WorldWideScience

Sample records for period smoking prevalence

  1. Tackling the tobacco epidemic in the Nordic countries and lower cancer incidence by 1/5 in a 30-year period-The effect of envisaged scenarios changing smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Therese M-L; Engholm, Gerda; Brink, Anne-Line; Pukkala, Eero; Stenbeck, Magnus; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Storm, Hans

    2018-03-29

    Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of cancer and the most preventable cause of cancer worldwide. The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of the cancer burden in the Nordic countries linked to tobacco smoking and estimate the potential for cancer prevention by changes in smoking prevalence. The Prevent macro-simulation model was used, estimating the future number of cancer cases in the Nordic countries over a 30-year period (2016-2045), for 13 cancer sites, under different scenarios of changing smoking prevalence, and compared to the projected number of cases if constant prevalence prevailed. A total of 430,000 cancer cases, of the 2.2 million expected for the 13 studied cancer sites, could be avoided in the Nordic countries over the 30-year period if smoking was eliminated from 2016 onwards. If prevalence of smoking is reduced to 5% by year 2030 and to 2% by 2040, 230,000 cancer cases could be avoided. The largest proportion of cancers can be avoided in Denmark, where smoking prevalence is the highest, and similar to the prevalence in many European countries. A large amount of cancers could be avoided in the Nordic countries if smoking prevalence was reduced. The results from this study can be used to understand the potential impact and significance of primary prevention programmes targeted towards reducing the prevalence of tobacco smoking in the Nordic countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Smoking prevalence: a comparison of two American surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodu, B; Cole, P

    2009-09-01

    To compare smoking prevalence estimates from two nationally representative surveys in the USA. Smoking prevalence estimates derived from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) for the period 1998-2005. Comparisons according to age (18-34 or 35+ years) and according to smoking frequency (every day or some days). In 1998, the prevalence of smoking in both surveys was nearly identical at 24%. From 1999 to 2005, a divergence occurred in smoking prevalence found by the NSDUH and the NHIS. By 2005, NHIS prevalence had declined to 20.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 20.3-21.5], but the NSDUH estimate was 25.4% (95%CI 24.6-26.2), amounting to 9.1 million more smokers. In 1999, prevalence among 18-34 year olds in the NSDUH was only 18% (95%CI 13-22) higher than that in the NHIS, but that difference had doubled by 2005, when smoking prevalence among 18-34 year olds was 36% (95%CI 30-41) higher in the NSDUH than in the NHIS. NSDUH and NHIS prevalence among 35+ year olds were similar in 1999 and 2001, but the difference was 13% (95%CI 9-18) in 2005. Higher smoking prevalence estimates in the NSDUH were largely due to much higher estimates for some-day smoking in that survey, although every-day smoking prevalence among 18-34 year-olds was also higher in the NSDUH than in the NHIS. These results raise doubt about the recent decline in smoking prevalence described by the NHIS. Further investigation of the NSDUH/NHIS discrepancy may lead to better surveys and to a clearer picture of smoking trends in the USA.

  3. Prevalence of invehicle smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llambi, Laura; Barros, Mary; Parodi, Carolina; Pippo, Antonella; Nunez, Virginia; Colomar, Mercedes; Ciganda, Alvaro; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Goyeneche, Juan J; Aleman, Alicia

    2018-01-19

    Protection from secondhand smoke (SHS) is one of the fundamental principles of the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control. Objective data on SHS exposure in vehicles in South America is scarce. This study aimed to estimate prevalence of smoking inside vehicles. The point prevalence of smoking in vehicles was observed, and a method for estimating smoking prevalence was piloted. We observed 10 011 vehicles. In 219 (2.2%; 95% CI 1.91 to 2.49) of them, smoking was observed, and in 29.2% of these, another person was exposed to SHS. According to the 'expansion factor' we constructed, direct observation detected one of six to one to nine vehicles in which smoking occurred. The observed prevalence of smoking in vehicles (2.2%) could reflect a real prevalence between 12% and 19%. In 29.2% (95% CI 23.6 to 35.5) and 4.6% (95% CI 2.2 to 8.3) of vehicles in which smoking was observed, another adult or a child, respectively, was exposed to SHS. Smoking was estimated to occur in 12%-19% of vehicles, with involuntary exposure in one of three of vehicles observed. These data underscore a need for new public policies to eliminate SHS in vehicles to protect public health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. The prevalence of smoking and the knowledge of smoking hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. While the detrimental effects of smoking among HIV-positive patients have been well documented, there is a paucity of data regarding cigarette smoking prevalence among these patients in South Africa (SA). Objectives. To establish the frequency, demographics, knowledge of harmful effects, and knowledge of ...

  5. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  6. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive airways disease and several cancers. There is little data about the prevalence and determinants of smoking among adolescents in southern Africa. This study aimed to determine the ...

  7. Change in smoking prevalence among pregnant women 1982-93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, P J; Potter, J; Dulberg, C; Niday, P; Nimrod, C; Tawagi, G

    1995-01-01

    Maternal smoking is the most prevalent risk factor for low birthweight in Canada. This study compared the prevalence of maternal smoking before and during pregnancy from 1983 to 1992. Population-based surveys of 3,296 women during six months in 1983 and 7,940 women during 12 months in 1992 were conducted in Ottawa-Carleton using a self-administered questionnaire completed in the hospital postpartum period. The proportion of women smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy decreased from 28.5% in 1983 to 18.7% in 1992. This difference was due mainly to a reduction in the proportion of women who smoked before pregnancy (37.4% to 26.4%). Another factor was that more women stopped smoking early in pregnancy (23.9% to 29.2%). Gradients in levels of smoking by age, education, marital status and poverty level still exist; however, this is true for the general population. Programs to decrease smoking in pregnancy should continue to focus on reducing smoking among women in general and among those in the preconception and early stages of pregnancy in particular.

  8. Smoking prevalence increases following Canterbury earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erskine, Nick; Daley, Vivien; Stevenson, Sue; Rhodes, Bronwen; Beckert, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    A magnitude 7.1 earthquake hit Canterbury in September 2010. This earthquake and associated aftershocks took the lives of 185 people and drastically changed residents' living, working, and social conditions. To explore the impact of the earthquakes on smoking status and levels of tobacco consumption in the residents of Christchurch. Semistructured interviews were carried out in two city malls and the central bus exchange 15 months after the first earthquake. A total of 1001 people were interviewed. In August 2010, prior to any earthquake, 409 (41%) participants had never smoked, 273 (27%) were currently smoking, and 316 (32%) were ex-smokers. Since the September 2010 earthquake, 76 (24%) of the 316 ex-smokers had smoked at least one cigarette and 29 (38.2%) had smoked more than 100 cigarettes. Of the 273 participants who were current smokers in August 2010, 93 (34.1%) had increased consumption following the earthquake, 94 (34.4%) had not changed, and 86 (31.5%) had decreased their consumption. 53 (57%) of the 93 people whose consumption increased reported that the earthquake and subsequent lifestyle changes as a reason to increase smoking. 24% of ex-smokers resumed smoking following the earthquake, resulting in increased smoking prevalence. Tobacco consumption levels increased in around one-third of current smokers.

  9. Smoking prevalence among monks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Charoenca, Naowarut; Kengganpanich, Tharadol; Kusolwisitkul, Wilai; Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Kerdmongkol, Patcharaporn; Silapasuwan, Phimpan; Hamann, Stephen L; Arpawong, Thalida Em

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies among Buddhist monks in Thailand have reported smoking rates to be as high as 55%. Because 95% of Thais are Buddhist, monks are highly influential in establishing normative behavioral patterns. As the first population-based study on smoking among Buddhist monks in Thailand, this study aims to determine the smoking prevalence in six regions of the country, and to examine smoking knowledge, risk perceptions, behaviors, and associated demographics among full-fledged and novice monks (n = 6,213). Results demonstrated that the overall prevalence for current smoking monks is 24.4% (95% confidence interval [24.453, 24.464]), with regional differences ranging from 14.6% (North) to 40.5% (East). Findings suggest that integrating prevention and cessation programming into religious courses may be one avenue for reaching many incoming monks. Further, involving monks in tobacco control education and setting a nonsmoking standard among them is vital to the success of reducing smoking rates among the general population in Thailand.

  10. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young

  11. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4 had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2 smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8 smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use

  12. Community-level Adult Daily Smoking Prevalence Moderates the Association between Adolescents’ Cigarette Smoking and Perceived Smoking by Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents’ smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents’ smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends’ smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents’ own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13–18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents’ past 12-month smoking from perceived friends’ smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends’ smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents’ smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends’ smoking behavior and adolescents’ own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends’ smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths’ smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults. PMID:24241785

  13. Prevalence of smoking and oral contraception in a sample of Danish young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeune, B; Wielandt, H

    1991-01-01

    A representative sample of 286 Danish females aged 16-20 years were interviewed during the period April 1984--February 1985. The response rate was 75%. Both use of oral contraception (OC) and smoking were common; 46.6% used OC, 34.2% smoked and 19.6% combined smoking and OC. The prevalence...

  14. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies.

  15. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kate; Callinan, Joanne E; McHugh, Jack; van Baarsel, Susan; Clarke, Anna; Doherty, Kirsten; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-02-04

    Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and the smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. Since the first version of this review in 2010, more countries have introduced national smoking legislation banning indoor smoking. To assess the effects of legislative smoking bans on (1) morbidity and mortality from exposure to secondhand smoke, and (2) smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and reference lists of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; February 2015. We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans affecting populations. The minimum standard was having an indoor smoking ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. Our search included a broad range of research designs including: randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before-and-after studies, interrupted time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. One author extracted characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies and a second author checked the details. We extracted health and smoking behaviour outcomes. We did not attempt a meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity in design and content of the studies included. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. There are 77 studies included in this updated review. We retained 12 studies from the original review and identified 65 new studies. Evidence from 21 countries is

  16. Trends in smoking prevalence in Danish adults, 1964-1994. The influence of gender, age, and education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E; Gottschau, A

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of time trends in smoking prevalence provide a better understanding of the determinants of smoking. The present study analyses changes over time in the prevalence of smoking and heavy smoking in relation to sex, age, and education. METHODS: Data on smoking behaviour were...... collected by questionnaire in random samples of the general population in the area of Copenhagen. The database used included 71,842 measurements of smoking behaviour for 32,156 subjects aged 30 years or more, who had been examined at intervals between 1964 and 1994. In bi- and multivariate analyses...... the effects of sex, age, education, time period, and study group on the prevalence of smoking and of heavy smoking were assessed. RESULTS: Smoking was least prevalent in women, in the oldest age group (more than 70 years), and among those with 8 years or more of school education. During the study period (from...

  17. Community-level Adult Daily Smoking Prevalence Moderates the Association between Adolescents’ Cigarette Smoking and Perceived Smoking by Friends

    OpenAIRE

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents’ smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents’ smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends’ smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents’ own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13–18 years old) in 50 mid...

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking intentions among non-smoking and smoking adolescents in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Lim Kuang; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohamad; Cheong, Kee Chee; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Li, Lim Hui; Huey, Teh Chien; Ying, Chan Ying; Yen, Yeo Lay; Ching, Fiona Goh Swee; Yi, Khoo Yi; Lin, Chong Zhuo; Ibrahim, Normala; Mustafa, Amal Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Intention to smoke is a valid and reliable factor for predicting future smoking habits among adolescents. This factor, however, has received inadequate attention in Malaysia. The present paper elaborates the prevalence and factors associated with intent to initiate or to cease smoking, among adolescent nonsmokers and smokers in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia. A total of 2,300 secondary school students aged 13-16 years were selected through a two-stage stratified sampling method. A set of standardized questionnaires was used to assess the smoking behavior among adolescents and the inter-personal and intra-personal factors associated with smoking intention (intention to initiate smoking or to cease smoking). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors related to smoking intention. The prevalence of intention to smoke in the future or to cease smoking among non- smoking adolescents and current smokers were 10.7% and 61.7% respectively. Having friends who smoke, social influence, and poor knowledge about the ill effects on health due to smoking showed significant relationships with intention to smoke in the future among non-smokers. Conversely, perceived lower prevalence of smoking among peers, weak contributory social influence, and greater awareness of the ill effects of smoking are factors associated with the intention to cease smoking sometime in the future. The study found that prevalence of intention to initiate smoking is low among non-smokers while the majority of current smokers intended to cease smoking in the future. Existing anti-smoking programmes that integrate the factors that have been identified in the current study should be put in motion to reduce the prevalence of intention to initiate smoking and increase the intention to cease smoking among adolescents.

  19. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which legislation-based smoking bans or restrictions reduce exposure to SHS, help people who smoke to reduce tobacco consumption or lower smoking prevalence and affect the health of those in areas which have a ban or restriction in place. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Conference Paper Index, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; July 1st 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans and restrictions affecting populations. The minimum standard was having a ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before and after studies, interrupted-time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of heterogeneity in the design and content of the studies, we did not attempt a meta-analysis. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: There were 50 studies included in this review. Thirty-one studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) with 19 studies measuring it using biomarkers. There was

  20. Mexico SimSmoke: how changes in tobacco control policies would impact smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Thrasher, James F; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Cummings, K Michael; Meza, Rafael; Zhang, Yian; Levy, David T

    2017-07-01

    We examined the effect of tobacco control policies in Mexico on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths using the Mexico SimSmoke model. The model is based on the previously developed SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy, and uses population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Mexico. It assesses, individually, and in combination, the effect of six tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths. Policies included: cigarette excise taxes, smoke-free laws, anti-smoking public education campaigns, marketing restrictions, access to tobacco cessation treatments and enforcement against tobacco sales youth. The model estimates that, if Mexico were to adopt strong tobacco control policies compared to current policy levels, smoking prevalence could be reduced by 30% in the next decade and by 50% by 2053; an additional 470,000 smoking-related premature deaths could be averted over the next 40 years. The greatest impact on smoking and smoking-related deaths would be achieved by raising excise taxes on cigarettes from 55% to at least 70% of the retail price, followed by strong youth access enforcement and access to cessation treatments. Implementing tobacco control policies in Mexico could reduce smoking prevalence by 50%, and prevent 470,000 smoking-related deaths by 2053.

  1. Prevalence and Psychological Characterization of Smoking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    smoking and smoking withdrawal among university students of Abbottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,. Pakistan. Methods: ... and type of qualification (e.g. medical or non- medical). .... smoking in university students--perspective from. Islamabad.

  2. Effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and tobacco-attributable deaths in Mexico: the SimSmoke model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine how policies adopted in Mexico in response to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control affected smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. METHODS: The SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy is applied to Mexico. This discrete time, first-order Markov model uses data on population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy for Mexico. It assesses, individually and jointly, the effects of seven types of policies: cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment, and youth tobacco access policies. RESULTS: The Mexico SimSmoke model estimates that smoking rates have been reduced by about 30% as a result of policies implemented since 2002, and that the number of smoking-attributable deaths will have been reduced by about 826 000 by 2053. Increases in cigarette prices are responsible for over 60% of the reductions, but health warnings, smoke-free air laws, marketing restrictions and cessation treatments also play important roles. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico has shown steady progress towards reducing smoking prevalence in a short period of time, as have other Latin American countries, such as Brazil, Panama and Uruguay. Tobacco control policies play an important role in continued efforts to reduce tobacco use and associated deaths in Mexico.

  3. Smoking Prevalence and Attitudes Regarding its Control Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 1950 and 2000, approximately 70 million people have died from ... was conducted in two medical schools in South‑Western Nigeria with their accompanied .... Table 2: Prevalence of smoking according to sex and students course. Ever smoked cigarette. (n=121) %. Smoked in the last 30 days. (n=34) %. Sex. Male.

  4. PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SARAWAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRYANI T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent smoking is an emerging health concern in the developing countries. A cross-sectional study is conducted to determine the prevalence and smoking behaviour of adolescents in Sarawak. The prevalence of smoking is 32.8% with mean age of initiation at 12.8±1.9 years. Most (67.2% adolescents are experimental smokers and the majority (67.9% did not smoke on adaily basis. Branded cigarettes are preferred (83.1% and the cigarettes are obtained either from friends (49.1% or selfpurchased (43.6%. Students prefer to smoke at their friend’s house (31.0% or at school (25.3%. Smoking prevalence among adolescents in Sarawak is high and begins early. Early intervention on smoking prevention and risk awareness is perhaps more effective if initiated before the age of 12 years.

  5. The Economic Impact of Smoking and of Reducing Smoking Prevalence: Review of Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpu, Victor U; Brown, Abraham K

    2015-01-01

    interventions.The cost per life year saved from the use of pharmacological treatment interventions ranged between US$128 and US$1,450 and up to US$4,400 per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) saved. The use of pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, NRT, and Bupropion, when combined with GP counseling or other behavioral treatment interventions (such as proactive telephone counseling and Web-based delivery), is both clinically effective and cost effective to primary health care providers.Price-based policy measures such as increase in tobacco taxes are unarguably the most effective means of reducing the consumption of tobacco. A 10% tax-induced cigarette price increase anywhere in the world reduces smoking prevalence by between 4% and 8%. Net public benefits from tobacco tax, however, remain positive only when tax rates are between 42.9% and 91.1%. The cost effectiveness ratio of implementing non-price-based smoking cessation legislations (such as smoking restrictions in work places, public places, bans on tobacco advertisement, and raising the legal age of smokers) range from US$2 to US$112 per life year gained (LYG) while reducing smoking prevalence by up to 30%–82% in the long term (over a 50-year period).Smoking cessation classes are known to be most effective among community-based measures, as they could lead to a quit rate of up to 35%, but they usually incur higher costs than other measures such as self-help quit-smoking kits. On average, community pharmacist-based smoking cessation programs yield cost savings to the health system of between US$500 and US$614 per LYG.Advertising media, telecommunications, and other technology-based interventions (such as TV, radio, print, telephone, the Internet, PC, and other electronic media) usually have positive synergistic effects in reducing smoking prevalence especially when combined to deliver smoking cessation messages and counseling support. However, the outcomes on the cost effectiveness of TMT-based measures have been

  6. The Economic Impact of Smoking and of Reducing Smoking Prevalence: Review of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpu, Victor U; Brown, Abraham K

    2015-01-01

    treatment interventions ranged between US$128 and US$1,450 and up to US$4,400 per quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) saved. The use of pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, NRT, and Bupropion, when combined with GP counseling or other behavioral treatment interventions (such as proactive telephone counseling and Web-based delivery), is both clinically effective and cost effective to primary health care providers.Price-based policy measures such as increase in tobacco taxes are unarguably the most effective means of reducing the consumption of tobacco. A 10% tax-induced cigarette price increase anywhere in the world reduces smoking prevalence by between 4% and 8%. Net public benefits from tobacco tax, however, remain positive only when tax rates are between 42.9% and 91.1%. The cost effectiveness ratio of implementing non-price-based smoking cessation legislations (such as smoking restrictions in work places, public places, bans on tobacco advertisement, and raising the legal age of smokers) range from US$2 to US$112 per life year gained (LYG) while reducing smoking prevalence by up to 30%-82% in the long term (over a 50-year period).Smoking cessation classes are known to be most effective among community-based measures, as they could lead to a quit rate of up to 35%, but they usually incur higher costs than other measures such as self-help quit-smoking kits. On average, community pharmacist-based smoking cessation programs yield cost savings to the health system of between US$500 and US$614 per LYG.Advertising media, telecommunications, and other technology-based interventions (such as TV, radio, print, telephone, the Internet, PC, and other electronic media) usually have positive synergistic effects in reducing smoking prevalence especially when combined to deliver smoking cessation messages and counseling support. However, the outcomes on the cost effectiveness of TMT-based measures have been inconsistent, and this made it difficult to attribute results to specific

  7. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors among Students of Balıkesir University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Sarıoğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to investigate the smoking prevalence and associated factors among the students of Balıkesir University and determine the level of nicotine dependence in smokers. Methods: Six faculties and two graduate schools located at the Balıkesir University campus were enrolled. The cluster method was used as the sampling method. To observe the rates of smoking initiation while studying at the university, first-year and final year students were compared. Results: A total of 1096 students were enrolled, with a mean age of 20.4±2.2 years. The regular smoking prevalence rate was 25.5%, occasional smoking rate was 9.5%, alcohol consumption rate was 28.0%, and drug abuse rate was 5.0%. The mean age for attempting to smoke was 16.6±2.2 years. The leading causes of smoking were curiosity, spiritual space, affection, and to comply with friends. According to the Fagerström questionnaire, the level of nicotine dependence was low in 53.0% of the participants, moderate in 8.7%, and high in 28.4%. The average smoking prevalence rate was 23.6% in first-grade students, whereas it was 44.8% in last-grade students. The factors that influence smoking were as follows: being in the last grade, mother, siblings, and friends who smoke, higher allowance, use of alcohol and drugs. Smoking was found to be more prevalent among males. Conclusion: Last-grade students had a higher smoking prevalence rate than the first-grade students. Family, social environment, and smoking behavior of friends have an influence on smoking. All risk factors, including past history and university period, should be considered together in tobacco control.

  8. Assessment of health impacts of decreased smoking prevalence in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is among the leading risk factors for chronic disease and early death in developed countries, including Denmark, where smoking causes 14% of the disease burden. In Denmark, many public health interventions, including smoking prevention, are undertaken by the municipalities......, but models to estimate potential health effects of local interventions are lacking. The aim of the current study was to model the effects of decreased smoking prevalence in Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: The DYNAMO-HIA model was applied to the population of Copenhagen, by using health survey data and data......, and cessation and re-initiation rates among adults, which reduced the smoking prevalence to 4% by 2025, would have large beneficial effects on incidence and prevalence of smoking-related diseases and mortality. Health benefits could also be obtained through interventions targeting only cessation or re...

  9. Smoking in the home after childbirth: prevalence, determinants and the relationship to smoking in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Orton, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Childhood secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes substantial ill health and mortality, and poses a significant economic and social burden. This thesis aimed to explore the prevalence and determinants of smoking in the home after childbirth, and to understand the experience and attitudes of mothers who stop smoking during pregnancy but relapse soon after delivery.\\ud \\ud \\ud In study one, the factors associated with child SHS exposure in the home were systematically reviewed. Parental smoking,...

  10. Prevalence and demographic factors of smoking in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejjari, Chakib; Benjelloun, Mohamed Chakib; Berraho, Mohamed; El Rhazi, Karima; Tachfouti, Nabil; Elfakir, Samira; Serhier, Zineb; Slama, Karen

    2009-01-01

    To study the prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking in Morocco. A sample of 9,195 individuals aged 15-90 years, were randomly selected, using a stratified cluster sampling technique. A cross-sectional, household, community-based survey was conducted using a tested questionnaire. The interview covered personal, social and educational characteristics of the respondents and their smoking status. The association between current smoking and sociodemographic variables was estimated. The overall prevalence of current smoking was 31.5% for males and 3.1% for females. In men, smoking was associated with lower educational level. In women, it was associated with higher educational level and social class. Cigarette smoking remains an important public health problem in Morocco. A comprehensive strategy for tobacco control is needed.

  11. Comparison of Prevalence- and Smoking Impact Ratio-Based Methods of Estimating Smoking-Attributable Fractions of Deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Ae Kong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is a major modifiable risk factor for premature mortality. Estimating the smoking-attributable burden is important for public health policy. Typically, prevalence- or smoking impact ratio (SIR-based methods are used to derive estimates, but there is controversy over which method is more appropriate for country-specific estimates. We compared smoking-attributable fractions (SAFs of deaths estimated by these two methods. Methods: To estimate SAFs in 2012, we used several different prevalence-based approaches using no lag and 10- and 20-year lags. For the SIR-based method, we obtained lung cancer mortality rates from the Korean Cancer Prevention Study (KCPS and from the United States-based Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II. The relative risks for the diseases associated with smoking were also obtained from these cohort studies. Results: For males, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were similar to those obtained using prevalence-based methods. For females, SAFs obtained using KCPS-derived SIRs were markedly greater than all prevalence-based SAFs. Differences in prevalence-based SAFs by time-lag period were minimal among males, but SAFs obtained using longer-lagged prevalence periods were significantly larger among females. SAFs obtained using CPS-II-based SIRs were lower than KCPS-based SAFs by >15 percentage points for most diseases, with the exceptions of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions: SAFs obtained using prevalence- and SIR-based methods were similar for males. However, neither prevalence-based nor SIR-based methods resulted in precise SAFs among females. The characteristics of the study population should be carefully considered when choosing a method to estimate SAF.

  12. Smoking Prevalence Among Mugla School of Health Sciences Students and Causes of Leading Increase in Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Picakciefe

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the smoking prevalence among Mugla School of Health Sciences students, to determine the effects the increasing causes of smoking and their education about adverse health outcome of smoking. A cross-sectional study was performed among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. All students (417 in Mugla School of Health Sciences included in the study. The participation rates was 85.1%. Data were obtained by the self-administered questionnaire without teachers in classes. SPSS 11.0 was used for data analysis, and the differentiation was assessed by Chi-square analysis. P < 0.05 was accepted statistically significant. The prevalence of current smokers was 25.3% among students in Mugla School of Health Sciences. The students stated that the most important factor of smoking initiation was stress (59.2%. The univariable analysis showed that the friends’ smoking (p: 0.000 , having knowledge about smoking habits of teachers (p: 0.020 , alcohol consumption (p: 0.000, and other smokers out of parent in the home (p: 0.000 was significantly associated with increasing rate of smoking prevalence. The smoking prevalence was quite high (25.3% among Mugla School of Health Sciences students in Mugla University. It is needed to decreasing smoking prevalence among students that antismoking education should be reevaluated, that antismoking campaign should be administered in schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 267-272

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Urrutia‐Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of smoking among adolescents in Uruguaiana is high. The implementation of measures to reduce/stop tobacco use and its new forms of consumption, such as electronic cigarettes and hookah, are urgent and imperative in schools.

  14. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Several studies have reported a negative relationship between smoking and military performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health implications among Nigerian Army personnel. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of 853 soldiers ...

  15. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and the knowledge of its health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Several studies have reported a negative relationship between smoking and military performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health implications among Nigerian Army personnel. Materials and Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of ...

  16. The Prevalence of Smoking among Undergraduates of Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Prevalence of Smoking among Undergraduates of Imo State University Owerri, ... It is an addictive act with adverse effects on health and social life. ... More enlightenment of the students on the dangers of smoking is needed in order to ...

  17. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Bogdanovica

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. METHODS: Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and

  18. What Factors Influence Smoking Prevalence and Smoke Free Policy Enactment across the European Union Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU) Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. Methods Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. Results In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. Conclusions Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key

  19. SMOKING PREVALENCE AND RELATED FACTORS IN HEALTH NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS COLLEGE (GMMA-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Han ACIKEL

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was determine smoking prevalence and the factors which effect smoking behavior, among Health Noncommissioned Officers College, that in Gulhane Military Medical Academy. This cross-sectional study was performed at February 2004. Population of study has been defined as, the students continue education in Health Noncommissioned Officers College on 2003-04 period. In our study we found that, 50.3% of students have used cigarette in any period of their life, and the prevalence of students who declare smoking one or more cigarette every day is 44.9%. Affect of friends (58.3%, and pleasure (47.2% is 1st and 2nd reasons start smoking. Price is the most effective factor of cigarette availability. In our study, economic reasons are reported as 2nd reason of give up smoking (56.3% after health counter effect (71.3%. The prevalence of smoking among Health Noncommissioned Officers College students is quite high than other studies, which performed in high schools and colleges in our country. Intention of give up smoking is hopeful, but results aren?t satisfying. This situation shows the importance and need of effective give up smoking programs for adolescents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(8.000: 178-185

  20. Prevalence of Cigarette smoking among Intermediate Qatari School Male Students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossa, Samir Y.; Khan, Zulfaquar A.; Malik, Mariyam A.; Al-Sayed, H.

    2006-01-01

    Attempt was made to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices of Qatari male students and attending four intermediate schools in Doha, about cigarette smoking. 475 boys aged between 12-18 years were the subject of our study. A survey using self-administered questionnaire was carried out into habits, attitudes and knowledge about cigarette smoking. The importance of peer group pressure, parental smoking and early experimentation was confirmed, as was the general awareness of the health hazards of smoking. In contrast, the importance of religion and financial cost of smoking differed markedly. The prevalence of smoking amongst Qatari intermediate schools appears to be considerably less than their counterparts. The results of this research might be used by health planners and policy makers to establish a strategy to prevent smoking as early as possible to reduce morbidity and early mortality and health related economic burden. (author)

  1. Austrian Students and Smoking: Prevalence and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glawischnig, Markus; Reichmann, Gerhard; Sommersguter-Reichmann, Margit

    2009-01-01

    There is little data on the smoking behaviour of the population of Austria. The available information hardly goes beyond some figures on the number of regular smokers and the amount of cigarettes consumed per person per year. Equally, statutory anti-smoking measures in Austria lag considerably behind those of other countries, especially the U.S.…

  2. Smoking in Correctional Settings Worldwide: Prevalence, Bans, and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Anne C; Eldridge, Gloria D; Chico, Cynthia E; Morisseau, Nancy; Drobeniuc, Ana; Fils-Aime, Rebecca; Day, Carolyn; Hopkins, Robyn; Jin, Xingzhong; Chen, Junyu; Dolan, Kate A

    2018-06-01

    Smoking tobacco contributes to 11.5% of deaths worldwide and, in some countries, more hospitalizations than alcohol and drugs combined. Globally in 2015, 25% of men and 5% of women smoked. In the United States, a higher proportion of people in prison smoke than do community-dwelling individuals. To determine smoking prevalence in prisons worldwide, we systematically reviewed the literature using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines; we also examined whether prisons banned smoking or treated smokers. We searched databases for articles published between 2012 and 2016 and located 85 relevant articles with data representing 73.5% of all incarcerated persons from 50 countries. In 35 of 36 nations (97%) with published prevalence data, smoking for the incarcerated exceeded community rates 1.04- to 62.6-fold. Taking a conservative estimate of a 2-fold increase, we estimated that, globally, 14.5 million male and 26,000 female smokers pass through prisons annually. Prison authorities' responses include permitting, prohibiting, or treating tobacco use. Bans may temporarily improve health and reduce in-prison health care costs but have negligible effect after prison release. Evidence-based interventions for smoking cessation effective outside prisons are effective inside; effects persist after release. Because smoking prevalence is heightened in prisons, offering evidence-based interventions to nearly 15 million smokers passing through yearly would improve global health.

  3. Time series analysis of the impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence among Australian adults, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah J; Scollo, Michelle; Bayly, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Simpson, Julie A; Hill, David

    2014-06-01

    To determine the impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on smoking prevalence in Australian adults. Data for calculating the average monthly prevalence of smoking between January 2001 and June 2011 were obtained via structured interviews of randomly sampled adults aged 18 years or older from Australia's five largest capital cities (monthly mean number of adults interviewed: 2375). The influence on smoking prevalence was estimated for increased tobacco taxes; strengthened smoke-free laws; increased monthly population exposure to televised tobacco control mass media campaigns and pharmaceutical company advertising for nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), using gross ratings points; monthly sales of NRT, bupropion and varenicline; and introduction of graphic health warnings on cigarette packs. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to examine the influence of these interventions on smoking prevalence. The mean smoking prevalence for the study period was 19.9% (standard deviation: 2.0%), with a drop from 23.6% (in January 2001) to 17.3% (in June 2011). The best-fitting model showed that stronger smoke-free laws, tobacco price increases and greater exposure to mass media campaigns independently explained 76% of the decrease in smoking prevalence from February 2002 to June 2011. Increased tobacco taxation, more comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased investment in mass media campaigns played a substantial role in reducing smoking prevalence among Australian adults between 2001 and 2011.

  4. Effect of teenage smoking on the prevalence of periodontal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Kari, Kirsti; Pajukanta, Riitta; Elonheimo, Outi; Koskenvuo, Markku; Meurman, Jukka H

    2012-04-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate how teenage smoking affects the prevalence of periodontal bacteria and periodontal health with the hypothesis that smoking increases the prevalence of the bacteria. Oral health of 264 adolescents (15- to 16-year-olds) was clinically examined, and their smoking history was recorded. The participants also filled in a structured questionnaire recording their general health and health habits. Pooled subgingival plaque samples were taken for polymerase chain reaction analysis of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, and Treponema denticola. The prevalence of P. intermedia (21% vs. 4%, p = 0.01) and T. forsythia and T. denticola (23% vs. 8%, p periodontal bacteria were associated with higher periodontal index scores among all teenage smokers. Smoking girls harbored more frequently certain periodontal bacteria than non-smokers, but this was not seen in boys. Hence, our study hypothesis was only partly confirmed.

  5. Tobacco smoking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Despite reductions in prevalence in recent years, tobacco smoking remains one of the main preventable causes of ill-health and premature death worldwide. This paper reviews the extent and nature of harms caused by smoking, the benefits of stopping, patterns of smoking, psychological, pharmacological and social factors that contribute to uptake and maintenance of smoking, the effectiveness of population and individual level interventions aimed at combatting tobacco smoking, and the effectiveness of methods used to reduce the harm caused by continued use of tobacco or nicotine in some form. Smoking behaviour is maintained primarily by the positive and negative reinforcing properties of nicotine delivered rapidly in a way that is affordable and palatable, with the negative health consequences mostly being sufficiently uncertain and distant in time not to create sufficient immediate concern to deter the behaviour. Raising immediate concerns about smoking by tax increases, social marketing and brief advice from health professionals can increase the rate at which smokers try to stop. Providing behavioural and pharmacological support can improve the rate at which those quit attempts succeed. Implementing national programmes containing these components are effective in reducing tobacco smoking prevalence and reducing smoking-related death and disease.

  6. [Tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Euro region Eastern Carpathians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadarko, Emilian; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Barabasz, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    Publisher in February 2008 WHO M-POWER report indicates that every year on the world tobacco epidemics kills 5.4 million of people and the analysis of tobacco smoking prevalence change shows great differences between European countries. It is estimated that in Poland 29% of adult people smokes, and 24% in Slovakia. However tobacco smoking among academic youth is still a big problem. The aim of the study was an attempt to estimate tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Poland and Slovakia. The study was conducted with the framework of science project: "Physical activity for the whole life". The aim of the project are multidirectional activities addressed to Polish-Slovakian students to create a system of taking care about health based on health education among students, selected modifying cardiovascular risk factors monitoring, as well as creating Internet portal to serve those goals. Project was co-fund by European Union from European Regional Development Fund - ERDF, as well as from the government budget by Euro Region Carpathians with the framework of Cross-border Co-operation Programme Republic of Poland - Slovakia Republic 2007-2013. Analysis considered 4584 group of students from University of Rzeszow and University of Presov, Technical University in Rzeszow and State Higher Vocational School in Krosno. The study was conducted from November 2009 to June 2010. The participation in the study was voluntary. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Based on results it was claimed that the majority of the studied group of students have never smoked and do not smoke cigarettes. Place of residence was a factor influencing the fact of tobacco smoking. Slovakian students were characterized by more frequent tobacco smoking. Far more often smoke man, both in Polish and Slovakian group. Among Polish students there was a relation between subjective health state assessment and

  7. Smoking prevalence among qualified nurses in the Republic of Ireland and their role in smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Geraldine

    2009-06-01

    Smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature mortality, killing approximately 6000 people in Ireland each year. On 29 March 2004, the Republic of Ireland became the first country in the world to ban smoking in all workplaces, including bars and restaurants. This study took place after the introduction of this smoking ban. An admission to hospital provides an opportunity to help people stop smoking. Nurses' role and wide availability puts them in a prime position to encourage people to quit smoking. To examine the smoking prevalence among qualified nurses at a large university teaching hospital in Cork Southern Ireland and their role in smoking cessation. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study using a calculated sample of 430 qualified nurses (with a 70% response rate). A structured questionnaire was used. It was found that 21% (n = 63) of nurses were smokers, 23% (n = 70) were ex-smokers and 56% (n = 167) were non-smokers. The highest prevalence of smokers was found in the age groups 20-25 years (28%, n = 17) and 26-30 years (34%, n = 21). Nurses working within psychiatric care (47.4%) and coronary care (33.3%) had the highest smoking prevalence among the nurses who smoked. The study found that there was a significant difference between the attitudes of smokers and non-smokers, 89% (n = 211) of non-smokers strongly agreed that cigarette smoke represents a major risk to health in comparison with only 65% (n = 41) of smokers. Only 14% (n = 43) of the nurses surveyed had received training in smoking cessation. Lack of time (74%) and lack of training (65%) were the two main reasons given by nurses for not giving smoking cessation advice to patients. Nurses' potential in preventive health care has been largely under-utilized. Lack of time and training are major factors inhibiting nurses' role in smoking cessation with their patients.

  8. Analysis of self-reported versus biomarker based smoking prevalence: methodology to compute corrected smoking prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of smoking is needed to estimate the need for future public health resources. To compute and compare smoking prevalence rates by using self-reported smoking statuses, two serum cotinine (SCOT) based biomarker methods, and one urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) based biomarker method. These estimates were then used to develop correction factors to be applicable to self-reported prevalences to arrive at corrected smoking prevalence rates. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2007-2012 for those aged ≥20 years (N = 16826) were used. Self-reported prevalence rate for the total population computed as the weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by weighted number of all participants was 21.6% and 24% when computed by weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by the weighted number of self-reported smokers and nonsmokers. The corrected prevalence rate was found to be 25.8%. A 1% underestimate in smoking prevalence is equivalent to not being able to identify 2.2 million smokers in US in a given year. This underestimation, if not corrected, could lead to serious gap in the public health services available and needed to provide adequate preventive and corrective treatment to smokers.

  9. English language proficiency and smoking prevalence among California's Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Shimizu, Robin; Chen, Moon S

    2005-12-15

    The authors documented California's tobacco control initiatives for Asian Americans and the current tobacco use status among Asian subgroups and provide a discussion of the challenges ahead. The California Tobacco Control Program has employed a comprehensive approach to decrease tobacco use in Asian Americans, including ethnic-specific media campaigns, culturally competent interventions, and technical assistance and training networks. Surveillance of tobacco use among Asian Americans and the interpretation of the results have always been a challenge. Data from the 2001 The California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were analyzed to provide smoking prevalence estimates for all Asian Americans and Asian-American subgroups, including Korean, Filipino, Japanese, South Asian, Chinese, and Vietnamese. Current smoking prevalence was analyzed by gender and by English proficiency level. Cigarette smoking prevalence among Asian males in general was almost three times of that among Asian females. Korean and Vietnamese males had higher cigarette smoking prevalence rates than males in other subgroups. Although Asian females in general had low smoking prevalence rates, significant differences were found among Asian subgroups, from 1.1% (Vietnamese) to 12.7% (Japanese). Asian men who had high English proficiency were less likely to be smokers than men with lower English proficiency. Asian women with high English proficiency were more likely to be smokers than women with lower English proficiency. Smoking prevalence rates among Asian Americans in California differed significantly on the basis of ethnicity, gender, and English proficiency. English proficiency seemed to have the effect of reducing smoking prevalence rates among Asian males but had just the opposite effect among Asian females. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.

  10. Effects of the economic crisis on smoking prevalence and number of smokers in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Silvano; Ghislandi, Simone; Muttarak, Raya

    2015-01-01

    Scanty and controversial information is available on the impact of macroeconomic fluctuations on smoking behaviour. No study has quantified the effects of fiscal crises on smoking prevalence. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the 2007-2008 economic crisis on smoking prevalence and number of smokers in the USA. Using data from the repeated Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys in pre-crisis (2005-2007) and post-crisis (2009-2010) periods on a total of 1,981,607 US adults, we separated the expected (after allowance for the demographic growth of the US population, secular smoking prevalence trends and changes in sociodemographic characteristics) from the unexpected (assumed attributable to the economic crisis) changes in the number of smokers across different employment statuses. Joinpoint regression analysis revealed no significant changes in smoking prevalence trends over the period 2005-2010. The crisis resulted in an increase in the number of smokers in the US by 0.6 million. This is largely due to an unexpected decrease of 1.7 million smokers among employed and an increase of 2.4 million smokers among unemployed individuals, whose smoking prevalence also remains extremely high in the post-crisis period (32.6%). The 2008 financial crisis had a weak effect on smoking prevalence. The pro-cyclical relationship (ie, the crisis results in a lower number of smokers) found among the employed is offset by the counter-cyclical relationship (ie, the crisis results in a higher number of smokers) found among unemployed individuals. Public health interventions should specifically target those in unemployment, particularly in hard times. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Age-period-cohort effect of adolescent smoking in Korea: from 2006-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heewon Kang

    2018-03-01

    Efforts to reduce tobacco-use among adolescents appears to be playing a substantial role in reducing current smoking and ever smoking prevalence. Ongoing surveillance for trends in adolescent cigarette smoking is essential to implement effective tobacco control programs.

  12. Prevalence, Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Smoking Among SEPAR Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano Reina, Segismundo; Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos A; de Higes Martinez, Eva; Garcia Rueda, Marcos; Callejas González, Francisco J; de Granda Orive, Jose I; Vaquero Lozano, Paz; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar; Alfageme Michavila, Inmaculada

    2016-12-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of smoking among SEPAR members, and their approach to smoking cessation in their patients. An online survey was completed by 640 members (496 pulmonologists, 45 nurses, 34 thoracic surgeons, 37 physiotherapists, and 28 other specialists). Of the members interviewed, 5% confessed that they were smokers: 3.5% pulmonologists; 8.9% nurses; 8.8% thoracic surgeons, and 13.5% physiotherapists. A total of 96% of members assign a lot or quite a lot of importance to setting an example; 98% of members always or often ask their patients about their smoking habit. The most effective anti-smoking intervention, according to 77% of members, is a combination of drugs and psychological support. These results are an indicator of the awareness and commitment of SEPAR members to smoking and its cessation. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Oliano, Vinicius J; Aranda, Carolina S; Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu

    Despite anti-smoking prevention programs, many adolescents start smoking at school age. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with smoking in adolescents living in Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil. A prospective study was conducted in adolescents (12-19 years), enrolled in municipal schools, who answered a self-administered questionnaire on smoking. 798 adolescents were enrolled in the study, with equal distribution between genders. The tobacco experimentation frequency (ever tried a cigarette, even one or two puffs) was 29.3%; 14.5% started smoking before 12 years of age and 13.0% reported smoking at least one cigarette/day last month. Having a smoking friend (OR: 5.67, 95% CI: 2.06-7.09), having cigarettes offered by friends (OR: 4.21, 95% CI: 2.46-5.76) and having easy access to cigarettes (OR: 3.82, 95% CI: 1.22-5.41) was identified as factors associated with smoking. Having parental guidance on smoking (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.45-0.77), having no contact with cigarettes at home in the last week (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.11-0.79) and knowing about the dangers of electronic cigarettes (OR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.21-0.92) were identified as protection factors. The prevalence of smoking among adolescents in Uruguaiana is high. The implementation of measures to reduce/stop tobacco use and its new forms of consumption, such as electronic cigarettes and hookah, are urgent and imperative in schools. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Sweden SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking and snus prevalence and attributable deaths

    OpenAIRE

    Near, Aimee M.; Blackman, Kenneth; Currie, Laura M.; Levy, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examines the effect of past tobacco control policies and projects the effect of future policies on smoking and snus use prevalence and associated premature mortality in Sweden. Methods: The established SimSmoke model was adapted with population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data from Sweden. SimSmoke evaluates the effect of taxes, smoke-free air, mass media, marketing bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies on smoking and snus pre...

  15. Impact of Scottish smoke-free legislation on smoking quit attempts and prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F Mackay

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In Scotland, legislation was implemented in March 2006 prohibiting smoking in all wholly or partially enclosed public spaces. We investigated the impact on attempts to quit smoking and smoking prevalence. METHODS: We performed time series models using Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving averages (ARIMA on monthly data on the gross ingredient cost of all nicotine replacement therapy (NRT prescribed in Scotland in 2003-2009, and quarterly data on self-reported smoking prevalence between January 1999 and September 2010 from the Scottish Household Survey. RESULTS: NRT prescription costs were significantly higher than expected over the three months prior to implementation of the legislation. Prescription costs peaked at £1.3 million in March 2006; £292,005.9 (95% CI £260,402.3, £323,609, p<0.001 higher than the monthly norm. Following implementation of the legislation, costs fell exponentially by around 26% per month (95% CI 17%, 35%, p<0.001. Twelve months following implementation, the costs were not significantly different to monthly norms. Smoking prevalence fell by 8.0% overall, from 31.3% in January 1999 to 23.7% in July-September 2010. In the quarter prior to implementation of the legislation, smoking prevalence fell by 1.7% (95% CI 2.4%, 1.0%, p<0.001 more than expected from the underlying trend. CONCLUSIONS: Quit attempts increased in the three months leading up to Scotland's smoke-free legislation, resulting in a fall in smoking prevalence. However, neither has been sustained suggesting the need for additional tobacco control measures and ongoing support.

  16. Impact of Scottish Smoke-Free Legislation on Smoking Quit Attempts and Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Daniel F.; Haw, Sally; Pell, Jill P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives In Scotland, legislation was implemented in March 2006 prohibiting smoking in all wholly or partially enclosed public spaces. We investigated the impact on attempts to quit smoking and smoking prevalence. Methods We performed time series models using Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving averages (ARIMA) on monthly data on the gross ingredient cost of all nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) prescribed in Scotland in 2003–2009, and quarterly data on self-reported smoking prevalence between January 1999 and September 2010 from the Scottish Household Survey. Results NRT prescription costs were significantly higher than expected over the three months prior to implementation of the legislation. Prescription costs peaked at £1.3 million in March 2006; £292,005.9 (95% CI £260,402.3, £323,609, p<0.001) higher than the monthly norm. Following implementation of the legislation, costs fell exponentially by around 26% per month (95% CI 17%, 35%, p<0.001). Twelve months following implementation, the costs were not significantly different to monthly norms. Smoking prevalence fell by 8.0% overall, from 31.3% in January 1999 to 23.7% in July–September 2010. In the quarter prior to implementation of the legislation, smoking prevalence fell by 1.7% (95% CI 2.4%, 1.0%, p<0.001) more than expected from the underlying trend. Conclusions Quit attempts increased in the three months leading up to Scotland's smoke-free legislation, resulting in a fall in smoking prevalence. However, neither has been sustained suggesting the need for additional tobacco control measures and ongoing support. PMID:22110585

  17. Smoking outside: The effect of the Irish workplace smoking ban on smoking prevalence among the employed

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In March 2004, Ireland became the first country to introduce a nationwide workplace smoking ban. The smoking ban increased the non-monetary cost of smoking by prohibiting smoking in the majority of indoor workplaces. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the extra non-monetary cost of smoking was concentrated on the employed. Using two waves of the nationally representative Slán survey, a difference-in-differences approach is used to measure changes in smoking behaviour among the employ...

  18. Prevalence of smoking among youth in a rural Nigerian community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of smoking among youth in a rural Nigerian community. K O Osungbade, F O Oshiname. Abstract. No Abstract. Tropical Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 15 (1) 2008: pp. 44-48. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. Prevalence of Smoking in the Outskirts of Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Khadem-Rezaiyan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Globally, smoking is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality. It is also an important social determinant of health and the largest contributor to health inequalities. While several prevalence studies are conducted on special groups such as physicians, less such studies have been focused on deprived areas (areas with lacking adequate food, shelter, education, etc. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of smoking in the outskirts of Mashhad, Iran. Methods:This analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 500 residents of sub-urban areas of Mashhad, Iran. Subjects were included and were interviewed using a multi-stage random sampling method.   Results:Composition of subjects, 40% (200 were male. Mean age was 35±11 years. Twenty-four percent (117 of subjects were smokers (18% women and 33% of men. Hookah was used twice as much as cigarettes (18% vs. 9%, respectively. Smoking was most prevalent between 25 and 34 years old for both genders. More than 75% of smokers had low grade education. Conclusion:Smoking is of high prevalence in suburban areas of Mashhad. Target oriented interventions are needed to effectively lower this major health risk factor.

  20. Smoking Prevalence and Attitudes Regarding its Control Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aims of this study were to document the smoking prevalence and attitudes regarding its control among these set of students who will be tomorrow's health care providers. Subjects and Methods: A cross‑sectional survey was conducted in two medical schools in South‑Western Nigeria with their accompanied ...

  1. Knowledge, attitude, prevalence and factors leading to smoking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude, prevalence and factors leading to smoking among students at the Center for Physical Education and Sports Science, University of Sindh, Jamsoro Pakistan. A total of 148 (128 males and 20 females) students of Center for Physical Education and Sports ...

  2. Cigarette prices and smoking prevalence after a tobacco tax increase--Turkey, 2008 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Andes, Linda; Erguder, Toker; Yurekli, Ayda; Keskinkılıç, Bekir; Polat, Sertaç; Culha, Gönül; Kilinç, Evin Aras; Taştı, Enver; Erşahin, Yılmaz; Ozmen, Mehmet; San, Ramazan; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi; Asma, Samira

    2014-05-30

    Raising the price of tobacco products has been shown to reduce tobacco consumption in the United States and other high-income countries, and evidence of this impact has been growing for low- and middle-income countries as well. Turkey is a middle-income country surveyed by the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) twice in a 4-year period, in 2008 and 2012. During this time, the country introduced a policy raising its Special Consumption Tax on Tobacco and implemented a comprehensive tobacco control program banning smoking in public places, banning advertising, and introducing graphic health warnings. The higher tobacco tax took effect in early 2010, allowing sufficient time for subsequent changes in prices and smoking to be observed by the time of the 2012 GATS. This report uses data from GATS Turkey to examine how cigarette prices changed after the 2010 tax increase, describe the temporally associated changes in smoking prevalence, and learn whether this smoking prevalence changed more in some demographic groups than others. From 2008 to 2012, the average price paid for cigarettes increased by 42.1%, cigarettes became less affordable, and smoking prevalence decreased by 14.6%. The largest reduction in smoking was observed among persons with lower socioeconomic status (SES), highlighting the potential role of tax policy in reducing health disparities across socioeconomic groups.

  3. The Brazil SimSmoke policy simulation model: the effect of strong tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in a middle income nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David; de Almeida, Liz Maria; Szklo, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Brazil has reduced its smoking rate by about 50% in the last 20 y. During that time period, strong tobacco control policies were implemented. This paper estimates the effect of these stricter policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality, and the effect that additional policies may have. The model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control policy model. Using policy, population, and smoking data for Brazil, the model assesses the effect on premature deaths of cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, marketing restrictions, packaging requirements, cessation treatment programs, and youth access restrictions. We estimate the effect of past policies relative to a counterfactual of policies kept to 1989 levels, and the effect of stricter future policies. Male and female smoking prevalence in Brazil have fallen by about half since 1989, which represents a 46% (lower and upper bounds: 28%-66%) relative reduction compared to the 2010 prevalence under the counterfactual scenario of policies held to 1989 levels. Almost half of that 46% reduction is explained by price increases, 14% by smoke-free air laws, 14% by marketing restrictions, 8% by health warnings, 6% by mass media campaigns, and 10% by cessation treatment programs. As a result of the past policies, a total of almost 420,000 (260,000-715,000) deaths had been averted by 2010, increasing to almost 7 million (4.5 million-10.3 million) deaths projected by 2050. Comparing future implementation of a set of stricter policies to a scenario with 2010 policies held constant, smoking prevalence by 2050 could be reduced by another 39% (29%-54%), and 1.3 million (0.9 million-2.0 million) out of 9 million future premature deaths could be averted. Brazil provides one of the outstanding public health success stories in reducing deaths due to smoking, and serves as a model for other low and middle income nations. However, a set of stricter policies could further reduce smoking and save

  4. Smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians: results from cross-sectional studies in 2002 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Põld, Mariliis; Pärna, Kersti

    2017-11-25

    To explore smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians in 2002 and 2014. Two self-administered cross-sectional postal surveys were conducted among practising physicians in Estonia. Initial sample consisted of all practising physicians in Estonia. The corrected response rate was 67.8% in 2002 and 53.1% in 2014. Present study sample was restricted to physicians younger than 65 years (n=2549 in 2002, n=2339 in 2014). Age-standardised prevalence of smoking and prevalence of agreement with seven statements concerning attitudes towards smoking was determined. To analyse association of physicians' attitudes towards smoking with study year and smoking status, logistic regression analysis was used. Adjusted ORs of agreement with the seven statements were determined. Corresponding 95% CIs were calculated. The age-standardised prevalence of current smoking among men was 26.8% in 2002 and 15.3% in 2014, among women 10.4% and 5.8%, respectively. Compared with the year 2002, in 2014, prevalence of agreement with statements declaring harmfulness of smoking was higher and prevalence of agreement with statements approving smoking was lower. Adjusted ORs showed that compared with 2002, physicians' attitudes towards smoking were less favourable in 2014, and physicians' attitudes towards smoking were associated with their smoking status. Compared with 2002, the age-standardised smoking prevalence among male and female physicians was lower, and attitudes towards smoking were less approving in 2014. The smoking physicians had more approving attitudes towards smoking than their non-smoking colleagues. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Changing the smoking habit: prevalence, knowledge and attitudes among Umbrian hospital healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianori, D; Gili, A; Masanotti, G

    2017-03-01

    Health care professionals should work against smoking habit to promote a correct life style. This study aimed to evaluate smoking prevalence and attitudes towards tobacco among Umbrian hospital professionals in a period between 2006 and 2015, since the approbation of the law that ban smoking in hospitals and all public areas in 2003. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a questionnaire administered in 2006, 2011 and 2015 to healthcare professionals. It consists of 53 multiple-choice questions. Potential predictors of current smoking habits were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The sample included 475 healthcare professionals. Current smokers constituted 34.53% of the sample and no significant difference (p = 0.257) emerged in prevalence over time (33.74% in 2006; 36.02% in 2011 and 33.77% in 2015). The risk of being a smoker increased by not considering the smoking habit as the main cause of preventable deaths (OR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.47- 3.45). The strongest risk factor, which was significant in both models (p Smoking" law (OR = 18.90; 95% CI: 2.43-147.71; adjusted OR = 22.10; 95% CI: 1.85-264.78). The hospital staff has higher prevalence of smoking than the general population. The No Smoking law alone has been shown to be inadequate. Effective results can be achieved only by a common strategy and shared intervention programmes that are based on a workplace health promotion strategy. That for the moment has demonstrated to give interesting outcomes in modifying deep-rooted behaviour patterns.

  6. Smoking among female sex workers: prevalence and associated variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Lopes Devóglio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the prevalence of smoking and associated variables in female sex workers (FSWs Methods: This was a quantitative cross-sectional study involving FSWs in the city of Botucatu, Brazil, who completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, including data regarding smoking status, motivational stage of change, and degree of nicotine dependence, as well as the Perceived Stress Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Results: We included 83 FSWs. The mean age was 26.8 years. Among the participants, 58 (69.8% had at least a high school education, only 26 (31.3% resided in the city of Botucatu, 59 (71.1% were smokers, 5 (6.0% were former smokers, 74 (89.2% regularly consumed alcohol, and 43 (51.8% used illicit drugs. The majority of the women were classified as having an intermediate stress level, and 51 (61.4% were classified as having possible or probable anxiety, whereas depression was found to be improbable in 57 (68.7%. The level of nicotine dependence was high among the smokers, the majority of whom showed no intention to quit smoking. Smoking was associated with illicit drug use (p = 0.0271 and with alcohol consumption (p = 0.0001, although not with the levels of stress, anxiety, or depression; nor was the age at smoking initiation associated with the length of time as an FSW (p = 0.4651 Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking among the FSWs evaluated here was much higher than the 8.3% reported for the overall female population of Brazil. Our findings show that FSWs are exposed to various risk factors inherent to their profession. Therefore, harm reduction is an important strategy to be adopted.

  7. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Factors Associated with the Initiation of Smoking among University Students in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Sahadat; Hossain, Shakhaoat; Ahmed, Fahad; Islam, Rabiul; Sikder, Tajuddin; Rahman, Abdur

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is considered to be the key preventable risk factor for morbidity and mortality at the global level. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and factors associated with the initiation of smoking among university students in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted with 264 students of Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh in 2015. A standard, self-administered questionnaire consisting of questions on socio-demographic variables, tobacco smoking status, family and peer tobacco smoking history, attitudes and beliefs about tobacco smoking, as well as knowledge about the negative health consequences of tobacco smoking was administered to participants. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models, chi square, and Fisher exact tests. The overall prevalence of tobacco smoking was 60.2%, where males smoked at higher rates than females (68.81% and 19.56%, respectively). The influence of friends was the most significant reason for initiating tobacco smoking (OR: 0.862; CI: 0.810-0.917). Perception regarding tobacco smoking was significantly related to continuing tobacco use. Logistic regression models identified that smoking-related attitudes, potential health problems, and family members dying from cardiovascular disease and cancer were significantly associated with tobacco smoking. The current tobacco smoking prevalence among university students in Bangladesh is over 60%. We suggest adopting WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) policies, especially for university students.

  8. Prevalence and cause of smoking in the medicine students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ansari

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young smokers have been more exposed to great stresses and mishaps in their lives,compared to non-smokers. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of tendency to cigarettesmoking and its reasons among medical students.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was carried out on the population ofmedical students in Tehran. Two hundred and eighty students were selected by classifiedrandomization from the students in term one, four and seven (students in each term was considered aseparate group. Inclusion criteria were the same for all groups. The questionnaire comprised 45questions including 29 common questions, 5 questions for smokers, 3 questions for recreationalsmokers, 7 questions for ex-smokers, and 2 questions for non-smokers. Data analysis was performedusing descriptive statistics and Chi-square test by SPSS-10 sofware.Results: There was no female smoker among the students, except 5 percent of the students in termseven who had smoked recreationally. The most important reasons for cigarette smoking were forpleasure and decreasing anxiety. However, maintaining the health was the most important reason forthe lack of tendency to smoking among male non-smokers. Female non-smokers had also the reason ofunacceptable social impact of smoking for their disinclination.Discussion: The results of current study showed that medical students are predisposed to havetendency to cigarette smoking due to psychological stresses, which are most probably related to theiracademic major.

  9. The Prevalence and Motivation of Cigarette Smoking among Kerman high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zarezadeh

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nicotine dependence has been identified as a critical health problem. This study assesses the prevalence and motivation of smoking among Iranian junior and senior students. Methods: A cross sectional study was performed using a questionnaire. In addition to data on frequency, motivation, initiation and cessation, this questionnaire included Fagerstrom items for nicotine dependency. The census method was used for sampling. Thus, the questionnaire was distributed to all high school junior and senior students of Kerman. Results: 3072 students participated in the study. Among them, 4.9% were nicotine dependent, 6.4% had used it occasionally during the last six months and 11.5% had used it at least once in their life. Out of all the cigarette users, 80.6% had experienced smoking before the age of 15 with 9.09±8.52 cigarette per day. Boys smoked significantly more than girls. More than 38% of the students had a history of smoking cessation. The most common motivations for smoking among the students have been identified as smoking of the peer group and the belief that smoking is fashionable. Conclusions: The motivation and gender difference in smoking were similar to the general population. The rate of nicotine dependency was less than other parts of the country. However, the age of smoking initiation was in a decreasing trend and similar to other parts of the country. High school stage is a very critical period for adolescents' smoking. Therefore, for the provision of more social skills trainings and behavioral therapies, providing information for decision makers is recommended.

  10. Smoking among adolescents in Muenster, Germany: increase in prevalence (1995-2000) and relation to tobacco advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziak, Wasim; Rzehak, Peter; Keil, Ulrich; Weiland, Stephan K

    2003-02-01

    Understanding patterns and trends of smoking among youths is of major importance for the assessment of the burden of smoking in the society and efforts to decrease it. The aims were to determine the prevalence and trends of smoking among adolescents in Muenster, Germany, and to assess its relation to youths' awareness of tobacco advertisement. Information on smoking habits was collected during two school-based surveys (1994/1995 and 1999/2000) of 12- to 15-year-old adolescents (3934 students in 1994/5 and 4028 students in 1999/2000) in Muenster, Germany. In addition, in 1994/1995 information about youths' awareness and appreciation of tobacco advertisement was collected. During the 5-year period, the prevalence of current smoking increased from 21.3 to 28.3%, and daily smoking increased from 10.0 to 14.2%. Among girls, daily smoking increased by 62% during this period. Almost all participants (94%) in 1994/1995 knew a tobacco brand, and appreciation of tobacco advertisement was strongly associated with the frequency of smoking. Smoking is increasing among adolescents in Germany especially among girls. These data are a cause of concern and call for efforts to reverse these trends, which should include a ban on tobacco advertisement in Germany.

  11. Chronic periodontitis and smoking. Prevalence and dose-response relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahrukh; Khalid, Taimur; Awan, Kamran H

    2016-08-01

    To determine the prevalence and dose-response relationship of chronic periodontitis among smokers in Pakistan.   This is a cross-sectional study among participants seeking dental care in Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 443 participants with a mean age of 44.3 (±6.5) participated in the study from April 2011 to December 2011. Males comprised 64.7%, and females comprised 35.2%. Participants were interviewed on social demographics and oral habits. Participants with shallow pockets (3.5-5.5 mm) and deep pockets (greater than 5.5 mm) were considered suffering from chronic periodontitis. The characteristics of participants were assessed using frequency distribution for categorical variables and mean (standard deviation) for continuous variables.  Among 443 participants, smokers were distributed as 55.1% and non-smokers as 44.9%. Smoking was found to be significantly related to young adults (p less than 0.007), male gender (p less than 0.001), and lower education level (p less than 0.01). Overall prevalence of chronic periodontitis among smokers was estimated at 81.6%. Heavy smoking was found to have significantly high prevalence (p less than 0.001) and severity (p less than 0.001) of periodontitis as compared with moderate and light smokers. The multivariate unadjusted model depicted 3.5 times higher risk of chronic periodontitis among smokers (p less than 0.001). Chronic periodontitis had a high prevalence among smokers. Heavy smoking was found to have a higher risk for having periodontitis.

  12. Sweden SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking and snus prevalence and attributable deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Aimee M; Blackman, Kenneth; Currie, Laura M; Levy, David T

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the effect of past tobacco control policies and projects the effect of future policies on smoking and snus use prevalence and associated premature mortality in Sweden. The established SimSmoke model was adapted with population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data from Sweden. SimSmoke evaluates the effect of taxes, smoke-free air, mass media, marketing bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies on smoking and snus prevalence and the number of deaths attributable to smoking and snus use by gender from 2010 to 2040. Sweden SimSmoke estimates that significant inroads to reducing smoking and snus prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tax increases, especially when combined with other policies. Smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 26% in the first few years, reaching a 37% reduction within 30 years. Without effective tobacco control policies, almost 54 500 lives will be lost in Sweden due to tobacco use by the year 2040. Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model identifies gaps in surveillance and evaluation that can help better focus tobacco control policy in Sweden. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence: 40-year trends in Sweden 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Jan

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between smoking rate and periodontal disease prevalence in Sweden. National smoking rates were found from Swedish National Statistics on smoking habits. Based on smoking rates for the years 1970-2010, periodontal disease prevalence estimates were calculated for the age bracket 40-70 years and smoking-associated relative risks between 2.0 and 20.0. The impact of smoking on the population was estimated according to the concept of population attributable fraction. The age-standardized smoking rate in Sweden declined from 44% in 1970 to 15% in 2010. In parallel with the smoking decline the calculated prevalence estimate of periodontal disease dropped from 26% to 12% assuming a 10-fold smoking-associated relative risk. Even at more moderate magnitudes of the relative risk, e.g. 2-fold or 5-fold, the prevalence decrease was quite tangible, suggesting that the current prevalence in Sweden is about 20-50% of the level 40 years ago. The population attributable fraction, estimating the portion of the disease that would have been avoided in the absence of smoking, was 80% in 1970 and 58% in 2010 at a ten-fold relative risk. Calculated estimates of periodontal disease prevalence are closely related to real changes in smoking rate. As smoking rate drops periodontal disease prevalence will drop. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Prevalence and determinants of ever smoked cigarettes among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is limited data on adolescent smoking and its determinants in ... ever smoked cigarettes was associated with having a parent or closest friend who smoked. ... to prevent teenage adolescent smoking should incorporate a comprehensive ...

  15. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Blantyre City, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, A S

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive airways disease and several cancers. There is little data about the prevalence and determinants of smoking among adolescents in southern Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Blantyre City, Malawi. Cross-sectional data were obtained from school-going adolescents in Blantyre in 2001 using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey data collection instrument. Data were analysed to determine prevalence of current and ever cigarette smoking, and predictors of smoking. The prevalence of current smoking and ever smoking were 3.0% and 15.6%, respectively. Predictors of current tobacco smoking included male gender, having friends or parents who smoked, having been exposed to advertisements about tobacco brands on television and having seen a lot of advertisements in newspapers and magazines. School programmes that included being taught about smoking in class and a class discussion on the dangers of tobacco were not associated with reduced current smoking. Intervention programmes aiming to curb tobacco smoking among adolescents should focus on dealing also with parental smoking, peer influence and pay special attention toward male gender. School-based programmes to prevent smoking should be evaluated as some may have little impact in influencing current smoking status.

  16. The role of public policies in reducing smoking prevalence: results from the Michigan SimSmoke tobacco policy simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Huang, An-Tsun; Havumaki, Joshua S; Meza, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Michigan has implemented several of the tobacco control policies recommended by the World Health Organization MPOWER goals. We consider the effect of those policies and additional policies consistent with MPOWER goals on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths (SADs). The SimSmoke tobacco control policy simulation model is used to examine the effect of past policies and a set of additional policies to meet the MPOWER goals. The model is adapted to Michigan using state population, smoking, and policy data starting in 1993. SADs are estimated using standard attribution methods. Upon validating the model, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 against a counterfactual with policies kept at their 1993 levels. The model is then used to project the effect of implementing stronger policies beginning in 2014. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2010. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 22 % by 2013 and of 30 % by 2054 can be attributed to tobacco control policies. Of the 22 % reduction, 44 % is due to taxes, 28 % to smoke-free air laws, 26 % to cessation treatment policies, and 2 % to youth access. Moreover, 234,000 SADs are projected to be averted by 2054. With additional policies consistent with MPOWER goals, the model projects that, by 2054, smoking prevalence can be further reduced by 17 % with 80,000 deaths averted relative to the absence of those policies. Michigan SimSmoke shows that tobacco control policies, including cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, and cessation treatment policies, have substantially reduced smoking and SADs. Higher taxes, strong mass media campaigns, and cessation treatment policies would further reduce smoking prevalence and SADs.

  17. Prevalence of Smoking and Its Associated Factors Among Male College Students in Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Mohaithef

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of smoking has reduced over a period of time in the developed countries. However, the consumption of tobacco is rapidly increasing in the developing nations which further raises burden of various diseases. The prevalence of consumption of tobacco among the adolescent population is vigorously growing across the world. There are several studies in Saudi Arabia that report the smoking rate and pattern among the secondary school students, but very limited data is available about the prevalence of smoking among the college students. Therefore, the objectives of the current study are to assess the prevalence of smoking among the male college students and to evaluate the relationship between the smoking habit and socio-demographic variables. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study done in selected colleges in King Khalid University, Abha during August 2016 to December 2016. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the socio-demographic information and about smoking habit among the college students. Results: The study showed 18.7% of prevalence of smoking among the male college students with a positive association between employment and smoking habit. However, no positive association between other socio-demographic variables and smoking. Conclusion: Though the prevalence rate of smoking among the male college students is less but still there is a need to create awareness among the college students and their parents for decreasing the burden of tobacco related diseases.

  18. [Smoking among psychology students over a ten-year period (1996-2006)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez Varela, María del Carmen; Becoña Iglesias, Elisardo

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the evolution of smoking among Psychology students at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) over a ten-year period (1986-2006). We also assessed the extent of knowledge of the Spanish health legislation on tobacco (Ley 28/2005) and its effect on smoking. We administered a questionnaire to representative samples of students from the 1st year of their Psychology course to the 5th year, on four occasions. In the academic year 1996-1997 (N = 835), 34% of the sample claimed to be daily smokers; in 1999-2000 (N = 842), the figure was 35.2%; in 2003-2004 (N = 835) it was 31.9%; and in 2006-2007 (N = 688), it was 22.8%. Moreover, in the last assessment, 97.1% of the sample reported being aware of the legislation (Ley 28/2005) and 41.9% of the smokers claimed that it had some degree of influence on their smoking. It can be stated that, although overall current prevalence of smoking is similar to that of 10 years ago, a significant change is observed in the profile of smokers. This change is expressed in lower levels of nicotine dependence and a decrease in the percentage of daily smokers, together with an increase in occasional smokers.

  19. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Perceived Smoking Prevalence: Evidence from a National Survey of Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosanna A. Asfaw

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies show that perceived smoking prevalence is a significant predictor of smoking initiation. In this study, we examine racial/ethnic differences in perceived smoking prevalence and racial/ethnic differences in exposure to contextual factors associated with perceived smoking prevalence. We used cross-sectional time series data from the Legacy Media Tracking Surveys (LMTS, a national sample of 35,000 12- to 17-year-olds in the United States. Perceived smoking prevalence was the primary outcome variable, measured using an LMTS question: “Out of every 10 people your age, how many do you think smoke?” Multivariable models were estimated to assess the association between perceived smoking prevalence; race/ethnicity; and exposure to social contextual factors. Findings indicate that African American, Hispanic, and American Indian youth exhibit the highest rates of perceived smoking prevalence, while white and Asian youth exhibit the lowest. Minority youth are also disproportionately exposed to social contextual factors that are correlated with high perceived smoking prevalence. These findings suggest that disproportionate exposure to social contextual factors may partially explain why minority youth exhibit such high levels of perceived smoking prevalence.

  20. Prevalence and Trends of Cigarette Smoking Among Military Personnel in Taiwan: Results of 10-Year Anti-Smoking Health Promotion Programs in Military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Nain-Feng; Lin, Fu-Huang; Wu, Yi-Chang

    2017-07-01

    decreased after 2012. Furthermore, in 2014, the prevalence of smoking decreased as the difference became smaller, 4.5% and 6.1% for freshman and senior, respectively. During this 10-year period, the smoking cessation programs include in-class education course, out-door physical training, antismoking clinic, and group therapy. After these military health promoting programs, there are some beneficial effects to decline the prevalence of cigarette smoking for military personnel in Taiwan. However, more active intervention and health promoting programs in prevention and cessation of smoking are needed for the military. The military also have to develop specific approaches and programs to prevent cigarette smoking among conscripts and officers. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  1. Prevalence of Smoking and Associated Factors: Evidence From the CHILILAB Demographic Surveillance System in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Thanh Huong, Le; Khanh Long, Tran; Xuan Son, Phung; Thi Tuyet-Hanh, Tran

    2017-07-01

    This study analyzed secondary data from Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB) database to identify smoking prevalence and associated demographic factors. Data were extracted from the database of the CHILILAB 2016, which included information on individual smoking behaviors, as well as individual and household demographic data. Descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were performed with significance level of 0.05. The smoking prevalences were 34.7%, 0.9%, and 16.1% for men, women, and both genders, respectively. A total of 78.2% of current smokers smoked daily inside their houses. Lower smoking status was associated with younger age, being student, rich, and/or single. Future efforts should not only spend on further reduction of smoking rate in Chi Linh Town but should also pay special attention on reducing the prevalence of in-home smoking. This will help to decrease the risk of nonsmokers being exposed to secondhand smoke in their home environment.

  2. Russia SimSmoke: the long-term effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikova, Galina Ya; Oganov, Rafael G; Boytsov, Sergey A; Ross, Hana; Huang, An-Tsun; Near, Aimee; Kotov, Alexey; Berezhnova, Irina; Levy, David T

    2014-11-01

    Russia has high smoking rates and weak tobacco control policies. A simulation model is used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies on past and future smoking prevalence and premature mortality in Russia. The Russia model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control model previously developed for the USA and other nations. The model inputs population size, birth, death and smoking rates specific to Russia. It assesses, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies consistent with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): taxes, smoke-free air, mass media campaign, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies. Outcomes are smoking prevalence and the number of smoking-attributable deaths by age and gender from 2009 to 2055. Increasing cigarette taxes to 70% of retail price, stronger smoke-free air laws, a high-intensity media campaign and comprehensive treatment policies are each potent policies to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable premature deaths in Russia. With the stronger set of policies, the model estimates that, relative to the status quo trend, smoking prevalence can be reduced by as much as 30% by 2020, with a 50% reduction projected by 2055. This translates into 2 684 994 male and 1 011 985 female premature deaths averted from 2015-2055. SimSmoke results highlight the relative contribution of policies to reducing the tobacco health burden in Russia. Significant inroads to reducing smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through strengthening tobacco control policies in line with FCTC recommendations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Smoking prevalence, knowledge and attitudes among primary healthcare professionals: a study from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatatbeh, M J; Alefan, Q; Alzghool, M

    2017-02-01

    This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 400 healthcare professionals recruited from primary healthcare centres in northern Jordan between April and October 2015. The questionnaire included questions about smoking behaviour, risks, opinions and providing anti-smoking counselling. More than 80% of participants reported that smoking-free policies were not enforced at primary healthcare centres. Compared to hospitals and the general population, smoking was less prevalent among primary healthcare professionals and more prevalent in men. More than 90% of participants believed that smoking was dangerous and associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Around 92% believed that they should set a good example to patients by not smoking and advise them about smoking cessation. Only 15.3% of participants felt well prepared when counselling patients about smoking and 92.8% believed that they needed training. This study suggests that primary healthcare professionals should act as anti-smoking role models after receiving professional training.

  4. Dying for a smoke: how much does differential mortality of smokers affect estimated life-course smoking prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulou, Rebekka; Han, Jeffrey; Jaber, Ahmed; Lillard, Dean R

    2011-01-01

    An extensive literature uses reconstructed historical smoking rates by birth-cohort to inform anti-smoking policies. This paper examines whether and how these rates change when one adjusts for differential mortality of smokers and non-smokers. Using retrospectively reported data from the US (Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 1986, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005), the UK (British Household Panel Survey, 1999, 2002), and Russia (Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Study, 2000), we generate life-course smoking prevalence rates by age-cohort. With cause-specific death rates from secondary sources and an improved method, we correct for differential mortality, and we test whether adjusted and unadjusted rates statistically differ. With US data (National Health Interview Survey, 1967-2004), we also compare contemporaneously measured smoking prevalence rates with the equivalent rates from retrospective data. We find that differential mortality matters only for men. For Russian men over age 70 and US and UK men over age 80 unadjusted smoking prevalence understates the true prevalence. The results using retrospective and contemporaneous data are similar. Differential mortality bias affects our understanding of smoking habits of old cohorts and, therefore, of inter-generational patterns of smoking. Unless one focuses on the young, policy recommendations based on unadjusted smoking rates may be misleading. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Prevalence and Predictors of Cigarette Smoking among Secondary School Students in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, K A; Osibogun, A; Akinsete, A O; Sadiq, L

    2009-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of smoking among secondary school students and identify factors that influence smoking amongst them. This descriptive and explorative study was conducted among 1,183 secondary school students, selected by multistage sampling from each of the 6 geopolitical zones in Nigeria. Data was collected by using interviewer administered structured questionnaires. This study recorded a lifetime smoking prevalence of 26.4% and current smoking prevalence of 17.1% among secondary school students in Nigeria. Most (82%) of the students had seen warnings against smoking and most of them were aware that it is possible for cigarette smoking to damage body organs. Unfortunately, however, seeing such warnings had no significant effect on their decision to smoke or not. The students who smoke were introduced to smoking mainly by their friends (67.4 %), and the television (13.4%). Smoking habits of the respondents were influenced by parents' educational status (psmoke (psmoked. Peer pressure was the main reason cited by respondents for initiating smoking. It is suggested that our smoking prevention programmes be reviewed and appropriate health education and smoking cessation programmes be developed and implemented in order to prevent and control smoking among Nigerian students.

  6. Changes in Smoking Prevalence, Attitudes, and Beliefs over 4 Years Following a Campus-Wide Anti-Tobacco Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, William V.; Meier, Ellen; Miller, Mary Beth; Wiener, Josh L.; Fils-Aime, Yvon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the effectiveness of an institutional intervention aimed at decreasing prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to smoke on campus over a 4-year period. Participants: Participants were undergraduate students (N = 4,947) enrolled at a large Midwestern university between 2007 and 2010. Methods: In 2008, tobacco…

  7. The Impact of Survey and Response Modes on Current Smoking Prevalence Estimates Using TUS-CPS: 1992-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Soulakova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study identified whether survey administration mode (telephone or in-person and respondent type (self or proxy result in discrepant prevalence of current smoking in the adult U.S. population, while controlling for key sociodemographic characteristics and longitudinal changes of smoking prevalence over the 11-year period from 1992-2003. We used a multiple logistic regression analysis with replicate weights to model the current smoking status logit as a function of a number of covariates. The final model included individual- and family-level sociodemographic characteristics, survey attributes, and multiple two-way interactions of survey mode and respondent type with other covariates. The respondent type is a significant predictor of current smoking prevalence and the magnitude of the difference depends on the age, sex, and education of the person whose smoking status is being reported. Furthermore, the survey mode has significant interactions with survey year, sex, and age. We conclude that using an overall unadjusted estimate of the current smoking prevalence may result in underestimating the current smoking rate when conducting proxy or telephone interviews especially for some sub-populations, such as young adults. We propose that estimates could be improved if more detailed information regarding the respondent type and survey administration mode characteristics were considered in addition to commonly used survey year and sociodemographic characteristics. This information is critical given that future surveillance is moving toward more complex designs. Thus, adjustment of estimates should be contemplated when comparing current smoking prevalence results within a given survey series with major changes in methodology over time and between different surveys using various modes and respondent types.

  8. Prevalence of and Attitudes towards Smoking among Spanish Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Ramos Pinedo, Angela; de Higes Martinez, Eva; Marquez, Francisca Lourdes; Palomo Cobos, Luis; Solano Reina, Segismundo; de Granda Orive, Jose Ignacio; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The MPOWER strategy encourages suitable monitoring of the tobacco epidemic among health professionals in all countries. To analyse the prevalence of and attitudes towards tobacco use among Spanish health professionals. A study was conducted based on an online survey. The study population consisted of health professionals (primary care physicians, specialist physicians and nurses). The questionnaire used included questions about tobacco consumption, knowledge of and attitudes towards smoking. The sample size was calculated according to a database with 9,500 e-mail addresses and listings of health centres and hospitals all over Spain. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS software programme. The study group comprised a total of 612 health professionals: 322 were women (52.6%), 196 were nurses and 416 were physicians. 11.7% of health professionals were smokers (9.6% regular smokers and 2.1% occasional smokers) and 41.3% were ex-smokers. Within the group of daily smokers, differences were observed between the nurses and the physicians: 11.2 versus 8.9% (p = 0.009). Smoking was recognized as a chronic disorder by 58.2% of health professionals, and 54.6% knew that the most effective intervention to help quit is a combination of psychological and pharmacological treatment. 56% of health professionals always asked their patients about their tobacco consumption. 11.7% of Spanish health professionals are smokers. We found that they have low knowledge about strategies to quit smoking and that there is a low level of therapeutic intervention on smokers. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiar Pedro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4 in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8 in females (p Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change.

  10. Smoking prevalence of female nurses in the national hospitals of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ohida, T.; Osaki, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.; Sekiyama, M.; Minowa, M.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To estimate the prevalence of smoking and the attitudes towards the restriction of smoking at work among female nurses in the national hospitals in Japan.
DESIGN—Questionnaires mailed to 14 randomly selected national hospitals and sanitariums in Japan in 1993.
SUBJECTS—2207 female nurses.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Smoking status and history, and attitudes towards the restriction of smoking at work.
RESULTS—The prevalence of smoking among female nurses was 18.6%, which was higher than th...

  11. Smoking prevalence trends in Indigenous Australians, 1994-2004: a typical rather than an exceptional epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas David P

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, national smoking prevalence has successfully fallen below 20%, but remains about 50% amongst Indigenous Australians. Australian Indigenous tobacco control is framed by the idea that nothing has worked and a sense of either despondency or the difficulty of the challenge. Methods This paper examines the trends in smoking prevalence of Australian Indigenous men and women aged 18 and over in three large national cross-sectional surveys in 1994, 2002 and 2004. Results From 1994 to 2004, Indigenous smoking prevalence fell by 5.5% and 3.5% in non-remote and remote men, and by 1.9% in non-remote women. In contrast, Indigenous smoking prevalence rose by 5.7% in remote women from 1994 to 2002, before falling by 0.8% between 2002 and 2004. Male and female Indigenous smoking prevalences in non-remote Australia fell in parallel with those in the total Australian population. The different Indigenous smoking prevalence trends in remote and non-remote Australia can be plausibly explained by the typical characteristics of national tobacco epidemic curves, with remote Indigenous Australia just at an earlier point in the epidemic. Conclusion Reducing Indigenous smoking need not be considered exceptionally difficult. Inequities in the distribution of smoking related-deaths and illness may be reduced by increasing the exposure and access of Indigenous Australians, and other disadvantaged groups with high smoking prevalence, to proven tobacco control strategies.

  12. The influence of societal individualism on a century of tobacco use: modelling the prevalence of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, John C; Abrams, Daniel M; De Sterck, Hans

    2015-12-22

    Smoking of tobacco is estimated to have caused approximately six million deaths worldwide in 2014. Responding effectively to this epidemic requires a thorough understanding of how smoking behaviour is transmitted and modified. We present a new mathematical model of the social dynamics that cause cigarette smoking to spread in a population, incorporating aspects of individual and social utility. Model predictions are tested against two independent data sets spanning 25 countries: a newly compiled century-long composite data set on smoking prevalence, and Hofstede's individualism/collectivism measure (IDV). The general model prediction that more individualistic societies will show faster adoption and cessation of smoking is supported by the full 25 country smoking prevalence data set. Calibration of the model to the available smoking prevalence data is possible in a subset of 7 countries. Consistency of fitted model parameters with an additional, independent, data set further supports our model: the fitted value of the country-specific model parameter that determines the relative importance of social and individual factors in the decision of whether or not to smoke, is found to be significantly correlated with Hofstede's IDV for the 25 countries in our data set. Our model in conjunction with extensive data on smoking prevalence provides evidence for the hypothesis that individualism/collectivism may have an important influence on the dynamics of smoking prevalence at the aggregate, population level. Significant implications for public health interventions are discussed.

  13. Smoking in korean-chinese middle school students: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soonbok E; Yun, Soon-Nyung; Cui, Wenying; Kim, Hyang

    2013-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is rising among Chinese adolescents, and adolescent smoking is a crucial public health issue. Despite the number of studies that have explored the prevalence and various aspects of adolescent smoking in China, we know of no data currently available on smoking behavior among Korean-Chinese adolescents. This article studies the prevalence of smoking and factors affecting smoking behavior among Korean-Chinese adolescents. Data were collected from six Korean-Chinese middle schools in the Yanbian region of Jilin, China. The differences in data from three groups (never-smokers, ever-smokers, and current smokers) were analyzed using χ2 tests and analysis of variance. Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors affecting smoking behavior. Among the 2,116 participants, 7.3% of the boys and 3.7% of the girls were ever-smokers, and 7.2% of the boys and 0.8% of the girls were current smokers. Differences among groups in terms of gender, number of friends currently smoking, parental smoking behavior, academic performance, alcohol consumption, and intention not to smoke were all significant (p smoking and ever-smoking students, currently smoking students perceived a significantly less antismoking environment (p = .000). The smoking rate was 2.24 times higher in boys than girls and was 11.57 times higher in students who had three smoking friends compared with those who had no smoking friends. The findings may help develop more effective intervention approaches to prevent adolescent smoking. Preventive programs should involve smoking parents by increasing the value they place on their children's nonsmoking behavior and equipping them to help deter adolescent smoking.

  14. Underestimation of Self-Reported Smoking Prevalence in Korean Adolescents: Evidence from Gold Standard by Combined Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Kim, Jong Yeon; Lee, Do Hoon; Jung, Hye Gyoun; Park, Soon-Woo

    2018-04-05

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of self-reported smoking prevalence in Korean adolescents by using an improved gold standard by a combined method. Using a stratified sampling method, we selected 13 schools from among 397 high schools that participated in the 2015 Korean Youth Health Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey (KYRBS). A second survey (repeated self-reporting questionnaire and urinary cotinine test) was conducted on 1058 students who completed the KYRBS. The gold standard of current smoker was defined as those either self-reporting as a smoker in the second survey or having a urinary cotinine concentration ≥50 ng/mL. The current smoking prevalence in the first survey (KYRBS) was 7.9% (boys 16.5% and girls 1.8%), which was lower than the results based on gold standard (11.3% total, boys 21.9% and girls 3.7%). The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported smoking status was 62.5% and 99.0%, respectively. In particular, the sensitivity of girls (43.5%) was lower than that of boys (67.0%). The self-reported smoking prevalence in Korean adolescents was underestimated, particularly among girls. Careful attention should be paid to interpreting adolescents' smoking prevalence, and supplementary surveys or periodic validity tests need to be considered in Asian countries.

  15. Smoking among female sex workers: prevalence and associated variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devóglio, Ligia Lopes; Corrente, José Eduardo; Borgato, Maria Helena; Godoy, Ilda de

    2017-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of smoking and associated variables in female sex workers (FSWs). This was a quantitative cross-sectional study involving FSWs in the city of Botucatu, Brazil, who completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, including data regarding smoking status, motivational stage of change, and degree of nicotine dependence, as well as the Perceived Stress Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. We included 83 FSWs. The mean age was 26.8 years. Among the participants, 58 (69.8%) had at least a high school education, only 26 (31.3%) resided in the city of Botucatu, 59 (71.1%) were smokers, 5 (6.0%) were former smokers, 74 (89.2%) regularly consumed alcohol, and 43 (51.8%) used illicit drugs. The majority of the women were classified as having an intermediate stress level, and 51 (61.4%) were classified as having possible or probable anxiety, whereas depression was found to be improbable in 57 (68.7%). The level of nicotine dependence was high among the smokers, the majority of whom showed no intention to quit smoking. Smoking was associated with illicit drug use (p = 0.0271) and with alcohol consumption (p = 0.0001), although not with the levels of stress, anxiety, or depression; nor was the age at smoking initiation associated with the length of time as an FSW (p = 0.4651). The prevalence of smoking among the FSWs evaluated here was much higher than the 8.3% reported for the overall female population of Brazil. Our findings show that FSWs are exposed to various risk factors inherent to their profession. Therefore, harm reduction is an important strategy to be adopted. Avaliar a prevalência de tabagismo e variáveis associadas em mulheres profissionais do sexo (MPS). Estudo de corte transversal quantitativo com MPS na cidade de Botucatu (SP), as quais completaram um questionário sociodemográfico, incluindo informações sobre tabagismo, estágio motivacional para cessação do tabagismo e grau de dependência da nicotina, assim como a

  16. Prevalence and concordance of smoking among mothers and fathers within the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautolo, El-Shadan; Schluter, Philip J; Taylor, Steve

    2011-09-01

    Cigarette smoking continues to contribute to the adverse mortality and morbidity rates for Pacific people in New Zealand. Using a large cohort study of Pacific families, this paper investigates the prevalence of smoking amongst Pacific mothers and fathers over three time-points, up to six years after the arrival of their child, to determine the concordance of both partners' reports of that smoking. Moreover, the patterns of smoking between partners were investigated over the three major Pacific ethnicities that reside in New Zealand (Samoan, Tongan and Cook Island Māori). Maternal self-report prevalence of smoking estimates ranged from 29.8% (1-year) to 33.6% (6-years). Paternal self-reported prevalence of smoking estimates were higher, and ranged from 37.9% (2-years) to 45.2% (6-years). The prevalence estimates for smoking in both mothers and fathers over all three measurement waves were higher than the 26.9% reported for Pacific people in the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey. No significant change in fathers' smoking prevalence over time was observed (p = 0.37); however a significant increase in mothers' smoking prevalence over time was noted (p = 0.002). Significantly, for about 25% of Pacific children both their parents were current smokers. Reducing infant exposure to tobacco smoke, by encouraging parents to quit smoking or banning smoking in the home and local environment (such as vehicles), is likely to bring about improved health outcomes for many Pacific children. Findings suggest that the interaction between parents should be considered rather than focusing on mothers' or fathers' smoking behaviour in isolation.

  17. The prevalence of mental health problems among users of NHS stop smoking services: effects of implementing a routine screening procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratschen Elena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco dependence among people with mental health problems is an issue that deserves attention both from a clinical and from a public health perspective. Research suggests that Stop Smoking Services often fail to ask clients about underlying mental health problems and thus fail to put in place the treatment adaptations and liaison procedures often required to meet the needs of clients with a mental health condition who want to stop smoking. This study assesses the recording of mental health problems in a large NHS stop smoking service in England and examines the effect of implementing a short screening procedure on recording mental health conditions. Methods Treatment records from the Stop Smoking Service covering a period of 13 months were audited. The prevalence of reported mental health problems in the six month period before the implementation of the mental health screening procedure was compared with that of the six month period following implementation. The screening procedure was only implemented in the support services directly provided by the Stop Smoking Service. Comparisons were also made with third-party sections of the service where no such screening procedure was introduced. Results The prevalence of reported mental health problems among a total of n = 4999 clients rose from less than 1% before implementation of the screening procedure to nearly 12% in the period following implementation, with the change being statistically significant. No significant rise was observed over the same period in the sections of the service where no screening procedure was implemented. Conclusions The absence of standard procedures to record mental health problems among service users in many stop smoking services is currently likely to prevent the detection of co morbidity. Implementing a simple screening procedure appears suitable to increase the routine recording of mental health problems in a stop smoking service, which is an

  18. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: a cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravara, Sofia B; Calheiros, Jose M; Aguiar, Pedro; Barata, Luis Taborda

    2011-09-23

    Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC) attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR) was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4) in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8) in females (p smoking bans, even among smokers, despite the fact that 70.3% of the smokers smoked on the premises and 76% of staff reported being frequently exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS). In addition 42.8% reported that SHS was unpleasant and 28.3% admitted complaining. MLR showed that smoking behaviour was the most important predictor of TC attitudes. Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial

  19. Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim R Fida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, behavior, and attitude toward smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with 87.4% response rate. Results: Of the studied group, 258 (37% currently smoked, and of these, 83.7% had started smoking at the age of 14 years or less. The most common reason for smoking was the influence of family, especially the presence of someone at home who smoked (65, 9% and friends who smoked (42.5%. Many of the students search for information on the risks of smoking (66.3%, and only (45.3% knew about the bad effects of passive smoking on others. Two-third of the students who smoked wanted to quit smoking (63.2%, especially if suitable help was offered, whereas (60.9% had tried to quit. While 50% of students smoked for recreation and entertainment, and (33.6% had difficulty avoiding smoking in no smoking areas. Conclusion: A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. The study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was high. This will contribute to an increase in smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken.

  20. Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, behavior, and attitude toward smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with 87.4% response rate. Of the studied group, 258 (37%) currently smoked, and of these, 83.7% had started smoking at the age of 14 years or less. The most common reason for smoking was the influence of family, especially the presence of someone at home who smoked (65, 9%) and friends who smoked (42.5%). Many of the students search for information on the risks of smoking (66.3%), and only (45.3%) knew about the bad effects of passive smoking on others. Two-third of the students who smoked wanted to quit smoking (63.2%), especially if suitable help was offered, whereas (60.9%) had tried to quit. While 50% of students smoked for recreation and entertainment, and (33.6%) had difficulty avoiding smoking in no smoking areas. A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. The study revealed that the prevalence of smoking was high. This will contribute to an increase in smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken.

  1. STUDY OF SMOKING PREVALENCE AND RELATIVE FACTORS ON RESIDENT MEN IN ISFAHAN 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bashardoost

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Smoking is one of the sanitary problems in world today. Increasing smoking of cigarette and other tobacco products has concerned health managers and community responsible. In recent decades, smoking has increased specially in developing countries and the smokers are adding every year. The objective of this study is determination of smoking prevalence and its distribution by a few of cases characteristics. Method: This is cross-sectional study that has done on men with at least 15 years old in Isfahan. Data was collected by a questionnaire at homes on summer, 2002.The samples were 1600 and the variables included: age, marriage status, level of education, job, smoking status(king and quanta,age of beginning to smoke and precedence of smoking. Results: Results showed that 21.5% individuals were smoking cigarette 10.4%hooka and 1.5 pipe. The age of beginning to smoke cigarette was <20 years in 67.6% of cases. Smoking was more prevalent in adults. Workers with 32.7% were smoking more and students with 5% and scholars with 6.7% were smoking less than others. Smoking was relative to level of education and marriage men smoked 2.5 times more than singles Discussion: The results showed that in comparison with other areas in Iran, Isfahan men are smoking further especially for hooka and pipe. Also it has become a new problem that the younger smoke hooka and pipe more than past, because the people thinks that those are less harmful that cigarette. Keyword: Prevalence, Cigarette, Hooka, Pipe and Isfahan

  2. Global evidence on the effect of point-of-sale display bans on smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanyun; Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2018-01-13

    Since Iceland became the first country to impose a ban on point-of-sale (POS) tobacco product displays in 2001, 20 countries have implemented POS display bans as of 2016. This study examined the effect that POS display bans have on smoking prevalence. Data were sourced from Euromonitor International and the WHO MPOWER package for 2007-2014 from 77 countries worldwide. generalised linear models with country and year fixed effects were estimated to analyse the effect of POS display bans on smoking prevalence. Having a POS display ban reduced overall adult daily smoking, male smoking and female smoking by about 7%, 6% and 9%, respectively. Having a POS display ban is likely to reduce smoking prevalence and generate public health benefits. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Prevalence and factors related to smoking among secondary school students in Kota Tinggi District, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K H; Amal, N M; Hanjeet, K; Mashod, M Y; Wan Rozita, W M; Sumarni, M G; Hadzrik, N O

    2006-06-01

    Smoking among adolescent is a public health concern in Malaysia. Multiple studies on smoking prevalence and its related factors have been conducted in Malaysia, however, they were specific to either urban or rural areas alone. Studies in mixed settlement areas (urban, rural, land development area) had not been intensively investigated. This study reports the prevalence, demographic and factors related to smoking amongst form four students in the district of Kota Tinggi, Johor. A cross-sectional study of 16-year old secondary school students in Kota Tinggi district was conducted using two-stage stratified, proportionate sampling in July 2005. The study instrument used was a validated structured questionnaire on smoking and its related factors. Smoking prevalence was found to be 29.7%. More than 50% of male students were smokers. Prevalence was highest in FELDA (Federal Land Development Authority) settlement areas. Smoking was associated with having a brother or friend who smokes and poor academic performance. The study revealed that smoking prevalence was high, especially among male students in land development schemes. This situation will contribute to high smoking-related health problems in the future if proper preventive measures are not taken accordingly.

  4. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors to Quit among Tabriz Dormitory University Medical Students, Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsipour M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cigarette smoking as a major public health problem contributes extra health costs, and smoking cessation among youths is a priority for any prevention program. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of smoking and examined factors associated with having attempts to quit smoking and the motivations to quit among medical university students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a random sampling was carried out among 523 (293 male, and 246 female, aged 22.48±3.33years students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected by using a self-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed by t-test, chi-square test and Fisher exact tests.Results: The overal prevalence of smoking was 8.9%. (male 18% and 1.4% female. There were significant relationships between smoking status with male gender and alcohol consumption (p<0.001. The reasons for smoking initiation were: satisfying their curiosity, new experience (37.76%, pleasure and entertainment (17.48%, mental, emotional problems and sedation (16.08%, smoker friends (15.38%, inexperience and ignorance (4.89%. 54.16% of the current smokers had a history of smoking cessation.Conclusion: Regarding the higher prevalence of cigarette smoking in students, especialy in male and attempting to quit smoking in majority of them, preventive interventions in younger age and providing cigarette smoking cessation services for students seem necessary.

  5. Smoking Prevalence and Attitudes Regarding its Control Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of health professionals to provide patient counseling, some of which are; time .... is usually obtained from friends and family members and smoking can be viewed as rite .... The health consequences of smoking: Nicotine addiction: A report of the ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cigarette smoking ...

  6. Enhancing national data to align with policy objectives: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence at finer geographic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alyson; Lovett, Ray; Roe, Yvette; Richardson, Alice

    2017-06-05

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the utility of national Aboriginal survey data in a regional geospatial analysis of daily smoking prevalence for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and discuss the appropriateness of this analysis for policy and program impact assessment. Methods Data from the last two Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) national surveys of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey 2014-15 (n=7022 adults) and the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2012-13 (n=10896 adults), were used to map the prevalence of smoking by Indigenous regions. Results Daily smoking prevalence in 2014-15 at Indigenous regions ranges from 27.1% (95%CI 18.9-35.3) in the Toowoomba region in Queensland to 68.0% (95%CI 58.1-77.9) in the Katherine region in the Northern Territory. The confidence intervals are wide and there is no significant difference in daily smoking prevalence between the two time periods for any region. Conclusion There are significant limitations with analysing national survey data at finer geographical scales. Given the national program for Indigenous tobacco control is a regional model, evaluation requires finer geographical analysis of smoking prevalence to inform public health progress, policy and program effects. Options to improve the data currently collected include increasing national survey sample sizes, implementing a smoking status question in census surveys, investing in current cohort studies focused on this population or implementing localised surveys. What is known about the topic? The last geospatial analysis of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence was undertaken in 1997. Current national survey data have not been analysed geospatially. What does this paper add? This paper provides new insights into the use of national survey data for understanding regional patterns and prevalence levels of smoking

  7. Smoking behaviour and sensations during the pre-quit period of an exercise-aided smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Stefanie; Prapavessis, Harry

    2018-06-01

    Previous research has shown reductions in cigarette consumption during the pre-quit period of exercise-aided smoking cessation interventions. Smoking topography and sensation patterns during this period is unknown and may provide valuable insight into compensation and cessation readiness. Female smokers (N = 236, M age = 43, M cigarettes/day = 17.0) enrolled in an exercise-aided smoking cessation intervention self-reported daily cigarette use and cigarette sensory experiences. Breath carbon monoxide and smoking topography data were collected during the period leading up to the targeted quit date (i.e., baseline, week 1, and week 3), which was set for week 4. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that cigarette consumption (p smoking satisfaction (p exercise during the pre-quit period served as a conduit for facilitating behavioral and sensory harm reduction with cigarettes. Furthermore, the pattern of change observed between cigarette consumption and smoking topography does not support compensation. These findings imply that female smokers who exercise prior to a quit attempt are in a favourable state to achieve cessation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Smoking prevalence in hospital workers: meta-analysis in 45 Catalan hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Cristina; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Antón, Laura; Riccobene, Anna; Fu, Marcela; Quirós, Nuria; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of smoking in workers from hospitals within the Catalan Network for Smoke-free hospitals from 2009 to 2012 according to workers' sociodemographic characteristics and the type of hospital. A meta-analysis was performed of prevalence surveys from representative samples of workers from 45 hospitals. The combined prevalence for all hospitals was calculated using a regression model with a random effects model weighted by sample size. The overall prevalence of smoking was 28.1% (95%CI: 26.1 to 30.0%) with a maximum and minimum of 40.3% and 19.1%, respectively. The health professionals with the lowest prevalence of smoking were physicians (16.4%; 95%CI: 12.9 to 19.9) and nurses (25.4%; 95%CI 21.6 to 29.2). The prevalence of smoking in hospital health workers was lower than in the general population of working age. Physicians were the group with the lowest smoking prevalence. Smoking cessation should be promoted among other professional groups. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Adult Current Smoking: Differences in Definitions and Prevalence Estimates—NHIS and NSDUH, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Heather; Trosclair, Angela; Gfroerer, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Methods. 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen) were used. Results. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Conclusions. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions. PMID:22649464

  10. Adult current smoking: differences in definitions and prevalence estimates--NHIS and NSDUH, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Heather; Trosclair, Angela; Gfroerer, Joe

    2012-01-01

    To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen) were used. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions.

  11. Adult Current Smoking: Differences in Definitions and Prevalence Estimates—NHIS and NSDUH, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH. Methods. 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen were used. Results. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Conclusions. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions.

  12. Smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians: results from cross-sectional studies in 2002 and 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Põld, Mariliis; Pärna, Kersti

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore smoking prevalence and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians in 2002 and 2014. Design Two self-administered cross-sectional postal surveys were conducted among practising physicians in Estonia. Participants Initial sample consisted of all practising physicians in Estonia. The corrected response rate was 67.8% in 2002 and 53.1% in 2014. Present study sample was restricted to physicians younger than 65 years (n=2549 in 2002, n=2339 in 2014). Methods Age-stand...

  13. Smoking in hotels: prevalence, and opinions about restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmonds, A; Bailey, K; Bentley, S; Chase, V; Fernando, S; Guruge, A; King, M; Tan, O M; Walsh, R

    1995-02-01

    Exposure to high levels of environmental tobacco smoke can occur in hotels. Controversy exists about smoking regulation on licensed premises. This survey of 138 people attending one of three Newcastle hotels during 1993 found that 57 per cent of respondents were nonsmokers. Fifty-eight per cent (95 per cent confidence interval (CI) 50 to 66 per cent) of respondents in these hotels believed their health was being adversely affected by other people's smoke in the hotel. Seventy per cent (CI 62 to 78 per cent), including half the smokers, were in favour of restriction of smoking in the hotels. Most preferred the establishment of smoke-free areas to the introduction of total smoking bans in hotels. The failure of hotels to regulate smoking suggests that a legislative approach is required. The case for legislation would be strengthened by a larger study elsewhere in Australia.

  14. Disparities in current cigarette smoking prevalence by type of disability, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney-Long, Elizabeth; Stevens, Alissa; Caraballo, Ralph; Ramon, Ismaila; Armour, Brian S

    2014-05-01

    Smoking, the leading cause of disease and death in the United States, has been linked to a number of health conditions including cancer and cardiovascular disease. While people with a disability have been shown to be more likely to report smoking, little is known about the prevalence of smoking by type of disability, particularly for adults younger than 50 years of age. We used data from the 2009-2011 National Health Interview Survey to estimate the prevalence of smoking by type of disability and to examine the association of functional disability type and smoking among adults aged 18-49 years. Adults with a disability were more likely than adults without a disability to be current smokers (38.8% vs. 20.7%, p<0.001). Among adults with disabilities, the prevalence of smoking ranged from 32.4% (self-care difficulty) to 43.8% (cognitive limitation). When controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, having a disability was associated with statistically significantly higher odds of current smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.40, 1.77). The prevalence of current smoking for adults was higher for every functional disability type than for adults without a disability. By understanding the association between smoking and disability type among adults younger than 50 years of age, resources for cessation services can be better targeted during the ages when increased time for health improvement can occur.

  15. A dynamic modelling framework towards the solution of reduction in smoking prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Tisya Farida Abdul; Sapiri, Hasimah; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a hypothetical framework towards the solution for reduction in smoking prevalence in Malaysia. The framework is design to assist in decision making process related to reduction in smoking prevalence using SD and OCT. In general, this framework is developed using SD approach where OCT is embedded in the policy evaluation process. Smoking prevalence is one of the determinant which plays an important role in measuring a successful implementation of anti-smoking strategies. Therefore, it is critical to determine the optimal value of smoking prevalence in order to trim down the hazardous effects of smoking to society. Conversely, smoking problem becomes increasingly complex since many issues that ranged from behavioral to economical need to be considered simultaneously. Thus, a hypothetical framework of the control model embedded in the SD methodology is expected to obtain the minimum value of smoking prevalence which the output in turn will provide a guideline for tobacco researchers as well as decision makers for policy design and evaluation.

  16. Declines and Plateaux in Smoking Prevalence Over Three Decades in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Christine; Tukana, Isimeli; Lin, Sophia; Taylor, Richard; Morrell, Stephen; Vatucawaqa, Penina; Magliano, Dianna J; Zimmet, Paul

    2017-11-01

    To examine trends from 1980 to 2011 in daily tobacco smoking by sex, ethnicity, age, and urban/rural in Fiji Melanesian (i-Taukei) and Indian adults aged 25-64 years. Unit record data from five population-based surveys (n = 14 528) allowed classification of participants as: (1) never-smoker, ex-smoker, or non-daily smoker; or (2) daily smoker, reporting smoking Fiji in both sexes and ethnicities during the past 30 years, which is consistent with declines in tobacco apparent consumption and household expenditure. However, prevalence remains high in men at around 27% in 2011, with plateau at this level in i-Taukei. This is the first study to show nationally representative population trends in tobacco smoking in a developing country over such a long period (>30 years) based on empirical unit record data (n = 14 528). Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of mortality throughout the Pacific Island region. This is the first study to show evidence of substantial declines over several decades in a cardiovascular disease risk factor in a Pacific Island country, and provides important evidence for further research into the interventions and events which may have facilitated this decline. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

  17. Prevalence of smoking among secondary school male students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-10-25

    This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sample that randomly selected four schools from 85 public secondary schools for males. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, and behavior and attitudes towards smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with an 87.4% response rate. The age range of this student sample was 16-22 years. Two hundred fifty-eight (37%) of the study group were current smokers. The most common reasons given for smoking were personal choice (50.8%) and the peer pressure from smoker friends (32.8%). Many students researched the smoking hazards (68.1%), but only 47.6% knew about the bad effects of passive smoking. Two thirds of the smoking students wanted to quit smoking (63.2%), especially if suitable help was available, and 75.1% tried to quit. A third of the smoking students (36.8%) found it difficult to stop smoking in no-smoking areas. A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. Our study revealed that smoking prevalence was high, which will lead to future high smoking-related health problems if proper preventive measures are not taken accordingly.

  18. Understanding increases in smoking prevalence: case study from France in comparison with England 2000-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Guignard, Romain; Beck, François; Marteau, Rosie; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-03-01

    In France, following a long-term decline in smoking prevalence, an increase in smoking was observed between 2005 and 2010, an unusual occurrence in countries in the 'mature' stage of the smoking epidemic. By contrast, smoking prevalence in England, the neighbouring country, continued its long-term decline. We identified and translated recent reports on smoking and tobacco control in France and using these assessed the main data sources on smoking and compared them with similar sources in England, in order to explore possible explanations. In France, national smoking prevalence data are collected 5-yearly, minimizing opportunities for fine-grained analysis; the comparable study in England is implemented annually. We identified several probable causes of the recent increased prevalence of smoking in France, the primary one being the absence of sufficient price rises between 2005 and 2010, due probably to the lack of a robust tobacco control strategy, which also appeared to have empowered tobacco industry influence. Funding to compensate tobacconists appears to incentivize tobacco sales and is significantly higher than tobacco control funding. Mindful of the limitations of a case-study approach, the absence of sufficient price rises in the context of a weak tobacco control strategy seems the most likely explanation for the recent increase in smoking prevalence in France. A new cancer control plan and a national smoking reduction programme have been proposed by the French government in 2014 which, depending on implementation, may reverse the trend. In both countries, the higher levels of smoking among the more disadvantaged groups are of great concern and require greater political leadership for effective action. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Prevalence of smoking among secondary school male students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sample that randomly selected four schools from 85 public secondary schools for males. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on personal back...

  20. Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Lampert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Every year on May 31 is World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). The current issue of GBE kompakt deals with the prevalence and development of tobacco use in Germany. Data of the telephone survey "German Health Update" 2009 (GEDA) show a decrease in smoking for the last years but only for the younger age groups.

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Adolescents Smoking: Difference Between Korean and Korean-Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SoonBok E. Park, RN, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: These results highlight the differences of smoking prevalence and risk factors between Korean-Chinese students and Korean students. The findings may help health educators and researchers to better understand adolescent smoking and risk factors cross culturally and aid in the development of more effective education programs, which could lead to preventing tobacco use among these populations.

  2. Prevalence of smoke-free car and home rules in Maine before and after passage of a smoke-free vehicle law, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Madden, Patrick; Maines, Dorean; Coles, Carol

    2014-01-16

    This is the first study to examine the prevalence of self-reported smoke-free rules for private cars and homes before and after the passage of a smoke-free vehicle law. Data were examined for 13,461 Maine adults aged 18 or older who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a state-based telephone survey covering health topics. Self-reported smoke-free car and home rules, smoking behavior, and demographic variables of age, sex, education, income, and children in household were analyzed for prevalence before and after the state's smoke-free vehicle law was passed. Prevalence of smoke-free car and home rules was significantly higher after Maine's smoke-free vehicle law was passed in the state (P = .004 for car rules and P = .009 for home rules). Variations in smoking rules differed by smoking and demographic variables. People with household incomes of less than $20,000 saw an increase of 14.3% in smoke-free car rules; overall, those with annual incomes of less than $20,000 and those with less than a high school education reported a lower prevalence of smoke-free car rules both before and after the law was passed than did people with higher incomes and higher education levels. The prevalence of smoke-free home rules after the law was implemented was higher among those with 4 or more years of college education than among those with lower levels of education (P = .02). The prevalence of smoke-free car and home rules among Maine adults was significantly higher after the passage of a statewide smoke-free vehicle law. This apparent change in smoke-free rule prevalence may be indicative of changing social norms related to the unacceptability of secondhand smoke exposure.

  3. Perceptions of smoking prevalence by youth in countries with and without a tobacco advertising ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Dee; Graham, John W; Johnson, C Anderson; Uutela, Antti; Vartiainen, Erkki; Palmer, Raymond F

    2010-09-01

    This study examined a proposed mechanism by which exposure to cigarette advertising may mediate the subsequent smoking of youth. We hypothesized that children's exposure to cigarette advertising leads them to overestimate the prevalence of smoking, and that these distorted perceptions, in turn, lead to increased intentions to smoke. Children in Finland, where there has been a total tobacco advertising ban since 1978, were compared with children in the United States at a time when tobacco advertising was ubiquitous. Samples of 477 8- to 14-year-old Helsinki students and 453 8- to 14-year-old Los Angeles students whose lifetime cigarette use consisted of no more than a puff of a cigarette were administered questionnaires in their classrooms. The primary hypothesis was confirmed. Los Angeles youth were significantly more likely than Helsinki youth to overestimate the prevalence of adult smoking, in spite of the fact that actual adult smoking prevalence in Helsinki was almost twice that of Los Angeles adults. A similar, significant pattern for perceived peer smoking was obtained, with Los Angeles youth being more likely than Helsinki youth to overestimate prevalence, in spite of the actual greater prevalence of youth smoking in Helsinki.

  4. The prevalence of and factors associated with tobacco smoking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... University of Lagos College of Medicine; Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Department of Medicine. 2. Jos University ..... Lung cancer (%). 68.9. 76.0 ... that smoke cigarettes (p<0.0010, and smoke cannabis. (p=0.02) as ...

  5. Smoking prevalence and associated attitudes among high school students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbasi, Zehra; Kaya, Didem; Cetindag, Arzuhan; Capik, Emine; Aydogan, Semra

    2011-01-01

    This is a descriptive study to determine the smoking prevalence and attitudes with smoking among high school students in Sivas, Turkey. This study was carried out in 6 high schools located in Sivas, Turkey. The sample was constituted by 1050 students. The data of the study was obtained by a questionnaire which is developed by researchers. The x2 test was used in the statistical analyses. In this study, the rate of students who did not smoke or stopped smoking was found to be 79.6%, while the rate of occasionaly or daily smokers was 20.4%. Students with male gender, those whose fathers and mothers had a low educational level, and a smoking mother, father or sibling, had a higher frequency of smoking (pattitudes to cigarette in general and rates of agreed to some attitude expressions were found to be higher in non-smoking students. The results demonstrated that the smoking prevalence among high school students was high and students with a smoking family member in particular, those with parents having low educational levels and of male gender should be regarded as a risk group for smoking.

  6. Smoking Prevalence and Related Factors Among Secondary and High School Students in Tokat Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Emekdar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Smoking Prevalence and Related Factors Among Secondary and High School Students in Tokat Province Objective: The tobacco epidemic is one of the biggest public health threats in the world. The majority of smokers in the adolescent group has started smoking at early ages. Smoking prevalence among adolescents are reported to be approximately 10%. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of smoking and related factors among secondary and high school students in Tokat province. Method: Population of this cross-sectional study consists of secondary and high school students in Tokat. Sample size was calculated as 1072 by using proportional stratified cluster sampling method according to type of school, gender and age. The study has been completed with 1069 students (secondary school: 557, high school: 512. Sociodemographic characteristics and the smoking habits of students were determined through questionaries. The students who smoking at least one cigarette in a day were accepted as smokers. Results: 50.9% of secondary school students were male, mean age was 12.1±1.3, 74.5% lived in city, prevalence of smoking was 10.8% (male:17.3%, female:4% and it was higher for students with <70 (16.3% average school grades than those with ≥70 (6.8% (p<0.05. 52.3% of high school students were female, mean age was 16.2±1.3, 80.7% lived in city, prevalence of smoking was 18% (male:29.9%, female:7.1% and it was higher for students which have secondary or above maternal education level (23.8% than those students which have lower maternal education level (15.7%; higher in those whom parents live seperate or have died (42.3% than those whom parents live together (16.7%; higher in those that have average school grades <70 (23.8% than those with ≥70 (11.3% (p<0.05. Place of residence, income level and profession of parents were not significant effect on smoking prevalence. The most common cause of start smoking was curiosity (42.4%. Conclusions: Nearly one in

  7. Tobacco Point-of-Purchase marketing in school neighbourhoods and school smoking prevalence: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Chris Y; Hsu, Helen C H; Sabiston, Catherine M; Hadd, Valerie; Nykiforuk, Candace I J

    2007-01-01

    Point of Purchase (PoP) promotional and advertising activities are a sophisticated tobacco marketing strategy. This study describes tobacco PoP activities in school neighbourhoods and compares PoP activities in retail stores between schools with high and low smoking prevalence. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 randomly selected schools across five provinces. Students in grades 10-11 completed a questionnaire on smoking. Observations were made in all retail stores located within a one-kilometre radius around the school. ANOVA tests were used to detect differences on PoP variables between high (> 20.6%) and low ( 2 days in the last 30 days. Approximately half of retail stores in each school neighbourhood exhibited tobacco PoP activities. Average school smoking prevalence was 20.99%. There were significant main effects on PoP variables between schools with high and low smoking prevalence, Wilk's lambda = 0.81, F (6,74) = 2.89, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.19. Stores near schools with high smoking prevalence had significantly lower prices per cigarette (F (1,79) = 15.34, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.16), more in-store promotions (F (1,79) = 6.73, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.08), and fewer government-sponsored health warnings (F (1,79) = 6.26, p < 0.01, eta2 = 0.07) compared to schools with low smoking prevalence. Higher levels of PoP activities in stores located in the school neighbourhood are related to school smoking prevalence. Schools with low smoking prevalence had more stores that posted government health warning signs and higher cigarette prices. Legislation regulating PoP activities and health warnings in school neighbourhoods should be considered.

  8. Period Prevalence of Dizziness and Vertigo in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhagen, Thyra; Albers, Lucia; Heinen, Florian; Straube, Andreas; Filippopulos, Filipp; Landgraf, Mirjam N; Gerstl, Lucia; Jahn, Klaus; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    To assess the period prevalence and severity of dizziness and vertigo in adolescents. In 1661 students in 8th-10th grade in twelve grammar schools in Munich, Germany information on vertigo/dizziness was assessed by a questionnaire in the class room setting. Three month prevalence of dizziness/vertigo was estimated; symptoms were categorized as orthostatic dizziness, spinning vertigo, swaying vertigo or unspecified dizziness. Duration of symptoms and impact on daily life activities were assessed. 72.0% (95%-CI = [69.8-74.2]; N = 1196) of the students (mean age 14.5±1.1) reported to suffer from at least one episode of dizziness or vertigo in the last three months. Most adolescents ticked to have symptoms of orthostatic dizziness (52.0%, 95%-CI = [49.5-54.4], N = 863). The period prevalence for the other types of vertigo were spinning vertigo: 11.6%, 95%-CI = [10.1-13.3], N = 193; swaying vertigo: 12.2%, 95%-CI = [10.6-13.8], N = 202; and unspecified dizziness: 15.2%, 95%-CI = [13.5-17.1], N = 253. About 50% of students with spinning vertigo and swaying vertigo also report to have orthostatic dizziness. Most vertigo/dizziness types were confined to less than one minute on average. The proportion of students with any dizziness/vertigo accounting for failure attending school, leisure activities or obliging them to stay in bed were more pronounced for spinning or swaying vertigo. Dizziness and vertigo in grammar school students appear to be as common as in adults. In face of the high period prevalence and clinical relevance of dizziness/vertigo in adolescents there is a need for prevention strategies. Risk factors for dizziness/vertigo need to be assessed to allow for conception of an intervention programme.

  9. Disparities in Current Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Type of Disability, 2009–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alissa; Caraballo, Ralph; Ramon, Ismaila; Armour, Brian S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Smoking, the leading cause of disease and death in the United States, has been linked to a number of health conditions including cancer and cardiovascular disease. While people with a disability have been shown to be more likely to report smoking, little is known about the prevalence of smoking by type of disability, particularly for adults younger than 50 years of age. Methods We used data from the 2009–2011 National Health Interview Survey to estimate the prevalence of smoking by type of disability and to examine the association of functional disability type and smoking among adults aged 18–49 years. Results Adults with a disability were more likely than adults without a disability to be current smokers (38.8% vs. 20.7%, pdisability was associated with statistically significantly higher odds of current smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.40, 1.77). Conclusions The prevalence of current smoking for adults was higher for every functional disability type than for adults without a disability. By understanding the association between smoking and disability type among adults younger than 50 years of age, resources for cessation services can be better targeted during the ages when increased time for health improvement can occur. PMID:24791023

  10. Smoking prevalence among doctors and nurses-2013 New Zealand census data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Tu, Danny; Stanley, James; Martin, Greg; Gifford, Heather; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2018-03-09

    To examine recent smoking trends among doctors and nurses in New Zealand. Analysis of smoking prevalence in the 2013 New Zealand Census and comparison with previous census data. The 2013 census included 7,065 male and 5,619 female doctors, and 2,988 male and 36,138 female nurses. Non-response to smoking questions was less than 3%. In 2013, 2% of male and female doctors and 9% of male and 8% of female nurses were regular cigarette smokers. This compared with 4% male and 3% female doctors, and 20% male and 13% female nurses in 2006. Psychiatric nurses had the highest smoking prevalence (15% male, 18% female). More Māori doctors (6.8%) and nurses (19.3%) smoked. Around 96% of young (New Zealand doctors had achieved the Smokefree 2025 goal of minimal (workplace smoking cessation support may be an efficient means to reduce smoking among key occupational groups, and may help reduce population smoking prevalence.

  11. Smoking prevalence and seizure control in Chinese males with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Sander, Josemir W; Du, Xudong; Chen, Jiani; Zhu, Cairong; Zhou, Dong

    2017-08-01

    Smoking has a negative effect on most diseases, yet it is under-investigated in people with epilepsy; thus its role is not clear in the general population with epilepsy. We performed a retrospective pilot study on males with epilepsy to determine the smoking rate and its relationship with seizure control using univariate analysis to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and also used a multi-variate logistic regression model. The smoking rate in our sample of 278 individuals was 25.5%, which is lower than the general Chinese population smoking rate among males of 52.1%. We used two classifications: the first classified epilepsy as generalized, or by presumed topographic origin (temporal, frontal, parietal and occipital). The second classified the dominant seizure type of an individual as generalized tonic clonic seizure (GTCS), myoclonic seizure (MS), complex partial seizure (CPS), simple partial seizure (SPS), and secondary GTCS (sGTCS). The univariable analysis of satisfactory seizure control profile and smoking rate in both classifications showed a trend towards a beneficial effect of smoking although most were not statistically significant. Considering medication is an important confounding factor that would largely influence seizure control, we also conducted multi-variable analysis for both classifications with drug numbers and dosage. The result of our model also suggested that smoking is a protective factor. Our findings seem to suggest that smoking could have a potential role in seizure control although confounders need exploration particularly in view of the potential long term health effects. Replication in a much larger sample is needed as well as case control studies to elucidate this issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Secondhand smoke exposure of children at home and prevalence of parental smoking following implementation of the new tobacco control law in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z L; Deng, H Y; Wu, C P; Lam, W L; Kuok, W S; Liang, W J; Wang, H L

    2017-03-01

    To investigate secondhand smoke exposure (SHS) of children at home and the prevalence of parental smoking after implementation of the new tobacco control law in Macao. This study explored whether the smoking ban in public places in Macao has decreased the prevalence of smoking or led to increased SHS exposure of children at home. As smokers cannot smoke in public places any more, they may smoke at home more frequently; a displacement effect of smoke-free legislation. Cross-sectional survey. This study surveyed 337 fathers and 538 mothers. Questions from a subset of key questions from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2nd edition) were applied to assess the SHS exposure of children and the prevalence of parental smoking since the smoking ban. A classification tree analysis was used to analyse the factors increasing SHS exposure of children. The prevalence of SHS exposure in children at home was 41.3%. The prevalence rates of paternal and maternal smoking were 43.7% and 3.8%, respectively. Compared with data reported by the Health Bureau of Macao SAR in 2011, the prevalence of parental smoking and the prevalence of SHS exposure of children at home have not decreased since the smoking ban. Analysis of the factors increasing the prevalence of SHS exposure of children indicated that fathers with an education level below high school were more likely to contribute to this increase, compared with fathers with a high school education or more (48.2% vs 32.4%, respectively). In addition, fathers represented the majority of smokers at home, accounting for 92.0% of 415 smoking parents. The prevalence of paternal smoking (82.0%) in the group of children with SHS exposure was much higher than that in the unexposed group (16.7%, Chi-squared test = 367.199, P = 0.000). The SHS exposure of children increased consistently with the decrease in paternal education level. This was consistent with the increasing prevalence of paternal smoking as paternal education level decreased. SHS

  13. Smoking prevalence, determinants, knowledge, attitudes and habits among Buddhist monks in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanphanom, Sychareun; Phengsavanh, Alongkon; Hansana, Visanou; Menorath, Sing; Tomson, Tanja

    2009-06-08

    This cross-sectional study, the first of its kind, uses baseline data on smoking prevalence among Buddhist monks in Northern and Central provinces of Lao PDR. Between March and September 2006, 390 monks were interviewed, using questionnaires, to assess smoking prevalence including determinants, knowledge and attitudes. Data entry was performed with Epi-Info (version 6.04) and data analysis with SPSS version 11. Descriptive analysis was employed for all independent and dependent variables. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used for categorical variables to compare smoking status, knowledge, attitudes and province. Logistic regression was applied to identify determinants of smoking. Daily current smoking was 11.8%. Controlling for confounding variables, age at start of monkhood and the length of religious education were significant determinants of smoking. The majority of the monks 67.9% were in favor of the idea that offerings of cigarettes should be prohibited and that they should refuse the cigarettes offered to them (30.3%) but, in fact, 34.8% of the monks who were current smokers accepted cigarettes from the public. Some monks were smokers, whilst they, in fact, should be used as non-smoking role models. There was no anti-smoking policy in temples. This needs to be addressed when setting up smoke-free policies at temples.

  14. Smoking prevalence, determinants, knowledge, attitudes and habits among Buddhist monks in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menorath Sing

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional study, the first of its kind, uses baseline data on smoking prevalence among Buddhist monks in Northern and Central provinces of Lao PDR. Findings Between March and September 2006, 390 monks were interviewed, using questionnaires, to assess smoking prevalence including determinants, knowledge and attitudes. Data entry was performed with Epi-Info (version 6.04 and data analysis with SPSS version 11. Descriptive analysis was employed for all independent and dependent variables. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used for categorical variables to compare smoking status, knowledge, attitudes and province. Logistic regression was applied to identify determinants of smoking. Daily current smoking was 11.8%. Controlling for confounding variables, age at start of monkhood and the length of religious education were significant determinants of smoking. The majority of the monks 67.9% were in favor of the idea that offerings of cigarettes should be prohibited and that they should refuse the cigarettes offered to them (30.3% but, in fact, 34.8% of the monks who were current smokers accepted cigarettes from the public. Conclusion Some monks were smokers, whilst they, in fact, should be used as non-smoking role models. There was no anti-smoking policy in temples. This needs to be addressed when setting up smoke-free policies at temples.

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Current and Former Smoking among Urban Transit Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol B. Cunradi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Transit workers constitute a blue-collar occupational group that have elevated smoking rates relative to other sectors of employed adults in the United States. This study analyzed cross-sectional tobacco survey data from 935 workers (60% African American; 37% female employed at an urban public transit agency in California. Prevalence of current and former smoking was 20.3% and 20.6%, respectively. Younger workers were less likely than older workers to be current or former smokers. Having a complete home smoking ban was associated with decreased likelihood of being a smoker [odds ratio (OR = 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.01–0.17], as were neutral views about whether it is easy for a smoker to take a smoking break during their shift (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.28–0.88. Current smoking among the sample is > 50% higher than the adult statewide prevalence. Potential points of intervention identified in this study include perceived ease of worksite smoking breaks and establishing home smoking bans. Tailored cessation efforts focusing on older transit workers more likely to smoke are needed to reduce tobacco-related disparities in this workforce. Keywords: blue-collar workers, health disparities, smoking

  16. Impact of the 2005 smoke-free policy in Italy on prevalence, cessation and intensity of smoking in the overall population and by educational group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Bruno; Mackenbach, Johan P; Eikemo, Terje A; Kunst, Anton E

    2012-09-01

    To estimate the immediate as well as the longer-term impact of the 2005 smoke-free law on smoking prevalence, cessation and intensity both in the overall population and separately by educational level. Interrupted time-series analyses of 11 cross-sectional nationally representative surveys. Italy, 1999-2010. Adults aged 20-64 years. For each year we computed the prevalence of current smoking, the quit ratio and the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day. All measures were standardized by age. Segmented linear regression analyses were performed for each smoking variable separately by sex. Among males, smoking prevalence decreased by 2.6% (P = 0.002) and smoking cessation increased by 3.3% (P = 0.006) shortly after the ban, but both measures tended to return to pre-ban values in the following years. This occurred among both highly and low-educated males. Among low-educated females, the ban was followed by a 1.6% decrease (P = 0.120) in smoking prevalence and a 4.5% increase in quit ratios (P educated females, trends in smoking prevalence and cessation were not altered by the ban. Among both males and females, long-term trends in the daily number of cigarettes, which were already declining well before the implementation of the policy, changed to a minor extent. The impact of the Italian smoke-free policy on smoking and inequalities in smoking was short-term. Smoke-free policies may not achieve the secondary effect of reducing smoking prevalence in the long term, and they may have limited effects on inequalities in smoking. © 2012 The Authors. Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Gender, economics and culture: diversity and the international evolution of smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andy R A; Caan, Woody

    2008-05-01

    To examine whether the observed diversity between national patterns of smoking prevalence could require modification of the World Health Organization (WHO) linear model for an international 'smoking pandemic' (a worldwide epidemic) to address data from non-western countries. We conducted secondary research using current measures in three publicly available databases: Globalink, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank (all Internet-accessible). The measures we used are the separate percentage data for men and women on: smoking and employment and national income per capita (US$) and percentage growth per annum. Regression analysis showed that women smokers were more frequent in countries with higher national income, but women were less likely to smoke in countries of rapid growth. Men were less likely to smoke in countries with higher national income, but more likely to smoke in countries of rapid growth. Two principle components together explained 62% of all the variance in the international data. The largest factor was positively correlated with the percentage of employed females, the percentage of female smokers and national income per capita, but negatively correlated with the percentage of male smokers and percentage annual. growth. The effect of female employment was not continuous, but above a threshold of 51%, was associated with a higher prevalence of female smoking. The smaller, second factor was only weakly correlated with any smoking variables. In his 1994 model (subsequently adopted by the WHO) Lopez looked at historical trends in 'stages' of smoking prevalence. These have been associated with 'stages' of economic development. We extended this analysis to look at a dynamic change (% annual growth) and a social indicator (employment). Male and female smoking is affected differentially by economic change and by level of income. These are also strongly related to the percentage of women in employment. This has implications for workplace

  18. One-year period prevalence of blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J T; Kimper-Karl, M L; Sprogøe, U

    2010-01-01

    was 9.2/1000 citizens. Most of the transfused patients had a main diagnosis of neoplasm (22% of recipients), diseases of the circulatory system (15%), the digestive system (15%), injuries (13%) and diseases of the blood (8%). Age standardization reversed the relation between sex specific 1-YPPRs......Transfusion practice is reported to differ considerably between countries. Comparisons often rely on transfusion rates, incidence - or prevalence rates. In this paper, the one-year period prevalence rate (1-YPPR) of transfusion of red cells (RBC) is presented. Transfusion data, demographic data...... and patient data were retrospectively combined to calculate sex and diagnosis specific and age standardized 1-YPPR s of RBC transfusion for the complete population in a Danish county. During the calendar year of 2006, 4427 patients received RBC transfusion in Funen County. The crude 1-YPPR of RBC transfusion...

  19. Smoking prevalence and the changing risk profiles in the UK ethnic and migrant minority populations: implications for stop smoking services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinall, P J; Mitton, L

    2014-03-01

    Smoking is the leading risk factor for disability-adjusted life-years, yet evidence with which to establish the smoking rates of people with different ethnic backgrounds and how they are changing in relation to recent migration is lacking. The objective is to provide current information on the changing risk profiles of the UK population. Observational study using cross-sectional surveys. Data from the Integrated Household Survey (pooled for the years 2009/10-2011/12), obtained under Special Licence, and the GP Patient Survey (2012) have been used to establish smoking prevalence in a wider range of ethnic groups in England and Wales, including the 'mixed' groups and amongst East European migrants, and how such prevalence differs across socio-economic classes. Smoking prevalence is substantially higher amongst migrants from East European countries (that for males exceeding 50% from three such countries and for females over 33% from four countries) and from Turkey and Greece, compared with most other non-UK born groups, and amongst ethnic groups is elevated in the 'mixed' groups. Rates are highest in the Gypsy or Irish Traveller group, 49% (of 162) and 46% (of 155) for males and females respectively. Across ethnic groups, rates are almost always higher in the UK born than non-UK born population with the notable exception of the 'White Other' group, with Prevalence Ratios (PRs) indicating a larger migrant-non-migrant differential amongst females (e.g. Indians 2.95 (2.33-3.73); Black Caribbeans 3.28 (2.73-3.94). Age-adjusted rates show the persistence of these differentials in females across age groups, though young males (18-29) in seven minority ethnic groups show lower rates in the UK-born groups. The 'White' and 'Chinese' groups show a strong socio-economic gradient in smoking which is absent in the South Asian groups and diminished in the 'mixed' and black groups. Given the evidence that smoking behaviour is significantly different in some of the new groups

  20. Factors associated with smoking relapse in the postpartum period: an analysis of the child health surveillance system data in Southeast England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Clare; Memon, Anjum

    2013-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that a high proportion (47%-63%) of women who quit smoking during pregnancy relapse during the postpartum period. The purpose of this population-based study was to examine the association between selected sociodemographic factors and smoking relapse in the early postpartum period (within the first 6 weeks) in women who had successfully quit smoking during the pregnancy. The study included 512 women resident in East Sussex, United Kingdom, who had quit smoking during the pregnancy. Information on the prevalence of smoking and selected sociodemographic factors and breast feeding at the 6-weeks postpartum review by health visitor was obtained from the Child Health Surveillance System, which records and monitors the health and development of children from birth until school entry. Of the 512 women who had quit smoking during the pregnancy, 238 (46.5%) relapsed in the early postpartum period. In the bivariate analysis, there was an association between deprivation and smoking relapse in the early postpartum period (OR = 5.3, 95% CI: 2.5-11.4), with a significant trend in increasing risk of relapse with increasing level of deprivation (p postpartum period. On the other hand, women who were breast feeding were significantly less likely to relapse (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.9). Factors associated with early postpartum smoking relapse identified in this study, particularly breast feeding, high parity, and concurrent smoking by partner/other household member(s), may contribute to the development of effective and targeted interventions to maintain smoking cessation in women and their household.

  1. Small area mapping of domestic radon, smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence – A case study in Northamptonshire, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, Antony R.; Rogers, Stephen; Ali, Akeem; Sinclair, John; Phillips, Paul S.; Crockett, Robin G.M.; Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and radon both cause lung cancer, and together the risk is significantly higher. UK public health campaigns continue to reduce smoking prevalence, and other initiatives identify houses with raised radon (radon-222) levels and encourage remedial action. Smoking prevalence and radon levels in the UK have been mapped at Primary Care Trust level. This paper extends that work, using a commercial socio-demographic database to estimate smoking prevalence at the postcode sector level, and to predict the population characteristics at postcode sector level for 87 postcode sectors in Northamptonshire. Likely smoking prevalence in each postcode sector is then modelled from estimates of the smoking prevalence in the different socio-economic groups used by the database. Mapping estimated smoking prevalence, radon potential and average lung cancer incidence for each postcode sector suggested that there was little correlation between smoking prevalence and radon levels, as radon potential was generally lower in urban areas in Northamptonshire, where the estimates of smoking prevalence were highest. However, the analysis demonstrated some sectors where both radon potential and smoking prevalence were moderately raised. This study showed the potential of this methodology to map estimated smoking prevalence and radon levels to inform locally targeted public health campaigns to reduce lung cancer incidence. - Highlights: • We use a commercial socio-demographic database to estimate smoking prevalence in small areas in Northamptonshire, UK. • We map the estimated smoking prevalence and average domestic radon levels in these small areas. • We estimate annual average lung cancer incidence in these small areas. • The methodology is useful to evaluate and plan localised public health campaigns to reduce lung cancer incidence.

  2. The economic burden of smoking-related disease in Thailand: a prevalence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leartsakulpanitch, Jittrakul; Nganthavee, Wimol; Salole, Eugene

    2007-09-01

    To estimate the direct out-of-pocket medical costs of treating major diseases attributable to smoking in Thailand in 2006. A prevalence-based, disease-specific, approach was used to estimate the direct medical costs of treating lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and coronary heart disease (CHD) attributable to smoking. Epidemiological parameters were obtained from the literature; historical out-of-pocket cost data were used to estimate 2006 expenditure. The number of cases attributable to smoking in 2006 was 5,299 for lung cancer, 624,309 for COPD, and 52,605 for CHD. The out-of-pocket expenditures for treatment were 368.49 million baht for lung cancer, 7,714.88 million baht for COPD, and 1,773.65 million baht for CHD. Total smoking-attributable out-of-pocket medical costs amounted to 9,857.02 million baht, 0.48% of GDP in 2006. The prevalence-based, disease-specific, analysis described here shows that the health and economic impact of smoking in Thailand are substantial, and should be reduced by implementing smoking-cessation and related tobacco control policies of the types found effective in reducing the prevalence of smoking in other countries.

  3. Smoking Prevalance in Women Aged Over 15 in Mardin City Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunay Saka

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence of smoking and factors associated with it, in women aged over 15 years in Mardin city center. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study. The study population were 21 890 women aged over 15 years living in the area of five primary health centers (PHC in city center of Mardin. Minimum sample size was calculated 759 by using Epi Info2000. Health school students interviewed with women face to face by using questionnaire in April –May 2005. We randomly selected 12 streets from each PCH. From each street first 25 woman were included to the study. Because of data failure, 29 women’s questionnaires excluded and totally 1471 women composed the main source of our study data. Data were recorded and analysed by computer. Percentage and khi square test were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Smoking prevalence rate and giving up smoking rates were 22,9% and 3.9% respectively. Smoking prevalence was the highest in 25-34 age group (31.8% and the lowest in 55 years and over age group (10% (p<0.01. In terms of education the highest prevalence of smoking was among university graduates (34.3% while the lowest prevalence was among non-educated group (16.0% (p<0.01. Smoking prevalence was 30.4% in divorced women, 24.4% in married and 22.4 in unmarried group (p<0.05. Prevalence of smoking in working women (40.2% was higher than in non working group (21.7% (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Smoking prevalence was high in women in Mardin and it was significant public health concern. The risky groups were young, higher educated, divorced and working woman. Detailed research must plan in these groups. Smoking cessation programs should target the population subgroups of women at highest risk of smoking. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 141-146

  4. Smoking Prevalance in Women Aged Over 15 in Mardin City Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasfiye Deger

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM/BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence of smoking and factors associated with it, in women aged over 15 years in Mardin city center. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study. The study population were 21 890 women aged over 15 years living in the area of five primary health centers (PHC in city center of Mardin. Minimum sample size was calculated 759 by using Epi Info2000. Health school students interviewed with women face to face by using questionnaire in April –May 2005. We randomly selected 12 streets from each PCH. From each street first 25 woman were included to the study. Because of data failure, 29 women’s questionnaires excluded and totally 1471 women composed the main source of our study data. Data were recorded and analysed by computer. Percentage and khi square test were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Smoking prevalence rate and giving up smoking rates were 22,9% and 3.9% respectively. Smoking prevalence was the highest in 25-34 age group (31.8% and the lowest in 55 years and over age group (10% (p<0.01. In terms of education the highest prevalence of smoking was among university graduates (34.3% while the lowest prevalence was among non-educated group (16.0% (p<0.01. Smoking prevalence was 30.4% in divorced women, 24.4% in married and 22.4 in unmarried group (p<0.05. Prevalence of smoking in working women (40.2% was higher than in non working group (21.7% (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Smoking prevalence was high in women in Mardin and it was significant public health concern. The risky groups were young, higher educated, divorced and working woman. Detailed research must plan in these groups. Smoking cessation programs should target the population subgroups of women at highest risk of smoking. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 141-146

  5. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among Chinese schizophrenia inpatients receiving antipsychotic mono-therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Min Xu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence rate of cigarette smoking and its socio-demographic and clinical correlates in Chinese schizophrenia inpatients receiving antipsychotic mono-therapy. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional, two-site, hospital-based survey. Four hundred and twenty-nine schizophrenia patients (male/female: 66.9% vs. 33.1% were consecutively recruited from psychosis inpatient wards of two large specialty psychiatric hospitals in mainland China. Patients were assessed using a cigarette smoking questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, the Simpson Angus Scale, the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale, and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale. Socio-demographic and other clinical data were also collected. We calculated the prevalence of current smoking in our sample as well as its indirectly standardized prevalence ratio (ISPR using data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey in China. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of current smoking was 40.6% in our sample, and 57.5% in males and 6.3% in females. The ISPRs of all patients, men and women were 1.11(95%CI: 0.95 ∼ 1.29, 1.07(95%CI = 0.91 ∼ 1.24 and 4.64(95% CI = 2.12 ∼ 8.82, respectively. The overall and male-specific prevalence of current smoking did not differ significantly between patients and the general population. In multiple logistic regression analysis, male sex, older age, poor marital status, alcohol use, use of first-generation antipsychotics, longer duration of illness, more frequent hospitalizations, and more severe negative symptoms were independently associated with current smoking. CONCLUSION: Male Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia who received a mono-therapy of antipsychotics were not more likely to smoke than the general population. Cigarette smoking is more common in schizophrenia patients with more severe illness.

  6. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and its predictors among school going adolescents of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgesh Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarettes smoking is a common mode of consuming tobacco in India. This habit usually starts in adolescence and tracks across the life course. Interventions like building decision making skills and resisting negative influences are effective in reducing the initiation and level of tobacco use. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of adolescent current cigarette smoking behavior and to investigate the individual and social factors, which influence them both to and not to smoke. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out among school going adolescents in Shimla town of North India. After obtaining their written informed consent, a questionnaire was administered. Results: The overall prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 11.8%. The binary logistic regression model revealed that parents′ and peers′ smoking behavior influence adolescent smoking behavior. Individual self-harm tendency also significantly predicted cigarette smoking behavior. Parental active participation in keeping a track of their children′s free time activities predicted to protect adolescents from taking this habit. Conclusion: Our research lends support to the need for intervention on restricting adolescents from taking up this habit and becoming another tobacco industries′ addicted customer. Parents who smoke should quit this habit, which will not only restore their own health, but also protect their children. All parents should be counseled to carefully observe their children′s free time activities.

  7. High prevalence of smoking among patients with suspected tuberculosis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, L; Pai, M; Davids, V; Ling, D; Paradis, G; Lenders, L; Meldau, R; van Zyl Smit, R; Calligaro, G; Allwood, B; Dawson, R; Dheda, K

    2011-07-01

    There is growing evidence that tobacco smoking is an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). There are no data validating the accuracy of self-reported smoking in TB patients and limited data about the prevalence of smoking in TB patients from high-burden settings. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 500 patients with suspected TB in Cape Town, South Africa. All underwent comprehensive diagnostic testing. The accuracy of their self-reported smoking status was determined against serum cotinine levels. Of the 424 patients included in the study, 56 and 60% of those with active and latent TB infection (LTBI), respectively, were current smokers. Using plasma cotinine as a reference standard, the sensitivity of self-reported smoking was 89%. No statistically significant association could be found between smoking and active TB or LTBI. In Cape Town, the prevalence of smoking among patients with suspected and confirmed TB was much higher than in the general South African population. Self-reporting is an accurate measure of smoking status. These results suggest the need to actively incorporate tobacco cessation programmes into TB services in South Africa.

  8. The low prevalence of female smoking in the developing world: gender inequality or maternal adaptations for fetal protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Edward H; Garfield, Melissa J; Sullivan, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    Female smoking prevalence is dramatically lower in developing countries (3.1%) than developed countries (17.2%), whereas male smoking is similar (32% vs 30.1%). Low female smoking has been linked to high gender inequality. Alternatively, to protect their offspring from teratogenic substances, pregnant and lactating women appear to have evolved aversions to toxic plant substances like nicotine, which are reinforced by cultural proscriptions. Higher total fertility rates (TFRs) in developing countries could therefore explain their lower prevalence of female smoking. To compare the associations of TFR and gender inequality with national prevalence rates of female and male smoking. Data from a previous study of smoking prevalence vs gender inequality in 74 countries were reanalysed with a regression model that also included TFR. We replicated this analysis with three additional measures of gender equality and 2012 smoking data from 173 countries. A 1 SD increase in TFR predicted a decrease in female smoking prevalence by factors of 0.58-0.77, adjusting for covariates. TFR had a smaller and unexpected negative association with male smoking prevalence. Increased gender equality was associated with increased female smoking prevalence, and, unexpectedly, with decreased male smoking prevalence. TFR was also associated with an increase in smoking prevalence among postmenopausal women. High TFR and gender inequality both predict reduced prevalence of female smoking across nations. In countries with high TFR, adaptations and cultural norms that protect fetuses from plant toxins might suppress smoking among frequently pregnant and lactating women. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  9. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem Sohaib

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to systematically review the medical literature for the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among the general and specific populations. Methods We electronically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included cohort studies and cross sectional studies assessing the prevalence of use of waterpipe in either the general population or a specific population of interest. Two reviewers used a standardized and pilot tested form to collect data from each eligible study using a duplicate and independent screening process. We stratified the data analysis by country and by age group. The study was not restricted to a specific context. Results Of a total of 38 studies, only 4 were national surveys; the rest assessed specific populations. The highest prevalence of current waterpipe smoking was among school students across countries: the United States, especially among Arab Americans (12%-15% the Arabic Gulf region (9%-16%, Estonia (21%, and Lebanon (25%. Similarly, the prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among university students was high in the Arabic Gulf region (6%, the United Kingdom (8%, the United States (10%, Syria (15%, Lebanon (28%, and Pakistan (33%. The prevalence of current waterpipe smoking among adults was the following: Pakistan (6%, Arabic Gulf region (4%-12%, Australia (11% in Arab speaking adults, Syria (9%-12%, and Lebanon (15%. Group waterpipe smoking was high in Lebanon (5%, and Egypt (11%-15%. In Lebanon, 5%-6% pregnant women reported smoking waterpipe during pregnancy. The studies were all cross-sectional and varied by how they reported waterpipe smoking. Conclusion While very few national surveys have been conducted, the prevalence of waterpipe smoking appears to be alarmingly high among school students and university students in Middle Eastern countries and among groups of

  10. Prevalence and predictors of smoking in Butajira town, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Socio-demographic predictors of cigarette smoking in Butajira Ethiopia are different to those found in high income countries. The predictors found here suggest that increased taxation may be the most effective tobacco control measure in this low income country setting. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development ...

  11. Prevalence of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim R Fida; Ismail Abdelmoneim

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and habits of smoking among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to assess their knowledge and attitudes toward it. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sampling, randomly selecting 4 out of 85 government male secondary schools. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire eliciting responses to questions ...

  12. SMOKING PREVALENCE AND NICOTINE DEPENDENCY AMONG YOUNG ADULT MEN AND FACTORS AFFECTING THIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Han ACIKEL

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a health risk with highest mortality and morbidity among the worldwide preventable diseases. While military period is a risky period for starting smoking, it is also a good opportunity for population based education studies opposed to smoking. At this point of view it is important to know the smoking behaviors of enlisted people. This study was planned as cross-sectional research, and performed on 455 people selected by simple random method in Etimesgut Armed Unities School and Training Center Commandership at 2002. 53.8% of the participants reported that they had been smoking, and 9.9% of the participants reported that they had been smoking some times. The frequency of the symptoms of nicotine dependence was found as 16.2%. It was found that smoking frequency was very high in enlisted people and significant amount of them had had nicotine dependency symptoms. It is considered that educations about the hazards of smoking and activities for smoking cessation were needed during the military service. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(2.000: 105-117

  13. A Novel Indicator of Life-Course Smoking Prevalence in the United States Combining Popularity, Duration, Quantity, and Quality of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulou, Rebekka; Lillard, Dean R

    2016-07-01

    To develop a smoking indicator that combines the popularity and duration of smoking and the quantity and quality of consumed cigarettes, factors that vary dramatically over time and across generations. We used retrospective reports on smoking behavior and a time series of cigarette tar yields to standardize nationally representative life-course smoking prevalence rates of 11 generations of US men and women, spanning 120 years. For each generation and gender, we related the standardized data with the corresponding rates of smoking-attributable mortality. Our indicator suggests that US cigarette consumption spread, peaked, and contracted faster than commonly perceived; predicts a significantly stronger smoking-mortality correlation than unadjusted smoking prevalence; and reveals the emergence of a delay (by up to 8 years) in premature death from smoking that is consistent with increasing population access to effective treatments. In fact, we show that, among recent cohorts, smoking health-risk exposure is at a historic low and will account for less than 5% of deaths. Relative to unstandardized measures, our novel, standardized indicator of smoking prevalence describes a different history of smoking diffusion in the United States, and more strongly predicts later-life mortality.

  14. Prevalence and determinants of smoking in Belarus: a national household survey, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, A B; McKee, M; Rose, R

    2001-01-01

    A clear, up-to-date picture of smoking prevalence and its determinants is needed to inform the development of effective tobacco control policy in Belarus and other parts of the former Soviet Union. It is particularly important in view of the way the tobacco industry has targeted this region since transition. A nationally representative household survey designed to explore smoking behaviour and its determinants was undertaken in Belarus in April 2000. Data were available on 1090 individuals aged 18 years and over (response rate 53.4%). Respondents were similar demographically to the population of Belarus. Fifty three percent of men and 9% of women are current smokers and an additional 18% and 7% respectively are ex-smokers. Differences in smoking habits between successive generations were identified. These included a ninefold higher rate of ever-smoking amongst 18-29 years old women compared with those aged over 60 years (p workplace where 65% smoke, is common. Smokers are more likely than non-smokers to have positive beliefs about the health impact of active and passive smoking (p < 0.0001). Amongst women the odds of smoking is 13 times higher in those living in large cities compared with those living in villages. In men, disadvantage and a positive attitude to the west appear to increase the likelihood of smoking. To date policy responses have been inadequate. Unless effective tobacco control policies are introduced, tobacco will continue to make an increasingly large contribution to premature morbidity and mortality in Belarus.

  15. Smoking patterns, depression, and sociodemographic variables among Flemish women during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, Katrien S; Trommelmans, Leen C; Laevens, Hans H; Maes, Lea R; Temmerman, Marleen; Boudrez, Hedwig L

    2013-01-01

    Relationships among feelings of depression, smoking behavior, and educational level during pregnancy have been documented. Feelings of depression may contribute to persistent smoking during pregnancy. No longitudinal studies assessing feelings of depression in women with different antepartum and postpartum smoking patterns are available. The aim was to determine relationships between depressive symptoms, sociodemographic characteristics, and smoking pattern during and after pregnancy. An observational, prospective, noninterventional study was conducted. Data were collected during two stages of pregnancy (T0: postpartum (T2: >6 weeks) in 523 Flemish women. Feelings of depression (measured using the Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]), smoking behavior, and sociodemographic variables were analyzed using a general linear mixed model implemented in SAS Proc MIXED. Smokers and initial smokers reported significantly more depressive symptoms at all time points compared with recent ex-smokers, nonsmokers, and initial nonsmokers (p postpartum. Smoking patterns were associated with depression and showed complex interactions with educational level. Assessment and intervention for both smoking and depression are needed throughout the perinatal period to support the health of mothers, their infants, and families.

  16. Pro-smoking apps for smartphones in the Republic of Korea: prevalence and potential risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hyung Kong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Smartphone has become a main part of our daily lives, and its impact on human behavior has been extensively studied. In Korea, 8 out of 10 people have their own smartphone and download 48 applications on average to get and share information. Recently, tobacco marketing prevails in the smartphone application but there is limited research on this area. This study investigated the prevalence of pro-smoking applications (apps in Korea in order to understand the current status and potential risks. Methods From mid-June to early July 2017 (for 3 weeks, this study searched the Google Play store for pro-smoking apps. 8 keywords (cigarette, e-cigarette, nicotine, cigar, hookah, etc were used to identify tobacco related apps. Apps achieved a top 100 ranking for each keyword then classified and analyzed based on apps name, retailer category, content category, number of downloads, publisher names, and content rating. Results Among a total of 675 apps identified for 8 keywords, 511 were analyzed for this study to avoid duplication. Although some anti-smoking apps (n=119, 23.3% provided information on health effects of smoking or smoking cessation, majority were classified as pro-smoking apps (n=392, 76.7% containing information about how to make tobacco, advertisement on tobacco products and shops, places where smoking is allowed, game to simulate smoking behavior or to run tobacco company by selling cigarette, and smoking advocacy. More importantly, 99.7% of these pro-smoking apps were rated as minors under 18 year-old can use them without any restrictions. Conclusions Pro-smoking apps prevail in the market while there is no restriction on access, install and use. Considering its cross-border characteristics, this would pose great challenge against tobacco control policies where smartphone use is increasing. Strategic approach to deal with novel tobacco marketing tactics needs to be developed with special attention to youth population.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of current cigarette smoking among adolescents in East Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziya, S; Muula, A S; Rudatsikira, E

    2008-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates for current cigarette smoking. Secondary analysis of the East Timor-Leste Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in 2006. Public and private schools registered with the Ministry of Education. A two-stage cluster sample of 1790 students in Grades 7 to 9. Schools were selected with probability proportional to enrolment size, and classes were randomly selected in each school. All students in selected classes were eligible to participate in the survey. The school and student response rates were 96.0% and 84.5%, respectively. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking. Out of 1790 adolescents, 52.1% were of ages less than 15 years, 51.8% were males, 42.8% reported having some pocket money in a month, and 72.7% had at least a parent who was a smoker. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 40.3%. Current smokers also reported having bought cigarettes from peddlers (32.4%), someone bought for them (16.7%), got from someone older (13.7%), borrowed (13.3%), and stole (3.4%). Males were more likely to be smokers than females (59.0% versus 19.3%). Factors positively associated with current smoking were: parental smoking; closest friend smoking; amount of pocket money; and exposure to anti-tobacco messages. East Timor has one of the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescents. The fact that exposure to anti-tobacco messages was associated with being a smoker may be evidence suggesting that anti-tobacco messages, especially from tobacco-related industry, may have unintended consequences.

  18. Prevalence and predictors of adolescents' cigarette smoking in Madinah, Saudi Arabia: a school-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen; Kasim, Khaled

    2015-01-21

    Although the prevalence of adolescents' cigarette smoking has increased in recent decades, little is known regarding its epidemiology in certain Saudi regions, including the Madinah region. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. A school-based cross-sectional study was carried out in the Madinah region during 2013. A multistage stratified cluster sample was taken and included 3400 students (11-19 years) from 34 intermediate and secondary schools. Data concerning sociodemographic and smoking-related factors were collected using a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of smoking was estimated, and appropriate statistical analyses were performed, including univariate, predictive and multivariate regression analyses. The overall response rate was 97.7%. The prevalence of cigarette smoking in the respondents' 3322 adolescents was 15.17% (95% CI = 13.95-16.39) with significant differences in sociodemographic factors. The most important predictors were most or all friends smoking (OR = 12.5; 95% CI = 9.40-16.8). Other significant less important factors were parental smoking, belief in the harmful effects of smoking, cigarette advertisement in mass media, and pocket money. Cigarette smoking prevalence is a relatively low among adolescents in Madinah region. However, friends and parents smoking play an important role in the increased risk of smoking in the studied adolescents. These predictors must be included in any antismoking education programs targeting to this sector of population in the region.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for tobacco smoking among pre-adolescent Pacific children in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosa, Vili; Gentles, Dudley; Glover, Marewa; Scragg, Robert; McCool, Judith; Bullen, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Pacific New Zealanders have a high prevalence of smoking, with many first smoking in their pre-adolescent years. To identify risk factors for tobacco smoking among Pacific pre-adolescent intermediate school children. A cross-sectional survey of 2208 Pacific students aged between 10 and 13 years from four South Auckland intermediate schools who were asked about their smoking behaviour between the years 2007 and 2009. The prevalence of Pacific ever-smokers (for 2007) in Year 7 was 15.0% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 12.0%-18.3%) and Year 8, 23.0% (95% CI 19.5%-26.7%). Multivariate modelling showed the risk factors for ever-smoking were Cook Island ethnic group (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.26-2.36, ref=Samoan), boys (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.14-1.89), age (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.36-2.00), exposure to smoking in a car within the previous seven days (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.67-3.01), anyone smoking at home within the previous seven days (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.12-2.04) and receiving more than $NZ20 per week as pocket money/allowance (OR=1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96). Parents control and therefore can modify identified risk factors for Pacific children's smoking initiation: exposure to smoking at home or in the car and the amount of weekly pocket money the child receives. Primary health care professionals should advise Pacific parents to make their homes and cars smokefree and to monitor their children's spending. This study also suggests a particular need for specific Cook Island smokefree promotion and cessation resources.

  20. [The national anti-opium-smoking campaigns across the country in the Republican Period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z J; Chang, F Q; Xu, Q S

    2017-11-28

    Anti-opium-smoking had been the key policy of successive central and local governments from the late Qing Dynasty to the Republican Period. Since the establishment of the Nanjing Provisional Government in January 1912, the Anti-opium-smoking campaign had culminated across the country. Under the support of the government, the "National Anti-Opium Association of China" and "Association of Chinese People Rejecting Opium" were established which made an important contribution to China's anti-opium-smoking campaign.Yunnan, Shaanxi, Heilongjiang, Zhejiang, Shanghai and other local governments also combined with local specific circumstances to make anti-opium-smaking policy for punishing severely the opium cultivation, trade and opium smoking, thus, the overrun of opium began to be brought under an overall control.

  1. Prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure after introduction of the Italian smoking ban: the Florence and Belluno survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe; Gasparrini, Antonio; Tamang, Elizabeth; Nebot, Manel; Lopez, Maria José; Albertini, Marco; Marcolina, Daniela; Fernandez, Esteve

    2008-01-01

    A law banning smoking in enclosed public places was implemented in Italy on January 10, 2005. The aim of this paper is to present a cross-sectional survey on two representative samples of non-smokers of two Italian towns (Florence and Belluno), conducted one year after the introduction of the ban, in order to assess prevalence of second-hand smoke exposure, to record the attitudes towards the ban, and the perception about its compliance in a representative sample of non-smokers. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were carried out in March 2006, from a random sample of households from telephone registries. Respondents were 402 non-smokers from Belluno and 1,073 from Florence. About 12% of Florentines and 7% of Belluno respondents were exposed at home; 39% and 19%, respectively, at work; 10% and 5% in hospitality venues; 20% and 10% in cars. The smoke-free law was almost universally supported (about 98%) even if a smaller proportion of people (about 90%) had the perception that the ban was observed. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and in hospitality premises has dropped to hospitality venues.

  2. Second-hand smoke exposure in homes and in cars among Canadian youth: current prevalence, beliefs about exposure, and changes between 2004 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T; Ahmed, Rashid

    2009-08-01

    The present study examines second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the beliefs youth have about being exposed to SHS in their home and in cars and explores changes in exposure and beliefs over time. Nationally representative data from the 2006 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS) were used to examine youth exposure to smoking and beliefs about smoking in the home and car among 71,003 Canadian youth in grades 5-12. Gender-specific logistic regression models were conducted to examine if being exposed to smoking at home or in the car were associated with the beliefs youth have about either smoking around kids at home or smoking around kids in cars. In 2006, 22.1% of youth in grades 5-12 were exposed to smoking in their home on a daily or almost daily basis and 28.1% were exposed to smoking while riding in a car at least once in the previous week. The majority of youth reported that they do not think smoking should be allowed around kids at home (88.3%) or in cars (88.4%). Youth exposed to smoking in the home or in cars reported missing substantially more days of school in the previous month because of their health. Among both male and female youth, being an ever smoker, living in a house where someone smokes inside daily, and having ridden in a car with someone who was smoking cigarettes in the past seven days were all associated with being more likely to report that smoking should not be allowed around kids at home or in cars. Compared to their male counterparts, female youth with at least one parent who smokes were more likely to report that smoking should not be allowed around kids at home or in cars. As rates of SHS exposure in the home and car decreased between 2004 and 2006, the prevalence of youth who reported that they do not think smoking should be allowed around kids at home or in cars also decreased over the same period of time. These results highlight that Canadian youth are frequently exposed to SHS in their homes and in cars despite the fact that the vast majority of

  3. Prevalência e fatores de risco para tabagismo em adolescentes Prevalence and risk factors for smoking among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura C Malcon

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O tabagismo é uma das principais causas de enfermidades evitáveis e incapacidades prematuras. Nesse sentido, realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de medir a prevalência e estudar fatores de risco associados ao tabagismo nos adolescentes. MÉTODOS: A partir de um delineamento transversal de base populacional, estudou-se uma amostra representativa de 1.187 adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos, da zona urbana de Pelotas, sul do Brasil. Todos os adolescentes da amostra, de cada domicílio, foram entrevistados por meio de questionário pré-codificado, individual e confidencial. Utilizou-se o teste de Kaplan-Meier para análise da curva de sobrevida. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de tabagismo na amostra foi de 12,1% (IC95% 10,3%-14%. As prevalências foram similares para os sexos femininos e masculinos. Os fatores de risco para tabagismo na análise multivariada, por regressão logística, foram: maior idade, odds ratio (OR de 28,7 (11,5-71,4, irmãos mais velhos fumantes, OR de 2,4 (1,5-3,8, três ou mais amigos fumantes, OR de 17,5 (8,8-34,8 e baixa escolaridade OR de 3,5 (1,5-8,0. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de tabagismo na adolescência mostrou-se alta, na cidade de Pelotas. Campanhas antitabágicas devem ser direcionadas à comunidade e à família tendo o adolescente como alvo. Medidas legais adotadas pelo governo são importantes para impedir o acesso dos adolescentes ao cigarro.OBJECTIVE: Tobacco smoking is one of the main causes of preventable disease and premature disability. Th estudy was aimed at measuring smoking prevalence and related risk factors among adolescents. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative sample of 1,187 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years living in the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. All adolescents were interviewed separately using a confidential coded questionnaire. Kaplan-Meier test was performed for survival curve analysis. RESULTS: The overall smoking prevalence

  4. SMOKING AS A RISK FACTOR OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES: PREVALENCE, IMPACT ON PROGNOSIS, POSSIBLE SMOKING CESSATION STRATEGIES AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS. Part 1. Smoking Prevalence and Impact on Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of smoking in the Russian Federation is 27.7%. Losses of potential years of life in working age associated with premature death due to smoking in Russia on average are 9 years for men, for women – 5.6 years. Tobacco use is a risk factor for 6 of 8 main causes of death in the world: ischemic heart disease (IHD; cerebral circulation disorders; lower respiratory tract infection; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; tuberculosis; trachea, bronchus, and lung cancer. The risk of developing IHD in smoking patients is increased by 2-4 times in men and women and in any age group. Myocardial infarction occurs in smoking patients at a younger age, and they have a similar risk of coronary events with patients of older age groups. The increased risk of recurrent coronary events persists with the continuation of smoking in the patient after myocardial infarction. Smoking is associated with a double risk of ischemic stroke and a 2-4-fold increase in the risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage. The risk of peripheral arteries diseases in smokers is increased 3-6 times than this in non-smokers. The mechanisms of development of acute cardiovascular events during smoking include the activation of inflammation, platelet aggregation/thrombogenesis, the sympathetic nervous system, and the development of endothelial dysfunction due to exposure to tobacco smoke components.

  5. THE PREVALENCE OF SMOKING AMONG THE STUDENTS OF MERAM APPRENTICESHIP SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhusen KUTLU

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence of smoking among the students of Meram Apprenticeship School and to analyze the affecting factors. This descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out among 192 students who educated at Meram Apprenticeship School during 2004-2005 academic years. Of 192 students whom participated in this study, 95.8 % ( n= 184 were male, and 4.2 % (n= 8 were female, minimum age was 15, maximum age was 20 (median value= 17 years. When the smoking status was evaluated, 50.5 % (n= 97 were ever-smokers, 7.3 % (n= 14 were ex-smokers, 42.2 % (n=81 were never smokers. The lowest age at starting smoking was 7 years, the highest age was 18 years and the median value was 13 years. When the reasons to start smoking were analysed, 41 students of 97 current smokers stated that they had started smoking because of affecting of social environment and friend groups (40.6 %, n=41, affectation and enthusiasm (27.7 %, n=28, stress and anxiety (21.8 % n=22. According to Fagerstrom criterion, 43 students (42.2 % were assessed very low addictive level, 23 students (n=22.5% were high addictive level. Our results showed that the prevalence of smoking among the students of Meram Apprenticeship School was an important matter. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(6.000: 424-433

  6. State-level prevalence of cigarette smoking and treatment advice, by disability status, United States, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Campbell, Vincent A; Crews, John E; Malarcher, Ann; Maurice, Emmanuel; Richard, Roland A

    2007-10-01

    To our knowledge, no study has determined whether smoking prevalence is higher among people with disabilities than among people without disabilities across all U.S. states. Neither do we know whether people with disabilities and people without disabilities receive the same quality of advice about tobacco-cessation treatment from medical providers. We analyzed data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to estimate differences between people with and people without disabilities in smoking prevalence and the receipt of tobacco-cessation treatment advice from medical providers. We found that smoking prevalence for people with disabilities was approximately 50% higher than for people without disabilities. Smokers with disabilities were more likely than smokers without disabilities to have visited a medical provider at least once in the previous 12 months and to have received medical advice to quit. More than 40% of smokers with disabilities who were advised to quit, however, reported not being told about the types of tobacco-cessation treatment available. Ensuring that people with disabilities are included in state-based smoking cessation programs gives states an opportunity to eliminate health disparities and to improve the health and wellness of this group. Ways to reduce unmet preventive health care needs of people with disabilities include provider adoption of the Public Health Service's clinical practice guideline for treating tobacco use and dependence and the provision of smoking cessation services that include counseling and effective pharmaceutical treatment.

  7. Global Evidence on the Association between Cigarette Graphic Warning Labels and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence and Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Anh; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2018-02-28

    Background : In 2011, the courts ruled in favor of tobacco companies in preventing the implementation of graphic warning labels (GWLs) in the US, stating that FDA had not established the effectiveness of GWLs in reducing smoking. Methods : Data came from various sources: the WHO MPOWER package (GWLs, MPOWER policy measures, cigarette prices), Euromonitor International (smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption), and the World Bank database (countries' demographic characteristics). The datasets were aggregated and linked using country and year identifiers. Fractional logit regressions and OLS regressions were applied to examine the associations between GWLs and smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption, controlling for MPOWER policy scores, cigarette prices, GDP per capita, unemployment, population aged 15-64 (%), aged 65 and over (%), year indicators, and country fixed effects. Results : GWLs were associated with a 0.9-3 percentage point decrease in adult smoking prevalence and were significantly associated with a reduction of 230-287 sticks in per capita cigarette consumption, compared to countries without GWLs. However, the association between GWLs and cigarette consumption became statistically insignificant once country indicators were included in the models. Conclusions : The implementation of GWLs may be associated with reduced cigarette smoking.

  8. Impact of Tobacco Control Interventions on Smoking Initiation, Cessation, and Prevalence: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Policymakers need estimates of the impact of tobacco control (TC policies to set priorities and targets for reducing tobacco use. We systematically reviewed the independent effects of TC policies on smoking behavior. Methods. We searched MEDLINE (through January 2012 and EMBASE and other databases through February 2009, looking for studies published after 1989 in any language that assessed the effects of each TC intervention on smoking prevalence, initiation, cessation, or price participation elasticity. Paired reviewers extracted data from studies that isolated the impact of a single TC intervention. Findings. We included 84 studies. The strength of evidence quantifying the independent effect on smoking prevalence was high for increasing tobacco prices and moderate for smoking bans in public places and antitobacco mass media campaigns. Limited direct evidence was available to quantify the effects of health warning labels and bans on advertising and sponsorship. Studies were too heterogeneous to pool effect estimates. Interpretations. We found evidence of an independent effect for several TC policies on smoking prevalence. However, we could not derive precise estimates of the effects across different settings because of variability in the characteristics of the intervention, level of policy enforcement, and underlying tobacco control environment.

  9. Changes in smoking, sports participation and overweight: Does neighborhood prevalence matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, D.J.; Vlas, S.J. de; Empelen, P. van; Richardus, J.H.; Lenthe, F.J. van

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether the prevalence of health-related behaviors and overweight in neighborhoods is associated with changes in smoking, sports participation and overweight over 13 years of follow-up in Dutch adults residing in 86 neighborhoods of Eindhoven in 1991. We showed that living in

  10. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...

  11. The Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents in Marivan city- Iran: Based on Health Belief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseh Ghaderi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Cigarette smoking is a common problem among teenagers. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cigarette Smoking among Teen Boys in Marivan city, based on Health Belief Model. Materials and Methods A cluster randomized sample of 470 male students with16.2±2.5   from 6 secondary schools of Marivan city- Iran, completed a self-report and questionnaire consisting of Health Belief Model constructs Data was analyzed by Chi-square and independent t-test, using SPSS-16. Results The rate of smoking the cigarette among students was 21/470 (4.7%. The experience of smoking in the last 30 days and throughout life reported 6.4% and 34.7% respectively. Significant differences between smokers and nonsmokers were found for perceived benefits (P

  12. The Comparison of Hookah Smoking Prevalence in Medical Students between 2009 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Nakhostin-Roohi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hookah smoking is increasing worldwide. It is estimated the worldwide prevalence of daily hookah smoking is 100 million. The aim of this study was to compare hookah smoking prevalence in Islamic Azad University medical students in the city of Ardabil between 2009 and 2014. Method: Of 2956 Islamic Azad University medical students, Ardabil branch, almost 25% of students {737 students (226 males vs. 511 females; 436 subjects at 2009 vs. 301 subjects at 2014} were randomly selected to participate in this survey. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used after verbal informed consent according to the Review Committee of Ardabil Branch Islamic Azad University Medicine School approved protocol. A cluster sampling technique was used. The questions focused on gender, hookah smoking status, and students’ replies for the following issues: (1 Kind of hookah (2 Frequency of smoking (3 Motivation of hookah use (4 Place of smoking use (5 and Second-hand exposure to hookah. Results: Hookah use showed significant decrease in male students compared with five years ago (P<0.05. Frequency of molasses (tobacco with sweetened fruit flavors and mild aromatic smoke use has significantly enhanced among both genders in 2014 compared with 2009 (P<0.05. Furthermore, second-hand exposure to hookah was significantly higher among both nonsmoker genders at 2014 compared with 2009 (32.7% at 2014 vs. 13.2% at 2009. Conclusion: Unfortunately, in spite of knowledge promotion among medicine school students in recent years, hookah use is still prevalent among medical students. Molasses use has significantly increased and second hand exposure to tobacco has escalated since 2009.

  13. Prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among population aged 15 years or older, Vietnam, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-04-18

    The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45-54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking.

  14. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and associated factors among secondary school teachers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A; Jawad, Ammar A; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2012-01-01

    The smoking prevalence in Malaysia is high, especially among men and adolescents. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors towards cigarette smoking among school teachers in Malaysia. This study was a school-based cross-sectional study conducted among 495 secondary school teachers. The questionnaire used in this study consisted of 29 questions categorized into two sections: socio-demographic characteristics and smoking behaviour. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program 13.0. ANOVA; t-tests were used in univariate analysis; multiple linear regression was applied for multivariate analysis. The majority of the participants were female (81.6%), in the age group ranged between 30-39 years (44%), Malay (90.1%), married (89.7%), degree holders (85.1%), with monthly income ranged between 3000-3999 Ringgit Malaysia (33.5%), from urban areas (94.7%), their specialty is social studies (33.9%) and with no family history of cancer (83.6%). The prevalence of smoking among school teachers in Malaysia was found to be 7.8%. Regarding reasons to start smoking among school teachers: the major reason was found to be relaxation (33.3%), followed by stress-relief (28.2%). Univariate analysis showed that sex, educational status, monthly income and residency were significantly associated with smoking among school teachers (pMalaysia was found to be relatively low. Sex, marital status, educational status, monthly income and residency were significantly associated with smoking among school teachers.

  15. Smoking prevalence in Medicaid has been declining at a negligible rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hong Zhu

    Full Text Available In recent decades the overall smoking prevalence in the US has fallen steadily. This study examines whether the same trend is seen in the Medicaid population.National Health Interview Survey (NHIS data from 17 consecutive annual surveys from 1997 to 2013 (combined N = 514,043 were used to compare smoking trends for 4 insurance groups: Medicaid, the Uninsured, Private Insurance, and Other Coverage. Rates of chronic disease and psychological distress were also compared.Adjusted smoking prevalence showed no detectable decline in the Medicaid population (from 33.8% in 1997 to 31.8% in 2013, trend test P = 0.13, while prevalence in the other insurance groups showed significant declines (38.6%-34.7% for the Uninsured, 21.3%-15.8% for Private Insurance, and 22.6%-16.8% for Other Coverage; all P's<0.005. Among individuals who have ever smoked, Medicaid recipients were less likely to have quit (38.8% than those in Private Insurance (62.3% or Other Coverage (69.8%; both P's<0.001. Smokers in Medicaid were more likely than those in Private Insurance and the Uninsured to have chronic disease (55.0% vs 37.3% and 32.4%, respectively; both P's<0.01. Smokers in Medicaid were also more likely to experience severe psychological distress (16.2% for Medicaid vs 3.2% for Private Insurance and 7.6% for the Uninsured; both P's<0.001.The high and relatively unchanging smoking prevalence in the Medicaid population, low quit ratio, and high rates of chronic disease and severe psychological distress highlight the need to focus on this population. A targeted and sustained campaign to help Medicaid recipients quit smoking is urgently needed.

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among 16 to 18 years old boys and girls in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ghobain Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS tool to achieve our objectives. Results: Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls, the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls. The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls. Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Conclusion: Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among 16 to 18 years old boys and girls in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ghobain, Mohammed O; Al Moamary, Mohamed S; Al Shehri, Sulieman N; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S

    2011-07-01

    To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS) tool to achieve our objectives. Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls), the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls). The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls). Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.

  18. Comparison of District-level Smoking Prevalence and Their Income Gaps from Two National Databases: the National Health Screening Database and the Community Health Survey in Korea, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ikhan; Bahk, Jinwook; Kim, Yeon Yong; Lee, Jeehye; Kang, Hee Yeon; Lee, Juyeon; Yun, Sung Cheol; Park, Jong Heon; Shin, Soon Ae; Khang, Young Ho

    2018-02-05

    We compared age-standardized prevalence of cigarette smoking and their income gaps at the district-level in Korea using the National Health Screening Database (NHSD) and the Community Health Survey (CHS). Between 2009 and 2014, 39,049,485 subjects participating in the NHSD and 989,292 participants in the CHS were analyzed. The age-standardized prevalence of smoking and their interquintile income differences were calculated for 245 districts of Korea. We examined between-period correlations for the age-standardized smoking prevalence at the district-level and investigated the district-level differences in smoking prevalence and income gaps between the two databases. The between-period correlation coefficients of smoking prevalence for both genders were 0.92-0.97 in NHSD and 0.58-0.69 in CHS, respectively. When using NHSD, we found significant income gaps in all districts for men and 244 districts for women. However, when CHS was analyzed, only 167 and 173 districts for men and women, respectively, showed significant income gaps. While correlation coefficients of district-level smoking prevalence from two databases were 0.87 for men and 0.85 for women, a relatively weak correlation between income gaps from the two databases was found. Based on two databases, income gaps in smoking prevalence were evident for nearly all districts of Korea. Because of the large sample size for each district, NHSD may provide stable district-level smoking prevalence and its income gap and thus should be considered as a valuable data source for monitoring district-level smoking prevalence and its socioeconomic inequality. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  19. Prevalence and socioeconomic factors associated with smoking in people living with HIV by sex, in Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna d’Arc Lyra Batista

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the world. The prevalence of smoking is higher in people infected with HIV than in the general population. Although it is biologically plausible that smoking increases the morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV/AIDS, few studies in developing countries have analyzed the determinants and consequences of smoking in HIV infected people. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of smoking and identify the socioeconomic factors associated with smoking and smoking cessation in patients with HIV by sex. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with baseline data, obtained from an ongoing prospective cohort study of patients with HIV attending two referral centers in Recife, Northeast Region of Brazil, between July 2007 and October 2009. Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 28.9%. For both sexes, smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol drinking and marijuana use. Among women, smoking was associated with living alone, not being married and illiteracy; and among men, being 40 years or older, low income and using crack. Compared with ex-smokers, current smokers were younger and more likely to be unmarried, heavy drinkers and marijuana users. Conclusions: It is important to incorporate smoking cessation interventions for the treatment of heavy alcohol drinkers and marijuana users with HIV/AIDS, which may increase life expectancy and quality of life, as smoking is related to risk of death, relapse of tuberculosis, and non communicable diseases.

  20. A survey of the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation advice received by inpatients in a large teaching hospital in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bartels, C

    2012-01-06

    BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of smoking are well documented and it is crucial that this modifiable risk factor is addressed routinely. Professional advice can be effective at reducing smoking amongst patients, yet it is not clear if all hospital in-patient smokers receive advice to quit. AIMS: To explore smoking prevalence amongst hospital in-patients and smoking cessation advice given by health professionals in a large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Interviews were carried out over 2 weeks in February 2011 with all eligible in-patients in Beaumont Hospital. RESULTS: Of the 205 patients who completed the survey, 61% stated they had been asked about smoking by a healthcare professional in the past year. Only 44% of current\\/recent smokers stated they had received smoking cessation advice from a health professional within the same timeframe. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to increase rates of healthcare professional-provided smoking cessation advice are urgently needed.

  1. A comparison of UK primary care data with other national data sources for monitoring the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhalwani, Nafeesa N; Tata, Laila J; Coleman, Tim; Fiaschi, Linda; Szatkowski, Lisa

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to assess the potential usefulness of primary care data in the UK for estimating smoking prevalence in pregnancy by comparing the primary care data estimates with those obtained from other data sources. In The Health Improvement Network (THIN) primary care database, we identified pregnant smokers using smoking information recorded during pregnancy. Where this information was missing, we used smoking information recorded prior to pregnancy. We compared annual smoking prevalence from 2000 to 2012 in THIN with measures from the Infant Feeding Survey (IFS), Smoking At Time of Delivery (SATOD), Child Health Systems Programme (CHSP) and Scottish Morbidity Record (SMR). Smoking estimates from THIN data converged with estimates from other sources after 2004, though still do not agree completely. For example, in 2012 smoking prevalence at booking was 11.6% in THIN using data recorded only during pregnancy, compared with 19.6% in SMR data. However, the use of smoking data recorded up to 27 months before conception increased the THIN prevalence to 20.3%, improving the comparability. Under-recording of smoking status during pregnancy results in unreliable prevalence estimates from primary care data and needs improvement. However, in the absence of gestational smoking data, the inclusion of pre-conception smoking records may increase the utility of primary care data. One strategy to improve gestational smoking status recording in primary care could be the inclusion of pregnancy in the Quality and Outcome's Framework as a condition for which smoking status and smoking cessation advice must be recorded electronically in patient records. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  2. Prevalence of and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among female students aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Hai, Phan Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Kinh, Ly Ngoc

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports show a sharp increase in smoking rates among girls. We describe prevalence of cigarette smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among female students aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam and examine the associated factors. We used data from female secondary school students aged 13 to 15 years (grades 8-10) from the 2007 Global Youth Tobacco Survey that was conducted in 9 provinces in Vietnam. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine associations between independent variables with smoking status and susceptibility to smoking. Prevalence of cigarette smoking among girls was 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-1.5), and 1.5% (95% CI, 1.2-1.9) of girls were susceptible to smoking. Having friends who smoke was the strongest predictor of both smoking status and susceptibility to smoking. Attendance at school classes that described the harmful effects of smoking had significant effects in reducing cigarette smoking. Girls who were exposed to billboard cigarette advertising were more likely to be susceptible to smoking than were those who had not seen advertisements. Our findings highlight the need for pursuing school-based intervention programs in Vietnam and for countering tobacco advertising and marketing practices that target young women.

  3. Prevalence and determinants of susceptibility to cigarette smoking among school students in Pakistan: secondary analysis of Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Syeda Kanwal; Zaheer, Sidra; Rao, Saadiyah; Shafique, Kashif

    2014-02-21

    Susceptibility to smoke has been recognized as a strong predictor of smoking experimentation and taking up regular smoking habit. The identification of smoking susceptible individuals and its determinants is important in the efforts to reduce future smoking prevalence. The aims of this study are to estimate prevalence of susceptibility to smoke among adolescents, and identify factors associated with it. Cross sectional data was obtained from Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in three cities of Pakistan in year 2004. Study population consisted of students in grades, 8th, 9th, and 10th; aged 13 to 15 years. Secondary analysis using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the associations between smoking susceptibility and co-variates. Descriptive statistics were reported in proportions, and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were used to report logistic regression analyses. Approximately 12% of nonsmoking students were found susceptible to smoking. Students, who were females (OR = 1.53, 95% CI [1.24-1.89]); whose parents (OR = 1.64, 95% CI [1.35-1.99]); or close friend smoked (OR = 2.77, 95% CI [2.27- 3.40]) were more susceptible to cigarette smoking. Students who had good knowledge about harmful effects of smoking (OR = 0.54, 95% CI [0.43-0.69]); and had access to anti-smoking media (OR = 0.73, 95% CI [0.59-0.89]) were less likely to be susceptible to smoking. Students who were females, had smoking parents, friends or exposure to newspaper/magazines cigarette marketing, were more susceptible to cigarette smoking among Pakistani adolescents. While knowledge of harmful effects of smoking and access to anti-smoking media served as protective factors against susceptibility to smoking.

  4. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipton Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, engage in one-to-one counselling, set a quit date and quit 4 weeks later. Methods This was a descriptive epidemiological study using routinely collected data supplemented by questionnaire information from specialist pregnancy cessation services. Results 13266 of 52370 (25% pregnant women reported being current smokers at maternity booking and 3133/13266 (24% were referred to specialist cessation services in 2005/6. Two main types of specialist smoking cessation support for pregnant women were in place in Scotland. The first involved identification using self-report and carbon monoxide breath test for all pregnant women with routine referral (1936/3352, 58% referred to clinic based support (386, 11.5% engaged. 370 (11% women set a quit date and 116 (3.5% had quit 4 weeks later. The second involved identification by self report and referral of women who wanted help (1195/2776, 43% referred for home based support (377/1954, 19% engaged. 409(15% smokers set a quit date and 119 (4.3% had quit 4 weeks later. Cost of home-based support was greater. In Scotland only 265/8062 (3.2% pregnant smokers identified at maternity booking, living in areas with recognised specialist or good generic services, quit smoking during 2006. Conclusions In Scotland, a small proportion of pregnant smokers are supported to stop. Poor outcomes are a product of current limitations to each step of service provision - identification, referral, engagement and treatment. Many smokers are not asked about smoking

  5. Inquérito sobre prevalência do tabagismo na classe médica brasileira Survey on prevalence of smoking among Brazilian physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Mirra

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS. Apresentar os resultados do inquérito sobre a prevalência atual de fumantes entre os médicos do Brasil, segundo suas especialidades, realizado no período de maio a outubro de 1996. MÉTODO. A amostra utilizada foi de respostas espontâneas, constituída por 11.909 médicos associados pagantes da Associação Médica Brasileira, das várias Unidades da Federação e especialidades médicas. RESULTADOS. Constatou-se que 759 (6,4% são fumantes regulares e 11.150 (93,6% são não-fumantes; 4.085 médicos (34,3% são ex-fumantes. Os maiores índices de não-fumantes estão entre os associados de sociedades de especialidades que possuem programas efetivos de controle do tabagismo (pneumologia, cancerologia, cardiologia e otorrinolaringologia. As regiões geográficas do Norte, Nordeste e Centro-Oeste apresentaram as maiores prevalências de fumantes. O início do fumar está mais presente no grupo de 10-19 anos (72,6%, com distribuição semelhante entre os sexos. Nenhum médico do sexo feminino iniciou o seu vício de fumar antes dos 10 anos de idade. CONCLUSÃO. É de grande importância os médicos receberem informações sobre tabagismo, bem como a realização de programas de seu controle nas sociedades de especialidades e nas federadas da Associação Médica Brasileira.OBJECTIVES. To present the results of the study of the current prevalence of smoking among Brazilian physicians, according to field of specialization. The study was performed in the period from May to October 1996. METHOD. Data were collected by spontaneous reply from 11,909 physicians registered in Brazilian Medical Association, in the various States of Brazil and medical specializations. RESULTS. The results indicated that 759 (6.4% are regular smokers, 11,150 (93.6% are non-smokers and that 4,085 (34.3% are former smokers. The highest rates of non smoking were found among the societies of specialties that have effetive smoking control programs (pneumology

  6. Prevalence of hardcore smoking in the Netherlands between 2001 and 2012: a test of the hardening hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Bommelé

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hardcore smokers are smokers who have smoked for many years and who do not intend to quit smoking. The “hardening hypothesis” states that light smokers are more likely to quit smoking than heavy smokers (such as hardcore smokers. Therefore, the prevalence of hardcore smoking among smokers would increase over time. If this is true, the smoking population would become harder to reach with tobacco control measures. In this study we tested the hardening hypothesis. Methods We calculated the prevalence of hardcore smoking in the Netherlands from 2001 to 2012. Smokers were ‘hardcore’ if they a smoked every day, b smoked on average 15 cigarettes per day or more, c had not attempted to quit in the past 12 months, and d had no intention to quit within 6 months. We used logistic regression models to test whether the prevalence changed over time. We also investigated whether trends differed between educational levels. Results Among smokers, the prevalence of hardcore smoking decreased from 40.8 % in 2001 to 32.2 % in 2012. In the general population, it decreased from 12.2 to 8.2 %. Hardcore smokers were significantly lower educated than non-hardcore smokers. Among the general population, the prevalence of hardcore smoking decreased more among higher educated people than among lower educated people. Conclusions We found no support for the hardening hypothesis in the Netherlands between 2001 and 2012. Instead, the decrease of hardcore smoking among smokers suggests a ‘softening’ of the smoking population.

  7. Urbanization and Daily Exposure to Biomass Fuel Smoke Both Contribute to Chronic Bronchitis Risk in a Population with Low Prevalence of Daily Tobacco Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Catherine H; Jaganath, Devan; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; Johnson, Caroline M; Diette, Gregory B; Wise, Robert A; Checkley, William

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors beyond tobacco smoking associated with chronic bronchitis are not well understood. We sought to describe the prevalence and risk factors of chronic bronchitis across four distinct settings in Peru with overall low prevalence of tobacco smoking yet varying degrees of urbanization, daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke and living at high altitude. We analyzed data of 2,947 participants from rural and urban Puno, Lima and Tumbes including spirometry, blood samples, anthropometry and administered questionnaires about respiratory symptoms. We used multivariable Poisson regression to assess biologic, socioeconomic and environmental risk factors associated with chronic bronchitis. Overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis was 5.9% (95%CI 5.1%-6.9%) with variation by setting: prevalence was lower in semi-urban Tumbes (1.3%) vs. highly urbanized Lima (8.9%), urban Puno (7.0%) and rural Puno (7.8%; p urbanization (PR = 3.34, 95%CI 2.18-5.11) and daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke (PR = 2.00, 95%CI 1.30-3.07) were all associated with chronic bronchitis. We found important variations in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis across settings. Prevalence increased with both urbanization and with daily exposure to biomass fuel smoke. Having chronic bronchitis was also associated with worse patient-centered outcomes including dyspnea, hospitalization and missed workdays.

  8. Smoke-free air laws and asthma prevalence, symptoms, and severity among nonsmoking youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Melanie S; Dockery, Douglas W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the association between smoke-free laws and asthma prevalence, symptoms, and severity among nonsmoking youth (aged 3-15 years). We examined data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey designed to monitor the health and nutritional status of the US population. Survey locations were dichotomized as having or not having at least 1 smoke-free workplace, restaurant, or bar law at the county or state level that covered the entire county population. Asthma prevalence was assessed as self-reported current asthma and as ever having asthma with current symptoms. Asthmatic symptoms included persistent wheeze, chronic night cough, and wheeze-medication use. We also examined asthma severity (asthma attack or emergency-department visit for asthma) and persistent ear infection. Smoke-free laws were not associated with current asthma but were significantly associated with lower odds of asthmatic symptoms (odds ratio [OR]: 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-0.93]) among nonsmoking youth. The association between smoke-free laws and ever having asthma with current symptoms approached significance (OR: 0.74 [95% CI: 0.53-1.03]). Smoke-free laws were associated with lower odds of asthma attacks (OR: 0.66 [95% CI: 0.28-1.56]) and emergency-department visits for asthma (OR: 0.55 [95% CI: 0.27-1.13]), although these results were not statistically significant. Our results suggest that smoke-free laws reduce asthmatic symptoms, including persistent wheeze, chronic night cough, and wheeze-medication use in nonsmoking youth.

  9. Prevalence and Determinants of Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Middle and High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T; Singh, Tushar; Rolle, Italia; Olalekan, Ayo-Yusuf; King, Brian A

    2016-02-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) causes disease and death among nonsmokers. Private settings are major sources of exposure for children. We assessed prevalence and determinants of self-reported SHS exposure in homes and vehicles, as well as school, work, and indoor/outdoor public areas, among US students in grades 6 through 12. Data were from the 2013 National Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 18 406). Self-reported SHS exposure within the past 7 days was assessed overall and by extent of smoke-free home and vehicle rules among never users of 10 tobacco product types. Descriptive statistics were used to compare estimates, and adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated to assess determinants of SHS exposure. Among never tobacco users, 48.0% reported SHS exposure in 1 or more locations, including 15.5% in the home, 14.7% in a vehicle, 16.8% at school, 27.1% at work, and 35.2% in an indoor/outdoor public area. Home exposure was 8.5%, 55.3%, and 79.4% among never tobacco users with complete, partial, or no smoke-free home rules, respectively (P exposure was 7.1%, 44.8%, and 70.2% among never tobacco users with complete, partial, or no smoke-free vehicle rules, respectively (P exposure included current tobacco use, truant behavior, and having tobacco using household members/friends Approximately half of US students in grades 6 through 12 reported exposure to SHS in 2013. Smoke-free home and vehicle rules, coupled with intensified implementation and enforcement of comprehensive smoke-free laws, could help protect youth from this preventable health hazard. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. The prevalence and trends of waterpipe tobacco smoking: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jawad

    Full Text Available Waterpipe tobacco smoking is harmful to health however its prevalence estimates remain uncertain. We aimed to systematically review the medical literature on waterpipe tobacco prevalence and trends.We searched Medline, Embase and ISI Web of Science for 'waterpipe' and its synonyms, without using language or date restrictions. We included any measure of waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence in jurisdictionally representative populations. We stratified findings by prevalence measure (past 30 day, ever, regular or occasional, daily, other or unspecified and age (adults or youth.We included 129 studies reporting 355 estimates for 68 countries. In general, prevalence estimates among adults were highest in the Eastern Mediterranean, and among youth were about equal between Eastern Mediterranean and European regions. Past 30 day use was highest among Lebanese youth (37.2% in 2008, ever use was highest among Lebanese youth in 2002 and Lebanese university students in 2005 (both 65.3%, regular or occasional use was highest in among Iranian university students (16.3% in 2005, and daily use was highest among Egyptian youth (10.4% in 2005. Trend data were limited but most studies reported increased use over time, ranging from 0.3-1.0% per year among youth in the US to 2.9% per year among youth in Jordan (both for past 30 day use. Results were similar for ever use trends. Turkey (2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2010 and Iraq (6.3% in 2008 and 4.8% in 2012 both witnessed decreased waterpipe use.Waterpipe tobacco smoking is most prevalent in Eastern Mediterranean and European countries, and appears higher among youth than adults. Continued surveillance will be important to assess and inform policy measures to control waterpipe tobacco use.

  11. [Economic factors and gender differences in the prevalence of smoking among adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Nelson Leitão

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study that seeks to identify the relevant economic variables in the prevalence of smoking in a group of 37 countries. The chosen methodology was to estimate multiple linear regression using the least square approach. The econometric exercise is performed by gender, seeking to examine whether there are different motivations for cigarette smoking among the adult population of men and women. The results show that although taxation is a common element in the decision of both sexes, the decision to smoke among women is also sensitive to price and other social and cultural factors. These factors were based on the fact that women who live in countries that are part of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development reveal a significantly higher prevalence of cigarette consumption. The evidence presented in this study, therefore, reinforces the perception that taxation is in fact a crucial tool in the control of smoking, but in the specific case of women, higher prices and the promotion of greater equality with men, are also important.

  12. Photoaging smartphone app to reduce smoking prevalence in secondary schools: the smokerface randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titus Josef Brinker

    2018-03-01

    Our research has the potential to pave the way for a new form of low-cost and broadly available school-based tobacco prevention in the form of poster campaigns promoting a free app. Our baseline analysis shows good comparability between the groups at baseline after randomisation and provides new insights into the prevalence of smoking and the use of e-cigarettes among pupils in the 6th and 7th grades in Germany.

  13. Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking in Schizophrenic Patients Compared to Other Hospital Admitted Psychiatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ziaaddini, Hassan; Kheradmand, Ali; Vahabi, Mostafa

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking and some of the related factors among schizophrenic and other hospitalized psychiatric patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 120 patients hospitalized in Shahid Beheshti hospital in Kerman in 2005. Patients were equally devided in two groups of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Sampling was based on statistical census and data were collected using a questionnaire including 27 questions o...

  14. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94); 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28); 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20) ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22)) urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over

  15. Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Hock Kuang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs had been conducted in Malaysia in 10-year intervals from 1986–2006. Based on the latest NHMS survey in 2006, we describe the prevalence of smoking and identify the social and demographic factors associated with smoking among adult males in Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income. Results The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%, which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9% and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%. Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60, primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30, secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11, with tertiary education as the reference group. Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28, with married as the reference group, ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91, Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91, with Indian as the reference group, age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94; 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28; 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20 ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51, with 60 year-old and above as the reference group and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22 urban as reference. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population

  16. Relating smoking, obesity, insulin resistance and ovarian biomarker changes to the final menstrual period (FMP)

    OpenAIRE

    Sowers, MaryFran R.; McConnell, Daniel; Yosef, Matheos; Jannausch, Mary L.; Harlow, Sioban D.; Randolph, John F.

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine if smoking, obesity, and insulin resistance mediated age at final menstrual period (FMP), we examined anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin B, and follicle-stimulating hormone as biomarkers of changing follicle status and ovarian aging. We performed a longitudinal data analysis from a cohort of premenopausal women followed to their FMP. Our results found that smokers had an earlier age at FMP (p

  17. When one is not enough: prevalence and characteristics of homes not adequately protected by smoke alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek-Asa, C; Allareddy, V; Yang, J; Taylor, C; Lundell, J; Zwerling, C

    2005-12-01

    The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has specific recommendations about the number, location, and type of smoke alarms that are needed to provide maximum protection for a household. No previous studies have examined whether or not homes are completely protected according to these guidelines. The authors describe the prevalence and home characteristics associated with compliance to recommendations for smoke alarm installation by the NFPA. Data are from the baseline on-site survey of a randomized trial to measure smoke alarm effectiveness. The trial was housed in a longitudinal cohort study in a rural Iowa county. Of 1005 homes invited, 691 (68.8%) participated. Information about smoke alarm type, placement, and function, as well as home and occupant characteristics, was collected through an on-site household survey. Although 86.0% of homes had at least one smoke alarm, only 22.3% of homes (approximately one in five) were adequately protected according to NFPA guidelines. Fourteen percent of homes had no functioning smoke alarms. More than half of the homes with smoke alarms did not have enough of them or had installed them incorrectly, and 42.4% of homes with alarms had at least one alarm that did not operate. Homes with at least one high school graduate were nearly four times more likely to be fully protected. Homes that had multiple levels, a basement, or were cluttered or poorly cleaned were significantly less likely to be fully protected. These findings indicate that consumers may not be knowledgeable about the number of alarms they need or how to properly install them. Occupants are also not adequately maintaining the alarms that are installed.

  18. [Prevalence of smoking among doctors and paramedical staff in Hospital University Center Mohammed VI, Marrakech].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Farid; Sajiai, Hafsa; Amro, Lamyae

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is a major public health problem. Doctors and paramedical staff are not excluded from this plague. Smoking ban in hospitals originated from government effort to reduce passive smoking. The objectives were to evaluate smoking habits among doctors and paramedical staff in order to implement tobacco control strategy in this study population and to refer them to the smoking-cessation counselling. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of the entire staff of the Hospital University Center Mohammed VI, Marrakech based on the distribution of anonymous questionnaires. A total of 530 questionnaires were distributed, and 380 were returned, a response rate of 71.7%. The study population consisted of 58.2% women (n=221) and 41.8% men (n=159). Doctors (n=220) were the most represented occupational category (57.9%) followed by nurses (31.8%). Smokers (n=62) accounted for 16.3% of our study population; the ex-smokers (n=31) accounted for 8.1% and the non-smokers (n=287) 75.5%. The average age of smokers was 31.1 years, ranging from 22 to 56 years. The prevalence of smoking was 16.3% (n=62) of study population, of whom 32.7% (n=52) among men compared to 4.5% (n=10) among women. The average age of smoking onset was 19 years with a range from 11 to 29 years and with a mean consumption of 9 cigarettes/day. 13% (n=50) of people even smoked narguilé, 9% (n=34) consumed alcohol, and 3% (n=21) cannabis. 67.7% of smokers (n=42) were planning to quit, of whom 30.9% (n=13) in the next 3 months, 52.4% (n=22) in the next 6 months and 16, 7% (n=16) were planning to quit in the year. Several activities encouraged smoking, including night shift, coffee breaks and meals in 90.3% (n=56), 64.3% (n=40) and 61.3% (n=38) of cases respectively. This survey highlights the need to carry out awareness-raising actions to strengthen people motivation to quit smoking and help them during their withdrawal.

  19. Dynamic impact of social stratification and social influence on smoking prevalence by gender: An agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Dingding; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kondo, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Smoking behavior is tightly related to socioeconomic status and gender, though the dynamic and non-linear association of smoking prevalence across socioeconomic status and gender groups has not been fully examined. With a special focus on gender-bound differences in the susceptibility to social influence of surrounding others' behaviors, we developed an agent-based model to explore how socioeconomic disparity between and within gender groups affects changes in smoking prevalence. Our developed base model reasonably reproduced the actual trend changes by gender groups over the past 5 years in Japan. Counterfactual experiments with the developed model revealed that closing within- and between-gender disparities in socioeconomic status had a limited impact on reducing smoking prevalence. To the contrary, greater socioeconomic disparity facilitated the reduction in prevalence among males, but it impeded that reduction in females. The counterfactual scenario with equalizing gender-bound susceptibility to social influence among women to men's level showed a dramatic reduction in female prevalence without changing the reduction in male prevalence. Simulation results may provide alternative explanation of the growing disparity in smoking prevalence despite improved welfare equality observed in many developed countries, and suggest that redistribution policies may have side effects of widening health gap. Instead, social policy to reduce social pressures to smoking and support interventions to enhance resilience to the pressure targeting the vulnerable population (in this study, women) would be a more effective strategy in combating the tobacco epidemic and closing the health gap. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. A survey of smoking prevalence and interest in quitting among social and community service organisation clients in Australia: a unique opportunity for reaching the disadvantaged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social and community service organisations (SCSOs are non-government, not-for-profit organisations that provide welfare services to disadvantaged individuals. SCSOs hold considerable potential for providing smoking cessation support to disadvantaged smokers. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of smoking, interest in quitting and interest in receiving cessation support amongst clients accessing SCSOs. Methods Clients seeking financial or material assistance from three SCSOs in NSW, Australia, between February and October 2010 were invited to complete a 60-item general health touch screen computer survey. This included questions about smoking status, past quit attempts and interest in receiving support to quit smoking from SCSO staff. Results A total of 552 clients were approached to participate during the study period, of which 383 provided consent and completed the survey (69% consent rate. Daily smoking was reported by 53.5% of participants. Occasional smoking (non-daily smoking was reported by a further 7.9% of participants. Most participants had tried to quit smoking in the past (77% and had made an average of two quit attempts (SD = 3.2 lasting longer than 24 hours in the previous 12 months. More than half of all participants (52.8% reported that they would like help from SCSO staff to quit smoking. For those interested in receiving help, the preferred types of help were access to free NRT (77%, cash rewards (52% and non-cash rewards (47% for quitting, and to receive support and encouragement from SCSO staff to quit (45%. Conclusions Smoking rates among clients accessing SCSO are substantially higher than the general population rate of 15.1%. A substantial proportion of clients are interested in quitting and want support from the SCSO to do so.

  1. Smoking prevalence among migrants in the US compared to the US-born and the population in countries of origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizzo R Bosdriesz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Smoking among migrants is known to differ from the host population, but migrants' smoking is rarely ever compared to the prevalence of smoking in their country of origin. The goal of this study is to compare the smoking prevalence among migrants to that of both the US-born population and the countries of origin. Further analyses assess the influence of sex, age at time of entry to the US and education level. METHODS: Data of 248,726 US-born and migrants from 14 countries were obtained from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS from 2006-2007. Data on 108,653 respondents from the corresponding countries of origin were taken from the World Health Survey (WHS from 2002-2005. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking among migrants (men: 14.2%, women: 4.1% was lower than both the US-born group (men: 21.4%, women: 18.1% and countries of origin (men: 39.4%, women: 11.0%. The gender gap among migrants was smaller than in the countries of origin. Age at time of entry to the US was not related to smoking prevalence for migrants. The risk of smoking for high-educated migrants was closer to their US counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The smoking prevalence among migrants is consistently lower than both the country of origin levels and the US level. The theory of segmented assimilation is supported by some results of this study, but not all. Other mechanisms that might influence the smoking prevalence among migrants are the 'healthy migrant effect' or the stage of the smoking epidemic at the time of migration.

  2. Smoking prevalence among lesbian, bisexual and queer women in Sydney remains high: Analysis of trends and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Rachel M; Mooney-Somers, Julie

    2017-07-01

    To investigate smoking prevalence trends and correlates among lesbian, bisexual and queer-identifying (LBQ) women in Sydney, Australia. Data from 5007 respondents to a repeated cross-sectional community survey were used to examine smoking trends between 2004 and 2014. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine smoking correlates. Thirty percent of respondents were current smokers, including 48% of 16 to 24-year-olds. A slight decrease in all-ages smoking over time was not reflected in the youngest age group. LBQ women who smoke have fewer economic, social and psychological resources than both women who never smoke and ex-smokers. High levels of alcohol and illicit drug use are also correlated with current smoking. Population-wide interventions have failed to address the persistently high prevalence of smoking among this sample of LBQ women. Tailored interventions may find utility focusing on personal resilience to deal with general and sexuality-specific stressors, as well as attending to poly-substance use. Acknowledgment of LBQ women as a priority group for tobacco reduction is urgently needed. We call on tobacco control agencies to consider sexuality and gender orientation in policy and partner with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community organisations to develop culturally appropriate interventions. [Deacon RM, Mooney-Somers J Smoking prevalence among lesbian, bisexual and queer women in Sydney remains high: Analysis of trends and correlates Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:546-554]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  3. What is the role of tobacco control advertising intensity and duration in reducing adolescent smoking prevalence? Findings from 16 years of tobacco control mass media advertising in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Victoria M; Durkin, Sarah J; Coomber, Kerri; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2015-03-01

    To examine how the intensity and duration of tobacco control advertising relate to adolescent smoking prevalence. Australian students (aged 12-17 years) participating in a national survey conducted triennially between 1993 and 2008 (sample size range 12 314-16 611). The outcome measure was students' smoking in the previous 4 weeks collected through anonymous, self-completed surveys. For each student, monthly targeted rating points (TRPs, a measure of television advertising exposure) for tobacco control advertising was calculated for the 3 and 12 months prior to surveying. For each time period, cumulative TRPs exposure and exposure to three intensity levels (≥100 TRPs/month; ≥400 TRPs/month; ≥800 TRPs/month) over increasing durations (eg, 1 month, 2 months, etc) were calculated. Logistic regression examined associations between TRPs and adolescent smoking after controlling for demographic and policy variables. Past 3-month cumulative TRPs were found to have an inverse relationship with smoking prevalence. Low TRPs exposure in the past 12 months was positively associated with adolescent smoking prevalence. However, smoking prevalence reduced with cumulative exposure levels above 5800 cumulative TRPs. Additionally, exposure to ≥400 TRPs/month and ≥800 TRPs/month were associated with reduced likelihood of smoking, although the duration needed for this effect differed for the two intensity levels. When intensity was ≥400 TRPs/month, the odds of smoking only reduced with continuous exposure. When intensity was ≥800 TRPs/month, exposure at levels less than monthly was associated with reductions in smoking prevalence. Both antismoking advertising intensity and duration are important for ensuring reductions in adolescent smoking prevalence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Tobacco marketing awareness on youth smoking susceptibility and perceived prevalence before and after an advertising ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Crawford; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Brown, Abraham; Hastings, Gerard B

    2008-10-01

    The Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act (TAPA) was implemented in the United Kingdom in 2003. This study is the first to assess its impact on young people, examining smoking susceptibility (intention to smoke among never smokers) and perceived prevalence across three British cross-sectional samples (aged 11-16) before and after the introduction of the ban. Three in-home surveys (n = 1078, 1121 and 1121) were conducted before (1999 and 2002) and after (2004) the implementation of the TAPA. Significant declines in awareness of tobacco marketing and perceived prevalence occurred across the three waves. Higher levels of awareness and perceived prevalence were associated with increased susceptibility, but direct measures of susceptibility remained stable. The TAPA is protecting young people in United Kingdom from tobacco marketing and reducing perceived prevalence, both of which are linked to susceptibility. The stability of susceptibility across the three waves is probably best explained by both the partial implementation of TAPA at the final survey point and the time such effects take to emerge. The evidence from this and previous studies is, however, that, ultimately, they will appear.

  5. [Eradication of opium smoking in Taiwan during the Japanese colonial period (1895-1945)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Nai-Shin

    2008-03-01

    Eradication of opium smoking during the Japanese colonial period is one of the most proud medical accomplishments in Taiwan. The mission was accomplished mainly due to a governmental policy of gradual prohibition in 1897 and the establishment of the Government Center Hospital for Opium Addicts in 1930. Professor Tsungming Tu, medical director of the Government Center Hospital, was responsible for the unique medical treatment of opium addiction there. The latter consisted of an immediate withdrawal of opium smoking which was partly substituted by small amounts of morphine in gradual reduction, and at the same time special pills were given to enhance the sympathetic activity also to lessen the withdrawal symptoms. By such treatment, the habit of opium smoking could often be eliminated in a few weeks. The success rate was 46%. Shortly after the World War II, the number of opium smokers in Taiwan became negligible. In early colonial period, however, there were grass roots movements as well as private efforts by physicians of Western medicine to treat opium addiction. In 1898, the Flying Phoenix Society which was a laymen organization worshipping deities began to use supernatural power to force the addicts to stop opium smoking. More than thirty thousand were enlisted and the success rate was 58%. In 1908, the enthabitual treatment in a private correction infirmary called 'Newmatou' consisted of a substitute treatment using morphine to replace opium and a gradual reduction in morphine dosage afterwards. All addicts were hospitalized until treatment goal was achieved. Among 55 addicts thus treated, 53 (96%) were ridded of opium smoking habit. The treatment method was almost identical to that employed by Professor Tu. Another physician, Dr. Ching-yue Lin, who worked at the Red Cross Hospital in Taipei, also used substitute treatment, replacing opium by heroine, and obtained a success rate of 80%. Dr. Lin published his comprehensive study on opium addiction and treatment

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Smoking among Low-Income Adults Residing in New York City Public Housing Developments-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, A; Lopez, P M; Wyka, K; Islam, N; Seidl, L; Drackett, E; Mata, A; Pinzon, J; Baker, M R; Lopez, J; Trinh-Shevrin, C; Shelley, D; Bailey, Z; Maybank, K A; Thorpe, L E

    2017-08-01

    To guide targeted cessation and prevention programming, this study assessed smoking prevalence and described sociodemographic, health, and healthcare use characteristics of adult smokers in public housing. Self-reported data were analyzed from a random sample of 1664 residents aged 35 and older in ten New York City public housing developments in East/Central Harlem. Smoking prevalence was 20.8%. Weighted log-binomial models identified to be having Medicaid, not having a personal doctor, and using health clinics for routine care were positively associated with smoking. Smokers without a personal doctor were less likely to receive provider quit advice. While most smokers in these public housing developments had health insurance, a personal doctor, and received provider cessation advice in the last year (72.4%), persistently high smoking rates suggest that such cessation advice may be insufficient. Efforts to eliminate differences in tobacco use should consider place-based smoking cessation interventions that extend cessation support beyond clinical settings.

  7. Impact of a pay-for-performance incentive on support for smoking cessation and on smoking prevalence among people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Christopher; Gray, Jeremy; Saxena, Sonia; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Majeed, Azeem

    2007-06-05

    Many people with diabetes continue to smoke despite being at high risk of cardiovascular disease. We examined the impact of a pay-for-performance incentive in the United Kingdom introduced in 2004 as part of the new general practitioner contract to improve support for smoking cessation and to reduce the prevalence of smoking among people with chronic diseases such as diabetes. We performed a population-based longitudinal study of the recorded delivery of cessation advice and the prevalence of smoking using electronic records of patients with diabetes obtained from participating general practices. The survey was carried out in an ethnically diverse part of southwest London before (June-October 2003) and after (November 2005-January 2006) the introduction of a pay-for-performance incentive. Significantly more patients with diabetes had their smoking status ever recorded in 2005 than in 2003 (98.8% v. 90.0%, p lower among women (adjusted odds ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.53-0.95) but was not significantly different in the most and least affluent groups. In 2005, smoking rates continued to differ significantly with age (10.6%-25.1%), sex (women, 11.5%; men, 20.6%) and ethnic background (4.9%-24.9%). The introduction of a pay-for-performance incentive in the United Kingdom increased the provision of support for smoking cessation and was associated with a reduction in smoking prevalence among patients with diabetes in primary health care settings. Health care planners in other countries may wish to consider introducing similar incentive schemes for primary care physicians.

  8. Prospective Analysis of the Influence of Sport and Educational Factors on the Prevalence and Initiation of Smoking in Older Adolescents from Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Zenic

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of smoking among Croatian adolescents is alarmingly high, but no previous study has prospectively examined the sport- and academic-factors associated with smoking and smoking initiation. This study aimed to prospectively examine the associations between scholastic (educational achievement and sport factors and smoking in 16- to 18-year-old adolescents. This two-year prospective cohort study included 644 adolescents who were 16 years of age at baseline (46% females. Baseline testing was implemented at the beginning of the 3rd year of high school (September 2014 when participants were 16 years old. Follow-up testing was completed at the end of the fourth year of high school, which occurred 20 months later. The evaluated predictor variables were educational-achievement- and sport-related-factors. The outcome variables were (i smoking at baseline; (ii smoking at follow-up; and (iii smoking initiation over the course of the study. We assessed the associations between predictors and outcomes using logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, and conflict with parents. The educational variables were consistently associated with smoking, with lower grade-point-average (Baseline: odd ratio (OR: 2.01, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.61–2.55; Follow-up: 1.59, 1.31–1.94, more frequent absence from school (Baseline: OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.19–1.69; Follow-up: 1.30, 1.08–1.58, and lower behavioral grades (Baseline: OR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.10–2.89; Follow-up: 1.57, 1.03–2.41 in children who smoke. Adolescents who reported quitting sports were at greater odds of being smokers (Baseline: 2.07, 1.31–3.32; Follow-up: 1.66, 1.09–2.56. Sport competitive achievement at baseline was protective against smoking initiation during following two-year period (0.45, 0.21–0.91. While the influence of the educational variables on smoking initiation has been found to be established earlier; sport achievement was identified

  9. The Association between Warning Label Requirements and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Education-Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; He, Yanyun; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2017-01-21

    The Guidelines for the implementation of Article 11 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) require that cigarette health warning labels should include pictures and take up 50% or more of the principal display area. This study examined how the association between large pictorial warnings, those covering ≥50% of the front and back of the package, and the prevalence of cigarette smoking varies by educational attainment. We pooled individual-level tobacco use data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in 18 countries between 2008 and 2013 and linked them with warning label requirements during the same period from the MPOWER database and reports regarding warnings. The respondents' self-reported exposure to warnings was examined according to education. Logistic regressions were further employed to analyze education-specific associations between large pictorial warnings and smoking prevalence, and whether such association differed by education was examined using an interaction test. At the time of the survey, eight out of 18 countries had imposed graphic warning labels that covered ≥50% of the package. These warnings were associated with a 10.0% (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97; p ≤ 0.01) lower cigarette smoking prevalence among adults with less than a secondary education or no formal education, but not among respondents with at least a secondary education. Less educated respondents were also less likely to be exposed to warnings in all 18 countries. The association between strong warnings and lower smoking prevalence among less educated respondents could be greater if their exposure to warnings increases. Prominent pictorial warning labels can potentially reduce health disparities resulting from smoking across different education levels.

  10. The Association between Warning Label Requirements and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence by Education-Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Guidelines for the implementation of Article 11 of the World Health Organization (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC require that cigarette health warning labels should include pictures and take up 50% or more of the principal display area. This study examined how the association between large pictorial warnings, those covering ≥50% of the front and back of the package, and the prevalence of cigarette smoking varies by educational attainment. Methods: We pooled individual-level tobacco use data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS in 18 countries between 2008 and 2013 and linked them with warning label requirements during the same period from the MPOWER database and reports regarding warnings. The respondents’ self-reported exposure to warnings was examined according to education. Logistic regressions were further employed to analyze education-specific associations between large pictorial warnings and smoking prevalence, and whether such association differed by education was examined using an interaction test. Results: At the time of the survey, eight out of 18 countries had imposed graphic warning labels that covered ≥50% of the package. These warnings were associated with a 10.0% (OR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97; p ≤ 0.01 lower cigarette smoking prevalence among adults with less than a secondary education or no formal education, but not among respondents with at least a secondary education. Less educated respondents were also less likely to be exposed to warnings in all 18 countries. The association between strong warnings and lower smoking prevalence among less educated respondents could be greater if their exposure to warnings increases. Conclusions: Prominent pictorial warning labels can potentially reduce health disparities resulting from smoking across different education levels.

  11. Smoking in Ghana: a study of the history of tobacco industry activity, current prevalence and risk factors for smoking, and implementation of tobacco control policy

    OpenAIRE

    Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud There has been relatively little research on the prevalence and use of tobacco products in developing countries, where the majority of morbidity and mortality from tobacco use in this century is expected to occur. This is particularly true of countries in Africa. I conducted this study in the Ashanti region of Ghana, primarily to measure prevalence and risk factors for smoking, and secondarily to develop a template for national surveys in similar settings in developing count...

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of young adult smokers in the U.S. in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mary E; Sabado, Melanie; Choi, Kelvin

    2018-09-01

    The precontemplation stage of smoking cessation refers to having no intention to quit smoking in the next six months. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of and characteristics associated with the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation among U.S. young adult smokers to inform the development of targeted interventions. We analyzed data in 2017 from the 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey. Young adult (18-29 years old) daily and non-daily smokers were included (n = 1809). We applied weighted multiple logistic regression models to examine the associations between demographics, tobacco use behaviors, exposure to pro- and anti-tobacco messages, and the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation. 59.0% of U.S. young adult smokers are in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation. Unemployment was positively associated with being in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation (AOR = 1.42 95% CI = 1.05, 1.91). Smoking every day (vs. some days), more cigarettes smoked per day, using roll-your-own cigarettes (vs. manufactured cigarettes only), currently smoking cigars, and signing up for promotional offers were positively associated with being in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation (p Non-Hispanic Black was negatively associated with precontemplation stage (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.27, 0.59). Not smoking after viewing a health warning on a cigarette pack was negatively associated with the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation (AOR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.25, 0.51). Many U.S. young adult smokers classify as being in the precontemplation stage of smoking cessation. Interventions to motivate these smokers to quit smoking with considerations of their specific characteristics (e.g., being unemployed) are warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Malawi: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muula, A S; Siziya, S; Rudatsikira, E

    2008-07-01

    The majority of adults who smoke cigarettes initiated the habit when they were adolescents or young adults. While rates of smoking and associated factors are known among 13-15 year olds in Malawi, correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents in a national representative sample in Malawi have not been studied. We, therefore, carried out this study to estimate the prevalence of current smoking and determine its correlates in a nationally representative sample of in-school adolescents in Malawi. An analysis of the Malawi Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) 2005 was conducted. Using logistic regression analysis, we estimated the association between current cigarette smoking and potential explanatory variables. Overall, 2.5% of adolescents (3.2% among males, and 1.8% among females) were current cigarette smokers. Smoking among parents was 9.6% with no significant difference between males and females (10.3% versus 10.1%). Stronger associations with smoking were observed for friends smoking status (AOR=3.07, 95%CI 2.99, 3.16), receiving pocket money (AOR=3.06, 95%CI 2.98, 3.14), and perception that smoking increases body weight (AOR=2.98, 95%CI 2.81, 3.16). Students who thought that cigarette smoking is harmful to health were 56% (AOR=0.44, 95%CI 0.43, 0.45) less likely to smoke than students who thought otherwise. Despite being the world's second leading grower of tobacco, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescent is lower than has been reported elsewhere.

  14. Estimating the Impact of Raising Prices and Eliminating Discounts on Cigarette Smoking Prevalence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynak, Kristy L; Xu, Xin; Wang, Xu; Holmes, Carissa Baker; Tynan, Michael A; Pechacek, Terry

    2016-01-01

    The average retail price per pack of cigarettes is less than $6, which is substantially lower than the $10 per-pack target established in 2014 by the Surgeon General to reduce the smoking rate. We estimated the impact of three cigarette pricing scenarios on smoking prevalence among teens aged 12-17 years, young adults aged 18-25 years, and adults aged ≥26 years, by state: (1) $0.94 federal tax increase on cigarettes, as proposed in the fiscal year 2017 President's budget; (2) $10 per-pack retail price, allowing discounts; and (3) $10 per-pack retail price, eliminating discounts. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to generate point estimates of reductions in cigarette smoking prevalence by state. We found that each price scenario would substantially reduce cigarette smoking prevalence. A $10 per-pack retail price eliminating discounts could result in 637,270 fewer smokers aged 12-17 years; 4,186,954 fewer smokers aged 18-25 years; and 7,722,460 fewer smokers aged ≥26 years. Raising cigarette prices and eliminating discounts could substantially reduce cigarette smoking prevalence as well as smoking-related death and disease.

  15. Prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure in asthmatic children at home and in the car: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Antunes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe prevalence at home and inside the car between asthmatic and non-asthmatic Portuguese children. Materials and methods: This is a cross-sectional study that assessed children's SHSe in a representative sample of nine Portuguese cities. A validated self-reported questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 4th grade students during the school year of 2010/2011. The asthma prevalence was defined by the answers to three questions regarding asthma symptoms, medication and inhaler use. We performed chi-square tests and analysed frequencies, contingency tables, confidence intervals, and odd-ratios. Results: The self-reported questionnaire was administered to 3187 students. Asthma prevalence was 14.8% (472 students. Results showed that 32.3% of non-asthmatic children and 32.4% of asthmatic children were exposed to secondhand smoke as at least one of their household members smoked at home. The prevalence of parental smoking, smoking among fathers and smoking among mothers at home was also similar in both groups (asthmatic and non-asthmatic children. SHSe inside the car was 18.6% among non-asthmatic children and 17.9% among asthmatic children. Conclusions: Asthmatic and non-asthmatic children were equally exposed to secondhand smoke, because no significant differences were found between the two groups concerning the prevalence of SHSe at home and inside the car. These findings highlight the need to include SHSe brief advice in paediatric asthma management. Keywords: Secondhand smoke, Children, Asthma

  16. Prevalence of COPD and respiratory symptoms associated with biomass smoke exposure in a suburban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-Venegas A

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Alejandra Ramírez-Venegas,1 Mónica Velázquez-Uncal,1 Rosaura Pérez-Hernández,2 Nicolás Eduardo Guzmán-Bouilloud,1 Ramcés Falfán-Valencia,3 María Eugenia Mayar-Maya,4 Adrian Aranda-Chávez,1 Raúl H Sansores5 1Tobacco Smoking and COPD Research Department, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosio Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Research Department of Tobacco Smoking, Centro de Investigacion de Salud Poblacional, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Mexico; 3HLA Laboratory, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosio Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico; 4Medical Attention Department, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosio Villegas, Mexico City, Mexico; 5Medica Sur Clinic & Foundation, Mexico City, Mexico Introduction: Biomass smoke exposure (BSE is a recognized cause of COPD particularly in rural areas. However, little research has been focused on BSE in suburban areas. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of COPD, respiratory symptoms (RS and BSE in women living in a suburban area of Mexico City exposed to BSE. Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey of a female population aged >35 years was performed using a multistage cluster sampling strategy. The participants completed questionnaires on RS and COPD risk factors. The COPD prevalence was based on the postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC ratio. Of the 1,333 women who completed the respiratory questionnaires, spirometry data were obtained from 1,190, and 969 of these were scored as A–C. Results: The prevalence of BSE was 47%, and the estimated prevalence of COPD was 2.5% for the total population (n=969 and 3.1% for those with BSE only. The spirometry and oximetry values were significantly lower in women with greater exposure levels. The prevalence of RS (cough, phlegm, wheezing and dyspnea was significantly higher in the

  17. Cigarette smoking in male patients with chronic schizophrenia in a Chinese population: prevalence and relationship to clinical phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yang Zhang

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of smoking in schizophrenia of European background may be related to smoking's reducing clinical symptoms and medication side effects. Because smoking prevalence and its associations with clinical phenotypes are less well characterized in Chinese than European patients with schizophrenia, we assessed these smoking behaviors using clinician-administered questionnaires and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND in 776 Chinese male schizophrenia and 560 control subjects. Patients also were rated on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS, the Simpson and Angus Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (SAES, and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS. We found that the schizophrenia patients had a higher lifetime incidence of smoking (79% vs 63%, were more likely to be heavy smokers (61% vs 31%, and had lower smoking cessation rates (4% vs 9% (all p0.05 than the non-smoking patients. These results suggest that Chinese males with schizophrenia smoke more frequently than the general population. Further, smokers with schizophrenia may display fewer negative symptoms and possibly less parkinsonism than non-smokers with schizophrenia.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of smoking among urban adult men in Bangladesh: slum versus non-slum comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Mobarak Hossain; Khan, Aklimunnessa; Kraemer, Alexander; Mori, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    Background Smoking is one of the leading causes of premature death particularly in developing countries. The prevalence of smoking is high among the general male population in Bangladesh. Unfortunately smoking information including correlates of smoking in the cities especially in the urban slums is very scarce, although urbanization is rapid in Bangladesh and slums are growing quickly in its major cities. Therefore this study reported prevalences of cigarette and bidi smoking and their correlates separately by urban slums and non-slums in Bangladesh. Methods We used secondary data which was collected by the 2006 Urban Health Survey. The data were representative for the urban areas in Bangladesh. Both slums and non-slums located in the six City Corporations were considered. Slums in the cities were identified by two steps, first by using the satellite images and secondly by ground truthing. At the next stage, several clusters of households were selected by using proportional sampling. Then from each of the selected clusters, about 25 households were randomly selected. Information of a total of 12,155 adult men, aged 15–59 years, was analyzed by stratifying them into slum (= 6,488) and non-slum (= 5,667) groups. Simple frequency, bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS. Results Overall smoking prevalence for the total sample was 53.6% with significantly higher prevalences among men in slums (59.8%) than non-slums (46.4%). Respondents living in slums reported a significantly (P slums (44.6%). A similar pattern was found for bidis (slums = 11.4% and non-slums = 3.2%, P slums as compared to those living in non-slums when controlled for age, division, education, marital status, religion, birth place and types of work. Division, education and types of work were the common significant correlates for both cigarette and bidi smoking in slums and non-slums by multivariable logistic regressions. Other significant correlates of

  19. The Prevalence of Exposure to Workplace Secondhand Smoke in the United States: 2010 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang

    2017-11-01

    To compare changes in exposure to workplace secondhand smoke (SHS) by industry of employment and occupation from 2010 to 2015. Data were collected from 2010 and 2015 National Health Interview Survey. Weighted estimates of the prevalence of exposure to workplace SHS among currently working nonsmokers in 2010 (n = 12 627) and 2015 (n = 16 399) were compared. The prevalence of exposure to workplace SHS among currently working nonsmokers was 10.0% in 2015 and 9.5% in 2010. Exposure to workplace SHS is disproportionally high among male workers, young workers, non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, workers with low education and low income, and workers residing in the Southern United States. Tobacco control policies have effectively reduced exposure to workplace SHS in a few white-collar and service job categories but blue-collar workers remain to have a high prevalence of exposure to workplace SHS. From 2010 to 2015, "transportation and warehousing industries" had the largest increase in SHS exposure (13.3%-21.5%, p value = .004) and "arts, entertainment, and recreation industries" had the largest decline in prevalence of exposure to SHS (20.1%-11.5%, p value = .01). In the multivariate analysis, workers with service (aOR = 1.4, p workplace SHS than those with white-collar occupations. Disparities of SHS exposure by industry, occupation, and social demographic class continue to exist. Blue-collar workers, especially those working in "transportation and construction industries," along with young workers and workers in high risk social classes are priority groups for future workplace SHS prevention. An estimated 12.6 million working nonsmokers were regularly exposed to SHS at work in 2015. We compared the changes in prevalence of exposure to workplace SHS from 2010 to 2015 by social demographic class, industry of employment and occupation. Our findings could help inform the policymakers and health practitioners to establish stronger smoke-free air laws and conduct education

  20. Prevalence of secondhand smoke exposure in asthmatic children at home and in the car: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, H; Precioso, J; Araújo, A C; Machado, J C; Samorinha, C; Rocha, V; Gaspar, Â; Becoña, E; Belo-Ravara, S; Vitória, P; Rosas, M; Fernandez, E

    2016-01-01

    To compare secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) prevalence at home and inside the car between asthmatic and non-asthmatic Portuguese children. This is a cross-sectional study that assessed children's SHSe in a representative sample of nine Portuguese cities. A validated self-reported questionnaire was administered to a random sample of 4th grade students during the school year of 2010/2011. The asthma prevalence was defined by the answers to three questions regarding asthma symptoms, medication and inhaler use. We performed chi-square tests and analysed frequencies, contingency tables, confidence intervals, and odd-ratios. The self-reported questionnaire was administered to 3187 students. Asthma prevalence was 14.8% (472 students). Results showed that 32.3% of non-asthmatic children and 32.4% of asthmatic children were exposed to secondhand smoke as at least one of their household members smoked at home. The prevalence of parental smoking, smoking among fathers and smoking among mothers at home was also similar in both groups (asthmatic and non-asthmatic children). SHSe inside the car was 18.6% among non-asthmatic children and 17.9% among asthmatic children. Asthmatic and non-asthmatic children were equally exposed to secondhand smoke, because no significant differences were found between the two groups concerning the prevalence of SHSe at home and inside the car. These findings highlight the need to include SHSe brief advice in paediatric asthma management. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of smoking habits, attitudes, knowledge and beliefs among Health Professional School students: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Ferrante

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine smoking prevalence, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours/beliefs among Health Professional School students according to the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS approach. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Catania University Medical Schools. The GHPSS questionnaires were self-administered. Logistic regression model was performed. The level of significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: 422 students answered to the questionnaire. Prevalence of current smokers was 38.2%. 94.3% of the total sample believe that health professionals should receive specific training to quit smoking, but only 21.3% of the sample received it during the study courses. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of smokers among health professionals and their key role both as advisers and behavioral models, our results highlight the importance of focusing attention on smoking cessation training addressed to them.

  2. Alcohol consumption, smoking, and drug use in pregnancy: Prevalence and risk factors in Southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Saingam, Darika; Apakupakul, Nualta; Edwards, J Guy

    2017-03-01

    Substance use during pregnancy contributes to the risk of adverse health outcomes in mothers and children-in utero and during later development. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of substance use and associated factors in pregnant women receiving antenatal care in public hospitals in Thailand. Women (3578) attending 7 antenatal care clinics in Songkhla for the first time during their current pregnancy were interviewed with a structured questionnaire focusing on demographic data, obstetric history, use of alcohol, tobacco, and other substances, and the General Health Questionnaire was administered. The use of substances was confirmed with the ultrarapid version of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test and urine tests, which were also administered to 1 in 5 to 10 randomly selected women whose screening results were negative. Based on self-reports and General Health Questionnaire results, the weighted prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, or illicit substance use and that of "mental health problems" were 5.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9-6.4) and 29.2% (95% CI, 27.5-30.9), respectively. On the basis of the ultrarapid version of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test and urine tests, the prevalence of likely substance use disorder during the 3 months prior to assessment was 1.2% (95% CI, 0.8-1.5) and 7.7% (95% CI, 4.6-10.7), respectively. Factors associated with substance use were religion, unmarried status, unplanned pregnancy, previous abortion, and current mental health problem. Our results emphasize the need for identification of substance use and mental health problems, with the help of questionnaires and biological markers, followed by early intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors as well as Attitudes and Perceptions towards Tobacco Control in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijun; Yao, Yan; Han, Weiqing; Yu, Yaqin; Liu, Yawen; Tao, Yuchun; Kou, Changgui; Jiang, Lingling; Sun, Qing; Yin, Yutian; Zhang, Huiping; Li, Bo

    2015-07-22

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), the associated factors of current smoking among adults, and their attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 using a self-reported questionnaire. A representative sample of adults aged 18-79 years was collected in the Jilin Province of Northeast China by a multistage stratified random cluster sampling design. Descriptive data analysis was conducted, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prevalence/frequency were calculated to enable comparisons between the alleged differences and similarities. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the risk factors associated with current smoking. 21,435 adults responded to the survey (response rate: 84.9%). The overall prevalence of ever smoking, current smoking, and former smoking or smoking cessation was 39.1% (95% CI: 38.3-39.9), 31.8% (95% CI 31.1-32.6), and 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9-7.7), respectively. The proportion of ETS exposure among adult non-smokers in Jilin Province was 61.1% (95% CI: 60.1-62.1), and 23.1% (95% CI: 22.3-24.0) of the non-smokers reported daily ETS exposure. The proportion of ETS exposure at home was 33.4% (95% CI: 32.5-34.4), but the proportion of ETS exposure at restaurants was lower (6.5%) (95% CI: 6.0-7.1). More than 90% of the participants had positive attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control, but 23.2% (95% CI: 22.5-24.0) of them did not agree with the perception of "smoking is fully quit in public places", and almost half of the adults (49.5%) (95% CI: 48.7-50.3) did not agree with the perception of "hazards of low-tar cigarettes are equal to general cigarettes". Smoking and exposure to ETS are prevalent among adults from the Jilin Province of Northeast China. Our findings suggest that tobacco control should be advocated in Northeast China. Anti-smoking campaigns and legislation should be built into the

  4. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors as well as Attitudes and Perceptions towards Tobacco Control in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, the associated factors of current smoking among adults, and their attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2012 using a self-reported questionnaire. A representative sample of adults aged 18–79 years was collected in the Jilin Province of Northeast China by a multistage stratified random cluster sampling design. Descriptive data analysis was conducted, and 95% confidence intervals (CI of prevalence/frequency were calculated to enable comparisons between the alleged differences and similarities. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the risk factors associated with current smoking. Results: 21,435 adults responded to the survey (response rate: 84.9%. The overall prevalence of ever smoking, current smoking, and former smoking or smoking cessation was 39.1% (95% CI: 38.3–39.9, 31.8% (95% CI 31.1–32.6, and 7.3% (95% CI: 6.9–7.7, respectively. The proportion of ETS exposure among adult non-smokers in Jilin Province was 61.1% (95% CI: 60.1–62.1, and 23.1% (95% CI: 22.3–24.0 of the non-smokers reported daily ETS exposure. The proportion of ETS exposure at home was 33.4% (95% CI: 32.5–34.4, but the proportion of ETS exposure at restaurants was lower (6.5% (95% CI: 6.0–7.1. More than 90% of the participants had positive attitudes and perceptions towards tobacco control, but 23.2% (95% CI: 22.5–24.0 of them did not agree with the perception of “smoking is fully quit in public places”, and almost half of the adults (49.5% (95% CI: 48.7–50.3 did not agree with the perception of “hazards of low-tar cigarettes are equal to general cigarettes”. Conclusions: Smoking and exposure to ETS are prevalent among adults from the Jilin Province of Northeast China. Our findings suggest that tobacco control should be advocated in

  5. Modelling the implications of reducing smoking prevalence: the public health and economic benefits of achieving a 'tobacco-free' UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Daniel; Knuchel-Takano, André; Jaccard, Abbygail; Bhimjiyani, Arti; Retat, Lise; Selvarajah, Chit; Brown, Katrina; Webber, Laura L; Brown, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Smoking is still the most preventable cause of cancer, and a leading cause of premature mortality and health inequalities in the UK. This study modelled the health and economic impacts of achieving a 'tobacco-free' ambition (TFA) where, by 2035, less than 5% of the population smoke tobacco across all socioeconomic groups. A non-linear multivariate regression model was fitted to cross-sectional smoking data to create projections to 2035. These projections were used to predict the future incidence and costs of 17 smoking-related diseases using a microsimulation approach. The health and economic impacts of achieving a TFA were evaluated against a predicted baseline scenario, where current smoking trends continue. If trends continue, the prevalence of smoking in the UK was projected to be 10% by 2035-well above a TFA. If this ambition were achieved by 2035, it could mean 97 300 +/- 5 300 new cases of smoking-related diseases are avoided by 2035 (tobacco-related cancers: 35 900+/- 4 100; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 29 000 +/- 2 700; stroke: 24 900 +/- 2 700; coronary heart disease: 7600 +/- 2 700), including around 12 350 diseases avoided in 2035 alone. The consequence of this health improvement is predicted to avoid £67 +/- 8 million in direct National Health Service and social care costs, and £548 million in non-health costs, in 2035 alone. These findings strengthen the case to set bold targets on long-term declines in smoking prevalence to achieve a tobacco 'endgame'. Results demonstrate the health and economic benefits that meeting a TFA can achieve over just 20 years. Effective ambitions and policy interventions are needed to reduce the disease and economic burden of smoking. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam District, Kerala, Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The association between secondhand smoke and health outcomes, such as frequent respiratory infections, ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, asthma, and stroke, has long been established. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoking exposure among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district, Kerala, Southern India. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was administered to all students from four randomly selected higher secondary schools in Ernakulam district. Descriptive statistics was done using frequencies and percentages. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done for factors associated with household exposure to tobacco smoke generating odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results: A total of 629 students participated in the study. The prevalence of ever smokers was 11.9% and of current smokers was 5.2%. Among the study participants, 23.2% were exposed to secondhand smoking from a family member and 18.8% from friends. Lower educational status of father was associated with the household exposure to secondhand smoke (adjusted OR 4.51 [95% CI 1.66–12.22]. More than half of the study participants (56.3% reported that they were exposed to cigarette smoke in past 1 week in a public place and 10.2% in closed public places. Nearly one-third of the students reported that they have seen somebody smoking inside school campus in the past 30 days. Conclusion: Exposure to secondhand smoke at home, schools, and public places was higher among the late adolescent higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district. The findings underscore the urgent need for increased efforts to implement the strategies to reduce secondhand smoke exposure among adolescents.

  7. The prevalence of and factors associated with current smoking among College of Health Sciences students, Mekelle University in northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eticha, Tadele; Kidane, Feven

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the greatest causes of preventable morbidity and mortality globally, and is responsible for many causes of untimely deaths. This survey was aimed to determine prevalence and factors associated with current smoking among the students of College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was employed using a structured self-administered questionnaire among College of Health Sciences students in March 2013. A stratified random sampling method was employed to select study participants. Data were entered and analysed using of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Of the 193 students, 57 (29.5%) of the students were current smokers. Most of the current smokers (89.4%) smoked between 1-10 sticks of cigarette per day. The two main reasons cited for smoking cigarettes were peer pressure (43.9%) and to relieve stress (36.8%). Being female (adjusted OR [AOR] = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.95) and Tigre by ethnicity (AOR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.74) were significantly less associated with current smoking. On the other hand, being second year students (AOR = 3.84; 95% CI: 1.41, 10.46), khat chewing (AOR = 8.36; 95% CI: 2.60, 26.85) and taking illicit drugs (AOR = 10.59; 95% CI: 2.77, 40.51) were positively associated with current smoking cigarettes. The current smoking prevalence among students in College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University is high and therefore, effective smoking prevention and cessation intervention programs are required to reduce smoking among university students.

  8. Prevalence of Exposure to Secondhand Smoke among Higher Secondary School Students in Ernakulam District, Kerala, Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh, P S; Lalu, Jishnu Satheesh; Leelamoni, K

    2017-01-01

    The association between secondhand smoke and health outcomes, such as frequent respiratory infections, ischemic heart disease, lung cancer, asthma, and stroke, has long been established. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of secondhand smoking exposure among higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district, Kerala, Southern India. A structured questionnaire was administered to all students from four randomly selected higher secondary schools in Ernakulam district. Descriptive statistics was done using frequencies and percentages. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done for factors associated with household exposure to tobacco smoke generating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 629 students participated in the study. The prevalence of ever smokers was 11.9% and of current smokers was 5.2%. Among the study participants, 23.2% were exposed to secondhand smoking from a family member and 18.8% from friends. Lower educational status of father was associated with the household exposure to secondhand smoke (adjusted OR 4.51 [95% CI 1.66-12.22]). More than half of the study participants (56.3%) reported that they were exposed to cigarette smoke in past 1 week in a public place and 10.2% in closed public places. Nearly one-third of the students reported that they have seen somebody smoking inside school campus in the past 30 days. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home, schools, and public places was higher among the late adolescent higher secondary school students in Ernakulam district. The findings underscore the urgent need for increased efforts to implement the strategies to reduce secondhand smoke exposure among adolescents.

  9. The prevalence and incidence of glaucoma in Denmark in a fifteen year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Horwitz, Anna; Thygesen, John

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, incidence and geographic variation of glaucoma in Denmark in the period from 1996 to 2011. Moreover, the aim was to identify the treatment patterns of glaucoma within the studied period. METHODS: All Danish citizens were...... included throughout the study period. The National Prescription Registry was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication. RESULTS: A total of 116,592 incident glaucoma patients were identified. Average age at onset was 66 years (range: 0-105 years), 55% were women. The prevalence...... of glaucoma increased from 0.79% to 1.72% during the investigated period. In 2011 glaucoma affected 3.76% of the population above 50 years and 10% in patients above 80 years. The age-specific incidence rate of glaucoma seemed to be constant and the increasing prevalence was primarily attributed to an aging...

  10. Prevalence of video game use, cigarette smoking, and acceptability of a video game-based smoking cessation intervention among online adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiff, Bethany R; Jarvis, Brantley P; Rapoza, Darion

    2012-12-01

    Video games may serve as an ideal platform for developing and implementing technology-based contingency management (CM) interventions for smoking cessation as they can be used to address a number of barriers to the utilization of CM (e.g., replacing monetary rewards with virtual game-based rewards). However, little is known about the relationship between video game playing and cigarette smoking. The current study determined the prevalence of video game use, video game practices, and the acceptability of a video game-based CM intervention for smoking cessation among adult smokers and nonsmokers, including health care professionals. In an online survey, participants (N = 499) answered questions regarding their cigarette smoking and video game playing practices. Participants also reported if they believed a video game-based CM intervention could motivate smokers to quit and if they would recommend such an intervention. Nearly half of the participants surveyed reported smoking cigarettes, and among smokers, 74.5% reported playing video games. Video game playing was more prevalent in smokers than nonsmokers, and smokers reported playing more recently, for longer durations each week, and were more likely to play social games than nonsmokers. Most participants (63.7%), including those who worked as health care professionals, believed that a video game-based CM intervention would motivate smokers to quit and would recommend such an intervention to someone trying to quit (67.9%). Our findings suggest that delivering technology-based smoking cessation interventions via video games has the potential to reach substantial numbers of smokers and that most smokers, nonsmokers, and health care professionals endorsed this approach.

  11. Workplace and home smoking restrictions and racial/ethnic variation in the prevalence and intensity of current cigarette smoking among women by poverty status, TUS-CPS 1998-1999 and 2001-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, Vickie L; Fagan, Pebbles; Alexander, Linda A Jouridine; Clayton, Richard; Doucet, Jennifer; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2006-09-01

    Recognition of the health consequences of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke has led government agencies and many employers to establish policies that restrict cigarette smoking in public and workplaces. This cross sectional study examines the association of workplace smoking policies and home smoking restrictions with current smoking among women. Participants were employed US women ages 18-64 who were self respondents to the 1998-1999 or 2000-2001 tobacco use supplement to the current population survey supplements. Cross tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analyses examine the association of selected demographic characteristics, occupation, income, workplace and home smoking policies/restrictions with current smoking, consumption patterns, and quit attempts among women by poverty level for five race/ethnic groups. The prevalence of either having an official workplace or home smoking policy that completely banned smoking increased with increased distance from the poverty level threshold. A complete ban on home smoking was more frequently reported by African American and Hispanic women although Hispanic women less frequently reported an official workplace smoking policy. In general, policies that permitted smoking in the work area or at home were associated with a higher prevalence of current smoking but this varied by poverty level and race/ethnicity. Home smoking policies that permitted smoking were associated with lower adjusted odds of having a least one quit attempt for nearly all poverty level categories but there was no association between having one quit attempt and workplace policies. Home smoking policies were more consistently associated with a lower prevalence of current smoking irrespective of poverty status or race/ethnicity than workplace policies. These findings underscore the importance of examining tobacco control policies in multiple domains (work and home) as well as by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position.

  12. Prevalence and challenge tests of Listeria monocytogenes in Belgian produced and retailed mayonnaise-based deli-salads, cooked meat products and smoked fish between 2005 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttendaele, M; Busschaert, P; Valero, A; Geeraerd, A H; Vermeulen, A; Jacxsens, L; Goh, K K; De Loy, A; Van Impe, J F; Devlieghere, F

    2009-07-31

    Processed ready-to-eat (RTE) foods with a prolonged shelf-life under refrigeration are at risk products for listeriosis. This manuscript provides an overview of prevalence data (n=1974) and challenge tests (n=299) related to Listeria monocytogenes for three categories of RTE food i) mayonnaise-based deli-salads (1187 presence/absence tests and 182 challenge tests), ii) cooked meat products (639 presence/absence tests and 92 challenge tests), and iii) smoked fish (90 presence/absence tests and 25 challenge tests), based on data records obtained from various food business operators in Belgium in the frame of the validation and verification of their HACCP plans over the period 2005-2007. Overall, the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in these RTE foods in the present study was lower compared to former studies in Belgium. For mayonnaise-based deli-salads, in 80 out of 1187 samples (6.7%) the pathogen was detected in 25 g. L. monocytogenes positive samples were often associated with smoked fish deli-salads. Cooked meat products showed a 1.1% (n=639) prevalence of the pathogen. For both food categories, numbers per gram never exceeded 100 CFU. L. monocytogenes was detected in 27.8% (25/90) smoked fish samples, while 4/25 positive samples failed to comply to the 100 CFU/g limit set out in EU Regulation 2073/2005. Challenge testing showed growth potential in 18/182 (9.9%) deli-salads and 61/92 (66%) cooked meat products. Nevertheless, both for deli-salads and cooked meat products, appropriate product formulation and storage conditions based upon hurdle technology could guarantee no growth of L. monocytogenes throughout the shelf-life as specified by the food business operator. Challenge testing of smoked fish showed growth of L. monocytogenes in 12/25 samples stored for 3-4 weeks at 4 degrees C. Of 45 (non-inoculated) smoked fish samples (13 of which were initially positive in 25 g) which were subjected to shelf-life testing, numbers exceeded 100 CFU/g in only one sample

  13. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking prevalence, consumption, initiation, and cessation between 2001 and 2008 in the Netherlands. Findings from a national population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagelhout Gera E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widening of socioeconomic status (SES inequalities in smoking prevalence has occurred in several Western countries from the mid 1970’s onwards. However, little is known about a widening of SES inequalities in smoking consumption, initiation and cessation. Methods Repeated cross-sectional population surveys from 2001 to 2008 (n ≈ 18,000 per year were used to examine changes in smoking prevalence, smoking consumption (number of cigarettes per day, initiation ratios (ratio of ever smokers to all respondents, and quit ratios (ratio of former smokers to ever smokers in the Netherlands. Education level and income level were used as indicators of SES and results were reported separately for men and women. Results Lower educated respondents were significantly more likely to be smokers, smoked more cigarettes per day, had higher initiation ratios, and had lower quit ratios than higher educated respondents. Income inequalities were smaller than educational inequalities and were not all significant, but were in the same direction as educational inequalities. Among women, educational inequalities widened significantly between 2001 and 2008 for smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, and smoking cessation. Among low educated women, smoking prevalence remained stable between 2001 and 2008 because both the initiation and quit ratio increased significantly. Among moderate and high educated women, smoking prevalence decreased significantly because initiation ratios remained constant, while quit ratios increased significantly. Among men, educational inequalities widened significantly between 2001 and 2008 for smoking consumption only. Conclusions While inequalities in smoking prevalence were stable among Dutch men, they increased among women, due to widening inequalities in both smoking cessation and initiation. Both components should be addressed in equity-oriented tobacco control policies.

  14. Prevalence and Trends of Metabolic Syndrome in Slovakia during the Period of 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrihoňová, Tímea; Rimárová, Kvetoslava; Bérešová, Janka; Kontrošová, Silvia; Dorko, Erik; Diabelková, Jana

    2017-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a combination of clinical risk factors for cardiovascular disease as well as for diabetes. Metabolic syndrome arises from insulin resistance accompanied with abnormal adipose deposition. The aim of our cross-sectional time trends study was to characterize the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its five risk determinants among the clients of Health Advice Centres of Regional Public Health Authorities in Slovakia. The study was stratified by gender and age groups during the 10 year period from 2003–2012. Prevalence data were estimated in adults and children (≥10 years, N=79,904) from the nationwide electronic database of Health Advice Centres of Regional Public Health Authorities in Slovak Republic "Test of healthy heart" from 2003 to 2012. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 30.2% in males and 26.6% in females, abdominal obesity was confirmed in 48.3% of males and 53.9% of females. Increased triglyceride level has higher prevalence among males (33.3%) compared to females (24.2%). Blood pressure (BP) values and fasting glucose values were significantly higher in males (58.2%) than females (41.9%). During the 10 year period from 2003 to 2012, we confirmed an increased trend in the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Abdominal obesity and elevated triglycerides had also increased time trends prevalence in both sexes. The prevalence of people without risk determinants of metabolic syndrome had a time decreasing trend. A surprising finding is a decrease in the proportion of persons with suboptimal HDL-cholesterol. The proportion of people with elevated BP and glucose showed little change during the reporting period. The increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, and elevated triglycerides highlights the urgency of addressing these health problems as a healthcare priority to reduce cardiovascular mortality in the Slovak Republic. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  15. Changes in the Prevalence of Tobacco Consumption and the Profile of Spanish Smokers after a Comprehensive Smoke-Free Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Rios, Monica; Fernandez, Esteve; Schiaffino, Anna; Nebot, Manel; Lopez, Maria Jose

    2015-01-01

    A partial smoke-free regulation in Spain was introduced on January 1, 2006, which was subsequently amended to introduce a comprehensive smoke-free policy from 2 January 2011 onward. The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of tobacco consumption in Spain and the profile of smokers before (2006) and after (2011) the comprehensive smoking ban passed in 2010. Two independent, cross-sectional, population-based surveys were carried out among the adult (≥ 18 years old) Spanish population in 2006 and 2011 through telephone interviews. Both surveys used the same methods and questionnaire. Nicotine dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test for nicotine dependence and readiness to quit according to the stages of change. The prevalence of tobacco consumption showed a nonsignificant decrease from 23.4% in 2006 to 20.7% in 2011. No changes were observed in nicotine dependence or readiness to quit. In 2011, most smokers (76%) showed low nicotine dependence and were mainly in the precontemplation stage (72%). The prevalence of smokers has slightly decreased since the introduction of the total smoking ban in Spain. No differences were found in nicotine dependence or readiness to quit.

  16. The combined unhealthy behaviors of breakfast skipping and smoking are associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Midori; Muto, Takashi; Minakawa, Toshihiro; Shibata, Toshie

    2009-08-01

    Skipping breakfast has been considered a representative unhealthy behavior, but there is little information about the combined effects of breakfast skipping and other unhealthy health habits, especially smoking. First this cross-sectional study investigated unhealthy behaviors among breakfast skippers, and then examined the impact of the combined association of skipping breakfast and smoking on health. A total of 1,200 adults living in one Japanese community were sent questionnaires to elicit data on age, gender, breakfast-eating frequency, and other lifestyle habits. A total 603 of people returned their questionnaires (response rate: 50.3%), and 493 (230 men and 263 women) questionnaires were considered appropriate for analysis. Smoking rate in men (mean age, 53.7 years) and women (mean age, 50.4 years) was 41.3%, and 9.5%, respectively. Skipping breakfast was more prevalent in people under age 50 years (p related to other unhealthy behaviors. Binary logistic regression identified current smoking as the most significant factor related to breakfast skipping (3.10, 95%CI 1.50-6.39). Other factors included, age younger than 50 years (3.04, 95%CI 1.31-7.06) and poor sleeping quality (2.06, 95%CI 1.00-4.25). After examining the combined impact of skipping breakfast and smoking, the highest odds ratio for a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was found among those who smoked and skipped breakfast (4.68, 95% CI: 1.46-15.05). Moreover, skipping breakfast among non-smokers showed a high association with perceived stress (2.83, 95% CI: 1.05-7.61). In conclusion, the combined unhealthy behaviors of skipping breakfast and smoking are associated with the prevalence of diabetes mellitus.

  17. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Danish preschool children over a 10-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Mølgaard, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  To determine change in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in preschool children, over a 10-year period and to identify possible predictors of overweight in 5-year-old children. Methods:  Anthropometric data from birth and routine child health examinations at 3 and 5 years of age...... of preschool children, the average BMI and prevalence of overweight and obesity did not vary significantly during the 10-year period. No significant changes in mean birth weight were registered and mean BMI in the group of obese children did not increase. Overweight or obesity at 5 years was strongly...... associated with overweight and obesity at 3 years and with birth weight and gender. Conclusion:  The prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed to be stable over a decade in Danish preschool children without changes in mean BMI in the group of obese children. A strong association between overweight...

  18. Prevalence of smoking before and during pregnancy and changes in this habit during pregnancy in Northwest Russia: a Murmansk county birth registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkova, Olga A; Krettek, Alexandra; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Nieboer, Evert; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2016-03-08

    Smoking during pregnancy leads to adverse maternal and birth outcomes. However, the prevalence of smoking among women in Russia has increased from  20% in the 2000s. We conducted a registry-based study in Murmansk County, Northwest Russia. Our aims were twofold: (i) assess the prevalence of smoking before and during pregnancy; and (ii) examine the socio-demographic factors associated with giving up smoking or reducing the number of cigarettes smoked once pregnancy was established. This study employs data from the population-based Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR) collected during 2006-2011. We used logistic regression to investigate associations between women's socio-demographic characteristics and changes in smoking habit during pregnancy. To avoid departure from uniform risk within specific delivery departments, we employed clustered robust standard errors. Of all births registered in the MCBR, 25.2% of the mothers were smokers before pregnancy and 18.9% continued smoking during pregnancy. Cessation of smoking during pregnancy was associated with education, marital status and parity but not with maternal age, place of residence, and ethnicity. Women aged ≤ 20-24 years had higher odds of reducing the absolute numbers of cigarettes smoked per day during pregnancy than those aged ≥ 30-34 years. Moreover, smoking nulliparae and pregnant women who had one child were more likely to reduce the absolute numbers of cigarettes smoked per day compared to women having ≥ 2 children. About 25.0% of smoking women in the Murmansk County in Northwest Russia quit smoking after awareness of the pregnancy, and one-third of them reduced the number cigarettes smoked during pregnancy. Our study demonstrates that women who have a higher education, husband, and are primiparous are more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy. Maternal age and number of children are indicators that influence reduction in smoking during pregnancy. Our findings are useful in

  19. Respiratory disease mortality among uranium miners as related to height, radiation, smoking, and latent period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.; Gillam, J.D.; James, L.A.

    1975-11-01

    A prospective mortality study using a life table method was done on 3366 white underground uranium miners, and 1231 surface workers. Observed deaths were found to exceed those expected from respiratory cancer, pneumoconiosis and related diseases, and accidents related to work. Exposure - response relationships with radiation varied with cigarette smoking and with height of workers. Of four factors involved in both malignant and nonmalignant respiratory diseases (height, free silica, cigarette smoking and alpha radiation), radiation was considered to be most important

  20. E-cigarette awareness and perceived harmfulness: prevalence and associations with smoking-cessation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L; Bigman, Cabral A

    2014-08-01

    Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are increasingly advertised as replacements for regular cigarettes or cessation aids for smokers. To describe the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette awareness and perceived harmfulness among U.S. adults and analyze whether these variables are associated with smokers' past-year quit attempts and intention to quit. Data were obtained from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4 Cycle 2), conducted from October 2012 to January 2013. Data analyses were performed from June to August 2013. Overall, 77% of respondents were aware of e-cigarettes. Of these, 51% believed e-cigarettes were less harmful than cigarettes. Younger, white (compared with Hispanic), more educated respondents and current or former smokers (compared with non-smokers) were more likely to be aware of e-cigarettes. Among those who were aware of e-cigarettes, younger; men (compared with women); white (compared with African-American); more educated respondents; and current smokers (compared with former and non-smokers) were more likely to believe that e-cigarettes were less harmful. [corrected]. Overall e-cigarette awareness increased whereas the proportion of smokers who perceived less harm of e-cigarettes declined compared with earlier surveys. However, awareness and perceived harm of e-cigarettes did not show evidence of promoting smoking cessation at the population level. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Yazd People’s Point of View about Effect of Visual Media on Smoking Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Baghianimoghadam

    2013-10-01

    Results: Based on participants' view role of family, friends and media respectively were more important in tendency of teenagers and adolescents smoking users. Almost 80 percent of subjects showed that influence of smoking in the media on a positive attitude towards tobacco smoking among adolescents and young people was very high. More than 55% of participants confirmed that the lack of smoking in movies is not effective in quality of the films. It was also confirmed, that in last month advertisements and anti-smoking programs were not seen by participants. Conclusion: The present study suggest control and monitoring on media, limitation or lack of smoking on media and films is an important factor to decreasing and control of smoking in adolescents and young adults.

  2. The Prevalence, Attitudes, and Correlates of Waterpipe Smoking Among High School Students in Iran: a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Reza; Mohammadi, Reza; Dastgiri, Saeed; Viitasara, Eija; Rahimi, Vahab Asl; Jeddi, Abolfazl; Soares, Joaquim

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the correlates of waterpipe (WP) smoking among 15-17-year-old high school students in Iran. Data were collected using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a self-administrated questionnaire distributed to a representative sample of high school students aged 15-17 in the city of Tabriz. Current WP smoking was defined as past 30-day use, and ever WP smoking was defined as at least one or two lifetime puffs. Differences in WP use, knowledge, and attitudes were analyzed using chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Binary logistic regression estimated the association between relevant independent variables (e.g., age) and the dependent variables (current/ever WP smoking). Of 1517 students, 21.6 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] = 19.5, 23.8) were ever WP smokers, and 9.7 % (95 % CI = 8.2, 11.2) were current WP smokers. Of current WP smokers, 40.3 % have stated that they want to stop smoking now. Moreover, 14.1 % of non-WP smokers reported that they might enjoy smoking WP. Of current WP smokers, 49.0 % have smoked at cafés. Additionally, 95.3 % of current WP smokers reported that their age did not prevent them from being served a WP. Studying in high school third grade (adjusted odds ratios (AORs) = 1.70; 95 % CI [1.10, 2.63]), experience of cigarette smoking (AORs = 1.57; 95 % CI [1.12, 2.20]), and being prepared to accept a WP offered by close friends (AORs = 3.31; 95 % CI [2.17, 5.04]) were independently associated with ever WP smoking, and accepting a WP offered by close friends (AORs = 4.36; 95 % CI [2.69, 7.07]) and gender (female) (AORs = 0.45; 95 % CI [0.30, 0.70] were independently associated with current WP smoking. Prevalence of current and ever WP smoking is high in Tabriz. There is an urgent need to design interventions in order to increase students' and their parents' awareness regarding the harmfulness of WP, and to establish legal measures to restrict adolescents

  3. The prevalence of smoking and its associated factors among military personnel in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham I Al-Khashan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to measure the prevalence of smoking and identify its potential predictors among military personnel in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among military personnel in the five military regions of KSA between January 2009 and January 2011. The sample of 10,500 military personnel in the Saudi Armed Forces was equally divided among the five regions with a ratio 3:7 for officers and soldiers. A multistage stratified random sampling was used to recruit participants in the four services of the armed forces in the five regions. Information on sociodemographic characteristics with a detailed history of smoking was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Bivariate analysis was used to identify the factors associated with smoking, and multiple logistic regression analysis to discover its potential predictors. Results: About 35% of the sample was current smokers, with higher rates among soldiers. The eastern region had the highest rate (43.0%, and the southern region the lowest (27.5%. Navy personnel had a higher risk of being current smokers (40.6%, and the air defense the lowest risk (31.0%. Multivariate analysis identified working in the navy, and low income as positive predictors of current smoking, while residing in the southern region, older age, years of education, being married, and having an officer rank were negative (protective factors. Conclusion: Smoking is prevalent among military personnel in KSA, with higher rates in the Navy and Air Force, among privates, younger age group, lower education and income, and divorced/widowed status. Measures should be taken to initiate programs on smoking cessation that involve changes in the environment that is likely to promote this habit.

  4. Socio-economic and cultural factors associated with smoking prevalence among workers in the National Health System in Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fábio Machado Barbosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify factors related to smoking among health workers of the National Health System in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.METHODS: A cross-sectional study based on a survey conducted between September 2008 and January 2009 with a stratified sample. Data on sociodemographic, health, employment, and work characteristics were analyzed. Poisson regression models with robust variance and estimation of unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios were used to establish associations at a 5% significance level for inclusion in the final model.RESULTS: In 1,759 questionnaires analyzed, in which the question related to smoking was answered, the overall prevalence of smoking was 15.7%. Reasonable relationship between requirements and available resources remained negatively correlated to smoking in the final model (PR = 0.75; 95%CI 0.58 - 0.96. The variables that remained positively associated with smoking were being male (PR = 1.75; 95%CI 1.36 - 2.25 and the following positions: community health workers (PR = 2.98; 95%CI 1.76 - 5.05, professionals involved in monitoring (PR = 3.86; 95%CI 1.63 - 5.01, administrative and other general services workers (PR = 2.47; 95%CI 1.51 - 4.05; technical mid-level workers (PR = 2.23; 95%CI 1.31 - 3.78, including nurses and practical nurses (PR = 2.07; 95%CI 1.18 - 3.64.CONCLUSION: Specific occupational subgroups were identified and should be prioritized in smoking cessation and prevention programs.

  5. Maintenance of smoking cessation in the postpartum period: which interventions work best in the long-term?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Anny; Buttenheim, Alison M

    2014-04-01

    Smoking during pregnancy has been linked to a variety of adverse outcomes for both maternal and child health. Decades of studies have sought to increase cessation antepartum and reduce relapse postpartum. A number of effective interventions exist to significantly reduce smoking rates during pregnancy; however, less is known about how to prevent relapse in the postpartum period. This review investigates interventions to prevent relapse in the long-term postpartum period. We focus specifically on nonspontaneous quitters (individuals who quit smoking as a result of an external intervention) to reveal differences in long-term response to interventions for this population compared to spontaneous quitters. A systematic literature search yielded 32 relevant studies of pharmacological, behavioral, and incentives-based interventions. Results were compiled, analyzed, and compared in order to evaluate success factors in maintaining cessation postpartum. Though intervention groups showed consistently higher quit rates during pregnancy than control groups, none of the intervention types were effective at preventing relapse in the longer-term postpartum period. One study maintained significantly higher abstinence in the longer-term period postpartum using a mix of behavioral and incentives strategies. Additional research in this area is needed to identify optimal intervention strategies to reduce long-term postpartum relapse, particularly for nonspontaneous quitters.

  6. Insights into social disparities in smoking prevalence using Mosaic, a novel measure of socioeconomic status: an analysis using a large primary care dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szatkowski Lisa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are well-established socio-economic differences in the prevalence of smoking in the UK, but conventional socio-economic measures may not capture the range and degree of these associations. We have used a commercial geodemographic profiling system, Mosaic, to explore associations with smoking prevalence in a large primary care dataset and to establish whether this tool provides new insights into socio-economic determinants of smoking. Methods We analysed anonymised data on over 2 million patients from The Health Improvement Network (THIN database, linked via patients' postcodes to Mosaic classifications (11 groups and 61 types and quintiles of Townsend Index of Multiple Deprivation. Patients' current smoking status was identified using Read Codes, and logistic regression was used to explore the associations between the available measures of socioeconomic status and smoking prevalence. Results As anticipated, smoking prevalence increased with increasing deprivation according to the Townsend Index (age and sex adjusted OR for highest vs lowest quintile 2.96, 95% CI 2.92-2.99. There were more marked differences in prevalence across Mosaic groups (OR for group G vs group A 4.41, 95% CI 4.33-4.49. Across the 61 Mosaic types, smoking prevalence varied from 8.6% to 42.7%. Mosaic types with high smoking prevalence were characterised by relative deprivation, but also more specifically by single-parent households living in public rented accommodation in areas with little community support, having no access to a car, few qualifications and high TV viewing behaviour. Conclusion Conventional socio-economic measures may underplay social disparities in smoking prevalence. Newer classification systems, such as Mosaic, encompass a wider range of demographic, lifestyle and behaviour data, and are valuable in identifying characteristics of groups of heavy smokers which might be used to tailor cessation interventions.

  7. The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands across a 5-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R A; Pannebakker, Fieke; Vogels, Ton; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands was in 2005 first systematically examined in the Netherlands' Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and youth (NPM-2005), using sentinel reports and substantiated CPS cases, and in the Pupils on Abuse study (PoA-2005), using high school students' self-report. In this second National Prevalence study on Maltreatment (NPM-2010), we used the same three methods to examine the prevalence of child maltreatment in 2010, enabling a cross-time comparison of the prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands. First, 1,127 professionals from various occupational branches (sentinels) reported each child for whom they suspected child maltreatment during a period of three months. Second, we included 22,661 substantiated cases reported in 2010 to the Dutch Child Protective Services. Third, 1,920 high school students aged 12-17 years filled out a questionnaire on their experiences of maltreatment in 2010. The overall prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands in 2010 was 33.8 per 1,000 children based on the combined sentinel and CPS reports and 99.4 per 1,000 adolescents based on self-report. Major risk factors for child maltreatment were parental low education, immigrant status, unemployment, and single parenthood. We found a large increase in CPS-reports, whereas prevalence rates based on sentinel and self-report did not change between 2005 and 2010. Based on these findings a likely conclusion is that the actual number of maltreated children has not increased from 2005 to 2010, but that professionals have become more aware of child maltreatment, and more likely to report cases to CPS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Period prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crashes among young adults in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhafeeri, Eisa; Alshammari, Farah; Jafar, Hana; Malhas, Haya; Botras, Marina; Alnasrallah, Noor; Akhtar, Saeed

    2018-02-02

    This cross-sectional study assessed one-year period prevalence of road traffic crashes (RTCs) and examined the factors associated with RTCs among young adults in Kuwait. During December 2016, 1500 students enrolled in 15 colleges of Kuwait University were invited to participate in the study. Students 18 years old or older and who drive by themselves were eligible. Data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire. One-year period prevalence of RTCs (≥1 vs. none) was computed. Multivariable log-binomial regression model was used to identify the risk factors associated with one-year period prevalence of RTCs. Of 1500 invited individuals, 1465 (97.7%) participated, of which 71.4% (1046/1465) were female, 56.4% (804/1426) were aged between 21 and 25 years, and 67.1% (980/1460) were Kuwaitis. One-year period prevalence of RTC was 38.9%. The final multivariable log-binomial regression model showed that after adjusting for the influences of other variables in the model, participants were more likely to have had at least one RTC during the past year, if they habitually sped over limit (adjusted PR = 1.19; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.36), crossed a red light (adjusted PR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.16-1.52), or if they have had three or more speeding tickets (adjusted PR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.13-1.73) compared to those who reportedly had no RTC during the same period. One-year period prevalence of RTCs among university students in Kuwait, though relatively lower than the reported figures in similar populations elsewhere in the region, is yet high enough to warrant diligent attention. Habitual speeding, having had three or more speeding tickets, and the practice of crossing a red light were significantly and independently associated with at least one RTC during the past year. Targeted education and enforcement of existing traffic laws may reduce the RTCs frequency in this relatively young population. Future studies may look at impact of such

  9. Prevalência de tabagismo em localidade urbana da região sudeste do Brasil Prevalence of smoking in a city of southeasthern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Amaro de Lolio

    1993-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo transversal de prevalência da hipertensão arterial da população de 15-74 anos de idade, residente na zona urbana do Município de Araraquara, localidade situada a 250 km da cidade de São Paulo, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, em 1987. Na ocasião foram perguntadas aos 1.199 entrevistados (533 do sexo masculino e 666 do sexo feminino questões sobre o uso de tabaco (fumo, a forma de uso, o hábito de tragar, bem como variáveis sociodemográficas. A amostra foi equiprobabilística, por conglomerados, em três estágios. A prevalência de tabagismo foi bastante alta, de 45,2% entre os homens e 22,8% entre as mulheres. Os ex-fumantes eram em percentagem de 15,9% entre os homens e 8,0% das mulheres. O sexo masculino fumava maior quantidade de equivalentes de cigarro do que o feminino. As camadas de mais baixa renda familiar fumavam mais, em ambos os sexos, do que os estratos de renda mais alta. Entre os homens, a prevalência de tabagismo diminuía com a maior escolaridade e nas mulheres, este aspecto não foi notado. Comparando com os resultados já publicados sobre a alta prevalência de hipertensão arterial e de obesidade, nota-se que a população de Araraquara, cidade média do interior urbano afluente do Brasil, apresenta uma freqüência bastante alta de fatores de risco para doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis.A cross-sectional study for prevalence of arterial hipertension in the population aged 15-74 years of age of the urban area of Araraquara County, 250 km from the city of S. Paulo, S. Paulo, State, Brazil, in 1987, was performed. The questionnaires presented to 1,199 people (533 men and 666 women at the interview consisted of regarding sociodemographic variables, as well as the use of tobacco (smoking, the ways in which tobacco was used and the habit of inhaling the smoke. The sample was taken by the procedure of clustering, carried out in three stages. The sample was equiprobabilistic. The prevalence of

  10. Physical abuse, smoking, and substance use during pregnancy: prevalence, interrelationships, and effects on birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, J; Parker, B; Soeken, K

    1996-05-01

    To establish the singular and combined occurrence of physical abuse, smoking, and substance use (i.e., alcohol and illicit drugs) during pregnancy and its effect on birth weight. Prospective cohort analysis. Urban public prenatal clinics. 414 African American, 412 Hispanic, and 377 white pregnant women. Occurrence of physical abuse was 16%; smoking, 29.5%; and alcohol/illicit drug use, 11.9%. Significant relationships existed between physical abuse and smoking for African American and white women. For African American women, 33.7% of women who were not abused smoked, versus 49.5% of women who were abused (chi 2 = 8.21; df = 1; p drug use was 20.8% for nonabused women compared with 42.1% for abused women (chi 2 = 18.18; df = 1; p abused smoked, versus 59.6% of those who were abused (chi 2 = 5.22; df = 1; p abuse, smoking, and alcohol/ illicit drug use were significantly related to birth weight (F[3, 1040] = 30.19, p abuse during pregnancy is common, readily detected with a five-question screen, and associated with significantly higher use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs. Clinical protocols that integrate assessment and intervention for physical abuse, smoking, and substance use are essential for preventing further abuse and improving smoking and substance cessation rates.

  11. Prevalence and predictors of cigarette smoking among Greek urban adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasia Liozidou

    2015-10-01

    Greek adolescents report lower smoking rates than previously reported, yet it is a population experimenting with tobacco products. Electronic cigarette emerged as the third most likely product of experimentation. The social origin of smoking behavior is confirmed, as well as the imperative need to encourage tobacco-free school policies and bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship.

  12. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS in four Peruvian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Charles W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In 2004, Peru ratified the Health Organization (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC and in 2006 passed Law 28705 for tobacco consumption and exposure reduction. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. Findings from the GYTS conducted in four main cities in Peru in 2000 and 2003 are reported in this paper and can be used to monitor provisions of the WHO FCTC. Methods The GYTS is a school-based survey that uses a standardized methodology for sampling, questionnaire construction, field procedures, and data management. In total, 5,332 and 7,824 students aged 13 to 15 years participated in the 2000 and 2003 surveys conducted in Huancayo, Lima, Tarapoto and Trujillo. Results In both years, Lima had the highest lifetime (54.6% and 59.6% and current use of tobacco (18.6% and 19.2% of the four cities. According to gender, boys smoked more than girls and less than 20% of students initiated smoking before the age of 10. Among smokers, more than 60% bought their cigarettes in a store with no restriction for their age, and approximately 12% had ever been offered "free cigarettes". Around 90% of students were in favor of banning smoking in public places. Changes between 2000 and 2003 included an increase in the percentage of smokers who wanted to have a cigarette first thing in the morning in Tarapoto (from 0% to 1.2% and a decrease in exposure to tobacco at home in Huancayo (from 23.7% to 17.8% and Trujillo (from 27.8% to 19.8% Conclusion While few changes in tobacco use among youth have been observed in the GYTS in Peru, the data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation efforts. At this time, tobacco control efforts in Peru need to focus on enhancing Law 28705 to include enforcement of existing provisions and inclusion of new laws and regulations. Most of these provisions are required of all countries, such as Peru

  13. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in four Peruvian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavaleta, Alfonso; Salas, Maria; Peruga, Armando; Hallal, Ana Luiza Curi; Warren, Charles W; Jones, Nathan R; Asma, Samira

    2008-12-15

    In 2004, Peru ratified the Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and in 2006 passed Law 28705 for tobacco consumption and exposure reduction. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. Findings from the GYTS conducted in four main cities in Peru in 2000 and 2003 are reported in this paper and can be used to monitor provisions of the WHO FCTC. The GYTS is a school-based survey that uses a standardized methodology for sampling, questionnaire construction, field procedures, and data management. In total, 5,332 and 7,824 students aged 13 to 15 years participated in the 2000 and 2003 surveys conducted in Huancayo, Lima, Tarapoto and Trujillo. In both years, Lima had the highest lifetime (54.6% and 59.6%) and current use of tobacco (18.6% and 19.2%) of the four cities. According to gender, boys smoked more than girls and less than 20% of students initiated smoking before the age of 10. Among smokers, more than 60% bought their cigarettes in a store with no restriction for their age, and approximately 12% had ever been offered "free cigarettes". Around 90% of students were in favor of banning smoking in public places. Changes between 2000 and 2003 included an increase in the percentage of smokers who wanted to have a cigarette first thing in the morning in Tarapoto (from 0% to 1.2%) and a decrease in exposure to tobacco at home in Huancayo (from 23.7% to 17.8%) and Trujillo (from 27.8% to 19.8%) While few changes in tobacco use among youth have been observed in the GYTS in Peru, the data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation efforts. At this time, tobacco control efforts in Peru need to focus on enhancing Law 28705 to include enforcement of existing provisions and inclusion of new laws and regulations. Most of these provisions are required of all countries, such as Peru, that have ratified the WHO FCTC.

  14. Smoking and prevalence of allergic disorders in Japanese pregnant women: baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Keiko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the associations between smoking and allergic diseases have mostly focused on asthma. Epidemiological studies in adults on the effects of smoking on allergic diseases other than asthma, such as eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, have been limited, and the information that is available has been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between smoking status and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure and the prevalence of allergic diseases. Methods Study subjects were 1743 pregnant Japanese women. The definitions of wheeze and asthma were based on criteria from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey whereas those of eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis were based on criteria from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Adjustment was made for age; region of residence; family history of asthma, atopic eczema, and allergic rhinitis; household income; and education. Results Compared with never smoking, current smoking and ≥ 4 pack-years of smoking were independently positively associated with the prevalence of wheeze. There were no associations between smoking status and the prevalence of asthma, eczema, or rhinoconjunctivitis. When subjects who had never smoked were classified into four categories based on the source of ETS exposure (never, only at home, only at work, and both, exposure occurring both at home and at work was independently associated with an increased prevalence of two outcomes: wheeze and rhinoconjunctivitis. No relationships were observed between exposure to ETS and the prevalence of asthma or eczema. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that current smoking and ETS exposure may increase the likelihood of wheeze. The possibility of a positive association between ETS exposure and rhinoconjunctivitis was also suggested.

  15. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh

    2015-01-01

    Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design. Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%), Moldova (51.1%), Ukraine (52%), Azerbaijan (49.8 %), Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 %) and Albania (42.52%) but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81%) and Jordan (17.96%). The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %). Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single. Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  16. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking.Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design.Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%, Moldova (51.1%, Ukraine (52%, Azerbaijan (49.8 %, Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 % and Albania (42.52% but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81% and Jordan (17.96%. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %. Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single.Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  17. Changes in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure over a 20-year period: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferis, Barbara J; Thomson, Andrew G; Lennon, Lucy T; Feyerabend, Colin; Doig, Mira; McMeekin, Laura; Wannamethee, S Goya; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H

    2009-01-01

    Aims To examine long-term changes in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure in British men between 1978 and 2000, using serum cotinine. Design Prospective cohort: British Regional Heart Study. Setting General practices in 24 towns in England, Wales and Scotland. Participants Non-smoking men: 2125 studied at baseline [questionnaire (Q1): 1978–80, aged 40–59 years], 3046 studied 20 years later (Q20: 1998–2000, aged 60–79 years) and 1208 studied at both times. Non-smokers were men reporting no current smoking with cotinine < 15 ng/ml at Q1 and/or Q20. Measurements Serum cotinine to assess ETS exposure. Findings In cross-sectional analysis, geometric mean cotinine level declined from 1.36 ng/ml [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31, 1.42] at Q1 to 0.19 ng/ml (95% CI: 0.18, 0.19) at Q20. The prevalence of cotinine levels ≤ 0.7 ng/ml [associated with low coronary heart disease (CHD) risk] rose from 27.1% at Q1 to 83.3% at Q20. Manual social class and northern region of residence were associated with higher mean cotinine levels both at Q1 and Q20; older age was associated with lower cotinine level at Q20 only. Among 1208 persistent non-smokers, cotinine fell by 1.47 ng/ml (95% CI: 1.37, 1.57), 86% decline. Absolute falls in cotinine were greater in manual occupational groups, in the Midlands and Scotland compared to southern England, although percentage decline was very similar across groups. Conclusions A marked decline in ETS exposure occurred in Britain between 1978 and 2000, which is likely to have reduced ETS-related disease risks appreciably before the introduction of legislation banning smoking in public places. PMID:19207361

  18. Cigarette smoking among 17–18 year old adolescents – Prevalence and association with sociodemographic, familial, sport, and scholastic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Idrizovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Though adolescence is recognised as a critical period for smoking prevention, there is a lack of research focused on this issue in Kosovo. The aim of this study has been to examine the gender-specific factors of influence (predictors for smoking among adolescents in Pristina, Kosovo. Material and Methods: The study sample comprised 1002 adolescents at the age of 17–18 (366 boys, 636 girls, all of whom were in the school’s 12th grade. The predictors included sociodemographic variables, familial (i.e., parental monitoring, parents’ educational background, and sport-related factors. The Chi2 and forward stepwise logistic regression analyses with a dichotomous criterion (smoking vs. non-smoking were applied. Results: The incidence of smoking was high (31% and 40% smokers, including 7% and 12% daily smokers for girls and boys, respectively. The regression model revealed more frequent absence from school (odds ratio (OR: 1.544; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.063–2.243, more unexcused school absences (OR: 1.360; 95% CI: 1.029–1.796, and frequent parental questioning (OR: 1.530; 95% CI: 1.020–2.295 to be significant predictors of smoking among boys. For girls, a higher risk of smoking was associated with lower scholastic achievement (OR: 1.467; 95% CI: 1.089–1.977, more frequent absence from school (OR: 1.565; 95% CI: 1.137–2.155, increased conflict with parents (OR: 1.979; 95% CI: 1.405–2.789, and a self-declared perception of less parental care (OR: 0.602; 95% CI: 0.377–0.962. Sports were not found to be strongly related to smoking. However, a high risk of daily smoking was found among boys who participated in team sports and subsequently quit. Conclusions: This study reinforces the need for gender- and culture-specific approaches to studying the factors that influence smoking among adolescents. Med Pr 2015;66(2:153–163

  19. Period Prevalence and Reporting Rate of Needlestick Injuries to Nurses in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Satar; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Zandian, Hamed; Fathi, Afshin; Nouri, Bijan

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to provide a precise estimate of the period prevalence of needlestick injuries (NSI) among nurses working in hospitals in Iran and the reporting rate of NSI to nurse managers. We searched both international (PubMed, Scopus and the Institute for Scientific Information) and Iranian (Scientific Information Database, Iranmedex and Magiran) scientific databases to find studies published from 2000 to 2016 of NSI among Iranian nurses. The following keywords in Persian and English were used: "needle-stick" or "needle stick" or "needlestick," with and without "injury" or "injuries," "prevalence" or "frequency," "nurses" or "nursing staff," and "Iran." In a sample of 21 articles with 6,480 participants, we estimated that the overall 1-year period prevalence of NSI was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 35-53%) among Iranian nurses. The overall 1-year period prevalence of reporting NSI to nurse managers was 42% (95% CI, 33-52%). In meta-regression analysis, sample size, mean age, years of experience, and gender ratio were not associated with prevalence of NSI or reporting rate. The year of data collection was positively associated with period prevalence of NSI (p managers. Results indicated a high NSI period prevalence and low NSI reporting rate among nurses in Iran. Thus, effective interventions are required in hospitals in Iran to reduce the prevalence and increase the reporting rate of NSI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Active Smoking and Associated Behavioural Risk Factors before and during Pregnancy - Prevalence and Attitudes among Newborns' Mothers in Mures County, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruta, Florina; Avram, Calin; Voidăzan, Septimiu; Mărginean, Claudiu; Bacârea, Vladimir; Ábrám, Zoltán; Foley, Kristie; Fogarasi-Grenczer, Andrea; Pénzes, Melinda; Tarcea, Monica

    2016-12-01

    Smoking before, during and after pregnancy leads to detrimental outcomes on maternal and foetal health and represents an important public health issue. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of smoking before and during pregnancy in a sample of Romanian women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among mothers (N=1,278) in three maternity hospitals in Tirgu-Mures, Romania, immediately after childbirth, in 2014. We evaluated the prevalence of smoking before and during pregnancy and used binary logistic regression to assess the influence of socio-demographics and other health behaviour factors in three groups of women: non-smoking pregnant women, women who continued smoking during pregnancy, and smokers who quit during pregnancy. 30% of the interviewed mothers were smokers prior to pregnancy, of whom 43.3% continued smoking during pregnancy. Women with a family income of less than 100 Euro/month (OR=3.01, 95% CI: 1.02-8.83) and those who were unemployed (OR=13.2, 95% CI: 3.90-44.79) had increased odds of continued smoking versus quitting during pregancy in multivariable analyses. Women who continued smoking during pregnancy were also more likley to be of lower socioeconomic status than never smokers (OR=14.1, 95% CI: 4.97-39.6). A high percentage of women of reproductive age smoke and continue to smoke despite their knowledge about risks of smoking during pregnancy. Smoking prior to and during pregnancy is predominantly associated with lower socioeconomic status. Women with limited economic means should be a high priority target group for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2016

  1. Prevalencia de consumo de tabaco en vehículos privados Prevalence of smoking among drivers of private vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Tolosana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de conductores fumadores en vehículos privados en la ciudad de Lleida. Métodos: Se seleccionó una muestra aleatoria de 1600 vehículos privados en seis cruces regulados por semáforos. Las variables estudiadas fueron edad y sexo, conductor fumador, acompañante >18 años, tipo de cruce (urbano/interurbano, día (laborable/festivo, hora (mañana/tarde y fumadores simultáneos. Se calculó la prevalencia de conductores fumadores y las odds ratio ajustadas (ORa, con su intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC95%. Resultados: La prevalencia fue del 6,0% (IC95%: 4,9-7,3, mayor en los hombres (6,4%, en el grupo de 41 a 60 años (6,9% y sin acompañante (6,5%. La probabilidad de que el conductor fumara aumentó con acompañante fumador (ORa=10,8; IC95%: 3,6-32,5. La frecuencia de conductores fumadores fue mayor en los días laborables (ORa=1,7; IC95%: 1,0-2,8 y por la mañana (ORa=1,6; IC95%: 1,0-2,4. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de conductores fumadores se considera elevada y perjudicial. Se recomienda evitar fumar en los vehículos.Objective: To determine the prevalence of smoking among drivers of private vehicles in the city of Lleida (Spain. Methods: A random sample of 1600 cars passing through six intersections regulated by traffic lights were selected. The variables were age, sex, smoking driver, adult passengers, intersection (urban/interurban, day (working day/weekend, hour (morning/evening and simultaneous smokers. We calculated the prevalence of smoking drivers and the corresponding odds ratios (ORs, adjusted for the potential confounding variables, as well as their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Results: The prevalence was 6.0% (95% CI: 4.9-7.3 and was higher in men (6.4%, in the group aged 41 to 60 years (6.9%, and in unaccompanied drivers (6.5%. The probability of the driver smoking increased if there was a smoking passenger (aOR=10.8; 95% CI: 3.6-32.5. The frequency of smoking drivers was higher on

  2. SMOKING AS A RISK FACTOR FOR CARDIOVASCULAR AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES: PREVALENCE, IMPACT ON PROGNOSIS, POSSIBLE SMOKING CESSATION STRATEGIES AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS. Part 2. Advantages of quitting smoking. Strategies to quit smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The immediate and remote benefits of smoking cessation are considered. Within one year after quitting smoking the ischemic heart disease (IHD risk will be 2 folds lower than the risk in smoking patient. Within 15 years the IHD risk declines to non-smoking population level. After 5-15 years after quitting smoking the risk of stroke also declines to non-smoker risk. Smoking cessation prior to cardio surgical intervention leads to reduction of complications incidence by 41%. Smoking cessation significantly reduces the risk of developing stable and unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, peripheral arterial diseases, abdominal aortic aneurysm at any age, in both sexes in comparison to patients who continue to smoke. Smoking cessation is the most cost-effective strategy of cardiovascular disease prevention. Today, the most effective smoking cessation strategy is the identification of smokers and continuous advice on smoking cessation, and offer of the appropriate medication, primarily varenicline. The article contains data from a number of studies showing that varenicline is an effective and safe drug for tobacco dependence treatment, in particular, in patients with acute and chronic cardiovascular disease. 

  3. Prevalence and correlates of tobacco smoking, awareness of hazards, and quitting behavior among persons aged 30 years or above in a resettlement colony of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ankur; Singh, Mongjam Meghachandra; Gupta, Vimal Kishore; Garg, Suneela; Daga, Mradul Kumar; Saha, Renuka

    2012-10-01

    To assess the prevalence and correlates of current smoking, awareness of hazards, and quitting behavior among smokers 30 years and above. Cross-sectional; Gokulpuri, a resettlement colony in East Delhi, India; 911, persons aged 30 years and above using systematic random sampling; Study tools: Semi-structured questionnaire. Prevalence of current smoking was found to be 24.6% (95% CI 21.90 - 27.49). Majority 198 (88.4%) of current smokers smoked bidi exclusively, and on an average 13.5 bidi/cigarette were smoked per day. Multivariate analysis showed the factors associated with current smoking as male sex, advancing age, illiteracy, skilled occupation, low socio-economic status, and low BMI (P < 0.001). 64.2% were aware of the hazards of smoking. 63 (21.9%) had quit smoking in the past, majority due to the health problems. Low educational status was associated with poor hazard awareness and quitting behavior. Smoking is a significant problem among poor and illiterate males, shows an increasing trend with an advancing age and is directly associated with skilled occupation and low BMI. There are significant gaps in knowledge regarding hazards of smoking.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of tobacco smoking, awareness of hazards, and quitting behavior among persons aged 30 years or above in a resettlement colony of Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the prevalence and correlates of current smoking, awareness of hazards, and quitting behavior among smokers 30 years and above. Materials and Methods: Study design: Cross-sectional; Setting: Gokulpuri, a resettlement colony in East Delhi, India; Sample size: 911, persons aged 30 years and above using systematic random sampling; Study tools: Semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Prevalence of current smoking was found to be 24.6% (95% CI 21.90 - 27.49. Majority 198 (88.4% of current smokers smoked bidi exclusively, and on an average 13.5 bidi/cigarette were smoked per day. Multivariate analysis showed the factors associated with current smoking as male sex, advancing age, illiteracy, skilled occupation, low socio-economic status, and low BMI (P < 0.001. 64.2% were aware of the hazards of smoking. 63 (21.9% had quit smoking in the past, majority due to the health problems. Low educational status was associated with poor hazard awareness and quitting behavior. Conclusion: Smoking is a significant problem among poor and illiterate males, shows an increasing trend with an advancing age and is directly associated with skilled occupation and low BMI. There are significant gaps in knowledge regarding hazards of smoking.

  5. Smoking scenes in popular Japanese serial television dramas: descriptive analysis during the same 3-month period in two consecutive years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Hideyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2006-06-01

    Japanese serial television dramas are becoming very popular overseas, particularly in other Asian countries. Exposure to smoking scenes in movies and television dramas has been known to trigger initiation of habitual smoking in young people. Smoking scenes in Japanese dramas may affect the smoking behavior of many young Asians. We examined smoking scenes and smoking-related items in serial television dramas targeting young audiences in Japan during the same season in two consecutive years. Fourteen television dramas targeting the young audience broadcast between July and September in 2001 and 2002 were analyzed. A total of 136 h 42 min of television programs were divided into unit scenes of 3 min (a total of 2734 unit scenes). All the unit scenes were reviewed for smoking scenes and smoking-related items. Of the 2734 3-min unit scenes, 205 (7.5%) were actual smoking scenes and 387 (14.2%) depicted smoking environments with the presence of smoking-related items, such as ash trays. In 185 unit scenes (90.2% of total smoking scenes), actors were shown smoking. Actresses were less frequently shown smoking (9.8% of total smoking scenes). Smoking characters in dramas were in the 20-49 age group in 193 unit scenes (94.1% of total smoking scenes). In 96 unit scenes (46.8% of total smoking scenes), at least one non-smoker was present in the smoking scenes. The smoking locations were mainly indoors, including offices, restaurants and homes (122 unit scenes, 59.6%). The most common smoking-related items shown were ash trays (in 45.5% of smoking-item-related scenes) and cigarettes (in 30.2% of smoking-item-related scenes). Only 3 unit scenes (0.1 % of all scenes) promoted smoking prohibition. This was a descriptive study to examine the nature of smoking scenes observed in Japanese television dramas from a public health perspective.

  6. Prevalence and predictors of home and automobile smoking bans and child environmental tobacco smoke exposure: a cross-sectional study of U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanic women with young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegler Michelle C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detrimental effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure on child health are well documented. Because young children's primary exposure to ETS occurs in homes and automobiles, voluntary smoking restrictions can substantially reduce exposure. We assessed the prevalence of home and automobile smoking bans among U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanics in the southwestern United States, and examined the influence of mother's country of birth and smoking practices on voluntary smoking bans and on child ETS exposure. Methods U.S.- and Mexico-born Hispanic mothers of children aged 2 through 12 years were systematically sampled from health clinics in Albuquerque, New Mexico. In-person interviews were conducted with 269 mothers (75.4% response rate to obtain information on main study outcomes (complete versus no/partial home and automobile smoking bans; child room and automobile ETS exposure and risk factors (mother's country of birth, maternal and household smoking behaviors. Data were analyzed with chi square tests and logistic regression models. Results Three-fourths (74–77% of U.S.-born and 90–95% of Mexico-born mothers reported complete automobile and home smoking bans. In multivariate analyses, mother's U.S nativity, mother's current smoking, and presence of other adult smokers in the home were associated with significantly increased odds of not having a complete home or automobile smoking ban. Mother's smoking was associated with child ETS exposure both indoors (odds ratio [OR] = 3.31 and in automobiles (OR = 2.97. Children of U.S.-born mothers had increased odds of exposure to ETS indoors (OR = 3.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37–7.69, but not in automobiles. Having complete smoking bans was associated with substantially reduced odds of child ETS exposure both indoors (OR = 0.10; 95% CI: 0.04–0.27 and in automobiles (OR = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.05–0.36. Conclusion This study of Hispanic mothers in the southwestern U

  7. 'Imported risk' or 'health transition'? Smoking prevalence among ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union by duration of stay in Germany - analysis of microcensus data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spallek Jacob

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It can be assumed that resettlers (ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union show similar smoking patterns as persons in their countries of origin at the time of migration. We analysed how the smoking prevalence among resettlers differs from that among the general population of Germany and whether the prevalence differs between groups with increasing duration of stay. Methods To estimate the smoking prevalence we used the scientific-use-file (n = 477,239 of the German 2005 microcensus, an annual census representing 1% of all German households. Participation in the microcensus is obligatory (unit-nonresponse resettlers and the comparison group (population of Germany without resettlers by age, sex, educational level and duration of stay. In total, 14,373 (3% of the total persons were identified as resettlers. Results Female resettlers with short duration of stay had a significantly lower smoking prevalence than women in the comparison group. With increasing duration of stay their smoking prevalence appears to converge to that of the comparison group (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 15%, long duration of stay 24%, comparison group 28%. In contrast, the smoking prevalence among male resettlers with short duration of stay was significantly higher than that among men in the comparison group, but also with a trend towards converging (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 44%, long duration of stay 35%, comparison group 36%. Except for female resettlers with short duration of stay, the participants with low educational level had on average a higher smoking prevalence than those with a high educational level. Conclusions This is the first study estimating the smoking prevalence among resettlers by duration of stay. The results support the hypothesis that resettlers brought different smoking habits from their countries of origin shortly after

  8. [The prevalence of exposure of children under the age of 18 to second-hand smoke inside motor vehicles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrol, M T; Tolosana, M; Soler, M T; Taló, M; Godoy, P

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the level of exposure of children under the age of 18 to second-hand smoke (SHS) inside motor vehicles. A prevalence study was conducted on the exposure of children under the age of 18 to SHS in motor vehicles in Lleida (Spain). The population was the users of private motor vehicles. The sample was random, and the data were collected by direct observation. The study variables were: the age and sex of the driver, whether the driver was smoking, and the presence of an exposed passenger under the age of 18. A total of 1600 vehicles were observed, 134 of which (8.4%) were carrying a child. In 8 of these 134 vehicles (6%; 95% CI: 2.5-11.0) a child was exposed to SHS. In all these cases, the driver was a male (P=0.02), and in 75% of cases he was over 40 years old. The rate of child exposure to SHS is very high. There is, therefore, a case for organising campaigns to prevent smoking tobacco inside motor vehicles in the presence of children in Spain. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. A Systematic Review of Tobacco Smoking Prevalence and Description of Tobacco Control Strategies in Sub-Saharan African Countries; 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Rachel; Addo, Juliet; Smeeth, Liam; Lock, Karen

    2015-01-01

    To systematically review current smoking prevalence among adults in sub-Saharan Africa from 2007 to May 2014 and to describe the context of tobacco control strategies in these countries. Five databases, Medline, Embase, Africa-wide Information, Cinahl Plus, and Global Health were searched using a systematic search strategy. There were no language restrictions. 26 included studies measured current smoking prevalence in nationally representative adult populations in sub-Saharan African countries. Study details were independently extracted using a standard datasheet. Data on tobacco control policies, taxation and trends in prices were obtained from the Implementation Database of the WHO FCTC website. Studies represented 13 countries. Current smoking prevalence varied widely ranging from 1.8% in Zambia to 25.8% in Sierra Leone. The prevalence of smoking was consistently lower in women compared to men with the widest gender difference observed in Malawi (men 25.9%, women 2.9%). Rwanda had the highest prevalence of women smokers (12.6%) and Ghana had the lowest (0.2%). Rural, urban patterns were inconsistent. Most countries have implemented demand-reduction measures including bans on advertising, and taxation rates but to different extents. Smoking prevalence varied widely across sub-Saharan Africa, even between similar country regions, but was always higher in men. High smoking rates were observed among countries in the eastern and southern regions of Africa, mainly among men in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, and Zambia and women in Rwanda and rural Zambia. Effective action to reduce smoking across sub-Saharan Africa, particularly targeting population groups at increased risk remains a pressing public health priority.

  10. A Systematic Review of Tobacco Smoking Prevalence and Description of Tobacco Control Strategies in Sub-Saharan African Countries; 2007 to 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Brathwaite

    Full Text Available To systematically review current smoking prevalence among adults in sub-Saharan Africa from 2007 to May 2014 and to describe the context of tobacco control strategies in these countries.Five databases, Medline, Embase, Africa-wide Information, Cinahl Plus, and Global Health were searched using a systematic search strategy. There were no language restrictions.26 included studies measured current smoking prevalence in nationally representative adult populations in sub-Saharan African countries.Study details were independently extracted using a standard datasheet. Data on tobacco control policies, taxation and trends in prices were obtained from the Implementation Database of the WHO FCTC website.Studies represented 13 countries. Current smoking prevalence varied widely ranging from 1.8% in Zambia to 25.8% in Sierra Leone. The prevalence of smoking was consistently lower in women compared to men with the widest gender difference observed in Malawi (men 25.9%, women 2.9%. Rwanda had the highest prevalence of women smokers (12.6% and Ghana had the lowest (0.2%. Rural, urban patterns were inconsistent. Most countries have implemented demand-reduction measures including bans on advertising, and taxation rates but to different extents.Smoking prevalence varied widely across sub-Saharan Africa, even between similar country regions, but was always higher in men. High smoking rates were observed among countries in the eastern and southern regions of Africa, mainly among men in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, and Zambia and women in Rwanda and rural Zambia. Effective action to reduce smoking across sub-Saharan Africa, particularly targeting population groups at increased risk remains a pressing public health priority.

  11. Women's Longitudinal Patterns of Smoking during the Pre-Conception, Pregnancy and Postnatal Period: Evidence from the UK Infant Feeding Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available An understanding of women's longitudinal patterns of smoking during the pre-conception, pregnancy and postnatal period and the factors associated with these patterns could help better inform smoking cessation services and interventions.Latent class analysis (LCA was used to empirically identify women's smoking patterns in a sample of 10,768 mothers from the 2010 UK Infant Feeding Survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify characteristics associated with these patterns.LCA identified five distinct smoking patterns during the pre-conception, pregnancy and postnatal period: "non-smokers" (74.1% of women; "pregnancy-inspired quitters" (10.2%; "persistent smokers" (10.1%; "temporary quitters" (4.4%; and postnatal quitters (1.1%. Smoking patterns varied markedly according to socio-demographic variables and parity. After adjusting for these variables, mothers who lived during pregnancy with a partner who smoked were more likely to be temporary quitters (aOR 2.64, 95% CI 1.74-3.99 or persistent smokers (aOR 3.32, 95% CI 2.34-4.72 than pregnancy-inspired quitters. Mothers who lived during pregnancy with someone else other than a partner who smoked were more likely to be persistent smokers (aOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.38-3.97 or postnatal quitters (aOR 2.97, 95% CI 1.07-8.24 than pregnancy-inspired quitters. Mothers given information on how their partner could stop smoking if they lived during pregnancy with a smoking partner were less likely to be persistent smokers (aOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.65 than pregnancy-inspired quitters.Health professionals should ask about smoking at every opportunity, and refer women who self-report as current smokers to an evidence based smoking cessation service.

  12. A 14-year longitudinal study of the impact of clean indoor air legislation on state smoking prevalence, USA, 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Craig M; Lee, Joseph G L; Hudson, Suzanne; Hoover, Jeanne; Civils, Donald

    2017-06-01

    While clean indoor air legislation at the state level is an evidence-based recommendation, only limited evidence exists regarding the impact of clean indoor air policies on state smoking prevalence. Using state smoking prevalence data from 1997 to 2010, a repeated measures observational analysis assessed the association between clean indoor air policies (i.e., workplace, restaurant, and bar) and state smoking prevalence while controlling for state cigarette taxes and year. The impacts from the number of previous years with any clean indoor air policy, the number of policies in effect during the current year, and the number of policies in effect the previous year were analyzed. Findings indicate a smoking prevalence predicted decrease of 0.13 percentage points (p=0.03) for each additional year one or more clean indoor air policies were in effect, a predicted decrease of 0.12 percentage points (p=0.09) for each policy in effect in the current year, and a predicted decrease of 0.22 percentage points (p=0.01) for each policy in effect in the previous year on the subsequent year. Clean indoor air policies show measurable associations with reductions in smoking prevalence within a year of implementation above and beyond taxes and time trends. Further efforts are needed to diffuse clean indoor air policies across states and provinces that have not yet adopted such policies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in Yearly Birth Prevalence Rates of Children with Down Syndrome in the Period 1986-2007 in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, G.; Haveman, M.; Hochstenbach, R.; Engelen, J.; Gerssen-Schoorl, K.; Poddighe, P.; Smeets, D.; van Hove, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Netherlands are lacking reliable national empirical data in relation to the development of birth prevalence of Down syndrome. Our study aims at assessing valid national live birth prevalence rates for the period 1986-2007. Method: On the basis of the annual child/adult ratio of Down syndrome diagnoses in five out of the eight Dutch…

  14. Environmental prevalence and persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in cold-smoked trout processing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes on the surfaces of equipment and workers' hands during different production stages, as well as on fish skin and meat during processing and storage of cold-smoked trout, was investigated. Listeria monocytogenes was recovered from 10 (6.06%) of a total 165 cotto...

  15. Prevalence and distribution of metabolic syndrome in a southern Chinese population. Relation to exercise, smoking, and educational level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Qiang; Zhao, Li-Qin; Liu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Hong-Lei; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Bin; Deng, Kang-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Qin; Holthofer, Harry; Zou, He-Qun

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and distribution of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the impact of exercise, smoking, and educational level on the risk of MetS in a southern Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhuhai City, China from June to August 2012. Data on exercise, smoking, and educational level, anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, lipid, and glucose levels were collected. The prevalence of MetS (as defined by the International Diabetes Federation) was determined. Data necessary to evaluate MetS, the socio-economic characteristics, and lifestyle were obtained for 4645 subjects aged 18-75 years old. A total of 19.8% of the participants had MetS. The adjusted odds of having MetS were lower among males (adjusted odds: 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-1.01) compared with females. Those participants who currently smoked had a higher risk of developing MetS compared with non-smokers (adjusted odds: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.13-2.50). Those who had no physical exercise had a higher risk of developing MetS compared with those who physically exercised more than 60 minutes/day (adjusted odds: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.12-2.23;). Compared with those with no education, every category of attained educational level had a lower risk of developing MetS (p<0.001). The findings in this study revealed that current smokers had a greater risk of developing MetS compared with non-smokers. Increased physical activity and higher levels of education attained served as protective factors for the population.

  16. Periodic limb movements during sleep in stroke/TIA: Prevalence, course, and cardiovascular burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manconi, Mauro; Fanfulla, Francesco; Ferri, Raffaele; Miano, Silvia; Haba-Rubio, Josè; Heinzer, Raphael; Horvath, Thomas; Proserpio, Paola; Young, Peter; Moschovitis, Giorgio; Seiler, Andrea; Cereda, Carlo; Nobili, Lino; Wiest, Roland; Ott, Sebastian R; Bassetti, Claudio L

    2018-05-08

    To define the prevalence, time course, and associated factors of periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS) in patients with ischemic stroke or TIA. Patients enrolled in the prospective Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Transient Ischemia Attack (TIA)/Ischemic Stroke and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Treatment Efficacy (SAS-CARE) study underwent a double polysomnographic investigation in the acute and chronic phases after stroke/TIA, together with a MRI brain scan and a 24-hour blood pressure evaluation. The prevalence of PLMS in patients was compared with that in a matched sample of randomly selected healthy controls from the HypnoLaus cohort. One hundred sixty-nine recordings were performed in the acute phase and 191 after 3 months (210 recordings were obtained from the same 105 patients in both phases) and were compared to those of 162 controls. The mean number of PLMS per hour and the percentage of participants with a PLMS index >10 and >15 per hour were similar between patients and controls. PLMS remained stable from the acute to the chronic phase after stroke. Factors positively associated with PLMS were age, body mass index, and history of hypertension. Blood pressure over 24 hours and the burden of cerebrovascular damage were similar between the groups with PLMS and without PLMS. PLMS are equally frequent in patients with stroke/TIA and the general population. The absence of higher blood pressure values and of a greater vascular brain damage found in patients with PLMS compared to those without PLMS might be due to a greater use of antihypertensive medication among patients with PLMS, which corresponds to a higher prevalence of previous diagnosis of hypertension in these patients. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Smoking and smokeless tobacco use in nine South and Southeast Asian countries: prevalence estimates and social determinants from Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh; Mir, Imtiyaz Ali; Sin, Shwe

    2014-01-01

    In South and Southeast Asian countries, tobacco is consumed in diverse forms, and smoking among women is very low. We aimed to provide national estimates of prevalence and social determinants of smoking and smokeless tobacco use among men and women separately. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys completed in nine countries (India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, Philippines, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Timor Leste) were analyzed. Current smoking or smokeless tobacco use was assessed as response "yes" to one or more of three questions, such as "Do you currently smoke cigarettes?" Weighted country-level prevalence rates for socio-economic subgroups were calculated for smoking and smokeless tobacco use. Binary logistic regression analyses were done on STATA/IC (version 10) by 'svy' command. Prevalence and type of tobacco use among men and women varied across the countries and among socio-economic sub groups. Smoking prevalence was much lower in women than men in all countries. Smoking among men was very high in Indonesia, Maldives, and Bangladesh. Smokeless tobacco (mainly chewable) was used in diverse forms, particularly in India, among both men and women. Chewing tobacco was common in Nepal, Bangladesh, Maldives, and Cambodia. Both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were associated with higher age, lower education, and poverty, but their association with place of residence and marital status was not uniform between men and women across the countries. Policymakers should consider type of tobacco consumption and their differentials among various population subgroups to implement country-specific tobacco control policies and target the vulnerable groups. Smokeless tobacco use should also be prioritized in tobacco control efforts.

  18. Modelling the implications of reducing smoking prevalence: the benefits of increasing the UK tobacco duty escalator to public health and economic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuchel-Takano, Andre; Hunt, Daniel; Jaccard, Abbygail; Bhimjiyani, Arti; Brown, Martin; Retat, Lise; Brown, Katrina; Hinde, Sebastian; Selvarajah, Chit; Bauld, Linda; Webber, Laura

    2017-12-06

    Taxing tobacco is one of the most effective ways to reduce smoking prevalence, mitigate its devastating consequential health harms and progress towards a tobacco-free society. This study modelled the health and economic impacts of increasing the existing cigarette tobacco duty escalator (TDE) in the UK from the current 2% above consumer price inflation to 5%. A two-stage modelling process was used. First, a non-linear multivariate regression model was fitted to cross-sectional smoking data, creating longitudinal projections from 2015 to 2035. Second, these projections were used to predict the future incidence, prevalence and cost of 17 smoking-related diseases using a Monte Carlo microsimulation approach. A sustained increase in the duty escalator was evaluated against a baseline of continuing historical smoking trends and the existing duty escalator. A sustained increase in the TDE is projected to reduce adult smoking prevalence to 6% in 2035, from 10% in a baseline scenario. After increasing the TDE, only 65% of female and 60% of male would-be smokers would actually be smoking in 2035. The intervention is projected to avoid around 75 200 new cases of smoking-related diseases between 2015 and 2035. In 2035 alone, £49 m in National Health Service and social care costs and £192 m in societal premature mortality and morbidity costs are projected to be avoided. Increasing the UK TDE to 5% above inflation could effectively reduce smoking prevalence, prevent diseases and avoid healthcare costs. It would deliver substantial progress towards a tobacco-free society and should be implemented by the UK Government with urgency. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Smoking in the United States Air Force: Trends, Most Prevalent Diseases and their Association with Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    alcohol use (University of Minnesota, 2010). Tobacco use is one of the most significant health issues that the U.S. military faces today . In 2002, it...rates among the active duty members of the Air Force of the United States. Smoking is a severe phenomenon for the Air Force today because it is...allurement. In addition, they launch special tobacco products for women, the so called “ feminized cigarettes”, trying to create more female smokers

  20. BRFSS Prevalence and Trends Data: Tobacco Use - Four Level Smoking Data for 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The 2011 BRFSS data reflects a change in weighting methodology (raking) and the addition of cell phone only respondents. Shifts in observed prevalence from 2010 to...

  1. The incidence of smoking and risk factors for smoking initiation in medical faculty students: cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkay Mehtap

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education requires detailed investigation because it is a period during which the attitudes and behaviors of physicians develop. The purpose of this study was to calculate the yearly smoking prevalence and incidence rates of medical faculty students and to identify the risk factors for adopting smoking behaviour. Methods This is a cohort study in which every student was asked about their smoking habits at the time of first registration to the medical faculty, and was monitored every year. Smoking prevalence, yearly incidence of initiation of smoking and average years of smoking were calculated in analysis. Results At the time of registration, 21.8% of the students smoked. At the end of six years, males had smoked for an average of 2.6 ± 3.0 years and females for 1.0 ± 1.8 years (p Conclusion The first 3 years of medical education are the most risky period for initiation of smoking. We found that factors such as being male, having a smoking friend in the same environment and having a high trait anxiety score were related to the initiation of smoking. Targeted smoking training should be mandatory for students in the Medical Faculty.

  2. Cigarette tax and public health: what are the implications of financially stressed smokers for the effects of price increases on smoking prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Kristy A; Mattick, Richard P; Doran, Christopher M; Hall, Wayne D

    2011-03-01

    This paper models the predicted impact of tobacco price increases proposed in the United States and Australia during 2009 on smoking prevalence in 2010 while taking account of the effects of financial stress among smokers on cessation rates. Two models of smoking prevalence were developed for each country. In model 1, prevalence rates were determined by price elasticity estimates. In model 2 price elasticity was moderated by financial stress. Each model was used to estimate smoking prevalence in 2010 in Australia and the United States. Proposed price increases resulted in a 1.89% and 7.84% decrease in smoking participation among low socio-economic status (SES) groups in the United States and Australia, respectively. Model 1 overestimated the number of individuals expected to quit in both the United States (0.13% of smokers) and Australia (0.36% of smokers) by failing to take account of the differential effects of the tax on financially stressed smokers. The proportion of low-income smokers under financial stress increased in both countries in 2010 (by 1.06% in the United States and 3.75% in Australia). The inclusion of financial stress when modelling the impact of price on smoking prevalence suggests that the population health returns of increased cigarette price will diminish over time. As it is likely that the proportion of low-income smokers under financial stress will also increase in 2010, future population-based approaches to reducing smoking will need to address this factor. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Prevalence and period trends of overweight and obesity in Australian young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, A; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2016-09-01

    This analysis examines period trends in body weight of Australian 18-24 year olds. Secondary analysis of National Health Surveys was performed, including examination of socio-demographic determinants of obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased from 24.0 and 5.1% in males and 13.2 and 5.8% in females, respectively, in 1995 to 29.3 and 13.8% in males and 20.6 and 20.6% in females in 2012. Mean body mass index (BMI) increased over time from 23.7 (s.d. 3.5) for males and 22.4 (s.d. 4.0) for females in 1995 to 25.2 (s.d. 4.8) and 25.5 (s.d. 5.9) in 2011/2. Lower educational attainment increased the odds of having BMI⩾25.00 kg/m(2) for both sexes (P=0.03 males and Pobesity were higher in rural females (Pobesity epidemic has worsened for Australian young adults and in particular young females.

  4. Internet Gambling, Health, Smoking and Alcohol Use: Findings from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark; Wardle, Heather; Orford, Jim; Sproston, Kerry; Erens, Bob

    2011-01-01

    This study provides analysis of a representative national sample of Internet gamblers. Using participant data from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey (n = 9003 adults aged 16 years and over), all participants who had gambled online, bet online, and/or who had used a betting exchange in the last 12 months (6% of the total sample) were…

  5. The barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation experienced by women's partners during pregnancy and the post-partum period: a systematic review of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Kate; Graham, Hilary; McCaughan, Dorothy; Angus, Kathryn; Bauld, Linda

    2015-09-03

    Smoking in pregnancy can cause substantial harm and, while many women quit, others continue to smoke throughout pregnancy. The role of partners is an important but relatively under-researched factor in relation to women's smoking in pregnancy; partner's smoking status and attitudes to smoking cessation are important influences in a pregnant women's attempt to quit. Further understanding of how partners perceive the barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation in pregnancy is needed, particularly from qualitative studies where participants describe these issues in their own words. A synthesis of qualitative research of partners' views of smoking in pregnancy and post-partum was conducted using meta-ethnography. Searches were undertaken from 1990 to January 2014 using terms for partner/household, pregnancy, post-partum, smoking, qualitative in seven electronic databases. The review was reported in accordance with the 'Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research' (ENTREQ) statement. Nine studies reported in 14 papers were included, detailing the experience of 158 partners; the majority were interviewed during the post-partum period. Partners were all male, with a single exception. Socioeconomic measures indicated that most participants were socially disadvantaged. The synthesis identified recurring smoking-related perceptions and experiences that hindered (barriers) and encouraged (facilitators) partners to consider quitting during the woman's pregnancy and into the post-partum period. These were represented in five lines of argument relating to: smoking being an integral part of everyday life; becoming and being a father; the couple's relationship; perceptions of the risks of smoking; and their harm reduction and quitting strategies. The cluster of identified barriers and facilitators to quitting offers pointers for policy and practice. The workplace emerges as an important space for and influence on partners' smoking habits

  6. Prevalence of smoking and BMI differences between smokers and non-smokers among children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in south-east Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandycz, Artur; Jankowiak, Łukasz; Jerzak, Izabela

    2018-05-01

    Objectives : The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of smoking among children and adolescents aged 7-18 years, and also to determine the relationship between this addiction and the Body Mass Index (BMI). Methods : Basic anthropometric measurements were performed, and information concerning cigarette smoking and basic SES was gathered using the questionnaire method. Results : More than 5% of boys admit to smoking at the age of 10-11 years, and as many as 22% 18-year-olds admit to doing so. With regard to girls, the situation is slightly better because it is only among 14-year-olds that the percentage of smokers exceeds 5%. Smoking may affect average BMIs. Smoking had a negative impact on the magnitude of physical development indices among children between 8 and 12 years old. Conclusions : The percentage of smokers increases with age. Boys smoke more often than girls. Tobacco smoking in middle childhood (8-12 years) is associated with lower BMIs.

  7. Factors associated with secondhand smoke exposure prevalence and secondhand smoke level of children living with parental smokers: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Sabina; Unger, Friederike; Groß, Stefan; Nauck, Matthias; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    Factors that might account for the probability of children being exposed to secondhand smoke compared to those who are unexposed and characteristics associated with the urinary cotinine level (UCL) of those who are exposed were investigated. All households in a German region with a child aged 3 years or younger (n = 3,570) were invited to participate in a study that tested the efficacy of an intervention for reducing secondhand smoke exposure. In 1,282 households, at least one parent reported daily smoking. Among these, 915 (71.3%) participated in the study. For data analyses, we used a two-part model. Characteristics of the households associated with SHSE of the youngest child were analyzed, as well as characteristics associated with UCL among those exposed. Exposure to secondhand smoke was defined using a UCL ≥ 10 ng/ml. Secondhand smoke exposure was detected in 57.1% of the samples. Nursery attendance was associated with secondhand smoke exposure, in addition to the number of smokers living in the household, extent of home smoking ban and parental education. Among children exposed, nursery attendance, season of urine collection and age of the child were associated with UCL. Consideration of seasonal smoking behavior and a child's age at the time of intervention may increase attention to the adverse health effects of secondhand smoke exposure.

  8. Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Cigarette Smoking in Male Adolescents in Northern Jordan, and the Influence of Waterpipe Use and Asthma Diagnosis: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihaya Al-Sheyab

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Our study investigates the prevalence, patterns and predictors of tobacco smoking among early adolescent males in Northern Jordan and whether asthma diagnosis affects smoking patterns. A descriptive cross sectional design was used. Males in grades 7 and 8 from four randomly selected high schools in the city of Irbid were enrolled. Data on waterpipe (WP use and cigarette smoking patterns were obtained (n = 815 using a survey in Arabic language. The overall prevalence of ever having smoked a cigarette was 35.6%, with 86.2% of this group smoking currently. Almost half of the sample reported WP use. The most common age in which adolescents started to experiment with cigarettes was 11–12 years old (49.1%, although 10 years was also common (25.3%. Significant predictors of male cigarette smoking were WP use (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 2.99–5.76, asthma diagnosis (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.46–3.78, grade 8 (OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.10–2.11, and having a sibling who smokes (OR = 2.23, 95% CI = 1.53–3.24. However, this cross-sectional study cannot establish causality, thus longitudinal studies are needed. Public health programs and school-based anti-tobacco smoking interventions that target children in early years at high schools are warranted to prevent the uptake of tobacco use among this vulnerable age group. High school students with asthma should be specifically targeted.

  9. What impact have tobacco control policies, cigarette price and tobacco control programme funding had on Australian adolescents' smoking? Findings over a 15-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Victoria M; Warne, Charles D; Spittal, Matthew J; Durkin, Sarah; Purcell, Kate; Wakefield, Melanie A

    2011-08-01

    To assess the impact of tobacco control policies relating to youth access, clean indoor air and tobacco advertising at point-of-sale and outdoors, in addition to cigarette price and per capita tobacco control spending, on adolescent smoking prevalence. Repeated cross-sectional surveys. Logistic regression analyses examined association between policies and smoking prevalence. Australia, 1990-2005. A nationally representative sample of secondary students (aged 12-17 years) participating in a triennial survey (sample size per survey range: 20 560 to 27 480). Students' report of past-month smoking. In each jurisdiction, extent of implementation of the three policies for the year of the survey was determined. For each survey year, national per capita tobacco control spending was determined and jurisdiction-specific 12-month change in cigarette price obtained. Extent of implementation of the three policy areas varied between states and over the survey years. Multivariate analyses that adjusted for demographic factors, year and all tobacco control variables showed that 12-month cigarette price increases [odds ratio (OR): 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97-0.99], greater per capita tobacco control spending (OR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-0.99) and stronger implementation of clean indoor air policies (OR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.92-0.94) were associated with reduced smoking prevalence. Adult-directed, population-based tobacco control policies such as clean indoor air laws and increased prices of cigarettes, implemented as part of a well-funded comprehensive tobacco control programme are associated with lower adolescent smoking. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands across a 5-year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euser, S.; Alink, L.R.A.; Pannebakker, F.; Vogels, T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; IJzendoorn, M.H. van

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands was in 2005 first systematically examined in the Netherlands’ Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and youth (NPM-2005), using sentinel reports and substantiated CPS cases, and in the Pupils on Abuse study (PoA-2005), using high school

  11. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Prevalence and Correlates in 25 Eastern Mediterranean and Eastern European Countries: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Lee, John Tayu; Millett, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is highly prevalent among young people in some settings. There is an absence of nationally representative prevalence studies of waterpipe tobacco use and dual use with other tobacco products in young people. We conducted a secondary analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional study of students aged 13-15 years. Of 180 participating countries, 25 included optional waterpipe tobacco smoking questions: 15 Eastern Mediterranean and 10 Eastern European countries. We calculated the prevalence of current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco use, including dual waterpipe and other tobacco use, and used logistic regression models to identify sociodemographic correlates of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Individual country results were combined in a random effects meta-analysis. Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence was highest in Lebanon (36.9%), the West Bank (32.7%) and parts of Eastern Europe (Latvia 22.7%, the Czech Republic 22.1%, Estonia 21.9%). These countries also recorded greater than 10% prevalence of dual waterpipe and cigarette use. In a meta-analysis, higher odds of waterpipe tobacco smoking were found among males (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18% to 1.59%), cigarette users (AOR = 6.95, 95% CI = 5.74% to 8.42%), those whose parents (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.31% to 1.82%) or peers smoked (AOR = 3.53, 95% CI = 2.97% to 4.20%) and those whose parents had higher educational attainment (Father, AOR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.14% to 1.89%; Mother, AOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.07% to 2.46%). We report on regional- and country income-level differences. Waterpipe tobacco smoking, including dual waterpipe and cigarette use, is alarmingly high in several Eastern Mediterranean and Eastern European countries. Ongoing waterpipe tobacco smoking surveillance is warranted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All

  12. Waterpipe tobacco smoking prevalence among young people in Great Britain, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Cheeseman, Hazel; Brose, Leonie S

    2018-06-01

    One percent of adults in Great Britain use waterpipe tobacco at least monthly, however national epidemiological evidence among young people is absent. This study aims to assess waterpipe tobacco prevalence and correlates among young people in Great Britain. Data were analyzed from online surveys conducted annually from 2013 to 2016 with weighted national samples of 11 to 18-year olds in Great Britain (annual n = 1936-2059). Primary outcome measures were at least monthly waterpipe tobacco use and lifetime waterpipe tobacco use. Binary logistic regression models tested the association between these outcomes and age, sex, country of residence and other tobacco consumption. Between 2013 and 2016, 1.7% (95% CI 1.5-2.1%) used waterpipe tobacco at least monthly and 9.9% (95% CI 9.2-10.7%) used waterpipe in their lifetime. There were no changes in prevalence over time. At least monthly use was associated with older age groups [16-18 years vs. 11-15 years, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.63, 95% CI 1.55-4.46], male sex (AOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.23-2.71) and other tobacco consumption (e.g. lifetime cigarette use AOR 10.30, 95% CI 5.22-20.29). Lifetime use had similar correlates, but was not associated with male sex (AOR 0.97, 95% CI 0.80-1.17). One in 10 young people in Great Britain have tried waterpipe tobacco, though more frequent use appears low. We found no evidence of increasing or decreasing prevalence of waterpipe use between 2013 and 2016. Being male, older and a concurrent user of other tobacco products were correlated with waterpipe tobacco use.

  13. Implementation of a campus-wide Irish hospital smoking ban in 2009: prevalence and attitudinal trends among staff and patients in lead up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    We report the evidence base that supported the decision to implement the first campus-wide hospital smoking ban in the Republic of Ireland with effect from 1 January 2009. Three separate data sources are utilized; surveillance data collected from patients and staff in 8 surveys between 1997 and 2006, a 1-week observational study to assess smoker behaviour in designated smoking shelters and an attitudinal interview with 28 smoker patients and 30 staff on the implications of the 2004 indoors workplace smoking ban, conducted in 2005. The main outcome measures were trends in prevalence of smoking over time according to age, sex and occupational groups and attitudes to the 2004 ban and a projected outright campus ban. Smoking rates among patients remained steady, 24.2% in 1997\\/98 and 22.7% in 2006. Staff smoking rates declined from 27.4% to 17.8%, with a strong occupational gradient. Observational evidence suggested a majority of those using smoking shelters in 2005 were women and health-care workers rather than patients. Attitudes of patients and staff were positive towards the 2004 ban, but with some ambivalence on the effectiveness of current arrangements. Staff particularly were concerned with patient safety issues associated with smoking outdoors. The 2004 ban was supported by 87.6% of patients and 81.3% of staff in 2006 and a majority of 58.6% of patients and 52.4% of staff agreed with an outright campus ban being implemented. These findings were persuasive in instigating a process in 2007\\/08 to go totally smoke-free by 2009, the stages for which are discussed.

  14. Prevalence and Determinants of Current Smoking and Intention to Smoke among Secondary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Han and Tujia Nationalities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Dengyuan; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2017-10-30

    Objectives: This study examined the patterns and determinants of current smoking and intention to smoke among secondary school students of Han and Tujia nationalities in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three regions, namely, Chongqing, Liaocheng, and Tianjin, of China in 2015. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Results: Of the total subjects ( n = 1805), 78.9% were ethnic Han and 21.1% were ethnic Tujia. Overall 9.4% (Han: 7.7%; Tujia: 15.5%) secondary school students were smokers and 37.28% smoked more than once per day. Of the non-smoker students ( n = 1636), 17.4% have an intention to smoke. A total of 81.1% of students reportedly had never been taught throughout school about smoking or tobacco prevention. When compared to the students who were taught in the school about smoking or tobacco prevention (18.90%) students who were never taught were more likely to smoke (OR = 2.39; 95% CI = 1.14-5.01). As compared to Han nationality students who were from Tujia nationality were more likely to smoke (OR = 2.76; 95% CI = 1.88-4.04) and were more likely to have a higher frequency of smoking (95% CI (0.88, 0.88), p = 0.010). Non-smokers who were high school students (OR = 4.29; 95% CI = 2.12-8.66), whose academic performance were situated in the last 25% (OR = 2.23; 95% CI = 1.48-3.34) and lower than 50% (OR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.02-2.20) were more likely to have an intention of smoking. Conclusions: About one in ten secondary school students was a smoker, one in three smokers smoked more than one time per day, and a quarter of non-smokers had an intention of smoking in China. Smoking rate was higher among students from Tujia than the Han nationality. This study provided some important information for future tobacco control programs among secondary school students in the ethnic minority autonomous region and minority settlements in a multi-ethnic country.

  15. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001–2011, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance S. Ballester

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001–2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores (n = 2973 were linked to state taxes (n = 41, state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily. There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001 and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001. Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered.

  16. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001-2011, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Lance S; Auchincloss, Amy H; Robinson, Lucy F; Mayne, Stephanie L

    2017-03-20

    In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001-2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores ( n = 2973) were linked to state taxes ( n = 41), state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily). There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001) and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001). Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered.

  17. Exploring Impacts of Taxes and Hospitality Bans on Cigarette Prices and Smoking Prevalence Using a Large Dataset of Cigarette Prices at Stores 2001–2011, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Lance S.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Robinson, Lucy F.; Mayne, Stephanie L.

    2017-01-01

    In the USA, little is known about local variation in retail cigarette prices; price variation explained by taxes, bans, and area-level socio-demographics, and whether taxes and hospitality bans have synergistic effects on smoking prevalence. Cigarette prices 2001–2011 from chain supermarkets and drug stores (n = 2973) were linked to state taxes (n = 41), state and county bar/restaurant smoking bans, and census block group socio-demographics. Hierarchical models explored effects of taxes and bans on retail cigarette prices as well as county smoking prevalence (daily, non-daily). There was wide variation in store-level cigarette prices in part due to differences in state excise taxes. Excise taxes were only partially passed onto consumers (after adjustment, $1 tax associated with $0.90 increase in price, p < 0.0001) and the pass-through was slightly higher in areas that had bans but did not differ by area-level socio-demographics. Bans were associated with a slight increase in cigarette price (after adjustment, $0.09 per-pack, p < 0.0001). Taxes and bans were associated with reduction in smoking prevalence and taxes had a stronger association when combined with bans, suggesting a synergistic effect. Given wide variation in store-level prices, and uneven state/county implementation of taxes and bans, more federal policies should be considered. PMID:28335533

  18. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and khat chewing among Aden university medical students and their relationship to BP and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laswar Al Khader

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the smoking and khat chewing habits in male Aden University medical students and correlate them with blood pressure (BP, body mass index (BMI, and year of training, we randomly selected 100 students of different levels of training and measured their BP, height, and weight, and evaluated their cigarette smoking and khat chewing habits. The mean age of the whole group was 31.8 years. The mean BMI was 23.24 with a range from 22.6 in the in first year medical students to 24.7 (4.4 in 5 th year medical students (P= 0.127. The mean SBP, DBP, and MBP were 120.35, 70.47 and 87.1 mmHg, respectively, and did not change over the years of training. Preva-lence of smoking increased from 20% to 40% and khat chewing from 35% to 90% over the 5 years of training (P= 0.0003. There was a tendency for positive correlation between age and weight, BMI and frequency of khat chewing, and BMI and MBP. We found high prevalence of smoking and khat chewing among the medical students at Aden University and their prevalence increases with student seniority with no significant changes in BMI, SBP, DBP or MBP. There was a weak positive correlation between BMI with SBP, MBP and frequency of Khat chewing.

  19. Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C. Farrelly; William N. Evans; Edward Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been a heightened public concern over the potentially harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In response, smoking has been banned on many jobs. Using data from the 1991 and 1993 National Health Interview Survey and smoking supplements to the September 1992 and May 1993 Current Population Survey, we investigate whether these workplace policies reduce smoking prevalence and smoking intensity among workers. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce...

  20. Prevalence, distribution and correlates of tobacco smoking and chewing in Nepal: a secondary data analysis of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Ramakrishnareddy, N; Harsha Kumar, Hn; Sathian, Brijesh; Arokiasamy, John T

    2011-12-20

    Nearly four-fifths of estimated 1.1 million smokers live in low or middle-income countries. We aimed to provide national estimates for Nepal on tobacco use prevalence, its distribution across demographic, socio-economic and spatial variables and correlates of tobacco use. A secondary data analysis of 2006 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) was done. A representative sample of 9,036 households was selected by two-stage stratified, probability proportional to size (PPS) technique. We constructed three outcome variables 'tobacco smoke', 'tobacco chewer' and 'any tobacco use' based on four questions about tobacco use that were asked in DHS questionnaires. Socio-economic, demographic and spatial predictor variables were used. We computed overall prevalence for 'tobacco smoking', 'tobacco chewing' and 'any tobacco use' i.e. point estimates of prevalence rates, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for strata and clustering at primary sampling unit (PSU) level. For correlates of tobacco use, we used multivariate analysis to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and their 95% CIs. A p-value smoking' and 'tobacco chewing' were 30.3% (95% CI 28.9, 31.7), 20.7% (95% CI 19.5, 22.0) and 14.6% (95% CI 13.5, 15.7) respectively. Prevalence among men was significantly higher than women for 'any tobacco use' (56.5% versus 19.6%), 'tobacco smoking' (32.8% versus 15.8%) and 'tobacco chewing' (38.0% versus 5.0%). By multivariate analysis, older adults, men, lesser educated and those with lower wealth quintiles were more likely to be using all forms of tobacco. Divorced, separated, and widowed were more likely to smoke (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.14, 1.94) and chew tobacco (OR 1.36, 95% CI 0.97, 1.93) as compared to those who were currently married. Prevalence of 'tobacco chewing' was higher in eastern region (19.7%) and terai/plains (16.2%). 'Tobacco smoking' and 'any tobacco use' were higher in rural areas, mid-western and far western and mountainous areas. Prevalence of

  1. Secondary Prevention of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Areas Where Smoking, Alcohol, and Betel Quid Chewing are Prevalent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Shuan Chung

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is ranked as the sixth most common cause of cancer death worldwide and has a substantial effect on public health. In contrast to adenocarcinoma arising from Barrett's esophagus in Western countries, the major disease phenotype in the Asia-Pacific region is esophageal squamous cell carcinoma which is attributed to the prevalence of smoking, alcohol, and betel quid chewing. Despite a multidisciplinary approach to treating esophageal cancer, the outcome remains poor. Moreover, field cancerization reveals that esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is closely linked with the development of head and neck cancers that further sub-optimize the treatment of patients. Therefore, preventive strategies are of paramount importance to improve the prognosis of this dismal disease. Since obstacles exist for primary prevention via risk factor elimination, the current rationale for esophageal cancer prevention is to identify high-risk groups at earlier stages of the disease, and encourage them to get a confirmatory diagnosis, prompt treatment, and intensive surveillance for secondary prevention. Novel biomarkers for identifying specific at-risk populations are under extensive investigation. Advances in image-enhanced endoscopy do not just substantially improve our ability to identify small precancerous or cancerous foci, but can also accurately predict their invasiveness. Research input from the basic sciences should be translated into preventive measures in order to decrease the disease burden of esophageal cancer.

  2. The effects of maximising the UK’s tobacco control score on inequalities in smoking prevalence and premature coronary heart disease mortality: a modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Allen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is more than twice as common among the most disadvantaged socioeconomic groups in England compared to the most affluent and is a major contributor to health-related inequalities. The United Kingdom (UK has comprehensive smoking policies in place: regular tax increases; public information campaigns; on-pack pictorial health warnings; advertising bans; cessation; and smoke-free areas. This is confirmed from its high Tobacco Control Scale (TCS score, an expert-developed instrument for assessing the strength of tobacco control policies. However, room remains for improvement in tobacco control policies. Our aim was to evaluate the cumulative effect on smoking prevalence of improving all TCS components in England, stratified by socioeconomic circumstance. Methods Effect sizes and socioeconomic gradients for all six types of smoking policy in the UK setting were adapted from systematic reviews, or if not available, from primary studies. We used the IMPACT Policy Model to link predicted changes in smoking prevalence to changes in premature coronary heart disease (CHD mortality for ages 35–74. Health outcomes with a time horizon of 2025 were stratified by quintiles of socioeconomic circumstance. Results The model estimated that improving all smoking policies to achieve a maximum score on the TCS might reduce smoking prevalence in England by 3 % (95 % Confidence Interval (CI: 1–4 %, from 20 to 17 % in absolute terms, or by 15 % in relative terms (95 % CI: 7–21 %. The most deprived quintile would benefit more, with absolute reductions from 31 to 25 %, or a 6 % reduction (95 % CI: 2–7 %. There would be some 3300 (95 % CI: 2200–4700 fewer premature CHD deaths between 2015–2025, a 2 % (95 % CI: 1.4–2.9 % reduction. The most disadvantaged quintile would benefit more, reducing absolute inequality of CHD mortality by about 4 % (95 % CI: 3–9 %. Conclusions Further, feasible improvements in tobacco

  3. Barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation in pregnancy and in the post-partum period: The health care professionals' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Felix; Hopewell, Sarah; Sinclair, Lesley; McCaughan, Dorothy; McKell, Jennifer; Bauld, Linda

    2018-05-15

    Health care professionals and the health care environment play a central role in protecting pregnant and post-partum women and their infants from smoking-related harms. This study aimed to better understand the health professional's perspective on how interactions between women, health care professionals, and the environment influence how smoking is managed. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Data were from 48 health care staff involved in antenatal or post-partum care at two UK sites, including midwives, obstetricians, health visitors, GPs, pharmacists, service commissioners, and Stop Smoking Service (SSS) advisors and managers. Thematic analysis was guided by a social-ecological framework (SEF). Themes were divided across three SEF levels and represented factors connected to the management of smoking in the health care context and the beliefs and behaviour of pregnant or post-partum smokers. Organizational level: Service reconfigurations, 'last resort' nicotine replacement therapy prescribing policies, and non-mandatory training were largely negative factors. There were mixed views on opt-out referral pathways and positive views on carbon monoxide monitoring. Interpersonal level: Protection of client-professional relationships often inhibited frank discussions about smoking, and weak interservice relationships affected SSS referral motivation and quality. Individual level: Professionals felt community midwives had primary responsibility for managing smoking, although midwives felt underskilled doing this. Midwives' perceived priority for addressing smoking was influenced by the demands from unrelated organizational initiatives. Opportunities to improve clinical support for pregnant smokers exist at organizational, interservice, and health care professional levels. Interactions between levels reflect the importance of simultaneously addressing different level-specific barriers to smoking cessation in pregnancy. Statement of contribution What is already

  4. Age, cohort and period effects in the prevalence of sleep disturbances among older people: the impact of economic downturn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dregan, Alex; Armstrong, David

    2009-11-01

    Using two longitudinal and nationally representative datasets, this study employs a cross-cohort analysis to examine age, cohort and period effects in the prevalence of sleep loss through worry for people over the age of 50 in the UK. The likelihood of reporting sleep loss through worry is calculated at two time-points for 7785 respondents from the Health and Activity Survey (HALs) and 21,834 respondents from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), with baseline information on sleep loss through worry. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to determine the prevalence rates in sleep loss through worry at each survey within both datasets. The results of analysis reveal that sleep loss through worry declined with age, but this pattern was tempered by a temporary increase in the early 1990s. The contemporary economic downturn is suggested as a possible explanation for the significant increase in the prevalence of sleep loss through worry in 1991.

  5. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure among Internal Chinese Migrant Women of Reproductive Age: Evidence from China's Labor-Force Dynamic Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao; Luo, Xiaofeng; Ling, Li

    2016-04-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major risk factor for poor health outcomes among women in China, where proportionately few women smoke. This is especially the case as it pertains to women's reproductive health, specifically migrant women who are exposed to SHS more than the population at large. There are several factors which may increase migrant women's risk of SHS exposure. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of SHS exposure among internal Chinese migrant women of reproductive age. The data used were derived from the 2014 Chinese Labor Dynamic Survey, a national representative panel survey. The age-adjusted rate of SHS exposure of women of reproductive age with migration experience was of 43.46% (95% CI: 40.73%-46.40%), higher than those without migration experience (35.28% (95% CI: 33.66%-36.97%)). Multivariate analysis showed that participants with a marital status of "Widowed" had statistically lower exposure rates, while those with a status of "Cohabitation" had statistically higher exposure. Those with an undergraduate degree or above had statistically lower SHS exposure. Those with increasing levels of social support, and those who currently smoke or drink alcohol, had statistically higher SHS exposure. Participants' different work-places had an effect on their SHS exposure, with outdoor workers statistically more exposed. Our findings suggest that urgent tobacco control measures should be taken to reduce smoking prevalence and SHS exposure. Specific attention should be paid to protecting migrant women of reproductive age from SHS.

  6. Pesquisa sobre tabagismo entre médicos de Rio Grande, RS: prevalência e perfil do fumante Cigarette smoking survey among physicians of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul: prevalence and smoker's profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUÍS SUÁREZ HALTY

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O tabagismo é um grave problema de saúde pública. A luta antitabágica está em grande parte alicerçada nos profissionais da área da saúde, em especial, nos médicos. O médico frente à sua comunidade é um modelo de conduta e como tal deve dar o exemplo de não fumar. Objetivo: Avaliar a magnitude e distribuição do tabagismo na população médica de Rio Grande, RS, e caracterizar o perfil do fumante. Método: Os dados foram obtidos no ano de 1999, através da aplicação e análise de questionário, elaborado segundo modelo proposto pela OMS, entre 333 médicos, sendo 213 (64% homens e 120 (36% mulheres. A média de idade da amostra foi de 43 (± 10,5 anos, com 65,1% no grupo de 30 a 50 anos. Resultados: Constatou-se prevalência de tabagismo atual de 18,3% (15,9% fumantes regulares + 2,4% fumantes ocasionais. A prevalência de tabagismo regular quanto ao gênero foi de 17,8% entre homens e 12,5% entre mulheres, sem diferença estatisticamente significante (p > 0,05. O consumo de cigarros foi, em média, de 24,3 maços/ano, sendo maior no sexo masculino e aumentando com a idade. Verificou-se que 86,8% dos fumantes iniciaram o tabagismo antes dos 20 anos de idade, tendo por motivação, em 63,2% dos casos, a vontade própria e/ou influência dos amigos. Conclusão: Embora a prevalência tabágica entre os médicos rio-grandinos seja inferior à de outros países, ainda é inaceitável, visto que esta categoria tem papel determinante na prevenção e na luta antitabágica, justificando uma campanha contra o fumo entre eles.Smoking is a serious public health problem. The campaign against tobacco is largely supported by health professionals, especially doctors. The physician is a model for the community and therefore should give the example avoiding smoking. Objectives: This work seeks to evaluate the magnitude and the distribution of smoking habit among physicians in Rio Grande, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, and

  7. [Prevalence of Hypothyroidism in Major Psychiatric Disorders in Hospitalised Patients in Montserrat Hospital During the period March to October 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Navarro, Pedro; Ibañez Pinilla, Edgar Antonio; Galeano España, Alejandra; Noguera Bravo, Ana María; Milena Pantoja, Sandra; Suárez Acosta, Ana María

    Hypothyroidism results from inadequate production of thyroid hormone. It is known that there is a relationship between the major psychiatric disorders and hypothyroidism. To determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients admitted due to major psychiatric disorders in Montserrat Hospital during the period from March to October 2010. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 105 patients admitted to Montserrat Hospital with a primary diagnosis of major psychiatric disorder (major depression, bipolar affective disorder, generalised panic disorder, panic disorder, mixed anxiety-depressive disorder, and schizophrenia) in the aforementioned period. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) was performed to assess the evidence of hypothyroidism. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be 10.5% (95% CI; 5%-16%). It was 12.5% in anxiety disorder, 11.1% in depressive disorder, with a lower prevalence of 10.3% for bipolar disorder, and 9.9% for schizophrenia. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was found to be less than in the general population, which is between 4.64% and 18.5%, and hypothyroidism was found in disorders other than depression. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  9. Prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in adult population of selected regions of the Czech Republic. Relation to eating habits and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosátková, M; Ceřovská, J; Zamrazilová, H; Hoskovcová, P; Dvořáková, M; Zamrazil, V

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is around 25% in Europe but its occurrence grows in both genders with increasing age and weight. Lifestyle factors may contribute to the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between metabolic syndrome and eating habits as well as length of sleep and smoking. Participants (519 women and 286 men aged 18-65 years) were chosen by random selection and questioned about their eating habits, sleep length and smoking. This information was combined with anthropometric and clinical parameters of metabolic syndrome. The female group was divided into two subgroups depending on climacteric stage (before and after menopause). Metabolic syndrome prevalence does not differ between regions in neither female (29.9%) nor male (32.5%) group. Body mass index ≥25 was detected in 50.4% of all women and 65.7% of men; 23.5% of all women and 21.7% men had body mass index ≥30. In conclusion, metabolic syndrome prevalence was proved to depend on eating habits and family heredity. Positive correlation between the above mentioned factors demonstrated itself in the total sample but not in individual regions. Metabolic syndrome prevalence in Czech adults is comparable with neighbouring countries. No significant interregional differences in metabolic syndrome prevalence within the Czech Republic were detected. In conclusion, relationship between eating habits and metabolic syndrome was confirmed.

  10. The prevalence and the socio – economic costs of smoking among the working age population in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokarevica A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a health problem, the costs of which include sickness, pain, grief and misery. But tobacco use also imposes a significant economic burden on society. One efficient way to assess the adverse health effects of smoking on a society is to translate smoking-caused illnesses, premature mortality, and productivity losses into economic terms, a universal marker for measuring the adverse effects of smoking. Due to the high proportion of smokers, Latvia faces high male mortality from smoking-related diseases; life expectancy for men in the age group 35–64 years is 2.44 years less than for non-smokers in the same age group, losing 37% of total lost years of life and therefore the government loses approximately 45 88346 Euro per year from YPLL from smoking related diseases.

  11. The role of national policies intended to regulate adolescent smoking in explaining the prevalence of daily smoking: a study of adolescents from 27 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Christina W; Kreiner, Svend; Rasmussen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: This study seeks to examine whether contextual factors influence adolescents' daily smoking. A focus was placed on three modifiable policies operating at a national level, non-smoking policy at educational facilities, price and minimum age for buying tobacco. DESIGN: This study is based...... on a merged data set consisting of the 2001/02 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study and national-level data collected from the 2003 WHO European Tobacco Control Database and the World Development Indicators Database. HBSC is an international study including adolescents from 32 countries...

  12. Prevalence, rates and correlates of intimate partner violence among South African women during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Allison K; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Luz; Martin, Sandra L; Foshee, Vangie; Maman, Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, limited research exists on IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence, rates and correlates of IPV among South African women during pregnancy and the first 9 months postpartum. Data are from a longitudinal study with women recruited during pregnancy between 2008 and 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. We used a modified version of the World Health Organization's IPV scale to estimate prevalence and rates of IPV during pregnancy, at 4 months postpartum and 9 months postpartum and we used logistic regression to assess the correlates of IPV during this time. More than 20 % of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during pregnancy. Nearly one-quarter of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during the first 9 months postpartum. Psychological IPV was the most prevalent type of IPV during pregnancy and the first 4 months postpartum. Age and previous violence within the relationship were associated with IPV during pregnancy and IPV during the postpartum period. The high levels of IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period highlight the need to develop screening and intervention strategies specifically for this time. Further, women should be screened not only for physical violence but also psychological violence given that psychological violence may result in distinct negative consequences.

  13. Prevalence and rates of intimate partner violence among South African women during pregnancy and the postpartum period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Allison K.; Moodley, Dhayendre; McNaughton-Reyes, Luz; Martin, Sandra L.; Foshee, Vangie; Maman, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem in South Africa. However, limited research exists on IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to describe the prevalence, rates and correlates of IPV among South African women during pregnancy and the first nine months postpartum. Methods Data are from a longitudinal study with women recruited during pregnancy between 2008 and 2010 at a public clinic in Durban. We used a modified version of the World Health Organization’s IPV scale to estimate prevalence and rates of IPV during pregnancy, at four months postpartum and nine months postpartum and we used logistic regression to assess the correlates of IPV during this time. Results More than 20% of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during pregnancy. Nearly one-quarter of all women experienced at least one act of physical, psychological or sexual IPV during the first nine months postpartum. Psychological IPV was the most prevalent type of IPV during pregnancy and the first four months postpartum. Age and previous violence within the relationship were associated with IPV during pregnancy and IPV during the postpartum period. Conclusions The high levels of IPV during pregnancy and the postpartum period highlight the need to develop screening and intervention strategies specifically for this time. Further, women should be screened not only for physical violence but also psychological violence given that psychological violence may result in distinct negative consequences. PMID:24889116

  14. Prevalência e fatores associados ao tabagismo em estudantes de medicina de uma universidade em Passo Fundo (RS Prevalence of and variables related to smoking among medical students at a university in the city of Passo Fundo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Mazzoleni Stramari

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência e fatores associados ao tabagismo entre os acadêmicos de medicina e avaliar o perfil desse grupo. MÉTODOS: Responderam a um questionário autoaplicável, contendo perguntas sobre consumo e atitudes relacionadas ao tabagismo, 316 acadêmicos de medicina (98,7% do total da Universidade de Passo Fundo. Segundo recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde, os estudantes foram classificados em fumantes diários, fumantes ocasionais, ex-fumantes ou não-fumantes, sendo considerados fumantes ativos os nas duas primeiras categorias. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que 16,5% dos acadêmicos eram fumantes ativos (5,4% diários e 11,1% ocasionais e 3,5% eram ex-fumantes. A média de idade foi 22,2 ± 2,4 anos. Os fatores significativamente associados ao tabagismo (p OBJECTIVE:To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with smoking among medical students, as well as to evaluate the profile of this group. METHODS: A total of 316 medical students (98.7% of the total at the University of Passo Fundo, in the city of Passo Fundo, Brazil, completed a self-report questionnaire with questions on tobacco intake and on attitudes related to smoking. In accordance with the World Health Organization guidelines, the students were classified as daily smokers, occasional smokers, former smokers or nonsmokers, those in the two first categories being considered active smokers. RESULTS: We found that 16.5% of the students were active smokers (daily smokers, 5.4%; occasional smokers, 11.1% and that 3.5% were former smokers. The mean age was 22.2 ± 2.4 years. Factors significantly associated with the smoking habit (p < 0.05 were male gender, paternal smoking, regular alcohol consumption and use of antidepressants or anxiolytics. For the majority (69.2% of the smokers, the age at smoking onset was 15-19 years of age, and the main motivations to start smoking were selfinitiative and influence of friends. The conceptualization of

  15. Prevalence of Acute Respiratory Infections in Women and Children in Western Sierra Leone due to Smoke from Wood and Charcoal Stoves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldred Tunde Taylor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Combustion of biomass fuels (wood and charcoal for cooking releases smoke that contains health damaging pollutants. Women and children are the most affected. Exposure to biomass smoke is associated with acute respiratory infections (ARI. This study investigated the prevalence of ARI potentially caused by smoke from wood and charcoal stoves in Western Sierra Leone, as these two fuels are the predominant fuel types used for cooking. A cross sectional study was conducted for 520 women age 15–45 years; and 520 children under 5 years of age in homes that burn wood and charcoal. A questionnaire assessing demographic, household and exposure characteristics and ARI was administered to every woman who further gave information for the child. Suspended particulate matter (SPM was continuously monitored in fifteen homes. ARI prevalence revealed 32% and 24% for women, 64% and 44% for children in homes with wood and charcoal stoves, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders for each group, the odds ratio of having suffered from ARI was similar for women, but remained large for children in homes with wood stoves relative to charcoal stoves (OR = 1.14, 95%CI: 0.71–1.82 and (OR = 2.03, 95%CI: 1.31–3.13, respectively. ARI prevalence was higher for children in homes with wood stoves compared with homes with charcoal stoves, but ARI prevalence for both types of fuels is higher compared with reported prevalence elsewhere. To achieve a reduction in ARI would require switching from wood and charcoal to cleaner fuels.

  16. A cross-sectional survey of the prevalence of environmental tobacco smoke preventive care provision by child health services in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daly Justine B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the need for a reduction in levels of childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS being a recognised public health goal, the delivery of ETS preventive care in child health service settings remains a largely unstudied area. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of ETS preventive care in child health services; differences in the provision of care by type of service; the prevalence of strategies to support such care; and the association between care support strategies and care provision. Method One-hundred and fifty-one (83% child health service managers within New South Wales, Australia completed a questionnaire in 2002 regarding the: assessment of parental smoking and child ETS exposure; the provision of parental smoking cessation and ETS-exposure reduction advice; and strategies used to support the provision of such care. Child health services were categorised based on their size and case-mix, and a chi-square analysis was performed to compare the prevalence of ETS risk assessment and ETS prevention advice between service types. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the existence of care support strategies and the provision of ETS risk assessment and ETS exposure prevention advice. Results A significant proportion of services reported that they did not assess parental smoking status (26%, and reported that they did not assess the ETS exposure (78% of any child. Forty four percent of services reported that they did not provide smoking cessation advice and 20% reported they did not provide ETS exposure prevention advice. Community based child and family health services reported a greater prevalence of ETS preventive care compared to other hospital based units. Less than half of the services reported having strategies to support the provision of ETS preventive care. The existence of such support strategies was associated with greater odds of care provision

  17. Effects of age, time period, and birth cohort on the prevalence of diabetes and obesity in Korean men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jin-Won; Song, Yun-mi; Park, Hye soon; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Ho; Cho, Sung-il

    2008-02-01

    We examined changes in the prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and overweight in 412,881 Korean men in birth cohorts from 1933 to 1972 over 8 years from 1992 to 2000 and separately analyzed the effects of age, time period, and birth cohort. The study included male employees of Korean government organizations and schools who were between 20 and 59 years of age in 1992. Diabetes was diagnosed on the basis of self-reports in 1992 or fasting blood glucose levels (>or=126 mg/ml, 7.0 mmol/l). The age-period-cohort model was used to estimate the effects of age, time period, and birth cohort. In Korean male birth cohorts from 1933 to 1972, the age-specific prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and overweight in men aged 28-59 years increased annually by 0.41% (3.03 to 6.29%), 0.18% (0.70 to 2.16%), and 1.49% (23.48 to 35.41%), respectively, from 1992 to 2000. The relative change in diabetes was largest among the younger cohorts (>400% increase over 8 years) and corresponded to the change in obesity. Apart from the contribution of age, clear cohort and period effects were evident for diabetes, although the magnitude of the effect was slightly less than that for obesity. Prevention of diabetes through the control of obesity, particularly in young men, clearly needs to be emphasized.

  18. Smoking and physical inactivity increase cancer prevalence in BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 mutation carriers: results from a retrospective observational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Sabine; Yahiaoui-Doktor, Maryam; Dukatz, Ricarda; Lammert, Jacqueline; Ullrich, Mirjam; Engel, Christoph; Pfeifer, Katharina; Basrai, Maryam; Siniatchkin, Michael; Schmidt, Thorsten; Weisser, Burkhard; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Schmutzler, Rita; Bischoff, Stephan C; Halle, Martin; Kiechle, Marion

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this analysis in a pilot study population was to investigate whether we can verify seemingly harmful lifestyle factors such as nicotine and alcohol indulgence, obesity, and physical inactivity, as well as a low socioeconomic status for increased cancer prevalence in a cohort of BRCA 1 and 2 mutation carriers. The analysis data are derived from 68 participants of the lifestyle intervention study LIBRE-1, a randomized, prospective trial that aimed to test the feasibility of a lifestyle modification in BRCA 1 and 2 mutation carriers. At study entry, factors such as medical history, lifestyle behavior, and socioeconomic status were retrospectively documented by interview and the current BMI was determined by clinical examination. The baseline measurements were compared within the cohort, and presented alongside reference values for the German population. Study participants indicating a higher physical activity during their adolescence showed a significantly lower cancer prevalence (p = 0.019). A significant difference in cancer occurrence was observed in those who smoked prior to the disease, and those who did not smoke (p physical activity level than diseased mutation carriers (p = 0.046). The present data in this small cohort of 68 mutation carriers suggest that smoking and low physical activity during adolescence are risk factors for developing breast cancer in women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. Further data of the ongoing LIBRE 2 study are necessary to confirm these findings in a larger cohort of 600 mutation carriers.

  19. Notwithstanding High Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity, Smoking Remains the Most Important Factor in Poor Self-rated Health and Hospital Use in an Australian Regional Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Mary Haines

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To classify a rural community sample by their modifiable health behaviours and identify the prevalence of chronic conditions, poor self-rated health, obesity and hospital use. Method: Secondary analysis of a cross- sectional self-report questionnaire in the Hume region of Victoria, Australia. Cluster analysis using the two-step method was applied to responses to health behaviour items. Results: 1,259 questionnaires were completed. Overall 63% were overweight or obese. Three groups were identified: ‘Healthy Lifestyle’ (63%, ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ (25% and ‘Smokers’ (12%. ‘Healthy lifestyle’ were older and more highly educated than the other two groups while ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ were more likely to be obese. ‘Smokers’ had the highest rate of poor self-rated health. Prevalence of chronic conditions was similar in each group (>20%. ‘Smokers’ were twice as likely to have had two or more visits to hospital in the preceding year even after adjustment for age, gender and education. Conclusion: High rates of overweight and obesity were identified but ‘Smokers’ were at the greatest risk for poor self-rated health and hospitalisation. Implications for Public Health: Within an environment of high rates of chronic ill health and obesity, primary care clinicians and public health policy makers must maintain their vigilance in encouraging people to quit smoking.

  20. ECLAMC Study: prevalence patterns of hypospadias in South America: multi-national analysis over a 24-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Fernández

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate prevalence trends of hypospadias in South-America it is essential to perform multicenter and multinational studies with the same methodology. Herein we present systematic data as part of an international multicenter initiative evaluating congenital malformations in South America over a 24-year period. Materials and Methods A nested case-control study was conducted using the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC, between January 1989 and December 2012. Cases were stratified as isolated (IH and non-isolated hypospadias (NIH. Global prevalence was calculated and discriminated by country. Associations between birth weight and gestational age, and NIH distribution by associated abnormality and severity of hypospadias, were analyzed. Results A total of 159 hospitals from six countries participated, reporting surveillance on 4.020.384 newborns. A total of 4.537 hypospadias cases were detected, with a global prevalence of 11.3/10.000 newborns. Trend analyses showed in Chile, Brazil and Uruguay a statistically significant increase in prevalence. Analysis of severity and associated anomalies did not to find an association for distal cases, but did for proximal (RR=1.64 [95% CI=1.33-2.03]. Conclusion This is one of only a few Latin American multicenter studies reporting on the epidemiology of hypospadias in South America in the last two decades. Our data adds to evidence suggesting an increase in some countries in the region at different times. There were also variations in prevalence according to severity. This study adds to literature describing associated anomalies at a hospital-based level.

  1. ECLAMC Study: Prevalence patterns of hypospadias in South America: Multi-national analysis over a 24-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Nicolás; Pérez, Jaime; Monterrey, Pedro; Poletta, Fernando A; Bägli, Darius J; Lorenzo, Armando J; Zarante, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate prevalence trends of hypospadias in South-America it is essential to perform multicenter and multinational studies with the same methodology. Herein we present systematic data as part of an international multicenter initiative evaluating congenital malformations in South America over a 24-year period. A nested case-control study was conducted using the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), between January 1989 and December 2012. Cases were stratified as isolated (IH) and non-isolated hypospadias (NIH). Global prevalence was calculated and discriminated by country. Associations between birth weight and gestational age, and NIH distribution by associated abnormality and severity of hypospadias, were analyzed. A total of 159 hospitals from six countries participated, reporting surveillance on 4.020.384 newborns. A total of 4.537 hypospadias cases were detected, with a global prevalence of 11.3/10.000 newborns. Trend analyses showed in Chile, Brazil and Uruguay a statistically significant increase in prevalence. Analysis of severity and associated anomalies did not to find an association for distal cases, but did for proximal (RR=1.64 [95% CI=1.33-2.03]). This is one of only a few Latin American multicenter studies reporting on the epidemiology of hypospadias in South America in the last two decades. Our data adds to evidence suggesting an increase in some countries in the region at different times. There were also variations in prevalence according to severity. This study adds to literature describing associated anomalies at a hospital-based level. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  2. Prevalence and distribution of congenital abnormalities in Turkey: differences between the prenatal and postnatal periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztarhan, Kazim; Gedikbasi, Ali; Yildirim, Dogukan; Arslan, Oguz; Adal, Erdal; Kavuncuoglu, Sultan; Ozbek, Sibel; Ceylan, Yavuz

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of cases associated with congenital abnormalities during the following three periods: pregnancy, birth, and the neonatal period. This was a retrospective study of cases between 2002 and 2006. All abnormal pregnancies, elective terminations of pregnancies, stillbirths, and births with congenital abnormalities managed in the Neonatology Unit were classified based on the above distribution scheme. During the 5-year study period, 1906 cases with congenital abnormalities were recruited, as follows: 640 prenatally detected and terminated cases, with most abnormalities related to the central nervous system, chromosomes, and urogenital system (56.7%, 12.7%, and 8.9%, respectively); 712 neonates with congenital abnormalities (congenital heart disease [49.2%], central nervous system abnormalities [14.7%], and urogenital system abnormalities [12.9%]); and hospital stillbirths, of which 34.2% had malformations (220 prenatal cases [34.4%] had multiple abnormalities, whereas 188 liveborn cases [26.4%] had multiple abnormalities). The congenital abnormalities rate between 2002 and 2006 was 2.07%. Systematic screening for fetal anomalies is the primary means for identification of affected pregnancies. © 2010 The Authors. Congenital Anomalies © 2010 Japanese Teratology Society.

  3. Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Annemarie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2005-12-01

    Despite voluntary restrictions prohibiting direct and indirect cigarette marketing to youth and paid product placement, tobacco use remains prevalent in movies. This article presents a systematic review of the evidence on the nature and effect of smoking in the movies on adolescents (and others). We performed a comprehensive literature review. We identified 40 studies. Smoking in the movies decreased from 1950 to approximately 1990 and then increased rapidly. In 2002, smoking in movies was as common as it was in 1950. Movies rarely depict the negative health outcomes associated with smoking and contribute to increased perceptions of smoking prevalence and the benefits of smoking. Movie smoking is presented as adult behavior. Exposure to movie smoking makes viewers' attitudes and beliefs about smoking and smokers more favorable and has a dose-response relationship with adolescent smoking behavior. Parental restrictions on R-rated movies significantly reduces youth exposure to movie smoking and subsequent smoking uptake. Beginning in 2002, the total amount of smoking in movies was greater in youth-rated (G/PG/PG-13) films than adult-rated (R) films, significantly increasing adolescent exposure to movie smoking. Viewing antismoking advertisements before viewing movie smoking seems to blunt the stimulating effects of movie smoking on adolescent smoking. Strong empirical evidence indicates that smoking in movies increases adolescent smoking initiation. Amending the movie-rating system to rate movies containing smoking as "R" should reduce adolescent exposure to smoking and subsequent smoking.

  4. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Depressive Symptoms in Korean Women throughout Pregnancy and in Postpartum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Hwan; Karmaus, Wilfried; Zhang, Hongmei

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal depression is a significant predictor for postpartum depression. However, there is a lack of research on risk factors for Korean women related to prenatal depression and the relationship between prenatal depression during the three trimesters and postpartum depression. Therefore, aims of this study were (1) to identify the prevalence of depression during all three trimesters and the postpartum period, (2) to evaluate the relationship between prenatal depression in each trimester and postpartum depression, and (3) to identify the relationship and differences in prenatal depression based on sociodemographic factors in Korean women. One hundred and fifty three Korean women were recruited from three maternity clinics in Korea. Prenatal and postpartum depressions were evaluated in the first, second (24-26 weeks), third (32-34 weeks) trimester and 4 weeks postpartum with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Korean. The prevalence of depression in the prenatal and postpartum period ranged from 40.5% to 61.4%. Depression in the second and the third trimester was significantly correlated with depression in the postpartum period. Unemployment and household income were risk factors for prenatal depression in the first and second trimesters. To assist women suffering from postpartum depression and prevent its effects, women should be screened for prenatal depression during all three trimesters. For Korean women with high risk factors for prenatal depression, we suggest that the Korean government establish healthcare policies related to depression screening as routine prenatal care and mental health referral systems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. [Anaemia in pregnancy and in the immediate postpartum period. Prevalence and risk factors in pregnancy and childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquizu I Brichs, Xavier; Rodriguez Carballeira, Mónica; García Fernández, Antonio; Perez Picañol, Emilio

    2016-05-20

    The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of anaemia in the immediate postpartum period (48-72hours), determine the risk factors and the value of haemoglobin before birth to reduce postpartum anaemia. A prospective, observational and longitudinal study that included 1,426 women who delivered consecutively and agreed to participate in the study. Different variables, analytical, epidemiological, foetal and maternal symptoms were studied. The prevalence of anaemia in the postpartum period was 49.7%. The most important risk factors were antepartum anaemia and type of delivery. The types of delivery most influencing postpartum anaemia were, forceps (82.3%), the ventouse 67%, cesarean section (58,2%) and vaginal delivery (37.2%). In the multivariate study was found as the most important independent risk factors, the haemoglobin in the delivery day (OR 6.16, CI: 3.73 to 10.15) and instrumental delivery (OR: 4.61, CI: 3.44 to 6, 19). Other independent risk factors were haemoglobin in the third trimester, episiotomy and perineal tears, ethnicity, birth weight, parity and intra/postpartum complications. Anaemia in the immediate postpartum is a prevalent problem. The factors most associated postpartum anaemia were antepartum anaemia and instrumental delivery. If patients arrive at the day of delivery with haemoglobins≥12,6g/dl and were restricted to necessary instrumented deliveries and cesarean sections, episiotomies and we could avoid perineal tears we can decrease anaemia in the immediate postpartum period very significantly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  7. Prevalence and characteristics of smokers interested in internet-based smoking cessation interventions: cross-sectional findings from a national household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie; Michie, Susan; Raupach, Tobias; West, Robert

    2013-03-18

    An accurate and up-to-date estimate of the potential reach of Internet-based smoking cessation interventions (ISCIs) would improve calculations of impact while an understanding of the characteristics of potential users would facilitate the design of interventions. This study reports the prevalence and the sociodemographic, smoking, and Internet-use characteristics of smokers interested in using ISCIs in a nationally representative sample. Data were collected using cross-sectional household surveys of representative samples of adults in England. Interest in trying an Internet site or "app" that was proven to help with stopping smoking was assessed in 1128 adult smokers in addition to sociodemographic characteristics, dependence, motivation to quit, previous attempts to quit smoking, Internet and handheld computer access, and recent types of information searched online. Of a representative sample of current smokers, 46.6% (95% CI 43.5%-49.6%) were interested in using an Internet-based smoking cessation intervention. In contrast, only 0.3% (95% CI 0%-0.7%) of smokers reported having used such an intervention to support their most recent quit attempt within the past year. After adjusting for all other background characteristics, interested smokers were younger (OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99), reported stronger urges (OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51), were more motivated to quit within 3 months (OR=2.16, 95% CI 1.54-3.02), and were more likely to have made a quit attempt in the past year (OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.30-2.37), access the Internet at least weekly (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.40-3.36), have handheld computer access (OR=1.65, 95% CI 1.22-2.24), and have used the Internet to search for online smoking cessation information or support in past 3 months (OR=2.82, 95% CI 1.20-6.62). There was no association with social grade. Almost half of all smokers in England are interested in using online smoking cessation interventions, yet fewer than 1% have used them to support a quit attempt in the

  8. Knowledge of and attitudes towards tobacco control among smoking and non-smoking physicians in 2 Gulf Arab states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbehani, Nasser N; Hamadeh, Randah R; Macklai, Nejma S

    2004-05-01

    The global health professional survey is a project organized by the World Health Organization, to determine the smoking habits, knowledge and attitude towards tobacco control of health professionals in several countries around the world. This paper presents data from Kuwait and Bahrain. The survey period was between May 2000 and March 2001. A questionnaire was distributed to all physicians in Bahrain and to a random sample from Kuwait. The responses to knowledge and attitude questions were on a scale of 1-5, (1 strongly agree, 2 agree, 3 unsure, 4 disagree and 5 strongly disagree). Four hundred and seventy physicians from Bahrain and 1095 from Kuwait completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of cigarette smoking in Kuwait was: current smokers 18.4%, previous smokers 15.8%, Bahrain 14.6% and 14.3%. The prevalence of shisha smoking was 12% and 6.4% for Kuwait and Bahrain, (p=0.004). The mean scores of agreement with the association between passive smoking and lung diseases, lower respiratory tract infections in children were 1.6, 1.7 and 1.8, 1.9 for non smoking physicians and smoking physicians (Pnon-smoking physicians (pattitude towards tobacco control compared to non-smokers. There was no difference in the prevalence of cigarette smoking between Kuwait and Bahrain, but the prevalence of shisha smoking was higher in Kuwait.

  9. Prevalence of smoking, alcohol and substance use among adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Denmark compared with the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders G; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk of alcohol and substance abuse in adulthood. An unequivocal reason for this association has not yet been identified but it has been shown that pharmacological treatment...... is likely to reduce this risk. Aims: To test whether adolescents with ADHD in pharmacological treatment have a higher prevalence of smoking and use of alcohol and drugs than a matched control group from the general population. The study will also analyse associations between smoking, alcohol and drug use...... and comorbid psychiatric symptoms. Methods: The sample in this case-control study comprised 219 adolescents aged 13-18 years, including a case group of 117 adolescents with ADHD and a control group of 102 adolescents without ADHD. Participating subjects completed a questionnaire about their use of cigarettes...

  10. Smoking duration, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Pleasants, Roy A; Croft, Janet B; Wheaton, Anne G; Heidari, Khosrow; Malarcher, Ann M; Ohar, Jill A; Kraft, Monica; Mannino, David M; Strange, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of smoking duration with respiratory symptoms and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in 2012. Methods Data from 4,135 adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression that accounted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and current smoking status, as well as the complex sampling design. Results The distribution of smoking duration ranged from 19.2% (1–9 years) to 36.2% (≥30 years). Among 1,454 respondents who had smoked for ≥30 years, 58.3% were current smokers, 25.0% had frequent productive cough, 11.2% had frequent shortness of breath, 16.7% strongly agreed that shortness of breath affected physical activity, and 25.6% had been diagnosed with COPD. Prevalence of COPD and each respiratory symptom was lower among former smokers who quit ≥10 years earlier compared with current smokers. Smoking duration had a linear relationship with COPD (Psmoking status and other covariates. While COPD prevalence increased with prolonged smoking duration in both men and women, women had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of COPD in the 1–9 years, 20–29 years, and ≥30 years duration periods. Conclusion These state population data confirm that prolonged tobacco use is associated with respiratory symptoms and COPD after controlling for current smoking behavior. PMID:26229460

  11. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in dental patients with tobacco smoking, chewing, and mixed habits: A cross-sectional study in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant B Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A variety of oral mucosal lesions and conditions are associated with the habit of smoking and chewing tobacco, and many of these carry a potential risk for the development of cancer. There have been no studies that report the prevalence of habits and associated oral changes in the population in Dharwad region, of Karnataka, south India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at SDM Dental College (Dharwad, Karnataka. A total of 2400 subjects (1200 subjects with and 1200 subjects without habits attending the dental hospital were interviewed and examined by trained professionals to assess any oral mucosal changes. Results: Oral mucosal lesions were found in 322 (26.8% subjects who had tobacco smoking and chewing habits as compared to 34 (2.8% subjects without those habits. Oral leukoplakia (8.2% and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF (7.1% were the prevalent oral mucosal lesions found in subjects who had those habits, while the other lesions (1.7% namely; oral candidiasis, median rhomboid glossitis, recurrent apthous ulcer, frictional keratosis, and oral lichen planus (0.9% were frequently reported among individuals without those habits. The odds of developing oral lesions in subjects with tobacco habits was nearly 11.92 times that of abstainers (odds ratio, OR = 11.92, 95% confidence intervals, CI = 10.61-14.59%. Conclusion: The study showed that the risk of the development of oral lesions associated with tobacco smoking, chewing, or both is quite high. Males who had one or more of these habits showed more frequent oral changes than females. The study reinforces the association of OSF with gutkha and areca nut chewing, and leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and oral cancer with tobacco smoking, chewing, or mixed habits.

  12. Absolute pitch among American and Chinese conservatory students: prevalence differences, and evidence for a speech-related critical period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Diana; Henthorn, Trevor; Marvin, Elizabeth; Xu, HongShuai

    2006-02-01

    Absolute pitch is extremely rare in the U.S. and Europe; this rarity has so far been unexplained. This paper reports a substantial difference in the prevalence of absolute pitch in two normal populations, in a large-scale study employing an on-site test, without self-selection from within the target populations. Music conservatory students in the U.S. and China were tested. The Chinese subjects spoke the tone language Mandarin, in which pitch is involved in conveying the meaning of words. The American subjects were nontone language speakers. The earlier the age of onset of musical training, the greater the prevalence of absolute pitch; however, its prevalence was far greater among the Chinese than the U.S. students for each level of age of onset of musical training. The findings suggest that the potential for acquiring absolute pitch may be universal, and may be realized by enabling infants to associate pitches with verbal labels during the critical period for acquisition of features of their native language.

  13. Trends in smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians in 1982-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Põld, Mariliis; Ringmets, Inge

    2017-07-25

    Smoking surveys among physicians have proved useful in highlighting the importance of physicians as healthy life style exemplars and role models in tobacco control and smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to give an overview of smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians from 1982 to 2014. Three cross-sectional postal surveys using a self-administered questionnaire were carried out among all practising physicians in Estonia. The number of physicians participating in this study was 3786 in 1982, 2735 in 2002, and 2902 in 2014. Data analysis involved calculating the age-standardized prevalences of smoking, prevalences of smoking by age group and mean age of smoking initiation. A non-parametric test for trend was used to assess significant changes in smoking over time. Age-standardized prevalence of current smoking among men was 39.7% in 1982, 20.9% in 2002, and 14.3% in 2014 and among women 12.2%, 8.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p smoking among men and women was in age groups under 35 (from 55.2% to 16.7% and from 16.7% to 2.8%, respectively) and 35-44 (from 47.1% to 8.3% and from 19.5% to 5.1%, respectively) (p smoking initiation decreased from 20.4 to 19.3 among men and from 24.5 to 20.4 among women over the study period. In 1982-2014, smoking prevalence among Estonian physicians declined substantially. This may influence the willingness of society to recognize the health consequences of smoking which could give a support to the decline of the smoking epidemic in the country. Differences between smoking among male and female physicians persisted over the study period, but mean age of smoking initiation decreased. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians should be encouraged by special efforts targeted at physicians.

  14. Prevalence and associated factors of active smoking among individuals living with hypertension and/or diabetes in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafeu, Guy S; Tankeu, Aurel T; Endomba, Francky Teddy A; Nansseu, Jobert Richie; Kaze, Arnaud D; Bigna, Jean Joel; Noubiap, Jean Jacques

    2017-10-10

    Tobacco use significantly increases cardiovascular complications in people living with hypertension and/or diabetes. We aim to summarise data on the prevalence and factors associated with active smoking in these conditions in Africa. We will search PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and African Journals Online for relevant abstracts of studies on active smoking in individuals living with diabetes and/or hypertension published from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2016, with no language restriction. Additionally, relevant unpublished papers and conference proceedings will be checked, as well as references of included articles. Two investigators will independently screen, select studies, extract data and assess the risk of bias in each study. Data will be analysed using Stata software (Stata V.14, Texas, USA). The study-specific estimates will be pooled through a random-effects meta-analysis model to obtain an overall summary estimate of the prevalence of smoking across studies. Also, we will assess factors associated to smoking. Heterogeneity of studies will be evaluated by the χ2 test on Cochrane's Q statistic. Funnel plots analysis and Egger's test will be done to detect publication bias. Results will be presented by geographic region (central, eastern, northern, southern and western Africa). A p value less than 0.05 will be considered significant for factors associated to smoking. This study is based on published data, and therefore ethical approval is not a requirement. This systematic review and meta-analysis is expected to serve as a basis for designing cost-effective interventions to reduce and prevent smoking in patients with diabetes and/or hypertension, and as a guide for future research based on the remaining gaps. The final report of this study in the form of a scientific paper will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Findings will further be presented at conferences and submitted to relevant health authorities. © Article author(s) (or their employer

  15. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  16. Period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication usage among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Keith A; Sikirica, Vanja; Hodgkins, Paul; Zhou, Zhou; Xie, Jipan; DeLeon, Anthony; Erder, M Haim; Wu, Eric Q

    2014-06-01

    Stimulants are recommended as a first-line treatment for attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, a subset of the patient population augments their stimulant treatment with other medications. The objective of this study was to estimate the 1 year period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication use among children and adolescents with ADHD during 2009. Patients 6-17 years of age with one or more primary ADHD diagnoses between July 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009 and one or more stimulant prescription fills during 2009 were identified from a large United States commercial claims database. Concomitant psychotropic medication use, defined as 30 days of continuous medication supply overlap between the augmenting agent and stimulant, was evaluated for 14 distinct psychotropic medication categories (6 with a United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indication for ADHD, 8 without an indication for ADHD). The 1 year period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication use (both overall and within each medication category) was calculated and compared between patients with and without psychiatric or neurologic comorbidities. Children (6-12 years) and adolescents (13-17 years) were evaluated separately. A total of 71,201 children and 49,959 adolescents met the inclusion criteria. The 1 year period prevalence of concomitant psychotropic medication use among children and adolescents was 20.3% and 23.4%, with 5.7% and 6.7% augmenting with two or more medication categories, respectively. The most common concomitant medication categories were selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (children: 6.2%; adolescents: 11.4%), atypical antipsychotics (5.8%; 6.8%) and clonidine immediate release (5.4%; 2.9%). Children and adolescents with psychiatric or neurologic comorbidities had higher rates of augmentation than did those without comorbidities (all p<0.001). This epidemiologic study found that the prevalence of concomitant psychotropic

  17. The effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of self-reported hand eczema: a cross-sectional population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2010-01-01

    heavy smokers (OR = 1.38; CI = 0.99-1.92) compared with never-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking was positively associated with hand eczema among adults from the general population in Denmark. Apparently, current light smokers (... were analysed with logistic regression analyses and associations were expressed as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: The prevalence of hand eczema was higher among previous smokers (OR = 1.13; CI = 0.90-1.40), current light smokers (OR = 1.51; CI = 1.14-2.02) and current...... smokers (> 15 g daily) but this needs to be reconfirmed. Alcohol consumption was not associated with hand eczema....

  18. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to BTS, ERS, GOLD and ATS criteria in relation to doctor's diagnosis, symptoms, age, gender, and smoking habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Anne; Jonsson, Ann-Christin; Rönmark, Eva; Lundgren, Rune; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar; Lundbäck, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Guidelines and standards for diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been presented by different national and international societies, but the spirometric criteria for COPD differ between guidelines. To estimate prevalence of COPD using the guidelines of the British Thoracic Society (BTS), the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), and the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Further, to evaluate reported airway symptoms, contacts with health care providers, and physician diagnosis of COPD in relation to the respective criteria, and gender differences. In 1992 a postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of adults aged 20-69 years, 4,851 (85%) out of 5,681 subjects responded. In 1994-1995 a random sample of the responders, 970 subjects, were invited to a structured interview and a lung function test; 666 (69%) participated. The prevalence of COPD was 7.6, 14.0, 14.1, 12.2 and 34.1% according to BTS, ERS, GOLD, clinical ATS (with symptoms or physician diagnosis), and spirometric ATS criteria, respectively. Prevalent COPD was related to age, smoking habits and family history of obstructive airway disease but not to gender. Physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis or emphysema was only reported by 16.3, 12.2, 11.0, 23.4 and 8.2% of subjects fulfilling the respective criteria, though a majority reported airway symptoms. The main determinants for prevalent COPD were age, smoking habits and spirometric criteria of COPD. Though a majority reported airway symptoms and contact with health care providers due to respiratory complaints, only a minority was diagnosed as having COPD, indicating a large underdiagnosis. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Etiology and prevalence rate of bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment in children born in Kobe city over a 10 year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Mieko; Naito, Yashushi

    2008-01-01

    The study was carried out on children born over a 10 year period from 1997 to 2006 in Kobe city and referred to our center for specialist audiological assessment. A total of 107 cases had a bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment averaging 25 dB or over in the better hearing ear during the study period. To ascertain causes of sensorineural hearing impairment, full medical histories were obtained with detailed family history relevant to hearing impairment and perinatal course for adverse etiological factors. The children were investigated for possible congenital infection and chromosomal anomalies. Children with positive family history of deafness in parents or siblings constituted 11.2% of cases (genetic group). Other etiological groups showed the following distribution: syndromal group 5.6%; inner ear anomalies 5.6%; perinatal group 13.1%; congenital infection 11.2%; chromosomal anomalies 16.8%; multiple congenital anomalies 5.6%; causes unknown 30.9%. The high incidence of causes unknown indicates that steps should be taken to yield a diagnosis. The total number of children born in Kobe city was 117,896 during the period from 1997 to 2005, which gave a prevalence rate of hearing impairment of 0.87/1,000 births. Newborn hearing screening identified many children earlier and also provide the opportunity to finetune the evaluation. (author)

  20. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in commercially available meat over a one-year period in Iowa, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapaliya, Dipendra; Forshey, Brett M; Kadariya, Jhalka; Quick, Megan K; Farina, Sarah; O' Brien, Ashley; Nair, Rajeshwari; Nworie, Amos; Hanson, Blake; Kates, Ashley; Wardyn, Shylo; Smith, Tara C

    2017-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have confirmed the presence of S. aureus, including MRSA, on raw meat products. We investigated the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus and MRSA in commercially-distributed antibiotic-free and conventional raw meat products (n = 3290) purchased in 8 Iowa retail stores weekly for a period of one year. Isolates were characterized using spa typing, and PCR was used to detect the presence of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and mecA genes. Quantitation of S. aureus on meat products was carried out one week per month. The prevalence of S. aureus on meat samples was 27.8% (913/3290). Compared to antibiotic-free meat samples, higher prevalence of both MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) were found in conventional meat samples. Among the S. aureus isolates, 18 were PVL-positive (1.9%) and 41 (4.5%) carried mecA. Phenotypic oxacillin resistance was observed for 17.1% (41/239) of the isolates tested, while 23% (55/239) were multi-drug resistant. A total of 132 spa types were detected from 913 contaminated meat samples. Overall, t002 was the most common spa type identified (137; 15.0%). The number of colony-forming units (CFU) per 10 g meat ranged from 2 to 517 (median: 8 CFU per 10 g of meat; mean: 28) with the highest bacterial load observed on turkey samples. These data reinforce the need to consider meat products as potential vehicles of S. aureus transmission from farm into human households, and the potential need for public health intervention programs pre and post-slaughter in meat processing facilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Descriptive Study of the Prevalence and Typology of Alcohol-Related Posts in an Online Social Network for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M; Zhao, Kang; Cha, Sarah; Wang, Xi; Amato, Michael S; Pearson, Jennifer L; Papandonatos, George D; Graham, Amanda L

    2017-09-01

    Alcohol use and problem drinking are associated with smoking relapse and poor smoking-cessation success. User-generated content in online social networks for smoking cessation provides an opportunity to understand the challenges and treatment needs of smokers. This study used machine-learning text classification to identify the prevalence, sentiment, and social network correlates of alcohol-related content in the social network of a large online smoking-cessation program, BecomeAnEX.org. Data were analyzed from 814,258 posts (January 2012 to May 2015). Posts containing alcohol keywords were coded via supervised machine-learning text classification for information about the user's personal experience with drinking, whether the user self-identified as a problem drinker or indicated problem drinking, and negative sentiment about drinking in the context of a quit attempt (i.e., alcohol should be avoided during a quit attempt). Less than 1% of posts were related to alcohol, contributed by 13% of users. Roughly a third of alcohol posts described a personal experience with drinking; very few (3%) indicated "problem drinking." The majority (70%) of alcohol posts did not express negative sentiment about drinking alcohol during a quit attempt. Users who did express negative sentiment about drinking were more centrally located within the network compared with those who did not. Discussion of alcohol was rare, and most posts did not signal the need to quit or abstain from drinking during a quit attempt. Featuring expert information or highlighting discussions that are consistent with treatment guidelines may be important steps to ensure smokers are educated about drinking risks.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of smoking and e-cigarette use among young men who have sex with men and transgender women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A; Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Although the prevalence of cigarette smoking in the United States has decreased, rates remain elevated among sexual and gender minorities (SGMs). This study examined rates and correlates of tobacco use among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and transgender women. Participants (N=771) were drawn from the baseline assessment of an ongoing longitudinal cohort study of racially diverse MSM aged 16-29 years. Data collection took place in 2015-2016. Socio-demographic and SGM-specific (e.g., gender identity, sexual identity, physical attraction) correlates of cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use were identified using logistic regression. Twenty-one percent were current cigarette smokers. Nearly 40% ever tried an e-cigarette, but regular e-cigarette use was low (3.8%). Smokers were more likely to be older (vs. aged 16-18), less educated, homeless, bisexual or identify as some other sexual minority (vs. gay), attracted to males and females equally or more attracted to females than males (vs. males only), and HIV-positive. E-cigarette users were more likely to be transgender women (vs. cisgender men), White (vs. Black), more educated, and mostly attracted to females. Findings highlight important risk factors for tobacco use among SGM youth. Correlates of smoking mirrored findings observed in the general population, but also included factors specific to SGM youth (e.g., sexual orientation, HIV status, homelessness). Although some variables (gender identity, attraction) demonstrated similar relationships with smoking and e-cigarette use, others (race/ethnicity, education) demonstrated opposite patterns. Findings underscore the urgent need for tobacco prevention and cessation interventions for SGM youth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Depressive and anxiety disorders in the postpartum period: how prevalent are they and can we improve their detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Marie-Paule V; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Priest, Susan R; Reilly, Nicole; Wilhelm, Kay; Saint, Karen; Parker, Gordon

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) period prevalence and comorbidity for depression and anxiety disorder in a cohort of women assessed during the first 6-8 months postpartum and (2) to examine the benefits of combining the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with a simple "interval symptom" question to optimize screening postpartum. Women aged over 18 (N = 1,549) were assessed during late pregnancy and reviewed at approximately 2, 4, and 6-8 months postpartum using the EPDS and an "interval symptom" question. The latter asked about any depressive symptoms in the interval since the last EPDS. Women who scored >12 on the EPDS and/or positive on the "interval symptom" question were then administered the CIDI. A further 65 randomly selected women that screened negative were also administered the CIDI. Loss to postnatal follow-up was very significant, and returns rates were inconsistent across the three postnatal time points. Almost 25% of those who screened positive did not complete a CIDI. For screen-positive status, a total of 314 (24.4%) of those that returned questionnaires (N = 1,289) screened positive at least once across the 6- to 8-month interval. Of these, 79 were lost to follow-up; thus, 235 (74.8%) completed a CIDI. In this group, 34.7% had been positive both on the EPDS and the "interval" question, 15.9% on the EPDS alone, and 49.4% on the "interval" question alone. For the CIDI diagnosis and estimated 6- to 8-month period CIDI prevalence, among those 235 women who screened positive and completed a CIDI, 67.2% met the criteria for a CIDI diagnosis, as did 16.9% of those who screened negative. The breakdown in CIDI diagnoses in the 235 women was 32.8% major depression (± anxiety disorder); 26.4% minor depression alone; and 8.1% with a primary anxiety disorder (approximately half with minor depression). Put another way, 20.4% of these women had an anxiety disorder

  4. Nurses' health-related behaviours: protocol for a quantitative systematic review of prevalence of tobacco smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neall, Rosie A; Atherton, Iain M; Kyle, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    To enumerate nurses' health-related behaviour by critically appraising studies on tobacco smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary habits. Nurses represent the largest occupational group in healthcare systems internationally and have an established and expanding public health role. Nurses own health-related behaviour is known to impact nurses' ability and confidence to engage in health promotion, and how patients receive and respond to advice and guidance nurses' give. However, there has been no comprehensive and comparable assessment of evidence on nurses' health-related behaviours. Quantitative systematic review of prevalence of tobacco smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and dietary habits. Systematic searches for literature published between January 2000 and February 2015 and indexed in Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and Psychological Information. Eligibility criteria will be applied to titles and abstracts by two reviewers independently. Full text will be reviewed and the same criteria and process applied. Two reviewers will independently assess study quality guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute handbook for the systematic review of prevalence and incidence data. Discrepancies in eligibility or quality assessment will be resolved through discussion and, where required, a third reviewer. Data synthesis will be conducted and findings reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. Enumerating prevalence of nurses' health-related behaviours is crucial to direct future research, inform public health policy, particularly around health promotion and to better support the nursing workforce through the development of behaviour change interventions. PROSPERO registration: CRD42015016751. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Differences in tobacco smoking prevalence and frequency between adolescent Palestine refugee and non-refugee populations in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank: cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Khader, Ali; Millett, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is conflicting as to the whether tobacco smoking prevalence is higher in refugee than non-refugee populations. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and frequency of tobacco smoking in Palestine refugee and non-refugee adolescent populations in the Middle East. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank among adolescent Palestine refugees and non-refugees. Age- and sex-adjusted regression models assessed the association between refugee status and current (past-30 day) tobacco use prevalence and frequency. Prevalence estimates for current tobacco smoking were similar between Palestine refugee and non-refugee groups in Jordan (26.7 % vs. 24.0 %), Lebanon (39.4 % vs. 38.5 %), and the West Bank (39.5 % vs. 38.4 %). In Syria, Palestine refugees had nearly twice the odds of current tobacco smoking compared to non-refugees (23.2 % vs. 36.6 %, AOR 1.96, 95 % CI 1.46-2.62). Palestine refugees consumed more cigarettes per month than non-refugees in Lebanon (β 0.57, 95 % CI 0.17-0.97) and Palestine refugees consumed more waterpipe tobacco per month than non-refugees in Syria (β 0.40, 95 % CI 0.19-0.61) and the West Bank (β 0.42, 95 % CI 0.21-0.64). Current tobacco smoking prevalence is in excess of 20 % in both adolescent Palestine refugee and non-refugee populations in Middle Eastern countries, however Palestine refugees may smoke tobacco more frequently than non-refugees. Comparison of simple prevalence estimates may therefore mask important differences in tobacco use patterns within population groups.

  6. [Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and associated factors in women and newborns in the immediate postpartum period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Mara Rúbia Maciel Cardoso; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Assis, Karine Franklin; Ribeiro, Sarah Aparecida Vieira; do Prado Junior, Pedro Paulo; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its associated factors in women and their newborns in the postpartum period. This cross-sectional study evaluated vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in 226 women and their newborns in Viçosa (Minas Gerais, BR) between December 2011 and November 2012. Cord blood and venous maternal blood were collected to evaluate the following biochemical parameters: vitamin D, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone. Poisson regression analysis, with a confidence interval of 95% was applied to assess vitamin D deficiency and its associated factors. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with 25(OH)D deficiency in the newborns and women from the study. The criteria for variable inclusion in the multiple linear regression model was the association with the dependent variable in the simple linear regression analysis, considering p<0.20. Significance level was α<5%. From 226 women included, 200 (88.5%) were 20 to 44 years old; the median age was 28 years. Deficient/insufficient levels of vitamin D were found in 192 (85%) women and in 182 (80.5%) neonates. The maternal 25(OH)D and alkaline phosphatase levels were independently associated with vitamin D deficiency in infants. This study identified a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in women and newborns and the association between maternal nutritional status of vitamin D and their infants' vitamin D status. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Determinants of Smoking Habit among Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Virendra Vikram; Singh, Zile; Banerjee, A; Basannar, DR

    2003-01-01

    A cross sectional study of smoking habits among medical students was carried out to find out the prevalence of smoking and its association with certain factors such as parental smoking, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Prevalence of smoking was 46%. There was significant association of smoking with parental smoking habit, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Strategies to counter these social determinants have been discussed.

  8. cigarette smoking and adolescent health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-15

    Feb 15, 2013 ... CI (95%) = 0.22 – 0.96). Conclusively, the prevalence of smoking was high among in-school adolescents in the ... The link between cigarette smoking and many non- ..... potential. Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations;.

  9. Contribution of human papilloma virus to the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in a European population with high smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinhofer, I; Jöhrens, K; Keilholz, U; Kaufmann, A; Lehmann, A; Weichert, W; Stenzinger, A; Stromberger, C; Klinghammer, K; Becker, E-T; Dommerich, S; Stölzel, K; Hofmann, V M; Hildebrandt, B; Moser, L; Ervens, J; Böttcher, A; Albers, A; Stabenow, R; Reinecke, A; Budach, V; Hoffmeister, B; Raguse, J D

    2015-03-01

    Increases in incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) in countries with falling tobacco use have been attributed to a growing role of human papilloma virus (HPV) in the carcinogenesis. Trends of HPV prevalence in populations with persistently high portions of smokers are poorly characterised. Registry data from East Germany were used to determine incidence trends between 1998 and 2011. Data from patients treated at the Charité University Medicine Berlin between 2004 and 2013 (cohort 1, N=436) were used for estimation of trends in HPV prevalence, smoking and survival. HPV prevalence was prospectively confirmed in cohort 2 (N=213) comprising all primary HNSCC cases at the Charité in 2013. Between 1998 and 2011 incidence of both OPSCC and non-OPSCC increased. An increase in HPV prevalence (% of HPV+ cases in 2004-2006 versus 2012-2013: 27% versus 59%, P=0.0004) accompanied by a moderate decrease in the portion of current smokers was observed in OPSCC but not in non-OPSCC. The change in disease epidemiology in OPSCC was associated with significant improvement in overall survival. Increased HPV prevalence in OPSCC (48%) compared to non-OPSCC (11%) was confirmed in cohort 2. Despite clear differences to the United States in terms of tobacco use, the increase in OPSCC incidence in a European population was also mainly attributed to HPV, and the HPV status significantly affected prognosis. For clinical trial design it is important to consider the large group of smokers within HPV-induced OPSCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Smoke-free homes among single-parent families: Differences associated with parental race/ethnicity and smoking behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujiao Mai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed differences in the rates of smoke-free homes among single-parent households with regard to parental race/ethnicity and smoking status. We identified two cohorts representative of the U.S. single-parent households with underage children (children under the age of 18 based on the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey: 2010–11 (n=6474 and 2014–15 (n=6114. The interviews were conducted by phone and in-person. Statistical analysis was performed in 2017. The overall rate of smoke-free homes was 82% in 2010–11 and 86% in 2014–15. The rate of a smoke-free home was highest for Non-Hispanic (NH Asian (94% and Hispanic (92% parents and lowest for NH Multiracial (77% in 2010–11 and 82% in 2014–15 in both survey periods. However, 2014–15 model-based comparisons relative to NH Whites indicated only one significant difference: the rate was lower for NH Blacks (OR=0.46, 99% CI=0.32:0.66. The smoke-free homes were least prevalent among daily smokers, followed by occasional smokers, followed by former smokers, and most prevalent among never smokers in each survey period. The 2010–11 and 2014–15 rates were 45% and 54% for daily, 64% and 72% for occasional, 89% and 91% for former, and 93% and 94% for never smokers. The gap in the rates of smoke-free homes for diverse parental racial/ethnic groups observed in 2010–11 decreased by 2014–15. While smoke-free homes became more prevalent in 2014–15, the rates remain drastically different among families with different parental smoking behaviors. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home remains common among single-parent households where the parent smokes. Keywords: Involuntary exposure to secondhand smoke, Single mother, Single father, Healthy home environment

  11. Prevalencia de tabaquismo y exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco en las mujeres embarazadas: diferencias entre españolas e inmigrantes Prevalence of smoking and second-hand smoke exposure: differences between Spanish and immigrant pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Jiménez-Muro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer las diferencias que hay entre las mujeres embarazadas españolas e inmigrantes en la prevalencia de tabaquismo y la exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco, así como los factores asociados a que las mujeres continúen fumando durante la gestación. Métodos: Estudio epidemiológico transversal en mujeres atendidas en el momento del parto en la provincia de Zaragoza. Variables recogidas mediante cuestionario: características sociodemográficas y de consumo de tabaco de la mujer y la pareja, exposición al humo ambiental de tabaco y percepción de riesgo. Resultados: Se incluyeron 2.440 mujeres (35% inmigrantes. El 31,1% fumaba a diario antes de quedarse embarazada y el 18,2% (n=445 fumó durante toda la gestación, con diferencias entre españolas e inmigrantes (21,9% frente 8,7%; pObjectives: To identify differences in the prevalence of smoking and second-hand smoke exposure between Spanish and immigrant pregnant women, as well as the factors associated with continued smoking during pregnancy. Methods: An epidemiologic cross-sectional study was carried out in women attended at delivery in Zaragoza (Spain. A smoking questionnaire was used to collect the following variables: the women's and partners' sociodemographic factors and smoking behavior, second-hand smoke exposure and perception of the risks of this exposure. Results: We included 2440 women (35% immigrants. A total of 31.1% smoked before becoming pregnant and 18.2% during pregnancy, with significant differences between Spanish and immigrant women (21.9% versus 8.7%; p<0.001. Immigrant women lived with a greater number of smokers, smoked more inside the home, were exposed to second-hand smoke for a greater number of hours per day, avoided public places with second-hand smoke less, and more often worked in bars and restaurants. The following factors were associated with smoking during pregnancy: being Spanish, smoking a greater number of cigarettes before pregnancy

  12. Prevalence and correlates of roll-your-own smoking in Thailand and Malaysia: Findings of the ITC-South East Asia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, David; Yong, Hua-Hie; Borland, Ron; Ross, Hana; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Kin, Foong; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2008-05-01

    Roll-your-own (RYO) cigarette use has been subject to relatively limited research, particularly in developing countries. This paper seeks to describe RYO use in Thailand and Malaysia and relate RYO use to smokers' knowledge of the harmfulness of tobacco. Data come from face-to-face surveys with 4,004 adult smokers from Malaysia (N = 2,004) and Thailand (N = 2000), collected between January and March 2005. The prevalence of any use of RYO cigarettes varied greatly between Malaysia (17%) and Thailand (58%). In both countries, any RYO use was associated with living in rural areas, older average age, lower level of education, male gender, not being in paid work, slightly lower consumption of cigarettes, higher social acceptability of smoking, and positive attitudes toward tobacco regulation. Among RYO users, exclusive use of RYO cigarettes (compared with mixed use) was associated with older age, female gender (relatively), thinking about the enjoyment of smoking, and not making a special effort to buy cheaper cigarettes if the price goes up. Finally, exclusive RYO smokers were less aware of health warnings (RYO tobacco carries no health warnings), but even so, knowledge of the health effects of tobacco was equivalent.

  13. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the Uni...

  14. Smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, K; Rahu, K; Rahu, M

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians. Cross-sectional data for 2668 physicians were gathered by a self-administered postal survey. The current smoking prevalence was 24.9% for male physicians and 10.8% for female physicians. The percentages of ex-smokers were 32.9 and 16.8%, respectively. Smoking prevalence among physicians was below the levels reported for the highest educational bracket of the total population in Estonia. Non-smoking physicians had more unfavourable views towards smoking than those who smoked. The majority of physicians were aware of the association between smoking and various diseases, with significant differences between smokers and non-smokers. Non-smoking physicians were more active in asking patients about smoking habits than those who smoked. Most Estonian physicians, especially those who smoked, failed to perceive themselves as positive role models. This study found a lower prevalence of smoking among physicians compared with the general population, and demonstrated the impact of personal smoking on physicians' attitudes towards smoking. The results provide an important challenge to medical education in Estonia.

  15. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in professional soldiers of the Czech army over a 11-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajfrová Jana

    2016-01-01

    statistically significant changes in the prevalence of obesity in men (12-15%. Average glycaemia levels were within normal range in both men and women. A statistically significant decrease in these levels, however, was observed in men (from 5.1 ± 0.9 mmol/L to 4.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L (p < 0.001 and in women (from 4.9 ± 0.6 mmol/L to 4.6 ± 0.6 mmol/L (p < 0.001. Concerning the lipid profile in men, a significant decrease in average values of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol was observed; from 5.5 ± 1.1 mmol/L to 5.1 ± 1.0 mmol/L (p < 0.001, from 2.0 ± 1.6 mmol/L to 1.6 ± 1.2 mmol/L (p < 0.001 and from 3.4 ± 1.1 mmol/L to 3.2 ± 0.9 mmol/L (p < 0.001, respectively. Conclusion. During the monitored period only one-third of military professionals had normal body weight. More favorable situation was in female professional soldiers, two-thirds of them had normal body weight during the monitored period. Additionally, the increase in the number of individuals with BMI values in the overweight range was observed. Although the number of overweight soldiers was overestimated as a result of the inclusion of individuals with increased body weight due to well-developed musculature, the number of overweight and obese soldiers is still high.

  16. Prevalence of smoking in 15-64 years old population of north of Iran: meta-analysis of the results of non-communicable diseases risk factors surveillance system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jamshidi Ardeshiri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is known as a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and hence immediate and effective interventions are required for its elimination. This study aimed to collect valid data with regard to cigarette smoking in adult population of north of Iran for policy making by a meta-analysis of the documents of national non-communicable disease risk factors surveillance system. We investigated relevant evidences by searching in published and non-electronic databases. Data were extracted based on variables such as year of the study, sex, age group and prevalence of smoking habit. Based on results of heterogeneity, we applied fixed or random effects model to estimate the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking. All analyses were performed using STATA 11 software. A total of 20747 subjects (10381 males and 10366 females in five age groups 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years were interviewed. Meta-analysis in men and women showed prevalence of 19.2% (15.8-22.6% and 0.3% (0.2-0.5% respectively. Results of the present meta-analysis showed as much as one fifth of male population of north of Iran are smoker. Subgroup analysis also revealed that the rate of smoking was higher among the middle-aged men.

  17. Correlates of smoking, quit attempts and attitudes towards total smoking bans at university: findings from eleven faculties in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Labeeb, Shokria; Kotb, Safaa; Yousafzai, Mohammad T; El-Houfey, Amira; Stock, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Smoking among university students represents a formidable and global public health challenge. We assessed the associations between socio-demographic, health and wellbeing variables as independent variables, with daily smoking, attempts to quit smoking, and agreement with smoking ban as dependent variables. A sample of 3258 undergraduate students from eleven faculties at Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt, completed a general health questionnaire. Overall daily or occasional smoking in last three months prior to the survey was about 9% (8% occasional and 1% daily smokers), and smoking was generally more prevalent among males (male=17%, female=0.6%, P non-smoking policies on university premises, as well as regular up-to-date information on, and the periodic/yearly monitoring of tobacco use by university students employing standardised data collection instruments and reference periods. In addition, it would be valuable to develop campus-based educational/ awareness campaigns designed to counteract tobacco advertisement directed towards young people in Middle East countries. Otherwise, the danger could be that the current relatively low smoking prevalence among university students may escalate in the future.

  18. [Smoking among undergraduate university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra C, Lisseth; Fernández P, Paola; Granada G, Felipe; Ávila C, Paula; Mallea M, Javier; Rodríguez M, Yeniffer

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is one of the major Public Health problems worldwide. To study the frequency of tobacco smoking among undergraduate students of a Chilean university. An opinion survey was sent by e-mail to all undergraduate students of a university, registering gender, age, study years, study area, smoking behavior, motivation (reason for smoking), intention to quit and tobacco law perception. 1,008 (57% females) out of 11,679 surveys were answered back. Prevalence of active smoking among respondents was 36%, without association with gender, age or years of study. However, students from scientific areas had a lower prevalence. Seventy seven percent of smokers manifested the intention to quit the habit or have started quitting already. Ninety six percent were acquainted with the tobacco law and by 73% agreed with it. Smoking is highly prevalent among university students. It is necessary to develop strategies for smoking cessation within universities that may prevent or reduce tobacco smoking among students.

  19. Does the declining prevalence of Helicobacter pylori unmask patients with idiopathic peptic ulcer disease? Trends over an 8 year period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arents, NLA; Thijs, JC; van Zwet, AA; Kleibeuker, JH

    Objectives Recent studies have suggested that the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with ulcer disease who were not using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been overestimated. The decreasing prevalence of H. pylori could lead to a relative increase in the

  20. Evaluation of Smoking Status among Diabetes Patients in the State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of smoking among diabetes patients ... of type 1 and 2 diabetes patients were reviewed to assess the prevalence of smoking. ... were the most prevalent race among smokers, compared with Malay and ...

  1. Prevalence of dental caries and influencing factors, time trends over a 30-year period in an adult population. Epidemiological studies between 1983 and 2013 in the county of Dalarna, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Kristina; Öhrn, Kerstin; Nordström, Birgitta; Holmlund, Anders

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of dental caries in an adult population using four different cross-sectional studies over a 30-year period and to assess its possible associations with socio-economic and socio-behavioural factors. Four cross-sectional epidemiological studies were performed in the county of Dalarna, Sweden, in 1983, 2003, 2008 and 2013. Random samples of 1012-2244 individuals, aged 20-85 years, who answered a questionnaire about socio-economic and socio-behavioural factors, were radiographically and clinically examined. The proportion of individuals with at least one decayed surface (DS) was 58% in 1983 and significantly lower, 34% in 2008 (p dental visits, limited financial resources for dental care, smoking, education below university, male gender, daily medication and single living were positively and statistically associated with manifest caries. The declining trend in the prevalence of manifest caries seems to be broken. In the oldest age group mean number of DS was higher in 2013 compared with 2008, indicating a possible beginning of an increase. This needs special attention as this group increases in the population, retaining natural teeth high up in age. Manifest caries was found to be associated with socio-economic and socio-behavioural factors.

  2. Prevalência do tabagismo em doadores de sangue da região serrana de Santa Catarina - Brasil Smoking prevalence in donors from the mountain region of Santa Catarina - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Spada

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O tabagismo é um problema de saúde pouco explorado nos bancos de sangue, um dos motivos que objetivou este estudo, para tornar os dados disponíveis a outros pesquisadores, de forma a garantir a realização de novos estudos interdisciplinares sobre a situação transfusional e a qualidade do sangue doado pelo fumante, melhorando a qualidade de vida do doador. O estudo foi realizado mediante uma pesquisa de 3 mil candidatos aptos à doação de sangue no Hemocentro Regional de Lages. Para abordar o tabagismo foi elaborado um questionário que foi inserido na triagem clínica realizada rotineiramente com os candidatos à doação de sangue. Dos 3 mil doadores avaliados na pesquisa, 373 (12,4% eram fumantes, sendo 66,5% do sexo masculino, 77,2% da cor branca, 57,5% com idade entre 18 a 35 anos. O grau de escolaridade foi o ensino fundamental com 42,1%. Em relação ao número de doações anteriores, 43,1% doaram pela 1ª vez, 56,9% dos doadores eram de repetição. O número de cigarros fumados entre um e cinco por dia foi 30,8% e de seis a dez/dia, 33,2%. Os valores de hematócrito e hemoglobina, comparando grupos não fumantes e fumantes, diferiram significativamente uns dos outros. A prevalência de doadores fumantes verificada neste estudo foi considerada pequena, possivelmente não interferindo na qualidade do sangue, pois o percentual que traz problemas em relação a carboxi-hemoglobina está relacionado aos grandes fumantes, sendo a minoria dos doadores estudados. Faz-se necessário conhecer o perfil do doador fumante nos bancos de sangue do País para poder levar o conhecimento e informações através de campanhas educativas e preventivas.Exposure to smoking is a public health problem not very often explored in blood banks. This study was carried out for the purpose of making these data available to other researchers in order to develop new interdisciplinary studies concerning the blood quality donated by smokers. Exposure to smoking

  3. Smoke-free homes among single-parent families: Differences associated with parental race/ethnicity and smoking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yujiao; Leonardo, Selena; Soulakova, Julia N

    2018-03-01

    We assessed differences in the rates of smoke-free homes among single-parent households with regard to parental race/ethnicity and smoking status. We identified two cohorts representative of the U.S. single-parent households with underage children (children under the age of 18) based on the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey: 2010-11 ( n  = 6474) and 2014-15 ( n  = 6114). The interviews were conducted by phone and in-person. Statistical analysis was performed in 2017. The overall rate of smoke-free homes was 82% in 2010-11 and 86% in 2014-15. The rate of a smoke-free home was highest for Non-Hispanic (NH) Asian (94%) and Hispanic (92%) parents and lowest for NH Multiracial (77% in 2010-11 and 82% in 2014-15) in both survey periods. However, 2014-15 model-based comparisons relative to NH Whites indicated only one significant difference: the rate was lower for NH Blacks (OR = 0.46, 99% CI = 0.32:0.66). The smoke-free homes were least prevalent among daily smokers, followed by occasional smokers, followed by former smokers, and most prevalent among never smokers in each survey period. The 2010-11 and 2014-15 rates were 45% and 54% for daily, 64% and 72% for occasional, 89% and 91% for former, and 93% and 94% for never smokers. The gap in the rates of smoke-free homes for diverse parental racial/ethnic groups observed in 2010-11 decreased by 2014-15. While smoke-free homes became more prevalent in 2014-15, the rates remain drastically different among families with different parental smoking behaviors. Exposure to secondhand smoke at home remains common among single-parent households where the parent smokes.

  4. Health literacy and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Panahi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both population-based and clinical interventions have been successful in lowering rates of smoking in the USA over time, the prevalence of smoking remains considerably higher than the Healthy People 2020 objective of 12% [1]. The latest national study conducted in Iran showed that 25% of the population aged 18- 65 years were smokers and age, education, gender, occupation, and marital status variables had a significant relationship with smoking [2].

  5. Smoking Trajectories during the Perinatal Period and Their Risk Factors: The Nationally Representative French ELFE (Etude Longitudinale Française Depuis l'Enfance) Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Fabienne; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure; Van Der Waerden, Judith; Surkan, Pamela; Martins, Silvia; Keyes, Katherine; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Charles, Marie-Aline; Melchior, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In France, rates of perinatal smoking are among the highest worldwide; however, perinatal smoking trajectories and associated factors have still not been adequately researched. Among women participating in the French nationally representative etude longitudinale française depuis l'enfance birth cohort (n = 15,540), perinatal smoking trajectories were estimated using group-based modelling. Associated characteristics were studied using multinomial logistic regression. Four trajectories were identified: non-smokers (59%), quitters (20%), persistent moderate (12%) and persistent heavy (9%) smokers. Older age, being native French, low socioeconomic position, persistent psychological difficulties and alcohol use in pregnancy, lack of social support, partner's smoking, mistimed pregnancy, and child formula feeding at birth were associated with persistent heavy smoking. Most of these factors were also associated, but to a lesser extent, with persistent moderate smoking, except for age and migrant status, which had opposite effects. Women who successfully lost weight prior to pregnancy had higher levels of quitting smoking. Women's long-term smoking trajectories vary in terms of initial tobacco consumption level but also in relation to socio-demographic, psychological, behavioral and partner characteristics. Health professionals in contact with pregnant smokers should address perceived risks and benefits of smoking, including partner's smoking and weight-gain concerns. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values are higher and prevalence of anemia is lower in the post-folic acid fortification period than in the pre-folic acid fortification period in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji, Vijay; Kafai, Mohammad R

    2009-01-01

    It is not known whether the improved folate status from mandatory folic acid fortification had any impact on indexes and prevalence of anemias in the United States. We investigated trends in indexes and prevalence of anemia and macrocytosis with a focus on comparison of prefortification data with postfortification data. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and prevalences and likelihood of anemia and macrocytosis were determined for 26,596 adults examined in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1988-2004. From 1988-1994 to 1999-2004, hemoglobin modestly but significantly improved from 15.1 to 15.4 g/dL (approximately 2.0%; P 60 y) men (from 91.6 to 92.4; P = 0.0105) and in women (from 90.7 to 91.4; P = 0.0141). Only in women was the prevalence of anemia significantly lower in 1999-2004 than in 1988-1994 (27.9% reduction; P = 0.0005). The odds of having anemia in the postfortification period relative to the prefortification period was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.75; P hemoglobin and the decreased prevalence of anemia from 1988-1994 to 1999-2004, especially in women, may be attributable to improved folate status, increased vitamin/mineral supplements use, and other unknown causes after the initiation of folic acid fortification. The cause of increased MCV in men, and in older persons of both sexes, warrants further investigation.

  7. Taking the pressure off the spring: the case of rebounding smoking rates when antitobacco campaigns ceased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dono, Joanne; Bowden, Jacqueline; Kim, Susan; Miller, Caroline

    2018-04-07

    Smoking rates have been compared with a spring, requiring continuous downward pressure against protobacco forces, rather than a screw, which once driven down stays down. Quality antitobacco mass media campaigns put downward pressure on smoking rates. The suspension of a major Australian state campaign provided a natural experiment to assess effects on smoking. Furthermore, we document the positive influence of robust monitoring and mature advocacy on the political decision to reinstate funding. We also document the misuse by industry of South Australian smoking data from the period between Australia's implementation and subsequent evaluation of plain packaging. A time series analysis was used to examine monthly smoking prevalence trends at each of four intervention points: (A) commencement of high-intensity mass media campaign (August 2010); (B) introduction of plain packaging (December 2012), (C) defunding of campaign (July 2013); and (D) reinstatement of moderate-intensity campaign (July 2014). The suspension of the antitobacco campaign was disruptive to achieving smoking prevalence targets. There was an absence of a downward monthly smoking prevalence trajectory during the non-campaign period. Moreover, there was a significant decline in smoking prevalence during the period of high-intensity advertising, which continued after the introduction of plain packaging laws, and at the recommencement of campaign activity. While the observed declines in smoking prevalence are likely due to a combination of interventions and cannot be attributed exclusively to antitobacco advertising, the results reinforce the political decision to reinstate the campaign and demonstrate the need for maintained investment to keep downward pressure on smoking rates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Impact of five tobacco endgame strategies on future smoking prevalence, population health and health system costs: two modelling studies to inform the tobacco endgame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Deen, Frederieke S; Wilson, Nick; Cleghorn, Christine L; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Cobiac, Linda J; Nghiem, Nhung; Blakely, Tony

    2018-05-01

    There is growing international interest in advancing 'the tobacco endgame'. We use New Zealand (Smokefree goal for 2025) as a case study to model the impacts on smoking prevalence (SP), health gains (quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)) and cost savings of (1) 10% annual tobacco tax increases, (2) a tobacco-free generation (TFG), (3) a substantial outlet reduction strategy, (4) a sinking lid on tobacco supply and (5) a combination of 1, 2 and 3. Two models were used: (1) a dynamic population forecasting model for SP and (2) a closed cohort (population alive in 2011) multistate life table model (including 16 tobacco-related diseases) for health gains and costs. All selected tobacco endgame strategies were associated with reductions in SP by 2025, down from 34.7%/14.1% for Māori (indigenous population)/non-Māori in 2011 to 16.0%/6.8% for tax increases; 11.2%/5.6% for the TFG; 17.8%/7.3% for the outlet reduction; 0% for the sinking lid; and 9.3%/4.8% for the combined strategy. Major health gains accrued over the remainder of the 2011 population's lives ranging from 28 900 QALYs (95% Uncertainty Interval (UI)): 16 500 to 48 200; outlet reduction) to 282 000 QALYs (95%UI: 189 000 to 405 000; sinking lid) compared with business-as-usual (3% discounting). The timing of health gain and cost savings greatly differed for the various strategies (with accumulated health gain peaking in 2040 for the sinking lid and 2070 for the TFG). Implementing endgame strategies is needed to achieve tobacco endgame targets and reduce inequalities in smoking. Given such strategies are new, modelling studies provide provisional information on what approaches may be best. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Cerebral palsy in eastern Denmark: declining birth prevalence but increasing numbers of unilateral cerebral palsy in birth year period 1986-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne Holst; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Uldall, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Cerebral Palsy Registry in eastern Denmark has been collecting cases using a uniform data sampling procedure since birth year 1979. Children are included by two child neurologists and an obstetrician. Information on pregnancy, birth, neonatal period, impairments and demographic data...... are registered. The total cerebral palsy birth prevalence has been significantly decreasing since the birth period 1983-1986 with 3.0 per 1000 live births until the period 1995-1998 with 2.1 per 1000 live births. The overall decrease was seen in preterm infants (...

  10. TOBACCO SMOKING AND LUNG DISEASES: EFFICIENCY OF TREATMENT APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Nikitin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents data on the significant increase of tobacco smoking prevalence and its harmful effect on the development and course of chronic respiratory diseases: tuberculosis, pneumonia, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Negative consequences of tobacco smoking are caused by chronic intoxication of the host by the components of tobacco smoke providing impact on various organs and cells of the host, thus causing a big variety of diseases. Both active and passive smoking deteriorates their course and increase the risk of exacerbation, hinders taking control over the disease and interferes with adequate response to drugs.Current approaches to treatment of tobacco addiction have been presented. There are several ways to overcome nicotine addiction – drug therapy and the other forms of therapy. Integrated approach to tobacco smoking management allows achieving success in 30% of cases within short period of time with continuous and quality remissions. 

  11. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, B; Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental factors that influence children to smoke, and to understand the reasons why children smoke. The results of this study may help lead to the development of more effective smoking prevention programs. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of all students in grades 6 to 11 (ages: 11 to 17 years) in two high schools in the Jerusalem area, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. The students were asked questions regarding the age at which they began smoking, initiation, their smoking habits, their reasons for smoking, and their views on children who smoke. In addition, they were asked about the smoking status of their parents, siblings, and friends. Finally they were asked about the health hazards of smoking. Of the 847 students who answered the questionnaire, 35% stated that they had smoked at least once and 14% stated that they were currently smoking. The percentage of students who were currently smoking increased gradually with age to 36%. There was a sharp increase in experimental smoking after seventh grade (ages 12 to 13 years). Having a friend who smoked substantially increased the likelihood of smoking, whereas parental smoking or having a sibling who smoked did not increase the likelihood of smoking. The most common reason for starting to smoke was "to try something new" (55%). There was a significant difference between the views of students with different smoking statuses regarding children who smoke: nonsmoking children associated more negative characteristics to smoking. All of the children studied were well aware of the health hazards of cigarette smoking. Smoking is highly prevalent among schoolchildren in Jerusalem. The increase in the rate of smoking at the age of 12

  12. Health professionals’ perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to providing smoking cessation advice to women in pregnancy and during the post-partum period: a systematic review of qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Flemming

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing smoking in pregnancy is a policy priority in many countries and as a result there has been a rise in the development of services to help pregnant women to quit. A wide range of professionals are involved in providing these services, with midwives playing a particularly pivotal role. Understanding professionals’ experiences of providing smoking cessation support in pregnancy can help to inform the design of interventions as well as to improve routine care. Methods A synthesis of qualitative research of health professionals’ perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to providing smoking cessation advice to women in pregnancy and the post-partum period was conducted using meta-ethnography. Searches were undertaken from 1990 to January 2015 using terms for maternity health professionals and smoking cessation advisors, pregnancy, post-partum, smoking, and qualitative in seven electronic databases. The review was reported in accordance with the ‘Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research’ (ENTREQ statement. Results Eight studies reported in nine papers were included, reporting on the views of 190 health professionals/key informants, including 85 midwives and health visitors. The synthesis identified that both the professional role of participants and the organisational context in which they worked could act as either barriers or facilitators to an individual’s ability to provide smoking cessation support to pregnant or post-partum women. Underpinning these factors was an acknowledgment that the association between maternal smoking and social disadvantage was a considerable barrier to addressing and supporting smoking cessation Conclusions The review identifies a role for professional education, both pre-qualification and in continuing professional development that will enable individuals to provide smoking cessation support to pregnant women. Key to the success of this education

  13. Prevalência e fatores associados ao consumo de cigarros entre estudantes de escolas estaduais do ensino médio de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 2002 Smoking prevalence and associated factors among public high school students in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselaine Ruviaro Zanini

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O tabagismo é a segunda principal causa mundial de morte, sendo responsável pela morte de um a cada dez adultos (5 milhões por ano. Se os padrões atuais se mantiverem, em 2020 o tabagismo será a causa de 10 milhões de óbitos anuais, segundo a Organização Mundial da Saúde. Realizou-se um estudo transversal, em 2002, no qual foram entrevistados 459 estudantes de oito escolas do ensino médio estadual em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, para determinar a prevalência e os fatores associados ao tabagismo, obtendo-se um modelo logístico multivariável descrevendo como as chances de ser fumante estão relacionadas com as variáveis investigadas. A prevalência encontrada para o tabagismo foi de 18% (IC95%: 14,6-21,7, sendo que os estudantes começam a fumar, em média, aos 14 anos. Os resultados permitem concluir que os estudantes das escolas estaduais de Santa Maria começam a fumar precocemente, sendo influenciados pelos amigos fumantes (OR = 4,37; p = 0,000, pela renda familiar mensal (OR = 2,04; p = 0,013 e idade (OR = 1,86; p = 0,031, destacando-se a necessidade de se trabalhar, preventivamente, no grupo de risco observado.Smoking is the second cause of death in the world. It currently accounts for one out of ten deaths in adults worldwide (5 million per year. If current patterns persist, smoking will cause 10 million deaths a year by 2020 according to the World Health Organization. A prevalence study on smoking habits was conducted in 2002 among 459 students from eight public high schools in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study aimed to measure smoking prevalence and related factors by multivariate logistic regression. The overall smoking prevalence rate in the sample was 18% (95%CI: 14.6-21.7, and the students had begun smoking at a mean age of 14 years. Students from public high schools had begun smoking early, influenced by friends who smoked (OR = 4.37; p = 0.000, family income (OR = 2.04; p = 0.013, and

  14. Smoking and attitudes toward smoking policy at a University in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forden, Carie L; Carrillo, Amy M

    2016-01-01

    To assess smoking behavior, knowledge of smoking harm, and attitudes toward campus smoking policy at an Egyptian university, an online survey of students, staff, and faculty was conducted (N = 992). The smoking prevalence of 38% among men was in line with Egypt's national average, but the smoking prevalence among women of 20% was much higher than the national average. Smoking status influenced beliefs about smoking harm and attitudes toward smoking policy, with nonsmokers having stronger beliefs about the harm of smoking and showing stronger support for smoking regulations than smokers. Smokers were more knowledgeable about smoking policy than were nonsmokers and differed slightly in their preferences for smoking policy enforcement strategies. These findings contribute to our understanding of how to tailor college smoking policy and programs to an Egyptian context.

  15. Estimates of live birth prevalence of children with Down syndrome in the period 1991-2015 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; Engelen, J. J. M.; Gijsbers, A. C. J.; Hochstenbach, R.; Hoffer, M. J. V.; Kooper, A. J. A.; Sikkema-Raddatz, B.; Srebniak, M. I.; van der Kevie-Kersemaekers, A. M. F.; van Zutven, L. J. C. M.; Voorhoeve, E.

    2017-01-01

    In Western countries, increasing maternal age has led to more pregnancies with a child with Down syndrome (DS). However, prenatal screening programs, diagnostic testing and termination of pregnancy influence the actual DS live birth (LB) prevalence as well. The aim of this study is to examine these

  16. Underreporting of BMI in adults and its effect on obesity prevalence estimtions in the period 1998-2001.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, T.L.S.; Viet, A.L.; Kroesbergen, M.; Seidell, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify the determinants of underreporting BMI and to evaluate the possibilities of using self-reported data for valid obesity prevalence rate estimations. Research Methods and Procedures: A cross-sectional monitoring health survey was carried out between 1998 and 2002, and a review

  17. Underreporting of BMI in adults and its effect on obesity prevalence estimations in the period 1998 to 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, Tommy L S; Viet, A Lucie; Kroesbergen, Ike H T; Seidell, Jacob C

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the determinants of underreporting BMI and to evaluate the possibilities of using self-reported data for valid obesity prevalence rate estimations. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A cross-sectional monitoring health survey was carried out between 1998 and 2002, and a review

  18. Prevalence, incidence and course of lower extremity injuries in runners during a 12-month follow-up period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppel van, D.; Scholten-Peeters, G G M; van Middelkoop, M.; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2014-01-01

    To describe the incidence, 12-month prevalence, and course of lower extremity injuries that occurred during and after the Amgen Singelloop Breda in 2009. The design was based on a prospective cohort study with a population-based setting. In total, 3605 registered runners received a web-based

  19. [Gender and age characteristics and the trends in prevalence of obesity in the adult population in Russia during the 1994-2012 period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K; Keshabyants, E E; Peskova, E V

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adult age and sex groups of the Russian population in the dynamics of observation from 1994 to 2012 was based on anthropometric measurements of weight and height in Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. The mean values of body mass index (BMI) and the frequency of obesity (BMI > 30.0) of the entire population have been increased during the observation period. The analyzing the data by gender revealed a significant increase in the frequency of obesity mainly among men, especially in the period 2005-2012, whereas among women increased incidence of obesity was negligible. The most rapid increase in the frequency of overweight and obesity in men noted in the age period of 20-30 years, and further increase in frequency of overweight and obesity with age were negligible. The rate of overweight and obesity in women had almost linear increase in the age period of 20-60 years. Comparative analysis of the prevalence of obesity showed that the obtained values for the 2000-2012 period were close to those characteristic of the developed world in recent decades. The growth of obesity rate in the general adult population in 2000-2005 and the 2005-2012 was 0.4% per year. At the same time, men showed a significant acceleration of the growth rate of obesity in the period 2005 to 2012 (0.61% per year) compared with the period 2000-2005 (0.44% per year). Increase in the frequency of obesity was observed in all regions in 2000 to 2012. The data should be considered as a rationale for research into the causes of gender differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the first place to find differences in the peculiarities of dietary intake between men and women at different ages of life, leading to the development of overweight and obesity.

  20. Childhood obesity is associated with maternal smoking in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschke, André Michael; Koletzko, Berthold; Slikker, William; Hermann, Monika; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2002-08-01

    Overweight and obesity are major public health issues. Childhood obesity often persists throughout adulthood. Recently a higher prevalence of obesity in adults whose mothers smoked during pregnancy was reported. The aim of this study was to assess whether this association is also detectable in pre-school children in a different setting and to identify the critical period for intrauterine exposure to inhaled smoke products in pregnancy. We analysed questionnaire data on early feeding and lifestyle factors of 8,765 German children aged 5.00 to 6.99 years. Obesity was defined as a body mass index >97th percentile. The prevalence estimates for obesity were: mother never smoked 2.8% (95% CI 2.4%-3.2%), smoked after pregnancy only 1.6% (95%CI 0.4%-4.1%), smoked throughout pregnancy 6.2% (95% CI 4.5%-8.3%), smoked before pregnancy, but not throughout 4.5% (95%CI 3.6%-5.7%). These associations could not be explained by confounding due to a number of constitutional, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. The unadjusted/adjusted odds ratios were: smoked during pregnancy: 2.32 (95% CI 1.63%-3.30%)/1.92 (95% CI 1.29%-2.86%); smoked before, but not throughout pregnancy: 1.67 (95%CI 1.26%-2.22%)/1.74 (95%CI 1.29%-2.34%). the association of maternal smoking in pregnancy and obesity was also detectable in children at school entry. Since smoking after pregnancy was not associated with childhood obesity, intrauterine exposure rather than family lifestyle factors associated with smoking appears to be instrumental. There appears to be a role for early intrauterine exposure.

  1. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  2. Prevalence of smoking restrictions and child exposure to secondhand smoke in cars and homes: a repeated cross-sectional survey of children aged 10-11 years in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Graham F; Moore, Laurence; Littlecott, Hannah J; Ahmed, Nilufar; Lewis, Sophia; Sulley, Gillian; Jones, Elen; Holliday, Jo

    2015-01-30

    Small increases in smoking restrictions in cars and homes were reported after legislation prohibiting smoking in public places. Few studies examine whether these changes continued in the longer term. This study examines changes in restrictions on smoking in cars and homes, and child exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in these locations, since 2008 postlegislation surveys in Wales. State-maintained primary schools in Wales (n=75). Children aged 10-11 years (year 6) completed CHETS (CHild exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke) Wales surveys in 2007 (n=1612) and 2008 (n=1605). A replication survey (CHETS Wales 2) was conducted in 2014, including 1601 children. Children's reports of whether smoking was allowed in their car or home and exposure to SHS in a car or home the previous day. The percentage of children who reported that smoking was allowed in their family vehicle fell from 18% to 9% in 2014 (OR=0.42; 95% CI 0.33 to 0.54). The percentage living in homes where smoking was allowed decreased from 37% to 26% (OR=0.30; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.43). Among children with a parent who smoked, one in five and one in two continued to report that smoking was allowed in their car and home. The percentage reporting SHS exposure in a car (OR=0.52; 95% CI 0.38 to 0.72) or home (OR=0.44; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.53) the previous day also fell. Children from poorer families remained less likely to report smoking restrictions. Smoking in cars and homes has continued to decline. Substantial numbers of children continue to report that smoking is allowed in cars and homes, particularly children from poorer families. A growing number of countries have legislated, or plan to legislate, banning smoking in cars carrying children. Attention is needed to the impact of legislation on child health and health inequalities, and reducing smoking in homes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Experience of a smoking cessation program among high school students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Ping; Lee, Ting-Ting; Mills, Mary Etta

    2014-01-01

    In Taiwan, the prevalence of smoking among teenagers has led to a required smoking cessation program in schools. Students caught smoking in school are required to participate in a weekly smoking cessation class. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of high school students in a smoking cessation program. Fifteen adolescents participated in a one-on-one in-depth semistructured interview, and the content was analyzed for patterns based on the methods of Miles and Huberman. In addition, Lewin's change theory of drive forces and restraining forces was used to describe the change in behavior as a result of the program. Five major themes were identified: the onset of smoking-change influenced by families and friends; intention to quit smoking-driving force; the irresistible temptation to smoke-restraining force; limited change effects-more attention and assistance needed; and change in attitude rather than behavior-smoking remained unchanged. Changes were seen in the perceptions and attitudes of these students toward smoking at the end of the program; however, none of them were able to really quit. Most participants revealed that they used improper means to pass the carbon monoxide test requirement that was used as a measure of not smoking. Alternative future intervention strategies for further study include change in health policy to support nicotine replacement methods for heavy adolescent smoker, use of teacher support, and exercise programs to support students going through the smoking cessation period.

  4. The widening gender gap in marijuana use prevalence in the U.S. during a period of economic change, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carliner, Hannah; Mauro, Pia M; Brown, Qiana L; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Rahim-Juwel, Reanne; Sarvet, Aaron L; Wall, Melanie M; Martins, Silvia S; Carliner, Geoffrey; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-01-01

    Concurrently with increasingly permissive attitudes towards marijuana use and its legalization, the prevalence of marijuana use has increased in recent years in the U.S. Substance use is generally more prevalent in men than women, although for alcohol, the gender gap is narrowing. However, information is lacking on whether time trends in marijuana use differ by gender, or whether socioeconomic status in the context of the Great Recession may affect these changes. Using repeated cross-sectional data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2002-2014), we examined changes over time in prevalence of past-year marijuana use by gender, and whether gender differences varied across income levels. After empirically determining a change point in use in 2007, we used logistic regression to test interaction terms including time, gender, and income level. Prevalence of marijuana use increased for both men (+4.0%) and women (+2.7%) from 2002 to 2014, with all of the increase occurring from 2007 to 2014. Increases were greater for men, leading to a widening of the gender gap over time (pemployment rate beginning in 2007, low-income men showed the greatest increases in marijuana use during this period, leading to a widening of the gender gap in prevalence of marijuana use over time. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Levantamento randomizado sobre a prevalência de tabagismo nos maiores municípios do Brasil Random sample survey on the prevalence of smoking in the major cities of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sergio Leitão Filho

    2009-12-01

    prevalence of daily smokers was 17.4% (20.3% among males and 14.8% among females. We found that 9% of the sample (10.1% of the men and 7.9% of the women were nicotine-dependent, according to the criteria of the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of current smoking in the 107 largest cities of Brazil is significantly lower in this decade than was the national prevalence at the end of last century.

  6. Prevalence of self-reported arterial hypertension in Brazilian capitals in 2011 and analysis of its trends in the period between 2006 and 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvania Suely Caribé de Araújo Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of self-reported arterial hypertension in the adult population in the Brazilian state capitals and Federal District in 2011, and analyze the trend from 2006 to 2011. METHODS: A time series study was conducted with data from the monitoring system by telephone survey (Vigitel in the period between 2006 and 2011. Approximately 54,000 individuals were assessed per year in the locations studied. A polynomial regression model was used for trend analysis according to gender, age, education and region of the country. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypertension was 22.7% in 2011, higher in women (25.4%; 95%CI 24.2 - 26.5 than in men (19.5%; 95%CI 18.4 - 20.7. In the period between 2006 and 2011, the lower frequency of hypertension was observed in 2006 (21.5%, and the higher in 2009 (24.4%, with no statistically significant difference in the period. CONCLUSION: There was no significant sex-specific trend, maintaining the higher frequency among women. The prevalence of hypertension increased progressively with age and was higher among adults with lower education (0 - 8 years of study. The South was the only region that showed a statistically significant increasing trend for the years between 2006 and 2011 (15% per year.

  7. Prevalence of self-reported arterial hypertension in Brazilian capitals in 2011 and analysis of its trends in the period between 2006 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Silvania Suely Caribé de Araújo; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Iser, Betine Moehlecke; Sampaio, Patricia Chueri; de Moura, Lenildo

    2014-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of self-reported arterial hypertension in the adult population in the Brazilian state capitals and Federal District in 2011, and analyze the trend from 2006 to 2011. A time series study was conducted with data from the monitoring system by telephone survey (Vigitel) in the period between 2006 and 2011. Approximately 54,000 individuals were assessed per year in the locations studied. A polynomial regression model was used for trend analysis according to gender, age, education and region of the country. The prevalence of hypertension was 22.7% in 2011, higher in women (25.4%; 95%CI 24.2 - 26.5) than in men (19.5%; 95%CI 18.4 - 20.7). In the period between 2006 and 2011, the lower frequency of hypertension was observed in 2006 (21.5%), and the higher in 2009 (24.4%), with no statistically significant difference in the period. There was no significant sex-specific trend, maintaining the higher frequency among women. The prevalence of hypertension increased progressively with age and was higher among adults with lower education (0 - 8 years of study). The South was the only region that showed a statistically significant increasing trend for the years between 2006 and 2011 (15% per year).

  8. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  9. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A; Villebro, N

    2005-01-01

    Smokers have a substantially increased risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence. The preoperative period may be a well chosen time to offer smoking cessation interventions due to increased patient motivation....

  10. Evaluation of a Pharmacist and Nurse Practitioner Smoking Cessation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Zubair; Pogge, Elizabeth; Boomershine, Virginia

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a smoking cessation program led by a pharmacist and a nurse practitioner. During a 6-month period, patients attended 7 one-on-one face-to-face smoking cessation counseling sessions with a pharmacist and 1 to 2 one-on-one face-to-face smoking cessation counseling sessions with a nurse practitioner. The primary outcome was smoking cessation point prevalence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date. Secondary outcomes included medication adherence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date, nicotine dependence at baseline versus program end, and patient satisfaction. Nine (47%) of 19 total participants completed the program. Seven of the 9 patients who completed the program were smoke-free upon study completion. Point prevalence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date were 66%, 77%, and 77%, respectively, based on patients who completed the program. Medication adherence rates were 88.6%, 54.6%, and 75% at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date, respectively. Based on the Fagerstrom test, nicotine dependence decreased from baseline to the end of the study, 4.89 to 0.33 ( P smoking cessation program can assist patients in becoming smoke-free.

  11. Predictors of Cigarette Smoking among Young Adults in Mangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalithambigai, G; Rao, Ashwini; Rajesh, G; Ramya, Shenoy; Pai, B H Mithun

    2016-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic is a heralding health menace, particularly among college students. Tobacco usage among young can have an especially devastating effect as they can be exposed for longer periods. Data to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use in young adults will be a valuable addition to the existing resources. An analytical cross-sectional study was therefore carried out in Mangalore city using a pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) with a representative sample of 720 students aged 18-20 years selected from degree colleges by multi-stage random sampling. Prevalence of 'ever users' and 'current users' of smoking were 20.4% and 11.4%, respectively. The mean age at initiation of cigarette smoking was 16 years and the majority (31 %) smoked in public places. Interestingly, 84% of them knew about the harmful effects of cigarette smoking. About one half of smokers had some or most of their friends smoking. Multivariate analysis revealed gender (OR=8.585: CI-3.26-22.5), pocket money (OR=4.165; CI=1.76-9.82) and peer's smoking habit (OR= 5.15; CI-2.21-11.9) have higher odds as correlates of tobacco usage among college students. It is of prime importance to highlight the role of prevention of smoking initiation rather than subsequently trying to stop the habit. Comprehensive interventions embracing family, friends and social milieu are needed to reduce tobacco use among students in India.

  12. Tobacco advertising, environmental smoking bans, and smoking in Chinese urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Rockett, Ian R H; Li, Mu; Xu, Xiaochao; Gu, Yaming

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate whether cigarette smoking in Chinese urban areas was respectively associated with exposure to tobacco advertising and smoking bans in households, workplaces, and public places. Participants were 4735 urban residents aged 15 years and older, who were identified through multi-stage quota-sampling conducted in six Chinese cities. Data were collected on individual sociodemographics and smoking status, and regional tobacco control measures. The sample was characterized in terms of smoking prevalence, and multilevel logistic models were employed to analyze the association between smoking and tobacco advertising and environmental smoking restrictions, respectively. Smoking prevalence was 30%. Multilevel logistic regression analysis showed that smoking was positively associated with exposure to tobacco advertising, and negatively associated with workplace and household smoking bans. The association of smoking with both tobacco advertising and environmental smoking bans further justifies implementation of comprehensive smoking interventions and tobacco control programs in China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study shows increased prevalence of primary recurrent headaches among adolescents over a four-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsena, Brit A; Dyb, Grete; Hagen, Knut; Stovner, Lars J; Holmen, Turid L; Zwart, John-Anker

    2017-12-29

    Objective Earlier epidemiological studies have shown that headaches are frequent among adolescents, especially girls. In particular, recurrent primary headache disorders such as migraine and tension-type headaches are common complaints in this age group. Headaches are increasingly being recognized as a significant health problem in adolescents and can lead to significant disabilities by affecting their lives, their school performance and their social lives. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of primary headaches among adolescents aged 16-20 years in Norway in two periods. Very few replicate studies have re-evaluated the prevalence of primary headaches in this age range and it is uncertain whether the prevalence is increasing. Methods Two cross-sectional, population-based studies were conducted in Norway from 1995 to 1997 (Young-HUNT 1) and from 1999 to 2001 (Young-HUNT 2). In Young-HUNT 1, 2594 adolescents in 2nd and 3rd grade in upper secondary school (aged 16-20 years) completed a comprehensive questionnaire including one question regarding headache during the last 12 months. In addition, 1730 of the students were interviewed about their headache complaints. In Young-HUNT 2, 2373 adolescents aged 16-20 years completed the same questionnaire and 1655 were interviewed in the same way as the earlier survey. The interviews were performed by trained nurses, and respondents were asked if they had experienced recurrent headache during the last year. If so, the headache was classified as migraine (MI), tensiontype headache (TTH) or non-classifiable headache (NCH). Headache frequency during the past year was recorded according to the following categories: Less than 1 day per month (less than monthly), 1-3 days per month (monthly), 1-5 days per week (weekly), or more than 5 days per week (daily). Results The participation rate was 88% in Young-HUNT 1 and 81% in Young-HUNT 2. The overall prevalence of having had headaches during the last 12 months did not

  14. Tabagismo na coorte de nascimentos de 1982: da adolescência à vida adulta, Pelotas, RS Tabaquismo en la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982: de la adolescencia a la vida adulta, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil Smoking prevalence in the 1982 birth cohort: from adolescence to adult life, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M B Menezes

    2008-12-01

    .5. In the multivariate analysis, lower maternal level of education, low income level in 1982, poverty during the follow-up period and maternal smoking were significantly associated with higher smoking prevalences in both sexes. Being non-white was associated with higher risk of smoking among females exclusively. Breastfeeding was not associated with smoking. Among females, smoking was inversely associated with birth weight in the crude analysis, but lost its significance in the adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Higher incidence of smoking in poorer groups suggests that behavior such as avoiding smoking during pregnancy and increasing cigarette prices can have an important population impact.

  15. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in consecutive new patients seen over a 6-month period in general rheumatology clinics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Haroon, Muhammad

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study are to assess: (a) the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among new patients attending rheumatology outpatient departments, (b) the age profile of these low vitamin D patients and (c) whether any diagnostic category had a particularly high number of vitamin D-deficient patients. All new patients seen consecutively in general rheumatology clinics between January to June 2007 inclusive were eligible to partake in this study, and 231 out of 264 consented to do so. Parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, creatinine, calcium, phosphate, albumin and alkaline phosphatase levels were measured. We defined vitamin D deficiency as <\\/=53 nmol\\/l and severe deficiency as <\\/=25 nmol\\/l. Overall, 70% of 231 patients had vitamin D deficiency, and 26% had severe deficiency. Sixty-five percent of patients aged >\\/=65 and 78% of patients aged <\\/=30 years had low vitamin D levels. Vitamin D deficiency in each diagnostic category was as follows: (a) inflammatory joint diseases\\/connective tissue diseases (IJD\\/CTD), 69%; (b) soft tissue rheumatism, 77%; (c) osteoarthritis, 62%; (d) non-specific musculoskeletal back pain, 75% and (e) osteoporosis, 71%. Seasonal variation of vitamin D levels was noted in all diagnostic groups apart from IJD\\/CTD group, where the degree of vitamin D deficiency persisted from late winter to peak summer. Very high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was noted in all diagnostic categories (p = 0.006), and it was independent of age (p = 0.297). The results suggest vitamin D deficiency as a possible modifiable risk factor in different rheumatologic conditions, and its role in IJD\\/CTD warrants further attention.

  16. A cross-national comparative study of smoking prevalence and cessation between English and Dutch South Asian and African origin populations: the role of national context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien; Tromp, Neelke; Bhopal, Raj; Zaninotto, Paola; Unwin, Nigel; Nazroo, James; Kunst, Anton E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests that Dutch people smoke substantially more than their British counterparts. These differences have been suggested to relate, in part, to the health-related policy differences between the two countries. It is unclear whether these differences affect smoking among ethnic minority

  17. Smoking among troops deployed in combat areas and its association with combat exposure among navy personnel in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Silva Varuni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among military personnel alcohol consumption and binge-drinking have increased but cigarette smoking has declined in the recent past. Although there is a strong association between smoking and PTSD the association between combat exposure and smoking is not clear. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out among representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas. Both Special Forces and regular forces were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to end of combat operations were included in the study. Females were not included in the sample. The study assessed several mental health outcomes as well as alcohol use, smoking and cannabis use. Sample was classified according to smoking habits as never smokers, past smokers (those who had smoked in the past but not within the past year and current smokers (those smoking at least one cigarette within the past 12 months. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. Prevalence of current smoking was 17.9% (95% CI 14.9-20.8. Of the sample 58.4% had never smoked and 23.7% were past smokers. Prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher among Special Forces personnel compared to regular forces. (OR 1.90 (95% CI 1.20-3.02. Personnel aged ≥35 years had the lowest prevalence of smoking (14.0%. Commissioned officers had a lower prevalence (12.1% than non commissioned officers or other ranks. After adjustment for demographic variables and service type there was significant association between smoking and combat experiences of seeing dead or wounded [OR 1.79 (95%CI 1.08-2.9], handling dead bodies [OR 2.47(95%CI 1.6-3.81], coming under small arms fire [OR 2.01(95%CI 1.28-3.15] and coming under mortar, missile and artillery fire [OR 2.02(95%CI 1.29-3.17]. There was significant association between the number of

  18. The role of public policies in reducing smoking: the Minnesota SimSmoke tobacco policy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Boyle, Raymond G; Abrams, David B

    2012-11-01

    Following the landmark lawsuit and settlement with the tobacco industry, Minnesota pursued the implementation of stricter tobacco control policies, including tax increases, mass media campaigns, smokefree air laws, and cessation treatment policies. Modeling is used to examine policy effects on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. To estimate the effect of tobacco control policies in Minnesota on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths using the SimSmoke simulation model. Minnesota data starting in 1993 are applied to SimSmoke, a simulation model used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies over time on smoking initiation and cessation. Upon validating the model against smoking prevalence, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 on smoking prevalence. Using standard attribution methods, SimSmoke also estimates deaths averted as a result of the policies. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2011. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 29% by 2011 and of 41% by 2041 can be attributed to tobacco control policies, mainly tax increases, smokefree air laws, media campaigns, and cessation treatment programs. Moreover, 48,000 smoking-attributable deaths will be averted by 2041. Minnesota SimSmoke demonstrates that tobacco control policies, especially taxes, have substantially reduced smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Taxes, smokefree air laws, mass media, cessation treatment policies, and youth-access enforcement contributed to the decline in prevalence and deaths averted, with the strongest component being taxes. With stronger policies, for example, increasing cigarette taxes to $4.00 per pack, Minnesota's smoking rate could be reduced by another 13%, and 7200 deaths could be averted by 2041. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tween and teen health Want to prevent teen smoking? Understand why teens smoke and how to talk ... teen about cigarettes. By Mayo Clinic Staff Teen smoking might begin innocently, but it can become a ...

  20. Three lifestyle-related issues of major significance for public health among the Inuit in contemporary Greenland: a review of adverse childhood conditions, obesity, and smoking in a period of social transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina V L

    2018-01-01

    Greenland is a country in transition from a colonial past with subsistence hunting and fishing to an urban Nordic welfare state. Epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases has been evident since the 1950s. Ninety percent of the population is Inuit. We studied three public health issues based on published literature, namely adverse childhood experiences, addictive behavior, and suicide; diet and obesity; and smoking. Alcohol consumption was high in the 1970s and 1980s with accompanying family and social disruption. This is still a cause of poor mental health and suicides in the generations most affected. The diet is changing from a traditional diet of fish and marine mammals to imported food including food items rich in sugar and fat from domestic animals, and the level of physical activity is decreasing with an ensuing epidemic rise in obesity. The prevalence of smoking is high at around 60% among both men and women and is only slowly decreasing. Smoking shows large social variation, and tobacco-related diseases are widespread. The diseases and conditions outlined above all contribute towards a low life expectancy at birth-69 years for men and 74 years for women in 2011-2015-compared with 78 and 84 years for men and women, respectively, on average in the European countries. The translation of government public health programs into local activities needs strengthening, and it must be realized that the improvement of public health is a long-term process.

  1. Influences on adolescent smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Koprivnikar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are numerous and intertwining factors that influence adolescent smoking and have to be considered when we develop and implement programmes and measures for the prevention and reduction of adolescent smoking. In different environments (schools, health system, local communities we have to reduce risk factors and strenghten protective factors through programmes incorporated in the system. The protective factors are low prevalence of smoking, healthy lifestyle, physical activity and good mental health, indicating the importance of links to programmes outside of the tobacco control.

  2. [Knowledge and attitudes toward smoke-free law among smoking and non-smoking medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Danch, Wioleta; Goniewicz, Maciej Ł; Koszowski, Bartosz; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Czogała, Jan; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Antosiewicz, Beata; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is common among various social groups. There is still high prevalence of smoking among health care professionals. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge about smoke-free law in public places in Poland among smoking and nonsmoking students of selected medical university. We surveyed 50 students of one medical university aged 23 +/- 2 years. Control group consisted with 61 students of other universities located in the same region aged 23 +/- 3 years. We developed a new survey to assess students knowledge about smoke-free regulations and their implementations in various public places. Smoking status was verified with exhaled carbon monoxide levels (COex). 57% off all surveyed students declared being familiar with smoke-free law. However, we detected a significant difference between the knowledge of medical vs. nonmedical students (76% vs. 41%, p < 0.05). The knowledge about smoke-free law in Poland among students is not sufficient, especially among nonmedical students.

  3. Nicotine dependence and smoking habits in patients with head and neck cancer*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Adriana Ávila; Bandeira, Celso Muller; Gonçalves, Antonio José; Araújo, Alberto José

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess smoking habits and nicotine dependence (ND) in patients with head and neck cancer Methods: This study involved 71 smokers or former smokers with squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity, pharynx, or larynx who were treated at a university hospital in the city of São Paulo between January and May of 2010. We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate smoking habits and ND in the sample. Data regarding cancer treatment were collected from medical records. Depending on the variables studied, we used the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, or Spearman's correlation test. Results: Of the 71 patients, 47 (66.2%) presented with high or very high ND, 40 (56.3%) smoked more than 20 cigarettes/day, and 32 (45.1%) smoked their first cigarette within 5 min of awakening. Advanced disease stage correlated significantly with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = 0.011) and with smoking history (p = 0.047). We found that ND did not correlate significantly with gender, disease stage, smoking cessation, or number of smoking cessation attempts, nor did the number of cigarettes smoked per day correlate with smoking cessation or gender. Treatment for smoking cessation was not routinely offered. Conclusions: In most of the patients studied, the level of ND was high or very high. The prevalence of heavy smoking for long periods was high in our sample. A diagnosis of cancer is a motivating factor for smoking cessation. However, intensive smoking cessation treatment is not routinely offered to smoking patients diagnosed with cancer. PMID:25029652

  4. Nicotine dependence and smoking habits in patients with head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ávila de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess smoking habits and nicotine dependence (ND in patients with head and neck cancer Methods: This study involved 71 smokers or former smokers with squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity, pharynx, or larynx who were treated at a university hospital in the city of São Paulo between January and May of 2010. We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate smoking habits and ND in the sample. Data regarding cancer treatment were collected from medical records. Depending on the variables studied, we used the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, or Spearman's correlation test. Results: Of the 71 patients, 47 (66.2% presented with high or very high ND, 40 (56.3% smoked more than 20 cigarettes/day, and 32 (45.1% smoked their first cigarette within 5 min of awakening. Advanced disease stage correlated significantly with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = 0.011 and with smoking history (p = 0.047. We found that ND did not correlate significantly with gender, disease stage, smoking cessation, or number of smoking cessation attempts, nor did the number of cigarettes smoked per day correlate with smoking cessation or gender. Treatment for smoking cessation was not routinely offered. Conclusions: In most of the patients studied, the level of ND was high or very high. The prevalence of heavy smoking for long periods was high in our sample. A diagnosis of cancer is a motivating factor for smoking cessation. However, intensive smoking cessation treatment is not routinely offered to smoking patients diagnosed with cancer.

  5. Association between smoking and alcohol-related behaviours: a time-series analysis of population trends in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Emma; West, Robert; Michie, Susan; Brown, Jamie

    2017-10-01

    This paper estimates how far monthly changes in prevalence of cigarette smoking, motivation to quit and attempts to stop smoking have been associated with changes in prevalence of high-risk drinking, and motivation and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption in England. Data were used from the Alcohol and Smoking Toolkit Studies between April 2014 and June 2016. These involve monthly household face-to-face surveys of representative samples of ~1700 adults in England. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with Exogeneous Input (ARIMAX) modelling was used to assess the association over time between monthly prevalence of (a) smoking and high-risk drinking; (b) high motivation to quit smoking and high motivation to reduce alcohol consumption; and (c) attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption. Mean smoking prevalence over the study period was 18.6% and high-risk drinking prevalence was 13.0%. A decrease of 1% of the series mean smoking prevalence was associated with a reduction of 0.185% of the mean prevalence of high-risk drinking 2 months later [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.033 to 0.337, P = 0.017]. A statistically significant association was not found between prevalence of high motivation to quit smoking and high motivation to reduce alcohol consumption (β = 0.324, 95% CI = -0.371 to 1.019, P = 0.360) or prevalence of attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption (β = -0.026, 95% CI = -1.348 to 1.296, P = 0.969). Between 2014 and 2016, monthly changes in prevalence of smoking in England were associated positively with prevalence of high-risk drinking. There was no significant association between motivation to stop and motivation to reduce alcohol consumption, or attempts to quit smoking and attempts to reduce alcohol consumption. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in professional soldiers of the Czech Army over an 11-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajfrová, Jana; Pavlík, Vladimír; Psutka, Jan; Husarová, Michaela; Krutišová, Pavla; Fajfr, Miroslav

    2016-05-01

    Obesity is currently considered to be the most frequent metabolic disease worldwide, not only in developed but also in developing countries. The aim of this work was to describe the development of health status in soldiers of the Armed Forces of the Czech Republic (ACR) and to emphasizethe markers of non-communicable diseases. Our study describes the anthropometric and biochemical parameters of a large group of Czech Army professional soldiers. Data were obtained over a period of 11 years. During the monitored period, from 1999 to 2009, military physicians carried out on the average 6,360 examinations on professional soldiers per year and monitored their health and nutritional status with the aim of preventing the risk factors of non-communicable diseases. These examinations are compulsory for all professional soldiers at the age of 25, 30, 33, and 36 years. From the age of 39, these examinations are carried out every year till the end of their career. Besides taking personal histories and carrying out standard physical examinations, blood was taken for biochemical examination. The following anthropometric parameters were monitored: body constitution using body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Our study describes only part of the data concerning anthropometric and biochemical parameters of professional soldiers which were obtained over a period of 11 years. Average BMI values in men were in the overweight range (26.5-27 kg/m2). Average values of waist circumference, however, ranged from 91.9 cm to 93.4 cm. Between the first and the last year of monitoring a statistically significant decrease in these values ranging from 93.4 ± 9.8 cm to 92.7 ± 9.5 cm (p values of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol was observed; from 5.5 ± 1.1 mmol/L to 5.1 ± 1.0 mmol/L (p values in the overweight range was observed. Although the number of overweight soldiers was overestimated as a result of the inclusion of individuals with increased body weight due

  7. Population prevalence, attributable risk, and attributable risk percentage for high methylmalonic acid concentrations in the post-folic acid fortification period in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganji Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum methylmalonic acid (MMA is regarded as a sensitive marker of vitamin B-12 status. Elevated circulating MMA is linked to neurological abnormalities. Contribution of age, supplement use, kidney dysfunction, and vitamin B-12 deficiency to high serum MMA in post-folic acid fortification period is unknown. Methods We investigated prevalence, population attributable risk (PAR, and PAR% for high MMA concentrations in the US. Data from 3 cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted in post-folic acid fortification period were used (n = 18569. Results Likelihood of having high serum MMA for white relative to black was 2.5 (P P P P P Conclusions Old age is the strongest determinant of PAR for high MMA. About 5 cases of high serum MMA/1000 people would be reduced if vitamin B-12 deficiency (

  8. The prevalence and magnitude of impaired cutaneous sensation across the hand in the chronic period post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jocelyn L; Lin, Gaven G; McNulty, Penelope A

    2014-01-01

    Sensation is commonly impaired immediately post-stroke but little is known about the long-term changes in cutaneous sensation that have the capacity to adversely impact independence and motor-function. We investigated cutaneous sensory thresholds across the hand in the chronic post-stroke period. Cutaneous sensation was assessed in 42 community-dwelling stroke patients and compared to 36 healthy subjects. Sensation was tested with calibrated monofilaments at 6 sites on the hand that covered the median, ulnar and radial innervation territories and included both glabrous (hairless) and hairy skin. The motor-function of stroke patients was assessed with the Wolf Motor Function Test and the upper-limb motor Fugl-Meyer Assessment. Impaired cutaneous sensation was defined as monofilament thresholds >3 SD above the mean of healthy subjects and good sensation was ≤ 3 SD. Cutaneous sensation was impaired for 33% of patients and was 40-84% worse on the more-affected side compared to healthy subjects depending on the site (psensation fell within the healthy range, although ∼ 1/3 of patients were classified with impaired sensation. Classification by motor-function revealed low levels of impaired sensation. The magnitude of sensory loss was only apparent when the sensory-function of stroke patients was classified as good or impaired. Sensation was most impaired on the dorsum of the hand where age-related changes in monofilament thresholds are minimal in healthy subjects. Although patients with both high and low motor-function had poor cutaneous sensation, overall patients with low motor-function had poorer cutaneous sensation than those with higher motor-function, and relationships were found between motor impairments and sensation at the fingertip and palm. These results emphasize the importance of identifying the presence and magnitude of cutaneous sensory impairments in the chronic period after stroke.

  9. Comparison of working conditions and prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dairy farmers in southern Sweden over a 25-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan ePinzke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Working conditions and the prevalence of perceived musculoskeletal symptoms (MSSs among dairy farmers in 2013 were monitored by repeating a mail survey of dairy workers in Scania, southern Sweden, using the same method for collecting data on MSSs and working conditions employed in previous surveys conducted in 1988 and 2002.All dairy enterprises in Scania (total 419 were sent two copies of a questionnaire. One or more responses were received from 232 enterprises (55.4%, of which those from 247 dairy farmers (75% men, 25% women in 199 enterprises are included in this study.The farmers had increased their weekly working hours in 2013 compared with 2002 (males ¯x = 43.9, 40.7; females ¯x = 37.9, 33.9. Each male milked on average 30 cows in 1988, 44 cows in 2002, and 86 cows in 2013. The corresponding numbers milked by female farmers were 29, 60, and 102, respectively. In 1988, almost all farmers used tethered systems, while in 2013 54.4% of male and 66.1% of female farmers instead worked with loose-housing systems. Of the farmers who used loose-housing systems, 50.7% had a robotic milking system.In 2013, 79.0% of male and 88.5% of female farmers reported MSSs on some occasion, especially in the lower back, shoulders, and knees for men and in the shoulders, lower back, and wrists/hands for women. However, there was no statistical change compared with the frequency of MSSs in 2002.In 2013, there was a tendency for younger dairy farmers (≤35 years to report MSSs, especially in the shoulders, elbows, lower back, and feet, more frequently than younger farmers in 2002.The males who worked with robot milking systems in 2013 indicated less discomfort in the shoulders than men who worked with other systems. The corresponding females indicated fewer problems in the lower back in 2013.Various aspects of milking system design and technology have been improved to reduce the workload and prevent MSSs in dairy farmers. Nevertheless, more improvements are

  10. Working Inside for Smoking Elimination (Project W.I.S.E. study design and rationale to prevent return to smoking after release from a smoke free prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarcerated individuals suffer disproportionately from the health effects of tobacco smoking due to the high smoking prevalence in this population. In addition there is an over-representation of ethnic and racial minorities, impoverished individuals, and those with mental health and drug addictions in prisons. Increasingly, prisons across the U.S. are becoming smoke free. However, relapse to smoking is common upon release from prison, approaching 90% within a few weeks. No evidence based treatments currently exist to assist individuals to remain abstinent after a period of prolonged, forced abstinence. Methods/Design This paper describes the design and rationale of a randomized clinical trial to enhance smoking abstinence rates among individuals following release from a tobacco free prison. The intervention is six weekly sessions of motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy initiated approximately six weeks prior to release from prison. The control group views six time matched videos weekly starting about six weeks prior to release. Assessments take place in-person 3 weeks after release and then for non-smokers every 3 months up to 12 months. Smoking status is confirmed by urine cotinine. Discussion Effective interventions are greatly needed to assist these individuals to remain smoke free and reduce health disparities among this socially and economically challenged group. Trial Registration NCT01122589

  11. Prevalence of bacterial agents isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis in the dry period and the determination of their antibiotic sensitivity in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Mosaferi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of mastitis-causing bacteria in the dry period and its antibiotic sensitivity. Methods: In this study, 852 dry cows were examined. A total of 30 cows with clinical mastitis symptoms were detected and their milk samples were collected. In order to purify the bacteria, brain heart infusion and blood agar media were applied and single colonies were used for Gram staining, oxidase and catalase testing, cultivating in O-F medium to determine the genus and species of bacteria. Then, antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the agar disk diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of isolated bacteria was 2.46%, in which coagulase positive Staphylococcus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and yeast were (9/99%, (6/66%, (13/32%, (3/33%, (6/66%, (13/32%, (9/99% and (6/66%, respectively. After tests of antibiotic susceptibility, the most and the least sensitivity were reported to enrofloxacin and ampicillin respectively. Conclusions: This study indicated that Streptococcus dysgalactiae is the most commonly isolated bacteria with the greatest sensitivity to enrofloxacin and tetracycline which can be used to treat mastitis in the dry period in Tabriz.

  12. Secondhand smoke exposure among non smoking adults in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tobacco control policy can only succeed if the burdens of smoking are known. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmoking adults in two Nigerian cities. Materials and Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study from ...

  13. [Impact of the Spanish smoking laws on the exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Galicia (2005-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Malvar, Alberto; Jesús García, María; Seoane, Bernardo; Suanzes, Jorge; Hervada, Xurxo

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a valuable index to assess the impact of the laws for tobacco control. The objective of this work is to analyse variations in the prevalence of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Galicia (Spain) between 2005, before the Law 28/2005, and 2011, after the law 42/2010. Data were obtained from five population-based independent cross-sectional studies, telephone surveys, developed in Galicia between 2005 and 2011 among population aged 16 to 74 (n=34.419). Self-reported exposure among population aged between 16 and 74 was analysed by setting and tobacco consumption by prevalence with 95% confidence intervals. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure decreased dramatically in Galicia between 2005 and 2011. In 2005, before the Law 28/2005, 95% of the population reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke compared to 28% in 2011, after the Law 42/2010. Decrease was greater in workplaces in 2006 and in leisure time venues in 2011. After an initial decrease in 2006, exposure at home remains unchanged. An important reduction in self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke occurred in Galicia in the period 2005-2011, specially after the introduction of Laws 28/2005 and 42/2010. Nevertheless, one in four of the population aged 16 to 74 remained exposed in 2011. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Socioeconomic Disparities in Smoking Among U.S. Adults With Depression, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Bandiera, Frank C; Leventhal, Adam M; Dierker, Lisa C; Gbedemah, Misato; Tidey, Jennifer W; Goodwin, Renee D

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate changes in the cigarette smoking prevalence among U.S. adults with and without depression from 2005 to 2014 by income and education level and overall. This study examined data from adult respondents (aged ≥18 years) in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, an annual cross-sectional study of U.S. individuals. Data from the years 2005 to 2014 were analyzed for a total analytic sample of n=378,733. The prevalence of past-month cigarette smoking was examined annually from 2005 to 2014 among adults with and without past-year major depression, overall and by income/education, using linear trend analyses. Data analysis occurred in 2017. The prevalence of smoking declined significantly from 2005 to 2014 among those with depression (37.62% to 34.01%; p<0.001) and without depression (23.99% to 19.87%; p<0.001). Yet, smoking remained nearly twice as common among those with depression during this period. Among adults with depression in the lowest income and education groups, the prevalence of smoking was more than double the prevalence of smoking among adults with depression in the highest income and education groups. Disparities in smoking prevalence are pronounced when depression and SES are considered simultaneously. Targeted public health and clinical efforts to reduce smoking among adult smokers of lower SES with depression are needed. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Smoking in movies and established smoking in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, R; Blohmke, S; Sargent, J D

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether smoking in movies can predict established smoking in adolescence. A longitudinal study was conducted over a period of 13 months with 4112 German students. Adolescents' exposure to smoking in movies was assessed by asking each student to indicate which film he or she had seen from a unique list of 50 movies, which was randomly selected for each individual survey from a sample of 398 popular contemporary movies. We calculated exposure to movie smoking for each respondent by summing the number of smoking occurrences for each movie that the respondent reported seeing. At follow-up, a total of 272 young people had smoked more than 100 cigarettes during their lifetime. While 2.1% of the young people with the lowest exposure to movie smoking initiated established smoking, 13.4% of the group with the highest exposure to movie smoking initiated established smoking. The adjusted relative risk of initiation of established smoking was 2.05 times higher in the group with the highest movie smoking exposure compared to the group with the lowest exposure (95% confidence interval: 1.25-3.35). Our data indicate that smoking in movies can be regarded as an independent risk factor for the initiation of established smoking in adolescence. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Prevalence, persistence, and phenotypic variation of Aspergillus fumigatus in the outdoor environment in Manchester, UK, over a 2-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshareef, Fadwa; Robson, Geoffrey D

    2014-05-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes invasive aspergillosis in immunosuppressed patients, is considered to be the world's most dangerous mould. It is widely distributed in the environment, and airborne asexual conidia serve as the main mode of transport for pulmonary lung infection. It is important to monitor seasonal airborne conidia levels when assessing the risk of acquiring this infection. In this study, air was sampled for total viable fungal spores and viable A. fumigatus conidia monthly over a 2-year period (2009 and 2010) close to Manchester, UK, city center. Total viable airborne fungal counts varied seasonally, peaking in the summer and autumn for both years and reaching levels of approximately 1100-1400 colony-forming units (CFU)/m(3); counts were strongly positively correlated to mean temperature (R(2) = 0.697). By contrast, A. fumigatus viable airborne counts were not seasonally associated; persistent low levels were between 3 and 20 CFU/m(3) and were not correlated with mean temperature (R(2) = 0.018). A total of 220 isolates of A. fumigatus were recovered on potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 45°C, and internal transcribed spacer sequencing and restriction digestion of a partial polymerase chain reaction amplicon of the β-tubulin gene (benA) of 34 randomly selected isolates were used to confirm the isolates as A. fumigatus. When the colony radial growth rates (Kr) were determined, the highest rates were observed on PDA, followed by Vogel's medium supplemented with phosphatidylcholine and Vogel's medium alone. Clinical isolates had a significantly higher mean colony Kr on PDA compared with environmental isolates.

  17. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to not allow smoking indoors. Separating smokers from non-smokers (like “no smoking” sections in restaurants)‚ cleaning the air‚ and airing out buildings does not get rid of secondhand smoke. Other Ways Smoking Affects Others Smoking affects the people in your life ...

  18. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  19. Prevalencia de tabaquismo y grado de adicción a la nicotina en adolescentes de una escuela preuniversitaria urbana de Morelia Prevalence of smoking and degree of nicotine addiction in adolescents of an urban preuniversity institute in Morelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Luque Herrera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. La magnitud del daño inducido por el tabaquismo está relacionada con el grado de adicción a la nicotina y frecuentemente esta adicción tiene sus inicios en la adolescencia. Este trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de estimar la prevalencia de tabaquismo y grado de adicción a la nicotina en adolescentes de una escuela urbana en México. MÉTODOS. Se estudiaron 314 adolescentes entre los 14 y 19 años, los cuales se entrevistaron con el auxilio de la Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones 2004 y el cuestionario Flagestrom; la primera para evaluar prevalencia de tabaquismo y la segunda, la dependencia a la nicotina. RESULTADOS. El grado de adicción a la nicotina fue leve en el 30 % de los adolescentes (94/314, moderado en el 2,9 % (9/314 y grave en un 0,03 % (1/314. Por otro lado, la prevalencia de tabaquismo fue del 33,1 % (104/314. Más de la mitad de los adolescentes encuestados fumaron alguna vez en su vida y el 88 % de los que fumaban comenzó a hacerlo antes de los 16 años de edad. CONCLUSIONES. La prevalencia de tabaquismo entre los adolescentes constituye un problema regional que sugiere la evaluación de las acciones de promoción de salud vigentes encaminadas a disminuir el consumo de cigarrillos y la expansión de esta y otras iniciativas de promoción de salud a sitios donde convivan adolescentes.INTRODUCTION. The magnitude of the damage induced by smoking is related to the degree of nicotine addiction. This addiction frequently starts in adolescence. This paper was aimed at estimating the prevalence of smoking and the degree of nicotine addiction in adolescents from an urban school in Mexico. METHODS. 314 adolescents aged 14-19 were interviewed with the assistance of the National School of Addictions 2004 and the Flagestrom questionnaire. The first was used to evaluate the prevalence of smoking and the second to determine nicotine dependence. RESULTS. The negree of nicotine addiction was mild in 30 % of the adolescents

  20. Predictors of smoking among the secondary high school boy students based on the health belief model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mohammadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for health and also health problems, such as heart diseases, especially for young people. This study aimed to investigate the effect of factors related to smoking among the secondary high school students in the city of Marivan (Kurdistan-Iran, in 2015, based on the constructs of health belief model (HBM. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 470 secondary high school students in Marivan in 2015. The samples were selected by random cluster sampling. A question with four sections was used to collect data (demographic questions, knowledge section, attitude section, and questions related to e constructs of HBM. Results: According to the results, the correlation of smoking was stronger with attitude (r = 0.269 and odds ratio = 0.89 but weaker with perceived barriers (r = 0.101. There was not a significant correlation between smoking behavior and knowledge of the harms of smoking (r = −0.005. Moreover, Cues to action was effective predictor of smoking behavior (r = 0.259. Conclusions: The findings of this study show that the prevalence of smoking in the studied sample is somewhat lower than other regions of Iran, but it should be noted that if no interventions are done to prevent smoking in this age group. The findings of the study also showed that the structure of attitudes, self-efficacy, and Cues to action are the strongest predictors of smoking among students. Albeit, attitude was strongest predictor of smoking that shows the prevalence of smoking can be reduced by focusing in this part. Considering the mean age of participants (16/2 ± 0.25 years, that shows the riskiest period for smoking is 16 years and authorities can make change in policies of cigarette selling only for over 18 years.

  1. Emerging epidemic in a growing industry: cigarette smoking among female micro-electronics workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y-P; Yen, L-L; Pan, L-Y; Chang, P-J; Cheng, T-J

    2005-03-01

    To explore the emerging tobacco epidemic in female workers in the growing micro-electronics industry of Taiwan. Workers were surveyed regarding their smoking status, sociodemographics and work characteristics. In total, 1950 female employees in two large micro-electronics companies in Taiwan completed the survey. Approximately 9.3% of the female employees were occasional or daily smokers at the time of the survey. The prevalence of smoking was higher in those aged 16-19 years (20.9%), those not married (12.9%), those with a high school education or less (11.7%), those employed by Company A (11.7%), shift workers (14.3%), and those who had been in their present employment for 1 year or less (13.6%). Results of multivariate adjusted logistic regression indicated that younger age, lower level of education, shorter periods of employment with the company and shift working were the important factors in determining cigarette smoking among the study participants. The odds ratio of being a daily smoker was similar to that of being a current smoker. Marital status was the only significant variable when comparing former smokers with current smokers. Smoking prevalence in female workers in the two micro-electronics companies studied was much higher than previous reports have suggested about female smoking prevalence in Taiwan and China. We suggest that smoking is no longer a 'male problem' in Taiwan. Future smoking cessation and prevention programmes should target young working women as well as men.

  2. An Exploration of Smoking-to-Vaping Transition Attempts Using a "Smart" Electronic Nicotine Delivery System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Mei-Ling; Hoek, Janet; George, Mark; Gendall, Philip; Conner, Tamlin S; Thrul, Johannes; Ling, Pamela M; Langlotz, Tobias

    2018-06-06

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are used to aid smoking cessation attempts; however, many smokers continue to smoke while using an ENDS (dual use). Although uncertainty remains regarding whether specific ENDS patterns hinder or support successful smoking cessation, recent advances in "smart" technology allow passive and active recording of behaviors in real time, enabling more detailed insights into how smoking and vaping patterns may coevolve. We describe patterns of ENDS initiation, and subsequent use, including any changes in cigarette consumption, among daily smokers using a "smart" ENDS (S-ENDS) to quit smoking. An 8-week long mixed-methods feasibility study used Bluetooth-enabled S-ENDS that passively recorded real-time device use by participants (n = 11). Daily surveys administered via smartphones collected data on self-reported cigarette consumption. All 11 participants were dual users, at least initially, during their quit attempt. We observed three provisional vaping and smoking patterns: immediate and intensive ENDS initiation coupled with immediate, dramatic, and sustained smoking reduction, leading to smoking abstinence; gradual ENDS uptake with gradual smoking reductions, leading to daily dual use throughout the study period; and ENDS experimentation with return to exclusive smoking. For six participants, the patterns observed in week 1 were similar to the vaping and smoking patterns observed throughout the rest of the study period. Technological advances now allow fine-grained description of ENDS use and smoking patterns. Larger and longer studies describing smoking-to-vaping patterns, and estimating associations with smoking outcomes, could inform ENDS-specific cessation advice promoting full transition from smoking to exclusive ENDS use. The use of an S-ENDS that recorded real-time device use among daily smokers engaged in a quit attempt provides insight into patterns and trajectories of dual use (continuing to smoke while using ENDS

  3. Effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling for smoking cessation in parents: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bricker Jonathan B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is the world's fourth most common risk factor for disease, the leading preventable cause of death, and it is associated with tremendous social costs. In the Netherlands, the smoking prevalence rate is high. A total of 27.7% of the population over age 15 years smokes. In addition to the direct advantages of smoking cessation for the smoker, parents who quit smoking may also decrease their children's risk of smoking initiation. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling to increase smoking cessation rates among smoking parents. A total of 512 smoking parents will be proactively recruited through their children's primary schools and randomly assigned to either proactive telephone counselling or a control condition. Proactive telephone counselling will consist of up to seven counsellor-initiated telephone calls (based on cognitive-behavioural skill building and Motivational Interviewing, distributed over a period of three months. Three supplementary brochures will also be provided. In the control condition, parents will receive a standard brochure to aid smoking cessation. Assessments will take place at baseline, three months after start of the intervention (post-measurement, and twelve months after start of the intervention (follow-up measurement. Primary outcome measures will include sustained abstinence between post-measurement and follow-up measurement and 7-day point prevalence abstinence and 24-hours point prevalence abstinence at both post- and follow-up measurement. Several secondary outcome measures will also be included (e.g., smoking intensity, smoking policies at home. In addition, we will evaluate smoking-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes towards smoking, social norms, self-efficacy, intention to smoke in 9-12 year old children of smoking parents. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized

  4. Comparison of Smoking History Patterns Among African American and White Cohorts in the United States Born 1890 to 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holford, Theodore R; Levy, David T; Meza, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing smoking history patterns summarizes life course exposure for birth cohorts, essential for evaluating the impact of tobacco control on health. Limited attention has been given to patterns among African Americans. Life course smoking histories of African Americans and whites were estimated beginning with the 1890 birth cohort. Estimates of smoking initiation and cessation probabilities, and intensity can be used as a baseline for studying smoking intervention strategies that target smoking exposure. US National Health Interview Surveys conducted from 1965 to 2012 yielded cross-sectional information on current smoking behavior among African Americans and whites. Additional detail for smokers including age at initiation, age at cessation and smoking intensity were available in some surveys and these were used to construct smoking histories for participants up to the date that they were interviewed. Age-period-cohort models with constrained natural splines provided estimates of current, former and never-smoker prevalence in cohorts beginning in 1890. This approach yielded yearly estimates of initiation, cessation and smoking intensity by age for each birth cohort. Smoking initiation probabilities tend to be lower among African Americans compared to whites, and cessation probabilities also were generally lower. Higher initiation leads to higher smoking prevalence among whites in younger ages, but lower cessation leads to higher prevalence at older ages in blacks, when adverse health effects of smoking become most apparent. These estimates provide a summary that can be used to better understand the effects of changes in smoking behavior following publication of the Surgeon General's Report in 1964. A novel method of estimating smoking histories was applied to data from the National Health Interview Surveys, which provided an extensive summary of the smoking history in this population following publication of the Surgeon General's Report in 1964. The results

  5. Smoke-Free Rules and Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Vehicles among U.S. Adults-National Adult Tobacco Survey, 2009-2010 and 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Judy; Jama, Amal; Kegler, Michelle; Baker Holmes, Carissa; Hu, Sean; King, Brian

    2016-10-26

    In the United States (U.S.), secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure causes more than 41,000 deaths among nonsmoking adults annually. Adoption of smoke-free laws in public areas has increased, but private settings such as vehicles remain a source of SHS exposure. This study assessed change in voluntary smoke-free vehicle rules and SHS exposure in personal vehicles among U.S. adults between two periods, 2009-2010 and 2013-2014, using data from the National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS). NATS is a national landline and cellular telephone survey of non-institutionalized adults aged ≥18 years in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. We assessed percentage change in the prevalence of smoke-free vehicle rules among all adults and SHS exposure in vehicles among nonsmoking adults, overall, by sociodemographic factors (sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, annual household income, U.S. region), and by cigarette smoking status. During 2009-2010 to 2013-2014, the percentage of adults with a 100% smoke-free vehicle rule increased from 73.6% to 79.5% (% change = +8.0%; p exposure in vehicles in the previous 7 days decreased from 9.2% to 8.2% (% change = -10.9%; p Smoke-free rules in private settings such as vehicles, in coordination with comprehensive smoke-free policies in indoor public settings, can help reduce SHS exposure and promote smoke-free norms.