more elaborate models of large bridge systems with strong electronic interactions.

  3. Period doubling of azimuthal oscillations on a non-neutral magnetized electron column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The low-frequency azimuthal oscillations on a non-neutral magnetized electron column of very low density are investigated. A perturbation analysis of the slow mode of the rigid rotator equilibrium is developed to illustrate the nature of large-amplitude fundamental-mode oscillations. The results of this theoretical analysis show two important characteristics: firstly, as the perturbation amplitude is increased the wave form ceases to be purely sinusoidal and shows period doubling. Secondly, above a certain threshold, all harmonics of the wave grow and the wave breaks. The results of the former are compared with a simple electron beam experiment and are found to be in good qualitative agreement. (author)

  4. Controlling the optical properties of gold nanoparticles periodic arrays by changing their topologic shapes and substrate properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ting; Yu Li; Lu Zhixin; Song Gang; Liu Bin

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the influence of extinction of gold nanoparticles periodic arrays by varying the substrate properties and the shapes of nanoparticles with the full vectorial three dimensional finite difference time domain method. Substrates of different thicknesses and dielectric constants and ten topologically different gold nanostructures including diamond, cycle ring, rectangle ring, pentagon ring, five-pointed star, flower shape, L, Y, T and X shapes are considered. The results show that substrate properties have a significant impact on the extinction spectrum due to coupling of the modes excited in substrates and the one excited by localized surface plasmon. The extinction spectra are changed with the different shapes of nanoparticles periodic array. However, with similar structure particles periodic arrays, the extinction spectra appear similar in the visible regime. Therefore we can find an eligible shape and substrate which can be used in integrated devises.

  5. Resonance spiking by periodic loss in the double-sided liquid cooling disk oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Rongzhi; She, Jiangbo; Li, Dongdong; Li, Fuli; Peng, Bo

    2017-03-01

    A double-sided liquid cooling Nd:YAG disk oscillator working at a pump repetition rate of 20 Hz is demonstrated. The output energy of 376 mJ is realized, corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 12.8% and the slope efficiency of 14%. The pump pulse width is 300 µs and the laser pulse width is 260 µs. Instead of being a damped signal, the output of laser comprises undamped spikes. A periodic intra-cavity loss was found by numerical analysis, which has a frequency component near the eigen frequency of the relaxation oscillation. Resonance effect will induce amplified spikes even though the loss fluctuates in a small range. The Shark-Hartmann sensor was used to investigate the wavefront aberration induced by turbulent flow and temperature gradient. According to the wavefront and fluid mechanics analysis, it is considered that the periodic intra-cavity loss can be attributed to turbulent flow and temperature gradient.

  6. Resonantly-enhanced transmission through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures in heavily-doped conducting polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tatsunosuke; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Agrawal, Amit; Nahata, Ajay; Menon, Reghu

    2006-02-01

    We observed resonantly-enhanced terahertz transmission through two-dimensional (2D) periodic arrays of subwavelength apertures with various periodicities fabricated on metallic organic conducting polymer films of polypyrrole heavily doped with PF6 molecules [PPy(PF6)]. The "anomalous transmission" spectra are in good agreement with a model involving surface plasmon polariton excitations on the film surfaces. We also found that the `anomalous transmission' peaks are broader in the exotic metallic PPy (PF6) films compared to those formed in 2D aperture array in regular metallic films such as silver, showing that the surface plasmon polaritons on the PPy (PF6) film surfaces have higher attenuation.

  7. Periodic Arrays of Phosphorene Nanopores as Antidot Lattices with Tunable Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupo, Andrew; Masih Das, Paul; Chien, Chen-Chi; Danda, Gopinath; Kharche, Neerav; Tristant, Damien; Drndić, Marija; Meunier, Vincent

    2017-07-25

    A tunable band gap in phosphorene extends its applicability in nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we propose to tune the band gap in phosphorene by patterning antidot lattices, which are periodic arrays of holes or nanopores etched in the material, and by exploiting quantum confinement in the corresponding nanoconstrictions. We fabricated antidot lattices with radii down to 13 nm in few-layer black phosphorus flakes protected by an oxide layer and observed suppression of the in-plane phonon modes relative to the unmodified material via Raman spectroscopy. In contrast to graphene antidots, the Raman peak positions in few-layer BP antidots are unchanged, in agreement with predicted power spectra. We also use DFT calculations to predict the electronic properties of phosphorene antidot lattices and observe a band gap scaling consistent with quantum confinement effects. Deviations are attributed primarily to self-passivating edge morphologies, where each phosphorus atom has the same number of bonds per atom as the pristine material so that no dopants can saturate dangling bonds. Quantum confinement is stronger for the zigzag edge nanoconstrictions between the holes as compared to those with armchair edges, resulting in a roughly bimodal band gap distribution. Interestingly, in two of the antidot structures an unreported self-passivating reconstruction of the zigzag edge endows the systems with a metallic component. The experimental demonstration of antidots and the theoretical results provide motivation to further scale down nanofabrication of antidots in the few-nanometer size regime, where quantum confinement is particularly important.

  8. Application of Recurrence Analysis to the period doubling cascade of a confined buoyant flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeli, D; Corticelli, M A; Fichera, A; Pagano, A

    2017-01-01

    Recurrence Analysis (RA) is a promising and flexible tool to identify the behaviour of nonlinear dynamical systems. The potentialities of such a technique are explored in the present work, for the study of transitions to chaos of buoyant flow in enclosures. The case of a hot cylindrical source centred in a square enclosure, is considered here, for which an extensive database of results has been collected in recent years. For a specific value of the system aspect ratio, a sequence of period doublings has been identified, leading to the onset of chaos. RA is applied here to analyse the different flow regimes along the route to chaos. The qualitative visual identification of patterns and the statistics given by the quantitative analysis suggest that this kind of tool is well suited to the study of transitional flows in thermo-fluid dynamics. (paper)

  9. Spatial interaction creates period-doubling bifurcation and chaos of urbanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanguang

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a new way of looking at complicated dynamics of simple mathematical models. The complicated behavior of simple equations is one of the headstreams of chaos theory. However, a recent study based on dynamical equations of urbanization shows that there are still some undiscovered secrets behind the simple mathematical models such as logistic equation. The rural-urban interaction model can also display varied kinds of complicated dynamics, including period-doubling bifurcation and chaos. The two-dimension map of urbanization presents the same dynamics as that from the one-dimension logistic map. In theory, the logistic equation can be derived from the two-population interaction model. This seems to suggest that the complicated behavior of simple models results from interaction rather than pure intrinsic randomicity. In light of this idea, the classical predator-prey interaction model can be revised to explain the complex dynamics of logistic equation in physical and social sciences.

  10. Mechanism for boundary crises in quasiperiodically forced period-doubling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Woochang

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the mechanism for boundary crises in the quasiperiodically forced logistic map which is a representative model for quasiperiodically forced period-doubling systems. For small quasiperiodic forcing ε, a chaotic attractor disappears suddenly via a 'standard' boundary crisis when it collides with the smooth unstable torus. However, when passing a threshold value of ε, a basin boundary metamorphosis occurs, and then the smooth unstable torus is no longer accessible from the interior of the basin of the attractor. For this case, using the rational approximations to the quasiperiodic forcing, it is shown that a nonchaotic attractor (smooth torus or strange nonchaotic attractor) as well as a chaotic attractor is destroyed abruptly through a new type of boundary crisis when it collides with an invariant 'ring-shaped' unstable set which has no counterpart in the unforced case

  11. Mechanism for boundary crises in quasiperiodically forced period-doubling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Yoon [Department of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, Kangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: sykim@kangwon.ac.kr; Lim, Woochang [Department of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, Kangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: wclim@kwnu.kangwon.ac.kr

    2005-01-10

    We investigate the mechanism for boundary crises in the quasiperiodically forced logistic map which is a representative model for quasiperiodically forced period-doubling systems. For small quasiperiodic forcing {epsilon}, a chaotic attractor disappears suddenly via a 'standard' boundary crisis when it collides with the smooth unstable torus. However, when passing a threshold value of {epsilon}, a basin boundary metamorphosis occurs, and then the smooth unstable torus is no longer accessible from the interior of the basin of the attractor. For this case, using the rational approximations to the quasiperiodic forcing, it is shown that a nonchaotic attractor (smooth torus or strange nonchaotic attractor) as well as a chaotic attractor is destroyed abruptly through a new type of boundary crisis when it collides with an invariant 'ring-shaped' unstable set which has no counterpart in the unforced case.

  12. Periodic array-based substrates for surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G.; Popp, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1980s, the first reports of surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy (SEIRS) surfaced. Probably due to signal-enhancement factors of only 101 to 103, which are modest compared to those of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), SEIRS did not reach the same significance up to date. However, taking the compared to Raman scattering much larger cross-sections of infrared absorptions and the enhancement factors together, SEIRS reaches about the same sensitivity for molecular species on a surface in terms of the cross-sections as SERS and, due to the complementary nature of both techniques, can valuably augment information gained by SERS. For the first 20 years since its discovery, SEIRS relied completely on metal island films, fabricated by either vapor or electrochemical deposition. The resulting films showed a strong variance concerning their structure, which was essentially random. Therefore, the increase in the corresponding signal-enhancement factors of these structures stagnated in the last years. In the very same years, however, the development of periodic array-based substrates helped SEIRS to gather momentum. This development was supported by technological progress concerning electromagnetic field solvers, which help to understand plasmonic properties and allow targeted design. In addition, the strong progress concerning modern fabrication methods allowed to implement these designs into practice. The aim of this contribution is to critically review the development of these engineered surfaces for SEIRS, to compare the different approaches with regard to their performance where possible, and report further gain of knowledge around and in relation to these structures.

  13. Optimizing Power Density and Efficiency of a Double-Halbach Array Permanent-Magnet Ironless Axial-Flux Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating hybrid electric and turboelectric propulsion concepts for future aircraft to reduce fuel burn, emissions, and noise. Systems studies show that the weight and efficiency of the electric system components need to be improved for this concept to be feasible. This effort aims to identify design parameters that affect power density and efficiency for a double-Halbach array permanent-magnet ironless axial flux motor configuration. These parameters include both geometrical and higher-order parameters, including pole count, rotor speed, current density, and geometries of the magnets, windings, and air gap.

  14. Large-area 2D periodic crystalline silicon nanodome arrays on nanoimprinted glass exhibiting photonic band structure effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, C; Lockau, D; Sontheimer, T; Rech, B; Schubert-Bischoff, P; Rudigier-Voigt, E; Bockmeyer, M; Schmidt, F

    2012-01-01

    Two-dimensional silicon nanodome arrays are prepared on large areas up to 50 cm 2 exhibiting photonic band structure effects in the near-infrared and visible wavelength region by downscaling a recently developed fabrication method based on nanoimprint-patterned glass, high-rate electron-beam evaporation of silicon, self-organized solid phase crystallization and wet-chemical etching. The silicon nanodomes, arranged in square lattice geometry with 300 nm lattice constant, are optically characterized by angular resolved reflection measurements, allowing the partial determination of the photonic band structure. This experimentally determined band structure agrees well with the outcome of three-dimensional optical finite-element simulations. A 16% photonic bandgap is predicted for an optimized geometry of the silicon nanodome arrays. By variation of the duration of the selective etching step, the geometry as well as the optical properties of the periodic silicon nanodome arrays can be controlled systematically. (paper)

  15. Transparent, double-sided, ITO-free, flexible dye-sensitized solar cells based on metal wire/ZnO nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Zhao, Qing; Li, Heng; Yu, Dapeng [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics and Electron Microscopy Laboratory, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wu, Hongwei; Zou, Dechun [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Physics of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-07-10

    Transparent, double-sided, flexible, ITO-free dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are fabricated in a simple, facile, and controllable way. Highly ordered, high-crystal-quality, high-density ZnO nanowire arrays are radially grown on stainless steel, Au, Ag, and Cu microwires, which serve as working electrodes. Pt wires serve as the counter electrodes. Two metal wires are encased in electrolyte between two poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films (or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films) to render the device both flexible and highly transparent. The effect of the dye thickness on the photovoltaic performance of the DSSCs as a function of dye-loading time is investigated systematically. Shorter dye-loading times lead to thinner dye layers and better device performance. A dye-loading time of 20 min results in the best device performance. An oxidation treatment of the metal wires is developed effectively to avoid the galvanic-battery effect found in the experiment, which is crucial for real applications of double-metal-wire DSSC configurations. The device shows very good transparency and can increase sunlight use efficiency through two-sided illumination. The double-wire DSSCs remain stable for a long period of time and can be bent at large angles, up to 107 , reversibly, without any loss of performance. The double-wire-PET, planar solar-cell configuration can be used as window stickers and can be readily realized for large-area-weave roll-to-roll processing. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Lamb wave band gaps in one-dimensional radial phononic crystal plates with periodic double-sided corrugations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yinggang [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); School of Transportation, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen, Tianning [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Wang, Xiaopeng, E-mail: xpwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China); Li, Suobin [School of Mechanical Engineering and State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China)

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present the theoretical investigation of Lamb wave propagation in one-dimensional radial phononic crystal (RPC) plates with periodic double-sided corrugations. The dispersion relations, the power transmission spectra, and the displacement fields of the eigenmodes are studied by using the finite element method based on two-dimensional axial symmetry models in cylindrical coordinates. Numerical results show that the proposed RPC plates with periodic double-sided corrugations can yield several band gaps with a variable bandwidth for Lamb waves. The formation mechanism of band gaps in the double-sided RPC plates is attributed to the coupling between the Lamb modes and the in-phase and out-phases resonant eigenmodes of the double-sided corrugations. We investigate the evolution of band gaps in the double-sided RPC plates with the corrugation heights on both sides arranged from an asymmetrical distribution to a symmetrical distribution gradually. Significantly, with the introduction of symmetric double-sided corrugations, the antisymmetric Lamb mode is suppressed by the in-phase resonant eigenmodes of the double-sided corrugations, resulting in the disappearance of the lowest band gap. Furthermore, the effects of the geometrical parameters on the band gaps are further explored numerically.

  17. Array measurements of long-period microtremors in southwestern Kanto plain, Japan; Kanto heiya nanseibu ni okeru yaya choshuki bido no array kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, H; Sato, H; Kurita, K; Seo, K [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    Array measurements of long-period microtremors were carried out in the southwestern part of Kanto Plain, Japan, to obtain S-wave velocity structures in sedimentary beds as fundamental data for estimating long-term strong ground motion in Kanto Plain. The major component in a long-term seismic motion observed in Kanto Plain is the surface wave. According to the result of observations on Love wave by Kinoshita et al, the wavelengths of the surface waves of a long-term cycle are 10 to 20 km. Therefore, if an array observation is to be performed at intervals of about two wavelengths, about 40 points will be required to cover the entire Kanto plain. The final phase velocity is decided by averaging phase velocities of each cycle obtained for each data set. The acquired phase velocities are analyzed inversely by using a genetic algorithm to derive the S-wave velocities at each observation point. The present microtremor array observation has used 13 points in the southwestern part of Kanto Plain to acquire S-wave velocity (Vs) distribution in sedimentary beds. It was made clear that beds with Vs of 1.0 km/s and Vs of 1.5 km/s exist in this area between the surface bed and the seismic foundation with Vs of about 3 km/s. 10 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Period-doubling cascades and strange attractors in the triple-well Φ6-Van der Pol oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jun; Zhang Rongbo; Pan Weizhen; Schimansky-Geier, L

    2008-01-01

    Duffing-Van der Pol equation with the fifth nonlinear-restoring force is investigated. The bifurcation structure and chaotic motion under the periodic perturbation are obtained by numerical simulations. Numerical simulations, including bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents, phase portraits and Poincare maps, exhibit some new complex dynamical behaviors of the system. Different routes to chaos, such as period doubling and quasi-periodic routes, and various kinds of strange attractors are also demonstrated

  19. Preparations, Properties, and Applications of Periodic Nano Arrays using Anodized Aluminum Oxide and Di-block Copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Kunbae

    2011-12-01

    Self-ordered arrangements observed in various materials systems such as anodic aluminum oxide, polystyrene nanoparticles, and block copolymer are of great interest in terms of providing new opportunities in nanofabrication field where lithographic techniques are broadly used in general. Investigations on self-assembled nano arrays to understand how to obtain periodic nano arrays in an efficient yet inexpensive way, and how to realize advanced material and device systems thereof, can lead to significant impacts on science and technology for many forefront device applications. In this thesis, various aspects of periodic nano-arrays have been discussed including novel preparations, properties and applications of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) and PS-b-P4VP (S4VP) di-block copolymer self-assembly. First, long-range ordered AAO arrays have been demonstrated. Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) process allowed a faithful pattern transfer of the imprint mold pattern onto Al thin film, and interesting self-healing and pattern tripling phenomena were observed, which could be applicable towards fabrication of the NIL master mold having highly dense pattern over large area, useful for fabrication of a large-area substrate for predictable positioning of arrayed devices. Second, S4VP diblock copolymer self-assembly and S4VP directed AAO self-assembly have been demonstrated in the Al thin film on Si substrate. Such a novel combination of two dissimilar self-assembly techniques demonstrated a potential as a versatile tool for nanopatterning formation on a Si substrate, capable of being integrated into Si process technology. As exemplary applications, vertically aligned Ni nanowires have been synthesized into an S4VP-guided AAO membrane on a Si substrate in addition to anti-dot structured [Co/Pd]n magnetic multilayer using S4VP self assembly. Third, a highly hexagonally ordered, vertically parallel aluminum oxide nanotube array was successfully fabricated via hard anodization technique

  20. Comparative study of optical properties of the one-dimensional multilayer Period-Doubling and Thue-Morse quasi-periodic photonic crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Bouazzi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The last decades have witnessed the growing interest in the use of photonic crystal as a new material that can be used to control electromagnetic wave. Actually, not only the periodic structures but also the quasi-periodic systems have become significant structures of photonic crystals. This work deals with optical properties of dielectric Thue-Morse multilayer and Period-Doubling multilayer. We use the so-called Transfer Matrix Method (TMM to determine the transmission spectra of the structures. Based on the representation of the transmittance spectra in the visible range a comparative analysis depending on the iteration number, number of layers and incidence angle is presented.

  1. Denaturation strategies for detection of double stranded PCR products on GMR magnetic biosensor array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Lee, Jung-Rok; Guldberg, Per

    2017-01-01

    Microarrays and other surface-based nucleic acid detection schemes rely on the hybridization of the target to surface-bound detection probes. We present the first comparison of two strategies to detect DNA using a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensor platform starting from an initially double...

  2. Miniaturized dual-band antenna array with double-negative (DNG) metamaterial for wireless applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqadami, Abdulrahman Shueai Mohsen; Jamlos, Mohd Faizal; Soh, Ping Jack; Rahim, Sharul Kamal Abdul; Vandenbosch, Guy A. E.; Narbudowicz, Adam

    2017-01-01

    A miniaturized dual-band antenna array using a negative index metamaterial is presented for WiMAX, LTE, and WLAN applications. This left-handed metamaterial plane is located behind the antenna array, and its unit cell is a combination of split-ring resonator, square electric ring resonator, and rectangular electrical coupled resonator. This enables the achievement of a metamaterial structure exhibiting both negative permittivity and permeability, which results in antenna size miniaturization, efficiency, and gain enhancement. Moreover, the proposed metamaterial antenna has realized dual-band operating frequencies compared to a single frequency for normal antenna. The measured reflection coefficient (S11) shows a 50.25% bandwidth in the lower band (from 2.119 to 3.058 GHz) and 4.27% in the upper band (from 5.058 to 5.276 GHz). Radiation efficiency obtained in the lower and upper band are >95 and 80%, respectively.

  3. Add-drop double bus microresonator array local oscillators for sharp multiple Fano resonance engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahua; Qu, Ye; Wu, Ying

    2018-03-01

    Asymmetric resonances are currently the subject of considerable research efforts in photonic nanostructures. Here we propose a feasible method to achieve multiple Fano resonances and their control in an optical compound system consisting of an array of on-chip microresonators without mutual coupling and two parallel fiber waveguides side-coupled to the microresonator array by means of a local oscillator. We derive analytical and transparent expressions for the power transmission function summing over the two light transporting paths within the framework of quantum optics. It is clearly shown that introducing the local oscillator as an additional light propagating path plays an important role in the formation of narrow and multiple Fano resonance lineshapes. The power transmission spectrum through the combination of both the microresonator array and the local oscillator is very sensitive to the system parameters, for example, the intrinsic decay rate of the resonator, the phase shift factor of the local oscillator, the transmission coefficient of the fiber beam splitter, and the total number of the microresonators. Through detailed analysis, we identify the optimums for generating Fano resonance lineshapes. Also, we assess the experimental feasibility of the scheme using currently available technology. The proposed method is relatively straightforward as it requires only one local oscillator as one interferometer arm and it is mostly fiber-based. We believe that our work will help to understand and improve multiple Fano resonance engineering.

  4. Periodic Application of Concurrent Error Detection in Processor Array Architectures. PhD. Thesis -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Paul Peichuan

    1993-01-01

    Processor arrays can provide an attractive architecture for some applications. Featuring modularity, regular interconnection and high parallelism, such arrays are well-suited for VLSI/WSI implementations, and applications with high computational requirements, such as real-time signal processing. Preserving the integrity of results can be of paramount importance for certain applications. In these cases, fault tolerance should be used to ensure reliable delivery of a system's service. One aspect of fault tolerance is the detection of errors caused by faults. Concurrent error detection (CED) techniques offer the advantage that transient and intermittent faults may be detected with greater probability than with off-line diagnostic tests. Applying time-redundant CED techniques can reduce hardware redundancy costs. However, most time-redundant CED techniques degrade a system's performance.

  5. Waveform correlation and coherence of short-period seismic noise within Gauribidanur array with implications for event detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadauria, Y.S.; Arora, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    In continuation with our effort to model the short-period micro seismic noise at the seismic array at Gauribidanur (GBA), we have examined in detail time-correlation and spectral coherence of the noise field within the array space. This has implications of maximum possible improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) relevant to event detection. The basis of this study is about a hundred representative wide-band noise samples collected from GBA throughout the year 1992. Both time-structured correlation as well as coherence of the noise waveforms are found to be practically independent of the inter element distances within the array, and they exhibit strong temporal and spectral stability. It turns out that the noise is largely incoherent at frequencies ranging upwards from 2 Hz; the coherency coefficient tends to increase in the lower frequency range attaining a maximum of 0.6 close to 0.5 Hz. While the maximum absolute cross-correlation also diminishes with increasing frequency, the zero-lag cross-correlation is found to be insensitive to frequency filtering regardless of the pass band. An extremely small value of -0.01 of the zero-lag correlation and a comparatively higher year-round average estimate at 0.15 of the maximum absolute time-lagged correlation yields an SNR improvement varying between a probable high of 4.1 and a low of 2.3 for the full 20-element array. 19 refs., 6 figs

  6. [Spectral analysis of fiber bragg grating modulated by double long period grating and its application in smart structure monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ji-Yun; Liang, Da-Kai; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Zhu

    2009-12-01

    Spectrum of fiber bragg grating (FBG) sensor modulated by double long period grating (LPFG) is proposed in the paper. Double LPFG consists of two LPFGS whose center wavelengths are the same and reflection spectrum of FBG sensor is located in linear range of double LPFG transmission spectrum. Based on spectral analysis of FBG and double LPFG, reflection spectrum of FBG modulated by double LPFG is obtained and studied by use of band-hider filter characteristics for double LPFG. An FBG sensor is attached on the surface of thin steel beam, which is strained by bending, and the center wavelength of FBG sensor will shift. The spectral peak of FBG sensor modulated by double LPFG is changed correspondingly, and the spectral change will lead to variation in exit light intensity from double LPFG. Experiment demonstrates that the relation of filtering light intensity from double LPFG monitored by optical power meter to center wavelength change of FBG sensor is linear and the minimum strain of material (steel beam) detected by the modulation and demodulation system is 1.05 microepsilon. This solution is used in impact monitoring of optical fibre smart structure, and FBG sensor is applied for impulse response signal monitoring induced by low-velocity impact, when impact pendulum is loaded to carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFP). The acquired impact response signal and fast Fourier transform of the signal detected by FBG sensor agree with the measurement results of eddy current displacement meter attached to the FBG sensor. From the results, the present method using FBG sensor is found to be effective for monitoring the impact. The research provides a practical reference in dynamic monitoring of optical fiber smart structure field.

  7. Improvements in 130Te double beta decay search with cryogenic TeO2 array detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrello, A.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Caspani, P.; Cremonesi, O.; Fiorini, E.; Giuliani, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Zanotti, L.

    1996-01-01

    Single crystal TeO 2 bolometers have been used since 5 years ago to search for neutrinoless DBD of 130 Te. During the last year, our group has been studying and preparing the first array of 4 crystals, 340 g each, opening this technique to new frontiers in rare events' physics. The results and perspectives of this second generation cryogenic detectors are here reported and discussed, with particular emphasis on the peculiarities which make them feasible for a consistent upgrading of our previous result in DBD search. (orig.)

  8. Double-Arched LD Array Stagger Pumped Electro-Optic Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser without Water Cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin-Yu, Chen; Guang-Yong, Jin; Yong-Ji, Yu; Chao, Wang; Da-Wei, Hao; Yi-Bo, Wang

    2010-01-01

    We report an experimental study on a double-arched LD array stagger pumped electro-optic Q-switched Nd:YAG laser without water cooling by using a convex-concave compensate resonator. Perfect matching of the gain field inside the rod and the fundamental mode of the cavity is made by this structure. When the repetition rate is 20 Hz, A maximum output energy at 1064 nm wavelength of 176 mJ (M 2 = 1.55) and 9.6 ns FWHM pulse width in fundamental mode Q-switch operation is obtained with LD injection current 120 A. The optical-optical conversion efficiency is 14.7%, the divergence angle of the output beam is about 1.8 mrad. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  9. Hierarchical Co-based Porous Layered Double Hydroxide Arrays Derived via Alkali Etching for High-performance Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushrenta, Nasser; Wu, Xiaochao; Wang, Junnan; Liu, Junfeng; Sun, Xiaoming

    2015-08-01

    Hierarchical nanoarchitecture and porous structure can both provide advantages for improving the electrochemical performance in energy storage electrodes. Here we report a novel strategy to synthesize new electrode materials, hierarchical Co-based porous layered double hydroxide (PLDH) arrays derived via alkali etching from Co(OH)2@CoAl LDH nanoarrays. This structure not only has the benefits of hierarchical nanoarrays including short ion diffusion path and good charge transport, but also possesses a large contact surface area owing to its porous structure which lead to a high specific capacitance (23.75 F cm-2 or 1734 F g-1 at 5 mA cm-2) and excellent cycling performance (over 85% after 5000 cycles). The enhanced electrode material is a promising candidate for supercapacitors in future application.

  10. A double-blind study of the efficacy of apomorphine and its assessment in "off-periods in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laar, T.; Jansen, E.N.H.; Essink, A.W.G.; Neef, C.; Oosterloo, Sebe J.

    1993-01-01

    Five patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease with severe response fluctuations were selected for a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, concerning the clinical effects of subcutaneous apomorphine and its assessment in `off¿-periods. The study was designed as five n = 1 studies, in

  11. Broadband photocurrent enhancement and light-trapping in thin film Si solar cells with periodic Al nanoparticle arrays on the front

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenfeldt, C.; Villesen, T. F.; Tetu, A.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic resonances in metal nanoparticles are considered candidates for improved thin film Si photovoltaics. In periodic arrays the influence of collective modes can enhance the resonant properties of such arrays. We have investigated the use of periodic arrays of Al nanoparticles placed...... on the front of a thin film Si test solar cell. It is demonstrated that the resonances from the Al nanoparticle array cause a broadband photocurrent enhancement ranging from the ultraviolet to the infrared with respect to a reference cell. From the experimental results as well as from numerical simulations...

  12. RF plasma parameter determination by a Langmuir multipoint double probe array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Olmedo, I A; López-Callejas, R; De la Piedad-Beneitez, A; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Barocio, S R; Muñoz-Castro, A E; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G

    2012-01-01

    A multipoint double Langmuir (MDL) probe system, which is exempt from interference, has been designed and assembled to be applied to an RF plasma. The system provides the measurement of fundamental plasma parameters such as density, temperature, plasma potential, etc. on the basis of the Bohm Approximation Theory and the Orbital Movement Limit. Thus, one pair of the MDL system is selected so as to consider the right plasma parameters within the prevailing pressure-power intervals. Both the hardware and software of the system have been applied to the modification of material properties by means of the PIII process.

  13. End-specific strategies of attachment of long double stranded DNA onto gold-coated nanofiber arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peckys, Diana B; De Jonge, Niels; Simpson, Michael L; McKnight, Timothy E

    2008-01-01

    We report the effective and site-specific binding of long double stranded (ds)DNA to high aspect ratio carbon nanofiber arrays. The carbon nanofibers were first coated with a thin gold layer to provide anchorage for two controllable binding methods. One method was based on the direct binding of thiol end-labeled dsDNA. The second and enhanced method used amine end-labeled dsDNA bound with crosslinkers to a carboxyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer. The bound dsDNA was first visualized with a fluorescent, dsDNA-intercalating dye. The specific binding onto the carbon nanofiber was verified by a high resolution detection method using scanning electron microscopy in combination with the binding of neutravidin-coated fluorescent microspheres to the immobilized and biotinylated dsDNA. Functional activity of thiol end-labeled dsDNA on gold-coated nanofiber arrays was verified with a transcriptional assay, whereby Chinese hamster lung cells (V79) were impaled upon the DNA-modified nanofibers and scored for transgene expression of the tethered template. Thiol end-labeled dsDNA demonstrated significantly higher expression levels than nanofibers prepared with control dsDNA that lacked a gold-binding end-label. Employing these site-specific and robust techniques of immobilization of dsDNA onto nanodevices can be of advantage for the study of DNA/protein interactions and for gene delivery applications.

  14. Search for neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge-76 with the GERmanium Detector Array '' GERDA ''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugnera, R.

    2009-01-01

    The study of neutrinoless double beta decay (DBD) is the most powerful approach to the fundamental question if the neutrino is a Majorana particle, i.e. its own anti-particle. The observation of neutrinoless DBD would not only establish the Majorana nature of the neutrino but also represent a determination of its effective mass if the nuclear matrix element is given. So far, the most sensitive results have been obtained with Ge-76, and the group of Klapdor-Kleingrothaus has made a claim of discovery. Future experiments have to reduce radioactive backgrounds to increase the sensitivity. '' GERDA '' is a new double beta-decay experiment which is currently under construction in the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory, Italy. It is implementing a new shielding concept by operating bare Ge diodes - enriched in Ge-76 - in high purity liquid argon supplemented by a water shield. The aim of '' GERDA '' is to verify or refute the recent claim of discovery, and, in a second phase, to achieve a two orders of magnitude lower background index than recent experiments, increasing the sensitive mass and reaching exposure of 100 kg yr. It be will discuss design, physics reach, and status of construction of '' GERDA '', and present results from various R efforts including long term stability of bare Ge diodes in cryogenic liquids, material screening, cryostat performance, detector segmentation, cryogenic precision electronics, safety aspects, and Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

  15. Observations of short period seismic scattered waves by small seismic arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simini

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The most recent observations of well correlated seismic phases in the high frequency coda of local earthquakes recorded throughout the world are reported. In particular the main results, obtained on two active volcanoes, Teide and Deception, using small array are described. The ZLC (Zero Lag Cross-correlation method and polarization analysis have been applied to the data in order to distinguish the main phases in the recorded seismograms and their azimuths and apparent velocities. The results obtained at the Teide volcano demonstrate that the uncorrelated part of the seismograms may be produced by multiple scattering from randomly distributed heterogeneity, while the well correlated part, showing SH type polarization or the possible presence of Rayleigh surface waves, may be generated by single scattering by strong scatterers. At the Deception Volcano strong scattering, strongly focused in a precise direction, is deduced from the data. In that case, all the coda radiation is composed of surface waves.

  16. Enhanced Light Narrow Transmission through Cascaded Metallic Structure with Periodic Aperture Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong-Yan; Zhong Yan-Ru; Xiao Gong-Li; Zhang Zhen-Rong

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental and numerical studies on the enhanced light narrow transmission through cascaded Au/SiO x N y /Au aperture arrays by varying the refractive index and thickness of SiO x N y . It is found that the enhancement as well as narrowing of the optical transmission originates from the coupling role of surface plasmon polaritons. The results indicate that the transmission enhancement is highly dependent on the refractive index and thickness of SiO x N y . A higher transmission efficiency and narrower peak are obtained in Au/SiO 2.1 N 0.3 /Au structure with a small refractive index (1.6) and thin thickness (0.2 μm)

  17. LUCIFER: A Scintillating Bolometer Array for the Search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardani, L

    2012-01-01

    One of the main limitations in the study of 0vDBD is the presence of a radioactive background in the energy region of interest. This limit can be overcome by the technological approach of the LUCIFER project, which is based the double read-out of the heat and scintillation light produced by ZnSe scintillating bolometers. This experiment aims at a background lower than 10 −3 counts/keV/kg/y in the energy region of the 0νDBD of 82 Se. Such a low background level will provide a sensitivity on the effective neutrino mass of the order of 100 meV. In the following, the results of the recent R and D activity are discussed, the single module for the LUCIFER detector is described, and the process for the production of 82 Se-enriched ZnSe crystals is presented.

  18. Period doubling cascades of prey-predator model with nonlinear harvesting and control of over exploitation through taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. P.; Banerjee, Malay; Chandra, Peeyush

    2014-07-01

    The present study investigates a prey predator type model for conservation of ecological resources through taxation with nonlinear harvesting. The model uses the harvesting function as proposed by Agnew (1979) [1] which accounts for the handling time of the catch and also the competition between standard vessels being utilized for harvesting of resources. In this paper we consider a three dimensional dynamic effort prey-predator model with Holling type-II functional response. The conditions for uniform persistence of the model have been derived. The existence and stability of bifurcating periodic solution through Hopf bifurcation have been examined for a particular set of parameter value. Using numerical examples it is shown that the system admits periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic solutions. It is observed that the system exhibits periodic doubling route to chaos with respect to tax. Many forms of complexities such as chaotic bands (including periodic windows, period-doubling bifurcations, period-halving bifurcations and attractor crisis) and chaotic attractors have been observed. Sensitivity analysis is carried out and it is observed that the solutions are highly dependent to the initial conditions. Pontryagin's Maximum Principle has been used to obtain optimal tax policy to maximize the monetary social benefit as well as conservation of the ecosystem.

  19. Exploration of deep S-wave velocity structure using microtremor array technique to estimate long-period ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroaki; Higashi, Sadanori; Sato, Kiyotaka

    2007-01-01

    In this study, microtremor array measurements were conducted at 9 sites in the Niigata plain to explore deep S-wave velocity structures for estimation of long-period earthquake ground motion. The 1D S-wave velocity profiles in the Niigata plain are characterized by 5 layers with S-wave velocities of 0.4, 0.8, 1.5, 2.1 and 3.0 km/s, respectively. The depth to the basement layer is deeper in the Niigata port area located at the Japan sea side of the Niigata plain. In this area, the basement depth is about 4.8 km around the Seirou town and about 4.1 km around the Niigata city, respectively. These features about the basement depth in the Niigata plain are consistent with the previous surveys. In order to verify the profiles derived from microtremor array exploration, we estimate the group velocities of Love wave for four propagation paths of long-period earthquake ground motion during Niigata-ken tyuetsu earthquake by multiple filter technique, which were compared with the theoretical ones calculated from the derived profiles. As a result, it was confirmed that the group velocities from the derived profiles were in good agreement with the ones from long-period earthquake ground motion records during Niigata-ken tyuetsu earthquake. Furthermore, we applied the estimation method of design basis earthquake input for seismically isolated nuclear power facilities by using normal mode solution to estimate long-period earthquake ground motion during Niigata-ken tyuetsu earthquake. As a result, it was demonstrated that the applicability of the above method for the estimation of long-period earthquake ground motion were improved by using the derived 1D S-wave velocity profile. (author)

  20. Influence of time-periodic potentials on electronic transport in double-well structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun-Lei, Li; Yan, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the Floquet theorem, we have investigated single-electron photon-assisted tunneling in a double-well system using the transfer matrix technique. The transmission probability displays satellite peaks on both sides of the main resonance peaks and these satellite peaks originate from emission or absorption photons. The single-electron resonance tunneling can be controlled through changing the applied harmonically potential positions, such as driven potential in wells, in barriers, or in whole double-well systems. This advantage should be useful in the optimization of the parameters of a transmission device. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  1. Bearing Estimation Using Double Frequency Reassignment for a Linear Passive Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czarnecki Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the use of frequency reassignment for bearing estimation. For this task, signals derived from a linear equispaced passive array are used. The presented method makes use of Fourier transformation based spatial spectrum estimation. It is further developed through the application of two-dimensional reassignment, which leads to obtaining highly concentrated energy distributions in the joint frequency-angle domain and sharp graphical imaging. The introduced method can be used for analysing, a priori, unknown signals of broadband, nonstationary, and/or multicomponent type. For such signals, the direction of arrival is obtained based upon the marginal energy distribution in the angle domain, through searching for arguments of its maxima. In the paper, bearing estimation of three popular types of sonar pulses, including linear and hyperbolic frequency modulated pulses, as well as no frequency modulation at all, is considered. The results of numerical experiments performed in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise are presented and compared to conventional digital sum-delay beamforming performed in the time domain. The root-mean-square error and the peak-to-average power ratio, also known as the crest factor, are introduced in order to estimate, respectively, the accuracy of the methods and the sharpness of the obtained energy distributions in the angle domain.

  2. Nonequilibrium ferroelectric-ferroelastic 10 nm nanodomains: wrinkles, period-doubling, and power-law relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James F; Evans, Donald M; Katiyar, Ram S; McQuaid, Raymond G P; Gregg, J Marty

    2017-08-02

    Since the 1935 work of Landau-Lifshitz and of Kittel in 1946 all ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, and ferroelastic domains have been thought to be straight-sided with domain widths proportional to the square root of the sample thickness. We show in the present work that this is not true. We also discover period doubling domains predicted by Metaxas et al (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 217208) and modeled by Wang and Zhao (2015 Sci. Rep. 5 8887). We examine non-equilibrium ferroic domain structures in perovskite oxides with respect to folding, wrinkling, and relaxation and suggest that structures are kinetically limited and in the viscous flow regime predicted by Metaxas et al in 2008 but never observed experimentally. Comparisons are made with liquid crystals and hydrodynamic instabilities, including chevrons, and fractional power-law relaxation. As Shin et al (2016 Soft Matter 12 3502) recently emphasized: 'An understanding of how these folds initiate, propagate, and interact with each other is still lacking'. Inside each ferroelastic domain are ferroelectric 90° nano-domains with 10 nm widths and periodicity in agreement with the 10 nm theoretical minima predicted by Feigl et al (2014 Nat. Commun. 5 4677). Evidence is presented for domain-width period doubling, which is common in polymer films but unknown in ferroic domains. A discussion of the folding-to-period doubling phase transition model of Wang and Zhao is included.

  3. Spatiotemporal dynamics and plastic flow of vortices in superconductors with periodic arrays of pinning sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, C.; Groth, J.; Olson, C. J.; Field, Stuart B.; Nori, Franco

    1996-12-01

    We present simulations of flux-gradient-driven superconducting rigid vortices interacting with square and triangular arrays of columnar pinning sites in an increasing external magnetic field. These simulations allow us to quantitatively relate spatiotemporal microscopic information of the vortex lattice with typically measured macroscopic quantities, such as the magnetization M(H). The flux lattice does not become completely commensurate with the pinning sites throughout the sample at the magnetization matching peaks, but forms a commensurate lattice in a region close to the edge of the sample. Matching fields related to unstable vortex configurations do not produce peaks in M(H). We observe a variety of evolving complex flux profiles, including flat terraces or plateaus separated by winding current-carrying strings and, near the peaks in M(H), plateaus only in certain regions, which move through the sample as the field increases. Several short videos, illustrating several particular cases of the type of dynamics described here, are available at http://www-personal.engin.umich.edu/~nori.

  4. Spatiotemporal dynamics and plastic flow of vortices in superconductors with periodic arrays of pinning sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichhardt, C.; Groth, J.; Olson, C.J.; Field, S.B.; Nori, F.

    1996-01-01

    We present simulations of flux-gradient-driven superconducting rigid vortices interacting with square and triangular arrays of columnar pinning sites in an increasing external magnetic field. These simulations allow us to quantitatively relate spatiotemporal microscopic information of the vortex lattice with typically measured macroscopic quantities, such as the magnetization M(H). The flux lattice does not become completely commensurate with the pinning sites throughout the sample at the magnetization matching peaks, but forms a commensurate lattice in a region close to the edge of the sample. Matching fields related to unstable vortex configurations do not produce peaks in M(H). We observe a variety of evolving complex flux profiles, including flat terraces or plateaus separated by winding current-carrying strings and, near the peaks in M(H), plateaus only in certain regions, which move through the sample as the field increases. Several short videos, illustrating several particular cases of the type of dynamics described here, are available at http://www-personal.engin.umich.edu/--nori. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. Devil's Staircase in the Magnetoresistance of a Periodic Array of Scatterers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersig, Jan; Ahn, Kang-Hun

    2001-01-01

    The nonlinear response to an external electric field is studied for classical noninteracting charged particles under the influence of a uniform magnetic field, a periodic potential, and an effective friction force. We find numerical and analytical evidence that the ratio of transverse to longitudinal resistance forms a Devil's staircase. The staircase is attributed to the dynamical phenomenon of mode-locking

  6. LUCIFER: a scintillating bolometer array for the search of neutrinoless double beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardani, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In spite of the high precision achieved in the field of neutrino oscillations, there are some fundamental questions that can not be addressed by a study of ths phenomenon. We do not know in fact the absolute mass of neutrino and weather it is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. The LUCIFER experiment, financed by the ERC-AdG, will play an important role in this field. This project aims to push beyond the actual technological limits the possibility of observation of the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay (0νDBD). The detection of this extremely rare decay would indeed demonstrate that neutrino is a Majorana particle and, at the same time, would allow to set its absolute mass scale. LUCIFER will study the 0νDBD do 82 Se through ZnSe scintillating bolometers. Thanks to the simultaneous red-out of the heat and light produced by an interaction in the crystal, the background rate in the region of interest will be lower than 10 -3 counts/kg/keV/years. In the following, the expected performance of LUCIFER are discussed.

  7. On the trajectories of CRL...LR...R orbits, their period-doubling cascades and saddle-node bifurcation cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerrada, Lucia; San Martin, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter, it is shown that from a two region partition of the phase space of a one-dimensional dynamical system, a p-region partition can be obtained for the CRL...LR...R orbits. That is, permutations associated with symbolic sequences are obtained. As a consequence, the trajectory in phase space is directly deduced from permutation. From this permutation other permutations associated with period-doubling and saddle-node bifurcation cascades are derived, as well as other composite permutations. - Research highlights: → Symbolic sequences are the usual topological approach to dynamical systems. → Permutations bear more physical information than symbolic sequences. → Period-doubling cascade permutations associated with original sequences are obtained. → Saddle-node cascade permutations associated with original sequences are obtained. → Composite permutations are derived.

  8. Double-Stage Delay Multiply and Sum Beamforming Algorithm: Application to Linear-Array Photoacoustic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Mahloojifar, Ali; Orooji, Mahdi; Adabi, Saba; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging medical imaging modality capable of providing high spatial resolution of Ultrasound (US) imaging and high contrast of optical imaging. Delay-and-Sum (DAS) is the most common beamforming algorithm in PAI. However, using DAS beamformer leads to low resolution images and considerable contribution of off-axis signals. A new paradigm namely delay-multiply-and-sum (DMAS), which was originally used as a reconstruction algorithm in confocal microwave imaging, was introduced to overcome the challenges in DAS. DMAS was used in PAI systems and it was shown that this algorithm results in resolution improvement and sidelobe degrading. However, DMAS is still sensitive to high levels of noise, and resolution improvement is not satisfying. Here, we propose a novel algorithm based on DAS algebra inside DMAS formula expansion, double stage DMAS (DS-DMAS), which improves the image resolution and levels of sidelobe, and is much less sensitive to high level of noise compared to DMAS. The performance of DS-DMAS algorithm is evaluated numerically and experimentally. The resulted images are evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using established quality metrics including signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) and contrast ratio (CR). It is shown that DS-DMAS outperforms DAS and DMAS at the expense of higher computational load. DS-DMAS reduces the lateral valley for about 15 dB and improves the SNR and FWHM better than 13% and 30%, respectively. Moreover, the levels of sidelobe are reduced for about 10 dB in comparison with those in DMAS.

  9. Long Period (LP) volcanic earthquake source location at Merapi volcano by using dense array technics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxian, Jean Philippe; Budi Santoso, Agus; Laurin, Antoine; Subandriyo, Subandriyo; Widyoyudo, Wiku; Arshab, Ghofar

    2015-04-01

    Since 2010, Merapi shows unusual activity compared to last decades. Powerful phreatic explosions are observed; some of them are preceded by LP signals. In the literature, LP seismicity is thought to be originated within the fluid, and therefore to be representative of the pressurization state of the volcano plumbing system. Another model suggests that LP events are caused by slow, quasi-brittle, low stress-drop failure driven by transient upper-edifice deformations. Knowledge of the spatial distribution of LP events is fundamental for better understanding the physical processes occurring in the conduit, as well as for the monitoring and the improvement of eruption forecasting. LP events recorded at Merapi have a spectral content dominated by frequencies between 0.8 and 3 Hz. To locate the source of these events, we installed a seismic antenna composed of 4 broadband CMG-6TD Güralp stations. This network has an aperture of 300 m. It is located on the site of Pasarbubar, between 500 and 800 m from the crater rim. Two multi-parameter stations (seismic, tiltmeter, S-P) located in the same area, equipped with broadband CMG-40T Güralp sensors may also be used to complete the data of the antenna. The source of LP events is located by using different approaches. In the first one, we used a method based on the measurement of the time delays between the early beginnings of LP events for each array receiver. The observed differences of time delays obtained for each pair of receivers are compared to theoretical values calculated from the travel times computed between grid nodes, which are positioned in the structure, and each receiver. In a second approach, we estimate the slowness vector by using MUSIC algorithm applied to 3-components data. From the slowness vector, we deduce the back-azimuth and the incident angle, which give an estimation of LP source depth in the conduit. This work is part of the Domerapi project funded by French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (https

  10. A tunable acoustic barrier based on periodic arrays of subwavelength slits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Rubio

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The most usual method to reduce undesirable enviromental noise levels during its transmission is the use of acoustic barriers. A novel type of acoustic barrier based on sound transmission through subwavelength slits is presented. This system consists of two rows of periodic repetition of vertical rigid pickets separated by a slit of subwavelength width and with a misalignment between them. Here, both the experimental and the numerical analyses are presented. The acoustic barrier proposed can be easily built and is frequency tunable. The results demonstrated that the proposed barrier can be tuned to mitigate a band noise without excesive barrier thickness. The use of this system as an environmental acoustic barrier has certain advantages with regard to the ones currently used both from the constructive and the acoustical point of view.

  11. Energy storage and dispersion of surface acoustic waves trapped in a periodic array of mechanical resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Laude, Vincent; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown previously that surface acoustic waves can be efficiently trapped and slowed by steep ridges on a piezoelectric substrate, giving rise to two families of shear-horizontal and vertically polarized surface waves. The mechanisms of energy storage and dispersion are explored by using...... the finite element method to model surface acoustic waves generated by high aspect ratio electrodes. A periodic model is proposed including a perfectly matched layer to simulate radiation conditions away from the sources, from which the modal distributions are found. The ratio of the mechanical energy...... confined to the electrode as compared to the total mechanical energy is calculated and is found to be increasing for increasing aspect ratio and to tend to a definite limit for the two families of surface waves. This observation is in support of the interpretation that high aspect ratio electrodes act...

  12. A tunable acoustic barrier based on periodic arrays of subwavelength slits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Constanza; Uris, Antonio; Candelas, Pilar; Belmar, Francisco; Gomez-Lozano, Vicente

    2015-05-01

    The most usual method to reduce undesirable enviromental noise levels during its transmission is the use of acoustic barriers. A novel type of acoustic barrier based on sound transmission through subwavelength slits is presented. This system consists of two rows of periodic repetition of vertical rigid pickets separated by a slit of subwavelength width and with a misalignment between them. Here, both the experimental and the numerical analyses are presented. The acoustic barrier proposed can be easily built and is frequency tunable. The results demonstrated that the proposed barrier can be tuned to mitigate a band noise without excesive barrier thickness. The use of this system as an environmental acoustic barrier has certain advantages with regard to the ones currently used both from the constructive and the acoustical point of view.

  13. Modeling Innovative Power Take-Off Based on Double-Acting Hydraulic Cylinders Array for Wave Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Antolín-Urbaneja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the key systems of a Wave Energy Converter for extraction of wave energy is the Power Take-Off (PTO device. This device transforms the mechanical energy of a moving body into electrical energy. This paper describes the model of an innovative PTO based on independently activated double-acting hydraulic cylinders array. The model has been developed using a simulation tool, based on a port-based approach to model hydraulics systems. The components and subsystems used in the model have been parameterized as real components and their values experimentally obtained from an existing prototype. In fact, the model takes into account most of the hydraulic losses of each component. The simulations show the flexibility to apply different restraining torques to the input movement depending on the geometrical configuration and the hydraulic cylinders on duty, easily modified by a control law. The combination of these two actions allows suitable flexibility to adapt the device to different sea states whilst optimizing the energy extraction. The model has been validated using a real test bench showing good correlations between simulation and experimental tests.

  14. Threshold for strong thermal dephasing in periodically poled KTP in external cavity frequency doubling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundeman, Jesper Holm; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    We present a measurement series of the efficiency of periodically poled KTP used for second-harmonic generation in an external phase-locked cavity. Due to the high absorption (0.01 cm^−1) in the PPKTP crystal at the pump wavelength a strong thermal dephasing of the periodically poled grating...

  15. Enhanced long-distance transport of periodic electron beams in an advanced double layer cone-channel target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yanling; Duan, Tao; Zhou, Weimin; Li, Boyuan; Wu, Fengjuan; Zhang, Zhimeng; Ye, Bin; Wang, Rong; Wu, Chunrong; Tang, Yongjian

    2018-02-01

    An enhanced long-distance transport of periodic electron beams in an advanced double layer cone-channel target is investigated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The target consists of a cone attached to a double-layer hollow channel with a near-critical-density inner layer. The periodic electron beams are generated by the combination of ponderomotive force and longitudinal laser electric field. Then a stable electron propagation is achieved in the double-layer channel over a much longer distance without evident divergency, compared with a normal cone-channel target. Detailed simulations show that the much better long-distance collimation and guidance of energetic electrons is attributed to the much stronger electromagnetic fields at the inner wall surfaces. Furthermore, a continuous electron acceleration is obtained by the more intense laser electric fields and extended electron acceleration length in the channel. Our investigation shows that by employing this advanced target, both the forward-going electron energy flux in the channel and the energy coupling efficiency from laser to electrons are about threefold increased in comparison with the normal case.

  16. Enhanced long-distance transport of periodic electron beams in an advanced double layer cone-channel target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Ji

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced long-distance transport of periodic electron beams in an advanced double layer cone-channel target is investigated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The target consists of a cone attached to a double-layer hollow channel with a near-critical-density inner layer. The periodic electron beams are generated by the combination of ponderomotive force and longitudinal laser electric field. Then a stable electron propagation is achieved in the double-layer channel over a much longer distance without evident divergency, compared with a normal cone-channel target. Detailed simulations show that the much better long-distance collimation and guidance of energetic electrons is attributed to the much stronger electromagnetic fields at the inner wall surfaces. Furthermore, a continuous electron acceleration is obtained by the more intense laser electric fields and extended electron acceleration length in the channel. Our investigation shows that by employing this advanced target, both the forward-going electron energy flux in the channel and the energy coupling efficiency from laser to electrons are about threefold increased in comparison with the normal case.

  17. Temperature and pinning strength dependence of the critical current of a superconductor with a square periodic array of pinning sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkraouda, M.; Obaidat, I.M.; Al Khawaja, U.

    2006-01-01

    We have conducted extensive series of molecular dynamic simulations on driven vortex lattices interacting with periodic square arrays of pinning sites. In solving the over damped equation of vortex motion we took into account the vortex-vortex repulsion interaction, the attractive vortex-pinning interaction, and the driving Lorentz force at several values of temperature. We have studied the effect of varying the driving Lorentz force and varying the pinning strength on the critical current for several pinning densities, and temperature values. We have found that the pinning strength play an important role in enhancing the critical current over the whole temperature range. At low temperatures, the critical current was found to increase linearly with increasing the pinning strengths for all pinning densities. As the temperature increases, the effect of small pinning strengths diminishes and becomes insignificant at high temperatures

  18. Equivalent-circuit model for stacked slot-based 2D periodic arrays of arbitrary geometry for broadband analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Maria Denise; Frezza, Fabrizio; Tedeschi, Nicola

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of the transmission and reflection spectra of stacked slot-based 2D periodic structures of arbitrary geometry and the ability to devise and control their electromagnetic responses have been a matter of extensive research for many decades. The purpose of this paper is to develop an equivalent Π circuit model based on the transmission-line theory and Floquet harmonic interactions, for broadband and short longitudinal period analysis. The proposed circuit model overcomes the limits of identical and symmetrical configurations imposed by the even/odd excitation approach, exploiting both the circuit topology of a single 2D periodic array of apertures and the ABCD matrix formalism. The transmission spectra obtained through the equivalent-circuit model have been validated by comparison with full-wave simulations carried out with a finite-element commercial electromagnetic solver. This allowed for a physical insight into the spectral and angular responses of multilayer devices with arbitrary aperture shapes, guaranteeing a noticeable saving of computational resources.

  19. Self-Organization of +-Crown Ether Derivatives into Double-Columnar Arrays Controlled by Supramolecular Isomers of Hydrogen-Bonded Anionic Biimidazolate Ni Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Tadokoro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anionic tris (biimidazolate nickelate (II ([Ni(Hbim3]−, which is a hydrogen-bonding (H-bonding molecular building block, undergoes self-organization into honeycomb-sheet superstructures connected by complementary intermolecular H-bonds. The crystal obtained from the stacking of these sheets is assembled into channel frameworks, approximately 2 nm wide, that clathrate two cationic K+-crown ether derivatives organised into one-dimensional (1D double-columnar arrays. In this study, we have shown that all five cationic guest-included crystals form nanochannel structures that clathrate the 1-D double-columnar arrays of one of the four types of K+-crown ether derivatives, one of which induces a polymorph. This is accomplished by adaptably fitting two types of anionic [Ni(Hbim3]− host arrays. One is a ΔΛ−ΔΛ−ΔΛ⋯ network with H-bonded linkages alternating between the two different optical isomers of the Δ and Λ types with flexible H-bonded [Ni(Hbim3]−. The other is a ΔΔΔ−ΛΛΛ⋯ network of a racemate with 1-D H-bonded arrays of the same optical isomer for each type. Thus, [Ni(Hbim3]− can assemble large cations such as K+ crown-ether derivatives into double-columnar arrays by highly recognizing flexible H-bonding arrangements with two host networks of ΔΛ−ΔΛ−ΔΛ⋯ and ΔΔΔ−ΛΛΛ⋯.

  20. Period doubling cascades of limit cycles in cardiac action potential models as precursors to chaotic early Afterdepolarizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kügler, Philipp; Bulelzai, M A K; Erhardt, André H

    2017-04-04

    Early afterdepolarizations (EADs) are pathological voltage oscillations during the repolarization phase of cardiac action potentials (APs). EADs are caused by drugs, oxidative stress or ion channel disease, and they are considered as potential precursors to cardiac arrhythmias in recent attempts to redefine the cardiac drug safety paradigm. The irregular behaviour of EADs observed in experiments has been previously attributed to chaotic EAD dynamics under periodic pacing, made possible by a homoclinic bifurcation in the fast subsystem of the deterministic AP system of differential equations. In this article we demonstrate that a homoclinic bifurcation in the fast subsystem of the action potential model is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for the genesis of chaotic EADs. We rather argue that a cascade of period doubling (PD) bifurcations of limit cycles in the full AP system paves the way to chaotic EAD dynamics across a variety of models including a) periodically paced and spontaneously active cardiomyocytes, b) periodically paced and non-active cardiomyocytes as well as c) unpaced and spontaneously active cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, our bifurcation analysis reveals that chaotic EAD dynamics may coexist in a stable manner with fully regular AP dynamics, where only the initial conditions decide which type of dynamics is displayed. EADs are a potential source of cardiac arrhythmias and hence are of relevance both from the viewpoint of drug cardiotoxicity testing and the treatment of cardiomyopathies. The model-independent association of chaotic EADs with period doubling cascades of limit cycles introduced in this article opens novel opportunities to study chaotic EADs by means of bifurcation control theory and inverse bifurcation analysis. Furthermore, our results may shed new light on the synchronization and propagation of chaotic EADs in homogeneous and heterogeneous multicellular and cardiac tissue preparations.

  1. Effects of gas periodic stimulation on key enzyme activity in gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation (GDD-SSF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongzhang; Shao, Meixue; Li, Hongqiang

    2014-03-05

    The heat and mass transfer have been proved to be the important factors in air pressure pulsation for cellulase production. However, as process of enzyme secretion, the cellulase formation has not been studied in the view of microorganism metabolism and metabolic key enzyme activity under air pressure pulsation condition. Two fermentation methods in ATPase activity, cellulase productivity, weight lose rate and membrane permeability were systematically compared. Results indicated that gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation had no obviously effect on cell membrane permeability. However, the relation between ATPase activity and weight loss rate was linearly dependent with r=0.9784. Meanwhile, the results also implied that gas periodic stimulation had apparently strengthened microbial metabolism through increasing ATPase activity during gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation, resulting in motivating the production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei YG3. Therefore, the increase of ATPase activity would be another crucial factor to strengthen fermentation process for cellulase production under gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Numerical Exploration of Kaldorian Interregional Macrodynamics: Enhanced Stability and Predominance of Period Doubling under Flexible Exchange Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toichiro Asada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a discrete two-regional Kaldorian macrodynamic model with flexible exchange rates and explore numerically the stability of equilibrium and the possibility of generation of business cycles. We use a grid search method in two-dimensional parameter subspaces, and coefficient criteria for the flip and Hopf bifurcation curves, to determine the stability region and its boundary curves in several parameter ranges. The model is characterized by enhanced stability of equilibrium, while its predominant asymptotic behavior when equilibrium is unstable is period doubling. Cycles are scarce and short-lived in parameter space, occurring at large values of the degree of capital movement β. By contrast to the corresponding fixed exchange rates system, for cycles to occur sufficient amount of trade is required together with high levels of capital movement. Rapid changes in exchange rate expectations and decreased government expenditure are factors contributing to the creation of interregional cycles. Examples of bifurcation and Lyapunov exponent diagrams illustrating period doubling or cycles, and their development into chaotic attractors, are given. The paper illustrates the feasibility and effectiveness of the numerical approach for dynamical systems of moderately high dimensionality and several parameters.

  3. Hamiltonian bifurcation perspective on two interacting vortex pairs: From symmetric to asymmetric leapfrogging, period doubling, and chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitchurch, Brandon; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Koukouloyannis, Vassilis

    2018-01-01

    In this work we study the dynamical behavior of two interacting vortex pairs, each one of them consisting of two point vortices with opposite circulation in the two-dimensional plane. The vortices are considered as effective particles and their interaction can be described in classical mechanics terms. We first construct a Poincaré section, for a typical value of the energy, in order to acquire a picture of the structure of the phase space of the system. We divide the phase space in different regions which correspond to qualitatively distinct motions and we demonstrate its different temporal evolution in the "real" vortex space. Our main emphasis is on the leapfrogging periodic orbit, around which we identify a region that we term the "leapfrogging envelope" which involves mostly regular motions, such as higher order periodic and quasiperiodic solutions. We also identify the chaotic region of the phase plane surrounding the leapfrogging envelope as well as the so-called walkabout and braiding motions. Varying the energy as our control parameter, we construct a bifurcation tree of the main leapfrogging solution and its instabilities, as well as the instabilities of its daughter branches. We identify the symmetry-breaking instability of the leapfrogging solution (in line with earlier works), and also obtain the corresponding asymmetric branches of periodic solutions. We then characterize their own instabilities (including period doubling ones) and bifurcations in an effort to provide a more systematic perspective towards the types of motions available to this dynamical system.

  4. Order quantification of hexagonal periodic arrays fabricated by in situ solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography of block copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simão, Claudia; Khunsin, Worawut; Kehagias, Nikolaos; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M; Salaun, Mathieu; Zelsmann, Marc; Morris, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Directed self-assembly of block copolymer polystyrene-b-polyethylene oxide (PS-b-PEO) thin film was achieved by a one-pot methodology of solvent vapor assisted nanoimprint lithography (SAIL). Simultaneous solvent-anneal and imprinting of a PS-b-PEO thin film on silicon without surface pre-treatments yielded a 250 nm line grating decorated with 20 nm diameter nanodots array over a large surface area of up to 4′ wafer scale. The grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering diffraction pattern showed the fidelity of the NIL stamp pattern replication and confirmed the periodicity of the BCP of 40 nm. The order of the hexagonally arranged nanodot lattice was quantified by SEM image analysis using the opposite partner method and compared to conventionally solvent-annealed block copolymer films. The imprint-based SAIL methodology thus demonstrated an improvement in ordering of the nanodot lattice of up to 50%, and allows significant time and cost reduction in the processing of these structures. (papers)

  5. A series of new soliton-like solutions and double-like periodic solutions of a (2 + 1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Chen; Qi Wang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the algebraic method proposed by Fan (Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 20 (2004) 609) and the improved extended tanh method by Yomba (Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 20 (2004) 1135) to uniformly construct a series of soliton-like solutions and double-like periodic solutions for nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDE). Some new soliton-like solutions and double-like periodic solutions of a (2 + 1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation are obtained

  6. Progress in symmetric ICF capsule implosions and wire-array z-pinch source physics for double z-pinch driven hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, David Emery; Vesey, Roger Alan; Rambo, Patrick K.; Lebedev, Sergey V.; Hanson, David L.; Nash, Thomas J.; Yu, Edmund P.; Matzen, Maurice Keith; Afeyan, Bedros B.; Smith, Ian Craig; Stygar, William A.; Porter, John Larry Jr.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Bennett, Guy R.; Campbell, Robert B.; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul; Waisman, Eduardo Mario; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan

    2005-01-01

    Over the last several years, rapid progress has been made evaluating the double-z-pinch indirect-drive, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) high-yield target concept (Hammer et al 1999 Phys. Plasmas 6 2129). We have demonstrated efficient coupling of radiation from two wire-array-driven primary hohlraums to a secondary hohlraum that is large enough to drive a high yield ICF capsule. The secondary hohlraum is irradiated from two sides by z-pinches to produce low odd-mode radiation asymmetry. This double-pinch source is driven from a single electrical power feed (Cuneo et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 215004) on the 20 MA Z accelerator. The double z-pinch has imploded ICF capsules with even-mode radiation symmetry of 3.1 ± 1.4% and to high capsule radial convergence ratios of 14-21 (Bennett et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 245002; Bennett et al 2003 Phys. Plasmas 10 3717; Vesey et al 2003 Phys. Plasmas 10 1854). Advances in wire-array physics at 20 MA are improving our understanding of z-pinch power scaling with increasing drive current. Techniques for shaping the z-pinch radiation pulse necessary for low adiabat capsule compression have also been demonstrated.

  7. 15-25K Static-Helium Regenerator/Double Pulse Tube Cooler for Receiving Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs a cryogenic refrigerator for the 15-25K range for receiving arrays of ground-based antennas that will serve the telecommunications needs of future space...

  8. Periodically poled self-frequency-doubling green laser fabricated from Nd:Mg:LiNbO₃ single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong Zhou; Sun, De Hui; Kang, Xue Liang; Sang, Yuan Hua; Yan, Bo Xia; Liu, Hong; Bi, Yong

    2015-07-13

    Although a breakthrough in the fabrication of green laser diodes has occurred, the high costs associated with the difficulty of manufacture still present a great obstacle for its practical application. Another approach for producing a green laser, by combining a laser device and a nonlinear crystal, entails the fabrication of complex structures and exhibits unstable performance due to interface contact defects, thus limiting its application. In this work, we report the fabrication by domain engineering of high quality periodically poled LiNbO₃, co-doped with Nd³⁺ and Mg²⁺, which combines a laser medium and a high efficiency second harmonic conversion crystal into a single system that is designed to overcome the above problems. An 80 mW self-frequency doubling green laser was constructed for the first time from a periodically poled Nd:Mg:LiNbO₃ crystal of 16 mm in length. This crystal can be used for developing compact, stable, highly efficient mini-solid-state-lasers, which promise to have many applications in portable laser-based spectroscopy, photo-communications, terahertz wave generation, and laser displays.

  9. EVIDENCE FROM THE VERY LONG BASELINE ARRAY THAT J1502SE/SW ARE DOUBLE HOTSPOTS, NOT A SUPERMASSIVE BINARY BLACK HOLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrobel, J. M.; Walker, R. C.; Fu, H.

    2014-01-01

    SDSS J150243.09+111557.3 is a merging system at z = 0.39 that hosts two confirmed active galactic nuclei (AGNs), one unobscured and one dust-obscured, offset by several kiloparsecs. Deane et al. recently reported evidence from the European VLBI Network (EVN) that the dust-obscured AGN exhibits two flat-spectrum radio sources, J1502SE/SW, offset by 26 mas (140 pc), with each source being energized by its own supermassive black hole (BH). This intriguing interpretation of a close binary BH was reached after ruling out a double-hotspot scenario, wherein both hotspots are energized by a single, central BH, a configuration occurring in the well-studied compact symmetric objects. When observed with sufficient sensitivity and resolution, an object with double hotspots should have an edge-brightened structure. We report evidence from the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) for just such a structure in an image of the obscured AGN with higher sensitivity and resolution than the EVN images. We thus conclude that a double-hotspot scenario should be reconsidered as a viable interpretation for J1502SE/SW, and suggest further VLBA tests of that scenario. A double-hotspot scenario could have broad implications for feedback in obscured AGNs. We also report a VLBA detection of high-brightness-temperature emission from the unobscured AGN that is offset several kiloparsecs from J1502SE/SW

  10. The Effect of Ginger on Breast Milk Volume in the Early Postpartum Period: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paritakul, Panwara; Ruangrongmorakot, Kasem; Laosooksathit, Wipada; Suksamarnwong, Maysita; Puapornpong, Pawin

    2016-09-01

    In Thailand, ginger is a popular natural galactagogue among breastfeeding women. However, there has never been evidence to support the effectiveness of ginger in increasing the breast milk volume. To compare breast milk volume on the third and seventh day postpartum between lactating mothers who receive 500 mg dried ginger capsules twice daily with those receiving placebo. A randomized, double-blind controlled trial was conducted. Women who deliver a term baby were randomly assigned to receive dried ginger or placebo for 7 days postpartum. Breast milk volume was measured on third day postpartum using test weight method for a period of 24 hours and on seventh day postpartum using 1 hour milk production. We also compared the third day serum prolactin level between the two groups. Data from 63 women were available for analysis, 30 from the ginger group and 33 from the placebo group. The two groups were similar regarding baseline characteristics. Women in the ginger group have higher milk volume than the placebo group (191.0 ± 71.2 mL/day versus 135.0 ± 61.5 mL/day, p ginger group does not differ from the placebo group (80.0 ± 58.5 mL versus 112.1 ± 91.6 mL, p = 0.24). The mean serum prolactin levels were similar in both groups (321.5 ± 131.8 ng/L in the ginger group, and 331.4 ± 100.7 ng/L in the placebo group, p = 0.74). No side effect was reported in this study. Ginger is a promising natural galactagogue to improve breast milk volume in the immediate postpartum period without any notable side effect.

  11. Numerical Exploration of Kaldorian Macrodynamics: Enhanced Stability and Predominance of Period Doubling and Chaos with Flexible Exchange Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toichiro Asada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore a discrete Kaldorian macrodynamic model of an open economy with flexible exchange rates, focusing on the effects of variation of the model parameters, the speed of adjustment of the goods market α, and the degree of capital mobility β. We determine by a numerical grid search method the stability region in parameter space and find that flexible rates cause enhanced stability of equilibrium with respect to variations of the parameters. We identify the Hopf-Neimark bifurcation curve and the flip bifurcation curve, and find that the period doubling cascades which leads to chaos is the dominant behavior of the system outside the stability region, persisting to large values of β. Cyclical behavior of noticeable presence is detected for some extreme values of a state parameter. Bifurcation and Lyapunov exponent diagrams are computed illustrating the complex dynamics involved. Examples of attractors and trajectories are presented. The effect of the speed of adaptation of the expected rate is also briefly discussed. Finally, we explore a special model variation incorporating the “wealth effect” which is found to behave similarly to the basic model, contrary to the model of fixed exchange rates in which incorporation of this effect causes an entirely different behavior.

  12. Effects of End CAP and Aspect Ratio on Transmission of Sound across a Truss-Like Periodic Double Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-RAHEB, M.; WAGNER, P.

    2002-02-01

    Transmission of sound across 2-D truss-like periodic double panels separated by an air gap and in contact with an acoustic fluid on the external faces is analyzed. Each panel is made of repeated cells. Combining the transfer matrices of the unit cell forms a set of equations for the overall elastic frequency response. The acoustic pressure in the fluids is expressed using a source boundary element method. Adding rigid reflecting end caps confines the air in the gap between panels which influences sound transmission. Measured values of transmission loss differ from the 2-D model by the wide low-frequency dip of the mass-spring-mass or “msm” resonance also termed the “air gap resonance”. In this case, the panels act as rigid masses and the air gap acts as an adiabatic air spring. Results from the idealized 3-D and 2-D models, incorporating rigid cavities and elastic plates, reveal that the “msm” dip is absent in 2-D models radiating into a semi-infinite medium. The dip strengthens as aspect ratio approaches unity. Even when the dip disappears in 2-D, TL rises more steeply for frequencies above the “msm” frequency.

  13. Toward 2D Seismic Wavefield Monitoring: Seismic Gradiometry for Long-Period Seismogram and Short-Period Seismogram Envelope applied to the Hi-net Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, T.; Nishida, K.; Takagi, R.; Obara, K.

    2015-12-01

    The high-sensitive seismograph network Japan (Hi-net) operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) has about 800 stations with average separation of 20 km. We can observe long-period seismic wave propagation as a 2D wavefield with station separations shorter than wavelength. In contrast, short-period waves are quite incoherent at stations, however, their envelope shapes resemble at neighbor stations. Therefore, we may be able to extract seismic wave energy propagation by seismogram envelope analysis. We attempted to characterize seismic waveform at long-period and its envelope at short-period as 2D wavefield by applying seismic gradiometry. We applied the seismic gradiometry to a synthetic long-period (20-50s) dataset prepared by numerical simulation in realistic 3D medium at the Hi-net station layout. Wave amplitude and its spatial derivatives are estimated by using data at nearby stations. The slowness vector, the radiation pattern and the geometrical spreading are extracted from estimated velocity, displacement and its spatial derivatives. For short-periods at shorter than 1 s, seismogram envelope shows temporal and spatial broadening through scattering by medium heterogeneity. It is expected that envelope shape may be coherent among nearby stations. Based on this idea, we applied the same method to the time-integration of seismogram envelope to estimate its spatial derivatives. Together with seismogram envelope, we succeeded in estimating the slowness vector from the seismogram envelope as well as long-period waveforms by synthetic test, without using phase information. Our preliminarily results show that the seismic gradiometry suits the Hi-net to extract wave propagation characteristics both at long and short periods. This method is appealing that it can estimate waves at homogeneous grid to monitor seismic wave as a wavefield. It is promising to obtain phase velocity variation from direct waves, and to grasp wave

  14. Overweight and obesity doubled over a 6-year period in young women living in poverty in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Lynnette M; Hernández-Cordero, Sonia; Fernald, Lia C; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2008-03-01

    To document the changes in BMI and the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young women living in poverty in a semi-urban community in Mexico. Women who had previously participated in a longitudinal research study (1997-2000) were re-assessed in 2005. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard procedures, and socio-demographic questionnaires were administered. Total and annual rate of change in BMI and change in the prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI > or = 25.0 and > or =30.0) were estimated. Mean age in 2005 was 30.0 +/- 5.7 years (n = 683) and time between recruitment and follow-up was 6.4 +/- 1.0 years. Mean change in BMI was +3.6 +/- 2.7 (range -8.2 to +14.6). In 2005, 500 (73.2%) women were overweight, up from 263 (38.5%) in the original assessment. The prevalence of obesity tripled over the follow-up period (from 9.8% to 30.3%). The mean annual rate of change in BMI was +0.6 (+/-0.4). After adjustment for age and parity at baseline, an annual rate of change of BMI above the sample median (>0.5) was associated with lower levels of formal education. The annual increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in this sample is double that which was reported at a national level in Mexico. An understanding of the determinants of this rapid increase among the women living in poverty in Mexico is urgently needed.

  15. Complete indium-free CW 200W passively cooled high power diode laser array using double-side cooling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingwei; Zhu, Pengfei; Liu, Hui; Liang, Xuejie; Wu, Dihai; Liu, Yalong; Yu, Dongshan; Zah, Chung-en; Liu, Xingsheng

    2017-02-01

    High power diode lasers have been widely used in many fields. To meet the requirements of high power and high reliability, passively cooled single bar CS-packaged diode lasers must be robust to withstand thermal fatigue and operate long lifetime. In this work, a novel complete indium-free double-side cooling technology has been applied to package passively cooled high power diode lasers. Thermal behavior of hard solder CS-package diode lasers with different packaging structures was simulated and analyzed. Based on these results, the device structure and packaging process of double-side cooled CS-packaged diode lasers were optimized. A series of CW 200W 940nm high power diode lasers were developed and fabricated using hard solder bonding technology. The performance of the CW 200W 940nm high power diode lasers, such as output power, spectrum, thermal resistance, near field, far field, smile, lifetime, etc., is characterized and analyzed.

  16. Fabrication of periodic arrays of metallic nanoparticles by block copolymer templates on HfO_2 substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frascaroli, Jacopo; Seguini, Gabriele; Spiga, Sabina; Perego, Michele; Boarino, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Block copolymer-based templates can be exploited for the fabrication of ordered arrays of metal nanoparticles (NPs) with a diameter down to a few nanometers. In order to develop this technique on metal oxide substrates, we studied the self-assembly of polymeric templates directly on the HfO_2 surface. Using a random copolymer neutralization layer, we obtained an effective HfO_2 surface neutralization, while the effects of surface cleaning and annealing temperature were carefully examined. Varying the block copolymer molecular weight, we produced regular nanoporous templates with feature size variable between 10 and 30 nm and a density up to 1.5 × 10"1"1 cm"−"2. With the adoption of a pattern transfer process, we produced ordered arrays of Pt and Pt/Ti NPs with diameters of 12, 21 and 29 nm and a constant size dispersion (σ) of 2.5 nm. For the smallest template adopted, the NP diameter is significantly lower than the original template dimension. In this specific configuration, the granularity of the deposited film probably influences the pattern transfer process and very small NPs of 12 nm were achieved without a significant broadening of the size distribution. (paper)

  17. Controlled growth of periodically aligned copper-silicide nanocrystal arrays on silicon directed by laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberger, Philipp; Reinhardt, Hendrik M.; Rhinow, Daniel; Riedel, René; Werner, Simon; Hampp, Norbert A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we introduce a versatile tool for the controlled growth and alignment of copper-silicide nanocrystals. The method takes advantage of a unique self-organization phenomenon denoted as laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). Copper films (3 ± 0.2 nm) are sputter-deposited onto single crystal silicon (100) substrates with a thin oxide layer (4 ± 0.2 nm), and subsequently exposed to linearly polarized nanosecond laser pulses (τ ≈ 6 ns) at a central wavelength of 532 nm. The irradiation triggers dewetting of the Cu film and simultaneous formation of periodic Cu nanowires (LIPSS), which partially penetrate the oxide layer to the Si substrate. These LIPSS act as nucleation centers for the growth of Cu-Si crystals during thermal processing at 500 °C under forming gas 95/5 atmosphere. Exemplified by our model system Cu/SiO2/Si, LIPSS are demonstrated to facilitate the diffusion reaction between Cu and underlying Si. Moreover, adjustment of the laser polarization allows us to precisely control the nanocrystal alignment with respect to the LIPSS orientation. Potential applications and conceivable alternatives of this process are discussed.

  18. Dynamics of Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, P.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamics of Josephson junction arrays is a topic that lies at the intersection of the fields of nonlinear dynamics and Josephson junction technology. The series arrays considered here consist of several rapidly oscillating Josephson junctions where each junction is coupled equally to every other junction. The purpose of this study is to understand phaselocking and other cooperative dynamics of this system. Previously, little was known about high dimensional nonlinear systems of this sort. Numerical simulations are used to study the dynamics of these arrays. Three distinct types of periodic solutions to the array equations were observed as well as period doubled and chaotic solutions. One of the periodic solutions is the symmetric, in-phase solution where all of the junctions oscillate identically. The other two periodic solutions are symmetry-broken solutions where all of the junction do not oscillate identically. The symmetry-broken solutions are highly degenerate. As many as (N - 1) stable solutions can coexist for an array of N junctions. Understanding the stability of these several solutions and the transitions among them is vital to the design of useful devices

  19. The behavior of the critical current density below and above the first matching field in superconductors with periodic square arrays of pinning sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaidat, I.M.; Al Khawaja, U.; Benkraouda, M.; Salmeen, N.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the effect of the applied magnetic field on critical depinning force at zero and finite temperatures and for several values of pinning strength. This was achieved by conducting extensive series of molecular dynamic simulations on driven vortex lattices interacting with periodic square arrays of pinning sites. We have found that the critical depinning force decreases as the applied magnetic field is increased. We have also observed two distinct behaviors of dependence of the critical depinning force on the applied magnetic field below and above the first matching filed

  20. Does Kepler unveil the mystery of the Blazhko effect? First detection of period doubling in Kepler Blazhko RR Lyrae stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabó, R.; Kollath, Z.; Molnár, L.

    2010-01-01

    -doubling bifurcation in our non-linear RR Lyrae models computed by the Florida-Budapest hydrocode. This enabled us to trace the origin of this instability in RR Lyrae stars to a resonance, namely a 9:2 resonance between the fundamental mode and a high-order (ninth) radial overtone showing strange-mode characteristics...

  1. Analysis of double stub tuner control stability in a phased array antenna with strong cross-coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, G.M., E-mail: wallaceg@mit.edu [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hillairet, J. [CEA-IRFM, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Koert, P.; Lin, Y.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wukitch, S.J. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A novel method for reducing reflection coefficients for LHCD launchers is proposed and evaluated. • Numerical models of antenna behavior with stub tuning are analyzed. • The system is found to be stable under most realistic operating conditions. - Abstract: Active stub tuning with a fast ferrite tuner (FFT) has greatly increased the effectiveness of fusion ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) systems (50–100 MHz) by allowing for the antenna system to respond dynamically to changes in the plasma load impedance such as during the L–H transition or edge localized modes (ELMs). A high power waveguide double-stub tuner is under development for use with the Alcator C-Mod lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system at 4.6 GHz. The amplitude and relative phase shift between adjacent columns of an LHCD antenna are critical for control of the launched n{sub ||} spectrum. Adding a double-stub tuning network will perturb the phase and amplitude of the forward wave particularly if the unmatched reflection coefficient is high. This effect can be compensated by adjusting the phase of the low power microwave drive for each klystron amplifier. Cross-coupling of the reflected power between columns of the launcher must also be considered. The problem is simulated by cascading a scattering matrix for the plasma provided by a linear coupling model with the measured launcher scattering matrix and that of the FFTs. The solution is advanced in an iterative manner similar to the time-dependent behavior of the real system. System performance is presented under a range of edge density conditions from under-dense to over-dense and a range of launched n{sub ||}. Simulations predict power reflection coefficients (Γ{sup 2}) of less than 1% with no contamination of the n{sub ||} spectrum. Instability of the FFT tuning network can be problematic for certain plasma conditions and relative phasings, but reducing the control gain of the FFT network stabilizes the system.

  2. “Turn-off” fluorescent data array sensor based on double quantum dots coupled with chemometrics for highly sensitive and selective detection of multicomponent pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yao; Liu, Li; Sun, Donglei; Lan, Hanyue [The Modernization Engineering Technology Research Center of Ethnic Minority Medicine of Hubei Province, College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Fu, Haiyan, E-mail: fuhaiyan@mail.scuec.edu.cn [The Modernization Engineering Technology Research Center of Ethnic Minority Medicine of Hubei Province, College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yang, Tianming, E-mail: tmyang@mail.scuec.edu.cn [The Modernization Engineering Technology Research Center of Ethnic Minority Medicine of Hubei Province, College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); She, Yuanbin, E-mail: sheyb@zjut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Chemistry-Synthesis Technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Ni, Chuang [The Modernization Engineering Technology Research Center of Ethnic Minority Medicine of Hubei Province, College of Pharmacy, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-04-15

    As a popular detection model, the fluorescence “turn-off” sensor based on quantum dots (QDs) has already been successfully employed in the detections of many materials, especially in the researches on the interactions between pesticides. However, the previous studies are mainly focused on simple single track or the comparison based on similar concentration of drugs. In this work, a new detection method based on the fluorescence “turn-off” model with water-soluble ZnCdSe and CdSe QDs simultaneously as the fluorescent probes is established to detect various pesticides. The fluorescence of the two QDs can be quenched by different pesticides with varying degrees, which leads to the differences in positions and intensities of two peaks. By combining with chemometrics methods, all the pesticides can be qualitative and quantitative respectively even in real samples with the limit of detection was 2 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} and a recognition rate of 100%. This work is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report on the detection of pesticides based on the fluorescence quenching phenomenon of double quantum dots combined with chemometrics methods. What's more, the excellent selectivity of the system has been verified in different mediums such as mixed ion disruption, waste water, tea and water extraction liquid drugs. - Highlights: • A new model based on double QDs is established for pesticide residues detection. • The fluorescent data array sensor is coupled with chmometrics methods. • The sensor can be highly sensitive and selective detection in actual samples.

  3. “Turn-off” fluorescent data array sensor based on double quantum dots coupled with chemometrics for highly sensitive and selective detection of multicomponent pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yao; Liu, Li; Sun, Donglei; Lan, Hanyue; Fu, Haiyan; Yang, Tianming; She, Yuanbin; Ni, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    As a popular detection model, the fluorescence “turn-off” sensor based on quantum dots (QDs) has already been successfully employed in the detections of many materials, especially in the researches on the interactions between pesticides. However, the previous studies are mainly focused on simple single track or the comparison based on similar concentration of drugs. In this work, a new detection method based on the fluorescence “turn-off” model with water-soluble ZnCdSe and CdSe QDs simultaneously as the fluorescent probes is established to detect various pesticides. The fluorescence of the two QDs can be quenched by different pesticides with varying degrees, which leads to the differences in positions and intensities of two peaks. By combining with chemometrics methods, all the pesticides can be qualitative and quantitative respectively even in real samples with the limit of detection was 2 × 10"−"8 mol L"−"1 and a recognition rate of 100%. This work is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report on the detection of pesticides based on the fluorescence quenching phenomenon of double quantum dots combined with chemometrics methods. What's more, the excellent selectivity of the system has been verified in different mediums such as mixed ion disruption, waste water, tea and water extraction liquid drugs. - Highlights: • A new model based on double QDs is established for pesticide residues detection. • The fluorescent data array sensor is coupled with chmometrics methods. • The sensor can be highly sensitive and selective detection in actual samples.

  4. Condensin suppresses recombination and regulates double-strand break processing at the repetitive ribosomal DNA array to ensure proper chromosome segregation during meiosis in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Jin, Hui; Yu, Hong-Guo

    2014-01-01

    During meiosis, homologues are linked by crossover, which is required for bipolar chromosome orientation before chromosome segregation at anaphase I. The repetitive ribosomal DNA (rDNA) array, however, undergoes little or no meiotic recombination. Hyperrecombination can cause chromosome missegregation and rDNA copy number instability. We report here that condensin, a conserved protein complex required for chromosome organization, regulates double-strand break (DSB) formation and repair at the rDNA gene cluster during meiosis in budding yeast. Condensin is highly enriched at the rDNA region during prophase I, released at the prophase I/metaphase I transition, and reassociates with rDNA before anaphase I onset. We show that condensin plays a dual role in maintaining rDNA stability: it suppresses the formation of Spo11-mediated rDNA breaks, and it promotes DSB processing to ensure proper chromosome segregation. Condensin is unnecessary for the export of rDNA breaks outside the nucleolus but required for timely repair of meiotic DSBs. Our work reveals that condensin coordinates meiotic recombination with chromosome segregation at the repetitive rDNA sequence, thereby maintaining genome integrity. PMID:25103240

  5. Fabrication of Au nanoparticle/double-walled carbon nanotube film/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array/Ti heterojunctions with low resistance state for broadband photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan [School of Mathematics and Physics, Mianyang Teachers’ College (Mianyang Normal University), Mianyang 621000 (China); Zhang, Guowei; Dong, Zhanmin [Department of Physics and State Key Lab of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084 (China); Wei, Jinquan [Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing Technology of Education Ministry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084 (China); Zhu, Jia-Lin [Department of Physics and State Key Lab of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084 (China); Sun, Jia-Lin, E-mail: jlsun@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics and State Key Lab of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing100084 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China)

    2017-03-01

    A broadband photodetector based on Au nanoparticle/double-walled carbon nanotube film/TiO{sub 2} nanotube array /Ti multilayer heterojunction structures has been fabricated. A pre-electroforming process at a voltage bias of 35 V was used to switch the photodetector from a high resistance state to a low resistance state. At a voltage bias of 1 V under 532-nm laser illumination in air, the photoresponsivity of the device reached 15.41 mA W{sup −1}, which is enhanced by approximately 1.91 times when compared with that of device before deposition of Au nanoparticles. In addition, in a vacuum under a voltage bias of 1 V, the photoresponsivity of the device reached 23.29 mA W{sup −1} and 6.85 mA W{sup −1} at 532 nm and 1064 nm, respectively. The surface plasmon polaritons of the Au nanoparticles allowed extension of the sensitivity of the photosensitive regions into the mid-infrared range. The experimental results show that the device photoresponsivity reached 2.26 mA W{sup −1} at a voltage bias of 1 V under 10.6-µm laser illumination in air.

  6. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Spatial-Temporal Behaviors About Period Doubling Bifurcation in an Atmospheric-Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiao; Wang Yanhui; Wang Dezhen; Zhuang Juan

    2014-01-01

    As a spatially extended dissipated system, atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) could in principle possess complex nonlinear behaviors. In order to improve the stability and uniformity of atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharges, studies on temporal behaviors and radial structure of discharges with strong nonlinear behaviors under different controlling parameters are much desirable. In this paper, a two-dimensional fluid model is developed to simulate the radial discharge structure of period-doubling bifurcation, chaos, and inverse period-doubling bifurcation in an atmospheric-pressure DBD. The results show that the period-2n (n = 1, 2…) and chaotic discharges exhibit nonuniform discharge structure. In period-2n or chaos, not only the shape of current pulses doesn't remains exactly the same from one cycle to another, but also the radial structures, such as discharge spatial evolution process and the strongest breakdown region, are different in each neighboring discharge event. Current-voltage characteristics of the discharge system are studied for further understanding of the radial structure. (low temperature plasma)

  7. A double-blind assessment of additive intolerance in children using a 12 day challenge period at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, N; Scott, A

    1989-05-01

    Alleged food-additive intolerance (respiratory, dermatological, behavioural or abdominal) was assessed in 19 children using daily challenge drinks of either, base product alone, base product plus sunset yellow/tartrazine, or base product plus sodium metabisulphite/sodium benzoate. The same type of drink was given for 12 days, double-blind and in random order. During the trial the children were maintained on an additive-free diet under supervision. Diary cards were used to record symptoms and medication usage. If there was an apparent association between symptoms and drink ingredient the trial was repeated, again double-blind. Additive intolerance was confirmed by a consistent deterioration of symptoms in only three children. In one, urticaria was induced by the colourings, in another extremely abnormal behaviour was induced by the preservatives and a third child was only free of asthma and abdominal pain on placebo. This form of individual trial, using 12 daily drinks, overcomes some of the objections to a single challenge study. Despite this, intolerance to the additives was only confirmed in 3/19 children in whom it had been believed to occur.

  8. The I{sub c}(H)-T{sub c}(H) phase boundary of superconducting Nb thin films with periodic and quasiperiodic antidot arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothner, D.; Kemmler, M.; Cozma, R.; Kleiner, R.; Koelle, D. [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Misko, V.; Peeters, F. [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen (Belgium); Nori, F. [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    The magnetic field dependent critical current I{sub c}(H) of superconducting thin films with artificial defects strongly depends on the symmetry of the defect arrangement. Likewise the critical temperature T{sub c}(H) of superconducting wire networks is heavily influenced by the symmetry of the system. Here we present experimental data on the I{sub c}(H)-T{sub c}(H) phase boundary of Nb thin films with artificial defect lattices of different symmetries. For this purpose we fabricated 60 nm thick Nb films with antidots in periodic (triangular) and five different quasiperiodic arrangements. The parameters of the antidot arrays were varied to investigate the influence of antidot diameter and array density. Experiments were performed with high temperature stability ({delta}T<1 mK) at 0.5{<=}T/T{sub c}{<=}1. From the I-V-characteristics at variable H and T we extract I{sub c}(H) and T{sub c}(H) for different voltage and resistance criteria. The experimental data for the critical current density are compared with results from numerical molecular dynamics simulations.

  9. Heat and Mass Transfer during Hydrogen Generation in an Array of Fuel Bars of a BWR Using a Periodic Unit Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Romero-Paredes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents, the numerical analysis of heat and mass transfer during hydrogen generation in an array of fuel cylinder bars, each coated with a cladding and a steam current flowing outside the cylinders. The analysis considers the fuel element without mitigation effects. The system consists of a representative periodic unit cell where the initial and boundary-value problems for heat and mass transfer were solved. In this unit cell, we considered that a fuel element is coated by a cladding with steam surrounding it as a coolant. The numerical simulations allow describing the evolution of the temperature and concentration profiles inside the nuclear reactor and could be used as a basis for hybrid upscaling simulations.

  10. Controlling optical properties of periodic gold nanoparticle arrays by changing the substrate, topologic shapes of nanoparticles, and polarization direction of incident light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Li; Li, Yu; Zhi-Xin, Lu; Gang, Song; Kai, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of various parameters including thickness and dielectric constants of substrates, shapes of nanoparticles, and polarization direction of incident light, on the extinction spectra of periodic gold nanoparticle arrays are investigated by the full-vectorial three-dimensional (3D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The calculated results show that the substrate affects the extinction spectra by coupling the fields co-excited by the substrate and gold nanoparticles. Extinction spectra are influenced by the shapes of the nanoparticles, but there are no obvious changes in extinction spectra for similar shapes. The polarization direction of incident light has a great influence on the extinction spectra. The implications of these results are discussed. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  11. Numerical determination of families of three-dimensional double-symmetric periodic orbits in the restricted three-body problem. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazantzis, P.G.

    1979-01-01

    New families of three-dimensional double-symmetric periodic orbits are determined numerically in the Sun-Jupiter case of the restricted three-body problem. These families bifurcate from the 'vertical-critical' orbits (αsub(ν) = -1, csub(ν) = 0) of the 'basic' plane families i. g 1 g 2 h, a, m and I. Further the numerical procedure employed in the determination of these families has been described and interesting results have been pointed out. Also, computer plots of the orbits of these families have been shown in conical projections. (orig.)

  12. Evolution of the clock from yeast to man by period-doubling folds in the cellular oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevecz, R R; Li, C M

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of genome-wide oscillations in transcription reveals that the cell is an oscillator and an attractor and that the maintenance of a stable phenotype requires that maximums in expression in clusters of transcripts must be poised at antipodal phases around the steady state-this is the dynamic architecture of phenotype. Plots of the path through concentration phase space taken by all of the transcripts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yield a simple three-dimensional surface. How this surface might change as period lengthens or as a cell differentiates is at the center of current work. We have shown that changes in gene expression in response to mutation or perturbation by drugs occur through a folding or unfolding of the surface described by this circle of transcripts and we suggest that the path from this 40-minute oscillation to the cell cycle and circadian rhythms takes place through a series of period-two or period-three bifurcations. These foldings in the surface of the putative attractor result in an increasingly dense set of nested trajectories in the concentrations of message and protein. Evolutionary advantage might accrue to an organism that could change period by changes in just one or a few genes as day length increased from 4 hours in the prebiotic Earth, through 8 hours during the expansion of photoautotrophs, to the present 24 hours.

  13. 25–34 GHz Single-Pole, Double-Throw CMOS Switches for a Ka-Band Phased-Array Transceiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Park

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two single-pole, double-throw (SPDT mm-wave switches for Ka-band phased-array transceivers, fabricated with a 65-nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. One switch employs cross-biasing (CB control with a single supply, while the other uses dual-supply biasing (DSB control with positive and negative voltages. Negative voltages were generated internally, using a ring oscillator and a charge pump. Identical gate and body floated N-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (N-MOSFETs in a triple well were used as the switch core transistors. Inductors were used to improve the isolation between the transmitter (TX and receiver (RX, as well as insertion loss, by canceling the parasitic capacitance of the switch core transistors at resonance. The size of the proposed radio frequency (RF switch is 260 μm × 230 μm, excluding all pads. The minimum insertion losses of the CB and DSB switches were 2.1 dB at 28 GHz and 1.93 dB at 24 GHz, respectively. Between 25 GHz and 34 GHz, the insertion losses were less than 2.3 dB and 2.5 dB, the return losses were less than 16.7 dB and 17.3 dB, and the isolation was over 18.4 dB and 15.3 dB, respectively. The third order input intercept points (IIP3 of the CB and DSB switches were 38.4 dBm and 39 dBm at 28 GHz, respectively.

  14. Optimal design of a double-sided linear motor with a multi-segmented trapezoidal magnet array for a high precision positioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Moon G.; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2004-01-01

    A comparative analysis is performed for linear motors adopting conventional and multi-segmented trapezoidal (MST) magnet arrays, respectively, for a high-precision positioning system. The proposed MST magnet array is a modified version of a Halbach magnet array. The MST array has trapezoidal magnets with variable shape and dimensions while the Halbach magnet array generally has a rectangular magnet with identical dimensions. We propose a new model that can describe the magnetic field resulting from the complex-shaped magnets. The model can be applied to both MST and conventional magnet arrays. Using the model, a design optimization of the two types of linear motors is performed and compared. The magnet array with trapezoidal magnets can produce more force than one with rectangular magnets when they are arrayed in a linear motor where there is a yoke with high permeability. After the optimization and comparison, we conclude that the linear motor with the MST magnet array can generate more actuating force per volume than the motor with the conventional array. In order to satisfy the requirements of next generation systems such as high resolution, high speed, and long stroke, the use of a linear motor with a MST array as an actuator in a high precision positioning system is recommended from the results obtained here

  15. Period-doubling bifurcation cascade observed in a ferromagnetic nanoparticle under the action of a spin-polarized current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horley, Paul P., E-mail: paul.horley@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. (CIMAV), Chihuahua/Monterrey, 120 Avenida Miguel de Cervantes, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Kushnir, Mykola Ya. [Yuri Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotsyubynsky str., 58012 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Morales-Meza, Mishel [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. (CIMAV), Chihuahua/Monterrey, 120 Avenida Miguel de Cervantes, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Sukhov, Alexander [Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Rusyn, Volodymyr [Yuri Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotsyubynsky str., 58012 Chernivtsi (Ukraine)

    2016-04-01

    We report on complex magnetization dynamics in a forced spin valve oscillator subjected to a varying magnetic field and a constant spin-polarized current. The transition from periodic to chaotic magnetic motion was illustrated with bifurcation diagrams and Hausdorff dimension – the methods developed for dissipative self-organizing systems. It was shown that bifurcation cascades can be obtained either by tuning the injected spin-polarized current or by changing the magnitude of applied magnetic field. The order–chaos transition in magnetization dynamics can be also directly observed from the hysteresis curves. The resulting complex oscillations are useful for development of spin-valve devices operating in harmonic and chaotic modes.

  16. Double resonance long period fiber grating for detection of E. coli in trace concentration by choosing a proper bacteriophage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiniforooshan, Y.; Celebanska, A.; Janik, M.; Mikulic, P.; Haddad, F.; Perreault, J.; Bock, W. J.

    2017-04-01

    There is a critical need of a fast, specific and reliable assay for biological species. To address this need, long period fiber gratings (LPFG) among other fiber optic sensors can be used because of their high sensitivity to changes in surrounding medium. In this work we fabricated and used two over-etched LPFGs. One of them was covered with T4 Phage and the other was covered with MS2 phage that both specifically bind with Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. This bacterium is a major cause of the food contaminations and outbreaks. We showed achieving a highest sensitivity region of the LPFG and the way to fine tune to that region by over-etching the grating. Finally, using the highly sensitive LPFG platform we could detect E. coli at concentrations as low as 100 colony forming units (CFU), by covering the LPFG with an optimized bio-functionalization of the fiber surface with MS2 bacteriophage.

  17. Consistent gaussian basis sets of double- and triple-zeta valence with polarization quality of the fifth period for solid-state calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laun, Joachim; Vilela Oliveira, Daniel; Bredow, Thomas

    2018-02-22

    Consistent basis sets of double- and triple-zeta valence with polarization quality for the fifth period have been derived for periodic quantum-chemical solid-state calculations with the crystalline-orbital program CRYSTAL. They are an extension of the pob-TZVP basis sets, and are based on the full-relativistic effective core potentials (ECPs) of the Stuttgart/Cologne group and on the def2-SVP and def2-TZVP valence basis of the Ahlrichs group. We optimized orbital exponents and contraction coefficients to supply robust and stable self-consistent field (SCF) convergence for a wide range of different compounds. The computed crystal structures are compared to those obtained with standard basis sets available from the CRYSTAL basis set database. For the applied hybrid density functional PW1PW, the average deviations of calculated lattice constants from experimental references are smaller with pob-DZVP and pob-TZVP than with standard basis sets. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Oral hyaluronan relieves wrinkles: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study over a 12-week period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oe M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mariko Oe,1 Seigo Sakai,1 Hideto Yoshida,1 Nao Okado,1 Haruna Kaneda,1 Yasunobu Masuda,1 Osamu Urushibata2 1R&D Division, Kewpie Corporation, Sengawa-cho, Chofu-shi, 2Department of Dermatology, Toho University Ohashi Medical Center, Ohashi, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, Japan Background: Hyaluronan (HA has critical moisturizing property and high water retention capacity especially for human skin. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oral intake of HA. Methods: The mean molecular weight (MW of HA is 2 k and 300 k. Sixty Japanese male and female subjects aged 22–59 years who presented with crow’s feet wrinkles were randomly assigned to the HA 2 k or HA 300 k at 120 mg/day or the placebo group. The subjects were administered HA at a rate of 120 mg/day or a placebo for 12 weeks. The skin wrinkles were evaluated by image analysis of skin wrinkle replicas, and their skin condition was evaluated using a questionnaire survey. Results: During the study period, the HA groups showed better level of the whole sulcus ­volume ratio, wrinkle area ratio, and wrinkle volume ratio than the placebo group. After 8 weeks of ingestion, the HA 300 k group showed significantly diminished wrinkles compared with the placebo group. Skin luster and suppleness significantly improved after 12 weeks in all groups compared with the baseline. Conclusion: The results suggest that oral HA (both HA 2 k and HA 300 k inhibits skin wrinkles and improves skin condition. Keywords: hyaluronic acid, dietary supplement, skin, wrinkle volume, molecular weight

  19. Bone tunnel change develops within two weeks of double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstring autograft: A comparison of different postoperative immobilization periods using computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ryo; Adachi, Nobuo; Ishifuro, Minoru; Nakamae, Atsuo; Ishikawa, Masakazu; Deie, Masataka; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone tunnel changes following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction during the early postoperative period using computed tomography (CT), and to understand the impact of postoperative immobilization on these changes. Twenty patients who underwent double-bundle ACL reconstruction using hamstring tendon autografts were included. We subcategorized patients into two groups: patients who underwent isolated ACL reconstruction and had three days of knee immobilization (Group A, n=10); and patients with concomitant meniscus injuries who underwent ACL reconstruction and meniscus repair simultaneously (Group B, n=10) had their knees immobilized for two weeks after surgery. Bone tunnel enlargement was evaluated using CT imaging at one to three days, two weeks, one month, three months and six months after surgery. The cross-sectional area of the femoral and tibial tunnels was measured, and enlargement rate was calculated. The tunnel center location at two weeks after surgery was also evaluated. The mean cross-sectional area adjacent to the joint space of the femoral and tibial tunnels significantly increased immediately after surgery, especially in the first month (P0.01). There was no significant difference in tunnel enlargement rate between group A and B. Tunnel center location changed even in the first two weeks. Bone tunnel enlargement following double-bundle ACL reconstruction occurred at an earlier time point after surgery than anticipated. Postoperative immobilization could not prevent bone tunnel enlargement, but might prevent tunnel migration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy and safety of teneligliptin add-on to insulin monotherapy in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 16-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with an open-label period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Takashi; Kondo, Kazuoki; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Miyayama, Kyoko; Yokota, Shoko; Terata, Ryuji; Gouda, Maki

    2017-09-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of teneligliptin as add-on to insulin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In a 16-week, double-blind period, 148 Japanese T2DM patients with inadequate glycemic control with insulin and diet/exercise therapies were randomized to placebo or teneligliptin 20 mg. In a subsequent 36-week, open-label period, all patients received teneligliptin once daily. The primary outcome measure was change in HbA1c at the end of the double-blind period. The difference between placebo and teneligliptin in change in HbA1c in the double-blind period (least squares mean ± SE) was -0.80% ± 0.11%; teneligliptin was superior (ANCOVA, P 1). The HbA1c-lowering effect of teneligliptin was maintained throughout the open-label period. The incidence of adverse events was 53.5% with placebo and 44.2% with teneligliptin in the double-blind period, 66.7% in the placebo/teneligliptin group in the open-label period, and 77.9% in the teneligliptin/teneligliptin group over both double-blind/open-label periods. The incidence of hypoglycemic symptoms was 11.1% in the placebo/teneligliptin group in the open-label period and 27.3% in the teneligliptin/teneligliptin group over both double-blind/open-label periods. Teneligliptin was effective and well tolerated in Japanese T2DM patients with inadequate glycemic control. NCT02081599.

  1. Photoelectrocatalytic Glucose Oxidation to Promote Hydrogen Production over Periodically Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Assembled of Pd Quantum Dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yajun; Zhao, Guohua; Shi, Huijie; Zhang, Ya-nan; Huang, Wenna; Huang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Zhongyi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar-driven PEC glucose oxidation to promote hydrogen production was presented. • The excellent PEC activity of Pd QDs@TNTAs was investigated. • The rate of hydrogen production from glucose was about 15 times than water. • A low-cost and efficient method in renewables-to-hydrogen conversion was put forward. - Abstract: The development of highly efficient and low-cost approaches for catalytic hydrogen production from renewable energy is of tremendous importance for a truly sustainable hydrogen-based energy carrier in future life. Herein, the probability of utilizing solar light to product hydrogen from biomass derivative, glucose, was systematically demonstrated by using the periodically ordered TiO 2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) assembled of Palladium quantum dots (Pd QDs), i.e. Pd QDs@ TNTAs as photoanode. The results showed that remarkably increased photocurrent density was obtained in the glucose solution compared to the pure KOH electrolyte over as-prepared photoelectrode, which indicated that the glucose could be faster oxidized than water oxidation, and thus could promote the hydrogen production on Pt cathode. The yield of hydrogen production from glucose oxidation reached as high as 164.8 μmol cm −1 over Pd QDs@TNTAs photoanode and Pt cathode system (denoted as Pd QDs@TNTAs/Pt) under the solar light irradiation for 6 h, which was about 15 times higher than that from pure water splitting. The superior hydrogen production performance could be attributed to the less endergonic process of the glucose oxidation than water, as well as the efficient synergistic photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) glucose oxidation over Pd QDs@TNTAs photoanode which possesses excellent photoelectrochemical performance and structure characteristics. Moreover, a probable mechanism for the PEC hydrogen production from biomass derivatives oxidation was proposed and discussed

  2. Negative resistance in I-V characteristics and 2D vortex dynamics in a-W/Si multilayer superconductors with periodic antidot arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosu, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Kuwasawa, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Nojima, T

    2003-05-01

    We have examined the vortex dynamics in W/Si multilayers with the arrays of antidots in the form of square and triangular lattices. In the measurements of I-V characteristics as a function of temperature T and magnetic field H, we find a specific feature that the V(I) curves coincide irrespective of T. Especially the V(I) curves with a negative slope are observed in the multilayer with triangular arrays.

  3. The Growth Periods Responses of Double-season Paddy Rice to Climate Change in Hunan Province, China over the Past Two Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Li, Y.; Yi, M.; Ye, T.

    2015-12-01

    The shifts of timing and length of the growing season (TLGS) are important indicators of crop response to climate change. With the help of satellite image data, it becomes feasible to retrieve the TLGS in a spatially continuous manner, which also accommodates local variation of TGSs. In this article, the TGSs of paddy rice in Hunan Province, China since 1995 was retrieved using times-series curves of MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI). The change in TLGS and its connection to regional climate change was discussed. The results showed the advance of TGSs of double-season paddy rice and the reduction of GSL in the past 20 years, which is believed to be linked to the rise in the temperature and precipitation in the growth periods. Understanding the local variation and trend of TLGS influenced by climate change is essential for making agricultural adaptive policies to reduce the risk of crop damaged, also can provide key information for studying how multi-hazards affect crop exposure.

  4. Discovery of a Detached, Eclipsing 40 Minute Period Double White Dwarf Binary and a Friend: Implications for He+CO White Dwarf Mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin; Kosakowski, Alekzander; Gianninas, A.

    2017-01-01

    We report the discovery of two detached double white dwarf (WD) binaries, SDSS J082239.546+304857.19 and SDSS J104336.275+055149.90, with orbital periods of 40 and 46 minutes, respectively. The 40 minute system is eclipsing; it is composed of a 0.30 M ⊙ and a 0.52 M ⊙ WD. The 46 minute system is a likely LISA verification binary. The short 20 ± 2 Myr and ∼34 Myr gravitational-wave merger times of the two binaries imply that many more such systems have formed and merged over the age of the Milky Way. We update the estimated Milky Way He+CO WD binary merger rate and affirm our previously published result: He+CO WD binaries merge at a rate at least 40 times greater than the formation rate of stable mass-transfer AM CVn binaries, and so the majority must have unstable mass-transfer. The implication is that spin–orbit coupling in He+CO WD mergers is weak, or perhaps nova-like outbursts drive He+CO WDs into merger, as proposed by Shen.

  5. Discovery of a Detached, Eclipsing 40 Minute Period Double White Dwarf Binary and a Friend: Implications for He+CO White Dwarf Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin; Kosakowski, Alekzander; Gianninas, A.

    2017-09-01

    We report the discovery of two detached double white dwarf (WD) binaries, SDSS J082239.546+304857.19 and SDSS J104336.275+055149.90, with orbital periods of 40 and 46 minutes, respectively. The 40 minute system is eclipsing; it is composed of a 0.30 M ⊙ and a 0.52 M ⊙ WD. The 46 minute system is a likely LISA verification binary. The short 20 ± 2 Myr and ˜34 Myr gravitational-wave merger times of the two binaries imply that many more such systems have formed and merged over the age of the Milky Way. We update the estimated Milky Way He+CO WD binary merger rate and affirm our previously published result: He+CO WD binaries merge at a rate at least 40 times greater than the formation rate of stable mass-transfer AM CVn binaries, and so the majority must have unstable mass-transfer. The implication is that spin-orbit coupling in He+CO WD mergers is weak, or perhaps nova-like outbursts drive He+CO WDs into merger, as proposed by Shen. Based on observations obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona, and on observations obtained with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  6. Discovery of a Detached, Eclipsing 40 Minute Period Double White Dwarf Binary and a Friend: Implications for He+CO White Dwarf Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin; Kosakowski, Alekzander; Gianninas, A., E-mail: wbrown@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: kilic@ou.edu, E-mail: alexg@nhn.ou.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We report the discovery of two detached double white dwarf (WD) binaries, SDSS J082239.546+304857.19 and SDSS J104336.275+055149.90, with orbital periods of 40 and 46 minutes, respectively. The 40 minute system is eclipsing; it is composed of a 0.30 M {sub ⊙} and a 0.52 M {sub ⊙} WD. The 46 minute system is a likely LISA verification binary. The short 20 ± 2 Myr and ∼34 Myr gravitational-wave merger times of the two binaries imply that many more such systems have formed and merged over the age of the Milky Way. We update the estimated Milky Way He+CO WD binary merger rate and affirm our previously published result: He+CO WD binaries merge at a rate at least 40 times greater than the formation rate of stable mass-transfer AM CVn binaries, and so the majority must have unstable mass-transfer. The implication is that spin–orbit coupling in He+CO WD mergers is weak, or perhaps nova-like outbursts drive He+CO WDs into merger, as proposed by Shen.

  7. Patient-reported outcomes in patients with overactive bladder treated with mirabegron and tolterodine in a prospective, double-blind, randomized, two-period crossover, multicenter study (PREFER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschorn, Sender; Staskin, David; Tu, Le Mai; Fialkov, Jonathan; Walsh, Terry; Gooch, Katherine; Schermer, Carol R

    2018-04-19

    The PREFER study was an assessment of medication tolerability, treatment preference and symptom improvement during treatment with mirabegron (M) and tolterodine (T) extended release (ER) in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). In this analysis of PREFER, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were assessed during treatment. PREFER was a two-period, 8-week crossover, double-blind, phase IV study (NCT02138747) of treatment-naïve adults with OAB ≥3 months randomized to 1 of 4 treatment sequences (M/T; T/M; M/M; T/T), separated by a 2-week washout. Tolterodine ER was dosed at 4 mg for 8 weeks and mirabegron was dosed at 25 mg for 4 weeks then increased to 50 mg for the next 4 weeks. At each visit, PROs related to treatment satisfaction, quality of life and symptom bother were assessed using the OAB Satisfaction (OAB-S; 3 independent scales/5 single-item overall assessments), OAB-q (total health-related QoL [HRQoL] and subscales [Sleep, Social, Coping, Concern] and Symptom Bother scale) and Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) questionnaires. Responder rates were reported for OAB-q subscales based on a minimal important difference (MID; ≥ 10-point improvement) and OAB-S Medication Tolerability score ≥ 90. In total, 358 randomized patients received ≥1 dose of double-blind study medication and completed ≥1 post-baseline value (OAB-S scale, OAB-q, PPBC): M/T (n = 154), T/M (n = 144), M/M (n = 30) or T/T (n = 30). At end of treatment (EoT), mirabegron and tolterodine ER were associated with similar mean improvements in 7 of the 8 OAB-S scores investigated, OAB-q scales and PPBC. A higher percentage of patients achieved clinically relevant improvements (MID) in OAB-q scales and OAB-S Medication Tolerability score during treatment with mirabegron than tolterodine ER. On average, patients with OAB experienced improvements in treatment satisfaction, HRQoL and symptom bother that were of a similar magnitude during treatment with

  8. Location and wavefield attributes of long-period signals at Villarrica volcano (Chile) determined by array and polarization-moveout analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, Johanna; Thorwart, Martin; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Villarrica Volcano is the most active volcano in Chile whose latest eruption occurred in March 2015. Increasing the knowledge on its processes, structure and behavior is thus crucial to an effective monitoring and hazard assessment. In this context, long-period volcanic signals (LP) are considered to be a key to the understanding of fluid dynamics and volcanic plumbing systems, accessible by seismological observations. However, standard seismological location tools usually fail due to the emergent onset of the signal and its serious distortion caused by attenuation and scattering in a complex geology. Therefore, alternative methods are needed. In March 2012, a dense seismic network was installed at Villarrica for two weeks with 50 stations covering the volcanic edifice including 6 subarrays. About 400 LP events were identified. LP-events recorded on crater stations look similar to typical earthquakes arrivals with distinguishable P- and S-wave onsets indicating a source near the crater. But with increasing source distance waveforms gradually change into typical LP-events. To investigate how to locate these LP-events we tested two approaches at the basis of a show-case event. In a first trial, records of the subarrays were used to determine backazimuths and slowness by beamforming in the time domain. The analysis was performed in a moving window, using semblance to measure the beam quality. The epicenter was derived by intersecting azimuthal rays. It locates ca. 1 km southeast of the summit crater. Slownesses range from 0.5 s/km up to 2.0 s/km. At frequencies above 2 Hz, additional maxima appear in the semblance distribution of near-summit arrays which can be interpreted as side-scattered signals. Since the crossing points of the backazimuth rays showed some scattering we tested polarization analysis (applied to the subset of 3-component stations) as an alternative location method. Although the direct interpretation of the backazimuths was unreliable, we identified

  9. Transversus abdominis plane block reduces morphine consumption in the early postoperative period following microsurgical abdominal tissue breast reconstruction: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Toni; Ojha, M; Bagher, Shaghayegh; Butler, Kate; Srinivas, Coimbatore; McCluskey, Stuart A; Clarke, Hance; O'Neill, Anne C; Novak, Christine B; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2014-11-01

    The analgesic efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block following abdominal tissue breast reconstruction has not been studied in a randomized controlled trial. The authors conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1:1 allocation, two-arm parallel group, superiority design, randomized controlled trial in patients undergoing microsurgical abdominally based breast reconstruction. Intraoperatively, epidural catheters were inserted under direct vision through the triangle of Petit on both sides of the abdomen into the transversus abdominis plane just before rectus fascial closure. Patients received either bupivacaine (study group) or saline (placebo group) through the catheters for 2 postoperative days. All patients received hydromorphone by means of a patient-controlled analgesic pump. The primary outcome was the difference in the parenteral opioid consumption on each postoperative day between the groups. The secondary outcome measures included the following: total in-hospital opioid; antinausea medication; pain, nausea, and sedation scores; Quality of Recovery Score; time to ambulation; and hospital stay duration. Between September of 2011 and June of 2013, 93 patients were enrolled: 49 received bupivacaine and 44 received saline. There were 11 postoperative complications (13 percent); none were related to the catheter. Primary outcomes were completed by 85 of 93 patients (91.3 percent); the mean parenteral morphine consumption was significantly reduced on postoperative day 1 in the bupivacaine group (20.7±20.1 mg) compared with 30.0±19.1 mg in the control group (p=0.02). There were no significant differences in secondary outcomes. Following abdominally based breast reconstruction, transversus abdominis plane peripheral nerve block is safe and significantly reduces morphine consumption in the early postoperative period. Therapeutic, II.

  10. Vortex pinning vs superconducting wire network: origin of periodic oscillations induced by applied magnetic fields in superconducting films with arrays of nanomagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A; Del Valle, J; Gonzalez, E M; Vicent, J L; Chiliotte, C E; Carreira, S J; Bekeris, V; Prieto, J L; Schuller, Ivan K

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid magnetic arrays embedded in superconducting films are ideal systems to study the competition between different physical (such as the coherence length) and structural length scales such as are available in artificially produced structures. This interplay leads to oscillation in many magnetically dependent superconducting properties such as the critical currents, resistivity and magnetization. These effects are generally analyzed using two distinct models based on vortex pinning or wire network. In this work, we show that for magnetic dot arrays, as opposed to antidot (i.e. holes) arrays, vortex pinning is the main mechanism for field induced oscillations in resistance R(H), critical current I c (H), magnetization M(H) and ac-susceptibility χ ac (H) in a broad temperature range. Due to the coherence length divergence at T c , a crossover to wire network behaviour is experimentally found. While pinning occurs in a wide temperature range up to T c , wire network behaviour is only present in a very narrow temperature window close to T c . In this temperature interval, contributions from both mechanisms are operational but can be experimentally distinguished. (papers)

  11. Reliability of cortical lesion detection on double inversion recovery MRI applying the MAGNIMS-Criteria in multiple sclerosis patients within a 16-months period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Djamsched Faizy

    Full Text Available In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS, Double Inversion Recovery (DIR magnetic resonance imaging (MRI can be used to identify cortical lesions (CL. We sought to evaluate the reliability of CL detection on DIR longitudinally at multiple subsequent time-points applying the MAGNIMs scoring criteria for CLs.26 MS patients received a 3T-MRI (Siemens, Skyra with DIR at 12 time-points (TP within a 16 months period. Scans were assessed in random order by two different raters. Both raters separately marked all CLs on each scan and total lesion numbers were obtained for each scan-TP and patient. After a retrospective re-evaluation, the number of consensus CLs (conL was defined as the total number of CLs, which both raters finally agreed on. CLs volumes, relative signal intensities and CLs localizations were determined. Both ratings (conL vs. non-consensus scoring were compared for further analysis.A total number of n = 334 CLs were identified by both raters in 26 MS patients with a first agreement of both raters on 160 out of 334 of the CLs found (κ = 0.48. After the retrospective re-evaluation, consensus agreement increased to 233 out of 334 CL (κ = 0.69. 93.8% of conL were visible in at least 2 consecutive TP. 74.7% of the conL were visible in all 12 consecutive TP. ConL had greater mean lesion volumes and higher mean signal intensities compared to lesions that were only detected by one of the raters (p<0.05. A higher number of CLs in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobe were identified by both raters than the number of those only identified by one of the raters (p<0.05.After a first assessment, slightly less than a half of the CL were considered as reliably detectable on longitudinal DIR images. A retrospective re-evaluation notably increased the consensus agreement. However, this finding is narrowed, considering the fact that retrospective evaluation steps might not be practicable in clinical routine. Lesions that were not reliably

  12. A Prospective Randomized, Double-Blind, Two-Period Crossover Pharmacokinetic Trial Comparing Green Coffee Bean Extract-A Botanically Sourced Caffeine-With a Synthetic USP Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kayce; Knight, Katelin; Kalman, Douglas; Hewlings, Susan

    2018-04-16

    Coffee is a primary dietary source of the chlorogenic acids (CGAs) of phenolic compounds. Coffee contains caffeine and other phytonutrients, including CGAs. Caffeine on its own has been well characterized and descried pharmacokinetically in the literature, less so for CGAs. The purpose of this double-blind crossover study was to determine the comparative pharmacokinetics of CGAs with caffeine (natural extract) with synthetic caffeine (US Pharmacopeia [USP] standard). Sixteen healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to take 1 dose of product 1, 60 mg of botanically sourced caffeine from 480 mg of green coffee bean extract, or product 2, 60 mg of synthetic USP caffeine, with 5 days between. Blood analysis was done to determine the levels of CGA compounds, more specifically 3-, 4-, and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), and serum caffeine. The natural caffeine extract exhibited mean peak concentrations (C max ) of 3-CQA (11.4 ng/mL), 4-CQA (6.84 ng/mL), and 5-CQA (7.20 ng/mL). The mean systemic 4-hour exposure (AUC 0-4 h ) was 3-CQA (27.3 ng·h/mL), 4-CQA (16.1 ng·h/mL), and 5-CQA (15.7 ng·h/mL). The median t max was 3-CQA (1.00 hour), 4-CQA (1.00 hour), and 5-CQA (1.50 hours). The t max of caffeine was 0.75 hours (natural extract) and 0.63 hours (synthetic caffeine). C max and AUC 0-4 h of serum caffeine were statistically equivalent between products. The geometric least-squares mean ratios (GMRs) of C max and AUC 0-4 h of caffeine were 97.77% (natural extract) and 98.33% (synthetic caffeine). It would appear that CGA compounds from the natural caffeine extract are bioavailable, and 3-CGA may be the compound most absorbed. In addition, caffeine sourced from natural extract versus synthetic were statistically similar for pharmacokinetic parameters. There were no adverse events or safety concerns. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Double Fano resonances in plasmon coupling nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fei; Jin, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Fano resonances are investigated in nanorods with symmetric lengths and side-by-side assembly. Single Fano resonance can be obtained by a nanorod dimer, and double Fano resonances are shown in nanorod trimers with side-by-side assembly. With transverse plasmon excitation, Fano resonances are caused by the destructive interference between a bright superradiant mode and dark subradiant modes. The bright mode originates from the electric plasmon resonance, and the dark modes originate from the magnetic resonances induced by near-field inter-rod coupling. Double Fano resonances result from double dark modes at different wavelengths, which are induced and tuned by the asymmetric gaps between the adjacent nanorods. Fano resonances show a high figure of merit and large light extinction in the periodic array of assembled nanorods, which can potentially be used in multiwavelength sensing in the visible and near-infrared regions. (paper)

  14. Estimation of shallow ground structure using short-period microtremors array observation. Results in Morioka area; Tanshuki bido no array kansoku ni yoru senbu chika kozo no suitei. Moriokashiiki ni okeru kekka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H; Obuchi, T; Saito, T; Iwamoto, K [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yoshida, Y [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The velocity structure in the shallow ground structure was evaluated by observing microtremors of 1-10Hz in the Morioka City area. Plural wave sections free of vehicle noises or the like were selected out of the collected microtremor records, and the Fourier spectrum and coherence were calculated. Records sufficiently supporting the correlation between seismographs were chosen for the analysis. The phase velocity was calculated for each observation spot from plural array records by use of the F-K spectrum. The underground velocity structure was estimated by the inversion process using the matrix method. In this method, an early model was built on the basis of the observed phase velocity and the optimum underground velocity structure was determined by alternately performing two inversion processes: one for the case wherein the S-wave velocity is the sole parameter and the other for the case wherein the layer thickness is the sole parameter. As the result, a shallow underground velocity structure, which has good agreement with the available boring data in the Morioka City area, was successfully estimated, verifying the validity of this method. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Development of Discrimination, Detection, and Location Capabilities in Central and Southern Asia Using Middle-Period Surface Waves Recorded by a Regional Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levshin, Anatoli

    1997-01-01

    .... We present group velocity maps from 10 s to 40 s period for both Rayleigh and Love waves. Broadband waveform data from about 600 events from 1988 - 1995 recorded at 83 individual stations from several global and regional networks...

  16. High-efficiency and multi-frequency polarization converters based on graphene metasurface with twisting double L-shaped unit structure array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Xiao, Xiaofei; Chang, Linzi; Wang, Congyun; Zhao, Deping

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a high-efficiency and tunable dual-frequency reflective polarization converter composed of graphene metasurface with twisting double L-shaped unit is firstly realized. Numerical results demonstrate that the device can convert a linearly polarized wave to its cross-polarized wave, and meantime it can also convert to a circularly polarized wave. Subsequently, one thickness of 500 nm SiO2 layer sandwiched by two graphene metasurfaces with similar pattern is stacked on the top of the two-layered structure, a four-frequency efficient reflective polarization converters is realized. Above all, those working frequencies can also be dynamically tuned within a large frequency range by adjusting the Fermi energy of the graphene, without reoptimizing and refabricating the nanostructures, which paves a novel way toward developing a controllable polarization converter for mid-infrared applications.

  17. "Turn-off" fluorescent data array sensor based on double quantum dots coupled with chemometrics for highly sensitive and selective detection of multicomponent pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yao; Liu, Li; Sun, Donglei; Lan, Hanyue; Fu, Haiyan; Yang, Tianming; She, Yuanbin; Ni, Chuang

    2016-04-15

    As a popular detection model, the fluorescence "turn-off" sensor based on quantum dots (QDs) has already been successfully employed in the detections of many materials, especially in the researches on the interactions between pesticides. However, the previous studies are mainly focused on simple single track or the comparison based on similar concentration of drugs. In this work, a new detection method based on the fluorescence "turn-off" model with water-soluble ZnCdSe and CdSe QDs simultaneously as the fluorescent probes is established to detect various pesticides. The fluorescence of the two QDs can be quenched by different pesticides with varying degrees, which leads to the differences in positions and intensities of two peaks. By combining with chemometrics methods, all the pesticides can be qualitative and quantitative respectively even in real samples with the limit of detection was 2 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) and a recognition rate of 100%. This work is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report on the detection of pesticides based on the fluorescence quenching phenomenon of double quantum dots combined with chemometrics methods. What's more, the excellent selectivity of the system has been verified in different mediums such as mixed ion disruption, waste water, tea and water extraction liquid drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Interfacial pH-gradient induced micro-capillary filling with the aid of transverse electrodes arrays in presence of electrical double layer effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Avi; Chakraborty, Suman

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, we outline the design and analysis of a micro-capillary filling mechanism through the aid of interfacial pH gradients (and hence interfacial tension gradients) generated by employing arrays of transverse electrodes inducing step changes in voltages, in a natural buffer system that requires low power and no synthetic ampholytes. The capillary transport is modulated by a dynamic and non-trivial coupling between the interfacial tension and viscous resistances, as a consequence of the underlying intermolecular interactions. The competing effects of the driving and the retarding forces effectively determine the displacement, velocity and acceleration characteristics of the capillary front, in a dynamically evolving manner. A comprehensive theoretical model of capillary dynamics is developed here to address these issues in details, thereby revealing the combined influence of the interfacial electrochemistry and the applied transverse voltages, as guided by the pertinent fundamental thermodynamic principles governed by free energy considerations and the physico-chemical phenomena over interfacial scales. Non-trivial implications of the pH-gradient driven micro-capillary transport are aptly emphasized, so as to offer significant physical insights on the adopted strategy as a guiding principle for facilitating capillary filling processes by inducing a modulation in the effective interfacial energy. Particular implications on the capillary filling time are also pinpointed, revealing the effectiveness of the adopted design strategy. Finally, a universal scaling relationship of the capillary filling time as a function of the pertinent operating parameters is derived, so as to provide a generalized guideline for implementing the design scheme. A non-dimensional parameter, depending simultaneously on the inter-electrode pitch and the transverse voltage, is identified, which may be kept to a minimal limit within the other operating constraints of the chosen

  19. Array capabilities and future arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, D.

    1993-01-01

    Early results from the new third-generation instruments GAMMASPHERE and EUROGAM are confirming the expectation that such arrays will have a revolutionary effect on the field of high-spin nuclear structure. When completed, GAMMASHPERE will have a resolving power am order of magnitude greater that of the best second-generation arrays. When combined with other instruments such as particle-detector arrays and fragment mass analysers, the capabilites of the arrays for the study of more exotic nuclei will be further enhanced. In order to better understand the limitations of these instruments, and to design improved future detector systems, it is important to have some intelligible and reliable calculation for the relative resolving power of different instrument designs. The derivation of such a figure of merit will be briefly presented, and the relative sensitivities of arrays currently proposed or under construction presented. The design of TRIGAM, a new third-generation array proposed for Chalk River, will also be discussed. It is instructive to consider how far arrays of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors could be taken. For example, it will be shown that an idealised open-quote perfectclose quotes third-generation array of 1000 detectors has a sensitivity an order of magnitude higher again than that of GAMMASPHERE. Less conventional options for new arrays will also be explored

  20. Study on interaction between palladium(ІІ)-Linezolid chelate with eosin by resonance Rayleigh scattering, second order of scattering and frequency doubling scattering methods using Taguchi orthogonal array design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Disha; Gevriya, Bhavesh; Mashru, R. C.

    2014-03-01

    Linezolid reacted with palladium to form 1:1 binary cationic chelate which further reacted with eosin dye to form 1:1 ternary ion association complex at pH 4 of Walpole's acetate buffer in the presence of methyl cellulose. As a result not only absorption spectra were changed but Resonance Rayleigh Scattering (RRS), Second-order Scattering (SOS) and Frequency Doubling Scattering (FDS) intensities were greatly enhanced. The analytical wavelengths of RRS, SOS and FDS (λex/λem) of ternary complex were located at 538 nm/538 nm, 240 nm/480 nm and 660 nm/330 nm, respectively. The linearity range for RRS, SOS and FDS methods were 0.01-0.5 μg mL-1, 0.1-2 μg mL-1 and 0.2-1.8 μg mL-1, respectively. The sensitivity order of three methods was as RRS > SOS > FDS. Accuracy of all methods were determined by recovery studies and showed recovery between 98% and 102%. Intraday and inter day precision were checked for all methods and %RSD was found to be less than 2 for all methods. The effects of foreign substances were tested on RRS method and it showed the method had good selectivity. For optimization of process parameter, Taguchi orthogonal array design L8(24) was used and ANOVA was adopted to determine the statistically significant control factors that affect the scattering intensities of methods. The reaction mechanism, composition of ternary ion association complex and reasons for scattering intensity enhancement was discussed in this work.

  1. Can a brief period of double J stenting improve the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi sized 1 to 2 cm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh; Das, Ranjit Kumar; Basu, Supriya; Dey, Ranjan Kumar; Gupta, Rupesh; Deb, Partha Pratim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is an established modality for renal calculi. Its role for large stones is being questioned. A novel model of temporary double J (DJ) stenting followed by ESWL was devised and outcomes were assessed. Materials and Methods The study included 95 patients with renal calculi sized 1 to 2 cm. Patients were randomized into 3 groups. Group 1 received ESWL only, whereas group 2 underwent stenting followed by ESWL. In group 3, a distinct model was applied in which the stent was kept for 1 week and then removed, followed by ESWL. Procedural details, analgesic requirements, and outcome were analyzed. Results Eighty-eight patients (male, 47; female, 41) were available for analysis. The patients' mean age was 37.9±10.9 years. Stone profile was similar among groups. Group 3 received fewer shocks (mean, 3,155) than did group 1 (mean, 3,859; p=0.05) or group 2 (mean, 3,872; p=0.04). The fragmentation rate was similar in group 3 (96.7%) and groups 1 (81.5%, p=0.12) and 2 (87.1%, p=0.16). Overall clearance in group 3 was significantly improved (83.3%) compared with that in groups 1 (63.0%, p=0.02) and 2 (64.5%, p=0.02) and was maintained even in lower pole stones. The percentage successful outcome in groups 1, 2, and 3 was 66.7%, 64.5%, and 83.3%, respectively (p=0.21). The analgesic requirement in group 2 was higher than in the other groups (p=0.00). Group 2 patients also had more grade IIIa (2/3) and IIIB (1/2) complications. Conclusions Stenting adversely affects stone clearance and also makes the later course uncomfortable. Our model of brief stenting followed by ESWL provided better clearance, comfort, and a modest improvement in outcome with fewer sittings and steinstrasse in selected patients with large renal calculi. PMID:28261679

  2. Can a brief period of double J stenting improve the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi sized 1 to 2 cm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Sharma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL is an established modality for renal calculi. Its role for large stones is being questioned. A novel model of temporary double J (DJ stenting followed by ESWL was devised and outcomes were assessed. Materials and Methods: The study included 95 patients with renal calculi sized 1 to 2 cm. Patients were randomized into 3 groups. Group 1 received ESWL only, whereas group 2 underwent stenting followed by ESWL. In group 3, a distinct model was applied in which the stent was kept for 1 week and then removed, followed by ESWL. Procedural details, analgesic requirements, and outcome were analyzed. Results: Eighty-eight patients (male, 47; female, 41 were available for analysis. The patients’ mean age was 37.9±10.9 years. Stone profile was similar among groups. Group 3 received fewer shocks (mean, 3,155 than did group 1 (mean, 3,859; p=0.05 or group 2 (mean, 3,872; p=0.04. The fragmentation rate was similar in group 3 (96.7% and groups 1 (81.5%, p=0.12 and 2 (87.1%, p=0.16. Overall clearance in group 3 was significantly improved (83.3% compared with that in groups 1 (63.0%, p=0.02 and 2 (64.5%, p=0.02 and was maintained even in lower pole stones. The percentage successful outcome in groups 1, 2, and 3 was 66.7%, 64.5%, and 83.3%, respectively (p=0.21. The analgesic requirement in group 2 was higher than in the other groups (p=0.00. Group 2 patients also had more grade IIIa (2/3 and IIIB (1/2 complications. Conclusions: Stenting adversely affects stone clearance and also makes the later course uncomfortable. Our model of brief stenting followed by ESWL provided better clearance, comfort, and a modest improvement in outcome with fewer sittings and steinstrasse in selected patients with large renal calculi.

  3. SNP Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Louhelainen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The papers published in this Special Issue “SNP arrays” (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Arrays focus on several perspectives associated with arrays of this type. The range of papers vary from a case report to reviews, thereby targeting wider audiences working in this field. The research focus of SNP arrays is often human cancers but this Issue expands that focus to include areas such as rare conditions, animal breeding and bioinformatics tools. Given the limited scope, the spectrum of papers is nothing short of remarkable and even from a technical point of view these papers will contribute to the field at a general level. Three of the papers published in this Special Issue focus on the use of various SNP array approaches in the analysis of three different cancer types. Two of the papers concentrate on two very different rare conditions, applying the SNP arrays slightly differently. Finally, two other papers evaluate the use of the SNP arrays in the context of genetic analysis of livestock. The findings reported in these papers help to close gaps in the current literature and also to give guidelines for future applications of SNP arrays.

  4. Micromolding for ceramic microneedle arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwkasteele-Bystrova, Svetlana Nikolajevna; Lüttge, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication process of ceramic microneedle arrays (MNAs) is presented. This includes the manufacturing of an SU-8/Si-master, its double replication resulting in a PDMS mold for production by micromolding and ceramic sintering. The robustness of the replicated structures was tested by means of

  5. electrode array

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    A geoelectric investigation employing vertical electrical soundings (VES) using the Ajayi - Makinde Two-Electrode array and the ... arrangements used in electrical D.C. resistivity survey. These include ..... Refraction Tomography to Study the.

  6. Beyond the double banana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenzweig, Ivana; Fogarasi, András; Johnsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether extending the 10-20 array with 6 electrodes in the inferior temporal chain and constructing computed montages increases the diagnostic value of ictal EEG activity originating in the temporal lobe. In addition, the accuracy of computer-assisted spectral source......). Spectral source analysis used source montage to calculate density spectral array, defining the earliest oscillatory onset. From this, phase maps were calculated for localization. The reference standard was the decision of the multidisciplinary epilepsy surgery team on the seizure onset zone. Clinical...... performance was compared with the double banana (longitudinal bipolar montage, 10-20 array). RESULTS: Adding the inferior temporal electrode chain, computed montages (reference free, common average, and source derivation), and voltage maps significantly increased the sensitivity. Phase maps had the highest...

  7. Double inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-04-01

    The Zel'dovich spectrum of adiabatic density perturbations is a generic prediction of inflation. There is increasing evidence that when the spectrum is normalized by observational data on small scales, there is not enough power on large scales to account for the observed large-scale structure in the Universe. Decoupling the spectrum on large and small scales could solve this problem. As a means of decoupling the large and small scales we propose double inflation (i.e., two episodes of inflation). In this scenario the spectrum on large scales is determined by the first episode of inflation and those on small scales by a second episode of inflation. We present three models for such a scenario. By nearly saturating the large angular-scale cosmic microwave anisotropy bound, we can easily account for the observed large-scale structure. We take the perturbations on small scales to be very large, deltarho/rho approx. = 0.1 to 0.01, which results in the production of primordial black holes (PBHs), early formation of structure, reionization of the Universe, and a rich array of astrophysical events. The Ω-problem is also addressed by our scenario. Allowing the density perturbations produced by the second episode of inflation to be large also lessens the fine-tuning required in the scalar potential and makes reheating much easier. We briefly speculate on the possibility that the second episode of inflation proceeds through the nucleation of bubbles, which today manifest themselves as empty bubbles whose surfaces are covered with galaxies. 37 refs., 1 fig

  8. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  9. Perturbed period-doubling bifurcation. I. Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1990-01-01

    -defined way that is a function of the amplitude and the frequency of the signal. New scaling laws between the amplitude of the signal and the detuning δ are found; these scaling laws apply to a variety of quantities, e.g., to the shift of the bifurcation point. It is also found that the stability...... of a microwave-driven Josephson junction confirm the theory. Results should be of interest in parametric-amplification studies....

  10. Superhydrophobic hierarchical arrays fabricated by a scalable colloidal lithography approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothary, Pratik; Dou, Xuan; Fang, Yin; Gu, Zhuxiao; Leo, Sin-Yen; Jiang, Peng

    2017-02-01

    Here we report an unconventional colloidal lithography approach for fabricating a variety of periodic polymer nanostructures with tunable geometries and hydrophobic properties. Wafer-sized, double-layer, non-close-packed silica colloidal crystal embedded in a polymer matrix is first assembled by a scalable spin-coating technology. The unusual non-close-packed crystal structure combined with a thin polymer film separating the top and the bottom colloidal layers render great versatility in templating periodic nanostructures, including arrays of nanovoids, nanorings, and hierarchical nanovoids. These different geometries result in varied fractions of entrapped air in between the templated nanostructures, which in turn lead to different apparent water contact angles. Superhydrophobic surfaces with >150° water contact angles and <5° contact angle hysteresis are achieved on fluorosilane-modified polymer hierarchical nanovoid arrays with large fractions of entrapped air. The experimental contact angle measurements are complemented with theoretical predictions using the Cassie's model to gain insights into the fundamental microstructure-dewetting property relationships. The experimental and theoretical contact angles follow the same trends as determined by the unique hierarchical structures of the templated periodic arrays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The configuration of a tomographic array in which the object can rotate about its axis is described. The X-ray detector is a cylindrical screen perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The X-ray source has a line-shaped focus coinciding with the axis of rotation. The beam is fan-shaped with one side of this fan lying along the axis of rotation. The detector screen is placed inside an X-ray image multiplier tube

  12. Tomographic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A tomographic array with the following characteristics is described. An X-ray screen serving as detector is placed before a photomultiplier tube which itself is placed in front of a television camera connected to a set of image processors. The detector is concave towards the source and is replacable. Different images of the object are obtained simultaneously. Optical fibers and lenses are used for transmission within the system

  13. A prospective, double-blind, randomized, two-period crossover, multicenter study to evaluate tolerability and patient preference between mirabegron and tolterodine in patients with overactive bladder (PREFER study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staskin, David; Herschorn, Sender; Fialkov, Jonathan; Tu, Le Mai; Walsh, Terry; Schermer, Carol R

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the tolerability and treatment preference in patients with overactive bladder (OAB) treated with mirabegron or tolterodine. This was a two-period, 8-week crossover, double-blind, phase IV study (PREFER; NCT02138747) in treatment-naive adults with OAB for 3 months or longer randomized to one of four treatment sequences in a 5:5:1:1 ratio (mirabegron/tolterodine, tolterodine/mirabegron, mirabegron/mirabegron, or tolterodine/tolterodine), separated by a washout period of 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was drug tolerability using the Medication Tolerability scale of the OAB Treatment Satisfaction (OAB-S) questionnaire at end of treatment (EoT). Period-by-treatment interactions were analyzed to determine any effect of drug order. Patient preference, change from baseline in OAB symptoms, and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were assessed. A total of 358 randomized patients completed the OAB-S Medication Tolerability scale questionnaire at one or more visits after the baseline evaluation. The mean (95% CI) OAB-S Medication Tolerability scores were significantly higher (better tolerability) for mirabegron (86.29 [83.50, 89.08]) than for tolterodine (83.40 [80.59, 86.20]; p = 0.004). The period-by-treatment interaction was not significant (p = 0.955). Improvements in OAB-S Medication Tolerability scores at EoT were more evident in women, patients aged ≥65 years, and in patients without baseline incontinence, and were greater with mirabegron than with tolterodine extended release. There were no significant differences in patient preference or improvements in OAB symptoms. Significant differences in favor of mirabegron were observed for anticholinergic TEAEs (20.4% vs. 27.4%; p = 0.042) and specifically for gastrointestinal disorders (14.7% vs. 22.5%; p = 0.015). Tolerability of mirabegron was significantly higher than that of tolterodine, and patient preference and improvements in OAB symptoms were comparable

  14. An evaluation of the cognitive and mood effects of an energy shot over a 6h period in volunteers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnes, Keith A; Barrett, Marilyn L; Udani, Jay K

    2013-08-01

    Energy drinks are widely available mostly containing glucose, and several have been demonstrated to improve alertness and cognitive function; these effects generally being identified 30-60min after administration. The present study assessed whether an energy shot without carbohydrates would affect major aspects of cognitive function and also mood in volunteers over a 6h time period. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled,crossover study compared the acute effects of the energy shot with a matching placebo in 94 healthy volunteers. Cognitive function was assessed with a widely used set of automated tests of attention and memory. Mood was assessed with the Bond-Lader, Beck Anxiety Index, Beck Depression Index, Chalder Fatigue Scales (CFS), and the POMS. The volunteers were requested to limit their sleep to between 3 and 6h the night before each testing day. Compared to the placebo, the energy shot significantly improved 6 validated composite cognitive function measures from the CDR System as well as self-rated alertness; the benefits on 4 of the cognitive measures still remaining at 6h. The overall effect sizes of the performance improvements were in the small to medium range and thus notable in this field. In conclusion, an energy shot can significantly improve important aspects of cognitive function for up to 6h compared to placebo in partially sleep-deprived healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Double Trouble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; Kievit, Robert; Simons, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Double Trouble highlights the career of Dutch scriptwriter and television producer Chiem van Houweninge, well-known for his long-running TV comedy series and as author of episodes for TV detective series. Double Trouble gives Van Houweninge's own views on writing and filming in television prime

  16. Topological imprint for periodic orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Jesús San; Moscoso, Ma José; Gómez, A González

    2012-01-01

    The more self-crossing points an orbit has the more complex it is. We introduce the topological imprint to characterize crossing points and focus on the period-doubling cascade. The period-doubling cascade topological imprint determines the topological imprint for orbits in chaotic bands. In addition, there is a closer link between this concept and the braids studied by Lettelier et al (2000 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 33 1809–25). (paper)

  17. Photodiode 1 × 64 linear array based on a double p-InAsSbP/n-InAs{sub 0.92}Sb{sub 0.08}/n{sup +}-InAs heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il’inskaya, N. D., E-mail: ioffeled@mail.ru; Karandashev, S. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation); Karpukhina, N. G. [Limited Liability Company Ioffe LED Ltd. (Russian Federation); Lavrov, A. A.; Matveev, B. A.; Remennyi, M. A.; Stus, N. M.; Usikova, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    The results of studies of the current–voltage characteristics and of the photoelectric and luminescence properties of a monolithic diode 1 × 64 linear array based on p-InAsSbP/n-InAsSb/n{sup +}-InAs with the n{sup +}-InAs-substrate side illuminated and sensitive in the region of 4-μm are reported. An analysis is performed of the mechanisms of current flow in the temperature range of 77–353 K and also of the photosensitivity and the speed of response taking into account the spatial distribution of nonequilibrium radiation and the data of capacitance–voltage measurements.

  18. Seismometer array station processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, F.A.; Lea, T.G.; Douglas, A.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the design, construction and initial testing of two types of Seismometer Array Station Processor (SASP), one to work with data stored on magnetic tape in analogue form, the other with data in digital form. The purpose of a SASP is to detect the short period P waves recorded by a UK-type array of 20 seismometers and to edit these on to a a digital library tape or disc. The edited data are then processed to obtain a rough location for the source and to produce seismograms (after optimum processing) for analysis by a seismologist. SASPs are an important component in the scheme for monitoring underground explosions advocated by the UK in the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament. With digital input a SASP can operate at 30 times real time using a linear detection process and at 20 times real time using the log detector of Weichert. Although the log detector is slower, it has the advantage over the linear detector that signals with lower signal-to-noise ratio can be detected and spurious large amplitudes are less likely to produce a detection. It is recommended, therefore, that where possible array data should be recorded in digital form for input to a SASP and that the log detector of Weichert be used. Trial runs show that a SASP is capable of detecting signals down to signal-to-noise ratios of about two with very few false detections, and at mid-continental array sites it should be capable of detecting most, if not all, the signals with magnitude above msub(b) 4.5; the UK argues that, given a suitable network, it is realistic to hope that sources of this magnitude and above can be detected and identified by seismological means alone. (author)

  19. Gate protective device for SOS array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. E., Jr.; Scott, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Protective gate device consisting of alternating heavily doped n(+) and p(+) diffusions eliminates breakdown voltages in silicon oxide on sapphire arrays caused by electrostatic discharge from person or equipment. Diffusions are easily produced during normal double epitaxial processing. Devices with nine layers had 27-volt breakdown.

  20. Coupling in reflector arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1968-01-01

    In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present communic......In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present...

  1. Dumand-array data-acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, A.E.; Theriot, D.; Dau, W.D.; Geelhood, B.D.; Harris, F.; Learned, J.G.; Stenger, V.; March, R.; Roos, C.; Shumard, E.

    1982-04-01

    An overall data acquisition approach for DUMAND is described. The scheme assumes one array to shore optical fiber transmission line for each string of the array. The basic event sampling period is approx. 13 μsec. All potentially interesting data is transmitted to shore where the major processing is performed

  2. Refracting surface plasmon polaritons with nanoparticle arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radko, I.P.; Evlyukhin, A.B.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Refraction of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) by various structures formed by a 100-nm-period square lattice of gold nanoparticles on top of a gold film is studied by leakage radiation microscopy. SPP refraction by a triangular-shaped nanoparticle array indicates that the SPP effective refractive...... to design nanoparticle arrays for specific applications requiring in-plane SPP manipulation....

  3. Double Dirac cones in phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan

    2014-07-07

    A double Dirac cone is realized at the center of the Brillouin zone of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) consisting of a triangular array of core-shell-structure cylinders in water. The double Dirac cone is induced by the accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate Bloch states. Using a perturbation method, we demonstrate that the double Dirac cone is composed of two identical and overlapping Dirac cones whose linear slopes can also be accurately predicted from the method. Because the double Dirac cone occurs at a relatively low frequency, a slab of the PC can be mapped onto a slab of zero refractive index material by using a standard retrieval method. Total transmission without phase change and energy tunneling at the double Dirac point frequency are unambiguously demonstrated by two examples. Potential applications can be expected in diverse fields such as acoustic wave manipulations and energy flow control.

  4. Double Dirac cones in phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan; Wu, Ying; Mei, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A double Dirac cone is realized at the center of the Brillouin zone of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) consisting of a triangular array of core-shell-structure cylinders in water. The double Dirac cone is induced by the accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate Bloch states. Using a perturbation method, we demonstrate that the double Dirac cone is composed of two identical and overlapping Dirac cones whose linear slopes can also be accurately predicted from the method. Because the double Dirac cone occurs at a relatively low frequency, a slab of the PC can be mapped onto a slab of zero refractive index material by using a standard retrieval method. Total transmission without phase change and energy tunneling at the double Dirac point frequency are unambiguously demonstrated by two examples. Potential applications can be expected in diverse fields such as acoustic wave manipulations and energy flow control.

  5. Double Chooz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    The goal of the Double Chooz reactor neutrino experiment is to search for the neutrino mixing parameter {theta}{sub 13}. Double Chooz will use two identical detectors at 150 m and 1.05 km distance from the reactor cores. The near detector is used to monitor the reactor {nu}-bar {sub e} flux while the second is dedicated to the search for a deviation from the expected (1/distance){sup 2} behavior. This two detector concept will allow a relative normalization systematic error of ca. 0.6 %. The expected sensitivity for sin{sup 2}2{theta}{sub 13} is then in the range 0.02 - 0.03 after three years of data taking. The antineutrinos will be detected in a liquid scintillator through the capture on protons followed by a gamma cascade, produced by the neutron capture on Gd.

  6. Double supergeometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederwall, Martin [Division for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology,SE 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-06-27

    A geometry of superspace corresponding to double field theory is developed, with type I I supergravity in D=10 as the main example. The formalism is based on an orthosymplectic extension OSp(d,d|2s) of the continuous T-duality group. Covariance under generalised super-diffeomorphisms is manifest. Ordinary superspace is obtained as a solution of the orthosymplectic section condition. A systematic study of curved superspace Bianchi identities is performed, and a relation to a double pure spinor superfield cohomology is established. A Ramond-Ramond superfield is constructed as an infinite-dimensional orthosymplectic spinor. Such objects in minimal orbits under the OSp supergroup (“pure spinors”) define super-sections.

  7. Double ambidexterity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaulio, Matti; Thorén, Kent; Rohrbeck, René

    2017-01-01

    We leverage the business model innovation and ambidexterity literature to investigate a contradictory case, the Swedish-Finnish Telecom operator TeliaSonera. Despite being challenged by three major disruptions, the company not only still exists but also enjoys remarkably good financial performance....... Building on extant archival data and interviews, we carefully identify and map 26 organizational responses during 1992–2016. We find that the firm has overcome three critical phases by experimenting and pioneering with portfolios of business models and/or technological innovations. We describe...... this behaviour as double ambidexterity. We use an in-depth case study to conceptualize double ambidexterity and discuss its impact on the business's survival and enduring success....

  8. Surface Plasmon Enhanced Light Trapping in Metal/Silicon Nanobowl Arrays for Thin Film Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruinan Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the light absorption in thin film silicon solar cells with nanophotonic and plasmonic structures is important for the realization of high efficiency solar cells with significant cost reduction. In this work, we investigate periodic arrays of conformal metal/silicon nanobowl arrays (MSNBs for light trapping applications in silicon solar cells. They exhibited excellent light-harvesting ability across a wide range of wavelengths up to infrared regimes. The optimized structure (MSNBsH covered by SiO2 passivation layer and hemisphere Ag back reflection layer has a maximal short-circuit density (Jsc 25.5 mA/cm2, which is about 88.8% higher than flat structure counterpart, and the light-conversion efficiency (η is increased two times from 6.3% to 12.6%. The double-side textures offer a promising approach to high efficiency ultrathin silicon solar cells.

  9. Optimized Superconducting Quadrupole Arrays for Multiple Beam Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinke, Rainer B. [Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc., Melbourne, FL (United States); Goodzeit, Carl L. [Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc., Melbourne, FL (United States); Ball, Millicent J. [Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc., Melbourne, FL (United States)

    2005-09-20

    This research project advanced the development of reliable, cost-effective arrays of superconducting quadrupole magnets for use in multi-beam inertial fusion accelerators. The field in each array cell must be identical and meet stringent requirements for field quality and strength. An optimized compact array design using flat double-layer pancake coils was developed. Analytical studies of edge termination methods showed that it is feasible to meet the requirements for field uniformity in all cells and elimination of stray external field in several ways: active methods that involve placement of field compensating coils on the periphery of the array or a passive method that involves use of iron shielding.

  10. Double-valence-fluctuating molecules and superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, J.E.; Scalapino, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of ''double-valence-fluctuating'' molecules, having two ground-state configurations differing by two electrons. We propose a possible realization of such a molecule, and experimental ways to look for it. We argue that a weakly coupled array of such molecules should give rise to a strong-coupling Shafroth-Blatt-Butler superconductor, with a high transition temperature

  11. Fiber Laser Array

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    ...., field-dependent, loss within the coupled laser array. During this program, Jaycor focused on the construction and use of an experimental apparatus that can be used to investigate the coherent combination of an array of fiber lasers...

  12. Problem Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovary syndrome. Read our information on PCOS for teens , and see your doctor if you think you may have PCOS. Major weight loss. Girls who have anorexia will often stop having periods. When to see ...

  13. Discovery of a Highly Relativistic Double Neutron Star Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Shami; Stovall, Kevin; PALFA Collaboration, Paul Demorest, Nihan Pol

    2018-01-01

    We report the discovery of a double neutron star (DNS) binary system, PSR J1946+2052, in Arecibo L-Band Feed Array Pulsar Survey (PALFA) observations. PSR J1946+2052 is a 17-ms pulsar in a 1.88-hour, eccentric (e = 0.06) orbit with a 1.2 solar mass companion. We have localized the pulsar to a precision of 0.09 arcseconds using a new phase binning mode at the Jansky Very Large Array. The improved position has enabled a measurement of the pulsar spin period derivative of 9E-19 s/s; the low inferred magnetic field strength at the surface of 4E+9 Gauss indicates that the pulsar has been recycled. Among all known DNS systems, PSR J1946+2052 has the shortest orbital period, and currently radiates ~13% of a solar luminosity in gravitational wave power. Its estimated time to merger is only 45.5 MYr, the shortest known, and at that time it will display the largest spin effects of any such system discovered to date. We have also measured the advance of periastron passage for this system, 25.6 +/- 0.3 degrees per year, resulting in a total system mass measurement of 2.50 +/- 0.04 solar masses.

  14. Ordered arrays of nanoporous gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A combination of a “top-down” approach (substrate-conformal imprint lithography and two “bottom-up” approaches (dewetting and dealloying enables fabrication of perfectly ordered 2-dimensional arrays of nanoporous gold nanoparticles. The dewetting of Au/Ag bilayers on the periodically prepatterned substrates leads to the interdiffusion of Au and Ag and the formation of an array of Au–Ag alloy nanoparticles. The array of alloy nanoparticles is transformed into an array of nanoporous gold nanoparticles by a following dealloying step. Large areas of this new type of material arrangement can be realized with this technique. In addition, this technique allows for the control of particle size, particle spacing, and ligament size (or pore size by varying the period of the structure, total metal layer thickness, and the thickness ratio of the as-deposited bilayers.

  15. Ultrasound beam characteristics of a symmetric nodal origami based array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgunde, Prathamesh N.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2018-04-01

    Origami-the ancient art of paper folding-is being explored in acoustics for effective focusing of sound. In this short communication, we present a numerical investigation of beam characteristics for an origami based ultrasound array. A spatial re-configuration of array elements is performed based upon the symmetric nodal origami. The effect of fold angle on the ultrasound beam is evaluated using frequency domain and transient finite element analysis. It was found that increase in the fold angle reduces near field length by 58% and also doubles the beam intensity as compared to the linear array. Transient analysis also indicated 80% reduction in the -6dB beam width, which can improve the lateral resolution of phased array. Such a spatially re-configurable array could potentially be used in the future to reduce the cost of electronics in the phased array instrumentation.

  16. Development and field practical performance of smart array probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Kotaro; Shimone, Junri; Akagawa, Junichi; Nagata, Yasuyuki; Harada, Yutaka; Sera, Takehiko; Hirano, Shinro

    2011-01-01

    In 1999, NEL developed the transmit-receive type ECT array probe for steam generator (SG) tubing, called 'X-probe', in cooperation with foreign firms. Recently NEL has developed the advanced ECT array probe, 'Smart Array Probe', characterized with a significantly improved resolution for circumferential cracks. The doubled channels in the circumferential mode have greatly improved the circumferential resolution of Smart Array Probe. With all the circumferential mode channels on the same circle, there is no need for axial position correction of inspection data. This report describes both the field practical performance and the compliance assessment to a Japanese SG-ECT guideline 'JEAG4208' of Smart Array ECT System, composed of Smart Array Probe, pusher-in-tester 'OMNI-200', and NEL's ECT Analysis System. (author)

  17. Estimation of surface impedance using different types of microphone arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, Antoine Philippe André; Fernandez Grande, Efren; Brunskog, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates microphone array methods to measure the angle dependent surface impedance of acoustic materials. The methods are based on the reconstruction of the sound field on the surface of the material, using a wave expansion formulation. The reconstruction of both the pressure...... and the particle velocity leads to an estimation of the surface impedance for a given angle of incidence. A porous type absorber sample is tested experimentally in anechoic conditions for different array geometries, sample sizes, incidence angles, and distances between the array and sample. In particular......, the performances of a rigid spherical array and a double layer planar array are examined. The use of sparse array processing methods and conventional regulariation approaches are studied. In addition, the influence of the size of the sample on the surface impedance estimation is investigated using both...

  18. Multiwall carbon nanotube microcavity arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Butt, Haider, E-mail: h.butt@bham.ac.uk [Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Rifat, Ahmmed A. [Integrated Lightwave Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Yetisen, Ali K.; Yun, Seok Hyun [Harvard Medical School and Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 65 Landsdowne Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Dai, Qing [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-03-21

    Periodic highly dense multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) arrays can act as photonic materials exhibiting band gaps in the visible regime and beyond terahertz range. MWCNT arrays in square arrangement for nanoscale lattice constants can be configured as a microcavity with predictable resonance frequencies. Here, computational analyses of compact square microcavities (≈0.8 × 0.8 μm{sup 2}) in MWCNT arrays were demonstrated to obtain enhanced quality factors (≈170–180) and narrow-band resonance peaks. Cavity resonances were rationally designed and optimized (nanotube geometry and cavity size) with finite element method. Series (1 × 2 and 1 × 3) and parallel (2 × 1 and 3 × 1) combinations of microcavities were modeled and resonance modes were analyzed. Higher order MWCNT microcavities showed enhanced resonance modes, which were red shifted with increasing Q-factors. Parallel microcavity geometries were also optimized to obtain narrow-band tunable filtering in low-loss communication windows (810, 1336, and 1558 nm). Compact series and parallel MWCNT microcavity arrays may have applications in optical filters and miniaturized optical communication devices.

  19. Performance Analysis of Digital loudspeaker Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Kontomichos, Fotios; Mourjopoulos, John

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of digital loudspeaker arrays shows that the ways in which bits are mapped to the drivers influence the quality of the audio result. Specifically, a "bit-summed" rather than the traditional "bit-mapped" strategy greatly reduces the number of times drivers make binary transitions per...... period of the input frequency. Detailed simulations compare the results for a 32-loudspeaker array with a similar configuration with analog excitation of the drivers. Ideally, drivers in digital arrays should be very small and span a small area, but that sets limits on the low-frequency response...

  20. What Else Is Decidable about Integer Arrays?

    OpenAIRE

    Habermehl, Peter; Iosif, Radu; Vojnar, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    International audience; We introduce a new decidable logic for reasoning about infinite arrays of integers. The logic is in the ∃ * ∀ * first-order fragment and allows (1) Presburger constraints on existentially quantified variables, (2) difference constraints as well as periodicity constraints on universally quantified indices, and (3) difference constraints on values. In particular, using our logic, one can express constraints on consecutive elements of arrays (e.g. ∀i. 0 ≤ i < n → a[i + 1]...

  1. Planets around the evolved stars 24 Boötis and γ Libra: A 30 d-period planet and a double giant-planet system in possible 7:3 MMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarada, Takuya; Sato, Bun'ei; Omiya, Masashi; Harakawa, Hiroki; Nagasawa, Makiko; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Kambe, Eiji; Takeda, Yoichi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Itoh, Yoichi; Ando, Hiroyasu; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Ida, Shigeru

    2018-05-01

    We report the detection of planets around two evolved giant stars from radial velocity measurements at Okayama Astrophysical observatory. 24 Boo (G3 IV) has a mass of 0.99 M_{⊙}, a radius of 10.64 R_{⊙}, and a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.77. The star hosts one planet with a minimum mass of 0.91 MJup and an orbital period of 30.35 d. The planet has one of the shortest orbital periods among those ever found around evolved stars using radial-velocity methods. The stellar radial velocities show additional periodicity with 150 d, which can probably be attributed to stellar activity. The star is one of the lowest-metallicity stars orbited by planets currently known. γ Lib (K0 III) is also a metal-poor giant with a mass of 1.47 M_{⊙}, a radius of 11.1 R_{⊙}, and [Fe/H] = -0.30. The star hosts two planets with minimum masses of 1.02 MJup and 4.58 MJup, and periods of 415 d and 964 d, respectively. The star has the second-lowest metallicity among the giant stars hosting more than two planets. Dynamical stability analysis for the γ Lib system sets the minimum orbital inclination angle to be about 70° and suggests that the planets are in 7:3 mean-motion resonance, though the current best-fitting orbits for the radial-velocity data are not totally regular.

  2. Double-Difference Tomography for Sequestration MVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westman, Erik

    2008-12-31

    Analysis of synthetic data was performed to determine the most cost-effective tomographic monitoring system for a geologic carbon sequestration injection site. Double-difference tomographic inversion was performed on 125 synthetic data sets: five stages of CO2 plume growth, five seismic event regions, and five geophone arrays. Each resulting velocity model was compared quantitatively to its respective synthetic velocity model to determine an accuracy value. The results were examined to determine a relationship between cost and accuracy in monitoring, verification, and accounting applications using double-difference tomography. The geophone arrays with widely-varying geophone locations, both laterally and vertically, performed best. Additionally, double difference seismic tomography was performed using travel time data from a carbon sequestration site at the Aneth oil field in southeast Utah as part of a Department of Energy initiative on monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of sequestered CO2. A total of 1,211 seismic events were recorded from a borehole array consisting of 22 geophones. Artificial velocity models were created to determine the ease with which different CO2 plume locations and sizes can be detected. Most likely because of the poor geophone arrangement, a low velocity zone in the Desert Creek reservoir can only be detected when regions of test site containing the highest ray path coverage are considered. MVA accuracy and precision may be improved through the use of a receiver array that provides more comprehensive ray path coverage.

  3. Double Outlet Right Ventricle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Right Ventricle Menu Topics Topics FAQs Double Outlet Right Ventricle Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital heart disease. En español Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a rare form of congenital ...

  4. A safety analysis of edaravone (MCI-186) during the first six cycles (24 weeks) of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) therapy from the double-blind period in three randomized, placebo-controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalin, Alexander; Medina-Paraiso, Elvia; Ishizaki, Kaoru; Kim, Alex; Zhang, Yannong; Saita, Takanori; Wasaki, Masahiko

    2017-10-01

    There continues to be a need for new therapies to treat ALS. Provide an overview of safety for edaravone in ALS patients during the first six cycles of treatment. Analysis was based on three randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Endpoints included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), including AEs leading to discontinuation, serious adverse events (SAEs), and deaths. The analysis included a total of 368 patients (184 in the edaravone group and placebo group, respectively). Of those, 94.6% of the edaravone group and 90.2% of placebo group completed six cycles of therapy. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the two groups. TEAE incidence in the edaravone group and placebo group was 87.5% and 87.0%, respectively. TEAEs ocurring at ≥2% incidence in the edaravone group compared to placebo were contusion (14.7% vs. 8.7%), gait disturbance (12.5% vs. 9.2%), headache (8.2% vs. 5.4%), eczema (6.5% vs. 2.2%), dermatitis contact (6.0% vs. 3.3%), respiratory disorder (4.3% vs. 1.1%), and glucose urine present (3.8% vs. 1.6%). There was no imbalance in TEAEs leading to discontinuation (2.2% [edaravone], and 5.4% [placebo]). SAE incidence was 17.4% in the edaravone group and 22.3% in placebo group. Treatment-emergent deaths occurred in 2.2% in the edaravone group and 1.1% in placebo group, all respiratory in nature and attributed to worsening ALS. Data collected from three double-blind assessments found that while some TEAEs were more common in the edaravone group compared to placebo, the overall incidences of SAEs, deaths, and discontinuations due to AEs were similar or less for edaravone compared to placebo.

  5. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  6. Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev Hansen, J.; Lindelof, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    In this review we intend to cover recent work involving arrays of Josephson junctions. The work on such arrays falls naturally into three main areas of interest: 1. Technical applications of Josephson junction arrays for high-frequency devices. 2. Experimental studies of 2-D model systems (Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition, commensurate-incommensurate transition in frustrated (flux) lattices). 3. Investigations of phenomena associated with non-equilibrium superconductivity in and around Josephson junctions (with high current density). (orig./BUD)

  7. Phased-array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1985-02-01

    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  8. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  9. The EUROBALL array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi Alvarez, C.

    1998-01-01

    The quality of the multidetector array EUROBALL is described, with emphasis on the history and formal organization of the related European collaboration. The detector layout is presented together with the electronics and Data Acquisition capabilities. The status of the instrument, its performances and the main features of some recently developed ancillary detectors will also be described. The EUROBALL array is operational in Legnaro National Laboratory (Italy) since April 1997 and is expected to run up to November 1998. The array represents a significant improvement in detector efficiency and sensitivity with respect to the previous generation of multidetector arrays

  10. Rectenna array measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The measured performance characteristics of a rectenna array are reviewed and compared to the performance of a single element. It is shown that the performance may be extrapolated from the individual element to that of the collection of elements. Techniques for current and voltage combining were demonstrated. The array performance as a function of various operating parameters is characterized and techniques for overvoltage protection and automatic fault clearing in the array demonstrated. A method for detecting failed elements also exists. Instrumentation for deriving performance effectiveness is described. Measured harmonic radiation patterns and fundamental frequency scattered patterns for a low level illumination rectenna array are presented.

  11. Arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Muñoz, Pascual; Sales, Salvador; Pastor, Daniel; Ortega, Beatriz; Martinez, Alfonso

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel device, an arrayed waveguide Sagnac interferometer, that combines the flexibility of arrayed waveguides and the wide application range of fiber or integrated optics Sagnac loops. We form the device by closing an array of wavelength-selective light paths provided by two arrayed waveguides with a single 2 x 2 coupler in a Sagnac configuration. The equations that describe the device's operation in general conditions are derived. A preliminary experimental demonstration is provided of a fiber prototype in passive operation that shows good agreement with the expected theoretical performance. Potential applications of the device in nonlinear operation are outlined and discussed.

  12. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  13. Double hard scattering without double counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [VU Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands). NIKHEF Theory Group; Schoenwald, Kay [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  14. Double hard scattering without double counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Gaunt, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Double parton scattering in proton-proton collisions includes kinematic regions in which two partons inside a proton originate from the perturbative splitting of a single parton. This leads to a double counting problem between single and double hard scattering. We present a solution to this problem, which allows for the definition of double parton distributions as operator matrix elements in a proton, and which can be used at higher orders in perturbation theory. We show how the evaluation of double hard scattering in this framework can provide a rough estimate for the size of the higher-order contributions to single hard scattering that are affected by double counting. In a numeric study, we identify situations in which these higher-order contributions must be explicitly calculated and included if one wants to attain an accuracy at which double hard scattering becomes relevant, and other situations where such contributions may be neglected.

  15. Jammed-array wideband sawtooth filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhongwei; Wang, Chao; Goda, Keisuke; Malik, Omer; Jalali, Bahram

    2011-11-21

    We present an all-optical passive low-cost spectral filter that exhibits a high-resolution periodic sawtooth spectral pattern without the need for active optoelectronic components. The principle of the filter is the partial masking of a phased array of virtual light sources with multiply jammed diffraction orders. We utilize the filter's periodic linear map between frequency and intensity to demonstrate fast sensitive interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensor arrays and ultrahigh-frequency electrical sawtooth waveform generation. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  16. Gold Nanohole Array with Sub-1 nm Roughness by Annealing for Sensitivity Enhancement of Extraordinary Optical Transmission Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Irannejad, Mehrdad; Yavuz, Mustafa; Cui, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Nanofabrication technology plays an important role in the performance of surface plasmonic devices such as extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) sensor. In this work, a double liftoff process was developed to fabricate a series of nanohole arrays of a hole diameter between 150 and 235 nm and a period of 500 nm in a 100-nm-thick gold film on a silica substrate. To improve the surface quality of the gold film, thermal annealing was conducted, by which an ultra-smooth gold film with root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of sub-1 nm was achieved, accompanied with a hole diameter shrinkage. The surface sensitivity of the nanohole arrays was measured using a monolayer of 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid (16-MHA) molecule, and the surface sensitivity was increased by 2.5 to 3 times upon annealing the extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) sensor.

  17. Resonating Terahertz Response of Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Apertures

    KAUST Repository

    D’ Apuzzo, Fausto; Candeloro, Patrizio; Domenici, Fabio; Autore, M.; Di Pietro, Paola; Perucchi, Andrea; Roy, P.; Sennato, Simona; Bordi, Federico; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Lupi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) peaks mediated by plasmonic excitations can be observed in a variety of subwavelength patterned metallic surfaces. In this paper, we have fabricated and spectroscopically characterized plasmon devices exhibiting EOT peaks at terahertz (THz) frequencies. These devices, which resonate with intermediate and collective modes of macromolecules, can be used for detection of materials of biological interest and their performances have been experimentally determined by measuring the variation of the EOT frequencies for thin sub-micrometric organic layers deposited onto the device surface.

  18. Acoustically induced transparency using Fano resonant periodic arrays

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2015-10-22

    A three-dimensional acoustic device, which supports Fano resonance and induced transparency in its response to an incident sound wave, is designed and fabricated. These effects are generated from the destructive interference of closely coupled one broad- and one narrow-band acoustic modes. The proposed design ensures excitation and interference of two spectrally close modes by locating a small pipe inside a wider and longer one. Indeed, numerical simulations and experiments demonstrate that this simple-to-fabricate structure can be used to generate Fano resonance as well as acoustically induced transparency with promising applications in sensing, cloaking, and imaging.

  19. Acoustically induced transparency using Fano resonant periodic arrays

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed; Elayouch, A.; Farhat, Mohamed; Addouche, M.; Khelif, A.; Bagci, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional acoustic device, which supports Fano resonance and induced transparency in its response to an incident sound wave, is designed and fabricated. These effects are generated from the destructive interference of closely coupled one broad- and one narrow-band acoustic modes. The proposed design ensures excitation and interference of two spectrally close modes by locating a small pipe inside a wider and longer one. Indeed, numerical simulations and experiments demonstrate that this simple-to-fabricate structure can be used to generate Fano resonance as well as acoustically induced transparency with promising applications in sensing, cloaking, and imaging.

  20. Resonating Terahertz Response of Periodic Arrays of Subwavelength Apertures

    KAUST Repository

    D’Apuzzo, Fausto

    2014-10-11

    Extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) peaks mediated by plasmonic excitations can be observed in a variety of subwavelength patterned metallic surfaces. In this paper, we have fabricated and spectroscopically characterized plasmon devices exhibiting EOT peaks at terahertz (THz) frequencies. These devices, which resonate with intermediate and collective modes of macromolecules, can be used for detection of materials of biological interest and their performances have been experimentally determined by measuring the variation of the EOT frequencies for thin sub-micrometric organic layers deposited onto the device surface.

  1. Triggering the GRANDE array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  2. ISS Solar Array Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James P.; Martin, Keith D.; Thomas, Justin R.; Caro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Array Management (SAM) software toolset provides the capabilities necessary to operate a spacecraft with complex solar array constraints. It monitors spacecraft telemetry and provides interpretations of solar array constraint data in an intuitive manner. The toolset provides extensive situational awareness to ensure mission success by analyzing power generation needs, array motion constraints, and structural loading situations. The software suite consists of several components including samCS (constraint set selector), samShadyTimers (array shadowing timers), samWin (visualization GUI), samLock (array motion constraint computation), and samJet (attitude control system configuration selector). It provides high availability and uptime for extended and continuous mission support. It is able to support two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) array positioning and supports up to ten simultaneous constraints with intuitive 1D and 2D decision support visualizations of constraint data. Display synchronization is enabled across a networked control center and multiple methods for constraint data interpolation are supported. Use of this software toolset increases flight safety, reduces mission support effort, optimizes solar array operation for achieving mission goals, and has run for weeks at a time without issues. The SAM toolset is currently used in ISS real-time mission operations.

  3. Seismic Background Noise Analysis of BRTR (PS-43) Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezgi Bakir, Mahmure; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Umut Semin, Korhan

    2015-04-01

    The seismic background noise variation of BRTR array, composed of two sub arrays located in Ankara and in Ankara-Keskin, has been investigated by calculating Power Spectral Density and Probability Density Functions for seasonal and diurnal noise variations between 2005 and 2011. PSDs were computed within the frequency range of 100 s - 10 Hz. The results show us a little change in noise conditions in terms of time and location. Especially, noise level changes were observed at 3-5 Hz in diurnal variations at Keskin array and there is a 5-7 dB difference in day and night time in cultural noise band (1-10 Hz). On the other hand, noise levels of medium period array is high in 1-2 Hz frequency rather than short period array. High noise levels were observed in daily working times when we compare it to night-time in cultural noise band. The seasonal background noise variation at both sites also shows very similar properties to each other. Since these stations are borehole instruments and away from the coasts, we saw a small change in noise levels caused by microseism. Comparison between Keskin short period array and Ankara medium period array show us Keskin array is quiter than Ankara array.

  4. Double Layer Dynamics in a Collisionless Magnetoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizuka, S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    and propagation of a double layer. The period of the oscillations is determined by the propagation length of the double layer. The current is limited during the propagation of the double layer by a growing negative potential barrier formed on the low potential tail. Similar phenomena appear when a potential......An experimental investigation of the dynamics of double layers is presented. The experiments are performed in a Q-machine plasma and the double layers are generated by applying a positive step potential to a cold collector plate terminating the plasma column. The double layer is created...... at the grounded plasma source just after the pulse is applied and it propagates towards the collector with a speed around the ion acoustic speed. When the collector is biased positively, large oscillations are obserced in the plasma current. These oscillations are found to be related to a recurring formation...

  5. The Maui International Double Star Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell

    2013-04-01

    A three-day double star conference in February, 2013, covered double star observations from simple eyepiece astrometry of wide binaries, with orbital periods of centuries, to amplitude interferometry of binaries with periods measured in days or even hours. A wide range of participants, from students and amateurs to professionals shared their perspectives in panel discussions. This was the first conference of the newly-formed International Association of Double Star Observers (IADSO). PDFs of 22 of the talks and YouTube links to 23 of the talks and panels are available at www.IADSO.org.

  6. An electromagnetic spherical phased array thermonuclear fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okress, E.C.

    1983-01-01

    Discussed are salient physics aspects of a microwave singly reentrant spherical periodic phased array of uniformally distributed identical coaxial radiation elements in an essentially simulated infinite array environment. The array is capable of maintaining coherence or phase control (to the limit of the order of 300 GHz) of its spherically converging electromagnetic transverse magnetic mode radiation field, for confinement (and heating) of thermonuclear plasma in steady-state or inertial thermonuclear fusion. The array also incorporates capability for coaxial directional coupler extraction of fusionpower. The radiation elements of the array are shielded against DT Thermonuclear plasma emissions (i.e., neutrons and bremsstrahlung) by either sufficiently (available) low less tangent and cooled, spherically concentric shield (e.g., Titanium oxide); or alternately by identical material dome windows mounted on each radiation element's aperture of the array. The pump microwave power required for thermonuclear fusion feasibility comprises an array of phase-locked available klystron amplifiers (comparable gyratron amplifiers remain to be developed)

  7. Double Compressions of Atmospheric Depth by Geopotential Tendency, Vorticity, and Atmospheric Boundary Layer Affected Abrupt High Particulate Matter Concentrations at a Coastal City for a Yellow Dust Period in October

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using GRIMM-aerosol sampler, NOAA-HYSPLIT model, and 3D-WRF-3.3 model, the transportation of dusts from Gobi Desert toward Gangneung city, Korea was investigated from 09:00 LST October 27 to 04:00 LST October 28, 2003. Maximum PM10 (PM2.5, PM1 concentration was detected with 3.8 (3.4, 14.1 times higher magnitude than one in non-Yellow Dust period. The combination of dusts transported from the desert under westerly wind with particulate matters and gases from vehicles on the road of the city caused high PM concentrations near the ground surface at 09:00 LST and their maxima at 17:00 LST near sunset with further pollutants from heating boilers in the resident area. Positive geopotential tendency at the 500 hPa level of the city (∂Φ/∂t; m day−1 corresponding to negative vorticity of -4×10-5 sec−1 (-2.5×10-5 sec−1 at 0900 LST (21:00 LST; at night was +83 m day−1 (+30 m day−1 and it caused atmospheric depth between 500 hPa level and the ground surface to be vertically expanded. However, its net reduction to −53 m/12 hrs until 21:00 LST indicated synoptic-scale atmospheric layer to be vertical shrunken, resulting in the increase of PM concentrations at 17:00 LST. Simultaneously, much shallower microscale stable nocturnal surface inversion layer (NSIL than daytime thermal internal boundary layer induced particulate matters to be merged inside the NSIL, resulting in maximum PM concentrations at 17:00 LST.

  8. Sensor array signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Naidu, Prabhakar S

    2009-01-01

    Chapter One: An Overview of Wavefields 1.1 Types of Wavefields and the Governing Equations 1.2 Wavefield in open space 1.3 Wavefield in bounded space 1.4 Stochastic wavefield 1.5 Multipath propagation 1.6 Propagation through random medium 1.7 ExercisesChapter Two: Sensor Array Systems 2.1 Uniform linear array (ULA) 2.2 Planar array 2.3 Distributed sensor array 2.4 Broadband sensor array 2.5 Source and sensor arrays 2.6 Multi-component sensor array2.7 ExercisesChapter Three: Frequency Wavenumber Processing 3.1 Digital filters in the w-k domain 3.2 Mapping of 1D into 2D filters 3.3 Multichannel Wiener filters 3.4 Wiener filters for ULA and UCA 3.5 Predictive noise cancellation 3.6 Exercises Chapter Four: Source Localization: Frequency Wavenumber Spectrum4.1 Frequency wavenumber spectrum 4.2 Beamformation 4.3 Capon's w-k spectrum 4.4 Maximum entropy w-k spectrum 4.5 Doppler-Azimuth Processing4.6 ExercisesChapter Five: Source Localization: Subspace Methods 5.1 Subspace methods (Narrowband) 5.2 Subspace methods (B...

  9. Resonance spectra of diabolo optical antenna arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A complete set of diabolo optical antenna arrays with different waist widths and periods was fabricated on a sapphire substrate by using a standard e-beam lithography and lift-off process. Fabricated diabolo optical antenna arrays were characterized by measuring the transmittance and reflectance with a microscope-coupled FTIR spectrometer. It was found experimentally that reducing the waist width significantly shifts the resonance to longer wavelength and narrowing the waist of the antennas is more effective than increasing the period of the array for tuning the resonance wavelength. Also it is found that the magnetic field enhancement near the antenna waist is correlated to the shift of the resonance wavelength.

  10. Double-mode pulsation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    Double mode pulsation is a very pervasive phenomenon in stars all over the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. In order of increasing radius, examples are: ZZ Ceti stars, the sun, the delta Scuti stars, RR Lyrae variables, the β Cephei variables and those related to them, Cepheids, and maybe even the Mira stars. These many modes have been interpreted as both radial and nonradial modes, but in many cases the actual mode has not been clearly identified. Yellow giants seem to be the most simple pulsators with a large majority of the RR Lyrae variables and Cepheids showing only one pulsation period. We limit this review to those very few cases for classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae variables which display two modes. For these we know many facts about these stars, but the actual cause of the pulsation in two modes simultaneously remains unknown

  11. Introduction to adaptive arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept

  12. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-speaker. The speaker is an array of micro-machined piezoelectric membranes, fabricated on silicon wafer using advanced micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT), a top electrode of 300nm and a structural layer of 50

  13. Periodically modulated dark states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2018-04-01

    Phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (PEIT) may be interpreted by the Autler-Townes Splitting (ATS), where the coupled states are split by the coupling laser field, or by the quantum destructive interference (QDI), where the atomic phases caused by the coupling laser and the probe laser field cancel. We propose modulated experiments to explore the PEIT in an alternative way by periodically modulating the coupling and the probe fields in a Λ-type three-level system initially in a dark state. Our analytical and numerical results rule out the ATS interpretation and show that the QDI interpretation is more appropriate for the modulated experiments. Interestingly, dark state persists in the double-modulation situation where control and probe fields never occur simultaneously, which is significant difference from the traditional dark state condition. The proposed experiments are readily implemented in atomic gases, artificial atoms in superconducting quantum devices, or three-level meta-atoms in meta-materials.

  14. Protein Functionalized Nanodiamond Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various nanoscale elements are currently being explored for bio-applications, such as in bio-images, bio-detection, and bio-sensors. Among them, nanodiamonds possess remarkable features such as low bio-cytotoxicity, good optical property in fluorescent and Raman spectra, and good photostability for bio-applications. In this work, we devise techniques to position functionalized nanodiamonds on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs arrays adsorbed on silicon and ITO substrates surface using electron beam lithography techniques. The nanodiamond arrays were functionalized with lysozyme to target a certain biomolecule or protein specifically. The optical properties of the nanodiamond-protein complex arrays were characterized by a high throughput confocal microscope. The synthesized nanodiamond-lysozyme complex arrays were found to still retain their functionality in interacting with E. coli.

  15. Photonic Crystal Nanocavity Arrays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altug, Hatice; Vuckovic, Jelena

    2006-01-01

    We recently proposed two-dimensional coupled photonic crystal nanocavity arrays as a route to achieve a slow-group velocity of light in all crystal directions, thereby enabling numerous applications...

  16. Force sensitive carbon nanotube arrays for biologically inspired airflow sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschmann, Matthew R.; Dickinson, Ben; Ehlert, Gregory J.; Baur, Jeffery W.

    2012-09-01

    The compressive electromechanical response of aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays is evaluated for use as an artificial hair sensor (AHS) transduction element. CNT arrays with heights of 12, 75, and 225 µm are examined. The quasi-static and dynamic sensitivity to force, response time, and signal drift are examined within the range of applied stresses predicted by a mechanical model applicable to the conceptual CNT array-based AHS (0-1 kPa). Each array is highly sensitive to compressive loading, with a maximum observed gauge factor of 114. The arrays demonstrate a repeatable response to dynamic cycling after a break-in period of approximately 50 cycles. Utilizing a four-wire measurement electrode configuration, the change in contact resistance between the array and the electrodes is observed to dominate the electromechanical response of the arrays. The response time of the CNT arrays is of the order of 10 ms. When the arrays are subjected to constant stress, mechanical creep is observed that results in a signal drift that generally diminishes the responsiveness of the arrays, particularly at stress approaching 1 kPa. The results of this study serve as a preliminary proof of concept for utilizing CNT arrays as a transduction mechanism for a proposed artificial hair sensor. Such a low profile and light-weight flow sensor is expected to have application in a number of applications including navigation and state awareness of small air vehicles, similar in function to natural hair cell receptors utilized by insects and bats.

  17. Enhanced THz extinction in arrays of resonant semiconductor particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, M. C.; Georgiou, G.; J. Gomez Rivas,

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the enhanced THz extinction by periodic arrays of resonant semiconductor particles. This phenomenon is explained in terms of the radiative coupling of localized resonances with diffractive orders in the plane of the array (Rayleigh anomalies). The experimental results

  18. SUPERCONDUCTING QUADRUPOLE ARRAYS FOR MULTIPLE BEAM TRANSPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer Meinke Carl Goodzeit Penny Ball Roger Bangerter

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research was to develop concepts for affordable, fully functional arrays of superconducting quadrupoles for multi-beam transport and focusing in heavy ion fusion (HIF)accelerators. Previous studies by the Virtual National Laboratory (VNL) collaboration have shown that the multi-beam transport system (consisting of alternating gradient quadrupole magnets, a beam vacuum system, and the beam monitor and control system) will likely be one of the most expensive and critical parts of such an accelerator. This statement is true for near-term fusion research accelerators as well as accelerators for the ultimate goal of power production via inertial fusion. For this reason, research on superconducting quadrupole arrays is both timely and important for the inertial fusion energy (IFE) research program. This research will also benefit near-term heavy ion fusion facilities such as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)and/or the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). We considered a 2-prong approach that addresses the needs of both the nearer and longer term requirements of the inertial fusion program. First, we studied the flat coil quadrupole design that was developed by LLNL; this magnet is 150 mm long with a 50 mm aperture and thus is suitable for near term experiments that require magnets of a small length to aperture ratio. Secondly, we studied the novel double-helix quadrupole (DHQ) design in a small (3 x 3) array configuration; this design can provide an important step to the longer term solution of loW--cost, easy to manufacture array constructions. Our Phase I studies were performed using the AMPERES magnetostatic analysis software. Consideration of these results led to plans for future magnet RandD construction projects. The first objective of Phase I was to develop the concept of a superconducting focusing array that meets the specific requirements of a heavy ion fusion accelerator. Detailed parameter studies for such quadrupole arrays were performed

  19. SUPERCONDUCTING QUADRUPOLE ARRAYS FOR MULTIPLE BEAM TRANSPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainer Meinke

    2003-10-01

    The goal of this research was to develop concepts for affordable, fully functional arrays of superconducting quadrupoles for multi-beam transport and focusing in heavy ion fusion (HIF)accelerators. Previous studies by the Virtual National Laboratory (VNL) collaboration have shown that the multi-beam transport system (consisting of alternating gradient quadrupole magnets, a beam vacuum system, and the beam monitor and control system) will likely be one of the most expensive and critical parts of such an accelerator. This statement is true for near-term fusion research accelerators as well as accelerators for the ultimate goal of power production via inertial fusion. For this reason, research on superconducting quadrupole arrays is both timely and important for the inertial fusion energy (IFE) research program. This research will also benefit near-term heavy ion fusion facilities such as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)and/or the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). We considered a 2-prong approach that addresses the needs of both the nearer and longer term requirements of the inertial fusion program. First, we studied the flat coil quadrupole design that was developed by LLNL; this magnet is 150 mm long with a 50 mm aperture and thus is suitable for near term experiments that require magnets of a small length to aperture ratio. Secondly, we studied the novel double-helix quadrupole (DHQ) design in a small (3 x 3) array configuration; this design can provide an important step to the longer term solution of low-cost, easy to manufacture array constructions. Our Phase I studies were performed using the AMPERES magnetostatic analysis software. Consideration of these results led to plans for future magnet R&D construction projects. The first objective of Phase I was to develop the concept of a superconducting focusing array that meets the specific requirements of a heavy ion fusion accelerator. Detailed parameter studies for such quadrupole arrays were performed

  20. Carbon nanotube array actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, S; Mahrholz, T; Wierach, P; Sinapius, M

    2013-01-01

    Experimental investigations of highly vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), also known as CNT-arrays, are the main focus of this paper. The free strain as result of an active material behavior is analyzed via a novel experimental setup. Previous test experiences of papers made of randomly oriented CNTs, also called Bucky-papers, reveal comparably low free strain. The anisotropy of aligned CNTs promises better performance. Via synthesis techniques like chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD), highly aligned arrays of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are synthesized. Two different types of CNT-arrays are analyzed, morphologically first, and optically tested for their active characteristics afterwards. One type of the analyzed arrays features tube lengths of 750–2000 μm with a large variety of diameters between 20 and 50 nm and a wave-like CNT-shape. The second type features a maximum, almost uniform, length of 12 μm and a constant diameter of 50 nm. Different CNT-lengths and array types are tested due to their active behavior. As result of the presented tests, it is reported that the quality of orientation is the most decisive property for excellent active behavior. Due to their alignment, CNT-arrays feature the opportunity to clarify the actuation mechanism of architectures made of CNTs. (paper)

  1. The Argonne silicon strip-detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuosmaa, A H; Back, B B; Betts, R R; Freer, M; Gehring, J; Glagola, B G; Happ, Th; Henderson, D J; Wilt, P [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bearden, I G [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    Many nuclear physics experiments require the ability to analyze events in which large numbers of charged particles are detected and identified simultaneously, with good resolution and high efficiency, either alone, or in coincidence with gamma rays. The authors have constructed a compact large-area detector array to measure these processes efficiently and with excellent energy resolution. The array consists of four double-sided silicon strip detectors, each 5x5 cm{sup 2} in area, with front and back sides divided into 16 strips. To exploit the capability of the device fully, a system to read each strip-detector segment has been designed and constructed, based around a custom-built multi-channel preamplifier. The remainder of the system consists of high-density CAMAC modules, including multi-channel discriminators, charge-sensing analog-to-digital converters, and time-to-digital converters. The array`s performance has been evaluated using alpha-particle sources, and in a number of experiments conducted at Argonne and elsewhere. Energy resolutions of {Delta}E {approx} 20-30 keV have been observed for 5 to 8 MeV alpha particles, as well as time resolutions {Delta}T {<=} 500 ps. 4 figs.

  2. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays as tunable acoustic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lani, Shane W., E-mail: shane.w.lani@gmail.com, E-mail: karim.sabra@me.gatech.edu, E-mail: levent.degertekin@me.gatech.edu; Sabra, Karim G. [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801Ferst Drive, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); Wasequr Rashid, M.; Hasler, Jennifer [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Van Leer Electrical Engineering Building, 777 Atlantic Drive NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States); Levent Degertekin, F. [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801Ferst Drive, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Van Leer Electrical Engineering Building, 777 Atlantic Drive NW, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0250 (United States)

    2014-02-03

    Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) operating in immersion support dispersive evanescent waves due to the subwavelength periodic structure of electrostatically actuated membranes in the array. Evanescent wave characteristics also depend on the membrane resonance which is modified by the externally applied bias voltage, offering a mechanism to tune the CMUT array as an acoustic metamaterial. The dispersion and tunability characteristics are examined using a computationally efficient, mutual radiation impedance based approach to model a finite-size array and realistic parameters of variation. The simulations are verified, and tunability is demonstrated by experiments on a linear CMUT array operating in 2-12 MHz range.

  3. Motion in an Asymmetric Double Well

    OpenAIRE

    Brizard, Alain J.; Westland, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of the motion of a particle in an asymmetric double well is solved explicitly in terms of the Weierstrass and Jacobi elliptic functions. While the solution of the orbital motion is expressed simply in terms of the Weierstrass elliptic function, the period of oscillation is more directly expressed in terms of periods of the Jacobi elliptic functions.

  4. International double taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Körbl, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    1 Summary This thesis deals with the issue of international double taxation of income and capital and methods for its solution. International double taxation is an issue which states began to deal with in the late 19th century. This interest intensified after the First World War when also the League of Nations (predecessor of the United Nations) began to deal with international double taxation. Most attention the phenomenon of double taxation of income and capital with an international elemen...

  5. Viral infection model with periodic lytic immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kaifa; Wang Wendi; Liu Xianning

    2006-01-01

    Dynamical behavior and bifurcation structure of a viral infection model are studied under the assumption that the lytic immune response is periodic in time. The infection-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproductive ratio of virus is less than or equal to one. There is a non-constant periodic solution if the basic reproductive ratio of the virus is greater than one. It is found that period doubling bifurcations occur as the amplitude of lytic component is increased. For intermediate birth rates, the period triplication occurs and then period doubling cascades proceed gradually toward chaotic cycles. For large birth rate, the period doubling cascade proceeds gradually toward chaotic cycles without the period triplication, and the inverse period doubling can be observed. These results can be used to explain the oscillation behaviors of virus population, which was observed in chronic HBV or HCV carriers

  6. Rectification of light refraction in curved waveguide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2009-02-15

    An "optical ratchet" for discretized light in photonic lattices, which enables observing rectification of light refraction at any input beam conditions, is theoretically presented, and a possible experimental implementation based on periodically curved zigzag waveguide arrays is proposed.

  7. Rectification of light refraction in curved waveguide arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, S.

    2010-01-01

    An 'optical ratchet' for discretized light in photonic lattices, which enables to observe rectification of light refraction at any input beam conditions, is theoretically presented, and a possible experimental implementation based on periodically-curved zigzag waveguide arrays is proposed.

  8. Period doubling induced by thermal noise amplification in genetic circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Ruocco, G.; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    . In the proposed system, nonlinearity naturally arises from the mechanism of cooperative stability, which regulates the concentration of a protein produced during a transcription process. In this elemental model, bistability results from the coherent amplification

  9. Testing of focal plane arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriam, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Problems associated with the testing of focal plane arrays are briefly examined with reference to the instrumentation and measurement procedures. In particular, the approach and instrumentation used as the Naval Ocean Systems Center is presented. Most of the measurements are made with flooded illumination on the focal plane array. The array is treated as an ensemble of individual pixels, data being taken on each pixel and array averages and standard deviations computed for the entire array. Data maps are generated, showing the pixel data in the proper spatial position on the array and the array statistics

  10. PALFA Discovery of a Highly Relativistic Double Neutron Star Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, K.; Freire, P. C. C.; Chatterjee, S.; Demorest, P. B.; Lorimer, D. R.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Pol, N.; van Leeuwen, J.; Wharton, R. S.; Allen, B.; Boyce, M.; Brazier, A.; Caballero, K.; Camilo, F.; Camuccio, R.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Ferdman, R. D.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jenet, F. A.; Kaspi, V. M.; Knispel, B.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Parent, E.; Patel, C.; Pleunis, Z.; Ransom, S. M.; Scholz, P.; Seymour, A.; Siemens, X.; Stairs, I. H.; Swiggum, J.; Zhu, W. W.

    2018-02-01

    We report the discovery and initial follow-up of a double neutron star (DNS) system, PSR J1946+2052, with the Arecibo L-Band Feed Array pulsar (PALFA) survey. PSR J1946+2052 is a 17 ms pulsar in a 1.88 hr, eccentric (e = 0.06) orbit with a ≳1.2 M ⊙ companion. We have used the Jansky Very Large Array to localize PSR J1946+2052 to a precision of 0.″09 using a new phase binning mode. We have searched multiwavelength catalogs for coincident sources but did not find any counterparts. The improved position enabled a measurement of the spin period derivative of the pulsar (\\dot{P}=9+/- 2× {10}-19); the small inferred magnetic field strength at the surface (B S = 4 × 109 G) indicates that this pulsar has been recycled. This and the orbital eccentricity lead to the conclusion that PSR J1946+2052 is in a DNS system. Among all known radio pulsars in DNS systems, PSR J1946+2052 has the shortest orbital period and the shortest estimated merger timescale, 46 Myr; at that time it will display the largest spin effects on gravitational-wave waveforms of any such system discovered to date. We have measured the advance of periastron passage for this system, \\dot{ω }=25.6+/- 0.3 \\deg {yr}}-1, implying a total system mass of only 2.50 ± 0.04 M ⊙, so it is among the lowest-mass DNS systems. This total mass measurement combined with the minimum companion mass constrains the pulsar mass to ≲1.3 M ⊙.

  11. Phased antenna arrays for fast wave power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosia, G.; Jacquinot, J.

    1991-01-01

    A method for the generation of travelling waves in the Ion Cyclotron frequency range in JET is presented. The success of the method relies on the control of the array toroidal current, which in turn, is obtained by a coordinated vectorial control of the array power sources and tuning networks. This method has general application to present and future ICRF arrays. For uninterrupted, periodically fed and resonant toroidal arrays, phased operation requires only conventional tuning devices. For localised arrays, phased operation is inefficient at low plasma coupling. This inefficiency can be however removed with the addition of external coupling structures either at the antenna or at the generator ends. The performances of JET A1 antennae in phased operation is presented. The design philosophy for the JET A2 phased arrays is also discussed. These methods are applicable and extensible to Next Step Devices design

  12. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-07-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. We briefly discuss the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Author)

  13. Double layers in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1982-01-01

    For more than a decade it has been realised that electrostatic double layers are likely to occur in space. The author briefly discusses the theoretical background of such double layers. Most of the paper is devoted to an account of the observational evidence for double layers in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth. Several different experiments are reviewed including rocket and satellite measurements and ground based observations. It is concluded that the observational evidence for double layers in space is very strong. The experimental results indicate that double layers with widely different properties may exist in space. (Auth.)

  14. Tunable plasmon-induced transparency with graphene-based T-shaped array metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yuying; Wang, Jicheng; Hu, Zhengda; Zhang, Feng

    2018-06-01

    The frequency tunable Plasmonic induced transparency (PIT) effect is researched with a periodically patterned T-shaped graphene array in mid-infrared region. We adjust the geometrical parameters to obtain the optimized combination for the realization of the PIT response and use the coupled Lorentz oscillator model to analysis the physical mechanism. Due to the properties of graphene, the PIT effect can be easily and markedly enhanced with the increase of chemical potential and carrier mobility. The frequency of PIT effect is also insensitive with the angle of incident light. In addition, we also propose the π shaped structure to realizing the double-peak PIT effect. The results offer a flexible approach for the development of tunable graphene-based photonic devices.

  15. Double-double effect and coordination number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioduski, T.

    1992-01-01

    The original method of interpretation together with its theoretical foundations is developed, making it possible to use location and direction of the double-double (tetrad) effect within the Ln and An series to determine the coordination number (CN) complexes of the f-block elements. The method is applied for potentiometric and radiometric equilibrium studies. It has been pointed and that the decisive factor for the direction of the double-double effect in the case of the Gibbs energy variations is a difference in the CN of the f-element ion between the reaction product complex and that for the reaction substrate the ''regular'' effect for a given tetrad is accompanied by decrease in the CN while the ''reverse'' effect by increase in the CN. (author). 122 refs, 5 tabs, 8 figs

  16. Numerical simulations on ion acoustic double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Okuda, H.

    1980-07-01

    A comprehensive numerical study of ion acoustic double layers has been performed for both periodic as well as for nonperiodic systems by means of one-dimensional particle simulations. For a nonperiodic system, an external battery and a resistance are used to model the magnetospheric convection potential and the ionospheric Pedersen resistance. It is found that the number of double layers and the associated potential buildup across the system increases with the system length

  17. Simulation of plasma double-layer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovsky, J.E.; Joyce, G.

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic plasma double layers are numerically simulated by means of a magnetized 2 1/2-dimensional particle-in-cell method. The investigation of planar double layers indicates that these one-dimensional potential structures are susceptible to periodic disruption by instabilities in the low-potential plasmas. Only a slight increase in the double-layer thickness with an increase in its obliqueness to the magnetic field is observed. Weak magnetization results in the double-layer electric-field alignment of accelerated particles and strong magnetization results in their magnetic-field alignment. The numerial simulations of spatially periodic two-dimensional double layers also exhibit cyclical instability. A morphological invariance in two-dimensional double layers with respect to the degree of magnetization implies that the potential structures scale with Debye lengths rather than with gyroradii. Electron-beam excited electrostatic electron-cyclotron waves and (ion-beam driven) solitary waves are present in the plasmas adjacent to the double layers

  18. Wire Array Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Evans, Dan

    Over the past five years, the cost of solar panels has dropped drastically and, in concert, the number of installed modules has risen exponentially. However, solar electricity is still more than twice as expensive as electricity from a natural gas plant. Fortunately, wire array solar cells have emerged as a promising technology for further lowering the cost of solar. Si wire array solar cells are formed with a unique, low cost growth method and use 100 times less material than conventional Si cells. The wires can be embedded in a transparent, flexible polymer to create a free-standing array that can be rolled up for easy installation in a variety of form factors. Furthermore, by incorporating multijunctions into the wire morphology, higher efficiencies can be achieved while taking advantage of the unique defect relaxation pathways afforded by the 3D wire geometry. The work in this thesis shepherded Si wires from undoped arrays to flexible, functional large area devices and laid the groundwork for multijunction wire array cells. Fabrication techniques were developed to turn intrinsic Si wires into full p-n junctions and the wires were passivated with a-Si:H and a-SiNx:H. Single wire devices yielded open circuit voltages of 600 mV and efficiencies of 9%. The arrays were then embedded in a polymer and contacted with a transparent, flexible, Ni nanoparticle and Ag nanowire top contact. The contact connected >99% of the wires in parallel and yielded flexible, substrate free solar cells featuring hundreds of thousands of wires. Building on the success of the Si wire arrays, GaP was epitaxially grown on the material to create heterostructures for photoelectrochemistry. These cells were limited by low absorption in the GaP due to its indirect bandgap, and poor current collection due to a diffusion length of only 80 nm. However, GaAsP on SiGe offers a superior combination of materials, and wire architectures based on these semiconductors were investigated for multijunction

  19. A review of array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1981-10-01

    Achievements in the area of array radars are illustrated by such activities as the operational deployment of the large high-power, high-range-resolution Cobra Dane; the operational deployment of two all-solid-state high-power, large UHF Pave Paws radars; and the development of the SAM multifunction Patriot radar. This paper reviews the following topics: array radars steered in azimuth and elevation by phase shifting (phase-phase steered arrays); arrays steered + or - 60 deg, limited scan arrays, hemispherical coverage, and omnidirectional coverage arrays; array radars steering electronically in only one dimension, either by frequency or by phase steering; and array radar antennas which use no electronic scanning but instead use array antennas for achieving low antenna sidelobes.

  20. Detector array and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy, J.G.; Bybee, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A detector array and method are described in which sets of electrode elements are provided. Each set consists of a number of linear extending parallel electrodes. The sets of electrode elements are disposed at an angle (preferably orthogonal) with respect to one another so that the individual elements intersect and overlap individual elements of the other sets. Electrical insulation is provided between the overlapping elements. The detector array is exposed to a source of charged particles which in accordance with one embodiment comprise electrons derived from a microchannel array plate exposed to photons. Amplifier and discriminator means are provided for each individual electrode element. Detection means are provided to sense pulses on individual electrode elements in the sets, with coincidence of pulses on individual intersecting electrode elements being indicative of charged particle impact at the intersection of the elements. Electronic readout means provide an indication of coincident events and the location where the charged particle or particles impacted. Display means are provided for generating appropriate displays representative of the intensity and locaton of charged particles impacting on the detector array

  1. Diode lasers and arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streifer, W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of operation of III-V semiconductor diode lasers, the use of distributed feedback, and high power laser arrays. The semiconductor laser is a robust, miniature, versatile device, which directly converts electricity to light with very high efficiency. Applications to pumping solid-state lasers and to fiber optic and point-to-point communications are reviewed

  2. Array Theory and Nial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falster, Peter; Jenkins, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This report is the result of collaboration between the authors during the first 8 months of 1999 when M. Jenkins was visiting professor at DTU. The report documents the development of a tool for the investigation of array theory concepts and in particular presents various approaches to choose...

  3. Piezoelectric transducer array microspeaker

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Castro, David; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    contains 2n piezoelectric transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a circular shape structure. The membrane is made out four layers: 300nm of platinum for the bottom electrode, 250nm or lead zirconate titanate (PZT

  4. Worst-case-efficient dynamic arrays in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    The basic operations of a dynamic array are operator[], push back, and pop back. This study is an examination of variations of dynamic arrays that support these operations at O(1) worst-case cost. In the literature, many solutions have been proposed, but little information is available on their m......The basic operations of a dynamic array are operator[], push back, and pop back. This study is an examination of variations of dynamic arrays that support these operations at O(1) worst-case cost. In the literature, many solutions have been proposed, but little information is available...... on their mutual superiority. Most library implementations only guarantee O(1) amortized cost per operation. Four variations with good worst-case performance were benchmarked: (1) resizable array relying on doubling, halving, and incremental copying; (2) level-wiseallocated pile; (3) sliced array with fixed......-capacity slices; and (4) blockwise-allocated pile. Let |V| denote the size of the values of type V and |V*| the size of the pointers to values of type V, both measured in bytes. For an array of n values and a slice of S values, the space requirements of the considered variations were at most 12|V|n+O(|V*|), 2|V...

  5. Statistically optimized near field acoustic holography using an array of pressure-velocity probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Jaud, Virginie

    2007-01-01

    of a measurement aperture that extends well beyond the source can be relaxed. Both NAH and SONAH are based on the assumption that all sources are on one side of the measurement plane whereas the other side is source free. An extension of the SONAH procedure based on measurement with a double layer array...... of pressure microphones has been suggested. The double layer technique makes it possible to distinguish between sources on the two sides of the array and thus suppress the influence of extraneous noise coming from the “wrong” side. It has also recently been demonstrated that there are significant advantages...... in NAH based on an array of acoustic particle velocity transducers (in a single layer) compared with NAH based on an array of pressure microphones. This investigation combines the two ideas and examines SONAH based on an array of pressure-velocity intensity probes through computer simulations as well...

  6. Lightweight Double Neutron Star Found

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    More than forty years after the first discovery of a double neutron star, we still havent found many others but a new survey is working to change that.The Hunt for PairsThe observed shift in the Hulse-Taylor binarys orbital period over time as it loses energy to gravitational-wave emission. [Weisberg Taylor, 2004]In 1974, Russell Hulse and Joseph Taylor discovered the first double neutron star: two compact objects locked in a close orbit about each other. Hulse and Taylors measurements of this binarys decaying orbit over subsequent years led to a Nobel prize and the first clear evidence of gravitational waves carrying energy and angular momentum away from massive binaries.Forty years later, we have since confirmed the existence of gravitational waves directly with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). Nonetheless, finding and studying pre-merger neutron-star binaries remains a top priority. Observing such systems before they merge reveals crucial information about late-stage stellar evolution, binary interactions, and the types of gravitational-wave signals we expect to find with current and future observatories.Since the Hulse-Taylor binary, weve found a total of 16 additional double neutron-star systems which represents only a tiny fraction of the more than 2,600 pulsars currently known. Recently, however, a large number of pulsar surveys are turning their eyes toward the sky, with a focus on finding more double neutron stars and at least one of them has had success.The pulse profile for PSR J1411+2551 at 327 MHz. [Martinez et al. 2017]A Low-Mass DoubleConducted with the 1,000-foot Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico, the Arecibo 327 MHz Drift Pulsar Survey has enabled the recent discovery of dozens of pulsars and transients. Among them, as reported by Jose Martinez (Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy) and coauthors in a recent publication, is PSR J1411+2551: a new double neutron star with one of the lowest masses ever measured

  7. Self-assembled biomimetic superhydrophobic hierarchical arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongta; Dou, Xuan; Fang, Yin; Jiang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    Here, we report a simple and inexpensive bottom-up technology for fabricating superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical micro-/nano-structures, which are inspired by the binary periodic structure found on the superhydrophobic compound eyes of some insects (e.g., mosquitoes and moths). Binary colloidal arrays consisting of exemplary large (4 and 30 μm) and small (300 nm) silica spheres are first assembled by a scalable Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technology in a layer-by-layer manner. After surface modification with fluorosilanes, the self-assembled hierarchical particle arrays become superhydrophobic with an apparent water contact angle (CA) larger than 150°. The throughput of the resulting superhydrophobic coatings with hierarchical structures can be significantly improved by templating the binary periodic structures of the LB-assembled colloidal arrays into UV-curable fluoropolymers by a soft lithography approach. Superhydrophobic perfluoroether acrylate hierarchical arrays with large CAs and small CA hysteresis can be faithfully replicated onto various substrates. Both experiments and theoretical calculations based on the Cassie's dewetting model demonstrate the importance of the hierarchical structure in achieving the final superhydrophobic surface states. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Computer-automated tuning of semiconductor double quantum dots into the single-electron regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, T.A.; Eendebak, P.T.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the computer-automated tuning of gate-defined semiconductor double quantum dots in GaAs heterostructures. We benchmark the algorithm by creating three double quantum dots inside a linear array of four quantum dots. The algorithm sets the correct gate voltages for all the gates to tune the

  9. Short-Period Surface Wave Based Seismic Event Relocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Gaynor, A.; Cleveland, M.; Nyblade, A.; Kintner, J. A.; Homman, K.; Ammon, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate and precise seismic event locations are essential for a broad range of geophysical investigations. Superior location accuracy generally requires calibration with ground truth information, but superb relative location precision is often achievable independently. In explosion seismology, low-yield explosion monitoring relies on near-source observations, which results in a limited number of observations that challenges our ability to estimate any locations. Incorporating more distant observations means relying on data with lower signal-to-noise ratios. For small, shallow events, the short-period (roughly 1/2 to 8 s period) fundamental-mode and higher-mode Rayleigh waves (including Rg) are often the most stable and visible portion of the waveform at local distances. Cleveland and Ammon [2013] have shown that teleseismic surface waves are valuable observations for constructing precise, relative event relocations. We extend the teleseismic surface wave relocation method, and apply them to near-source distances using Rg observations from the Bighorn Arche Seismic Experiment (BASE) and the Earth Scope USArray Transportable Array (TA) seismic stations. Specifically, we present relocation results using short-period fundamental- and higher-mode Rayleigh waves (Rg) in a double-difference relative event relocation for 45 delay-fired mine blasts and 21 borehole chemical explosions. Our preliminary efforts are to explore the sensitivity of the short-period surface waves to local geologic structure, source depth, explosion magnitude (yield), and explosion characteristics (single-shot vs. distributed source, etc.). Our results show that Rg and the first few higher-mode Rayleigh wave observations can be used to constrain the relative locations of shallow low-yield events.

  10. Observing Double Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  11. Formation of double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.; Wong, A.Y.; Quon, B.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on both stationary and propagating double layers and a related analytical model are described. Stationary double layers were produced in a multiple plasma device, in which an electron drift current was present. An investigation of the plasma parameters for the stable double layer condition is described. The particle distribution in the stable double layer establishes a potential profile, which creates electron and ion beams that excite plasma instabilities. The measured characteristics of the instabilities are consistent with the existence of the double layer. Propagating double layers are formed when the initial electron drift current is large. Ths slopes of the transition region increase as they propagate. A physical model for the formation of a double layer in the experimental device is described. This model explains the formation of the low potential region on the basis of the space charge. This space charge is created by the electron drift current. The model also accounts for the role of ions in double layer formation and explains the formation of moving double layers. (Auth.)

  12. Multiple bifurcations and periodic 'bubbling' in a delay population model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Mingshu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the flip bifurcation and periodic doubling bifurcations of a discrete population model without delay influence is firstly studied and the phenomenon of Feigenbaum's cascade of periodic doublings is also observed. Secondly, we explored the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the delay population model (two-dimension discrete dynamical systems) and the unique stable closed invariant curve which bifurcates from the nontrivial fixed point. Finally, a computer-assisted study for the delay population model is also delved into. Our computer simulation shows that the introduction of delay effect in a nonlinear difference equation derived from the logistic map leads to much richer dynamic behavior, such as stable node → stable focus → an lower-dimensional closed invariant curve (quasi-periodic solution, limit cycle) or/and stable periodic solutions → chaotic attractor by cascading bubbles (the combination of potential period doubling and reverse period-doubling) and the sudden change between two different attractors, etc

  13. Concurrent array-based queue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2015-01-06

    According to one embodiment, a method for implementing an array-based queue in memory of a memory system that includes a controller includes configuring, in the memory, metadata of the array-based queue. The configuring comprises defining, in metadata, an array start location in the memory for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, an array size for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, a queue top for the array-based queue and defining, in the metadata, a queue bottom for the array-based queue. The method also includes the controller serving a request for an operation on the queue, the request providing the location in the memory of the metadata of the queue.

  14. Curvilinear 3-D Imaging Using Row--Column-Addressed 2-D Arrays with a Diverging Lens: Feasibility Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Engholm, Mathias; Beers, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    imaging. Extended FOV and low channel count of double-curved RCA 2-D arrays make 3-D imaging possible with equipment in the price range of conventional 2-D imaging. This study proposes a delay-and-sum beamformation scheme specific to double-curved RCA 2-D arrays and validates its focusing ability based...... of this study demonstrate that the proposed beamforming approach is accurate for achieving correct time-of-flight calculations, and hence avoids geometrical distortions....

  15. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  16. The Big Optical Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozurkewich, D.; Johnston, K.J.; Simon, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the capabilities of the Naval Research Laboratory Big Optical Array (BOA), an interferometric optical array for high-resolution imaging of stars, stellar systems, and other celestial objects. There are four important differences between the BOA design and the design of Mark III Optical Interferometer on Mount Wilson (California). These include a long passive delay line which will be used in BOA to do most of the delay compensation, so that the fast delay line will have a very short travel; the beam combination in BOA will be done in triplets, to allow measurement of closure phase; the same light will be used for both star and fringe tracking; and the fringe tracker will use several wavelength channels

  17. A 4 probe array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, C E [CEGB, Marchwood Engineering Laboratories, Marchwood, Southampton, Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    1980-11-01

    A NDT system is described which moves away from the present manual method using a single send/receive transducer combination and uses instead an array of four transducers. Four transducers are shown sufficient to define a point reflector with a resolution of m{lambda}z/R where m{lambda} is the minimum detectable path difference in the system (corresponding to a m cycle time resolution), z the range and R the radius of the array. Signal averaging with an input ADC rate of 100 MHz is used with voice output for the range data. Typical resolution measurements in a water tank are presented. We expect a resolution of the order of mm in steel at a range of 80 mm. The system is expected to have applications in automated, high resolution, sizing of defects and in the inspection of austenitic stainless steel welds. (author)

  18. Timed arrays wideband and time varying antenna arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Haupt, Randy L

    2015-01-01

    Introduces timed arrays and design approaches to meet the new high performance standards The author concentrates on any aspect of an antenna array that must be viewed from a time perspective. The first chapters briefly introduce antenna arrays and explain the difference between phased and timed arrays. Since timed arrays are designed for realistic time-varying signals and scenarios, the book also reviews wideband signals, baseband and passband RF signals, polarization and signal bandwidth. Other topics covered include time domain, mutual coupling, wideband elements, and dispersion. The auth

  19. Solar collector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  20. Photovoltaic cell array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, J. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell array consisting of parallel columns of silicon filaments is described. Each fiber is doped to produce an inner region of one polarity type and an outer region of an opposite polarity type to thereby form a continuous radial semi conductor junction. Spaced rows of electrical contacts alternately connect to the inner and outer regions to provide a plurality of electrical outputs which may be combined in parallel or in series.

  1. Phased array antenna control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doland, G. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Several new and useful improvements in steering and control of phased array antennas having a small number of elements, typically on the order of 5 to 17 elements are provided. Among the improvements are increasing the number of beam steering positions, reducing the possibility of phase transients in signals received or transmitted with the antennas, and increasing control and testing capacity with respect to the antennas.

  2. Lectin-Array Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Raquel; Echevarria, Juan; Hernandez, Alvaro; Reichardt, Niels-Christian

    2017-09-01

    Aberrant protein glycosylation is a hallmark of cancer, infectious diseases, and autoimmune or neurodegenerative disorders. Unlocking the potential of glycans as disease markers will require rapid and unbiased glycoproteomics methods for glycan biomarker discovery. The present method is a facile and rapid protocol for qualitative analysis of protein glycosylation in complex biological mixtures. While traditional lectin arrays only provide an average signal for the glycans in the mixture, which is usually dominated by the most abundant proteins, our method provides individual lectin binding profiles for all proteins separated in the gel electrophoresis step. Proteins do not have to be excised from the gel for subsequent analysis via the lectin array but are transferred by contact diffusion from the gel to a glass slide presenting multiple copies of printed lectin arrays. Fluorescently marked glycoproteins are trapped by the printed lectins via specific carbohydrate-lectin interactions and after a washing step their binding profile with up to 20 lectin probes is analyzed with a fluorescent scanner. The method produces the equivalent of 20 lectin blots in a single experiment, giving detailed insight into the binding epitopes present in the fractionated proteins. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Array processor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, George H. (Inventor); Lundstrom, Stephen F. (Inventor); Shafer, Philip E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A high speed parallel array data processing architecture fashioned under a computational envelope approach includes a data base memory for secondary storage of programs and data, and a plurality of memory modules interconnected to a plurality of processing modules by a connection network of the Omega gender. Programs and data are fed from the data base memory to the plurality of memory modules and from hence the programs are fed through the connection network to the array of processors (one copy of each program for each processor). Execution of the programs occur with the processors operating normally quite independently of each other in a multiprocessing fashion. For data dependent operations and other suitable operations, all processors are instructed to finish one given task or program branch before all are instructed to proceed in parallel processing fashion on the next instruction. Even when functioning in the parallel processing mode however, the processors are not locked-step but execute their own copy of the program individually unless or until another overall processor array synchronization instruction is issued.

  4. Double deflation and aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Hoen, A.R.

    Published input-output tables in constant prices are relatively scarce. Therefore, input-output tables often have to be deflated by the practitioners themselves. The method of double deflation is used predominantly for this purpose. The present paper shows that the double-deflation method is subject

  5. Dual-band dual-polarized array for WLAN applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, JM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available dual-band dual-polarized (DBDP) antenna design for WLAN applications. The antenna is in the form of an array consisting of four double-dipole radiators. The basic radiating element consists of a rhombus shaped dipole above a planar ground plane... the ground planes and the respective feedlines. Substrate cuts and difierent heights for the horizontal feedlines were necessary to achieve the latter. The 2nd conflguration (for vertical polarization) has a slightly difierent feeding network layout...

  6. Romanian earthquakes analysis using BURAR seismic array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borleanu, Felix; Rogozea, Maria; Nica, Daniela; Popescu, Emilia; Popa, Mihaela; Radulian, Mircea

    2008-01-01

    Bucovina seismic array (BURAR) is a medium-aperture array, installed in 2002 in the northern part of Romania (47.61480 N latitude, 25.21680 E longitude, 1150 m altitude), as a result of the cooperation between Air Force Technical Applications Center, USA and National Institute for Earth Physics, Romania. The array consists of ten elements, located in boreholes and distributed over a 5 x 5 km 2 area; nine with short-period vertical sensors and one with a broadband three-component sensor. Since the new station has been operating the earthquake survey of Romania's territory has been significantly improved. Data recorded by BURAR during 01.01.2005 - 12.31.2005 time interval are first processed and analyzed, in order to establish the array detection capability of the local earthquakes, occurred in different Romanian seismic zones. Subsequently a spectral ratios technique was applied in order to determine the calibration relationships for magnitude, using only the information gathered by BURAR station. The spectral ratios are computed relatively to a reference event, considered as representative for each seismic zone. This method has the advantage to eliminate the path effects. The new calibration procedure is tested for the case of Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes and proved to be very efficient in constraining the size of these earthquakes. (authors)

  7. A novel attack method about double-random-phase-encoding-based image hiding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongsheng; Xiao, Zhijun; Zhu, Xianchen

    2018-03-01

    By using optical image processing techniques, a novel text encryption and hiding method applied by double-random phase-encoding technique is proposed in the paper. The first step is that the secret message is transformed into a 2-dimension array. The higher bits of the elements in the array are used to fill with the bit stream of the secret text, while the lower bits are stored specific values. Then, the transformed array is encoded by double random phase encoding technique. Last, the encoded array is embedded on a public host image to obtain the image embedded with hidden text. The performance of the proposed technique is tested via analytical modeling and test data stream. Experimental results show that the secret text can be recovered either accurately or almost accurately, while maintaining the quality of the host image embedded with hidden data by properly selecting the method of transforming the secret text into an array and the superimposition coefficient.

  8. Fabrication and mechanical properties of anodized zirconium dioxide nanotubular arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Luning; Luo Jingli

    2011-01-01

    A series of highly ordered ZrO 2 nanotubular arrays with different thickness was synthesized by changing the anodization voltage or anodization period. The thickness of the nanotubular arrays depended on the anodization voltage and anodization period. Openings of the tubular structure were only slightly affected by the anodization voltage. Microindentation tests demonstrated that the apparent Young's modulus, ratio of elastic energy to the total deformation energy and hardness decreased as the thickness of the nanotubular array films increased due to densification and collapse of longer nanotubes under external force. Resistance of nanotubular arrays to sliding wear was evaluated in different cultures. Wear loss, which was proportional to the width of the wear track, significantly decreased in water compared with that in air. The pH values of solutions slightly affected the width of the wear track of the ZrO 2 nanotubular arrays. The results showed that wear loss of the ZrO 2 nanotubular arrays and friction force on the ZrO 2 nanotubular arrays decreased with increasing pH from 2.5 to 13.

  9. Force sensitive carbon nanotube arrays for biologically inspired airflow sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschmann, Matthew R; Ehlert, Gregory J; Baur, Jeffery W; Dickinson, Ben

    2012-01-01

    The compressive electromechanical response of aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays is evaluated for use as an artificial hair sensor (AHS) transduction element. CNT arrays with heights of 12, 75, and 225 µm are examined. The quasi-static and dynamic sensitivity to force, response time, and signal drift are examined within the range of applied stresses predicted by a mechanical model applicable to the conceptual CNT array-based AHS (0–1 kPa). Each array is highly sensitive to compressive loading, with a maximum observed gauge factor of 114. The arrays demonstrate a repeatable response to dynamic cycling after a break-in period of approximately 50 cycles. Utilizing a four-wire measurement electrode configuration, the change in contact resistance between the array and the electrodes is observed to dominate the electromechanical response of the arrays. The response time of the CNT arrays is of the order of 10 ms. When the arrays are subjected to constant stress, mechanical creep is observed that results in a signal drift that generally diminishes the responsiveness of the arrays, particularly at stress approaching 1 kPa. The results of this study serve as a preliminary proof of concept for utilizing CNT arrays as a transduction mechanism for a proposed artificial hair sensor. Such a low profile and light-weight flow sensor is expected to have application in a number of applications including navigation and state awareness of small air vehicles, similar in function to natural hair cell receptors utilized by insects and bats. (paper)

  10. Space confinement and rotation stress induced self-organization of double-helix nanostructure: a nanotube twist with a moving catalyst head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Huang, Jia-Qi; Wei, Fei

    2012-05-22

    Inorganic materials with double-helix structure have attracted intensive attention due to not only their elegant morphology but also their amazing morphology-related potential applications. The investigation on the formation mechanism of the inorganic double-helix nanostructure is the first step for the fundamental studies of their materials or physical properties. Herein, we demonstrated the space confinement and rotation stress induced self-organization mechanism of the carbon nanotube (CNT)-array double helices under scanning electron microscopy by directly observing their formation process from individual layered double hydroxide flakes, which is a kind of hydrotalcite-like material composed of positively charged layers and charge-balancing interlayer anions. Space confinement is considered to be the most important extrinsic factor for the formation of CNT-array double helices. Synchronous growth of the CNT arrays oppositely from LDH flakes with space confinement on both sides at the same time is essential for the growth of CNT-array double helices. Coiling of the as-grown CNT arrays into double helices will proceed by self-organization, tending to the most stable morphology in order to release their internal rotation stress. Based on the demonstrated mechanism, effective routes were carried out to improve the selectivity for CNT-array double helices. The work provides a promising method for the fabrication of double-helix nanostructures with their two helices connected at the end by self-assembly.

  11. Relay Feedback Analysis for Double Integral Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Ye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Double integral plants under relay feedback are studied. Complete results on the uniqueness of solutions, existence, and stability of the limit cycles are established using the point transformation method. Analytical expressions are also given for determining the amplitude and period of a limit cycle from the plant parameters.

  12. Educational Cosmic Ray Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soluk, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade a great deal of interest has arisen in using sparse arrays of cosmic ray detectors located at schools as a means of doing both outreach and physics research. This approach has the unique advantage of involving grade school students in an actual ongoing experiment, rather then a simple teaching exercise, while at the same time providing researchers with the basic infrastructure for installation of cosmic ray detectors. A survey is made of projects in North America and Europe and in particular the ALTA experiment at the University of Alberta which was the first experiment operating under this paradigm

  13. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  14. Low profile conformal antenna arrays on high impedance substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents electromagnetic (EM) design and analysis of dipole antenna array over high impedance substrate (HIS). HIS is a preferred substrate for low-profile antenna design, owing to its unique boundary conditions. Such substrates permit radiating elements to be printed on them without any disturbance in the radiation characteristics. Moreover HIS provides improved impedance matching, enhanced bandwidth, and increased broadside directivity owing to total reflection from the reactive surface and high input impedance. This book considers different configurations of HIS for array design on planar and non-planar high-impedance surfaces. Results are presented for cylindrical dipole, printed dipole, and folded dipole over single- and double-layered square-patch-based HIS and dogbone-based HIS. The performance of antenna arrays is analyzed in terms of performance parameters such as return loss and radiation pattern. The design presented shows acceptable return loss and mainlobe gain of radiation pattern. Thi...

  15. Additional magnetoelectric effect in electrode-arrayed magnetoelectric composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Pan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An electrode-arrayed magnetoelectric (ME composite was proposed, in which the positive and negative electrodes of the PZT-5H plate (Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 were equally divided into a 2 × 5 array, while the PZT plate remained intact. The ME voltage coefficients of these 10 sections were measured individually and in parallel/series modes. The magnetoelectric coefficient is doubled compared with un-arrayed condition, when the 10 sections are connected in parallel/series using an optimized connecting sequence derived from the charge matching rule. This scheme can also be applied to other types of layered magnetoelectric composites to obtain additional magnetoelectric effect from the original composite structure.

  16. Congenital maxillary double lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Singh Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Double lip, also referred to as "macrocheilia," is a rare anomaly which affects the upper lip more commonly than the lower lip. It consists of a fold of excess or redundant hypertrophic tissue on the mucosal side of the lip. The congenital double lip is believed to be present at birth and becomes more prominent after eruption of teeth. It affects esthetics and also interferes with speech and mastication. Simple surgical excision produces good functional and cosmetic results. We report a case of a non-syndromic congenital maxillary double lip in a 21-year-old male patient.

  17. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  18. Selecting Sums in Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund

    2008-01-01

    In an array of n numbers each of the \\binomn2+nUnknown control sequence '\\binom' contiguous subarrays define a sum. In this paper we focus on algorithms for selecting and reporting maximal sums from an array of numbers. First, we consider the problem of reporting k subarrays inducing the k largest...... sums among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u. For this problem we design an optimal O(n + k) time algorithm. Secondly, we consider the problem of selecting a subarray storing the k’th largest sum. For this problem we prove a time bound of Θ(n · max {1,log(k/n)}) by describing...... an algorithm with this running time and by proving a matching lower bound. Finally, we combine the ideas and obtain an O(n· max {1,log(k/n)}) time algorithm that selects a subarray storing the k’th largest sum among all subarrays of length at least l and at most u....

  19. Programmable cellular arrays. Faults testing and correcting in cellular arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cercel, L.

    1978-03-01

    A review of some recent researches about programmable cellular arrays in computing and digital processing of information systems is presented, and includes both combinational and sequential arrays, with full arbitrary behaviour, or which can realize better implementations of specialized blocks as: arithmetic units, counters, comparators, control systems, memory blocks, etc. Also, the paper presents applications of cellular arrays in microprogramming, in implementing of a specialized computer for matrix operations, in modeling of universal computing systems. The last section deals with problems of fault testing and correcting in cellular arrays. (author)

  20. A Gemini snapshot survey for double degenerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Gianninas, A.; Curd, Brandon; Bell, Keaton J.; Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    We present the results from a Gemini snapshot radial-velocity survey of 44 low-mass white-dwarf candidates selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopy. To find sub-hour orbital period binary systems, our time-series spectroscopy had cadences of 2-8 min over a period of 20-30 min. Through follow-up observations at Gemini and the MMT, we identify four double-degenerate binary systems with periods ranging from 53 min to 7 h. The shortest period system, SDSS J123549.88+154319.3, was recently identified as a sub-hour period detached binary by Breedt and collaborators. Here, we refine the orbital and physical parameters of this system. High-speed and time-domain survey photometry observations do not reveal eclipses or other photometric effects in any of our targets. We compare the period distribution of these four systems with the orbital period distribution of known double white dwarfs; the median period decreases from 0.64 to 0.24 d for M = 0.3-0.5 M⊙ to M < 0.3 M⊙ white dwarfs. However, we do not find a statistically significant correlation between the orbital period and white-dwarf mass.

  1. Improvement in transmission loss of aircraft double wall with resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jincai; Shi, Liming; Ye, Xining

    1991-08-01

    A little volume low frequency resonator applicable to double-wall configuration of propeller-driven aircraft was designed on the basis of the principle of Helmholtz resonator. The normal incidence absorption coefficient of the various single resonator has been measured. The agreement between theoretical and experimental results is encouraging. An array of resonators whose resonant frequency at 85 Hz and 160 Hz, respectively, are installed between aircraft double-panel, and it has been shown that transmission loss of the double wall structure with resonators improve 4 dB and 6.5 dB in 1/3rd octave bandwidth at 80 Hz and 160 Hz center frequency, respectively, and 5 dB and 7 dB at resonant frequencies, compared with that of the double wall configuration without resonators.

  2. Pion double charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    The pion double charge exchange data on the oxygen isotopes is reviewed and new data on 9 Be, 12 C, 24 Mg, and 28 Si are presented. Where theoretical calculations exist, they are compared to the data. 9 references

  3. Neutrinoless double beta decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... Anyhow, the 'multi-isotope' ansatz is needed to compensate for matrix element ... The neccessary half-life requirement to touch this ... site energy depositions (like double beta decay) and multiple site interactions (most of.

  4. Project Half Double

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Ehlers, Michael; Adland, Karoline Thorp

    activities carried out within the framework of the projects. The formal part of Project Half Double was initiated in June 2015. We started out by developing, refining and testing the Half Double methodology on seven pilot projects in the first phase of the project, which will end June 2016. The current......Project Half Double has a clear mission to succeed in finding a project methodology that can increase the success rate of our projects while increasing the speed at which we generate new ideas and develop new products and services. Chaos and complexity should be seen as a basic condition...... and as an opportunity rather than a threat and a risk. We are convinced that by doing so, we can strengthen Denmark’s competitiveness and play an important role in the battle for jobs and future welfare. The overall goal is to deliver “projects in half the time with double the impact”, where projects in half the time...

  5. Project Half Double

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Gerstrøm, Anna; Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe

    The Half Double mission: Project Half Double has a clear mission. We want to succeed in finding a project methodology that can increase the success rate of our projects while increasing the development speed of new products and services. We are convinced that by doing so we can strengthen...... the competitiveness of Denmark and play an important role in the battle for jobs and future welfare. The overall goal is to deliver “Projects in half the time with double the impact” where projects in half the time should be understood as half the time to impact (benefit realization, effect is achieved......) and not as half the time for project execution. The Half Double project journey: It all began in May 2013 when we asked ourselves: How do we create a new and radical project paradigm that can create successful projects? Today we are a movement of hundreds of passionate project people, and it grows larger...

  6. Double beta decay: experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, Ettore

    2006-01-01

    The results obtained so far and those of the running experiments on neutrinoless double beta decay are reviewed. The plans for second generation experiments, the techniques to be adopted and the expected sensitivities are compared and discussed

  7. Variable-Period Undulators for Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  8. Variable-Period Undulators For Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high-energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  9. A double layer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, L.P.

    1977-06-01

    A review of the main results on electrostatic double layers (sometimes called space charge layers or sheaths) obtained from theory, and laboratory and space experiments up to the spring of 1977 is given. By means of barium jets and satellite probes, double layers have now been found at the altitudes, earlier predicted theoretically. The general potential distribution above the auroral zone, suggested by inverted V-events and electric field reversals, is corroborated. (author)

  10. Layered-metal-hydroxide nanosheet arrays with controlled nanostructures to assist direct electronic communication at biointerfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhe; Lu, Shan; Zhao, Liwei; He, Jing

    2011-10-18

    In this work, ordered vertical arrays of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets have been developed to achieve electron transfer (eT) at biointerfaces in electrochemical devices. It is found that tailoring the gap size of LDH nanosheet arrays could significantly promote the eT rate. This research has successfully extended nanomaterials for efficient modifications of electrode surfaces from nanoparticles, nanowires, nanorods, and nanotubes to nanosheets. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Combinatorial aspects of covering arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Colbourn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Covering arrays generalize orthogonal arrays by requiring that t -tuples be covered, but not requiring that the appearance of t -tuples be balanced.Their uses in screening experiments has found application in software testing, hardware testing, and a variety of fields in which interactions among factors are to be identified. Here a combinatorial view of covering arrays is adopted, encompassing basic bounds, direct constructions, recursive constructions, algorithmic methods, and applications.

  12. Technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., CdTe module and array at NREL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Strand, T.; Hansen, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Powell, R.; Sasala, R. [Solar Cells, Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Engineering and Technology Validation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts in-situ technical evaluations of polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules and arrays. This paper focuses on the technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., (SCI) cadmium telluride (CdTe) module and array performance by attempting to correlate individual module and array performance. This is done by examining the performance and stability of the modules and array over a period of more than one year. Temperature coefficients for module and array parameters (P{sub max}, V{sub oc}, V{sub max}, I{sub sc}, I{sub max}) are also calculated.

  13. Chaos and bifurcations in periodic windows observed in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, J.; Wang, L.; Yuan, D.P.; Gao, P.; Zhang, B.Z.

    1989-01-01

    We report the experimental observations of deterministic chaos in a steady-state plasma which is not driven by any extra periodic forces. Two routes to chaos have been found, period-doubling and intermittent chaos. The fine structures in chaos such as periodic windows and bifurcations in windows have also been observed

  14. The Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkin, A.; Cheng, A. F.; Stickle, A. M.; Richardson, D. C.; Barnouin, O. S.; Thomas, C.; Fahnestock, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) will be the first space experiment to demonstrate asteroid impact hazard mitigation by using a kinetic impactor. DART is currently in Preliminary Design Phase ("Phase B"), and is part of the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment (AIDA), a joint ESA-NASA cooperative project. The AIDA target is the near-Earth binary asteroid 65803 Didymos, an S-class system that will make a close approach to Earth in fall 2022. The DART spacecraft is designed to impact the Didymos secondary at 6 km/s and demonstrate the ability to modify its trajectory through momentum transfer. The primary goals of AIDA are (1) perform a full-scale demonstration of the spacecraft kinetic impact technique for deflection of an asteroid; (2) measure the resulting asteroid deflection, by targeting the secondary member of a binary NEO and measuring the resulting changes of the binary orbit; and (3) study hyper-velocity collision effects on an asteroid, validating models for momentum transfer in asteroid impacts. The DART impact on the Didymos secondary will change the orbital period of the binary by several minutes, which can be measured by Earth-based optical and radar observations. The baseline DART mission launches in late 2020 to impact the Didymos secondary in 2022 near the time of its close pass of Earth, which enables an array of ground- and space-based observatories to participate in gathering data. The AIDA project will provide the first measurements of momentum transfer efficiency from hyper-velocity kinetic impact at full scale on an asteroid, where the impact conditions of the projectile are known, and physical properties and internal structures of the target asteroid are characterized or constrained. The DART kinetic impact is predicted to make a crater of 6 to 17 meters diameter, depending on target physical properties, but will also release a large volume of particulate ejecta that may be directly observable from Earth or even resolvable as a

  15. Nanoelectrode array for electrochemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yelton, William G [Sandia Park, NM; Siegal, Michael P [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-12-01

    A nanoelectrode array comprises a plurality of nanoelectrodes wherein the geometric dimensions of the electrode controls the electrochemical response, and the current density is independent of time. By combining a massive array of nanoelectrodes in parallel, the current signal can be amplified while still retaining the beneficial geometric advantages of nanoelectrodes. Such nanoelectrode arrays can be used in a sensor system for rapid, non-contaminating field analysis. For example, an array of suitably functionalized nanoelectrodes can be incorporated into a small, integrated sensor system that can identify many species rapidly and simultaneously under field conditions in high-resistivity water, without the need for chemical addition to increase conductivity.

  16. Array architectures for iterative algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadish, Hosagrahar V.; Rao, Sailesh K.; Kailath, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Regular mesh-connected arrays are shown to be isomorphic to a class of so-called regular iterative algorithms. For a wide variety of problems it is shown how to obtain appropriate iterative algorithms and then how to translate these algorithms into arrays in a systematic fashion. Several 'systolic' arrays presented in the literature are shown to be specific cases of the variety of architectures that can be derived by the techniques presented here. These include arrays for Fourier Transform, Matrix Multiplication, and Sorting.

  17. Double Hopf bifurcation in delay differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouane Qesmi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the computation of elements of double Hopf bifurcation for retarded functional differential equations (FDEs with parameters. We present an efficient method for computing, simultaneously, the coefficients of center manifolds and normal forms, in terms of the original FDEs, associated with the double Hopf singularity up to an arbitrary order. Finally, we apply our results to a nonlinear model with periodic delay. This shows the applicability of the methodology in the study of delay models arising in either natural or technological problems.

  18. Josephson junctions array resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargiulo, Oscar; Muppalla, Phani; Mirzaei, Iman; Kirchmair, Gerhard [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-07-01

    We present an experimental analysis of the self- and cross-Kerr effect of extended plasma resonances in Josephson junction chains. The chain consists of 1600 individual junctions and we can measure quality factors in excess of 10000. The Kerr effect manifests itself as a frequency shift that depends linearly on the number of photons in a resonant mode. By changing the input power we are able to measure this frequency shift on a single mode (self-kerr). By changing the input power on another mode while measuring the same one, we are able to evaluate the cross-kerr effect. We can measure the cross-Kerr effect by probing the resonance frequency of one mode while exciting another mode of the array with a microwave drive.

  19. Diagnosable structured logic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Sterling (Inventor); Miles, Lowell (Inventor); Gambles, Jody (Inventor); Maki, Gary K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A diagnosable structured logic array and associated process is provided. A base cell structure is provided comprising a logic unit comprising a plurality of input nodes, a plurality of selection nodes, and an output node, a plurality of switches coupled to the selection nodes, where the switches comprises a plurality of input lines, a selection line and an output line, a memory cell coupled to the output node, and a test address bus and a program control bus coupled to the plurality of input lines and the selection line of the plurality of switches. A state on each of the plurality of input nodes is verifiably loaded and read from the memory cell. A trusted memory block is provided. The associated process is provided for testing and verifying a plurality of truth table inputs of the logic unit.

  20. Low Frequency Space Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, B.; Weiler, K.W.; Johnston, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Low Frequency Space Array (LFSA) is a conceptual mission to survey the entire sky and to image individual sources at frequencies between 1.5 and 26 MHz, a frequency range over which the earth's ionosphere transmits poorly or not at all. With high resolution, high sensitivity observations, a new window will be opened in the electromagnetic spectrum for astronomical investigation. Also, extending observations down to such low frequencies will bring astronomy to the fundamental limit below which the galaxy becomes optically thick due to free-free absorption. A number of major scientific goals can be pursued with such a mission, including mapping galactic emission and absorption, studies of individual source spectra in a frequency range where a number of important processes may play a role, high resolution imaging of extended sources, localization of the impulsive emission from Jupiter, and a search for coherent emission processes. 19 references

  1. Scintillator detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusano, D.A.; Dibianca, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    This patent application relates to a scintillator detector array for use in computerized tomography and comprises a housing including a plurality of chambers, the said housing having a front wall transmissive to x-rays and side walls opaque to x-rays, such as of tungsten and tantalum, a liquid scintillation medium including a soluble fluor, the solvent for the fluor being disposed in the chambers. The solvent comprises either an intrinsically high Z solvent or a solvent which has dissolved therein a high Z compound e.g. iodo or bromonaphthalene; or toluene, xylene or trimethylbenzene with a lead or tin alkyl dissolved therein. Also disposed about the chambers are a plurality of photoelectric devices. (author)

  2. Networked Sensor Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    A set of independent radiation sensors, coupled with real-time data telemetry, offers the opportunity to run correlation algorithms for the sensor array as well as to incorporate non-radiological data into the system. This may enhance the overall sensitivity of the sensors and provide an opportunity to project the location of a source within the array. In collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), we have conducted field experiments to test a prototype system. Combining the outputs of a set of distributed sensors permits the correlation that the independent sensor outputs. Combined with additional information such as traffic patterns and velocities, this can reduce random/false detections and enhance detection capability. The principle components of such a system include: (1) A set of radiation sensors. These may be of varying type and complexity, including gamma and/or neutron detectors, gross count and spectral-capable sensors, and low to high energy-resolution sensors. (2) A set of non-radiation sensors. These may include sensors such as vehicle presence and imaging sensors. (3) A communications architecture for near real-time telemetry. Depending upon existing infrastructure and bandwidth requirements, this may be a radio or hard-wire based system. (4) A central command console to pole the sensors, correlate their output, and display the data in a meaningful form to the system operator. Both sensitivity and selectivity are important considerations when evaluating the performance of a detection system. Depending on the application, the optimization of sensitivity as well as the rejection of ''nuisance'' radioactive sources may or may not be critical

  3. Excitation of high density surface plasmon polariton vortex array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun-Fu; Chu, Shu-Chun

    2018-06-01

    This study proposes a method to excite surface plasmon polariton (SPP) vortex array of high spatial density on metal/air interface. A doughnut vector beam was incident at four rectangularly arranged slits to excite SPP vortex array. The doughnut vector beam used in this study has the same field intensity distribution as the regular doughnut laser mode, TEM01* mode, but a different polarization distribution. The SPP vortex array is achieved through the matching of both polarization state and phase state of the incident doughnut vector beam with the four slits. The SPP field distribution excited in this study contains stable array-distributed time-varying optical vortices. Theoretical derivation, analytical calculation and numerical simulation were used to discuss the characteristics of the induced SPP vortex array. The period of the SPP vortex array induced by the proposed method had only half SPPs wavelength. In addition, the vortex number in an excited SPP vortex array can be increased by enlarging the structure.

  4. Multichannel long period seismic data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.; Rao, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the specifications and performance of an eight channel long period seismic digital data acquisition system, which is developed and installed at Seismic Array Station, Gauribidanur, Karnataka State. The paper describes how these data in an unedited form are recorded on a single track of magnetic tape inter-mittantly, which has resulted in recording of 50 days data on a single tapespool. A time indexing technique which enables quick access to any desired portion of a recorded tape is also discussed. Typical examples of long period seismic event signals recorded by this system are also illustrated. Various advantages, the system provides over the analog multichannel instrumentation tape recording system, operating at Seismic Array Station for th e last two decades, are also discussed. (author). 7 figs

  5. Cyclotron-Resonance-Maser Arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesar, A.; Lei, L.; Dikhtyar, V.; Korol, M.; Jerby, E.

    1999-01-01

    The cyclotron-resonance-maser (CRM) array [1] is a radiation source which consists of CRM elements coupled together under a common magnetic field. Each CRM-element employs a low-energy electron-beam which performs a cyclotron interaction with the local electromagnetic wave. These waves can be coupled together among the CRM elements, hence the interaction is coherently synchronized in the entire array. The implementation of the CRM-array approach may alleviate several technological difficulties which impede the development of single-beam gyro-devices. Furthermore, it proposes new features, such as the phased-array antenna incorporated in the CRM-array itself. The CRM-array studies may lead to the development of compact, high-power radiation sources operating at low-voltages. This paper introduces new conceptual schemes of CRM-arrays, and presents the progress in related theoretical and experimental studies in our laboratory. These include a multi-mode analysis of a CRM-array, and a first operation of this device with five carbon-fiber cathodes

  6. Submillimeter heterodyne arrays for APEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güsten, R.; Baryshev, A.; Bell, A.; Belloche, A.; Graf, U.; Hafok, H.; Heyminck, S.; Hochgürtel, S.; Honingh, C. E.; Jacobs, K.; Kasemann, C.; Klein, B.; Klein, T.; Korn, A.; Krämer, I.; Leinz, C.; Lundgren, A.; Menten, K. M.; Meyer, K.; Muders, D.; Pacek, F.; Rabanus, D.; Schäfer, F.; Schilke, P.; Schneider, G.; Stutzki, J.; Wieching, G.; Wunsch, A.; Wyrowski, F.

    2008-01-01

    We report on developments of submillimeter heterodyne arrays for high resolution spectroscopy with APEX. Shortly, we will operate state-of-the-art instruments in all major atmospheric windows accessible from Llano de Chajnantor. CHAMP+, a dual-color 2×7 element heterodyne array for operation in the

  7. Aristotle and Double Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    There are some interesting similarities between Aristotle’s ‘mixed actions’ in Book III of the Nicomachean Ethics and the actions often thought to be justifiable with the Doctrine of Double Effect. Here I analyse these similarities by comparing Aristotle’s examples of mixed actions with standard...... cases from the literature on double effect such as, amongst others, strategic bombing, the trolley problem, and craniotomy. I find that, despite some common features such as the dilemmatic structure and the inevitability of a bad effect, Aristotle’s mixed actions do not count as cases justifiable...... through application of the Doctrine of Double Effect because they fail to meet the crucial necessary condition of the Doctrine according to which the bad effect can only be a merely foreseen side- effect and not an intended means....

  8. Coulomb double helical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Tetsuo; Ishihara, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Structures of Coulomb clusters formed by dust particles in a plasma are studied by numerical simulation. Our study reveals the presence of various types of self-organized structures of a cluster confined in a prolate spheroidal electrostatic potential. The stable configurations depend on a prolateness parameter for the confining potential as well as on the number of dust particles in a cluster. One-dimensional string, two-dimensional zigzag structure and three-dimensional double helical structure are found as a result of the transition controlled by the prolateness parameter. The formation of stable double helical structures resulted from the transition associated with the instability of angular perturbations on double strings. Analytical perturbation study supports the findings of numerical simulations.

  9. Digital electrostatic acoustic transducer array

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo

    2016-12-19

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of an array of electrostatic acoustic transducers. The array is micromachined on a silicon wafer using standard micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n electrostatic transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a hexagonal membrane shape structure, which is separated from the substrate by 3µm air gap. The membrane is made out 5µm thick polyimide layer that has a bottom gold electrode on the substrate and a gold top electrode on top of the membrane (250nm). The wafer layout design was diced in nine chips with different array configurations, with variation of the membrane dimensions. The device was tested with 90 V giving and sound output level as high as 35dB, while actuating all the elements at the same time.

  10. Digital electrostatic acoustic transducer array

    KAUST Repository

    Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; Castro, David; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Kosel, Jü rgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the fabrication and characterization of an array of electrostatic acoustic transducers. The array is micromachined on a silicon wafer using standard micro-machining techniques. Each array contains 2n electrostatic transducer membranes, where “n” is the bit number. Every element of the array has a hexagonal membrane shape structure, which is separated from the substrate by 3µm air gap. The membrane is made out 5µm thick polyimide layer that has a bottom gold electrode on the substrate and a gold top electrode on top of the membrane (250nm). The wafer layout design was diced in nine chips with different array configurations, with variation of the membrane dimensions. The device was tested with 90 V giving and sound output level as high as 35dB, while actuating all the elements at the same time.

  11. Chunking of Large Multidimensional Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotem, Doron; Otoo, Ekow J.; Seshadri, Sridhar

    2007-02-28

    Data intensive scientific computations as well on-lineanalytical processing applications as are done on very large datasetsthat are modeled as k-dimensional arrays. The storage organization ofsuch arrays on disks is done by partitioning the large global array intofixed size hyper-rectangular sub-arrays called chunks or tiles that formthe units of data transfer between disk and memory. Typical queriesinvolve the retrieval of sub-arrays in a manner that accesses all chunksthat overlap the query results. An important metric of the storageefficiency is the expected number of chunks retrieved over all suchqueries. The question that immediately arises is "what shapes of arraychunks give the minimum expected number of chunks over a query workload?"In this paper we develop two probabilistic mathematical models of theproblem and provide exact solutions using steepest descent and geometricprogramming methods. Experimental results, using synthetic workloads onreal life data sets, show that our chunking is much more efficient thanthe existing approximate solutions.

  12. Thermal analysis for folded solar array of spacecraft in orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.H.; Cheng, H.E.; Cai, A.

    2004-01-01

    The combined radiation-conduction heat transfer in folded solar array was considered as a three-dimensional anisotropic conduction without inner heat source. The three-dimensional equivalent conductivity in cell plate were obtained. The especially discrete equation coefficients of the nodes on the surfaces of adjacent cell plates were deduced by utilizing the simplified radiation network among the two adjacent cell plate surfaces and the deep cold space. All the thermal influence factors on the temperature response of the folded solar array were considered carefully. SIP method was used to solve the discrete equation. By comparing the calculation results under three cases, the temperature response and the maximum average difference of the folded solar array was obtained during the period of throw-radome of the launch vehicle and spread of the folded solar array. The obtained result is a valuable reference for the selection of the launch time of the spacecraft

  13. Passive microfluidic array card and reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Lawrence Christopher [Modesto, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA

    2011-08-09

    A microfluidic array card and reader system for analyzing a sample. The microfluidic array card includes a sample loading section for loading the sample onto the microfluidic array card, a multiplicity of array windows, and a transport section or sections for transporting the sample from the sample loading section to the array windows. The microfluidic array card reader includes a housing, a receiving section for receiving the microfluidic array card, a viewing section, and a light source that directs light to the array window of the microfluidic array card and to the viewing section.

  14. SAQC: SNP Array Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling-Hui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP arrays containing hundreds of thousands of SNPs from the human genome have proven useful for studying important human genome questions. Data quality of SNP arrays plays a key role in the accuracy and precision of downstream data analyses. However, good indices for assessing data quality of SNP arrays have not yet been developed. Results We developed new quality indices to measure the quality of SNP arrays and/or DNA samples and investigated their statistical properties. The indices quantify a departure of estimated individual-level allele frequencies (AFs from expected frequencies via standardized distances. The proposed quality indices followed lognormal distributions in several large genomic studies that we empirically evaluated. AF reference data and quality index reference data for different SNP array platforms were established based on samples from various reference populations. Furthermore, a confidence interval method based on the underlying empirical distributions of quality indices was developed to identify poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. Analyses of authentic biological data and simulated data show that this new method is sensitive and specific for the detection of poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. Conclusions This study introduces new quality indices, establishes references for AFs and quality indices, and develops a detection method for poor-quality SNP arrays and/or DNA samples. We have developed a new computer program that utilizes these methods called SNP Array Quality Control (SAQC. SAQC software is written in R and R-GUI and was developed as a user-friendly tool for the visualization and evaluation of data quality of genome-wide SNP arrays. The program is available online (http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/hsinchou/genetics/quality/SAQC.htm.

  15. 3-D Imaging using Row--Column-Addressed 2-D Arrays with a Diverging Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Engholm, Mathias; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that row–column-addressed (RCA) 2-D arrays can be an inexpensive alternative to fully addressed 2-D arrays. Generally imaging with an RCA 2-D array is limited to its forward-looking volume region. Constructing a double-curved RCA 2-D array or applying a diverging lens over......, is designed for imaging down to 14 cm at a volume rate of 88 Hz. The curvilinear imaging performance of a λ/2-pitch 3 MHz 62+62 RCA 2-D array is investigated as a function of depth, using a diverging lens with f-number of -1. The results of this study demonstrate that the proposed beamforming approach...

  16. John Deakin: Double Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Rousseau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this series of short films made by Jonathan Law, the art historian James Boaden, and the curator of The John Deakin Archive, Paul Rousseau, discuss the double-exposure images made by the photographer John Deakin (1912-1972 in the 1950s and 1960s. The films ask you, firstly, to look closely at the images being discussed. Each one begins with a sustained and intense shot of a single image before opening up to a wide-ranging discussion about Deakin, double exposures, and photography.

  17. Double Photoionization Near Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehlitz, Ralf

    2007-01-01

    The threshold region of the double-photoionization cross section is of particular interest because both ejected electrons move slowly in the Coulomb field of the residual ion. Near threshold both electrons have time to interact with each other and with the residual ion. Also, different theoretical models compete to describe the double-photoionization cross section in the threshold region. We have investigated that cross section for lithium and beryllium and have analyzed our data with respect to the latest results in the Coulomb-dipole theory. We find that our data support the idea of a Coulomb-dipole interaction.

  18. Double Chooz experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomares, C.

    2009-01-01

    Double Chooz will use two identical detectors at different distances from the Chooz nuclear power station to search for a non-vanishing value of θ 13 , and, hopefully, to open the way to experiments aspiring to discover CP violation in the leptonic sector. The far detector is expected to be operative by the end of 2009. Installation of the near detector will occur in 2010. Double Chooz has the capacity to exclude sin 2 (2θ 13 ) 31 2 = 2.5 x 10 -3 eV 2 with three years of data running both near and far detectors. (author)

  19. Double-helix stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, P.E.

    1997-09-01

    A new stellarator configuration, the Double-Helix Stellarator (DHS), is introduced. This novel configuration features a double-helix center post as the only helical element of the stellarator coil system. The DHS configuration has many unique characteristics. One of them is the extreme low plasma aspect ratio, A ∼ 1--1.2. Other advantages include a high enclosed volume, appreciable rotational transform, and a possibility of extreme-high-β MHD equilibria. Moreover, the DHS features improved transport characteristics caused by the absence of the magnetic field ripple on the outboard of the torus. Compactness, simplicity and modularity of the coil system add to the DHS advantages for fusion applications

  20. Composition and variation of noise recorded at the Yellowknife Seismic Array, 1991-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koper, K.D.; De Foy, B.; Benz, H.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze seismic noise recorded on the 18 short-period, vertical component seismometers of the Yellowknife Seismic Array (YKA). YKA has an aperture of 23 km and is sited on cratonic lithosphere in an area with low cultural noise. These properties make it ideal for studying natural seismic noise at periods of 1-3 s. We calculated frequency-wave number spectra in this band for over 6,000 time windows that were extracted once per day for 17 years (1991-2007). Slowness analysis reveals a rich variety of seismic phases originating from distinct source regions: Rg waves from the Great Slave Lake; Lg waves from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Oceans; and teleseismic P waves from the north Pacific and equatorial mid-Atlantic regions. The surface wave energy is generated along coastlines, while the body wave energy is generated at least in part in deep-water, pelagic regions. Surface waves tend to dominate at the longer periods and, just as in earthquake seismograms, Lg is the most prominent arrival. Although the periods we study are slightly shorter than the classic double-frequency microseismic band of 4-10 s, the noise at YKA has clear seasonal behavior that is consistent with the ocean wave climate in the Northern Hemisphere. The temporal variation of most of the noise sources can be well fit using just two Fourier components: yearly and biyearly terms that combine to give a fast rise in microseismic power from mid-June through mid-October, followed by a gradual decline. The exception is the Rg energy from the Great Slave Lake, which shows a sharp drop in noise power over a 2-week period in November as the lake freezes. The L g noise from the east has a small but statistically significant positive slope, perhaps implying increased ocean wave activity in the North Atlantic over the last 17 years. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. The Applicability of Incoherent Array Processing to IMS Seismic Array Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, S. J.

    2012-04-01

    The seismic arrays of the International Monitoring System for the CTBT differ greatly in size and geometry, with apertures ranging from below 1 km to over 60 km. Large and medium aperture arrays with large inter-site spacings complicate the detection and estimation of high frequency phases since signals are often incoherent between sensors. Many such phases, typically from events at regional distances, remain undetected since pipeline algorithms often consider only frequencies low enough to allow coherent array processing. High frequency phases that are detected are frequently attributed qualitatively incorrect backazimuth and slowness estimates and are consequently not associated with the correct event hypotheses. This can lead to missed events both due to a lack of contributing phase detections and by corruption of event hypotheses by spurious detections. Continuous spectral estimation can be used for phase detection and parameter estimation on the largest aperture arrays, with phase arrivals identified as local maxima on beams of transformed spectrograms. The estimation procedure in effect measures group velocity rather than phase velocity and the ability to estimate backazimuth and slowness requires that the spatial extent of the array is large enough to resolve time-delays between envelopes with a period of approximately 4 or 5 seconds. The NOA, AKASG, YKA, WRA, and KURK arrays have apertures in excess of 20 km and spectrogram beamforming on these stations provides high quality slowness estimates for regional phases without additional post-processing. Seven arrays with aperture between 10 and 20 km (MJAR, ESDC, ILAR, KSRS, CMAR, ASAR, and EKA) can provide robust parameter estimates subject to a smoothing of the resulting slowness grids, most effectively achieved by convolving the measured slowness grids with the array response function for a 4 or 5 second period signal. The MJAR array in Japan recorded high SNR Pn signals for both the 2006 and 2009 North Korea

  2. Dependently typed array programs don’t go wrong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojahner, K.; Grelck, C.

    2009-01-01

    The array programming paradigm adopts multidimensional arrays as the fundamental data structures of computation. Array operations process entire arrays instead of just single elements. This makes array programs highly expressive and introduces data parallelism in a natural way. Array programming

  3. Dependently typed array programs don't go wrong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trojahner, K.; Grelck, C.

    2008-01-01

    The array programming paradigm adopts multidimensional arrays as the fundamental data structures of computation. Array operations process entire arrays instead of just single elements. This makes array programs highly expressive and introduces data parallelism in a natural way. Array programming

  4. Double aortic arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery can be done to fix double aortic arch. The surgeon ties off the smaller branch and separates it from the larger branch. Then the surgeon closes the ends of the aorta with stitches. This relieves pressure on the esophagus and windpipe.

  5. Singapore's double festival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Gordon

    1990-09-15

    Coinciding with celebrations for the nation's 25th anniversary, the 25th International Conference on High Energy Physics, held in Singapore from 2-8 August, was itself a double festival, with the Standard Model of contemporary physics and CERN's new LEP electron-positron collider providing the twin themes.

  6. Layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake...

  7. Double Beta Decay Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepke, A.

    2005-01-01

    The experimental observation of neutrino oscillations and thus neutrino mass and mixing gives a first hint at new particle physics. The absolute values of the neutrino mass and the properties of neutrinos under CP-conjugation remain unknown. The experimental investigation of the nuclear double beta decay is one of the key techniques for solving these open problems

  8. ESPRIT And Uniform Linear Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. H.; Goldburg, M.; Ottersten, B. E.; Swindlehurst, A. L.; Viberg, M.; Kailath, T.

    1989-11-01

    Abstract ¬â€?ESPRIT is a recently developed and patented technique for high-resolution estimation of signal parameters. It exploits an invariance structure designed into the sensor array to achieve a reduction in computational requirements of many orders of magnitude over previous techniques such as MUSIC, Burg's MEM, and Capon's ML, and in addition achieves performance improvement as measured by parameter estimate error variance. It is also manifestly more robust with respect to sensor errors (e.g. gain, phase, and location errors) than other methods as well. Whereas ESPRIT only requires that the sensor array possess a single invariance best visualized by considering two identical but other-wise arbitrary arrays of sensors displaced (but not rotated) with respect to each other, many arrays currently in use in various applications are uniform linear arrays of identical sensor elements. Phased array radars are commonplace in high-resolution direction finding systems, and uniform tapped delay lines (i.e., constant rate A/D converters) are the rule rather than the exception in digital signal processing systems. Such arrays possess many invariances, and are amenable to other types of analysis, which is one of the main reasons such structures are so prevalent. Recent developments in high-resolution algorithms of the signal/noise subspace genre including total least squares (TLS) ESPRIT applied to uniform linear arrays are summarized. ESPRIT is also shown to be a generalization of the root-MUSIC algorithm (applicable only to the case of uniform linear arrays of omni-directional sensors and unimodular cisoids). Comparisons with various estimator bounds, including CramerRao bounds, are presented.

  9. Spectral statistics and scattering resonances of complex primes arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ren; Pinheiro, Felipe A.; Dal Negro, Luca

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a class of aperiodic arrays of electric dipoles generated from the distribution of prime numbers in complex quadratic fields (Eisenstein and Gaussian primes) as well as quaternion primes (Hurwitz and Lifschitz primes), and study the nature of their scattering resonances using the vectorial Green's matrix method. In these systems we demonstrate several distinctive spectral properties, such as the absence of level repulsion in the strongly scattering regime, critical statistics of level spacings, and the existence of critical modes, which are extended fractal modes with long lifetimes not supported by either random or periodic systems. Moreover, we show that one can predict important physical properties, such as the existence spectral gaps, by analyzing the eigenvalue distribution of the Green's matrix of the arrays in the complex plane. Our results unveil the importance of aperiodic correlations in prime number arrays for the engineering of gapped photonic media that support far richer mode localization and spectral properties compared to usual periodic and random media.

  10. Realistic full wave modeling of focal plane array pixels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campione, Salvatore [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electromagnetic Theory Dept.; Warne, Larry K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electromagnetic Theory Dept.; Jorgenson, Roy E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electromagnetic Theory Dept.; Davids, Paul [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Photonic Microsystems Dept.; Peters, David W. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Photonic Microsystems Dept.

    2017-11-01

    Here, we investigate full-wave simulations of realistic implementations of multifunctional nanoantenna enabled detectors (NEDs). We focus on a 2x2 pixelated array structure that supports two wavelengths of operation. We design each resonating structure independently using full-wave simulations with periodic boundary conditions mimicking the whole infinite array. We then construct a supercell made of a 2x2 pixelated array with periodic boundary conditions mimicking the full NED; in this case, however, each pixel comprises 10-20 antennas per side. In this way, the cross-talk between contiguous pixels is accounted for in our simulations. We observe that, even though there are finite extent effects, the pixels work as designed, each responding at the respective wavelength of operation. This allows us to stress that realistic simulations of multifunctional NEDs need to be performed to verify the design functionality by taking into account finite extent and cross-talk effects.

  11. The Owens Valley Millimeter Array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padin, S.; Scott, S.L.; Woody, D.P.; Scoville, N.Z.; Seling, T.V.

    1991-01-01

    The telescopes and signal processing systems of the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are considered, and improvements in the sensitivity and stability of the instrument are characterized. The instrument can be applied to map sources in the 85 to 115 GHz and 218 to 265 GHz bands with a resolution of about 1 arcsec in the higher frequency band. The operation of the array is fully automated. The current scientific programs for the array encompass high-resolution imaging of protoplanetary/protostellar disk structures, observations of molecular cloud complexes associated with spiral structure in nearby galaxies, and observations of molecular structures in the nuclei of spiral and luminous IRAS galaxies. 9 refs

  12. Fundamentals of ultrasonic phased arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Schmerr, Lester W

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail the physical and mathematical foundations of ultrasonic phased array measurements.?The book uses linear systems theory to develop a comprehensive model of the signals and images that can be formed with phased arrays. Engineers working in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) will find in this approach a wealth of information on how to design, optimize and interpret ultrasonic inspections with phased arrays. The fundamentals and models described in the book will also be of significant interest to other fields, including the medical ultrasound and

  13. SQIF Arrays as RF Sensors (Briefing Charts)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yukon, Stanford P

    2007-01-01

    ... (Superconducting Quantum Interference Filter) arrays may be employed as sensitive RF sensors. RF SQIF arrays fabricated with high Tc Josephson junctions can be cooled with small Sterling microcoolers...

  14. The Double Contact Nature of TT Herculis

    OpenAIRE

    Terrell, Dirk; Nelson, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    We present new radial velocities and photometry of the short-period Algol TT Herculis. Previous attempts to model the light curves of the system have met with limited success, primarily because of the lack of a reliable mass ratio. Our spectroscopic observations are the first to result in radial velocities for the secondary star, and thus provide a spectroscopic mass ratio. Simultaneous analysis of the radial velocities and new photometry shows that the system is a double contact binary, with...

  15. A double Weekly Bulletin over Easter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    During the Easter period, the weeks of 12 and 19 April, there will be only one issue of the Weekly Bulletin (no. 16-17/2004). Items for publication in this double issue should reach the Publication section or Staff Association, as appropriate, before midday on Tuesday 6 April. Announcements for publication in the next issue (no. 18/2004) should be sent on Tuesday 20 April midday at the latest. Publication Section Tel. 79971

  16. Frequency selective surfaces integrated with phased array antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monni, S.

    2005-01-01

    Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS's) are periodic arrays of patches and/or slots etched on a metal plate, having frequency and angular ??ltering properties. The FSS response to an excitation (for example a plane wave) is characterized in terms of its re ection and transmission coe??cient, and

  17. Gravitational wave detection and data analysis for pulsar timing arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasteren, Rutger van

    2011-01-01

    Long-term precise timing of Galactic millisecond pulsars holds great promise for measuring long-period (months-to-years) astrophysical gravitational waves. In this work we develop a Bayesian data analysis method for projects called pulsar timing arrays; projects aimed to detect these gravitational

  18. Geometrical optimization of microstripe arrays for microbead magnetophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Dahl; Rozlosnik, Noemi; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation of magnetic beads plays an increasingly important role in molecular diagnostics. Magnetophoresis is a promising technique for selective transportation of magnetic beads in lab-on-a-chip systems. We investigate periodic arrays of exchange-biased permalloy microstripes fabricated using...

  19. Double quick, double click reversible peptide "stapling".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Claire M; Burslem, George M; Miles, Jennifer A; Pilsl, Ludwig K A; Yeo, David J; Imani, Zeynab; Warriner, Stuart L; Webb, Michael E; Wilson, Andrew J

    2017-07-01

    The development of constrained peptides for inhibition of protein-protein interactions is an emerging strategy in chemical biology and drug discovery. This manuscript introduces a versatile, rapid and reversible approach to constrain peptides in a bioactive helical conformation using BID and RNase S peptides as models. Dibromomaleimide is used to constrain BID and RNase S peptide sequence variants bearing cysteine (Cys) or homocysteine ( h Cys) amino acids spaced at i and i + 4 positions by double substitution. The constraint can be readily removed by displacement of the maleimide using excess thiol. This new constraining methodology results in enhanced α-helical conformation (BID and RNase S peptide) as demonstrated by circular dichroism and molecular dynamics simulations, resistance to proteolysis (BID) as demonstrated by trypsin proteolysis experiments and retained or enhanced potency of inhibition for Bcl-2 family protein-protein interactions (BID), or greater capability to restore the hydrolytic activity of the RNAse S protein (RNase S peptide). Finally, use of a dibromomaleimide functionalized with an alkyne permits further divergent functionalization through alkyne-azide cycloaddition chemistry on the constrained peptide with fluorescein, oligoethylene glycol or biotin groups to facilitate biophysical and cellular analyses. Hence this methodology may extend the scope and accessibility of peptide stapling.

  20. Large scale biomimetic membrane arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Søndergaard; Perry, Mark; Vogel, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    To establish planar biomimetic membranes across large scale partition aperture arrays, we created a disposable single-use horizontal chamber design that supports combined optical-electrical measurements. Functional lipid bilayers could easily and efficiently be established across CO2 laser micro......-structured 8 x 8 aperture partition arrays with average aperture diameters of 301 +/- 5 mu m. We addressed the electro-physical properties of the lipid bilayers established across the micro-structured scaffold arrays by controllable reconstitution of biotechnological and physiological relevant membrane...... peptides and proteins. Next, we tested the scalability of the biomimetic membrane design by establishing lipid bilayers in rectangular 24 x 24 and hexagonal 24 x 27 aperture arrays, respectively. The results presented show that the design is suitable for further developments of sensitive biosensor assays...

  1. Next Generation Microshutter Arrays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop the next generation MicroShutter Array (MSA) as a multi-object field selector for missions anticipated in the next two decades. For many...

  2. Fundamentals of spherical array processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rafaely, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of spherical microphone arrays. It is written for graduate students, researchers and engineers who work with spherical microphone arrays in a wide range of applications.   The first two chapters provide the reader with the necessary mathematical and physical background, including an introduction to the spherical Fourier transform and the formulation of plane-wave sound fields in the spherical harmonic domain. The third chapter covers the theory of spatial sampling, employed when selecting the positions of microphones to sample sound pressure functions in space. Subsequent chapters present various spherical array configurations, including the popular rigid-sphere-based configuration. Beamforming (spatial filtering) in the spherical harmonics domain, including axis-symmetric beamforming, and the performance measures of directivity index and white noise gain are introduced, and a range of optimal beamformers for spherical arrays, includi...

  3. CMOS gate array characterization procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, James P.

    1993-09-01

    Present procedures are inadequate for characterizing the radiation hardness of gate array product lines prior to personalization because the selection of circuits to be used, from among all those available in the manufacturer's circuit library, is usually uncontrolled. (Some circuits are fundamentally more radiation resistant than others.) In such cases, differences in hardness can result between different designs of the same logic function. Hardness also varies because many gate arrays feature large custom-designed megacells (e.g., microprocessors and random access memories-MicroP's and RAM's). As a result, different product lines cannot be compared equally. A characterization strategy is needed, along with standardized test vehicle(s), methodology, and conditions, so that users can make informed judgments on which gate arrays are best suited for their needs. The program described developed preferred procedures for the radiation characterization of gate arrays, including a gate array evaluation test vehicle, featuring a canary circuit, designed to define the speed versus hardness envelope of the gate array. A multiplier was chosen for this role, and a baseline multiplier architecture is suggested that could be incorporated into an existing standard evaluation circuit chip.

  4. CCD and IR array controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Robert W.; Low, Frank J.

    2000-08-01

    A family of controllers has bene developed that is powerful and flexible enough to operate a wide range of CCD and IR focal plane arrays in a variety of ground-based applications. These include fast readout of small CCD and IR arrays for adaptive optics applications, slow readout of large CCD and IR mosaics, and single CCD and IR array operation at low background/low noise regimes as well as high background/high speed regimes. The CCD and IR controllers have a common digital core based on user- programmable digital signal processors that are used to generate the array clocking and signal processing signals customized for each application. A fiber optic link passes image data and commands to VME or PCI interface boards resident in a host computer to the controller. CCD signal processing is done with a dual slope integrator operating at speeds of up to one Megapixel per second per channel. Signal processing of IR arrays is done either with a dual channel video processor or a four channel video processor that has built-in image memory and a coadder to 32-bit precision for operating high background arrays. Recent developments underway include the implementation of a fast fiber optic data link operating at a speed of 12.5 Megapixels per second for fast image transfer from the controller to the host computer, and supporting image acquisition software and device drivers for the PCI interface board for the Sun Solaris, Linux and Windows 2000 operating systems.

  5. Flexible eddy current coil arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krampfner, Y.; Johnson, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    A novel approach was devised to overcome certain limitations of conventional eddy current testing. The typical single-element hand-wound probe was replaced with a two dimensional array of spirally wound probe elements deposited on a thin, flexible polyimide substrate. This provides full and reliable coverage of the test area and eliminates the need for scanning. The flexible substrate construction of the array allows the probes to conform to irregular part geometries, such as turbine blades and tubing, thereby eliminating the need for specialized probes for each geometry. Additionally, the batch manufacturing process of the array can yield highly uniform and reproducible coil geometries. The array is driven by a portable computer-based eddy current instrument, smartEDDY/sup TM/, capable of two-frequency operation, and offers a great deal of versatility and flexibility due to its software-based architecture. The array is coupled to the instrument via an 80-switch multiplexer that can be configured to address up to 1600 probes. The individual array elements may be addressed in any desired sequence, as defined by the software

  6. Microstructural effects on the magnetic and magneto-transport properties of electrodeposited Ni nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shu-Fang; Wei, Hao Han; Liu, Chuan-Pu; Hsu, C Y; Huang, J C A

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic and magneto-transport properties of Ni nanowire (NW) arrays, fabricated by electrodeposition in anodic-aluminum-oxide (AAO) templates, have been investigated. The AAO pores have diameters ranging from 35 to 75 nm, and the crystallinity of the Ni NW arrays could change from poly-crystalline to single-crystalline with the [111] and [110] orientations based on the electrodeposition potential. Notably, double switching magnetization loops and double-peaked magnetoresistance curves were observed in [110]-oriented NWs. The crystalline orientation of the Ni NW arrays is found to influence the corresponding magnetic and magneto-transport properties significantly. These magnetic behaviors are dominated by the competition between the magneto-crystalline and shape anisotropy.

  7. The Periodic Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  8. Book Reviews in Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt, Harold J.

    All recent issues of periodicals found which contain indexed book reviews are listed in this compilation from Drake Memorial Library at the New York State University at Brockport. The periodicals are listed by 29 subject headings in this informal guide designed to be used at Drake Library. The number of reviews in the periodical in a recent year…

  9. Subatmospheric double containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, D. Jr.; Noble, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    A reinforced concrete double wall nuclear containment structure with each wall including an essentially impervious membrane or liner and porous concrete filling the annulus between the two walls is described. The interior of the structure is maintained at subatmospheric pressure, and the annulus between the two walls is maintained at a subatmospheric pressure intermediate between that of the interior and the surrounding atmospheric pressure, during normal operation. In the event of an accident within the containment structure the interior pressure may exceed atmospheric pressure, but leakage from the interior to the annulus between the double walls will not result in the pressure of the annulus exceeding atmospheric pressure so that there is no net outleakage from the containment structure

  10. Double rupture disc experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Result of these observations, comparisons and evaluations can be summarized in the following list of concerns regarding the use of double rupture discs coupled to the liquid space of a steam generator that is subjected to a large leak sodium water reaction event. Single rupture disc show delayed collapse characteristics in LLTR Series I and double disc assemblies are presumed to be more complex with additional delay before opening to give pressure relief. Delayed failure increases pressures in the IHTS and must be adequately covered by design requirements. With CRBR design, the first disc may fail only partially reducing the loading on the second disc with the result that relief performance may not meet requirements

  11. Gravitational double layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senovilla, José M M

    2014-01-01

    I analyze the properties of thin shells through which the scalar curvature R is discontinuous in gravity theories with Lagrangian F(R) = R − 2Λ + αR 2 on the bulk. These shells/domain walls are of a new kind because they possess, in addition to the standard energy–momentum tensor, an external energy flux vector, an external scalar pressure/tension and, most exotic of all, another energy–momentum contribution resembling classical dipole distributions on a shell: a double layer. I prove that all these contributions are necessary to make the entire energy–momentum tensor divergence-free. This is the first known occurrence of such a type of double layer in a gravity theory. I present explicit examples in constant-curvature five-dimensional bulks, with a brief study of their properties: new physical behaviors arise. (fast track communications)

  12. The double Laplacian growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loutsenko, I.; Yermolayeva, O.

    2008-06-01

    The dynamics of the idealized Laplacian growth (or the Hele-Shaw problem) can be approximated by the Poiselle flow which in appropriate units takes the form of the Darcy law. In this paper we account for the liquid inertia in the Hele-Shaw problem at zero surface tension limit. The Laplace dynamics for the pressure is extended here with one more for the velocity potential for which we call this growth process the Double Laplacian. The application of the conformal mappings technique leads to doubled dynamics for both the conformal map and the complex potential, which is presented in the paper for the radial and the planar growth. We apply the stability analysis and discuss the integrability for the stated problem. (author)

  13. Fabrication and characterization of nano-gas sensor arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H. S.; Kashyout, A. B.; Morsi, I.; Nasser, A. A. A.; Raafat, A.

    2015-01-01

    A novel structures of Nanomaterials gas sensors array constructed using ZnO, and ZnO doped with Al via sol-gel technique. Two structure arrays are developed; the first one is a double sensor array based on doping with percentages of 1% and 5%. The second is a quadrature sensor array based on several doping ratios concentrations (0%, 1%, 5% and 10%). The morphological structures of prepared ZnO were revealed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal a highly crystallized wurtzite structure and used for identifying phase structure and chemical state of both ZnO and ZnO doped with Al under different preparation conditions and different doping ratios. Chemical composition of Al-doped ZnO nanopowders was performed using energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) analysis. The electrical characteristics of the sensor are determined by measuring the two terminal sensor’s output resistance for O 2 , H 2 and CO 2 gases as a function of temperature

  14. Fabrication and characterization of nano-gas sensor arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, H. S., E-mail: hassan.shokry@gmail.com; Kashyout, A. B., E-mail: hady8@yahoo.com [Electronic Materials Researches Department, Advanced Technology and New Materials Research Institute, City of Scientific Researches and technological applications, New Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria (Egypt); Morsi, I., E-mail: drimanmorsi@yahoo.com; Nasser, A. A. A., E-mail: menem-1954@yahoo.com; Raafat, A., E-mail: abrs-218@yahoo.com [Arab Academy for Science and Technology, and Maritime Transport, Alexandria, 21936 (Egypt)

    2015-03-30

    A novel structures of Nanomaterials gas sensors array constructed using ZnO, and ZnO doped with Al via sol-gel technique. Two structure arrays are developed; the first one is a double sensor array based on doping with percentages of 1% and 5%. The second is a quadrature sensor array based on several doping ratios concentrations (0%, 1%, 5% and 10%). The morphological structures of prepared ZnO were revealed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal a highly crystallized wurtzite structure and used for identifying phase structure and chemical state of both ZnO and ZnO doped with Al under different preparation conditions and different doping ratios. Chemical composition of Al-doped ZnO nanopowders was performed using energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) analysis. The electrical characteristics of the sensor are determined by measuring the two terminal sensor’s output resistance for O{sub 2}, H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} gases as a function of temperature.

  15. Optical Sensing with Simultaneous Electrochemical Control in Metal Nanowire Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janos Vörös

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the alternative use of noble metal nanowire systems in large-scale array configurations to exploit both the nanowires’ conductive nature and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR. The first known nanowire-based system has been constructed, with which optical signals are influenced by the simultaneous application of electrochemical potentials. Optical characterization of nanowire arrays was performed by measuring the bulk refractive index sensitivity and the limit of detection. The formation of an electrical double layer was controlled in NaCl solutions to study the effect of local refractive index changes on the spectral response. Resonance peak shifts of over 4 nm, a bulk refractive index sensitivity up to 115 nm/RIU and a limit of detection as low as 4.5 × 10−4 RIU were obtained for gold nanowire arrays. Simulations with the Multiple Multipole Program (MMP confirm such bulk refractive index sensitivities. Initial experiments demonstrated successful optical biosensing using a novel form of particle-based nanowire arrays. In addition, the formation of an ionic layer (Stern-layer upon applying an electrochemical potential was also monitored by the shift of the plasmon resonance.

  16. Algebra of Majorana doubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehoon; Wilczek, Frank

    2013-11-27

    Motivated by the problem of identifying Majorana mode operators at junctions, we analyze a basic algebraic structure leading to a doubled spectrum. For general (nonlinear) interactions the emergent mode creation operator is highly nonlinear in the original effective mode operators, and therefore also in the underlying electron creation and destruction operators. This phenomenon could open up new possibilities for controlled dynamical manipulation of the modes. We briefly compare and contrast related issues in the Pfaffian quantum Hall state.

  17. Twisted quantum doubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daijiro Fukuda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using diagrammatic pictures of tensor contractions, we consider a Hopf algebra (Aop⊗ℛλA** twisted by an element ℛλ∈A*⊗Aop corresponding to a Hopf algebra morphism λ:A→A. We show that this Hopf algebra is quasitriangular with the universal R-matrix coming from ℛλ when λ2=idA, generalizing the quantum double construction which corresponds to the case λ=idA.

  18. The Array for Nuclear Astrophysics Studies with Exotic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhardt, L. E.; Blackmon, J. C.; Matos, M.; Mondello, L. L.; Zganjar, E. F.; Johnson, E.; Rogachev, G.; Wiedenhover, I.

    2010-11-01

    The Array for Nuclear Astrophysics Studies with Exotic Nuclei (ANASEN) is a charged-particle detector array that is targeted primarily towards reaction studies with radioactive ion beams at FSU and the NSCL. ANASEN consists of 40 double-sided silicon-strip detectors backed with CsI scintillators and an innovative gas counter design that allows operation in a gas target/detector mode and experiments covering a broad range of center-of-mass energies simultaneously. Electronics based on ASIC components are being implemented to achieve a high channel count at low cost. Prototypes of all the detector components have been fabricated and are currently being tested. Performance of the individual components and plans for the first experiments that aim to improve our knowledge of the nuclear reactions important in stellar explosions will be reported.

  19. Wire number doubling in plasma-shell regime increases z-accelerator x-ray power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Spielman, R.B.; Chandler, G.A. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Doubling the number of tungsten wires from 120 to 240, keeping the mass fixed, increased the radiated x-ray power relative to the electrical power at the insulator stack of the z accelerator by (40{+-}20)% for 8.75- and 20-mm-radii z-pinch wire arrays. Radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic calculations suggest that the arrays were operating in the {open_quotes}plasma shell{close_quotes} regime, where the plasmas generated by the individual wires merge prior to the inward implosion of the entire array.

  20. Wire number doubling in plasma-shell regime increases z-accelerator x-ray power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Spielman, R.B.; Chandler, G.A.

    1997-11-01

    Doubling the number of tungsten wires from 120 to 240, keeping the mass fixed, increased the radiated x-ray power relative to the electrical power at the insulator stack of the z accelerator by (40±20)% for 8.75- and 20-mm-radii z-pinch wire arrays. Radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic calculations suggest that the arrays were operating in the 'plasma shell' regime, where the plasmas generated by the individual wires merge prior to the inward implosion of the entire array

  1. Wire number doubling in plasma-shell regime increases Z-accelerator X-ray power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Spielman, R.B.; Chandler, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Doubling the number of tungsten wires from 120 to 240, keeping the mass fixed, increased the radiated x-ray power relative to the electrical power at the insulator stack of the z accelerator by (40 ± 20)% for 8.75- and 20-mm-radii z-pinch wire arrays. Radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic calculations suggest that the arrays were operating in the plasma shell regime, where the plasma generated by the individual wires merge prior to the inward implosion of the entire array

  2. Wire number doubling in plasma-shell regime increases Z-accelerator X-ray power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Spielman, R.B.; Chandler, G.A. [and others

    1997-12-01

    Doubling the number of tungsten wires from 120 to 240, keeping the mass fixed, increased the radiated x-ray power relative to the electrical power at the insulator stack of the z accelerator by (40 {+-} 20)% for 8.75- and 20-mm-radii z-pinch wire arrays. Radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic calculations suggest that the arrays were operating in the plasma shell regime, where the plasma generated by the individual wires merge prior to the inward implosion of the entire array.

  3. Coded aperture imaging with uniformly redundant arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Cannon, T.M.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described which uses uniformly redundant arrays to image non-focusable radiation. The array is used in conjunction with a balanced correlation technique to provide a system with no artifacts so that virtually limitless signal-to-noise ratio is obtained with high transmission characteristics. The array is mosaicked to reduce required detector size over conventional array detectors. 15 claims

  4. Neutrinoless double beta decay in Gerda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabmayr, Peter; Gerda Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay in 76Ge. This lepton number violating process is predicted by extensions of the standard model. Gerda follows a staged approach by increasing mass and lowering the background level from phase to phase. Gerda is setup at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory of INFN, Italy. An array of high-purity germanium detectors is lowered directly in liquid argon for shielding and cooling. Further background reduction is achieved by an instrumented water buffer. In Phase I an exposure of 21.6 kg yr was collected at a background level of 10-2 cts/(keV kg yr). The lower limit on the half-life of 76Ge > 2 . 1 .1025 yr (90% C.L.) has been published. Further analyses search for decay into excited states or the accompanied Majoron decay. Presently, Phase II is in preparation which intends to reach a background level of 10-3 cts/(keV kg yr) and to increase the exposure to 100 kg yr. About 20 kg of novel thick-window BEGe (Broad Energy Germanium) detectors will be added and the liquid argon will be instrumented. The status of Phase II preparation and results from the commissioning runs will be presented as well as some further results from Phase I.

  5. Aligned gold nanoneedle arrays for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yong; Huang Zhengren; Jiang Dongliang; Tanemura, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Li Zhiyuan; Huang Yingping; Kawamura, Go; Nogami, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    A simple Ar + -ion irradiation route has been developed to prepare gold nanoneedle arrays on glass substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrates. The nanoneedles exhibited very sharp tips with an apex diameter of 20 nm. These arrays were evaluated as potential SERS substrates using malachite green molecules and exhibited a SERS enhancement factor of greater than 10 8 , which is attributed to the localized electron field enhancement around the apex of the needle and the surface plasmon coupling originating from the periodic structure. This work demonstrates a new technique for producing controllable and reproducible SERS substrates potentially applicable for chemical and biological assays.

  6. Ac-induced disruption of the doubleDs structure in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommens, Caius M.T.; Biezen, Erik A. van der; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B.F.; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    The maize doubleDs element is stably maintained in the tomato genome. Upon the subsequent introduction of Ac into a plant containing doubleDs, disruption of the doubleDs structure and DNA rearrangements at the site of the doubleDs element were observed. No indications were obtained for excision of

  7. The surface detector array of the Telescope Array experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Zayyad, T. [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Aida, R. [University of Yamanashi, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, Kofu, Yamanashi (Japan); Allen, M.; Anderson, R. [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Azuma, R. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J.W.; Bergman, D.R.; Blake, S.A.; Cady, R. [University of Utah, High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Cheon, B.G. [Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiba, J. [Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Chikawa, M. [Kinki University, Higashi Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Cho, E.J. [Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, W.R. [Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Fujii, H. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fujii, T. [Osaka City University, Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Fukuda, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Fukushima, M. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); University of Tokyo, Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Gorbunov, D. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); and others

    2012-10-11

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment, located in the western desert of Utah, USA, is designed for the observation of extensive air showers from extremely high energy cosmic rays. The experiment has a surface detector array surrounded by three fluorescence detectors to enable simultaneous detection of shower particles at ground level and fluorescence photons along the shower track. The TA surface detectors and fluorescence detectors started full hybrid observation in March, 2008. In this article we describe the design and technical features of the TA surface detector.

  8. The surface detector array of the Telescope Array experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Zayyad, T.; Aida, R.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Azuma, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J.W.; Bergman, D.R.; Blake, S.A.; Cady, R.; Cheon, B.G.; Chiba, J.; Chikawa, M.; Cho, E.J.; Cho, W.R.; Fujii, H.; Fujii, T.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, M.; Gorbunov, D.

    2012-01-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) experiment, located in the western desert of Utah, USA, is designed for the observation of extensive air showers from extremely high energy cosmic rays. The experiment has a surface detector array surrounded by three fluorescence detectors to enable simultaneous detection of shower particles at ground level and fluorescence photons along the shower track. The TA surface detectors and fluorescence detectors started full hybrid observation in March, 2008. In this article we describe the design and technical features of the TA surface detector.

  9. Successive Standardization of Rectangular Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Olshen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this note we illustrate and develop further with mathematics and examples, the work on successive standardization (or normalization that is studied earlier by the same authors in [1] and [2]. Thus, we deal with successive iterations applied to rectangular arrays of numbers, where to avoid technical difficulties an array has at least three rows and at least three columns. Without loss, an iteration begins with operations on columns: first subtract the mean of each column; then divide by its standard deviation. The iteration continues with the same two operations done successively for rows. These four operations applied in sequence completes one iteration. One then iterates again, and again, and again, ... In [1] it was argued that if arrays are made up of real numbers, then the set for which convergence of these successive iterations fails has Lebesgue measure 0. The limiting array has row and column means 0, row and column standard deviations 1. A basic result on convergence given in [1] is true, though the argument in [1] is faulty. The result is stated in the form of a theorem here, and the argument for the theorem is correct. Moreover, many graphics given in [1] suggest that except for a set of entries of any array with Lebesgue measure 0, convergence is very rapid, eventually exponentially fast in the number of iterations. Because we learned this set of rules from Bradley Efron, we call it “Efron’s algorithm”. More importantly, the rapidity of convergence is illustrated by numerical examples.

  10. Integrated Array/Metadata Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misev, Dimitar; Baumann, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Data comes in various forms and types, and integration usually presents a problem that is often simply ignored and solved with ad-hoc solutions. Multidimensional arrays are an ubiquitous data type, that we find at the core of virtually all science and engineering domains, as sensor, model, image, statistics data. Naturally, arrays are richly described by and intertwined with additional metadata (alphanumeric relational data, XML, JSON, etc). Database systems, however, a fundamental building block of what we call "Big Data", lack adequate support for modelling and expressing these array data/metadata relationships. Array analytics is hence quite primitive or non-existent at all in modern relational DBMS. Recognizing this, we extended SQL with a new SQL/MDA part seamlessly integrating multidimensional array analytics into the standard database query language. We demonstrate the benefits of SQL/MDA with real-world examples executed in ASQLDB, an open-source mediator system based on HSQLDB and rasdaman, that already implements SQL/MDA.

  11. Retrieval of Mir Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    1999-01-01

    A Russian solar array panel removed in November 1997 from the non-articulating photovoltaic array on the Mir core module was returned to Earth on STS-89 in January 1998. The panel had been exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) for 10 years prior to retrieval. The retrieval provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of the LEO environment on a functional solar array. To take advantage of this opportunity, a team composed of members from RSC-Energia (Russia), the Boeing Company, and the following NASA Centers--Johnson Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Lewis Research Center--was put together to analyze the array. After post-retrieval inspections at the Spacehab Facility at Kennedy in Florida, the array was shipped to Lewis in Cleveland for electrical performance tests, closeup photodocumentation, and removal of selected solar cells and blanket material. With approval from RSC-Energia, five cell pairs and their accompanying blanket and mesh material, and samples of painted handrail materials were selected for removal on the basis of their ability to provide degradation information. Sites were selected that provided different sizes and shapes of micrometeoroid impacts and different levels of surface contamination. These materials were then distributed among the team for round robin testing.

  12. Painful menstrual periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... into two groups, depending on the cause: Primary dysmenorrhea Secondary dysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that ...

  13. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    and their quality was improved considerably toward the end of this period. The profound cultural innovations of the Middle Helladic period were initially interpreted as a result of violent population movement and troubles provoked by the coming of the first Indo-European races. However, this matter does no more...... Helladic period is considered as a period of economic and social decline it was the time during which the mainland features merged with the insular influence, that is all the Aegean elements which led to the creation of the Mycenaean civilization were mixed in a creative way....

  14. A heterodyne interferometer with periodic nonlinearities smaller than ±10 pm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichert, C; Köchert, P; Köning, R; Flügge, J; Andreas, B; Kuetgens, U; Yacoot, A

    2012-01-01

    The PTB developed a new optical heterodyne interferometer in the context of the European joint research project ‘Nanotrace’. A new optical concept using plane-parallel plates and spatially separated input beams to minimize the periodic nonlinearities was realized. Furthermore, the interferometer has the resolution of a double-path interferometer, compensates for possible angle variations between the mirrors and the interferometer optics and offers a minimal path difference between the reference and the measurement arm. Additionally, a new heterodyne phase evaluation based on an analogue to digital converter board with embedded field programmable gate arrays was developed, providing a high-resolving capability in the single-digit picometre range. The nonlinearities were characterized by a comparison with an x-ray interferometer, over a measurement range of 2.2 periods of the optical interferometer. Assuming an error-free x-ray interferometer, the nonlinearities are considered to be the deviation of the measured displacement from a best-fit line. For the proposed interferometer, nonlinearities smaller than ±10 pm were observed without any quadrature fringe correction. (paper)

  15. A heterodyne interferometer with periodic nonlinearities smaller than ±10 pm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichert, C.; Köchert, P.; Köning, R.; Flügge, J.; Andreas, B.; Kuetgens, U.; Yacoot, A.

    2012-09-01

    The PTB developed a new optical heterodyne interferometer in the context of the European joint research project ‘Nanotrace’. A new optical concept using plane-parallel plates and spatially separated input beams to minimize the periodic nonlinearities was realized. Furthermore, the interferometer has the resolution of a double-path interferometer, compensates for possible angle variations between the mirrors and the interferometer optics and offers a minimal path difference between the reference and the measurement arm. Additionally, a new heterodyne phase evaluation based on an analogue to digital converter board with embedded field programmable gate arrays was developed, providing a high-resolving capability in the single-digit picometre range. The nonlinearities were characterized by a comparison with an x-ray interferometer, over a measurement range of 2.2 periods of the optical interferometer. Assuming an error-free x-ray interferometer, the nonlinearities are considered to be the deviation of the measured displacement from a best-fit line. For the proposed interferometer, nonlinearities smaller than ±10 pm were observed without any quadrature fringe correction.

  16. Measuring the electromagnetic chirality of 2D arrays under normal illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Santiago, X; Burger, S; Rockstuhl, C; Fernandez-Corbaton, I

    2017-10-15

    We present an electromagnetic chirality measure for 2D arrays of subwavelength periodicities under normal illumination. The calculation of the measure uses only the complex reflection and transmission coefficients from the array. The measure allows the ordering of arrays according to their electromagnetic chirality, which further allows a quantitative comparison of different design strategies. The measure is upper bounded, and the extreme properties of objects with high values of electromagnetic chirality make them useful in both near- and far-field applications. We analyze the consequences that different possible symmetries of the array have on its electromagnetic chirality. We use the measure to study four different arrays. The results indicate the suitability of helices for building arrays of high electromagnetic chirality, and the low effectiveness of a substrate for breaking the transverse mirror symmetry.

  17. The Double Star mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  18. Limit on the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of {sup 36}Ar from GERDA Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M.; Balata, M.; D' Andrea, V.; Di Vacri, A.; Junker, M.; Laubenstein, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, Assergi (Italy); Allardt, M.; Domula, A.; Lehnert, B.; Schneider, B.; Wester, T.; Wilsenach, H.; Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Bakalyarov, A.M.; Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Zhukov, S.V. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Barabanov, I.; Bezrukov, L.; Doroshkevich, E.; Fedorova, O.; Gurentsov, V.; Kazalov, V.; Kuzminov, V.V.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Moseev, P.; Selivanenko, O.; Veresnikova, A.; Yanovich, E. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Barros, N. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Dresden (Germany); University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Baudis, L.; Benato, G.; Kish, A.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Walter, M. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauer, C.; Hakenmueller, J.; Heisel, M.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Kihm, T.; Kirsch, A.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Salathe, M.; Schreiner, J.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stepaniuk, M.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Bellotti, E. [Universita Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Belogurov, S.; Kornoukhov, V.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics NRC ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Bettini, A.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Sada, C.; Sturm, K. von [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy); INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Bode, T.; Csathy, J.J.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S.; Wiesinger, C. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Borowicz, D. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Kochetov, O.; Nemchenok, I.; Rumyantseva, N.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zinatulina, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Caldwell, A.; Gooch, C.; Kneissl, R.; Liao, H.Y.; Majorovits, B.; Palioselitis, D.; Schulz, O.; Vanhoefer, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Cattadori, C.; Salamida, F. [INFN Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Chernogorov, A.; Demidova, E.V.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Vasenko, A.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics NRC ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Falkenstein, R.; Freund, K.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Jochum, J.; Schmitt, C.; Schuetz, A.K. [Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Frodyma, N.; Misiaszek, M.; Panas, K.; Pelczar, K.; Wojcik, M.; Zuzel, G. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Gangapshev, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Munich (Germany); Hemmer, S.; Lippi, I.; Stanco, L. [INFN Padova, Padua (Italy); Hult, M.; Lutter, G. [European Commission, JRC-Geel, Geel (Belgium); Inzhechik, L.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Klimenko, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); International University for Nature, Society and Man ' ' Dubna' ' , Dubna (Russian Federation); Lubashevskiy, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Macolino, C. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and Gran Sasso Science Institute, Assergi (Italy); LAL, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Orsay (France); Pandola, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN Milano (Italy); Shirchenko, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Collaboration: GERDA collaboration

    2016-12-15

    Neutrinoless double electron capture is a process that, if detected, would give evidence of lepton number violation and the Majorana nature of neutrinos. A search for neutrinoless double electron capture of {sup 36}Ar has been performed with germanium detectors installed in liquid argon using data from Phase I of the GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of INFN, Italy. No signal was observed and an experimental lower limit on the half-life of the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of {sup 36}Ar was established: T{sub 1/2} > 3.6 x 10{sup 21} years at 90% CI. (orig.)

  19. Limit on the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of ^{36}Ar from GERDA Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; di Vacri, A.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Fedorova, O.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Stepaniuk, M.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wilsenach, H.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-12-01

    Neutrinoless double electron capture is a process that, if detected, would give evidence of lepton number violation and the Majorana nature of neutrinos. A search for neutrinoless double electron capture of ^{36}Ar has been performed with germanium detectors installed in liquid argon using data from Phase I of the GERmanium Detector Array ( Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of INFN, Italy. No signal was observed and an experimental lower limit on the half-life of the radiative neutrinoless double electron capture of ^{36}Ar was established: T_{1/2} > 3.6 × 10^{21} years at 90% CI.

  20. Computer-automated tuning of semiconductor double quantum dots into the single-electron regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baart, T. A.; Vandersypen, L. M. K. [QuTech, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Eendebak, P. T. [QuTech, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5046, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO), P.O. Box 155, 2600 AD Delft (Netherlands); Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-05-23

    We report the computer-automated tuning of gate-defined semiconductor double quantum dots in GaAs heterostructures. We benchmark the algorithm by creating three double quantum dots inside a linear array of four quantum dots. The algorithm sets the correct gate voltages for all the gates to tune the double quantum dots into the single-electron regime. The algorithm only requires (1) prior knowledge of the gate design and (2) the pinch-off value of the single gate T that is shared by all the quantum dots. This work significantly alleviates the user effort required to tune multiple quantum dot devices.

  1. Double your money

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, Suzanne

    1998-01-01

    The government-owned Hydro-Quebec was instructed to take certain actions, one of which was to increase profits. The company has published a report describing its plans for 1998-2002. The company expects to increase sales and double its income over the five years. Hydro-Quebec (which produces or purchases 97% of the electricity consumed in the province) will freeze prices until April 2002. Environmental considerations and liaison with local communities are included in the 5-year plan. The company expects to invest c$1.2B in international markets over the five years and C$20M per year are earmarked for research. (UK)

  2. Layered double hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Rayo, Sandra; Imran, Ahmad; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    A novel zinc (Zn) fertilizer concept based on Zn doped layered double hydroxides (Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs) has been investigated. Zn-doped Mg-Fe-LDHs were synthetized, their chemical composition was analyzed and their nutrient release was studied in buffered solutions with different pH values. Uptake...... equation showing maximum release at pH 5.2, reaching approximately 45% of the total Zn content. The Zn concentrations in the plants receiving the LDHs were between 2- and 9.5-fold higher than those in plants without Zn addition. A positive effect of the LDHs was also found in soil. This work documents...

  3. Double sodium rubidium molybdates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhoseev, M.V.; Khal'baeva, K.M.; Khajkina, E.G.; Ogurtsov, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    According to ceramic technique double sodium-rubidium molybdates of the compositions Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4 (0.5≤x≤0.67) and Na 3 Rb(MoO 4 ) 2 have been prepared. It is ascertained that Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4 is crystallized in glaserite structural type (trigonal crystal system, sp.gr. P3m1, Z=2) and melts incongruently at 640 deg C. Na 3 Rb(MoO 4 ) 2 at room temperature is unstable and gradually decomposes into Na 2 MoO 4 and Rb 2-x Na x MoO 4

  4. Double profunda brachii artery

    OpenAIRE

    Gavishiddappa A Hadimani; Jyoti V Hadimani; Ishwar B Bagoji; Shardha Bai Rathod; Balappa M Bannur

    2016-01-01

    Brachial artery (BA) is a continuation of the axillary artery at the lower border of teres major. In the cubital fossa, BA divides into radial artery and ulnar artery as terminal branches. Large branch given from the BA in the upper part is profunda brachii artery. In the present case, we noticed double profunda brachii that arises from the BA. They are profunda brachii artery 1 and profunda brachii artery 2. Profunda brachii artery 1 arises in the proximal part of the BA and profunda brachii...

  5. Magnetomechanically induced long period fiber gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causado-Buelvas, Jesus D.; Gomez-Cardona, Nelson D.; Torres, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we report a simple, flexible method to create long period fiber gratings mechanically by controlling the repulsion/attraction force between two magnets that pressing a plate with a periodic array of small glass cylinders to a short length of optical fiber. Via the photoelastic effect, the pressure points induce the required periodic refractive index modulation to create the LPFG. We found that the induced device exhibits spectral characteristics similar to those of other types of LPFG. As the optical properties of LPFGs are directly related to the nature of the applied perturbations, we show, to our knowledge for the frrst time, how is the evolution of birefringence effects in mechanically induced LPFGs

  6. Numerical simulation of crosstalk in reduced pitch HgCdTe photon-trapping structure pixel arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jonathan; Bellotti, Enrico

    2013-06-17

    We have investigated crosstalk in HgCdTe photovoltaic pixel arrays employing a photon trapping (PT) structure realized with a periodic array of pillars intended to provide broadband operation. We have found that, compared to non-PT pixel arrays with similar geometry, the array employing the PT structure has a slightly higher optical crosstalk. However, when the total crosstalk is evaluated, the presence of the PT region drastically reduces the total crosstalk; making the use of the PT structure not only useful to obtain broadband operation, but also desirable for reducing crosstalk in small pitch detector arrays.

  7. X-ray detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The object of the invention (an ionization chamber X-ray detector array for use with high speed computerised tomographic imaging apparatus) is to reduce the time required to produce a tomographic image. The detector array described determines the distribution of X-ray intensities in one or more flat, coplanar X-ray beams. It comprises three flat anode sheets parallel to the X-ray beam, a plurality of rod-like cathodes between the anodes, a detector gas between the electrodes and a means for applying a potential between the electrodes. Each of the X-ray sources is collimated to give a narrow, planar section of X-ray photons. Sets of X-ray sources in the array are pulsed simultaneously to obtain X-ray transmission data for tomographic image reconstruction. (U.K.)

  8. Innovations in IR projector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Barry E.; Higashi, B.; Ridley, Jeff A.; Holmen, J.; Newstrom, K.; Zins, C.; Nguyen, K.; Weeres, Steven R.; Johnson, Burgess R.; Stockbridge, Robert G.; Murrer, Robert Lee; Olson, Eric M.; Bergin, Thomas P.; Kircher, James R.; Flynn, David S.

    2000-07-01

    In the past year, Honeywell has developed a 512 X 512 snapshot scene projector containing pixels with very high radiance efficiency. The array can operate in both snapshot and raster mode. The array pixels have near black body characteristics, high radiance outputs, broad band performance, and high speed. IR measurements and performance of these pixels will be described. In addition, a vacuum probe station that makes it possible to select the best die for packaging and delivery based on wafer level radiance screening, has been developed and is in operation. This system, as well as other improvements, will be described. Finally, a review of the status of the present projectors and plans for future arrays is included.

  9. Sensitivity of Pulsar Timing Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemens, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    For the better part of the last decade, the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) has been using the Green Bank and Arecibo radio telescopes to monitor millisecond pulsars. NANOGrav, along with similar international collaborations, the European Pulsar Timing Array and the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array in Australia, form a consortium of consortia: the International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA). The goal of the IPTA is to directly detect low-frequency gravitational waves which cause small changes to the times of arrival of radio pulses from millisecond pulsars. In this talk I will discuss the work of NANOGrav and the IPTA as well as our sensitivity to gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. I will show that a detection is possible by the end of the decade.

  10. A comparison of statistically optimized near field acoustic holography using single layer pressure velocity measurements and using double layer pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Chen, Xinyi; Jaud, Virginie

    2008-01-01

    recently been suggested. An alternative method uses a double layer array of pressure transducers. Both methods make it possible to distinguish between sources on the two sides of the array and thus suppress the influence of extraneous noise and reflections coming from the “wrong” side. This letter compares...

  11. On some periodicity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim o...

  12. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  13. Periods and Nori motives

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  14. Hybrid Arrays for Chemical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kirsten E.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Johnson, Kevin J.; Minor, Christian P.

    In recent years, multisensory approaches to environment monitoring for chemical detection as well as other forms of situational awareness have become increasingly popular. A hybrid sensor is a multimodal system that incorporates several sensing elements and thus produces data that are multivariate in nature and may be significantly increased in complexity compared to data provided by single-sensor systems. Though a hybrid sensor is itself an array, hybrid sensors are often organized into more complex sensing systems through an assortment of network topologies. Part of the reason for the shift to hybrid sensors is due to advancements in sensor technology and computational power available for processing larger amounts of data. There is also ample evidence to support the claim that a multivariate analytical approach is generally superior to univariate measurements because it provides additional redundant and complementary information (Hall, D. L.; Linas, J., Eds., Handbook of Multisensor Data Fusion, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, 2001). However, the benefits of a multisensory approach are not automatically achieved. Interpretation of data from hybrid arrays of sensors requires the analyst to develop an application-specific methodology to optimally fuse the disparate sources of data generated by the hybrid array into useful information characterizing the sample or environment being observed. Consequently, multivariate data analysis techniques such as those employed in the field of chemometrics have become more important in analyzing sensor array data. Depending on the nature of the acquired data, a number of chemometric algorithms may prove useful in the analysis and interpretation of data from hybrid sensor arrays. It is important to note, however, that the challenges posed by the analysis of hybrid sensor array data are not unique to the field of chemical sensing. Applications in electrical and process engineering, remote sensing, medicine, and of course, artificial

  15. The OncoArray Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amos, Christopher I; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Zhaoming

    2017-01-01

    by Illumina to facilitate efficient genotyping. The consortium developed standard approaches for selecting SNPs for study, for quality control of markers, and for ancestry analysis. The array was genotyped at selected sites and with prespecified replicate samples to permit evaluation of genotyping accuracy...... among centers and by ethnic background. RESULTS: The OncoArray consortium genotyped 447,705 samples. A total of 494,763 SNPs passed quality control steps with a sample success rate of 97% of the samples. Participating sites performed ancestry analysis using a common set of markers and a scoring...

  16. Phased Arrays 1985 Symposium - Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    anjl with an1 au~ U lar fy b)eanir. ( mice the 1311 0 ,0 - (a ) ,[ -40.0. -80𔃺 , -90.0 -45.0 0𔃺 45.0 90.0 ANGLE FROM BROADSIDE (DEGREES) aii ia -40,0...Electronic Scanning", RADC-TR-83-128, Dec. 1983. AL) A138808 222 m " ; . . . • " - " - . . . . -" ARRAYS OF COAXIALIY-FED MONOPOLE ELEMENTS IN A PARALLEL...Research Institute Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 Farmingdale, NY 11735 AB ST RAC U Arrays of coaxially-fed monopoles radiating into a parallel plate region

  17. Airborne electronically steerable phased array

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the second stage of a program for the design and development of a phased array capable of simultaneous and separate transmission and reception of radio frequency signals at S-band frequencies. The design goals of this stage were the development of three major areas of interest required for the final prototype model. These areas are the construction and testing of the low-weight, full-scale 128-element array of antenna elements, the development of the RF manifold feed system, and the construction and testing of a working module containing diplexer and transmit and receive circuits.

  18. Enhanced THz extinction in arrays of resonant semiconductor particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, Martijn C; Georgiou, Giorgos; Rivas, Jaime Gómez

    2015-09-21

    We demonstrate experimentally the enhanced THz extinction by periodic arrays of resonant semiconductor particles. This phenomenon is explained in terms of the radiative coupling of localized resonances with diffractive orders in the plane of the array (Rayleigh anomalies). The experimental results are described by numerical calculations using a coupled dipole model and by Finite-Difference in Time-Domain simulations. An optimum particle size for enhancing the extinction efficiency of the array is found. This optimum is determined by the frequency detuning between the localized resonances in the individual particles and the Rayleigh anomaly. The extinction calculations and measurements are also compared to near-field simulations illustrating the optimum particle size for the enhancement of the near-field.

  19. Heating performances of a IC in-blanket ring array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosia, G., E-mail: gbosia@to.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Turin (Italy); Ragona, R. [Laboratory for Plasma Physics-LPP-ERM/KMS, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-12-10

    An important limiting factor to the use of ICRF as candidate heating method in a commercial reactor is due to the evanescence of the fast wave in vacuum and in most of the SOL layer, imposing proximity of the launching structure to the plasma boundary and causing, at the highest power level, high RF standing and DC rectified voltages at the plasma periphery, with frequent voltage breakdowns and enhanced local wall loading. In a previous work [1] the concept for an Ion Cyclotron Heating & Current Drive array (and using a different wave guide technology, a Lower Hybrid array) based on the use of periodic ring structure, integrated in the reactor blanket first wall and operating at high input power and low power density, was introduced. Based on the above concept, the heating performance of such array operating on a commercial fusion reactor is estimated.

  20. Firewalls from double purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2013-10-01

    The firewall paradox is often presented as arising from double entanglement, but I argue that more generally the paradox is double purity. Near-horizon modes are purified by the interior, in the infalling vacuum. Hence, they cannot also be pure alone, or in combination with any third system, as demanded by unitarity. This conflict arises independently of the Page time, for entangled and for pure states. It implies that identifications of Hilbert spaces cannot resolve the paradox. Traditional complementarity requires the unitary identification of infalling matter with a scrambled subsystem of the Hawking radiation. Extending this map to the infalling vacuum overdetermines the out-state. More general complementarity maps (“A=RB,” “ER=EPR”) necessarily fail when the near-horizon zone is pure. I argue that pure-zone states span the microcanonical ensemble, and that this suffices to make the horizon a special place. I advocate that the ability to detect the horizon locally, rather than the degree or probability of violence, is what makes firewalls problematic. Conversely, if the production of matter at the horizon can be dynamically understood and shown to be consistent, then firewalls do not constitute a violation of the equivalence principle.

  1. Phased Array Focusing for Acoustic Wireless Power Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Victor Farm-Guoo; Bedair, Sarah S; Lazarus, Nathan

    2018-01-01

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) through acoustic waves can achieve higher efficiencies than inductive coupling when the distance is above several times the transducer size. This paper demonstrates the use of ultrasonic phased arrays to focus power to receivers at arbitrary locations to increase the power transfer efficiency. Using a phased array consisting of 37 elements at a distance nearly 5 times the receiver transducer diameter, a factor of 2.6 increase in efficiency was achieved when compared to a case equivalent to a single large transducer with the same peak efficiency distance. The array has a total diameter of 7 cm, and transmits through air at 40 kHz to a 1.1-cm diameter receiver, achieving a peak overall efficiency of 4% at a distance of 5 cm. By adjusting the focal distance, the efficiency can also be maintained relatively constant at distances up to 9 cm. Numerical models were developed and shown to closely match the experimental energy transfer behavior; modeling results indicate that the efficiency can be further doubled by increasing the number of elements. For comparison, an inductive WPT system was also built with the diameters of the transmitting and receiving coils equivalent to the dimensions of the transmitting ultrasonic phased array and receiver transducer, and the acoustic WPT system achieved higher efficiencies than the inductive WPT system when the transmit-to-receive distance is above 5 cm. In addition, beam angle steering was demonstrated by using a simplified seven-element 1-D array, achieving power transfer less dependent on receiver placement.

  2. Smith-Purcell radiation experiment using a field-emission array cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, H.; Kawamura, Y.; Yokoo, K.; Shimawaki, H.; Hosono, A.

    2000-01-01

    We have recently started an experiment on visible Smith-Purcell (SP) radiation to examine practical applicability of a field-emission array (FEA) cathode to compact free electron lasers, placing emphasis on safe operation of the cathode as well as beam quality. The electron beam was generated by a 5 cm long triode which employed either a single- or double-gated FEA. Accelerating voltages of up to -40 and -100 kV were applied to the cathode by a regulated power supply and a small Van der Graaff generator, respectively. A 25 μA beam of up to 45 keV was routinely produced and a 5 μA 80 keV beam was also attained. The beam passed through a 1 mm wide slit in the anode and grazed the surface of a 2.5 cm long replica grating with a period of either 0.56 or 0.83 μm. The SP radiation has not been identified owing to irrelevant luminescence caused by the beam at the grating. Still it was confirmed that the FEA cathode is adequately durable and electron beams generated therefrom are sufficiently stable to be used for systematic measurements of radiation

  3. Vrancea seismic source analysis using a small-aperture array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, E.; Popa, M.; Radulian, M.; Placinta, A.O.

    2005-01-01

    A small-aperture seismic array (BURAR) was installed in 1999 in the northern part of the Romanian territory (Bucovina area). Since then, the array has been in operation under a joint cooperation programme between Romania and USA. The array consists of 10 stations installed in boreholes (nine short period instruments and one broadband instrument) with enough high sensitivity to properly detect earthquakes generated in Vrancea subcrustal domain (at about 250 km epicentral distance) with magnitude M w below 3. Our main purpose is to investigate and calibrate the source parameters of the Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes using specific techniques provided by the BURAR array data. Forty earthquakes with magnitudes between 2.9 and 6.0 were selected, including the recent events of September 27, 2004 (45.70 angle N, 26.45 angle E, h = 166 km, M w = 4.7), October 27, 2004 (45.84 angle N, 26.63 angle E, h = 105 km, M w = 6.0) and May 14, 2005 (45.66 angle N, 26.52 angle E, h = 146 km, M w = 5.1), which are the best ever recorded earthquakes on the Romanian territory: Empirical Green's function deconvolution and spectral ratio methods are applied for pairs of collocated events with similar focal mechanism. Stability tests are performed for the retrieved source time function using the array elements. Empirical scaling and calibration relationships are also determined. Our study shows the capability of the BURAR array to determine the source parameters of the Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes as a stand alone station and proves that the recordings of this array alone provides reliable and useful tools to efficiently constrain the source parameters and consequently source scaling properties. (authors)

  4. Mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Berenstein

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  5. The underground seismic array of Gran Sasso (UNDERSEIS), central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, R.; Muscente, R.; Tronca, F.; Fischione, C.; Rotella, P.; Abril, M.; Alguacil, G.; Martini, M.; de Cesare, W.

    2003-04-01

    Since early May, 2002, a small aperture seismic array has been installed in the underground Physics Laboratories of Gran Sasso, located near seismic active faults of central Apennines, Italy. This array is presently composed by 21 three-component short period seismic stations (Mark L4C-3D), with average distance 90 m and semi-circular aperture of 400 m x 600 m. It is intersecting a main seismogenic fault where the presence of slow earthquakes has been recently detected through two wide band geodetic laser interferometers. The underground Laboratories are shielded by a limestone rock layer having 1400 m thickness. Each seismometer is linked, through a 24 bits A/D board, to a set of 6 industrial PC via a serial RS-485 standard. The six PC transmit data to a server through an ethernet network. Time syncronization is provided by a Master Oscillator controlled by an atomic clock. Earthworm package is used for data selection and transmission. High quality data have been recorded since May 2002, including local and regional earthquakes. In particular the 31 October, 2002, Molise (Mw=5.8 earthquake) and its aftershocks have been recorded at this array. Array techniques such as polarisation and frequency-slowness analyses with the MUSIC noise algorithm indicate the high performance of this array, as compared to the national seismic network, for identifying the basic source parameters for earthquakes located at distance of few hundreds of km.

  6. Remedy and Recontamination Assessment Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    instruments pre-installed from the R/V Ecos during the April 22, 2016 event. .................................................................... 38...Environmental Security Technology Certification Program IBI Index of Benthic Integrity ISMA In situ Microcosm Arrays HOC Hydrophobic Organic Compound...system was successfully designed and constructed based on the goal of providing an integrated technology for assessing the effectiveness of

  7. Solar array flight dynamic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the Solar Array Flight Dynamic Experiment (SAFDE) is to demonstrate the feasibility of on-orbit measurement and ground processing of large space structures' dynamic characteristics. Test definition or verification provides the dynamic characteristic accuracy required for control systems use. An illumination/measurement system was developed to fly on space shuttle flight STS-41D. The system was designed to dynamically evaluate a large solar array called the Solar Array Flight Experiment (SAFE) that had been scheduled for this flight. The SAFDE system consisted of a set of laser diode illuminators, retroreflective targets, an intelligent star tracker receiver and the associated equipment to power, condition, and record the results. In six tests on STS-41D, data was successfully acquired from 18 retroreflector targets and ground processed, post flight, to define the solar array's dynamic characteristic. The flight experiment proved the viability of on-orbit test definition of large space structures dynamic characteristics. Future large space structures controllability should be greatly enhanced by this capability.

  8. PHARUS : PHased ARray Universal SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paquay, M.H.A.; Vermeulen, B.C.B.; Koomen, P.J.; Hoogeboom, P.; Snoeij, P.; Pouwels, H.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands, a polarimetric C-band aircraft SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) has been developed. The project is called PHARUS, an acronm for PHased ARray Universal SAR. This instrument serves remote sensing applications. The antenna system contains 48 active modules (expandable to 96). A module

  9. Gamma-ray array physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, C. J.

    1999-01-01

    In this contribution I am going to discuss the development of large arrays of Compton Suppressed, High Purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors and the physics that has been, that is being, and that will be done with them. These arrays and their science have dominated low-energy nuclear structure research for the last twenty years and will continue to do so in the foreseeable future. John Sharpey Schafer played a visionary role in convincing a skeptical world that the development of these arrays would lead to a path of enlightenment. The extent to which he succeeded can be seen both through the world-wide propagation of ever more sophisticated devices, and through the world-wide propagation of his students. I, personally, would not be working in research if it were not for Johns inspirational leadership. I am eternally grateful to him. Many excellent reviews of array physics have been made in the past which can provide detailed background reading. The review by Paul Nolan, another ex-Sharpey Schafer student, is particularly comprehensive and clear

  10. Directivity of basic linear arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Henning

    1970-01-01

    For a linear uniform array ofnelements, an expression is derived for the directivity as a function of the spacing and the phase constants. The cases of isotropic elements, collinear short dipoles, and parallel short dipoles are included. The formula obtained is discussed in some detail and contour...

  11. Optically Controlled Phased Array Antenna

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garafalo, David

    1998-01-01

    .... The antenna is a 3-foot by 9 foot phased array capable of a scan angle of 120 degrees. The antenna was designed to be conformal to the cargo door of a large aircraft and is designed to operate in the frequency range of 830 - 1400 MHz with a 30...

  12. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  13. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  14. Super periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  15. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  16. The Periodic Table CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  17. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  18. Supersymmetrically transformed periodic potentials

    OpenAIRE

    C, David J. Fernandez

    2003-01-01

    The higher order supersymmetric partners of a stationary periodic potential are studied. The transformation functions associated to the band edges do not change the spectral structure. However, when the transformation is implemented for factorization energies inside of the forbidden bands, the final potential will have again the initial band structure but it can have bound states encrusted into the gaps, giving place to localized periodicity defects.

  19. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan; Suresh Rama Chandran; Geetha Thirumalnesan; Nedumaran Doraisamy

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recove...

  20. Double Degenerate Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin-Lian, Luo; Hua, Bai; Lei, Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Regardless of the formation mechanism, an exotic object, the double degenerate star (DDS), is introduced and investigated, which is composed of baryonic matter and some unknown fermion dark matter. Different from the simple white dwarfs (WDs), there is additional gravitational force provided by the unknown fermion component inside DDSs, which may strongly affect the structure and the stability of such kind of objects. Many possible and strange observational phenomena connecting with them are concisely discussed. Similar to the normal WD, this object can also experience thermonuclear explosion as type Ia supernova explosion when DDS's mass exceeds the maximum mass that can be supported by electron degeneracy pressure. However, since the total mass of baryonic matter can be much lower than that of WD at Chandrasekhar mass limit, the peak luminosity should be much dimmer than what we expect before, which may throw a slight shadow on the standard candle of SN Ia in the research of cosmology. (general)