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Sample records for period significantly improved

  1. Deformable Hollow Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanocapsules for Significantly Improved Cellular Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zhaogang; Wang, Chunyan; Tang, Yuxia; Li, Wei; Bao, Lei; Zhang, Xuehua; Su, Xiaodan; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Junjie; Wang, Shouju; Zhao, Dongyuan; Lu, Guangming

    2018-01-31

    Mesoporous solids have been widely used in various biomedical areas such as drug delivery and tumor therapy. Although deformability has been recognized as a prime important characteristic influencing cellular uptake, the synthesis of deformable mesoporous solids is still a great challenge. Herein, deformable thioether-, benzene-, and ethane-bridged hollow periodic mesoporous organosilica (HPMO) nanocapsules have successfully been synthesized for the first time by a preferential etching approach. The prepared HPMO nanocapsules possess uniform diameters (240-310 nm), high surface areas (up to 878 m 2 ·g -1 ), well-defined mesopores (2.6-3.2 nm), and large pore volumes (0.33-0.75 m 3 ·g -1 ). Most importantly, the HPMO nanocapsules simultaneously have large hollow cavities (164-270 nm), thin shell thicknesses (20-38 nm), and abundant organic moiety in the shells, which endow a lower Young's modulus (E Y ) of 3.95 MPa than that of solid PMO nanoparticles (251 MPa). The HPMOs with low E Y are intrinsically flexible and deformable in the solution, which has been well-characterized by liquid cell electron microscopy. More interestingly, it is found that the deformable HPMOs can easily enter into human breast cancer MCF-7 cells via a spherical-to-oval morphology change, resulting in a 26-fold enhancement in cellular uptake (43.1% cells internalized with nanocapsules versus 1.65% cells with solid counterparts). The deformable HPMO nanocapsules were further loaded with anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), which shows high killing effects for MCF-7 cells, demonstrating the promise for biomedical applications.

  2. Significant survival improvement of patients with recurrent breast cancer in the periods 2001-2008 vs. 1992-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishimura Sumiko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether individualized treatments based on biological factors have improved the prognosis of recurrent breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the survival improvement of patients with recurrent breast cancer after the introduction of third generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs and trastuzumab. Methods A total of 407 patients who received first diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer and treatment at National Kyushu Cancer Center between 1992 and 2008 were retrospectively evaluated. As AIs and trastuzumab were approved for clinical use in Japan in 2001, the patients were divided into two time cohorts depending on whether the cancer recurred before or after 2001. Cohort A: 170 patients who were diagnosed between 1992 and 2000. Cohort B: 237 patients who were diagnosed between 2001 and 2008. Tumor characteristics, treatments, and outcome were compared. Results Fourteen percent of cohort A and 76% of cohort B received AIs and/or trastuzumab (P Conclusions The prognosis of patients with recurrent breast cancer was improved over time following the introduction of AIs and trastuzumab and the survival improvement was apparent in HR- and/or HER-2-positive tumors.

  3. Vitamin D and Calcium Addition during Denosumab Therapy over a Period of Four Years Significantly Improves Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Japanese Osteoporosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Suzuki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether or not vitamin D and calcium supplementation affected bone metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD over a period of four years of denosumab therapy in patients with primary osteoporosis. Patients were divided into a denosumab monotherapy group (22 cases or a denosumab plus vitamin D and calcium supplementation group (combination group, 21 cases. We measured serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP-5b, urinary N-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (NTX, and BMD of the lumbar 1–4 vertebrae (L-BMD and bilateral hips (H-BMD at baseline and at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months of treatment. There were no significant differences in patient background. Serum BAP, TRACP-5b, and urinary NTX were significantly and comparably inhibited in both groups from 12 to 48 months versus baseline values. L-BMD was significantly increased at every time point in both groups, while H-BMD was significantly increased at every time point in the combination group only. There were significant differences between the groups for L-BMD at 24, 36, and 48 months (P < 0.05 and for H-BMD at 12 months (P < 0.05. Compared with denosumab monotherapy, combination therapy of denosumab plus vitamin D and calcium significantly increased H-BMD at 12 months and L-BMD from 24 to 48 months. These findings indicate that continuous vitamin D and calcium supplementation is important, especially for 12 months to improve H-BMD and from 24 to 48 months to improve L-BMD.

  4. An improved test for periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    I discuss two widely used methods of testing for periodicity, phase dispersion minimization and epoch-folding. Using an analysis of variance approach, I demonstrate the close relationship between these two methods. I also show that the significance test sometimes used in phase dispersion minimization is statistically inaccurate, and that the test used in epoch-folding is an approximation valid only for large sample sizes. I propose a new test statistic, applicable to either epoch-folding or PDM, which is statistically sound for all sample sizes, and which is also more sensitive to periodicity than the test statistics previously used with these two methods. (author)

  5. Kinking and Torsion Can Significantly Improve the Efficiency of Valveless Pumping in Periodically Compressed Tubular Conduits. Implications for Understanding of the Form-Function Relationship of Embryonic Heart Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Hiermeier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Valveless pumping phenomena (peristalsis, Liebau-effect can generate unidirectional fluid flow in periodically compressed tubular conduits. Early embryonic hearts are tubular conduits acting as valveless pumps. It is unclear whether such hearts work as peristaltic or Liebau-effect pumps. During the initial phase of its pumping activity, the originally straight embryonic heart is subjected to deforming forces that produce bending, twisting, kinking, and coiling. This deformation process is called cardiac looping. Its function is traditionally seen as generating a configuration needed for establishment of correct alignments of pulmonary and systemic flow pathways in the mature heart of lung-breathing vertebrates. This idea conflicts with the fact that cardiac looping occurs in all vertebrates, including gill-breathing fishes. We speculate that looping morphogenesis may improve the efficiency of valveless pumping. To test the physical plausibility of this hypothesis, we analyzed the pumping performance of a Liebau-effect pump in straight and looped (kinked configurations. Compared to the straight configuration, the looped configuration significantly improved the pumping performance of our pump. This shows that looping can improve the efficiency of valveless pumping driven by the Liebau-effect. Further studies are needed to clarify whether this finding may have implications for understanding of the form-function relationship of embryonic hearts.

  6. Periodic Table Target: A Game that Introduces the Biological Significance of Chemical Element Periodicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, Richard S.; McGinty, Ragan L.; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    Periodic Table Target, a game for middle school or high school students, familiarizes students with the form of the periodic table and the biological significance of different elements. The Periodic Table Target game board is constructed as a class project, and the game is played to reinforce the content. Students are assigned several elements…

  7. Significance of acceleration period in a dynamic strength testing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W L; Su, F C; Chou, Y L

    1994-06-01

    The acceleration period that occurs during isokinetic tests may provide valuable information regarding neuromuscular readiness to produce maximal contraction. The purpose of this study was to collect the normative data of acceleration time during isokinetic knee testing, to calculate the acceleration work (Wacc), and to determine the errors (ERexp, ERwork, ERpower) due to ignoring Wacc during explosiveness, total work, and average power measurements. Seven male and 13 female subjects attended the test by using the Cybex 325 system and electronic stroboscope machine for 10 testing speeds (30-300 degrees/sec). A three-way ANOVA was used to assess gender, direction, and speed factors on acceleration time, Wacc, and errors. The results indicated that acceleration time was significantly affected by speed and direction; Wacc and ERexp by speed, direction, and gender; and ERwork and ERpower by speed and gender. The errors appeared to increase when testing the female subjects, during the knee flexion test, or when speed increased. To increase validity in clinical testing, it is important to consider the acceleration phase effect, especially in higher velocity isokinetic testing or for weaker muscle groups.

  8. The significance of E. coli treatment in perinatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubić Aleksandar D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bacteriuria of pregnancy is a common condition. Case report: Patient, 30-years, pregnant woman. During pregnancy, E. coli infection recurred in 4 times, applied Cephalexin and Ceftriaxone. The delivery was terminated by CS, GW 38; girl infant, AS 9. After the period of lactation: secretory status - the patient was a secretor of A and H blood type substance; ultrasonography and contrast radiography - presence of the third kidney. The therapy was added by vaccine UroVaxom, and there was no E. coli infection during 2 years follow up period. The Child is now 7 years old girl, having brilliant psychomotorical development. Possible child brain damage, lung damage, mental diseases are the reason for necessity E. coli infection treatment during pregnancy. Conclusion: All pregnant women should be screened for bacteriuria. E. coli is most commonly sensitive to group B antibiotics (cephalexin and amoxicillin, safe to be included in pregnancy. Long-term follow up of infants born from mothers having bacterial infection during pregnancy is necessary.

  9. Carotid endarterectomy significantly improves postoperative laryngeal sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Georg Philipp; Tomazic, Peter Valentin; Vasicek, Sarah; Graupp, Matthias; Gugatschka, Markus; Baumann, Anneliese; Konstantiniuk, Peter; Koter, Stephan Herwig

    2016-11-01

    sensory threshold on the operated-on side (6.08 ± 2.02 mm Hg) decreased significantly at the 6-week follow-up, even in relation to the preoperative measure (P = .022). With the exception of one patient with permanent unilateral vocal fold immobility, no signs of nerve injury were detected. In accordance with previous reports, injuries to the recurrent laryngeal nerve during CEA seem to be rare. In most patients, postoperative symptoms (globus, dysphagia, dysphonia) and signs fade within a few weeks without any specific therapeutic intervention. This study shows an improved long-term postoperative superior laryngeal nerve function with regard to laryngopharyngeal sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Significant Change Spotting for Periodic Human Motion Segmentation of Cleaning Tasks Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chun Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of the aging population is rapidly increasing around the world, which will cause stress on society and healthcare systems. In recent years, advances in technology have created new opportunities for automatic activities of daily living (ADL monitoring to improve the quality of life and provide adequate medical service for the elderly. Such automatic ADL monitoring requires reliable ADL information on a fine-grained level, especially for the status of interaction between body gestures and the environment in the real-world. In this work, we propose a significant change spotting mechanism for periodic human motion segmentation during cleaning task performance. A novel approach is proposed based on the search for a significant change of gestures, which can manage critical technical issues in activity recognition, such as continuous data segmentation, individual variance, and category ambiguity. Three typical machine learning classification algorithms are utilized for the identification of the significant change candidate, including a Support Vector Machine (SVM, k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN, and Naive Bayesian (NB algorithm. Overall, the proposed approach achieves 96.41% in the F1-score by using the SVM classifier. The results show that the proposed approach can fulfill the requirement of fine-grained human motion segmentation for automatic ADL monitoring.

  11. An essay on the extent and significance of the Greek athletic culture in the classical period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Heine

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the extent of the Greek athletic culture in the classical period. It is demonstrated that the athletic culture had a surprising extent, and the article goes on the discuss the historical significance of this fact.......This article discusses the extent of the Greek athletic culture in the classical period. It is demonstrated that the athletic culture had a surprising extent, and the article goes on the discuss the historical significance of this fact....

  12. Inhaler Reminders Significantly Improve Asthma Patients' Use of Controller Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... controller medications Share | Inhaler reminders significantly improve asthma patients’ use of controller medications Published Online: July 22, ... the burden and risk of asthma, but many patients do not use them regularly. This poor adherence ...

  13. Significant improvement in the thermal annealing process of optical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzenstein, Patrice; Zarubin, Mikhail

    2017-05-01

    Thermal annealing performed during process improves the quality of the roughness of optical resonators reducing stresses at the periphery of their surface thus allowing higher Q-factors. After a preliminary realization, the design of the oven and the electronic method were significantly improved thanks to nichrome resistant alloy wires and chopped basalt fibers for thermal isolation during the annealing process. Q-factors can then be improved.

  14. Significant calendar period deviations in testicular germ cell tumors indicate that postnatal exposures are etiologically relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaks, Crystal; McGlynn, Katherine A; Cook, Michael B

    2012-10-01

    The current working model of type II testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) pathogenesis states that carcinoma in situ arises during embryogenesis, is a necessary precursor, and always progresses to cancer. An implicit condition of this model is that only in utero exposures affect the development of TGCT in later life. In an age-period-cohort analysis, this working model contends an absence of calendar period deviations. We tested this contention using data from the SEER registries of the United States. We assessed age-period-cohort models of TGCTs, seminomas, and nonseminomas for the period 1973-2008. Analyses were restricted to whites diagnosed at ages 15-74 years. We tested whether calendar period deviations were significant in TGCT incidence trends adjusted for age deviations and cohort effects. This analysis included 32,250 TGCTs (18,475 seminomas and 13,775 nonseminomas). Seminoma incidence trends have increased with an average annual percentage change in log-linear rates (net drift) of 1.25 %, relative to just 0.14 % for nonseminoma. In more recent time periods, TGCT incidence trends have plateaued and then undergone a slight decrease. Calendar period deviations were highly statistically significant in models of TGCT (p = 1.24(-9)) and seminoma (p = 3.99(-14)), after adjustment for age deviations and cohort effects; results for nonseminoma (p = 0.02) indicated that the effects of calendar period were much more muted. Calendar period deviations play a significant role in incidence trends of TGCT, which indicates that postnatal exposures are etiologically relevant.

  15. Adjustment of corporate real estate during a period of significant business change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooke, H.; Appel - Meulenbroek, H.A.J.A.; Arentze, T.A.; de Vries, B.

    2017-01-01

    There has been considerable debate in CRE research on models of alignment of the CRE portfolio with the business strategy. This paper seeks to understand what alignment actually existed during the financial crisis and recession between 2007 and 2014. The period in question was one of significant

  16. Training directionally selective motion pathways can significantly improve reading efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri

    2004-06-01

    This study examined whether perceptual learning at early levels of visual processing would facilitate learning at higher levels of processing. This was examined by determining whether training the motion pathways by practicing leftright movement discrimination, as found previously, would improve the reading skills of inefficient readers significantly more than another computer game, a word discrimination game, or the reading program offered by the school. This controlled validation study found that practicing left-right movement discrimination 5-10 minutes twice a week (rapidly) for 15 weeks doubled reading fluency, and significantly improved all reading skills by more than one grade level, whereas inefficient readers in the control groups barely improved on these reading skills. In contrast to previous studies of perceptual learning, these experiments show that perceptual learning of direction discrimination significantly improved reading skills determined at higher levels of cognitive processing, thereby being generalized to a new task. The deficits in reading performance and attentional focus experienced by the person who struggles when reading are suggested to result from an information overload, resulting from timing deficits in the direction-selectivity network proposed by Russell De Valois et al. (2000), that following practice on direction discrimination goes away. This study found that practicing direction discrimination rapidly transitions the inefficient 7-year-old reader to an efficient reader.

  17. Improved nonparametric inference for multiple correlated periodic sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2013-08-26

    This paper proposes a cross-validation method for estimating the period as well as the values of multiple correlated periodic sequences when data are observed at evenly spaced time points. The period of interest is estimated conditional on the other correlated sequences. An alternative method for period estimation based on Akaike\\'s information criterion is also discussed. The improvement of the period estimation performance is investigated both theoretically and by simulation. We apply the multivariate cross-validation method to the temperature data obtained from multiple ice cores, investigating the periodicity of the El Niño effect. Our methodology is also illustrated by estimating patients\\' cardiac cycle from different physiological signals, including arterial blood pressure, electrocardiography, and fingertip plethysmograph.

  18. Significant Improvement of Catalytic Efficiencies in Ionic Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Choong Eui; Yoon, Mi Young; Choi, Doo Seong

    2005-01-01

    The use of ionic liquids as reaction media can confer many advantages upon catalytic reactions over reactions in organic solvents. In ionic liquids, catalysts having polar or ionic character can easily be immobilized without additional structural modification and thus the ionic solutions containing the catalyst can easily be separated from the reagents and reaction products, and then, be reused. More interestingly, switching from an organic solvent to an ionic liquid often results in a significant improvement in catalytic performance (e.g., rate acceleration, (enantio)selectivity improvement and an increase in catalyst stability). In this review, some recent interesting results which can nicely demonstrate these positive 'ionic liquid effect' on catalysis are discussed

  19. Bedtime Blood Pressure Chronotherapy Significantly Improves Hypertension Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Fernández, José R; Mojón, Artemio; Crespo, Juan J; Ríos, María T; Smolensky, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    Consistent evidence of numerous studies substantiates the asleep blood pressure (BP) mean derived from ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) is both an independent and a stronger predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk than are daytime clinic BP measurements or the ABPM-determined awake or 24-hour BP means. Hence, cost-effective adequate control of sleep-time BP is of marked clinical relevance. Ingestion time, according to circadian rhythms, of hypertension medications of 6 different classes and their combinations significantly improves BP control, particularly sleep-time BP, and reduces adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Improvement of Phi bodies stain and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xu-Bo; Lu, Xing-Guo; Yan, Li-Juan; Xiao, Xi-Bin; Wu, Dong; Xu, Gen-Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Xiao-Ying

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the dyeing method of hydroperoxidase (HPO), to analyze the morphologic features of Phi bodies and to evaluate the clinical application of this method. 128 bone marrow or peripheral blood smears from patients with myeloid and lymphoid malignancies were stained by improved HPO staining. The Phi bodies were observed with detection rate of Phi bodies in different leukemias. 69 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) specimens were chosen randomly, the positive rate and the number of Phi bodies between the improved HPO and POX stain based on the same substrate of 3, 3'diaminobenzidine were compared. The results showed that the shape of bundle-like Phi bodies was variable, long or short. while the nubbly Phi bodies often presented oval and smooth. Club-like Phi bodies were found in M(3). The detection rates of bundle-like Phi bodies in AML M(1)-M(5) were 42.9% (6/14), 83.3% (15/18), 92.0% (23/25), 52.3% (11/21), 33.3% (5/15) respectively, and those of nubbly Phi bodies were 28.6% (4/14), 66.7% (12/18), 11.1% (3/25), 33.3% (7/21), 20.0% (3/15) respectively. The detection rate of bundle-like Phi bodies in M(3) was significantly higher than that in (M(1) + M(2)) or (M(4) + M(5)) groups. The detection rate of nubbly Phi bodies in (M(1) + M(2)) group was higher than that in M(3) group. In conclusion, after improvement of staining method, the HPO stain becomes simple, the detection rate of Phi bodies is higher than that by the previous method, the positive granules are more obvious, and the results become stable. This improved method plays an important role in differentiating AML from ALL, subtyping AML, and evaluating the therapeutic results.

  1. Significant complications occurred in the perioperative period of peripheral vascular interventions:an analysis of 1620 consecutive procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zicai; Liu Li; Zhang Haibo; Wang Ning; Li Yu; Yan Ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To categorize the significant complications occurred in the perioperative period of peripheral vascular interventions and to analyze their causes, outcomes and managements in order to make a further understanding of the cause of occurrence and to improve the handling ability. Methods: Over the past five years a total of 1620 consecutive peripheral vascular interventions were carried out in our institute. Significant complications, which occurred in the perioperative period, and the clinical data were carefully examined. The occurrence, treatment, consequence and final outcome of each complication were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Of 1620 consecutive peripheral interventional procedures, significant complication which developed during the operation or within one week after the treatment was seen in 76 (4.69%). The significant complications could be classified into twelve kinds. After proper management most complications were cured without leaving any sequelae. Nevertheless, in some patients permanent damages such as paraplegia, lower limb paralysis, necrosis of gluteus, etc. were left over. Death occurred in six patients. Of the six patients, four died of concomitant hepatic failure and agranulocytosis, one of retroperitoneal hematoma and hemoperitoneum, and another one of pulmonary embolism. Conclusion: (1) Significant complications may occur in most peripheral vascular interventional therapies, which, in most cases, are mainly related to the insufficient understanding of the disease and improper manipulation. (2) A comprehensive and solid fundamental knowledge of the disease, strictly following the indications and careful handling the operation are the key points to reduce the occurrence of severe complications in the perioperative period of peripheral vascular interventions. (authors)

  2. Ceramic Composite Intermediate Temperature Stress-Rupture Properties Improved Significantly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Hurst, Janet B.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) composites are considered to be potential materials for future aircraft engine parts such as combustor liners. It is envisioned that on the hot side (inner surface) of the combustor liner, composites will have to withstand temperatures in excess of 1200 C for thousands of hours in oxidizing environments. This is a severe condition; however, an equally severe, if not more detrimental, condition exists on the cold side (outer surface) of the combustor liner. Here, the temperatures are expected to be on the order of 800 to 1000 C under high tensile stress because of thermal gradients and attachment of the combustor liner to the engine frame (the hot side will be under compressive stress, a less severe stress-state for ceramics). Since these composites are not oxides, they oxidize. The worst form of oxidation for strength reduction occurs at these intermediate temperatures, where the boron nitride (BN) interphase oxidizes first, which causes the formation of a glass layer that strongly bonds the fibers to the matrix. When the fibers strongly bond to the matrix or to one another, the composite loses toughness and strength and becomes brittle. To increase the intermediate temperature stress-rupture properties, researchers must modify the BN interphase. With the support of the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program, significant improvements were made as state-of-the-art SiC/SiC composites were developed during the Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) program. Three approaches were found to improve the intermediate-temperature stress-rupture properties: fiber-spreading, high-temperature silicon- (Si) doped boron nitride (BN), and outside-debonding BN.

  3. Significance of insulin resistance and oxidative stress in dairy cattle with subclinical ketosis during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed; El-Ashker, Maged

    2017-02-01

    Health problems occurring during the transition period in dairy cattle are of utmost importance as they can decrease the animal's reproductive performance and favor the development of various metabolic diseases with resultant significant reproductive disorders. Among the commonly reported metabolic diseases occurring during that time, hyperketonemia is the most prevalent and could provoke a significant economic impact. The failing of a dairy cow to transit optimally between pregnancy and lactation is economically very relevant and should be considered. Until now, the role of insulin resistance (IR) in the etiology of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cattle is not clearly understood. This review aims to shed some light on the role of IR and oxidative stress in dairy cows with SCK during the transition period. The data presented in this review demonstrates that dairy cows could be vulnerable to the development of negative energy balance during transition. Moreover, the transitional cows could succumb to both IR and oxidative stress; however, the exact role of IR in cows with SCK needs further investigations. It is imperative to elaborate a suitable nutritional strategy to facilitate an easy transit of cows through this critical period and to minimize health problems and improve productivity during lactation.

  4. Methylphenidate significantly improves declarative memory functioning of adults with ADHD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; Bekker, E.M.; Kooij, J.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verbaten, M.N.; Volkerts, E.R.; Olivier, B.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Declarative memory deficits are common in untreated adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but limited evidence exists to support improvement after treatment with methylphenidate. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of methylphenidate on memory

  5. Creating a Middle Grades Environment that Significantly Improves Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Esperance, Mark E.; Lenker, Ethan; Bullock, Ann; Lockamy, Becky; Mason, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the framework that Sampson County Public Schools (North Carolina) used to critically reflect on the current state of their middle grades schools. The article also highlights the changes that resulted from the district-wide analysis and the ways in which these changes led to a significant increase in the academic…

  6. Low-dose vaporized cannabis significantly improves neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, Barth; Marcotte, Thomas; Deutsch, Reena; Gouaux, Ben; Sakai, Staci; Donaghe, Haylee

    2013-02-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the analgesic efficacy of vaporized cannabis in subjects, the majority of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite traditional treatment. Thirty-nine patients with central and peripheral neuropathic pain underwent a standardized procedure for inhaling medium-dose (3.53%), low-dose (1.29%), or placebo cannabis with the primary outcome being visual analog scale pain intensity. Psychoactive side effects and neuropsychological performance were also evaluated. Mixed-effects regression models demonstrated an analgesic response to vaporized cannabis. There was no significant difference between the 2 active dose groups' results (P > .7). The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve 30% pain reduction was 3.2 for placebo versus low-dose, 2.9 for placebo versus medium-dose, and 25 for medium- versus low-dose. As these NNTs are comparable to those of traditional neuropathic pain medications, cannabis has analgesic efficacy with the low dose being as effective a pain reliever as the medium dose. Psychoactive effects were minimal and well tolerated, and neuropsychological effects were of limited duration and readily reversible within 1 to 2 hours. Vaporized cannabis, even at low doses, may present an effective option for patients with treatment-resistant neuropathic pain. The analgesia obtained from a low dose of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (1.29%) in patients, most of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite conventional treatments, is a clinically significant outcome. In general, the effect sizes on cognitive testing were consistent with this minimal dose. As a result, one might not anticipate a significant impact on daily functioning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Low Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, Barth; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Deutsch, Reena; Gouaux, Ben; Sakai, Staci; Donaghe, Haylee

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the analgesic efficacy of vaporized cannabis in subjects, the majority of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite traditional treatment. Thirty-nine patients with central and peripheral neuropathic pain underwent a standardized procedure for inhaling either medium dose (3.53%), low dose (1.29%), or placebo cannabis with the primary outcome being VAS pain intensity. Psychoactive side-effects, and neuropsychological performance were also evaluated. Mixed effects regression models demonstrated an analgesic response to vaporized cannabis. There was no significant difference between the two active dose groups’ results (p>0.7). The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve 30% pain reduction was 3.2 for placebo vs. low dose, 2.9 for placebo vs. medium dose, and 25 for medium vs. low dose. As these NNT are comparable to those of traditional neuropathic pain medications, cannabis has analgesic efficacy with the low dose being, for all intents and purposes, as effective a pain reliever as the medium dose. Psychoactive effects were minimal and well-tolerated, and neuropsychological effects were of limited duration and readily reversible within 1–2 hours. Vaporized cannabis, even at low doses, may present an effective option for patients with treatment-resistant neuropathic pain. PMID:23237736

  8. Comparative analysis of diagnostic significance of biomarkers’ panels in cardiac recipients in the long term period after transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Shevchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform comparative analysis of the diagnostic efficacy of sCD40L, PDGF-BB, VEGF-A and ST2 in recipients with cardiac rejection in different periods after transplantation. Materials and methods. The study included 144 cardiac recipients aged from 12 to 71 (mean age 44 ± 14 years old, among those 112 were men. Venous blood plasma taken on the same day with endomyocardial biopsy was used for the study. The concentrations of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB were measured using xMAP technology. The concentrations of ST2 were measured by ELISA. Results. Men had significantly higher levels of ST2 and VEGF-A compared to women (p = 0.03. No correlation was found between the levels of biomarkers (sCD40L, PDGF-BB, VEGF-A, ST2 and age, diagnosis before transplantation, presence of arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Comparative analysis of the biomarkers’ levels didn’t show significant difference between patients with heart transplant rejection and without it in the first month and in the first year after transplantation. The ST2 level was significantly higher in patients with heart rejection (p = 0.01 in the long term period (1–5 years after transplantation compared to patients without rejection. Relative risk of cardiac transplant rejection was significantly higher in patients with high (>22.8 ng/ml ST2 level (RR = 2.59 ± 0.33; Se – 35%, Sp – 93%. However, its combination with other biomarkers improved their diagnostic value. Relative risk for panel including ST2, VEGF-A and PDGF-BB 3.47 ± 0.55, Se – 57%, Sp – 91%; relative risk for panel including ST2, sCD40L and PDGF-BB was 3.75 ± 0.59, Se – 50%, Sp – 92%. The highest diagnostic efficacy for the heart transplant rejection was reached by a panel of biomarkers that included ST2 and PDGF-BB (RR = 5.0 ± 0.56 [95% CI 1.68–14.92], Se – 63%, Sp – 94%. Conclusion. ST2 had the biggest

  9. Improved nonparametric inference for multiple correlated periodic sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Hart, Jeffrey D.; Genton, Marc G.

    2013-01-01

    cross-validation method to the temperature data obtained from multiple ice cores, investigating the periodicity of the El Niño effect. Our methodology is also illustrated by estimating patients' cardiac cycle from different physiological signals

  10. Significant achievements in '10th five-year plan' period and primary guidance in '11th five-year plan' period on uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jindai; Li Youliang; Jian Xiaofei; Peng Xinjian; Jiang Deying

    2007-01-01

    During the '10th five-year-plane' period, uranium resource had attracted high attention and concentration from related organization of the CCPC and the central government because of the state's manifestation on the development goal for nuclear power, efforts on uranium research and exploration were intensified accordingly. In that five years, both uranium exploration, regional assessment and prognostication for the Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin in North China and research on uranium metallogeny theory and prospecting method had made fairly great progress and reached important fruits. Due to the improvement of prospecting theory and technology for ISL amenable sandstone hosted U-deposits, uranium exploration efficiency was great enhanced and had prompted the sustainable development for China's uranium exploration. This paper have briefly expounded the general deploy for the uranium geology research and exploration in the '11th five-year plan' period. (authors)

  11. Improving the environment for weaned piglets using polypropylene fabrics above the animals in cold periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, Noé; Babot, Daniel; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Javier; Forcada, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the use of polypropylene fabrics in weaned pig facilities (5-10 weeks of age) during the winter period to improve thermal environment and energy saving for heating. Two experiments were conducted to validate the effects of fabrics (F) compared to control (C) in three 2-week periods using natural ventilation (assay 1, 2013) and forced ventilation (assay 2, 2014). Air temperature was greater in F than in C compartments in both years, particularly during the first 2-week periods (2 °C of mean difference). Natural ventilation was not enough to maintain relative humidity levels below 70 % at the end of the postweaning period (9-10 weeks of age) in both groups (F and C), whereas forced ventilation allowed controlling daily mean relative humidity levels <60 %. About 12-26 % of the radiant heat was transmitted through the fabrics cover, depending on the wavelength. There were no differences on growth performance of piglets in the two compartments in both years. The use of polypropylene fabrics was associated with a significant electric energy saving for heating during the first (data available only in 2014) and second 2-week period in both years. In conclusion, polypropylene fabrics may be an interesting tool to provide optimal environmental conditions for weaned piglets in winter, especially during the two first weeks after weaning. Their transmittance properties allow trapping infrared emission produced by the piglets and heating, avoiding heat losses through the roof, and therefore saving heating energy.

  12. National Emergency Preparedness and Response: Improving for Incidents of National Significance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clayton, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    The national emergency management system has need of significant improvement in its contingency planning and early consolidation of effort and coordination between federal, state, and local agencies...

  13. Frameworks for improvement: clinical audit, the plan-do-study-act cycle and significant event audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, Steve; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2013-01-01

    This is the first in a series of articles about quality improvement tools and techniques. We explore common frameworks for improvement, including the model for improvement and its application to clinical audit, plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles and significant event analysis (SEA), examining the similarities and differences between these and providing examples of each.

  14. A study on the competitiveness improvement of the OPR1000 through reduction of the construction period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deuck Soo

    2009-02-01

    Current world's nuclear power plant markets change will provide variety opportunities to the Korean nuclear power plant industries. The economic competitiveness is the most significant issue to utilize the forthcoming 'Renaissance of Nuclear Power' as a chance of exporting OPR1000. To improve the competitiveness of the OPR1000, the capital cost which is the key factor of the generating cost of the nuclear power plant should be reduced. Reduction of the construction period is more important than the design improvement or facility change regarding capital cost perspectives. The aim of this study, therefore, is to introduce the parallel installation method for reducing the construction period to achieve the economic competitiveness. The parallel installation path was selected among critical paths by analyzing the construction schedules of the nuclear power plants built in Korea. Reactor Coolant Loop Installation and Reactor Vessel Internal Installation were selected for the parallel installation method in this study. Conventional installation method installs reactor vessel internal after finishing reactor coolant loop installation. Therefore it needs about twenty (20) months from the reactor vessel settings to the completion of the reactor vessel internal installation. The parallel installation methodology proposed in this study can reduce the construction period about two (2) months by installing reactor vessel internals in parallel with the welding process of the cross-over leg between the steam generator and the reactor coolant pump. ANSYS Codes was utilized to show the deformation impacts on the reactor vessel caused by the shrinkage force imposed by the welding process of the cross-over leg. The code analysis results lead the deformation impact is negligible. And it confirms the parallel installation of the reactor vessel internal with the cross-over leg can be applied for the OPR1000 construction. The economic improvement by the parallel installation was also

  15. [The significance of drawing on experience of experimental study on Chinese materia medica during the Republican period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wan, Fang

    2015-05-01

    During the period of the Republic of China, researches of experiments on Chinese materia medica developed extensively with the scientific process of Chinese medicine. Although the technology standard was relatively low and the reference value, limited. The experiences, positive or negative, obtained at that time still has reference significance to today's Chinese medicine scientific research. The notion that traditional Chinese medical and scientific research be conducted under the guidance of TCM theory; valuable experience contained in the ancient literature of traditional Chinese medicine be collected; and the transformation capacity of scientific research be elevated, has been accepted by modern TCM professionals. If you go back to the history, it can be seen that this notion was summarized through repeated practice during the critical moment of traditional Chinese medicine, which should be emphasized and its understanding deepened at any time.

  16. Nicotine Significantly Improves Chronic Stress-Induced Impairments of Cognition and Synaptic Plasticity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xueliang; Shang, Yingchun; Fu, Jingxuan; Zhang, Tao

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if nicotine was able to improve cognition deficits in a mouse model of chronic mild stress. Twenty-four male C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: control, stress, and stress with nicotine treatment. The animal model was established by combining chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and isolated feeding. Mice were exposed to CUMS continued for 28 days, while nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) was also administrated for 28 days. Weight and sucrose consumption were measured during model establishing period. The anxiety and behavioral despair were analyzed using the forced swim test (FST) and open-field test (OFT). Spatial cognition was evaluated using Morris water maze (MWM) test. Following behavioral assessment, both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation (DEP) were recorded in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region. Both synaptic and Notch1 proteins were measured by Western. Nicotine increased stressed mouse's sucrose consumption. The MWM test showed that spatial learning and reversal learning in stressed animals were remarkably affected relative to controls, whereas nicotine partially rescued cognitive functions. Additionally, nicotine considerably alleviated the level of anxiety and the degree of behavioral despair in stressed mice. It effectively mitigated the depression-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, in which both the LTP and DEP were significantly inhibited in stressed mice. Moreover, nicotine enhanced the expression of synaptic and Notch1 proteins in stressed animals. The results suggest that nicotine ameliorates the depression-like symptoms and improves the hippocampal synaptic plasticity closely associated with activating transmembrane ion channel receptors and Notch signaling components. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  17. Catalytic performance improvement of styrene hydrogenation in trickle bed reactor by using periodic operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongkia, Atittahn; Praserthdam, Piyasan; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai; Suriye, Kongkiat; Nonkhamwong, Anuwat

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the catalytic performance improvement of styrene hydrogenation in a trickle bed reactor by using periodic operation. The effects of cycle period and split on relative conversion, which is defined as styrene conversion obtained from periodic operation over that from steady state operation, were examined at various operating conditions including gas and average liquid flow rates, pressure and temperature. The experimental results reveal that both cycle period and split have strong influence on the catalytic performance. The fast mode (short cycle period) is a favorable condition. The improvement by the periodic operation becomes less pronounced for operations at high average liquid flow rate, pressure and temperature. From this study, a maximum improvement of styrene conversion of 18% is observed

  18. Catalytic performance improvement of styrene hydrogenation in trickle bed reactor by using periodic operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wongkia, Atittahn; Praserthdam, Piyasan; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai [Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Suriye, Kongkiat; Nonkhamwong, Anuwat [SCG Chemicals Co. Ltd., Bangkok (Thailand)

    2013-03-15

    We investigated the catalytic performance improvement of styrene hydrogenation in a trickle bed reactor by using periodic operation. The effects of cycle period and split on relative conversion, which is defined as styrene conversion obtained from periodic operation over that from steady state operation, were examined at various operating conditions including gas and average liquid flow rates, pressure and temperature. The experimental results reveal that both cycle period and split have strong influence on the catalytic performance. The fast mode (short cycle period) is a favorable condition. The improvement by the periodic operation becomes less pronounced for operations at high average liquid flow rate, pressure and temperature. From this study, a maximum improvement of styrene conversion of 18% is observed.

  19. Prenatal Diagnosis of Transposition of the Great Arteries over a 20-Year Period: Improved but Imperfect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Diaz, Maria C; Freud, Lindsay R; Bueno, Alejandra; Brown, David W; Friedman, Kevin; Schidlow, David; Emani, Sitaram; del Nido, Pedro; Tworetzky, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate temporal trends in prenatal diagnosis of transposition of the great arteries with intact ventricular septum (TGA/IVS) and its impact on neonatal morbidity and mortality. Methods Newborns with TGA/IVS referred for surgical management to our center over a 20-year period (1992 – 2011) were included. The study time was divided into 5 four-year periods, and the primary outcome was rate of prenatal diagnosis. Secondary outcomes included neonatal pre-operative status and perioperative survival. Results Of the 340 patients, 81 (24%) had a prenatal diagnosis. Prenatal diagnosis increased over the study period from 6% to 41% (p<0.001). Prenatally diagnosed patients underwent a balloon atrial septostomy (BAS) earlier than postnatally diagnosed patients (0 vs. 1 day, p<0.001) and fewer required mechanical ventilation (56% vs. 69%, p=0.03). There were no statistically significant differences in pre-operative acidosis (16% vs. 26%, p=0.1) and need for preoperative ECMO (2% vs. 3%, p=1.0). There was also no significant mortality difference (1 pre-operative and no post-operative deaths among prenatally diagnosed patients, as compared to 4 pre-operative and 6 post-operative deaths among postnatally diagnosed patients). Conclusion The prenatal detection rate of TGA/IVS has improved but still remains below 50%, suggesting the need for strategies to increase detection rates. The mortality rate was not statistically different between pre- and postnatally diagnosed patients; however, there were significant pre-operative differences with regard to earlier BAS and less mechanical ventilation. Ongoing study is required to elucidate whether prenatal diagnosis confers long-term benefit. PMID:25484180

  20. Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Hengl

    Full Text Available 80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008-2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial predictions of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management--organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na. We specifically investigate differences between two predictive approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15-75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil mapping accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally predicted soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols help improve continental scale soil property mapping, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring

  1. Heat storage in forest biomass significantly improves energy balance closure particularly during stable conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, A.; Mölder, M.; Lagergren, F.

    2009-08-01

    Temperature measurements in trunks and branches in a mature ca. 100 years-old mixed pine and spruce forest in central Sweden were used to estimate the heat storage in the tree biomass. The estimated heat flux in the sample trees and data on biomass distributions were used to scale up to stand level biomass heat fluxes. The rate of change of sensible and latent heat storage in the air layer below the level of the flux measurements was estimated from air temperature and humidity profile measurements and soil heat flux was estimated from heat flux plates and soil temperature measurements. The fluxes of sensible and latent heat from the forest were measured with an eddy covariance system in a tower. The analysis was made for a two-month period in summer of 1995. The tree biomass heat flux was the largest of the estimated storage components and varied between 40 and -35 W m-2 on summer days with nice weather. Averaged over two months the diurnal maximum of total heat storage was 45 W m-2 and the minimum was -35 W m-2. The soil heat flux and the sensible heat storage in air were out of phase with the biomass flux and they reached maximum values that were about 75% of the maximum of the tree biomass heat storage. The energy balance closure improved significantly when the total heat storage was added to the turbulent fluxes. The slope of a regression line with sum of fluxes and storage as independent and net radiation as dependent variable, increased from 0.86 to 0.95 for half-hourly data and the scatter was also reduced. The most significant finding was, however, that during nights with strongly stable conditions when the sensible heat flux dropped to nearly zero, the total storage matched the net radiation nearly perfectly. Another interesting result was that the mean energy imbalance started to increase when the Richardson number became more negative than ca. -0.1. In fact, the largest energy deficit occurred at maximum instability. Our conclusion is that eddy

  2. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Improving Rapport between Track/Cross Country Coaches and Significant Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, David Jay

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the background information and the components of N.L.P., being eye movements, use of predicates, and posturing, as they apply to improving rapport and empathy between track/cross country coaches and their significant others in the arena of competition to help alleviate the inherent stressors.

  3. Effect of follow-up period on minimal-significant dose in the atomic-bomb survivor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cologne, John; Grant, Eric J.; Cullings, Harry M.; Ozasa, Kotaro [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Preston, Dale L. [Hirosoft International, Eureka, CA (United States)

    2018-03-15

    It was recently suggested that earlier reports on solid-cancer mortality and incidence in the Life Span Study of atomic-bomb survivors contain still-useful information about low-dose risk that should not be ignored, because longer follow-up may lead to attenuated estimates of low-dose risk due to longer time since exposure. Here it is demonstrated, through the use of all follow-up data and risk models stratified on period of follow-up (as opposed to sub-setting the data by follow-up period), that the appearance of risk attenuation over time may be the result of less-precise risk estimation - in particular, imprecise estimation of effect-modification parameters - in the earlier periods. Longer follow-up, in addition to allowing more-precise estimation of risk due to larger numbers of radiation-related cases, provides more-precise adjustment for background mortality or incidence and more-accurate assessment of risk modification by age at exposure and attained age. It is concluded that the latest follow-up data are most appropriate for inferring low-dose risk. Furthermore, if researchers are interested in effects of time since exposure, the most-recent follow-up data should be considered rather than the results of earlier reports. (orig.)

  4. Rehearsal significantly improves immediate and delayed recall on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, Erik

    2011-10-01

    A repeated observation during memory assessment with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is that patients who spontaneously employ a memory rehearsal strategy by repeating the word list more than once achieve better scores than patients who only repeat the word list once. This observation led to concern about the ability of the standard test procedure of RAVLT and similar tests in eliciting the best possible recall scores. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a rehearsal recall strategy of repeating the word list more than once would result in improved scores of recall on the RAVLT. We report on differences in outcome after standard administration and after experimental administration on Immediate and Delayed Recall measures from the RAVLT of 50 patients. The experimental administration resulted in significantly improved scores for all the variables employed. Additionally, it was found that patients who failed effort screening showed significantly poorer improvement on Delayed Recall compared with those who passed the effort screening. The general clear improvement both in raw scores and T-scores demonstrates that recall performance can be significantly influenced by the strategy of the patient or by small variations in instructions by the examiner.

  5. Costello Syndrome with Severe Nodulocystic Acne: Unexpected Significant Improvement of Acanthosis Nigricans after Oral Isotretinoin Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelawadee Sriboonnark

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of 17-year-old female diagnosed with Costello syndrome. Genetic testing provided a proof with G12S mutation in the HRAS gene since 3 years of age with a presentation of severe nodulocystic acne on her face. After 2 months of oral isotretinoin treatment, improvement in her acne was observed. Interestingly, an unexpected significant improvement of acanthosis nigricans on her neck and dorsum of her hands was found as well. We present this case as a successful treatment option by using oral isotretinoin for the treatment of acanthosis nigricans in Costello syndrome patients.

  6. Determination of significance in Ecological Impact Assessment: Past change, current practice and future improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Sam; Hudson, Malcolm D., E-mail: mdh@soton.ac.uk

    2013-01-15

    Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA) is an important tool for conservation and achieving sustainable development. 'Significant' impacts are those which disturb or alter the environment to a measurable degree. Significance is a crucial part of EcIA, our understanding of the concept in practice is vital if it is to be effective as a tool. This study employed three methods to assess how the determination of significance has changed through time, what current practice is, and what would lead to future improvements. Three data streams were collected: interviews with expert stakeholders, a review of 30 Environmental Statements and a broad-scale survey of the United Kingdom Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management (IEEM) members. The approach taken in the determination of significance has become more standardised and subjectivity has become constrained through a transparent framework. This has largely been driven by a set of guidelines produced by IEEM in 2006. The significance of impacts is now more clearly justified and the accuracy with which it is determined has improved. However, there are limitations to accuracy and effectiveness of the determination of significance. These are the quality of baseline survey data, our scientific understanding of ecological processes and the lack of monitoring and feedback of results. These in turn are restricted by the limited resources available in consultancies. The most notable recommendations for future practice are the implementation of monitoring and the publication of feedback, the creation of a central database for baseline survey data and the streamlining of guidance. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assessment of significance has changed markedly through time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IEEM guidelines have driven a standardisation of practice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Currently limited by quality of baseline data and scientific understanding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monitoring

  7. Histone deacetylase inhibitor significantly improved the cloning efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Yao, Chaogang; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Lai, Liangxue; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Pang, Daxin

    2011-12-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inbibitor, has been shown to generate inducible pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts with a significant higher efficiency. Because successful cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) undergoes a full reprogramming process in which the epigenetic state of a differentiated donor nuclear is converted into an embryonic totipotent state, we speculated that VPA would be useful in promoting cloning efficiency. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether VPA can promote the developmental competence of SCNT embryos by improving the reprogramming state of donor nucleus. Here we report that 1 mM VPA for 14 to 16 h following activation significantly increased the rate of blastocyst formation of porcine SCNT embryos constructed from Landrace fetal fibroblast cells compared to the control (31.8 vs. 11.4%). However, we found that the acetylation level of Histone H3 lysine 14 and Histone H4 lysine 5 and expression level of Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 was not significantly changed between VPA-treated and -untreated groups at the blastocyst stage. The SCNT embryos were transferred to 38 surrogates, and the cloning efficiency in the treated group was significantly improved compared with the control group. Taken together, we have demonstrated that VPA can improve both in vitro and in vivo development competence of porcine SCNT embryos.

  8. Communication: Proper treatment of classically forbidden electronic transitions significantly improves detailed balance in surface hopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifain, Andrew E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0485 (United States); Wang, Linjun [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Prezhdo, Oleg V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0485 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1062 (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Surface hopping is the most popular method for nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. Many have reported that it does not rigorously attain detailed balance at thermal equilibrium, but does so approximately. We show that convergence to the Boltzmann populations is significantly improved when the nuclear velocity is reversed after a classically forbidden hop. The proposed prescription significantly reduces the total number of classically forbidden hops encountered along a trajectory, suggesting that some randomization in nuclear velocity is needed when classically forbidden hops constitute a large fraction of attempted hops. Our results are verified computationally using two- and three-level quantum subsystems, coupled to a classical bath undergoing Langevin dynamics.

  9. The challenges of ESRD care in developing economies: sub-Saharan African opportunities for significant improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgboye, Ebun Ladipo

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. This, along with other noncommunicable diseases like hypertension, diabetes, and heart diseases, poses a double burden on a region that is still struggling to cope with the scourge of communicable diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, and more recently Ebola. Causes of CKD in the region are predominantly glomerulonephritis and hypertension, although type 2 diabetes is also becoming a significant cause as is the retroviral disease. Patients are generally younger than in the developed world, and there is a significant male preponderance. Most patients are managed by hemodialysis, with peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation being available in only few countries in the region. Government funding and support for dialysis is often unavailable, and when available, often with restrictions. There is a dearth of trained manpower to treat the disease, and many countries have a limited number of units, which are often ill-equipped to deal adequately with the number of patients who require end-stage renal disease (ESRD) care in the region. Although there has been a significant improvement when compared with the situation, even as recently as 10 years ago, there is also the potential for further improvement, which would significantly improve the outcomes in patients with ESRD in the region. The information in this review was obtained from a combination of renal registry reports (published and unpublished), published articles, responses to a questionnaire sent to nephrologists prior to the World Congress of Nephrology (WCN) in Cape Town, and from nephrologists attending the WCN in Cape Town (March 13 - 17, 2015).

  10. Survival prediction algorithms miss significant opportunities for improvement if used for case selection in trauma quality improvement programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Catherine; Cole, Elaine; West, Anita; Tai, Nigel; Brohi, Karim

    2016-09-01

    Quality improvement (QI) programs have shown to reduce preventable mortality in trauma care. Detailed review of all trauma deaths is a time and resource consuming process and calculated probability of survival (Ps) has been proposed as audit filter. Review is limited on deaths that were 'expected to survive'. However no Ps-based algorithm has been validated and no study has examined elements of preventability associated with deaths classified as 'expected'. The objective of this study was to examine whether trauma performance review can be streamlined using existing mortality prediction tools without missing important areas for improvement. We conducted a retrospective study of all trauma deaths reviewed by our trauma QI program. Deaths were classified into non-preventable, possibly preventable, probably preventable or preventable. Opportunities for improvement (OPIs) involve failure in the process of care and were classified into clinical and system deviations from standards of care. TRISS and PS were used for calculation of probability of survival. Peer-review charts were reviewed by a single investigator. Over 8 years, 626 patients were included. One third showed elements of preventability and 4% were preventable. Preventability occurred across the entire range of the calculated Ps band. Limiting review to unexpected deaths would have missed over 50% of all preventability issues and a third of preventable deaths. 37% of patients showed opportunities for improvement (OPIs). Neither TRISS nor PS allowed for reliable identification of OPIs and limiting peer-review to patients with unexpected deaths would have missed close to 60% of all issues in care. TRISS and PS fail to identify a significant proportion of avoidable deaths and miss important opportunities for process and system improvement. Based on this, all trauma deaths should be subjected to expert panel review in order to aim at a maximal output of performance improvement programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  11. Periodate and hypobromite modification of Southern pine wood to improve sorption of copper ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. McSweeny; Roger M. Rowell; George C. Chen; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Min Soo-Hong

    2008-01-01

    Milled southern pine wood was modified with sequential treatments of sodium periodate and sodium hypobromite for the purpose of improving copper ion (Cu2+) sorption capacity of the wood when tested in 24-h equilibrium batch tests. The modified wood provided additional carboxyl groups to those in the native wood and substantially increased Cu2+ uptake over that of...

  12. PXD101 significantly improves nuclear reprogramming and the in vitro developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jun-Xue; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Long; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun, E-mail: yinxj33@msn.com

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • First explored that the effects of PXD101 on the development of SCNT embryos in vitro. • 0.5 μM PXD101 treated for 24 h improved the development of porcine SCNT embryos. • Level of AcH3K9 was significantly higher than control group at early stages. - Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor PXD101 (belinostat) on the preimplantation development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos and their expression of the epigenetic markers histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9 (AcH3K9). We compared the in vitro developmental competence of SCNT embryos treated with various concentrations of PXD101 for 24 h. Treatment with 0.5 μM PXD101 significantly increased the proportion of SCNT embryos that reached the blastocyst stage, in comparison to the control group (23.3% vs. 11.5%, P < 0.05). We tested the in vitro developmental competence of SCNT embryos treated with 0.5 μM PXD101 for various amounts of times following activation. Treatment for 24 h significantly improved the development of porcine SCNT embryos, with a significantly higher proportion of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage in comparison to the control group (25.7% vs. 10.6%, P < 0.05). PXD101-treated SCNT embryos were transferred into two surrogate sows, one of whom became pregnant and four fetuses developed. PXD101 treatment significantly increased the fluorescence intensity of immunostaining for AcH3K9 in embryos at the pseudo-pronuclear and 2-cell stages. At these stages, the fluorescence intensities of immunostaining for AcH3K9 were significantly higher in PXD101-treated embryos than in control untreated embryos. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that PXD101 can significantly improve the in vitro and in vivo developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos and can enhance their nuclear reprogramming.

  13. Unified Health Gamification can significantly improve well-being in corporate environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, Arash; Van Gorp, Pieter; Le Blanc, Pascale; Greidanus, Fabrizio; de Groot, Kristel; Leermakers, Jelle

    2017-07-01

    There is a multitude of mHealth applications that aim to solve societal health problems by stimulating specific types of physical activities via gamification. However, physical health activities cover just one of the three World Health Organization (WHO) dimensions of health. This paper introduces the novel notion of Unified Health Gamification (UHG), which covers besides physical health also social and cognitive health and well-being. Instead of rewarding activities in the three WHO dimensions using different mHealth competitions, UHG combines the scores for such activities on unified leaderboards and lets people interact in social circles beyond personal interests. This approach is promising in corporate environments since UHG can connect the employees with intrinsic motivation for physical health with those who have quite different interests. In order to evaluate this approach, we realized an app prototype and we evaluated it in two corporate pilot studies. In total, eighteen pilot users participated voluntarily for six weeks. Half of the participants were recruited from an occupational health setting and the other half from a treatment setting. Our results suggest that the UHG principles are worth more investigation: various positive health effects were found based on a validated survey. The mean mental health improved significantly at one pilot location and at the level of individual pilot participants, multiple other effects were found to be significant: among others, significant mental health improvements were found for 28% of the participants. Most participants intended to use the app beyond the pilot, especially if it would be further developed.

  14. The Improved Adaptive Silence Period Algorithm over Time-Variant Channels in the Cognitive Radio System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of cognitive radio spectrum sensing, the adaptive silence period management mechanism (ASPM has improved the problem of the low time-resource utilization rate of the traditional silence period management mechanism (TSPM. However, in the case of the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, the ASPM algorithm will increase the probability of missed detection for the primary user (PU. Focusing on this problem, this paper proposes an improved adaptive silence period management (IA-SPM algorithm which can adaptively adjust the sensing parameters of the current period in combination with the feedback information from the data communication with the sensing results of the previous period. The feedback information in the channel is achieved with frequency resources rather than time resources in order to adapt to the parameter change in the time-varying channel. The Monte Carlo simulation results show that the detection probability of the IA-SPM is 10–15% higher than that of the ASPM under low SNR conditions.

  15. Thermosensitive Hydrogel Mask Significantly Improves Skin Moisture and Skin Tone; Bilateral Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Quattrone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A temperature-sensitive state-changing hydrogel mask was used in this study. Once it comes into contact with the skin and reaches the body temperature, it uniformly and quickly releases the active compounds, which possess moisturizing, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. Methods: An open label clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the test product on skin hydration, skin tone and skin ageing. Subjects applied the product to one side of their face and underwent Corneometer® and Chromameter measurements, Visual assessment of facial skin ageing and facial photography. All assessments and Self-Perception Questionnaires (SPQ were performed at baseline, after the first application of the test product and after four applications. Results: After a single treatment we observed an increase in skin moisturisation, an improvement of skin tone/luminosity and a reduction in signs of ageing, all statistically significant. After four applications a further improvement in all measured parameters was recorded. These results were confirmed by the subjects’ own perceptions, as reported in the SPQ both after one and four applications. Conclusion: The hydrogel mask tested in this study is very effective in improving skin hydration, skin radiance and luminosity, in encouraging an even skin tone and in reducing skin pigmentation.

  16. E2F5 status significantly improves malignancy diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Kothandaraman, Narasimhan

    2010-02-24

    Background: Ovarian epithelial cancer (OEC) usually presents in the later stages of the disease. Factors, especially those associated with cell-cycle genes, affecting the genesis and tumour progression for ovarian cancer are largely unknown. We hypothesized that over-expressed transcription factors (TFs), as well as those that are driving the expression of the OEC over-expressed genes, could be the key for OEC genesis and potentially useful tissue and serum markers for malignancy associated with OEC.Methods: Using a combination of computational (selection of candidate TF markers and malignancy prediction) and experimental approaches (tissue microarray and western blotting on patient samples) we identified and evaluated E2F5 transcription factor involved in cell proliferation, as a promising candidate regulatory target in early stage disease. Our hypothesis was supported by our tissue array experiments that showed E2F5 expression only in OEC samples but not in normal and benign tissues, and by significantly positively biased expression in serum samples done using western blotting studies.Results: Analysis of clinical cases shows that of the E2F5 status is characteristic for a different population group than one covered by CA125, a conventional OEC biomarker. E2F5 used in different combinations with CA125 for distinguishing malignant cyst from benign cyst shows that the presence of CA125 or E2F5 increases sensitivity of OEC detection to 97.9% (an increase from 87.5% if only CA125 is used) and, more importantly, the presence of both CA125 and E2F5 increases specificity of OEC to 72.5% (an increase from 55% if only CA125 is used). This significantly improved accuracy suggests possibility of an improved diagnostics of OEC. Furthermore, detection of malignancy status in 86 cases (38 benign, 48 early and late OEC) shows that the use of E2F5 status in combination with other clinical characteristics allows for an improved detection of malignant cases with sensitivity

  17. Significance of MPEG-7 textural features for improved mass detection in mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltonsy, Nevine H; Tourassi, Georgia D; Fadeev, Aleksey; Elmaghraby, Adel S

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the significance of MPEG-7 textural features for improving the detection of masses in screening mammograms. The detection scheme was originally based on morphological directional neighborhood features extracted from mammographic regions of interest (ROIs). Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) was performed to evaluate the performance of each set of features independently and merged into a back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) using the leave-one-out sampling scheme (LOOSS). The study was based on a database of 668 mammographic ROIs (340 depicting cancer regions and 328 depicting normal parenchyma). Overall, the ROC area index of the BPANN using the directional morphological features was Az=0.85+/-0.01. The MPEG-7 edge histogram descriptor-based BPNN showed an ROC area index of Az=0.71+/-0.01 while homogeneous textural descriptors using 30 and 120 channels helped the BPNN achieve similar ROC area indexes of Az=0.882+/-0.02 and Az=0.877+/-0.01 respectively. After merging the MPEG-7 homogeneous textural features with the directional neighborhood features the performance of the BPANN increased providing an ROC area index of Az=0.91+/-0.01. MPEG-7 homogeneous textural descriptor significantly improved the morphology-based detection scheme.

  18. Carfilzomib significantly improves the progression-free survival of high-risk patients in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Fonseca, Rafael; Siegel, David; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Špička, Ivan; Masszi, Tamás; Hájek, Roman; Rosiñol, Laura; Goranova-Marinova, Vesselina; Mihaylov, Georgi; Maisnar, Vladimír; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Wang, Michael; Niesvizky, Ruben; Oriol, Albert; Jakubowiak, Andrzej; Minarik, Jiri; Palumbo, Antonio; Bensinger, William; Kukreti, Vishal; Ben-Yehuda, Dina; Stewart, A Keith; Obreja, Mihaela; Moreau, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The presence of certain high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities, such as translocations (4;14) and (14;16) and deletion (17p), are known to have a negative impact on survival in multiple myeloma (MM). The phase 3 study ASPIRE (N = 792) demonstrated that progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly improved with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd), compared with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) in relapsed MM. This preplanned subgroup analysis of ASPIRE was conducted to evaluate KRd vs Rd by baseline cytogenetics according to fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of 417 patients with known cytogenetic risk status, 100 patients (24%) were categorized with high-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 48; Rd, n = 52) and 317 (76%) were categorized with standard-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 147; Rd, n = 170). For patients with high-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd resulted in a median PFS of 23.1 months, a 9-month improvement relative to treatment with Rd. For patients with standard-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd led to a 10-month improvement in median PFS vs Rd. The overall response rates for KRd vs Rd were 79.2% vs 59.6% (high-risk cytogenetics) and 91.2% vs 73.5% (standard-risk cytogenetics); approximately fivefold as many patients with high- or standard-risk cytogenetics achieved a complete response or better with KRd vs Rd (29.2% vs 5.8% and 38.1% vs 6.5%, respectively). KRd improved but did not abrogate the poor prognosis associated with high-risk cytogenetics. This regimen had a favorable benefit-risk profile in patients with relapsed MM, irrespective of cytogenetic risk status, and should be considered a standard of care in these patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01080391. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. Inulin significantly improves serum magnesium levels in proton pump inhibitor-induced hypomagnesaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, M W; de Baaij, J H F; Broekman, M; Bisseling, T M; Haarhuis, B; Tan, A; Te Morsche, R; Hoenderop, J G J; Bindels, R J M; Drenth, J P H

    2016-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are among the most widely prescribed drugs to treat gastric acid-related disorders. PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia, a defect in intestinal absorption of Mg(2+) , can be a severe side effect of chronic PPI use. To restore serum Mg(2+) concentrations in PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia patients by dietary supplementation with inulin fibres. Eleven patients with PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia and 10 controls were treated with inulin (20 g/day). Each trial consisted of two cycles of 14-day inulin treatment followed by a washout period of 14 days. Patients continued to use their PPI. Serum Mg(2+) levels served as the primary endpoint. Inulin significantly enhanced serum Mg(2+) levels from 0.60 to 0.68 mmol/L in PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia patients, and from 0.84 to 0.93 mmol/L in controls. As a consequence 24 h urinary Mg(2+) excretion was significantly increased in patients with PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia (0.3-2.2 mmol/day). Symptoms related to hypomagnesaemia, including muscle cramps and paraesthesia, were reduced during intervention with inulin. Inulin increases serum Mg(2+) concentrations under PPI maintenance in patients with PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Bone Mass and Strength are Significantly Improved in Mice Overexpressing Human WNT16 in Osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Imranul; Reilly, Austin M; Alkhouli, Mohammed; Gerard-O'Riley, Rita L; Kasipathi, Charishma; Oakes, Dana K; Wright, Weston B; Acton, Dena; McQueen, Amie K; Patel, Bhavmik; Lim, Kyung-Eun; Robling, Alexander G; Econs, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that osteoblast-specific overexpression of human WNT16 increased both cortical and trabecular bone mass and structure in mice. To further identify the cell-specific role of Wnt16 in bone homeostasis, we created transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing human WNT16 in osteocytes using Dmp1 promoter (Dmp1-hWNT16 TG) on C57BL/6 (B6) background. We analyzed bone phenotypes and serum bone biomarkers, performed gene expression analysis and measured dynamic bone histomorphometry in Dmp1-hWNT16 TG and wild-type (WT) mice. Compared to WT mice, Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice exhibited significantly higher whole-body, spine and femoral aBMD, BMC and trabecular (BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th) and cortical (bone area and thickness) parameters in both male and female at 12 weeks of age. Femur stiffness and ultimate force were also significantly improved in the Dmp1-hWNT16 TG female mice, compared to sex-matched WT littermates. In addition, female Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice displayed significantly higher MS/BS, MAR and BFR/BS compared to the WT mice. Gene expression analysis demonstrated significantly higher mRNA level of Alp in both male and female Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice and significantly higher levels of Osteocalcin, Opg and Rankl in the male Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice in bone tissue compared to sex-matched WT mice. These results indicate that WNT16 plays a critical role for acquisition of both cortical and trabecular bone mass and strength. Strategies designed to use WNT16 as a target for therapeutic interventions will be valuable to treat osteoporosis and other low bone mass conditions.

  1. Radiotherapy is associated with significant improvement in local and regional control in Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Susan H; Haydu, Lauren E; Goh, Robin Yeong Hong; Fogarty, Gerald B

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare tumour of skin. This study is a retrospective audit of patients with MCC from St Vincent’s and Mater Hospital, Sydney, Australia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of radiotherapy (RT) on the local and regional control of MCC lesions and survival of patients with MCC. The data bases in anatomical pathology, RT and surgery. We searched for patients having a diagnosis of MCC between 1996 and 2007. Patient, tumour and treatment characteristics were collected and analysed. Univariate survival analysis of categorical variables was conducted with the Kaplan-Meier method together with the Log-Rank test for statistical significance. Continuous variables were assessed using the Cox regression method. Multivariate analysis was performed for significant univariate results. Sixty seven patients were found. Sixty two who were stage I-III and were treated with radical intent were analysed. 68% were male. The median age was 74 years. Forty-two cases (68%) were stage I or II, and 20 cases (32%) were stage III. For the subset of 42 stage I and II patients, those that had RT to their primary site had a 2-year local recurrence free survival of 89% compared with 36% for patients not receiving RT (p<0.001). The cumulative 2-year regional recurrence free survival for patients having adjuvant regional RT was 84% compared with 43% for patients not receiving this treatment (p<0.001). Immune status at initial surgery was a significant predictor for OS and MCCSS. In a multivariate analysis combining macroscopic size (mm) and immune status at initial surgery, only immune status remained a significant predictor of overall survival (HR=2.096, 95% CI: 1.002-4.385, p=0.049). RT is associated with significant improvement in local and regional control in Merkel cell carcinoma. Immunosuppression is an important factor in overall survival

  2. Integration of biomimicry and nanotechnology for significantly improved detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Ja Hye; Park, Sin-Jung; Wang, Andrew Z; Hong, Seungpyo

    2017-12-13

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have received a great deal of scientific and clinical attention as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of many types of cancer. Given their potential significance in clinics, a variety of detection methods, utilizing the recent advances in nanotechnology and microfluidics, have been introduced in an effort of achieving clinically significant detection of CTCs. However, effective detection and isolation of CTCs still remain a tremendous challenge due to their extreme rarity and phenotypic heterogeneity. Among many approaches that are currently under development, this review paper focuses on a unique, promising approach that takes advantages of naturally occurring processes achievable through application of nanotechnology to realize significant improvement in sensitivity and specificity of CTC capture. We provide an overview of successful outcome of this biomimetic CTC capture system in detection of tumor cells from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical pilot studies. We also emphasize the clinical impact of CTCs as biomarkers in cancer diagnosis and predictive prognosis, which provides a cost-effective, minimally invasive method that potentially replaces or supplements existing methods such as imaging technologies and solid tissue biopsy. In addition, their potential prognostic values as treatment guidelines and that ultimately help to realize personalized therapy are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Improved long-term outcomes after resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a comparison between two time periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Pablo E; Cleary, Sean P; Dhani, Neesha; Kim, Peter T W; Greig, Paul D; Leung, Kenneth; Moulton, Carol-Anne; Gallinger, Steven; Wei, Alice C

    2015-04-01

    Despite reduced perioperative mortality and routine use of adjuvant therapy following pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), improvement in long-term outcome has been difficult to ascertain. This study compares outcomes in patients undergoing resection for PDAC within a single, high-volume academic institution over two sequential time periods. Retrospective review of patients with resected PDAC, in two cohorts: period 1 (P1), 1991-2000; and period 2 (P2), 2001-2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model were performed to determine prognostic factors associated with long-term survival. Survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analyses. A total of 179 pancreatectomies were performed during P1 and 310 during P2. Perioperative mortality was 6.7 % (12/179) in P1 and 1.6 % (5/310) in P2 (p = 0.003). P2 had a greater number of lymph nodes resected (17 [0-50] vs. 7 [0-31]; p P2 (p P2 (p < 0.001). Factors associated with improved long-term survival remain comparable over time. Short- and long-term survival for patients with resected PDAC has improved over time due to decreased perioperative mortality and increased use of adjuvant therapy, although the proportion of 5-year survivors remains small.

  4. Significant Improvement of Organic Thin-Film Transistor Mobility Utilizing an Organic Heterojunction Buffer Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Feng; Qian Xian-Rui; Huang Li-Zhen; Wang Hai-Bo; Yan Dong-Hang

    2011-01-01

    High-mobility vanadyl phthalocyanine (VOPc)/5,5‴-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-2,2':5',2″:5″,2‴-quaterthiophene (F2-P4T) thin-film transistors are demonstrated by employing a copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F 16 CuPc)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) heterojunction unit, which are fabricated at different substrate temperatures, as a buffer layer. The highest mobility of 4.08cm 2 /Vs is achieved using a F 16 CuPc/CuPc organic heterojunction buffer layer fabricated at high substrate temperature. Compared with the random small grain-like morphology of the room-temperature buffer layer, the high-temperature organic heterojunction presents a large-sized fiber-like film morphology, resulting in an enhanced conductivity. Thus the contact resistance of the transistor is significantly reduced and an obvious improvement in device mobility is obtained. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  5. Significant improvement of optical traps by tuning standard water immersion objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reihani, S Nader S; Mir, Shahid A; Richardson, Andrew C; Oddershede, Lene B

    2011-01-01

    Focused infrared lasers are widely used for micromanipulation and visualization of biological specimens. An inherent practical problem is that off-the-shelf commercial microscope objectives are designed for use with visible and not infrared wavelengths. Less aberration is introduced by water immersion objectives than by oil immersion ones, however, even water immersion objectives induce significant aberration. We present a simple method to reduce the spherical aberration induced by water immersion objectives, namely by tuning the correction collar of the objective to a value that is ∼ 10% lower than the physical thickness of the coverslip. This results in marked improvements in optical trapping strengths of up to 100% laterally and 600% axially from a standard microscope objective designed for use in the visible range. The results are generally valid for any water immersion objective with any numerical aperture

  6. Significant improvement in the electrical characteristics of Schottky barrier diodes on molecularly modified Gallium Nitride surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Manjari; Naik, Tejas R.; Pathak, C. S.; Nagarajan, S.; Rao, V. Ramgopal; Singh, R.

    2018-04-01

    III-Nitride semiconductors face the issue of localized surface states, which causes fermi level pinning and large leakage current at the metal semiconductor interface, thereby degrading the device performance. In this work, we have demonstrated the use of a Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) of organic molecules to improve the electrical characteristics of Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on n-type Gallium Nitride (n-GaN) epitaxial films. The electrical characteristics of diodes were improved by adsorption of SAM of hydroxyl-phenyl metallated porphyrin organic molecules (Zn-TPPOH) onto the surface of n-GaN. SAM-semiconductor bonding via native oxide on the n-GaN surface was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Surface morphology and surface electronic properties were characterized using atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy. Current-voltage characteristics of different metal (Cu, Ni) SBDs on bare n-GaN were compared with those of Cu/Zn-TPPOH/n-GaN and Ni/Zn-TPPOH/n-GaN SBDs. It was found that due to the molecular monolayer, the surface potential of n-GaN was decreased by ˜350 mV. This caused an increase in the Schottky barrier height of Cu and Ni SBDs from 1.13 eV to 1.38 eV and 1.07 eV to 1.22 eV, respectively. In addition to this, the reverse bias leakage current was reduced by 3-4 orders of magnitude for both Cu and Ni SBDs. Such a significant improvement in the electrical performance of the diodes can be very useful for better device functioning.

  7. pEPito: a significantly improved non-viral episomal expression vector for mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogris Manfred

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The episomal replication of the prototype vector pEPI-1 depends on a transcription unit starting from the constitutively expressed Cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter (CMV-IEP and directed into a 2000 bp long matrix attachment region sequence (MARS derived from the human β-interferon gene. The original pEPI-1 vector contains two mammalian transcription units and a total of 305 CpG islands, which are located predominantly within the vector elements necessary for bacterial propagation and known to be counterproductive for persistent long-term transgene expression. Results Here, we report the development of a novel vector pEPito, which is derived from the pEPI-1 plasmid replicon but has considerably improved efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. The pEPito vector is significantly reduced in size, contains only one transcription unit and 60% less CpG motives in comparison to pEPI-1. It exhibits major advantages compared to the original pEPI-1 plasmid, including higher transgene expression levels and increased colony-forming efficiencies in vitro, as well as more persistent transgene expression profiles in vivo. The performance of pEPito-based vectors was further improved by replacing the CMV-IEP with the human CMV enhancer/human elongation factor 1 alpha promoter (hCMV/EF1P element that is known to be less affected by epigenetic silencing events. Conclusions The novel vector pEPito can be considered suitable as an improved vector for biotechnological applications in vitro and for non-viral gene delivery in vivo.

  8. Electronic monitoring in combination with direct observation as a means to significantly improve hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, John M

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring hand hygiene compliance among health care personnel (HCP) is an essential element of hand hygiene promotion programs. Observation by trained auditors is considered the gold standard method for establishing hand hygiene compliance rates. Advantages of observational surveys include the unique ability to establish compliance with all of the World Health Organization "My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene" initiative Moments and to provide just-in-time coaching. Disadvantages include the resources required for observational surveys, insufficient sample sizes, and nonstandardized methods of conducting observations. Electronic and camera-based systems can monitor hand hygiene performance on all work shifts without a Hawthorne effect and provide significantly more data regarding hand hygiene performance. Disadvantages include the cost of installation, variable accuracy in estimating compliance rates, issues related to acceptance by HCP, insufficient data regarding their cost-effectiveness and influence on health care-related infection rates, and the ability of most systems to monitor only surrogates for Moments 1, 4, and 5. Increasing evidence suggests that monitoring only Moments 1, 4, and 5 provides reasonable estimates of compliance with all 5 Moments. With continued improvement of electronic monitoring systems, combining electronic monitoring with observational methods may provide the best information as part of a multimodal strategy to improve and sustain hand hygiene compliance rates among HCP. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An On-Chip RBC Deformability Checker Significantly Improves Velocity-Deformation Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Dylan Tsai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An on-chip deformability checker is proposed to improve the velocity–deformation correlation for red blood cell (RBC evaluation. RBC deformability has been found related to human diseases, and can be evaluated based on RBC velocity through a microfluidic constriction as in conventional approaches. The correlation between transit velocity and amount of deformation provides statistical information of RBC deformability. However, such correlations are usually only moderate, or even weak, in practical evaluations due to limited range of RBC deformation. To solve this issue, we implemented three constrictions of different width in the proposed checker, so that three different deformation regions can be applied to RBCs. By considering cell responses from the three regions as a whole, we practically extend the range of cell deformation in the evaluation, and could resolve the issue about the limited range of RBC deformation. RBCs from five volunteer subjects were tested using the proposed checker. The results show that the correlation between cell deformation and transit velocity is significantly improved by the proposed deformability checker. The absolute values of the correlation coefficients are increased from an average of 0.54 to 0.92. The effects of cell size, shape and orientation to the evaluation are discussed according to the experimental results. The proposed checker is expected to be useful for RBC evaluation in medical practices.

  10. Fabrication of CoZn alloy nanowire arrays: Significant improvement in magnetic properties by annealing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koohbor, M.; Soltanian, S.; Najafi, M.; Servati, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Increasing the Zn concentration changes the structure of NWs from hcp to amorphous. ► Increasing the Zn concentration significantly reduces the Hc value of NWs. ► Magnetic properties of CoZn NWs can be significantly enhanced by appropriate annealing. ► The pH of electrolyte has no significant effect on the properties of the NW arrays. ► Deposition frequency has considerable effects on the magnetic properties of NWs. - Abstract: Highly ordered arrays of Co 1−x Zn x (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.74) nanowires (NWs) with diameters of ∼35 nm and high length-to-diameter ratios (up to 150) were fabricated by co-electrodeposition of Co and Zn into pores of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The Co and Zn contents of the NWs were adjusted by varying the ratio of Zn and Co ion concentrations in the electrolyte. The effect of the Zn content, electrodeposition conditions (frequency and pH) and annealing on the structural and magnetic properties (e.g., coercivity (Hc) and squareness (Sq)) of NW arrays were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and alternating gradient force magnetometer (AGFM). XRD patterns reveal that an increase in the concentration of Zn ions of the electrolyte forces the hcp crystal structure of Co NWs to change into an amorphous phase, resulting in a significant reduction in Hc. It was found that the magnetic properties of NWs can be significantly improved by appropriate annealing process. The highest values for Hc (2050 Oe) and Sq (0.98) were obtained for NWs electrodeposited using 0.95/0.05 Co:Zn concentrations at 200 Hz and annealed at 575 °C. While the pH of electrolyte is found to have no significant effect on the structural and magnetic properties of the NW arrays, the electrodeposition frequency has considerable effects on the magnetic properties of the NW arrays. The changes in magnetic property of NWs are rooted in a competition between shape anisotropy and

  11. Fabrication of CoZn alloy nanowire arrays: Significant improvement in magnetic properties by annealing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koohbor, M. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltanian, S., E-mail: s.soltanian@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Najafi, M. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Hamadan University of Technology, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Servati, P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2012-01-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing the Zn concentration changes the structure of NWs from hcp to amorphous. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing the Zn concentration significantly reduces the Hc value of NWs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic properties of CoZn NWs can be significantly enhanced by appropriate annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pH of electrolyte has no significant effect on the properties of the NW arrays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deposition frequency has considerable effects on the magnetic properties of NWs. - Abstract: Highly ordered arrays of Co{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x} (0 {<=} x {<=} 0.74) nanowires (NWs) with diameters of {approx}35 nm and high length-to-diameter ratios (up to 150) were fabricated by co-electrodeposition of Co and Zn into pores of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The Co and Zn contents of the NWs were adjusted by varying the ratio of Zn and Co ion concentrations in the electrolyte. The effect of the Zn content, electrodeposition conditions (frequency and pH) and annealing on the structural and magnetic properties (e.g., coercivity (Hc) and squareness (Sq)) of NW arrays were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and alternating gradient force magnetometer (AGFM). XRD patterns reveal that an increase in the concentration of Zn ions of the electrolyte forces the hcp crystal structure of Co NWs to change into an amorphous phase, resulting in a significant reduction in Hc. It was found that the magnetic properties of NWs can be significantly improved by appropriate annealing process. The highest values for Hc (2050 Oe) and Sq (0.98) were obtained for NWs electrodeposited using 0.95/0.05 Co:Zn concentrations at 200 Hz and annealed at 575 Degree-Sign C. While the pH of electrolyte is found to have no significant effect on the structural and magnetic properties of the NW arrays, the electrodeposition frequency has considerable effects on

  12. A matter of timing: identifying significant multi-dose radiotherapy improvements by numerical simulation and genetic algorithm search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D Angus

    Full Text Available Multi-dose radiotherapy protocols (fraction dose and timing currently used in the clinic are the product of human selection based on habit, received wisdom, physician experience and intra-day patient timetabling. However, due to combinatorial considerations, the potential treatment protocol space for a given total dose or treatment length is enormous, even for relatively coarse search; well beyond the capacity of traditional in-vitro methods. In constrast, high fidelity numerical simulation of tumor development is well suited to the challenge. Building on our previous single-dose numerical simulation model of EMT6/Ro spheroids, a multi-dose irradiation response module is added and calibrated to the effective dose arising from 18 independent multi-dose treatment programs available in the experimental literature. With the developed model a constrained, non-linear, search for better performing cadidate protocols is conducted within the vicinity of two benchmarks by genetic algorithm (GA techniques. After evaluating less than 0.01% of the potential benchmark protocol space, candidate protocols were identified by the GA which conferred an average of 9.4% (max benefit 16.5% and 7.1% (13.3% improvement (reduction on tumour cell count compared to the two benchmarks, respectively. Noticing that a convergent phenomenon of the top performing protocols was their temporal synchronicity, a further series of numerical experiments was conducted with periodic time-gap protocols (10 h to 23 h, leading to the discovery that the performance of the GA search candidates could be replicated by 17-18 h periodic candidates. Further dynamic irradiation-response cell-phase analysis revealed that such periodicity cohered with latent EMT6/Ro cell-phase temporal patterning. Taken together, this study provides powerful evidence towards the hypothesis that even simple inter-fraction timing variations for a given fractional dose program may present a facile, and highly cost

  13. A matter of timing: identifying significant multi-dose radiotherapy improvements by numerical simulation and genetic algorithm search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Simon D; Piotrowska, Monika Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Multi-dose radiotherapy protocols (fraction dose and timing) currently used in the clinic are the product of human selection based on habit, received wisdom, physician experience and intra-day patient timetabling. However, due to combinatorial considerations, the potential treatment protocol space for a given total dose or treatment length is enormous, even for relatively coarse search; well beyond the capacity of traditional in-vitro methods. In constrast, high fidelity numerical simulation of tumor development is well suited to the challenge. Building on our previous single-dose numerical simulation model of EMT6/Ro spheroids, a multi-dose irradiation response module is added and calibrated to the effective dose arising from 18 independent multi-dose treatment programs available in the experimental literature. With the developed model a constrained, non-linear, search for better performing cadidate protocols is conducted within the vicinity of two benchmarks by genetic algorithm (GA) techniques. After evaluating less than 0.01% of the potential benchmark protocol space, candidate protocols were identified by the GA which conferred an average of 9.4% (max benefit 16.5%) and 7.1% (13.3%) improvement (reduction) on tumour cell count compared to the two benchmarks, respectively. Noticing that a convergent phenomenon of the top performing protocols was their temporal synchronicity, a further series of numerical experiments was conducted with periodic time-gap protocols (10 h to 23 h), leading to the discovery that the performance of the GA search candidates could be replicated by 17-18 h periodic candidates. Further dynamic irradiation-response cell-phase analysis revealed that such periodicity cohered with latent EMT6/Ro cell-phase temporal patterning. Taken together, this study provides powerful evidence towards the hypothesis that even simple inter-fraction timing variations for a given fractional dose program may present a facile, and highly cost-effecitive means

  14. Compression stockings significantly improve hemodynamic performance in post-thrombotic syndrome irrespective of class or length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimer, Christopher R; Azzam, Mustapha; Kalodiki, Evi; Makris, Gregory C; Geroulakos, George

    2013-07-01

    Graduated elastic compression (GEC) stockings have been demonstrated to reduce the morbidity associated with post-thrombotic syndrome. The ideal length or compression strength required to achieve this is speculative and related to physician preference and patient compliance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic performance of four different stockings and determine the patient's preference. Thirty-four consecutive patients (40 legs, 34 male) with post-thrombotic syndrome were tested with four different stockings (Mediven plus open toe, Bayreuth, Germany) of their size in random order: class 1 (18-21 mm Hg) and class II (23-32 mm Hg), below-knee (BK) and above-knee thigh-length (AK). The median age, Venous Clinical Severity Score, Venous Segmental Disease Score, and Villalta scale were 62 years (range, 31-81 years), 8 (range, 1-21), 5 (range, 2-10), and 10 (range, 2-22), respectively. The C of C0-6EsAs,d,pPr,o was C0 = 2, C2 = 1, C3 = 3, C4a = 12, C4b = 7, C5 = 12, C6 = 3. Obstruction and reflux was observed on duplex in 47.5% legs, with deep venous reflux alone in 45%. Air plethysmography was used to measure the venous filling index (VFI), venous volume, and time to fill 90% of the venous volume. Direct pressure measurements were obtained while lying and standing using the PicoPress device (Microlab Elettronica, Nicolò, Italy). The pressure sensor was placed underneath the test stocking 5 cm above and 2 cm posterior to the medial malleolus. At the end of the study session, patients stated their preferred stocking based on comfort. The VFI, venous volume, and time to fill 90% of the venous volume improved significantly with all types of stocking versus no compression. In class I, the VFI (mL/s) improved from a median of 4.9 (range, 1.7-16.3) without compression to 3.7 (range, 0-14) BK (24.5%) and 3.6 (range, 0.6-14.5) AK (26.5%). With class II, the corresponding improvement was to 4.0 (range, 0.3-16.2) BK (18.8%) and 3.7 (range, 0.5-14.2) AK (24

  15. Significant improvement of intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) after traditional Chinese medicine feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z B; Gatesoupe, F-J; Li, T T; Wang, X H; Zhang, Q Q; Feng, D Y; Feng, Y Q; Chen, H; Li, A H

    2018-03-01

    Increasing attention has been attracted to intestinal microbiota, due to interactions with nutrition, metabolism and immune defence of the host. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) feed additives have been applied in aquaculture to improve fish health, but the interaction with fish gut microbiota is still poorly understood. This study aimed to explore the effect of adding TCM in feed on the intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Bacterial communities of 16 fish intestinal contents and one water sample were characterized by high-throughput sequencing and analysis of the V4-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The results showed that the composition and structure of the bacterial community were significantly altered by the TCM feeding. Some phyla increased markedly (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, etc.), while Fusobacteria were significantly reduced. Concurrently, the richness and diversity of the taxonomic units increased, and the microbiota composition of TCM-treated fish was more homogeneous among individuals. At the genus level, the addition of TCM tended to reduce the incidence of potential pathogens (Aeromonas, Acinetobacter and Shewanella), while stimulating the emergence of some potential probiotics (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Bacillus and Pseudomonas). These data suggested that the feed additive could regulate the fish intestinal microbiota by reinforcing the microbial balance. This study may provide useful information for further application of TCM for diseases prevention and stress management in aquaculture. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Significant improvement in one-dimensional cursor control using Laplacian electroencephalography over electroencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudria, Yacine; Feltane, Amal; Besio, Walter

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on electroencephalography (EEG) have been shown to accurately detect mental activities, but the acquisition of high levels of control require extensive user training. Furthermore, EEG has low signal-to-noise ratio and low spatial resolution. The objective of the present study was to compare the accuracy between two types of BCIs during the first recording session. EEG and tripolar concentric ring electrode (TCRE) EEG (tEEG) brain signals were recorded and used to control one-dimensional cursor movements. Approach. Eight human subjects were asked to imagine either ‘left’ or ‘right’ hand movement during one recording session to control the computer cursor using TCRE and disc electrodes. Main results. The obtained results show a significant improvement in accuracies using TCREs (44%-100%) compared to disc electrodes (30%-86%). Significance. This study developed the first tEEG-based BCI system for real-time one-dimensional cursor movements and showed high accuracies with little training.

  17. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui; Alotaibi, Hamad S.; Sun, Haiding; Lin, Ronghui; Guo, Wenzhe; Torres-Castanedo, Carlos G.; Liu, Kaikai; Galan, Sergio V.; Li, Xiaohang

    2018-01-01

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  18. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui

    2018-02-23

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  19. High-intensity interval training (swimming) significantly improves the adverse metabolism and comorbidities in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Victor F; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-DE-Lacerda, Carlos A

    2016-05-01

    Controlling obesity and other comorbidities in the population is a challenge in modern society. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) combines short periods of high-intensity exercise with long recovery periods or a low-intensity exercise. The aim was to assess the impact of HIIT in the context of diet-induced obesity in the animal model. C57BL/6 mice were fed one of the two diets: standard chow (lean group [LE]) or a high-fat diet (obese group [OB]). After twelve weeks, the animals were divided into non-trained groups (LE-NT and OB-NT) and trained groups (LE-T and OB-T), and began an exercise protocol. For biochemical analysis of inflammatory and lipid profile, we used a colorimetric enzymatic method and an automatic spectrophotometer. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the experimental groups with Holm-Sidak post-hoc Test. Two-way ANOVA analyzed the interactions between diet and HIIT protocol. HIIT leads to significant reductions in body mass, blood glucose, glucose tolerance and hepatic lipid profile in T-groups compared to NT-groups. HIIT was able to reduce plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, HIIT improves the insulin immunodensity in the islets, reduces the adiposity and the hepatic steatosis in the T-groups. HIIT improves beta-oxidation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and reduces lipogenesis and PPAR-gamma levels in the liver. In skeletal muscle, HIIT improves PPAR-alpha and glucose transporter-4 and reduces PPAR-gamma levels. HIIT leads to attenuate the adverse effects caused by a chronic ingestion of a high-fat diet.

  20. Usefulness of panoramic radiograph for the improvement of periodic oral examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, MinJung; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and utility of panoramic radiograph for the improvement of the periodic oral examinations. Clinical examinations and panoramic examinations were done for the 242 subjects of oral examinations. The results of panoramic radiograph interpretation were compared with the clinical findings. Two questionnaires were created. One was carried out before the panoramic examination and the other done afterwards, to find out the subjects cognition and satisfaction for the clinical and panoramic examinations. Results : 1. Panoramic findings showed a higher detection rate of 31.9% for periodontal diseases, and 23.1% for dental caries than clinical findings. 2. The additional abnormalities detected through panoramic examinations were impacted tooth in 81 subjects (33.6%), maxillary sinus abnormalities in 28 subjects (11.6%), condylar abnormalities in 5 subjects (2.1%), congenital and acquired dental anormalies in 59 subjects (24.5%), and other miscellaneous abnormalities in 34 subjects (14.1%). 3. 164 subjects (67.8%) were satisfied with the current periodic oral examination, and 75 subjects (31.1%) hoped for better accuracy. 4. In the first and second questionnaire, 154 subjects (67.0%) and 163 subjects (70.6%) responded respectively that panoramic examination was necessary, and 193 subjects (83.2%) responded that it actually helped. The panoramic examination was revealed to improve the effectiveness of the periodic oral examination and to increase the satisfaction of the subjects of examination.

  1. Significant improvements in stability and reproducibility of atomic-scale atomic force microscopy in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akrami, S M R; Nakayachi, H; Fukuma, T; Watanabe-Nakayama, T; Asakawa, H

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancement of dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) for liquid-environment applications enabled atomic-scale studies on various interfacial phenomena. However, instabilities and poor reproducibility of the measurements often prevent systematic studies. To solve this problem, we have investigated the effect of various tip treatment methods for atomic-scale imaging and force measurements in liquid. The tested methods include Si coating, Ar plasma, Ar sputtering and UV/O 3 cleaning. We found that all the methods provide significant improvements in both the imaging and force measurements in spite of the tip transfer through the air. Among the methods, we found that the Si coating provides the best stability and reproducibility in the measurements. To understand the origin of the fouling resistance of the cleaned tip surface and the difference between the cleaning methods, we have investigated the tip surface properties by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The results show that the contaminations adsorbed on the tip during the tip transfer through the air should desorb from the surface when it is immersed in aqueous solution due to the enhanced hydrophilicity by the tip treatments. The tip surface prepared by the Si coating is oxidized when it is immersed in aqueous solution. This creates local spots where stable hydration structures are formed. For the other methods, there is no active mechanism to create such local hydration sites. Thus, the hydration structure formed under the tip apex is not necessarily stable. These results reveal the desirable tip properties for atomic-scale AFM measurements in liquid, which should serve as a guideline for further improvements of the tip treatment methods. (paper)

  2. Significant improvement of accuracy and precision in the determination of trace rare earths by fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, L.; Hersh, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    Most of the rare earths in yttrium, gadolinium and lanthanum oxides emit characteristic fluorescent line spectra under irradiation with photons, electrons and x rays. The sensitivity and selectivity of the rare earth fluorescences are high enough to determine the trace amounts (0.01 to 100 ppM) of rare earths. The absolute fluorescent intensities of solids, however, are markedly affected by the synthesis procedure, level of contamination and crystal perfection, resulting in poor accuracy and low precision for the method (larger than 50 percent error). Special care in preparation of the samples is required to obtain good accuracy and precision. It is found that the accuracy and precision for the determination of trace (less than 10 ppM) rare earths by fluorescence analysis improved significantly, while still maintaining the sensitivity, when the determination is made by comparing the ratio of the fluorescent intensities of the trace rare earths to that of a deliberately added rare earth as reference. The variation in the absolute fluorescent intensity remains, but is compensated for by measuring the fluorescent line intensity ratio. Consequently, the determination of trace rare earths (with less than 3 percent error) is easily made by a photoluminescence technique in which the rare earths are excited directly by photons. Accuracy is still maintained when the absolute fluorescent intensity is reduced by 50 percent through contamination by Ni, Fe, Mn or Pb (about 100 ppM). Determination accuracy is also improved for fluorescence analysis by electron excitation and x-ray excitation. For some rare earths, however, accuracy by these techniques is reduced because indirect excitation mechanisms are involved. The excitation mechanisms and the interferences between rare earths are also reported

  3. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-Kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9-24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  4. Model training across multiple breeding cycles significantly improves genomic prediction accuracy in rye (Secale cereale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auinger, Hans-Jürgen; Schönleben, Manfred; Lehermeier, Christina; Schmidt, Malthe; Korzun, Viktor; Geiger, Hartwig H; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Gordillo, Andres; Wilde, Peer; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2016-11-01

    Genomic prediction accuracy can be significantly increased by model calibration across multiple breeding cycles as long as selection cycles are connected by common ancestors. In hybrid rye breeding, application of genome-based prediction is expected to increase selection gain because of long selection cycles in population improvement and development of hybrid components. Essentially two prediction scenarios arise: (1) prediction of the genetic value of lines from the same breeding cycle in which model training is performed and (2) prediction of lines from subsequent cycles. It is the latter from which a reduction in cycle length and consequently the strongest impact on selection gain is expected. We empirically investigated genome-based prediction of grain yield, plant height and thousand kernel weight within and across four selection cycles of a hybrid rye breeding program. Prediction performance was assessed using genomic and pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP and PBLUP). A total of 1040 S 2 lines were genotyped with 16 k SNPs and each year testcrosses of 260 S 2 lines were phenotyped in seven or eight locations. The performance gap between GBLUP and PBLUP increased significantly for all traits when model calibration was performed on aggregated data from several cycles. Prediction accuracies obtained from cross-validation were in the order of 0.70 for all traits when data from all cycles (N CS  = 832) were used for model training and exceeded within-cycle accuracies in all cases. As long as selection cycles are connected by a sufficient number of common ancestors and prediction accuracy has not reached a plateau when increasing sample size, aggregating data from several preceding cycles is recommended for predicting genetic values in subsequent cycles despite decreasing relatedness over time.

  5. Significantly improving trace thallium removal from surface waters during coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Chengxue; Ma, Jun; He, Qiang; Yang, Chun; Jiang, Jin; Wang, Yaan; Wu, Zhengsong

    2017-02-01

    Thallium (Tl) is an element of high toxicity and significant accumulation in human body. There is an urgent need for the development of appropriate strategies for trace Tl removal in drinking water treatment plants. In this study, the efficiency and mechanism of trace Tl (0.5 μg/L) removal by conventional coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO 2 ) were explored in simulated water and two representative surface waters (a river water and a reservoir water obtained from Northeast China). Experimental results showed that nMnO 2 significantly improve Tl(I) removal from selected waters. The removal efficiency was dramatically higher in the simulated water, demonstrating by less than 0.1 μg/L Tl residual. The enhancement of trace Tl removal in the surface waters decreased to a certain extent. Both adjusting water pH to alkaline condition and preoxidation of Tl(I) to Tl(III) benefit trace Tl removal from surface waters. Data also indicated that competitive cation of Ca 2+ decreased the efficiency of trace Tl removal, resulting from the reduction of Tl adsorption on nMnO 2 . Humic acid could largely low Tl removal efficiency during nMnO 2 enhanced coagulation processes. Trace elemental Tl firstly adsorbed on nMnO 2 and then removed accompanying with nMnO 2 settling. The information obtained in the present study may provide a potential strategy for drinking water treatment plants threatened by trace Tl. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An Improved Isotropic Periodic Sum Method That Uses Linear Combinations of Basis Potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Kazuaki Z.

    2012-11-13

    Isotropic periodic sum (IPS) is a technique that calculates long-range interactions differently than conventional lattice sum methods. The difference between IPS and lattice sum methods lies in the shape and distribution of remote images for long-range interaction calculations. The images used in lattice sum calculations are identical to those generated from periodic boundary conditions and are discretely positioned at lattice points in space. The images for IPS calculations are "imaginary", which means they do not explicitly exist in a simulation system and are distributed isotropically and periodically around each particle. Two different versions of the original IPS method exist. The IPSn method is applied to calculations for point charges, whereas the IPSp method calculates polar molecules. However, both IPSn and IPSp have their advantages and disadvantages in simulating bulk water or water-vapor interfacial systems. In bulk water systems, the cutoff radius effect of IPSn strongly affects the configuration, whereas IPSp does not provide adequate estimations of water-vapor interfacial systems unless very long cutoff radii are used. To extend the applicability of the IPS technique, an improved IPS method, which has better accuracy in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems has been developed and named the linear-combination-based isotropic periodic sum (LIPS) method. This improved IPS method uses linear combinations of basis potentials. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of bulk water and water-vapor interfacial systems to evaluate the accuracy of the LIPS method. For bulk water systems, the LIPS method has better accuracy than IPSn in estimating thermodynamic and configurational properties without the countercharge assumption, which is used for IPSp. For water-vapor interfacial systems, LIPS has better accuracy than IPSp and properly estimates thermodynamic and configurational properties. In conclusion, the LIPS method can successfully estimate

  7. An Improved Isotropic Periodic Sum Method That Uses Linear Combinations of Basis Potentials

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Kazuaki Z.; Narumi, Tetsu; Suh, Donguk; Yasuoka, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Isotropic periodic sum (IPS) is a technique that calculates long-range interactions differently than conventional lattice sum methods. The difference between IPS and lattice sum methods lies in the shape and distribution of remote images for long-range interaction calculations. The images used in lattice sum calculations are identical to those generated from periodic boundary conditions and are discretely positioned at lattice points in space. The images for IPS calculations are "imaginary", which means they do not explicitly exist in a simulation system and are distributed isotropically and periodically around each particle. Two different versions of the original IPS method exist. The IPSn method is applied to calculations for point charges, whereas the IPSp method calculates polar molecules. However, both IPSn and IPSp have their advantages and disadvantages in simulating bulk water or water-vapor interfacial systems. In bulk water systems, the cutoff radius effect of IPSn strongly affects the configuration, whereas IPSp does not provide adequate estimations of water-vapor interfacial systems unless very long cutoff radii are used. To extend the applicability of the IPS technique, an improved IPS method, which has better accuracy in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems has been developed and named the linear-combination-based isotropic periodic sum (LIPS) method. This improved IPS method uses linear combinations of basis potentials. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of bulk water and water-vapor interfacial systems to evaluate the accuracy of the LIPS method. For bulk water systems, the LIPS method has better accuracy than IPSn in estimating thermodynamic and configurational properties without the countercharge assumption, which is used for IPSp. For water-vapor interfacial systems, LIPS has better accuracy than IPSp and properly estimates thermodynamic and configurational properties. In conclusion, the LIPS method can successfully estimate

  8. Significant effect of Ca2+ on improving the heat resistance of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Song; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2013-07-01

    The heat resistance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been extensively investigated due to its highly practical significance. Reconstituted skim milk (RSM) has been found to be one of the most effective protectant wall materials for microencapsulating microorganisms during convective drying, such as spray drying. In addition to proteins and carbohydrate, RSM is rich in calcium. It is not clear which component is critical in the RSM protection mechanism. This study investigated the independent effect of calcium. Ca(2+) was added to lactose solution to examine its influence on the heat resistance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZY, Lactobacillus casei Zhang, Lactobacillus plantarum P8 and Streptococcus thermophilus ND03. The results showed that certain Ca(2+) concentrations enhanced the heat resistance of the LAB strains to different extents, that is produced higher survival and shorter regrowth lag times of the bacterial cells. In some cases, the improvements were dramatic. More scientifically insightful and more intensive instrumental study of the Ca(2+) behavior around and in the cells should be carried out in the near future. In the meantime, this work may lead to the development of more cost-effective wall materials with Ca(2+) added as a prime factor. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Targeting Heparin to Collagen within Extracellular Matrix Significantly Reduces Thrombogenicity and Improves Endothelialization of Decellularized Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Suen, Rachel; Wertheim, Jason A; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2016-12-12

    Thrombosis within small-diameter vascular grafts limits the development of bioartificial, engineered vascular conduits, especially those derived from extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we describe an easy-to-implement strategy to chemically modify vascular ECM by covalently linking a collagen binding peptide (CBP) to heparin to form a heparin derivative (CBP-heparin) that selectively binds a subset of collagens. Modification of ECM with CBP-heparin leads to increased deposition of functional heparin (by ∼7.2-fold measured by glycosaminoglycan composition) and a corresponding reduction in platelet binding (>70%) and whole blood clotting (>80%) onto the ECM. Furthermore, addition of CBP-heparin to the ECM stabilizes long-term endothelial cell attachment to the lumen of ECM-derived vascular conduits, potentially through recruitment of heparin-binding growth factors that ultimately improve the durability of endothelialization in vitro. Overall, our findings provide a simple yet effective method to increase deposition of functional heparin on the surface of ECM-based vascular grafts and thereby minimize thrombogenicity of decellularized tissue, overcoming a significant challenge in tissue engineering of bioartificial vessels and vascularized organs.

  10. Significant Improvement in Chronic Persistent Headaches Caused by Small Rathke Cleft Cysts After Transsphenoidal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Issei; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Kita, Daisuke; Sasagawa, Yasuo; Oishi, Masahiro; Tachibana, Osamu; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2017-03-01

    Rathke cleft cysts (RCC) usually are asymptomatic and can be observed via the use of conservative methods. Some patients with RCCs, however, have severe headaches even if they are small enough to be confined to the sella, and these small RCCs seldom have been discussed. This study presents an investigation into clinical characteristics of small RCCs associated with severe headaches, demonstrating efficacy and safety of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) to relieve headaches. In this study, 13 patients with small RCCs (maximum diameter HIT-6) score was calculated both pre- and postoperatively to evaluate headache severity. All patients complained of severe headaches, which disturbed their daily life. Most headaches were nonpulsating and localized in the frontal area. Characteristically, 6 patients (46%) experienced severe headaches with sudden onset that continued chronically. HIT-6 score was 64 on average, meaning headaches affected daily life severely. After surgical decompression of the cyst, headache in all of the patients improved dramatically and HIT-6 score decreased significantly to 37, suggesting that headaches were diminished. No newly developed deficiencies of the anterior pituitary lobe function were detected. Postoperative occurrence of diabetes insipidus was found in 2 patients, both of which were transient. No recurring cysts were found. Severe headaches can develop from small RCCs. In the present study, ETSS was performed on such patients effectively and safely to relieve their headaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Successful percutaneous coronary intervention significantly improves coronary sinus blood flow as assessed by transthoracic echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubarova, Radmila; Boden, William E; Fein, Steven A; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Torosoff, Mikhail

    2018-06-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) has been used to assess coronary sinus blood flow (CSBF), which reflects total coronary arterial blood flow. Successful angioplasty is expected to improve coronary arterial blood flow. Changes in CSBF after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), as assessed by TTE, have not been systematically evaluated. TTE can be utilized to reflect increased CSBF after a successful, clinically indicated PCI. The study cohort included 31 patients (18 females, 62 ± 11 years old) referred for diagnostic cardiac catheterization for suspected coronary artery disease and possible PCI, when clinically indicated. All performed PCIs were successful, with good angiographic outcome. CSBF per cardiac cycle (mL/beat) was measured using transthoracic two-dimensional and Doppler flow imaging as the product of coronary sinus (CS) area and CS flow time-velocity integral. CSBF per minute (mL/min) was calculated as the product of heart rate and CSBF per cardiac cycle. In each patient, CSBF was assessed prospectively, before and after cardiac catheterization with and without clinically indicated PCI. Within- and between-group differences in CSBF before and after PCI were assessed using repeated measures analysis of variance. Technically adequate CSBF measurements were obtained in 24 patients (77%). In patients who did not undergo PCI, there was no significant change in CSBF (278.1 ± 344.1 versus 342.7 ± 248.5, p = 0.36). By contrast, among patients who underwent PCI, CSBF increased significantly (254.3 ± 194.7 versus 618.3 ± 358.5 mL/min, p < 0.01, p-interaction = 0.03). Other hemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters did not change significantly before and after cardiac catheterization in either treatment group. Transthoracic echocardiographic assessment can be employed to document CSBF changes after angioplasty. Future studies are needed to explore the clinical utility of this noninvasive metric.

  12. Improving the training process of highly skilled bodybuilders in the preparatory period, general preparatory phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olexandr Tyhorskyy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to improve the method of training highly skilled bodybuilders. Material and Methods: the study involved eight highly skilled athletes, members of the team of Ukraine on bodybuilding. Results: comparative characteristics of the most commonly used methods of training process in bodybuilding. Developed and substantiated the optimal method of training highly skilled bodybuilders during the general preparatory phase of the preparatory period, which can increase body weight through muscle athletes component. Conclusions: dynamic load factor to raise the intensity of training loads allows orientation help to increase volumes shoulder muscles

  13. Improving the training process of highly skilled bodybuilders in the preparatory period, general preparatory phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olexandr Tyhorskyy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to improve the method of training highly skilled bodybuilders during the general preparatory phase. Material and Methods: the study involved eight highly skilled athletes, members of the team of Ukraine on bodybuilding. Results: comparative characteristics of the most commonly used methods of training process in bodybuilding. Developed and substantiated the optimal method of training highly skilled bodybuilders during the general preparatory phase of the preparatory period, which can increase body weight through muscle athletes component. Conclusions: based on studies, recommended the optimum method of training highly skilled bodybuilders depending on mezotsykles and microcycles general preparatory phase

  14. Improving the Quality of Care for Patients Diagnosed With Glioma During the Perioperative Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riblet, Natalie B.V.; Schlosser, Evelyn M.; Homa, Karen; Snide, Jennifer A.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Simmons, Nathan E.; Sargent, David H.; Mason, Linda P.; Cooney, Tobi J.; Kennedy, Nancy L.; Fadul, Camilo E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Although there is agreement on the oncologic management of patients with glioma, few guidelines exist to standardize other aspects of care, including supportive care. Methods: A quality improvement (QI) project was chartered to improve the care provided to patients with glioma. A multidisciplinary team was convened and identified 10 best-practice measures. Using a plan-do-study-act framework, the team brainstormed and implemented various improvement interventions between June 2011 and October 2012. Statistical process control charts were used to evaluate progress. A dashboard of quality measures was generated to allow for ongoing measurement and reporting. Results: The retrospective assessment phase consisted of 43 patients with diagnosis of glioma. A manual medical record review for these patients showed that compliance with 10 best-practice measures ranged from 23% to 100%. Several factors contributed to less-than-ideal process performance, including poor communication among disciplines and lack of familiarity with the larger system of care. After implementing improvement interventions, performance was measured in 96 consecutive patients with glioma. The proportion of patients who met criteria for 10 practice measures significantly improved (pre-QI work, 63%; post-QI work, 85%; P = .003). The largest improvement was observed in the measure assessing for preoperative notification of the neuro-oncology program (pre-QI work, 39%; post-QI work, 97%; P sustaining process improvements. PMID:25294392

  15. Significant improvement of eczema with skin care and food elimination in small children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrman, Gunilla; Tomicić, Sara; Böttcher, Malin Fagerås; Oldaeus, Göran; Strömberg, Leif; Fälth-magnusson, Karin

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate common methods of investigation and treatment in children younger than 2 y of age with eczema, with or without sensitization to food allergens. One hundred and twenty-three children younger than 2 y of age with eczema and suspected food allergy were included in this prospective study. The children underwent skin-prick test with cow's milk, fresh hen's egg white and wheat. Specific IgE to milk and egg white was analysed. The eczema extent and severity was estimated with SCORAD before and after treatment. Children with a positive skin-prick test were instructed to exclude that food item from their diet. All children were treated with emollients and topical steroids when needed. Sixty-two of the children were skin-prick positive to at least one of the allergens; 62% had mild, 30% moderate and 8% severe eczema at their first visit. After treatment, 90% had mild, 10% moderate and 0% severe eczema. Forty-six per cent of the children had circulating IgE antibodies to milk or egg white. Ten per cent had specific IgE but negative skin-prick test to the same allergen. This subgroup improved their eczema significantly without elimination diet. The conventional treatments for children with eczema, i.e. skin care and food elimination, are effective. The beneficial effect of skin care as the first step should not be neglected, and it may not be necessary to eliminate food allergens to relieve skin symptoms in all food-sensitized children with eczema.

  16. Introduction of e-learning in dental radiology reveals significantly improved results in final examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckfessel, Sandra; Stühmer, Constantin; Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Kupka, Thomas; Behrends, Marianne; Matthies, Herbert; Vaske, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rücker, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Because a traditionally instructed dental radiology lecture course is very time-consuming and labour-intensive, online courseware, including an interactive-learning module, was implemented to support the lectures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of students who have worked with web-based courseware as well as the effect on their results in final examinations. Users (n(3+4)=138) had access to the e-program from any networked computer at any time. Two groups (n(3)=71, n(4)=67) had to pass a final exam after using the e-course. Results were compared with two groups (n(1)=42, n(2)=48) who had studied the same content by attending traditional lectures. In addition a survey of the students was statistically evaluated. Most of the respondents reported a positive attitude towards e-learning and would have appreciated more access to computer-assisted instruction. Two years after initiating the e-course the failure rate in the final examination dropped significantly, from 40% to less than 2%. The very positive response to the e-program and improved test scores demonstrated the effectiveness of our e-course as a learning aid. Interactive modules in step with clinical practice provided learning that is not achieved by traditional teaching methods alone. To what extent staff savings are possible is part of a further study. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimized distributed systems achieve significant performance improvement on sorted merging of massive VCF files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaobo; Gao, Jingjing; Jin, Peng; Eng, Celeste; Burchard, Esteban G; Beaty, Terri H; Ruczinski, Ingo; Mathias, Rasika A; Barnes, Kathleen; Wang, Fusheng; Qin, Zhaohui S

    2018-06-01

    Sorted merging of genomic data is a common data operation necessary in many sequencing-based studies. It involves sorting and merging genomic data from different subjects by their genomic locations. In particular, merging a large number of variant call format (VCF) files is frequently required in large-scale whole-genome sequencing or whole-exome sequencing projects. Traditional single-machine based methods become increasingly inefficient when processing large numbers of files due to the excessive computation time and Input/Output bottleneck. Distributed systems and more recent cloud-based systems offer an attractive solution. However, carefully designed and optimized workflow patterns and execution plans (schemas) are required to take full advantage of the increased computing power while overcoming bottlenecks to achieve high performance. In this study, we custom-design optimized schemas for three Apache big data platforms, Hadoop (MapReduce), HBase, and Spark, to perform sorted merging of a large number of VCF files. These schemas all adopt the divide-and-conquer strategy to split the merging job into sequential phases/stages consisting of subtasks that are conquered in an ordered, parallel, and bottleneck-free way. In two illustrating examples, we test the performance of our schemas on merging multiple VCF files into either a single TPED or a single VCF file, which are benchmarked with the traditional single/parallel multiway-merge methods, message passing interface (MPI)-based high-performance computing (HPC) implementation, and the popular VCFTools. Our experiments suggest all three schemas either deliver a significant improvement in efficiency or render much better strong and weak scalabilities over traditional methods. Our findings provide generalized scalable schemas for performing sorted merging on genetics and genomics data using these Apache distributed systems.

  18. Cyclosporin A significantly improves preeclampsia signs and suppresses inflammation in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bihui; Yang, Jinying; Huang, Qian; Bao, Junjie; Brennecke, Shaun Patrick; Liu, Huishu

    2016-05-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with an increased inflammatory response. Immune suppression might be an effective treatment. The aim of this study was to examine whether Cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, improves clinical characteristics of preeclampsia and suppresses inflammation in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced preeclampsia rat model. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group 1 (PE) rats each received LPS via tail vein on gestational day (GD) 14; group 2 (PE+CsA5) rats were pretreated with LPS (1.0 μg/kg) on GD 14 and were then treated with CsA (5mg/kg, ip) on GDs 16, 17 and 18; group 3 (PE+CsA10) rats were pretreated with LPS (1.0 μg/kg) on GD 14 and were then treated with CsA (10mg/kg, ip) on GDs 16, 17 and 18; group 4 (pregnant control, PC) rats were treated with the vehicle (saline) used for groups 1, 2 and 3. Systolic blood pressure, urinary albumin, biometric parameters and the levels of serum cytokines were measured on day 20. CsA treatment significantly reduced LPS-induced systolic blood pressure and the mean 24-h urinary albumin excretion. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α were increased in the LPS treatment group but were reduced in (LPS+CsA) group (Ppreeclampsia signs and attenuated inflammatory responses in the LPS induced preeclampsia rat model which suggests that immunosuppressant might be an alternative management option for preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Parameter definition using vibration prediction software leads to significant drilling performance improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Dalmo; Hanley, Chris Hanley; Fonseca, Isaac; Santos, Juliana [National Oilwell Varco, Houston TX (United States); Leite, Daltro J.; Borella, Augusto; Gozzi, Danilo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The understanding and mitigation of downhole vibration has been a heavily researched subject in the oil industry as it results in more expensive drilling operations, as vibrations significantly diminish the amount of effective drilling energy available to the bit and generate forces that can push the bit or the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) off its concentric axis of rotation, producing high magnitude impacts with the borehole wall. In order to drill ahead, a sufficient amount of energy must be supplied by the rig to overcome the resistance of the drilling system, including the reactive torque of the system, drag forces, fluid pressure losses and energy dissipated by downhole vibrations, then providing the bit with the energy required to fail the rock. If the drill string enters resonant modes of vibration, not only does it decreases the amount of available energy to drill, but increases the potential for catastrophic downhole equipment and drilling bit failures. In this sense, the mitigation of downhole vibrations will result in faster, smoother, and cheaper drilling operations. A software tool using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been developed to provide better understanding of downhole vibration phenomena in drilling environments. The software tool calculates the response of the drilling system at various input conditions, based on the design of the wellbore along with the geometry of the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) and the drill string. It identifies where undesired levels of resonant vibration will be driven by certain combinations of specific drilling parameters, and also which combinations of drilling parameters will result in lower levels of vibration, so the least shocks, the highest penetration rate and the lowest cost per foot can be achieved. With the growing performance of personal computers, complex software systems modeling the drilling vibrations using FEA has been accessible to a wider audience of field users, further complimenting with real time

  20. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Improving prediction accuracy of GPS satellite clocks with periodic variation behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Youn Jeong; Cho, Jeongho; Heo, Moon Beom

    2010-07-01

    The broadcast ephemeris and IGS ultra-rapid predicted (IGU-P) products are primarily available for use in real-time GPS applications. The IGU orbit precision has been remarkably improved since late 2007, but its clock products have not shown acceptably high-quality prediction performance. One reason for this fact is that satellite atomic clocks in space can be easily influenced by various factors such as temperature and environment and this leads to complicated aspects like periodic variations, which are not sufficiently described by conventional models. A more reliable prediction model is thus proposed in this paper in order to be utilized particularly in describing the periodic variation behaviour satisfactorily. The proposed prediction model for satellite clocks adds cyclic terms to overcome the periodic effects and adopts delay coordinate embedding, which offers the possibility of accessing linear or nonlinear coupling characteristics like satellite behaviour. The simulation results have shown that the proposed prediction model outperforms the IGU-P solutions at least on a daily basis.

  1. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, Jeffrey D.; Jansen, John R.; Janke, David H.; Plowman, Catherine M.

    2003-01-01

    Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results

  2. Contemporary Management of Acute Aortic Occlusion Has Evolved but Outcomes Have Not Significantly Improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, William P; Patel, Rupal K; Columbo, Jesse A; Flahive, Julie; Aiello, Francesco A; Baril, Donald T; Schanzer, Andres; Messina, Louis M

    2016-07-01

    hospitalization. AAO is now more commonly caused by in situ thrombosis rather than embolism. A high index of suspicion for AAO is required for prompt diagnosis and treatment, particularly when patients present with profound lower extremity neurologic deficit. In comparison with previous reports, the contemporary management of AAO includes increased use of axillobifemoral bypass and now involves endovascular revascularization, although a variety of open surgical procedures are utilized. However, the in-hospital mortality and morbidity of AAO has not decreased significantly over the last 2 decades and mid-term survival remains limited. Further study is required to identify strategies that improve outcomes after AAO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficiency improvement of nuclear power plant operation: the significant role of advanced nuclear fuel technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Velde, AA. de; Burtak, F.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper authors deals with nuclear fuel cycle and their economic aspects. At Siemens, the developments focusing on the reduction of fuel cycle costs are currently directed on .further batch average burnup increase, .improvement of fuel reliability, .enlargement of fuel operation margins, .improvement of methods for fuel design and core analysis. These items will be presented in detail in the full paper and illustrated by the global operating experience of Siemens fuel for both PWRs and BWRs. (authors)

  4. Improving the training process of skilled bodybuilders in specially-preparatory phase of the preparatory period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Dzhym

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study methods of improving the training process of skilled bodybuilders in a specially-preparatory phase of the preparatory period. Materials and Methods: the study involved 18 skilled bodybuilders are included in the team of the Kharkiv region of bodybuilding. Results: a comparative characteristic of the most commonly used methods of training process in bodybuilding. Developed and justified the optimal technique for skilled bodybuilders, depending on the initial form of the athlete at the beginning of a specially-preparatory phase of training. Shows the dependence of changes in body weight bodybuilder from the training process. Conclusions: on the basis of the research the author proposes an optimal method of training depending on the training microcycle in the run specially-preparatory stage.

  5. Millisecond photo-thermal process on significant improvement of supercapacitor’s performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kui; Wang, Jixiao; Wu, Ying; Zhao, Song; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Shichang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A high way for charge transfer is created by a millisecond photo-thermal process which could decrease contact resistance among nanomaterials and improve the electrochemical performances. - Highlights: • Improve conductivity among nanomaterials with a millisecond photo-thermal process. • The specific capacitance can increase about 25% with an photo-thermal process. • The circle stability and rate capability can be improved above 10% with photo-thermal process. • Provide a new way that create electron path to improve electrochemical performance. - Abstract: Supercapacitors fabricated with nanomaterials usually have high specific capacitance and excellent performance. However, the small size of nanomaterials renders a considerable limitation of the contact area among nanomaterials, which is harmful to charge carrier transfer. This fact may hinder the development and application of nanomaterials in electrochemical storage systems. Here, a millisecond photo-thermal process was introduced to create a charge carries transfer path to decrease the contact resistance among nanomaterials, and enhance the electrochemical performance of supercapacitors. Polyaniline (PANI) nanowire, as a model nanomaterial, was used to modify electrodes under different photo-thermal process conditions. The modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the results were analysed by equivalent circuit simulation. These results demonstrate that the photo-thermal process can alter the morphology of PANI nanowires, lower the charge transfer resistances and thus improve the performance of electrodes. The specific capacitance increase of the modified electrodes is about 25%. The improvement of the circle stability and rate capability are above 10%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt on research the effect of photo-thermal process on the conductivity

  6. A Review of New and Developing Technology to Significantly Improve Mars Sample-Return Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.; Brophy, J.; Gilmore, M.; Rodgers, D.; Wilcox, B.

    2000-07-01

    A JPL development activity was initiated in FY 1999 for the purpose of examining and evaluating technologies that could materially improve future (i.e., beyond the 2005 launch) Mars sample return missions. The scope of the technology review was comprehensive and end-to-end; the goal was to improve mass, cost, risk, and scientific return. A specific objective was to assess approaches to sample return with only one Earth launch. While the objective of the study was specifically for sample-return, in-situ missions can also benefit from using many of the technologies examined.

  7. Template-mediated synthesis of periodic membranes for improved liquid-phase separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groger, H.

    1997-01-01

    Solid/liquid separations of particulates in waste streams will benefit from design and development of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with uniform, tailorable pore size and chemical, thermal, and mechanical stability. Such membranes will perform solid/liquid separations with high selectivity, permeance, lifetime, and low operating costs. Existing organic and inorganic membrane materials do not adequately meet all these requirements. An innovative solution to the need for improved inorganic membranes is the application of mesoporous ceramics with narrow pore-size distributions and tailorable pore size (1.5 to 10 nm) that have recently been shown to form with the use of organic surfactant molecules and surfactant assemblies as removable templates. This series of porous ceramics, designated MCM-41, consists of silica or aluminosilicates distinguished by periodic arrays of uniform channels. In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, American Research Corporation of Virginia will demonstrate the use of supported MCM-41 thin films deposited by a proprietary technique, as UF membranes. Technical objectives include deposition in thin, defect-free periodic mesoporous MCM-41 membranes on porous supports; measurement of membrane separation factors, permeance, and fouling; and measurement of membrane lifetime as part of an engineering and economic analysis

  8. Template-mediated synthesis of periodic membranes for improved liquid-phase separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groger, H. [American Research Corp. of Virginia, Radford, VA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Solid/liquid separations of particulates in waste streams will benefit from design and development of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with uniform, tailorable pore size and chemical, thermal, and mechanical stability. Such membranes will perform solid/liquid separations with high selectivity, permeance, lifetime, and low operating costs. Existing organic and inorganic membrane materials do not adequately meet all these requirements. An innovative solution to the need for improved inorganic membranes is the application of mesoporous ceramics with narrow pore-size distributions and tailorable pore size (1.5 to 10 nm) that have recently been shown to form with the use of organic surfactant molecules and surfactant assemblies as removable templates. This series of porous ceramics, designated MCM-41, consists of silica or aluminosilicates distinguished by periodic arrays of uniform channels. In this Phase I Small Business Innovation Research program, American Research Corporation of Virginia will demonstrate the use of supported MCM-41 thin films deposited by a proprietary technique, as UF membranes. Technical objectives include deposition in thin, defect-free periodic mesoporous MCM-41 membranes on porous supports; measurement of membrane separation factors, permeance, and fouling; and measurement of membrane lifetime as part of an engineering and economic analysis.

  9. Prostate health index (phi) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) significantly improve diagnostic accuracy in patients undergoing prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdonà, Sisto; Bruzzese, Dario; Ferro, Matteo; Autorino, Riccardo; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Longo, Michele; Spinelli, Rosa; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Oliva, Andrea; De Sio, Marco; Damiano, Rocco; Altieri, Vincenzo; Terracciano, Daniela

    2013-02-15

    Prostate health index (phi) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) have been recently proposed as novel biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa). We assessed the diagnostic performance of these biomarkers, alone or in combination, in men undergoing first prostate biopsy for suspicion of PCa. One hundred sixty male subjects were enrolled in this prospective observational study. PSA molecular forms, phi index (Beckman coulter immunoassay), PCA3 score (Progensa PCA3 assay), and other established biomarkers (tPSA, fPSA, and %fPSA) were assessed before patients underwent a 18-core first prostate biopsy. The discriminating ability between PCa-negative and PCa-positive biopsies of Beckman coulter phi and PCA3 score and other used biomarkers were determined. One hundred sixty patients met inclusion criteria. %p2PSA (p2PSA/fPSA × 100), phi and PCA3 were significantly higher in patients with PCa compared to PCa-negative group (median values: 1.92 vs. 1.55, 49.97 vs. 36.84, and 50 vs. 32, respectively, P ≤ 0.001). ROC curve analysis showed that %p2PSA, phi, and PCA3 are good indicator of malignancy (AUCs = 0.68, 0.71, and 0.66, respectively). A multivariable logistic regression model consisting of both the phi index and PCA3 score allowed to reach an overall diagnostic accuracy of 0.77. Decision curve analysis revealed that this "combined" marker achieved the highest net benefit over the examined range of the threshold probability. phi and PCA3 showed no significant difference in the ability to predict PCa diagnosis in men undergoing first prostate biopsy. However, diagnostic performance is significantly improved by combining phi and PCA3. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Aggregate analysis of regulatory authority assessors' comments to improve the quality of periodic safety update reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullian, Sandra; Jaskiewicz, Lukasz; Pfannkuche, Hans-Jürgen; Parker, Jeremy; Lalande-Luesink, Isabelle; Lewis, David J; Close, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Marketing authorization holders (MAHs) are expected to provide high-quality periodic safety update reports (PSURs) on their pharmaceutical products to health authorities (HAs). We present a novel instrument aiming at improving quality of PSURs based on standardized analysis of PSUR assessment reports (ARs) received from the European Union HAs across products and therapeutic areas. All HA comments were classified into one of three categories: "Request for regulatory actions," "Request for medical and scientific information," or "Data deficiencies." The comments were graded according to their impact on patients' safety, the drug's benefit-risk profile, and the MAH's pharmacovigilance system. A total of 476 comments were identified through the analysis of 63 PSUR HA ARs received in 2013 and 2014; 47 (10%) were classified as "Requests for regulatory actions," 309 (65%) as "Requests for medical and scientific information," and 118 (25%) comments were related to "Data deficiencies." The most frequent comments were requests for labeling changes (35 HA comments in 19 ARs). The aggregate analysis revealed commonly raised issues and prompted changes of the MAH's procedures related to the preparation of PSURs. The authors believe that this novel instrument based on the evaluation of PSUR HA ARs serves as a valuable mechanism to enhance the quality of PSURs and decisions about optimization of the use of the products and, therefore, contributes to improve further the MAH's pharmacovigilance system and patient safety. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Improved orbits of two periodic comets: Tsuchinshan 1 and Tsuchinshan 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szutowicz, S.

    1986-01-01

    The observations made during four apparitions of two comets were collected and the orbits of the comets were improved; 86 observations of Comet Tsuchinshan 1 and 50 observations of Comet Tsuchinshan 2 made in the period 1965-1985 were used. The orbit of Comet Tsuchinshan 1 was improved taking into account nongravitational effects in its motion as well as a displacement of the photometric center from the center of mass. The following values of nongravitational parameters and of observational parameter D were obtained: A 1 = 0.75953 x 10 -8 , A 2 0.00375 x 10 -8 , D = 0.34698 x 10 -3 . To link all observations of Comet Tsuchinshan 2 by one system of elements it was sufficient to add observational effects as a displacement of the photometric center from the center of mass. The following value of parameter D was obtained: D = 1.00200 x 10 -3 . The equations of motion of both comets were integrated backwards and forwards till 1992. Ephemerides for their next returns were computed. 6 refs., 5 tabs. (author)

  12. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  13. Reducing Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep Does Not Significantly Improve Insomnia in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the...

  14. Significant performance improvement obtained in a wireless mesh network using a beamswitching antenna

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available mesh network operated in a fixed 11 Mbps mode. The throughput improvement in multi-hop communication obtained in the presence of an interferer is tenfold, from 0.2 Mbps to 2 Mbps. Index Terms?antenna, smart antenna, wireless mesh network, WMN... efficiency in the communications, and active research and development of new methods and technologies enabling this at the physical layer, including multiple antenna techniques, such as multiple input multiple output (MIMO) and smart antennas...

  15. Time trends, improvements and national auditing of rectal cancer management over an 18-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodeda, K; Johansson, R; Zar, N; Birgisson, H; Dahlberg, M; Skullman, S; Lindmark, G; Glimelius, B; Påhlman, L; Martling, A

    2015-09-01

    The main aims were to explore time trends in the management and outcome of patients with rectal cancer in a national cohort and to evaluate the possible impact of national auditing on overall outcomes. A secondary aim was to provide population-based data for appraisal of external validity in selected patient series. Data from the Swedish ColoRectal Cancer Registry with virtually complete national coverage were utilized in this cohort study on 29 925 patients with rectal cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2012. Of eligible patients, nine were excluded. During the study period, overall, relative and disease-free survival increased. Postoperative mortality after 30 and 90 days decreased to 1.7% and 2.9%. The 5-year local recurrence rate dropped to 5.0%. Resection margins improved, as did peri-operative blood loss despite more multivisceral resections being performed. Fewer patients underwent palliative resection and the proportion of non-operated patients increased. The proportions of temporary and permanent stoma formation increased. Preoperative radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy became more common as did multidisciplinary team conferences. Variability in rectal cancer management between healthcare regions diminished over time when new aspects of patient care were audited. There have been substantial changes over time in the management of patients with rectal cancer, reflected in improved outcome. Much indirect evidence indicates that auditing matters, but without a control group it is not possible to draw firm conclusions regarding the possible impact of a quality control registry on faster shifts in time trends, decreased variability and improvements. Registry data were made available for reference. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Intraoperative Sensorcaine significantly improves postoperative pain management in outpatient reduction mammaplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliford, Alfred T; Spector, Jason A; Flores, Roberto L; Louie, Otway; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S

    2007-09-15

    Breast reduction is one of the most frequently performed plastic surgical procedures in the United States; more than 160,500 patients underwent the procedure in 2005. Many outpatient reduction mammaplasty patients report the greatest postoperative discomfort in the first 48 hours. The authors' investigated the effect of intraoperative topical application of the long-acting local anesthetic agent bupivacaine (Sensorcaine or Marcaine) on postoperative pain, time to postanesthesia care unit discharge, and postoperative use of narcotic medication. In a prospective, randomized, single-blind trial, intraoperative use of Sensorcaine versus placebo (normal saline) was compared. Postoperative pain was quantified using the visual analogue scale, and time to discharge from the postanesthesia care unit was recorded. Patients documented their outpatient pain medication usage. Of the 37 patients enrolled in the study, 20 were treated with intraoperative topical Sensorcaine and 17 received placebo. Patients treated with Sensorcaine were discharged home significantly faster (2.9 hours versus 3.8 hours, p = 0.002). The control arm consistently had higher pain scores in the postanesthesia care unit (although not statistically significant) than the Sensorcaine group using the visual analogue scale system. Furthermore, patients receiving Sensorcaine required significantly less narcotic medication while recovering at home (mean, 3.5 tablets of Vicodin) than the control group (mean, 6.4 tablets; p = 0.001). There were no complications resulting from Sensorcaine usage. This prospective, randomized, single-blind study demonstrates that a single dose of intraoperative Sensorcaine provides a safe, inexpensive, and efficacious way to significantly shorten the length of postanesthesia care unit stay and significantly decrease postoperative opioid analgesic use in patients undergoing ambulatory reduction mammaplasty.

  17. Significant Improvements in Pyranometer Nighttime Offsets Using High-Flow DC Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchenreiter, Mark; Michalski, J.J.; Long, C.N.; Habte, Aron

    2017-05-22

    Accurate solar radiation measurements using pyranometers are required to understand radiative impacts on the Earth's energy budget, solar energy production, and to validate radiative transfer models. Ventilators of pyranometers, which are used to keep the domes clean and dry, also affect instrument thermal offset accuracy. This poster presents a high-level overview of the ventilators for single-black-detector pyranometers and black-and-white pyranometers. For single-black-detector pyranometers with ventilators, high-flow-rate (50-CFM and higher), 12-V DC fans lower the offsets, lower the scatter, and improve the predictability of nighttime offsets compared to lower-flow-rate (35-CFM), 120-V AC fans operated in the same type of environmental setup. Black-and-white pyranometers, which are used to measure diffuse horizontal irradiance, sometimes show minor improvement with DC fan ventilation, but their offsets are always small, usually no more than 1 W/m2, whether AC- or DC-ventilated.

  18. Nitrite addition to acidified sludge significantly improves digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fangzhou; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo; Batstone, Damien J.; Freguia, Stefano; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-12-01

    Sludge management is a major issue for water utilities globally. Poor digestibility and dewaterability are the main factors determining the cost for sludge management, whereas pathogen and toxic metal concentrations limit beneficial reuse. In this study, the effects of low level nitrite addition to acidified sludge to simultaneously enhance digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction were investigated. Waste activated sludge (WAS) from a full-scale waste water treatment plant was treated at pH 2 with 10 mg NO2--N/L for 5 h. Biochemical methane potential tests showed an increase in the methane production of 28%, corresponding to an improvement from 247 ± 8 L CH4/kg VS to 317 ± 1 L CH4/kg VS. The enhanced removal of toxic metals further increased the methane production by another 18% to 360 ± 6 L CH4/kg VS (a total increase of 46%). The solids content of dewatered sludge increased from 14.6 ± 1.4% in the control to 18.2 ± 0.8%. A 4-log reduction for both total coliforms and E. coli was achieved. Overall, this study highlights the potential of acidification with low level nitrite addition as an effective and simple method achieving multiple improvements in terms of sludge management.

  19. Efficiency improvement of nuclear power plant operation: the significant role of advanced nuclear fuel technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velde Van de, A.; Burtak, F.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the increased liberalisation of the power markets, nuclear power generation is being exposed to high cost reduction pressure. In this paper we highlight the role of advanced nuclear fuel technologies to reduce the fuel cycle costs and therefore increase the efficiency of nuclear power plant operation. The key factor is a more efficient utilisation of the fuel and present developments at Siemens are consequently directed at (i) further increase of batch average burnup, (ii) improvement of fuel reliability, (iii) enlargement of fuel operation margins and (iv) improvement of methods for fuel design and core analysis. As a result, the nuclear fuel cycle costs for a typical LWR have been reduced during the past decades by about US$ 35 million per year. The estimated impact of further burnup increases on the fuel cycle costs is expected to be an additional saving of US$10 - 15 million per year. Due to the fact that the fuel will operate closer to design limits, a careful approach is required when introducing advanced fuel features in reload quantities. Trust and co-operation between the fuel vendors and the utilities is a prerequisite for the common success. (authors)

  20. Significant improvement of mouse cloning technique by treatment with trichostatin A after somatic nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Mizutani, Eiji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Thuan, Nguyen Van; Wakayama, Sayaka; Bui, Hong-Thuy; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2006-01-01

    The low success rate of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is believed to be associated with epigenetic errors including abnormal DNA hypermethylation. Recently, we elucidated by using round spermatids that, after nuclear transfer, treatment of zygotes with trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can remarkably reduce abnormal DNA hypermethylation depending on the origins of transferred nuclei and their genomic regions [S. Kishigami, N. Van Thuan, T. Hikichi, H. Ohta, S. Wakayama. E. Mizutani, T. Wakayama, Epigenetic abnormalities of the mouse paternal zygotic genome associated with microinsemination of round spermatids, Dev. Biol. (2005) in press]. Here, we found that 5-50 nM TSA-treatment for 10 h following oocyte activation resulted in more efficient in vitro development of somatic cloned embryos to the blastocyst stage from 2- to 5-fold depending on the donor cells including tail tip cells, spleen cells, neural stem cells, and cumulus cells. This TSA-treatment also led to more than 5-fold increase in success rate of mouse cloning from cumulus cells without obvious abnormality but failed to improve ES cloning success. Further, we succeeded in establishment of nuclear transfer-embryonic stem (NT-ES) cells from TSA-treated cloned blastocyst at a rate three times higher than those from untreated cloned blastocysts. Thus, our data indicate that TSA-treatment after SCNT in mice can dramatically improve the practical application of current cloning techniques

  1. APPLICATION OF PULSE-PERIODICAL MODE FOR IMPROVEMENT OF LASER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Apollonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to estimate an application of pulse-periodical mode for improvement of laser treatment efficiency. Laser technologies have been widely used in the processes of material treatment with the purpose to provide them the required surface properties and also for high accuracy cutting of sheet materials. Application of complex treatment is of great interest and especially when it is used for worn-out surfaces with formation of a coating by gas-flame laying of powder mixture of specific composition and subsequent laser fusion.Increase of laser unit capacity is very important task for higher efficiency of laser technology application in mechanical engineering. Nowadays technological processes using lasers with high average power (more than 100 W have been applying only sources that are working in two modes, namely: continuous and pulse- periodical (P-P with pulse repetition rate from some units to several hundred hertz and pulse duration within dozens to hundreds of microseconds and even within milliseconds. On the other hand, in some cases shielding effect of plasma cloud formed during laser alloying, cladding or welding reduces the efficiency of laser treatment up to 50 % depending on plasma composition and laser beam length. High frequency P-P laser systems with high average power working in mode of Q-factor modulation allow to realize principally other mechanism of irradiation interaction with materials that is an ablation. In this case it is possible to provide local energy release both in space and time.The performed analysis has revealed that P-P mode of laser operation for a majority of treatment processes is much better and more efficient from energetic point of view in comparison with the continuous mode. On the basis of the developments it is possible to make a conclusion that there is a possibility to create laser systems working in high frequency P-P mode with high average power above hundreds watt.

  2. The Improvement of Screening the Significant Factors of Oil Blends as Bio lubricant Base Stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Hajarul Ashikin Shamsuddin; Rozaini Abdullah; Zainab Hamzah; Siti Jamilah Hanim Mohd Yusof

    2015-01-01

    A new formulation bio lubricant base stock was developed by blending of waste cooking oil (WCO) with Jatropha curcas oil (JCO). The objective of this research is to evaluate significant factors contributing to the production of oil blends for bio lubricant application. The significant factors used in this study were oil ratio (WCO:JCO), agitation times (min) and agitation speed (rpm). The blended oil bio based lubricant was used to determine the saponification, acid, peroxide and iodine values. The experimental design used in this study was the 2 level-factorial design. In this experiment, it was found that the effect of oil ratio and interaction of oil ratio and agitation speed gave the most significant effect in oil blends as bio lubricant base stock. The highest ratio of oil blend 80 %:20 % WCO:JCO, with low agitation speed of 300 rpm and low agitation time of 30 minutes gave the optimum results. The acid, saponification, peroxide and iodine values obtained were 0.517±0.08 mg KOH/ g, 126.23±1.62 mg/ g, 7.5±2.0 m eq/ kg and 50.42±2.85 mg/ g respectively. A higher ratio of waste cooking oil blends was found to be favourable as bio lubricant base stock. (author)

  3. EASE-Grid 2.0: Incremental but Significant Improvements for Earth-Gridded Data Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H. Savoie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Defined in the early 1990s for use with gridded satellite passive microwave data, the Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid was quickly adopted and used for distribution of a variety of satellite and in situ data sets. Conceptually easy to understand, EASE-Grid suffers from limitations that make it impossible to format in the widely popular GeoTIFF convention without reprojection. Importing EASE-Grid data into standard mapping software packages is nontrivial and error-prone. This article defines a standard for an improved EASE-Grid 2.0 definition, addressing how the changes rectify issues with the original grid definition. Data distributed using the EASE-Grid 2.0 standard will be easier for users to import into standard software packages and will minimize common reprojection errors that users had encountered with the original EASE-Grid definition.

  4. Innovative dairy cow management to improve resistance to metabolic and infectious diseases during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasse, P; Vanacker, N; Ollier, S; Ster, C

    2018-02-01

    The incidence of metabolic and infectious diseases varies greatly during the lactation cycle. Most new cases of clinical mastitis appear at the beginning of lactation, and the incidence increases with the level of milk production. In addition to mastitis, many other infectious diseases become clinically apparent during the first 2weeks of lactation. During this time, cows are in a negative energy balance and must mobilize body reserves to balance the deficit between food energy intake and energy required for milk production. The relationships between energy deficit and metabolic diseases, such as ketosis and hepatic lipidosis, are well known. Furthermore, cows in energy deficit have a weakened immune system and are therefore more susceptible to infections. There is now good evidence that the increase in circulating non-esterified fatty acids impairs immune cell functions. Therefore, management approaches that reduce the negative energy balance and the increase in non-esterified fatty acids at the beginning of lactation are likely to improve resistance to infection. Improving the nutrient supply through periparturient nutritional management has been the subject of considerable research. However, another way to reduce the imbalance between nutrient supply and demand is to temporarily decrease the latter. In this review, we examine how management strategies such as conjugated linoleic acid feeding, prepartum milking, or limiting postpartum milk production could be used to reduce metabolic perturbations and immunosuppression during the transition period. At this stage, it appears that reducing the amount of milk harvested postpartum by means of partial milking in the first days after calving is the most promising approach to reduce metabolic stress and immunosuppression without compromising the productivity of high-yielding dairy cows. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. A patient/family-centered strategic plan can drive significant improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, Richard J; Crandall, Wallace V; Berry, Janet C; Stoverock, Linda; Rosen, Kerry; Budin, Lee; Kelleher, Kelly J; Gleeson, Sean P; Davis, J Terrance

    2014-08-01

    The use of a PFCSP, as a road map to operationalize the hospital's vision, has been a compelling paradigm to achieve significant QI results. The framework is simple yet directly aligns with the IOM domains of quality. It has inspired and helped actively engage hospital personnel in the work required to achieve the goals and vision of the hospital system. Five years after initiating this type of plan, activity is flourishing in each of the domains and midterm results are substantial. We think that the nature of this strategic plan has been an important aspect of our success to date.

  6. An integrated PRA module for fast determination of risk significance and improvement effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Chun-Chang; Lin, Jyh-Der

    2004-01-01

    With the widely use of PRA technology in risk-informed applications, to predict the changes of CDF and LERF becomes a standard process for risk-informed applications. This paper describes an integrated PRA module prepared for risk-informed applications. The module contains a super risk engine, a super fault tree engine, an advanced PRA model and a tool for data base maintenance. The individual element of the module also works well for purpose other than risk-informed applications. The module has been verified and validated through a series of scrupulous benchmark tests with similar software. The results of the benchmark tests showed that the module has remarkable accuracy and speed even for an extremely large-size top-logic fault tree as well as for the case in which large amount of MCSs may be generated. The risk monitor for nuclear power plants in Taiwan is the first application to adopt the module. The results predicted by the risk monitor are now accepted by the regulatory agency. A tool to determine the risk significance according to the inspection findings will be the next application to adopt the module in the near future. This tool classified the risk significance into four different color codes according to the level of increase on CDF. Experience of application showed that the flexibility, the accuracy and speed of the module make it useful in any risk-informed applications when risk indexes must be determined by resolving a PRA model. (author)

  7. Progressive degradation of alloy 690 and the development of a significant improvement in alloy 800CR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehle, Roger W.; Arioka, Koji; Tapping, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The present most widely used alloys for tubing in steam generators and structural materials in water cooled reactors are Alloy 690 and Alloy 800. However, both alloys, while improved over Alloy 600 may not meet the needs of longer range applications in the range of 80-100 years. Alloy 690 sustains damage resulting from the formation of cavities at grain boundaries which eventually cover about 50% of the area of the grain boundaries with the remainder covering being covered with carbides. The cavities seem to nucleate on the carbides leaving the grain boundaries a structure of cavities and carbides. Such a structure will lead the Alloy 690 to fail completely. Normal Alloy 800 does not produce such cavities and probably retains a large amount of its corrosion resistance but does sustain progressive SCC at low rate. A new alloy, 800CR, has been developed in a collaboration among Arioka, Tapping, and Staehle. This alloy is based on a Cr composition of 23.5-27% with the remainder retaining the previous Alloy 800 composition. 800CR sustains a crack velocity about 100 times less than Alloy 690 and a negligible rate of initiation. The 800CR, alloy is now seeking a patent. (authors)

  8. Significant improvements of electrical discharge machining performance by step-by-step updated adaptive control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Wu, Jianyang; Xu, Xiaoyi; Mu, Xin; Dou, Yunping

    2018-02-01

    In order to obtain improved electrical discharge machining (EDM) performance, we have dedicated more than a decade to correcting one essential EDM defect, the weak stability of the machining, by developing adaptive control systems. The instabilities of machining are mainly caused by complicated disturbances in discharging. To counteract the effects from the disturbances on machining, we theoretically developed three control laws from minimum variance (MV) control law to minimum variance and pole placements coupled (MVPPC) control law and then to a two-step-ahead prediction (TP) control law. Based on real-time estimation of EDM process model parameters and measured ratio of arcing pulses which is also called gap state, electrode discharging cycle was directly and adaptively tuned so that a stable machining could be achieved. To this end, we not only theoretically provide three proved control laws for a developed EDM adaptive control system, but also practically proved the TP control law to be the best in dealing with machining instability and machining efficiency though the MVPPC control law provided much better EDM performance than the MV control law. It was also shown that the TP control law also provided a burn free machining.

  9. Significant improvement of pig cloning efficiency by treatment with LBH589 after somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun-Xue; Li, Suo; Gao, Qing-Shan; Hong, Yu; Jin, Long; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Yan, Chang-Guo; Kang, Jin-Dan; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2013-10-01

    The low success rate of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) associates with epigenetic aberrancy, including the abnormal acetylation of histones. Altering the epigenetic status by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) enhances the developmental potential of SCNT embryos. In the current study, we examined the effects of LBH589 (panobinostat), a novel broad-spectrum HDACi, on the nuclear reprogramming and development of pig SCNT embryos in vitro. In experiment 1, we compared the in vitro developmental competence of nuclear transfer embryos treated with different concentrations of LBH589. Embryos treated with 50 nM LBH589 for 24 hours showed a significant increase in the rate of blastocyst formation compared with the control or embryos treated with 5 or 500 nM LBH589 (32.4% vs. 11.8%, 12.1%, and 10.0%, respectively, P < 0.05). In experiment 2, we examined the in vitro developmental competence of nuclear transfer embryos treated with 50 nM LBH589 for various intervals after activation and 6-dimethylaminopurine. Embryos treated for 24 hours had higher rates of blastocyst formation than the other groups. In experiment 3, when the acetylation of H4K12 was examined in SCNT embryos treated for 6 hours with 50 nM LBH589 by immunohistochemistry, the staining intensities of these proteins in LBH589-treated SCNT embryos were significantly higher than in the control. In experiment 4, LBH589-treated nuclear transfer and control embryos were transferred into surrogate mothers, resulting in three (100%) and two (66.7%) pregnancies, respectively. In conclusion, LBH589 enhances the nuclear reprogramming and developmental potential of SCNT embryos by altering the epigenetic status and expression, and increasing blastocyst quality. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Silver chlorobromide nanocubes with significantly improved uniformity: synthesis and assembly into photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zheng; Okasinski, John S.; Gosztola, David J.; Ren, Yang; Sun, Yugang

    2015-01-01

    Silver chlorobromide (AgClxBr1-x, 0 < x < 1) nanocubes with a highly uniform size, morphology, and crystallinity have been successfully synthesized through a co-precipitation of Ag+ ions with both Cl- and Br- ions in ethylene glycol containing polyvinyl pyrrolidone at mild temperatures. Compositions of the synthesized nanocubes can be easily tuned by controlling the molar ratio of Cl- to Br- ions in the reaction solutions. The size of the nanocubes is determined by varying a number of parameters including the molar ratio of Cl- to Br- ions, injection rate of Ag+ ions, and reaction temperature. The real-time formation of colloidal AgClxBr1-x nanocubes has been monitored, for the first time, by in situ highenergy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The time-resolved results reveal that a fast injection rate of Ag+ ions is critical for the formation of AgClxBr1-x nanocubes with a highly pure face-centered cubic crystalline phase. The improved uniformity of the AgClxBr1-x nanocubes is beneficial for assembling them into order superlattices (e.g., photonic crystals) even by simply applying centrifugation forces. The stop band of the resulting photonic crystals can be easily tuned from the ultraviolet to the infrared region by using AgClxBr1-x nanocubes with different sizes. The variation of the dielectric constant of AgClxBr1-x associated with the change of the relative concentration of halide ions provides an additional knob to tune the optical properties of photonic crystals.

  11. The Strasbourg Large Refractor and Dome: Significant Improvements and Failed Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Founded by the German Empire in the late 19th century, Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory featured several novelties from the start. According to Mueller (1978), the separation of observing buildings from the study area and from the astronomers' residence was a revolution in observatory construction. The instruments were, as much as possible, isolated from the vibrations of the buildings themselves. "Gas flames" and water were used to reduce temperature effects. Thus the Large Dome (ca 11m diameter), housing the Large Refractor (ca 49cm, then the largest in Germany) and covered by zinc over wood, could be cooled down by water running from the top. Reports (including by the French who took over the observatory after World War I) are however somehow nonexistent on the effective usage and actual efficiency of such a system (which must have generated locally a significant amount of humidity). The paper will detail these technical attempts as well as the specificities of the instruments installed in that new observatory intended as a showcase of German astronomy.

  12. Single-atom catalysts for CO2 electroreduction with significant activity and selectivity improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Seoin; Lim, Juhyung; Kim, Na-Young; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Jung, Yousung

    2017-02-01

    A single-atom catalyst (SAC) has an electronic structure that is very different from its bulk counterparts, and has shown an unexpectedly high specific activity with a significant reduction in noble metal usage for CO oxidation, fuel cell and hydrogen evolution applications, although physical origins of such performance enhancements are still poorly understood. Herein, by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we for the first time investigate the great potential of single atom catalysts for CO 2 electroreduction applications. In particular, we study a single transition metal atom anchored on defective graphene with single or double vacancies, denoted M@sv-Gr or M@dv-Gr, where M = Ag, Au, Co, Cu, Fe, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Pt, Rh or Ru, as a CO 2 reduction catalyst. Many SACs are indeed shown to be highly selective for the CO 2 reduction reaction over a competitive H 2 evolution reaction due to favorable adsorption of carboxyl (*COOH) or formate (*OCHO) over hydrogen (*H) on the catalysts. On the basis of free energy profiles, we identified several promising candidate materials for different products; Ni@dv-Gr (limiting potential U L = -0.41 V) and Pt@dv-Gr (-0.27 V) for CH 3 OH production, and Os@dv-Gr (-0.52 V) and Ru@dv-Gr (-0.52 V) for CH 4 production. In particular, the Pt@dv-Gr catalyst shows remarkable reduction in the limiting potential for CH 3 OH production compared to any existing catalysts, synthesized or predicted. To understand the origin of the activity enhancement of SACs, we find that the lack of an atomic ensemble for adsorbate binding and the unique electronic structure of the single atom catalysts as well as orbital interaction play an important role, contributing to binding energies of SACs that deviate considerably from the conventional scaling relation of bulk transition metals.

  13. Factors Related to Significant Improvement of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rates in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Receiving Telbivudine Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Fu Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The improvement of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients receiving telbivudine therapy is well known. The aim of this study was to clarify the kinetics of eGFRs and to identify the significant factors related to the improvement of eGFRs in telbivudine-treated CHB patients in a real-world setting. Methods. Serial eGFRs were calculated every 3 months using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation. The patients were classified as CKD-1, -2, or -3 according to a baseline eGFR of ≥90, 60–89, or <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. A significant improvement of eGFR was defined as a more than 10% increase from the baseline. Results. A total of 129 patients were enrolled, of whom 36% had significantly improved eGFRs. According to a multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus (DM (p=0.028 and CKD-3 (p=0.043 were both significantly related to such improvement. The rates of significant improvement of eGFR were about 73% and 77% in patients with DM and CKD-3, respectively. Conclusions. Telbivudine is an alternative drug of choice for the treatment of hepatitis B patients for whom renal safety is a concern, especially patients with DM and CKD-3.

  14. Omega-3 fatty acid therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation, however, did not significantly improve insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Pyung Chun; Koh, Kwang Kon; Sakuma, Ichiro; Lim, Soo; Lee, Yonghee; Lee, Seungik; Lee, Kyounghoon; Han, Seung Hwan; Shin, Eak Kyun

    2014-10-20

    Experimental studies demonstrate that higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) improves insulin sensitivity, however, we reported that n-3 FA 2g therapy, most commonly used dosage did not significantly improve insulin sensitivity despite reducing triglycerides by 21% in patients. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different dosages of n-3 FA in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. This was a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Age, sex, and body mass index were matched among groups. All patients were recommended to maintain a low fat diet. Forty-four patients (about 18 had metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes mellitus) in each group were given placebo, n-3 FA 1 (O1), 2 (O2), or 4 g (O4), respectively daily for 2 months. n-3 FA therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol and improved flow-mediated dilation, compared with placebo (by ANOVA). However, each n-3 FA therapy did not significantly decrease high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, compared with placebo. O1 significantly increased insulin levels and decreased insulin sensitivity (determined by QUICKI) and O2 significantly decreased plasma adiponectin levels relative to baseline measurements. Of note, when compared with placebo, each n-3 FA therapy did not significantly change insulin, glucose, adiponectin, glycated hemoglobin levels and insulin sensitivity (by ANOVA). We observed similar results in a subgroup of patients with the metabolic syndrome. n-3 FA therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation. Nonetheless, n-3 FA therapy did not significantly improve acute-phase reactants and insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, regardless of dosages. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. A short period of high-intensity interval training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Jacobs, Robert A; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improvements in pulmonary V̇O2 kinetics following a short period of high-intensity training (HIT) would be associated with improved skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Ten untrained male volunteers (age: 26 ± 2; mean ± SD) performed six HIT...

  16. Periodic nanostructures formed on a poly-methyl methacrylate surface with a femtosecond laser for biocompatibility improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Keisuke; Tsukamoto, Masahiro; Sato, Yuji; Ooga, Takahiro; Asai, Satoru; Murai, Kensuke

    2018-06-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is widely used as a biomaterial. The formation of periodic nanostructures on the surface is necessary to improve the biocompatibility. A method was proposed and developed to form periodic nanostructures on a PMMA surface. A PMMA plate was placed on titanium (Ti) plate, and then the Ti plate was irradiated with a laser through the PMMA plate. We try to effectively produce periodic nanostructures on PMMA with a femtosecond laser at a fundamental wavelength by increasing the contact pressure and using titanium (Ti) plate. The contact pressure between PMMA and Ti required to form a periodic nanostructure is 300 kPa, and for a contact pressure of 2400 kPa, periodic nanostructures are formed in 62% of the laser-irradiated area on the PMMA surface. These results suggest that the formation efficiency of the periodic nanostructure depends on the laser conditions and the contact pressure.

  17. State updating and calibration period selection to improve dynamic monthly streamflow forecasts for an environmental flow management application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Matthew S.; McInerney, David; Humphrey, Greer; Thyer, Mark A.; Maier, Holger R.; Dandy, Graeme C.; Kavetski, Dmitri

    2018-02-01

    Monthly to seasonal streamflow forecasts provide useful information for a range of water resource management and planning applications. This work focuses on improving such forecasts by considering the following two aspects: (1) state updating to force the models to match observations from the start of the forecast period, and (2) selection of a shorter calibration period that is more representative of the forecast period, compared to a longer calibration period traditionally used. The analysis is undertaken in the context of using streamflow forecasts for environmental flow water management of an open channel drainage network in southern Australia. Forecasts of monthly streamflow are obtained using a conceptual rainfall-runoff model combined with a post-processor error model for uncertainty analysis. This model set-up is applied to two catchments, one with stronger evidence of non-stationarity than the other. A range of metrics are used to assess different aspects of predictive performance, including reliability, sharpness, bias and accuracy. The results indicate that, for most scenarios and metrics, state updating improves predictive performance for both observed rainfall and forecast rainfall sources. Using the shorter calibration period also improves predictive performance, particularly for the catchment with stronger evidence of non-stationarity. The results highlight that a traditional approach of using a long calibration period can degrade predictive performance when there is evidence of non-stationarity. The techniques presented can form the basis for operational monthly streamflow forecasting systems and provide support for environmental decision-making.

  18. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Mattioli

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up.

  19. 78 FR 29139 - Medicare Program; Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Model 1 Open Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    .... Beneficiaries can experience improved health outcomes and encounters in the health care system when providers... providers that are working to redesign care to meet these goals. Payment approaches that reward providers... Care Improvement initiative. Acute care hospitals paid under the inpatient prospective payment systems...

  20. Chelating extractants of improved selectivity. Progress report for period November 1, 1977--July 31 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiser, H.

    1978-08-01

    During the current contract period, the high susceptibility of lanthanide chelate stability to steric hindrance was confirmed. The increase in coordination number of lanthanides from lanthanum to ytterbium as evidenced from extraction equilibria serves to increase their separability. 8-Quinolinol immobilized on silica can separate lanthanide ions

  1. HIT maintains performance during the transition period and improves next season performance in well-trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Askestad, Arild; Hansen, Joar

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effects of combining low-intensity endurance training (LIT) with one high-intensity endurance training (HIT) session every 7-10 days (EXP, n = 7) vs. traditional approach focusing on LIT (TRAD, n = 6) during the transition period. The effects of different training strategies during the transition period were investigated after the transition period and at the beginning of the subsequent competition season. Well-trained cyclists were tested after the competition season, after an 8-week transition period, and after a 16-week preparatory period, before the subsequent competition season. The only difference between groups was a larger time with HIT during the transition phase in EXP. It was very likely that EXP had a larger impact on power output at 4 mmol L(-1) [la(-)] after both the transition period and after the preparatory period than TRAD [between-group change (90% CI): 10.6% (8.2%) and 12.9% (11.9%), respectively]. It was very likely that EXP had a larger impact on mean power output in the 40-min all-out trial after the transition period than TRAD [between-group change 12.4% (7.6%)]. EXP was also likely to have a larger improvement in the 40-min trial performance from pre-test to after the preparatory period than TRAD [between-group change 6.0% (6.6%)]. The present findings suggest that HIT sessions should be incorporated during the transition phase to avoid reduction in fitness and performance level and thereby increase the likelihood of improved performance from the end of one season to the beginning of the subsequent season.

  2. 3-D periodic mesoporous nickel oxide for nonenzymatic uric acid sensors with improved sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Yang; Chen, Yong; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Qingyou

    2015-12-01

    3-D periodic mesoporous nickel oxide (NiO) particles with crystalline walls have been synthesized through the microwave-assisted hard template route toward the KIT-6 silica. It was investigated as a nonenzymatic amperometric sensor for the detection of uric acid. 3-D periodic nickel oxide matrix has been obtained by the hard template route from the KIT-6 silica template. The crystalline nickel oxide belonged to the Ia3d space group, and its structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The analysis results showed that the microwave-assisted mesoporous NiO materials were more appropriate to be electrochemical sensors than the traditional mesoporous NiO. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) revealed that 3-D periodic NiO exhibited a direct electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of uric acid in sodium hydroxide solution. The enzyme-less amperometric sensor used in the detection of uric acid with detection limit of 0.005 μM (S/N = 3) over wide linear detection ranges up to 0.374 mM and with a high sensitivity of 756.26 μA mM-1 cm-2, and a possible mechanism was also given in the paper.

  3. 3-D periodic mesoporous nickel oxide for nonenzymatic uric acid sensors with improved sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Yang; Chen, Yong; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The enzyme-less amperometric sensor based on 3-D periodic mesoporous NiO nanomaterials used in the detection of uric acid with detection limit of 0.005 μM (S/N = 3) over wide linear detection ranges up to 0.374 mM and with a high sensitivity of 756.26 μA mM"−"1 cm"−"2. - Highlights: • Microwave-assisted method was used to fabricate the 3-D periodic mesoporous NiO particles. • The mesoporous nickel oxide was applied to nonenzymatic uric acid biosensor. • The detection limit is 0.005 μM over wide linear detection ranges up to 0.374 mM. • The sensitivity is 756.26 μA mM"−"1 cm"−"2. - Abstract: 3-D periodic mesoporous nickel oxide (NiO) particles with crystalline walls have been synthesized through the microwave-assisted hard template route toward the KIT-6 silica. It was investigated as a nonenzymatic amperometric sensor for the detection of uric acid. 3-D periodic nickel oxide matrix has been obtained by the hard template route from the KIT-6 silica template. The crystalline nickel oxide belonged to the Ia3d space group, and its structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N_2 adsorption–desorption, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The analysis results showed that the microwave-assisted mesoporous NiO materials were more appropriate to be electrochemical sensors than the traditional mesoporous NiO. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) revealed that 3-D periodic NiO exhibited a direct electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of uric acid in sodium hydroxide solution. The enzyme-less amperometric sensor used in the detection of uric acid with detection limit of 0.005 μM (S/N = 3) over wide linear detection ranges up to 0.374 mM and with a high sensitivity of 756.26 μA mM"−"1 cm"−"2, and a possible mechanism was also given in the paper.

  4. 3-D periodic mesoporous nickel oxide for nonenzymatic uric acid sensors with improved sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wei; Cao, Yang, E-mail: caowang507@163.com; Chen, Yong; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Qingyou

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: The enzyme-less amperometric sensor based on 3-D periodic mesoporous NiO nanomaterials used in the detection of uric acid with detection limit of 0.005 μM (S/N = 3) over wide linear detection ranges up to 0.374 mM and with a high sensitivity of 756.26 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. - Highlights: • Microwave-assisted method was used to fabricate the 3-D periodic mesoporous NiO particles. • The mesoporous nickel oxide was applied to nonenzymatic uric acid biosensor. • The detection limit is 0.005 μM over wide linear detection ranges up to 0.374 mM. • The sensitivity is 756.26 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. - Abstract: 3-D periodic mesoporous nickel oxide (NiO) particles with crystalline walls have been synthesized through the microwave-assisted hard template route toward the KIT-6 silica. It was investigated as a nonenzymatic amperometric sensor for the detection of uric acid. 3-D periodic nickel oxide matrix has been obtained by the hard template route from the KIT-6 silica template. The crystalline nickel oxide belonged to the Ia3d space group, and its structure was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The analysis results showed that the microwave-assisted mesoporous NiO materials were more appropriate to be electrochemical sensors than the traditional mesoporous NiO. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) revealed that 3-D periodic NiO exhibited a direct electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of uric acid in sodium hydroxide solution. The enzyme-less amperometric sensor used in the detection of uric acid with detection limit of 0.005 μM (S/N = 3) over wide linear detection ranges up to 0.374 mM and with a high sensitivity of 756.26 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, and a possible mechanism was also given in the paper.

  5. Significant clinical improvement in radiation-induced lumbosacral poly-radiculopathy by a treatment combining pentoxifylline, tocopherol, and clodronate (Pentoclo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delanian, S. [Hop St Louis, Serv Oncol Radiotherapie, APHP, F-75010 Paris, (France); Lefaix, J.L. [CEA-LARIA, CIRIL-GANIL, Caen, (France); Maisonobe, T. [Hop La Pitie Salpetriere, Federat Neurophysiol Clin, APHP, Paris, (France)

    2008-07-01

    Radiation-induced (RI) peripheral neuropathy is a rare and severe delayed complication of radiotherapy that is spontaneously irreversible, with no standard of treatment. We previously developed a successful antioxidant treatment in RI fibrosis and necrosis. Two patients with progressive worsening RI lumbosacral poly-radiculopathy experienced over several years a significant clinical improvement in their neurological sensorimotor symptoms with long-term pentoxifylline-tocopherol-clodronate treatment, and good safety. (authors)

  6. The cumulative effect of small dietary changes may significantly improve nutritional intakes in free-living children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bornet , Francis; Paineau , Damien; Beaufils , François; Boulier , Alain; Cassuto , Dominique-Adèle; Chwalow , Judith; Combris , Pierre; Couet , Charles; Jouret , Béatrice; Lafay , Lionel; Laville , Martine; Mahé , Sylvain; Ricour , Claude; Romon , Monique; Simon , Chantal

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background/Objectives: The ELPAS study was an 8-month randomized controlled dietary modification trial designed to test the hypothesis that family dietary coaching would improve nutritional intakes and weight control in 2026 free-living children and parents (Paineau et al., 2008). It resulted in significant nutritional changes, with beneficial effects on body mass index in adults. In these ancillary analyses, we investigated dietary changes throughout the intervention. ...

  7. Acid or erythromycin stress significantly improves transformation efficiency through regulating expression of DNA binding proteins in Lactococcus lactis F44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binbin; Zhang, Huawei; Liang, Dongmei; Hao, Panlong; Li, Yanni; Qiao, Jianjun

    2017-12-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a gram-positive bacterium used extensively in the dairy industry and food fermentation, and its biological characteristics are usually improved through genetic manipulation. However, poor transformation efficiency was the main restriction factor for the construction of engineered strains. In this study, the transformation efficiency of L. lactis F44 showed a 56.1-fold increase in acid condition (pH 5.0); meanwhile, erythromycin stress (0.04 μg/mL) promoted the transformation efficiency more significantly (76.9-fold). Notably, the transformation efficiency of F44e (L. lactis F44 harboring empty pLEB124) increased up to 149.1-fold under the synergistic stresses of acid and erythromycin. In addition, the gene expression of some DNA binding proteins (DprA, RadA, RadC, RecA, RecQ, and SsbA) changed correspondingly. Especially for radA, 25.1-fold improvement was detected when F44e was exposed to pH 5.0. Overexpression of some DNA binding proteins could improve the transformation efficiency. The results suggested that acid or erythromycin stress could improve the transformation efficiency of L. lactis through regulating gene expression of DNA binding proteins. We have proposed a simple but promising strategy for improving the transformation efficiency of L. lactis and other hard-transformed microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamic optimization of maintenance and improvement planning for water main system: Periodic replacement approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Choi, Go Bong; Lee, Jong Min [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jung Chul [Samchully Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    This paper proposes a Markov decision process (MDP) based approach to derive an optimal schedule of maintenance, rehabilitation and replacement of the water main system. The scheduling problem utilizes auxiliary information of a pipe such as the current state, cost, and deterioration model. The objective function and detailed algorithm of dynamic programming are modified to solve the periodic replacement problem. The optimal policy evaluated by the proposed algorithm is compared to several existing policies via Monte Carlo simulations. The proposed decision framework provides a systematic way to obtain an optimal policy.

  9. Improved harmonic balance approach to periodic solutions of non-linear jerk equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, B.S.; Lim, C.W.; Sun, W.P.

    2006-01-01

    An analytical approximate approach for determining periodic solutions of non-linear jerk equations involving third-order time-derivative is presented. This approach incorporates salient features of both Newton's method and the method of harmonic balance. By appropriately imposing the method of harmonic balance to the linearized equation, the approach requires only one or two iterations to predict very accurate analytical approximate solutions for a large range of initial velocity amplitude. One typical example is used to verify and illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed approach

  10. An initiative to improve the management of clinically significant test results in a large health care network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Christopher L; Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Dighe, Anand S; Schiff, Gordon D; Graydon-Baker, Erin; Lenoci-Edwards, Jennifer; Dwyer, Cheryl; Khorasani, Ramin; Gandhi, Tejal K

    2013-11-01

    The failure of providers to communicate and follow up clinically significant test results (CSTR) is an important threat to patient safety. The Massachusetts Coalition for the Prevention of Medical Errors has endorsed the creation of systems to ensure that results can be received and acknowledged. In 2008 a task force was convened that represented clinicians, laboratories, radiology, patient safety, risk management, and information systems in a large health care network with the goals of providing recommendations and a road map for improvement in the management of CSTR and of implementing this improvement plan during the sub-force sequent five years. In drafting its charter, the task broadened the scope from "critical" results to "clinically significant" ones; clinically significant was defined as any result that requires further clinical action to avoid morbidity or mortality, regardless of the urgency of that action. The task force recommended four key areas for improvement--(1) standardization of policies and definitions, (2) robust identification of the patient's care team, (3) enhanced results management/tracking systems, and (4) centralized quality reporting and metrics. The task force faced many challenges in implementing these recommendations, including disagreements on definitions of CSTR and on who should have responsibility for CSTR, changes to established work flows, limitations of resources and of existing information systems, and definition of metrics. This large-scale effort to improve the communication and follow-up of CSTR in a health care network continues with ongoing work to address implementation challenges, refine policies, prepare for a new clinical information system platform, and identify new ways to measure the extent of this important safety problem.

  11. The SGLT2 Inhibitor Dapagliflozin Significantly Improves the Peripheral Microvascular Endothelial Function in Patients with Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Seigo; Jinnouchi, Hideaki; Kurinami, Noboru; Hieshima, Kunio; Yoshida, Akira; Jinnouchi, Katsunori; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Miyamoto, Fumio; Kajiwara, Keizo; Jinnouchi, Tomio

    2018-03-30

    Objective Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce cardiovascular events and decrease the body fat mass in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We examined whether or not the SGLT2-inhibitor dapagliflozin can improve the endothelial function associated with a reduction in abdominal fat mass. Methods We prospectively recruited patients with uncontrolled (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] >7.0%) T2DM who were not being treated by SGLT2 inhibitors. Patients were treated with add-on dapagliflozin (5 mg/day) or non-SGLT2 inhibitor medicines for 6 months to improve their HbA1c. We measured the peripheral microvascular endothelial function as assessed by reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) and calculated the natural logarithmic transformed value of the RH-PAT index (LnRHI). We then investigated changes in the LnRHI and abdominal fat area using computed tomography (CT). Results The subjects were 54 patients with uncontrolled T2DM (72.2% men) with a mean HbA1c of 8.1%. The HbA1c was significantly decreased in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups. Dapagliflozin treatment, but not non-SGLT2 inhibitor treatment, significantly increased the LnRHI. The changes in the LnRHI were significantly greater in the dapagliflozin group than in the non-SGLT2 inhibitor group. Dapagliflozin treatment, but not non-SGLT2 inhibitor treatment, significantly decreased the abdominal visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area (SFA), and total fat area (TFA) as assessed by CT and significantly increased the plasma adiponectin levels. The percentage changes in the LnRHI were significantly correlated with changes in the SFA, TFA, systolic blood pressure, and adiponectin. Conclusion Add-on treatment with dapagliflozin significantly improves the glycemic control and endothelial function associated with a reduction in the abdominal fat mass in patients with uncontrolled T2DM.

  12. Spontaneous Resolution of Long-Standing Macular Detachment due to Optic Disc Pit with Significant Visual Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikakis, Efstratios A; Chatziralli, Irini P; Peponis, Vasileios G; Karagiannis, Dimitrios; Stratos, Aimilianos; Tsiotra, Vasileia A; Mitropoulos, Panagiotis G

    2014-01-01

    To report a case of spontaneous resolution of a long-standing serous macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit, leading to significant visual improvement. A 63-year-old female presented with a 6-month history of blurred vision and micropsia in her left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 6/24 in the left eye, and fundoscopy revealed serous macular detachment associated with optic disc pit, which was confirmed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The patient was offered vitrectomy as a treatment alternative, but she preferred to be reviewed conservatively. Three years after initial presentation, neither macular detachment nor subretinal fluid was evident in OCT, while the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction line was intact. Her visual acuity was improved from 6/24 to 6/12 in her left eye, remaining stable at the 6-month follow-up after resolution. We present a case of spontaneous resolution of a long-standing macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit with significant visual improvement, postulating that the integrity of the IS/OS junction line may be a prognostic factor for final visual acuity and suggesting OCT as an indicator of visual prognosis and the probable necessity of a surgical management.

  13. Spontaneous Resolution ofLong-Standing Macular Detachment due to Optic Disc Pit with Significant Visual Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstratios A. Parikakis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of spontaneous resolution of a long-standing serous macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit, leading to significant visual improvement. Case Presentation: A 63-year-old female presented with a 6-month history of blurred vision and micropsia in her left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 6/24 in the left eye, and fundoscopy revealed serous macular detachment associated with optic disc pit, which was confirmed by optical coherence tomography (OCT. The patient was offered vitrectomy as a treatment alternative, but she preferred to be reviewed conservatively. Three years after initial presentation, neither macular detachment nor subretinal fluid was evident in OCT, while the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS junction line was intact. Her visual acuity was improved from 6/24 to 6/12 in her left eye, remaining stable at the 6-month follow-up after resolution. Conclusion: We present a case of spontaneous resolution of a long-standing macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit with significant visual improvement, postulating that the integrity of the IS/OS junction line may be a prognostic factor for final visual acuity and suggesting OCT as an indicator of visual prognosis and the probable necessity of a surgical management.

  14. Improved methodology to assess modification and completion of landfill gas management in the aftercare period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Jeremy W.F.; Crest, Marion; Barlaz, Morton A.; Spokas, Kurt A.; Åkerman, Anna; Yuan, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Performance-based evaluation of landfill gas control system. ► Analytical framework to evaluate transition from active to passive gas control. ► Focus on cover oxidation as an alternative means of passive gas control. ► Integrates research on long-term landfill behavior with practical guidance. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste landfills represent the dominant option for waste disposal in many parts of the world. While some countries have greatly reduced their reliance on landfills, there remain thousands of landfills that require aftercare. The development of cost-effective strategies for landfill aftercare is in society’s interest to protect human health and the environment and to prevent the emergence of landfills with exhausted aftercare funding. The Evaluation of Post-Closure Care (EPCC) methodology is a performance-based approach in which landfill performance is assessed in four modules including leachate, gas, groundwater, and final cover. In the methodology, the objective is to evaluate landfill performance to determine when aftercare monitoring and maintenance can be reduced or possibly eliminated. This study presents an improved gas module for the methodology. While the original version of the module focused narrowly on regulatory requirements for control of methane migration, the improved gas module also considers best available control technology for landfill gas in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality, and emissions of odoriferous compounds. The improved module emphasizes the reduction or elimination of fugitive methane by considering the methane oxidation capacity of the cover system. The module also allows for the installation of biologically active covers or other features designed to enhance methane oxidation. A methane emissions model, CALMIM, was used to assist with an assessment of the methane oxidation capacity of landfill covers.

  15. Improved methodology to assess modification and completion of landfill gas management in the aftercare period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Jeremy W.F., E-mail: jmorris@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, 10220 Old Columbia Road, Suite A, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Crest, Marion, E-mail: marion.crest@suez-env.com [Suez Environnement, 38 rue du President Wilson, 78230 Le Pecq (France); Barlaz, Morton A., E-mail: barlaz@ncsu.edu [Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering, Campus Box 7908, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States); Spokas, Kurt A., E-mail: kurt.spokas@ars.usda.gov [United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, 439 Borlaug Hall, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States); Akerman, Anna, E-mail: anna.akerman@sita.fr [SITA France, Tour CB 21, 16 Place de l' Iris, 92040 Paris La Defense Cedex (France); Yuan, Lei, E-mail: lyuan@geosyntec.com [Geosyntec Consultants, 10220 Old Columbia Road, Suite A, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Performance-based evaluation of landfill gas control system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical framework to evaluate transition from active to passive gas control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Focus on cover oxidation as an alternative means of passive gas control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrates research on long-term landfill behavior with practical guidance. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste landfills represent the dominant option for waste disposal in many parts of the world. While some countries have greatly reduced their reliance on landfills, there remain thousands of landfills that require aftercare. The development of cost-effective strategies for landfill aftercare is in society's interest to protect human health and the environment and to prevent the emergence of landfills with exhausted aftercare funding. The Evaluation of Post-Closure Care (EPCC) methodology is a performance-based approach in which landfill performance is assessed in four modules including leachate, gas, groundwater, and final cover. In the methodology, the objective is to evaluate landfill performance to determine when aftercare monitoring and maintenance can be reduced or possibly eliminated. This study presents an improved gas module for the methodology. While the original version of the module focused narrowly on regulatory requirements for control of methane migration, the improved gas module also considers best available control technology for landfill gas in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality, and emissions of odoriferous compounds. The improved module emphasizes the reduction or elimination of fugitive methane by considering the methane oxidation capacity of the cover system. The module also allows for the installation of biologically active covers or other features designed to enhance methane oxidation. A methane emissions model, CALMIM, was used to assist with an assessment of the methane oxidation

  16. Agronomic evaluation of four improved rice varieties in different sowing periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genry Hernández Carrillo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the agronomic performance of four rice varieties in different seasons, on flooded soil, using direct plantation, was developed at the Local Station for Grain Research, in the municipality of Vertientes, province of Camaguey, Cuba. A block random design was used in the study, with five replicas, through a bifactorial experiment with four treatments (Prosequisa 4, IA Cuba 31, IACuba 40, and Jucarito 104, as control, the sowing period included January, February, March, April, May, June, July, and August. The parameters evaluated were, cycle (days from germination to harvest, final plant height, fertile panicles per m2, filled grain per panicle, 1000-grain mass (14% humidity, crop yields and industrial quality. The highest yields were accomplished in February and June (pattern variety and Prosequisa 4, with 8.2 t/ha-1, in each month. Concerning industrial yields, the best results were achieved in IACuba 31 (66.4; 66.1; and 63.3% full white grain in February, June and July. The most profitable varieties were Prosequisa 4, Jucarito 104, and IACuba 31, in the different seasons evaluated.

  17. Material efficiency improvement for European packaging in the period 2000-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkert, M.; Joosten, L.; Worrell, E. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper the current material consumption for packaging making in Europe is described. Per packaging type (food bottles, non-food bottles, boxes for primary packaging, flexible packaging, carrier bags, industrial boxes and pallets) options for improved material efficiency are described. The options are in the field of using thinner materials, using less material by changing the shape of the package, using recycled material and using refillable packages. This paper shows that many options are available to reduce the future material input for packaging and that a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions by this sector with a factor 2 is possible. A substantial share of this reduction can be achieved without any changes in consumer behavior. 57 refs.

  18. Performance of the Sellick maneuver significantly improves when residents and trained nurses use a visually interactive guidance device in simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, Christopher W; Saffary, Roya; Feliz, Eddy

    2013-01-01

    We examined the proper performance of the Sellick maneuver, a maneuver used to reduce the risk of aspiration of stomach contents during induction of general anesthesia, using a novel device that measures and visualizes the force applied to the cricoid cartilage using thin-film force sensitive resistors in a form suitable for in vivo use. Performance was tested in three stages with twenty anaesthesiology residents and twenty trained operating room nurses. Firstly, subjects applied force to the cricoid cartilage as was customary to them. Secondly, subjects used the device to guide the application of that force. Thirdly, subjects were again asked to perform the manoeuvre without visual guidance. Each test lasted 1 min and the amount of force applied was measured throughout. Overall, the Sellick maneuver was often not applied properly, with large variance between individual subjects. Performance and inter-subject consistency improved to a very highly significant degree when subjects were able to use the device as a visual guide (p < 0.001). Subsequent significant improvements in performances during the last, unguided test demonstrated that the device initiated learning. (paper)

  19. Performance of the Sellick maneuver significantly improves when residents and trained nurses use a visually interactive guidance device in simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, Christopher W; Saffary, Roya; Feliz, Eddy [Department of Anesthesiology Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-12-15

    We examined the proper performance of the Sellick maneuver, a maneuver used to reduce the risk of aspiration of stomach contents during induction of general anesthesia, using a novel device that measures and visualizes the force applied to the cricoid cartilage using thin-film force sensitive resistors in a form suitable for in vivo use. Performance was tested in three stages with twenty anaesthesiology residents and twenty trained operating room nurses. Firstly, subjects applied force to the cricoid cartilage as was customary to them. Secondly, subjects used the device to guide the application of that force. Thirdly, subjects were again asked to perform the manoeuvre without visual guidance. Each test lasted 1 min and the amount of force applied was measured throughout. Overall, the Sellick maneuver was often not applied properly, with large variance between individual subjects. Performance and inter-subject consistency improved to a very highly significant degree when subjects were able to use the device as a visual guide (p < 0.001). Subsequent significant improvements in performances during the last, unguided test demonstrated that the device initiated learning. (paper)

  20. Na+,K+-pump stimulation improves contractility in isolated muscles of mice with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Torben; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard; Clausen, Johannes D; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Hayward, Lawrence J

    2011-07-01

    In patients with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HyperKPP), attacks of muscle weakness or paralysis are triggered by K(+) ingestion or rest after exercise. Force can be restored by muscle work or treatment with β(2)-adrenoceptor agonists. A missense substitution corresponding to a mutation in the skeletal muscle voltage-gated Na(+) channel (Na(v)1.4, Met1592Val) causing human HyperKPP was targeted into the mouse SCN4A gene (mutants). In soleus muscles prepared from these mutant mice, twitch, tetanic force, and endurance were markedly reduced compared with soleus from wild type (WT), reflecting impaired excitability. In mutant soleus, contractility was considerably more sensitive than WT soleus to inhibition by elevated [K(+)](o). In resting mutant soleus, tetrodotoxin (TTX)-suppressible (22)Na uptake and [Na(+)](i) were increased by 470 and 58%, respectively, and membrane potential was depolarized (by 16 mV, P Na(+),K(+) pump-mediated (86)Rb uptake was 83% larger than in WT. Salbutamol stimulated (86)Rb uptake and reduced [Na(+)](i) both in mutant and WT soleus. Stimulating Na(+),K(+) pumps with salbutamol restored force in mutant soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL). Increasing [Na(+)](i) with monensin also restored force in soleus. In soleus, EDL, and tibialis anterior muscles of mutant mice, the content of Na(+),K(+) pumps was 28, 62, and 33% higher than in WT, respectively, possibly reflecting the stimulating effect of elevated [Na(+)](i) on the synthesis of Na(+),K(+) pumps. The results confirm that the functional disorders of skeletal muscles in HyperKPP are secondary to increased Na(+) influx and show that contractility can be restored by acute stimulation of the Na(+),K(+) pumps. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) restored force in mutant soleus but caused no detectable increase in (86)Rb uptake. Repeated excitation and capsaicin also restored contractility, possibly because of the release of endogenous CGRP from nerve endings in the isolated

  1. Periodic 48 h feed withdrawal improves glucose tolerance in growing pigs by enhancing adipogenesis and lipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Priya S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipocyte numbers and peroxisome proliferators activated receptorγ (PPARγ expression of retroperitoneal tissue increased while area under the curve (AUC during the glucose tolerance test (GTT was reduced in rats subjected to certain feed withdrawal (FW regimens. Thus, using pigs as the experimental model, the hypothesis that FW regimens influence glucose tolerance by influencing fat cell function was evaluated with the objective of determining the effect of a single (FWx1; at age of 19 wk for 48 h or periodic, multiple (FWx4; 24 h FW at 7 and 11 wk of age and 48 h FW at 15 and 19 wk of age FW on AUC of glucose and insulin during the GTT relative to pigs that did not experience FW (Control. Methods Growth, body composition, adipocyte numbers, PPARγ expression, lipogenic potential as glucose uptake into fat of adipocytes of varying diameter in omental (OM and subcutaneous (SQ fat as affected by FW regimens were determined in pigs initiated into the study at 5 wk of age and fed the same diet, ad libitum. Results Blood glucose concentrations for prior to and 120 min post glucose meal tended to be lower (p = 0.105 and 0.097, respectively in pigs in FW treatments. In OM fat; cell numbers, glucose Universal14C [U14C] incorporation into fat and rate of incorporation per 104 cells was greatest for cells with diameters of 90-119 μm. Pigs undergoing FWx4 tended to have greater (p = 0.0685; by 191% number of adipocytes, increased (p = 0.0234 glucose U14C incorporation into adipocytes and greater (p = 0.0872 rate of glucose uptake into cells of 119-150 μm diameter than of cells from control or FWx1 pigs. Subcutaneous adipocyte numbers in 22-60 and 61-90 μm diameter ranges from pigs in FWx1 tended to be greater (p = 0.08 and 0.06, respectively than for those in FWx4 treatment, yet PPARγ expression and total cell number were not affected by treatment. Conclusions Results suggest that FW regimens influence fat cell function or

  2. Improving the beam quality of high-power laser diodes by introducing lateral periodicity into waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, Grzegorz; DÄ browska, ElŻbieta; Teodorczyk, Marian; Kalbarczyk, Joanna; MalÄ g, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Low quality of the optical beam emitted by high-power laser diodes is the main disadvantage of these devices. The two most important reasons are highly non-Gaussian beam profile with relatively wide divergence in the junction plane and the filamentation effect. Designing laser diode as an array of narrow, close to each other single-mode waveguides is one of the solutions to this problem. In such devices called phase locked arrays (PLA) there is no room for filaments formation. The consequence of optical coupling of many single-mode waveguides is the device emission in the form of few almost diffraction limited beams. Because of losses in regions between active stripes the PLA devices have, however, somewhat higher threshold current and lower slope efficiencies compared to wide-stripe devices of similar geometry. In this work the concept of the high-power laser diode resonator consisted of joined PLA and wide stripe segments is proposed. Resulting changes of electro-optical characteristics of PLA are discussed. The devices are based on the asymmetric heterostructure designed for improvement of the catastrophic optical damage threshold as well as thermal and electrical resistances. Due to reduced distance from the active layer to surface in this heterostructure, better stability of current (and gain) distribution with changing drive level is expected. This could lead to better stability of optical field distribution and supermodes control. The beam divergence reduction in the direction perpendicular of the junction plane has been also achieved.

  3. Different surgical strategies for chronic pancreatitis significantly improve long-term outcome: a comparative single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrand P

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective In general, chronic pancreatitis (CP primarily requires conservative treatment. The chronic pain syndrome and complications make patients seek surgical advice, frequently after years of progression. In the past, surgical procedures involving drainage as well as resection have been employed successfully. The present study compared the different surgical strategies. Patients and Methods From March 2000 until April 2005, a total of 51 patients underwent surgical treatment for CP at the Department of surgery, University of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck. Out of those 51 patients, 39 (76.5% were operated according to the Frey procedure, and in 12 cases (23.5% the Whipple procedure was performed. Patient data were documented prospectively throughout the duration of the hospital stay. The evaluation of the postoperative pain score was carried out retrospectively with a validated questionnaire. Results Average operating time was 240 minutes for the Frey group and 411 minutes for the Whipple group. The medium number of blood transfusions was 1 in the Frey group and 4.5 in the Whipple group. Overall morbidity was 21% in the Frey group and 42% in the Whipple group. 30-day mortality was zero for all patients. During the median follow-up period of 50 months, an improvement in pain score was observed in 93% of the patients of the Frey group and 67% of the patients treated according to the Whipple procedure. Conclusion The results show that both the Frey procedure as well as partial pancreaticoduodenectomy are capable of improving chronic pain symptoms in CP. As far as later endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is concerned, however, the extended drainage operation according to Frey proves to be advantageous compared to the traditional resection procedure by Whipple. Accordingly, the Frey procedure provides us with an organ-preserving surgical procedure which treats the complications of CP sufficiently, thus being an

  4. Combination of blood tests for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis improves the assessment of liver-prognosis in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursier, J; Brochard, C; Bertrais, S; Michalak, S; Gallois, Y; Fouchard-Hubert, I; Oberti, F; Rousselet, M-C; Calès, P

    2014-07-01

    Recent longitudinal studies have emphasised the prognostic value of noninvasive tests of liver fibrosis and cross-sectional studies have shown their combination significantly improves diagnostic accuracy. To compare the prognostic accuracy of six blood fibrosis tests and liver biopsy, and evaluate if test combination improves the liver-prognosis assessment in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). A total of 373 patients with compensated CHC, liver biopsy (Metavir F) and blood tests targeting fibrosis (APRI, FIB4, Fibrotest, Hepascore, FibroMeter) or cirrhosis (CirrhoMeter) were included. Significant liver-related events (SLRE) and liver-related deaths were recorded during follow-up (started the day of biopsy). During the median follow-up of 9.5 years (3508 person-years), 47 patients had a SLRE and 23 patients died from liver-related causes. For the prediction of first SLRE, most blood tests allowed higher prognostication than Metavir F [Harrell C-index: 0.811 (95% CI: 0.751-0.868)] with a significant increase for FIB4: 0.879 [0.832-0.919] (P = 0.002), FibroMeter: 0.870 [0.812-0.922] (P = 0.005) and APRI: 0.861 [0.813-0.902] (P = 0.039). Multivariate analysis identified FibroMeter, CirrhoMeter and sustained viral response as independent predictors of first SLRE. CirrhoMeter was the only independent predictor of liver-related death. The combination of FibroMeter and CirrhoMeter classifications into a new FM/CM classification improved the liver-prognosis assessment compared to Metavir F staging or single tests by identifying five subgroups of patients with significantly different prognoses. Some blood fibrosis tests are more accurate than liver biopsy for determining liver prognosis in CHC. A new combination of two complementary blood tests, one targeted for fibrosis and the other for cirrhosis, optimises assessment of liver-prognosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Improvement of the nutritional value and growth of rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis by different enrichment period with Bacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutia Budi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachionus plicatilis is a widely used as natural feed in hatchery. Characteristics of rotifers as biocapsule can improve the quality of rotifers in a practical way. Bacillus sp. is capable of improving the nutrition rotifers to produce vitamins, food detoxication or through enzymatic activity such as protease, lipase, and amylase. This research aimed at observing the influence of the enrichment length of Bacillus sp. on the quality of nutrition and growth of rotifers. The research container was a polyearbonate vessel of one ton volume which contained Nannochloropsis sp. with the density of 105 cell/mL, it was then scattered with rotifer with the density of 1,000 ind./mL. The types of bacteria used were Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilus and B. licheformis with the density of 2x1010 cfu/g. The experiments tried with different enrichment length were A = 0 hour, B = 5 hours, C = 10 hours and D = 10 hours with triplicate. As the comparing data, rotifer culture experiment was carried out with Nannochlorophsis sp.as the control. The number of containers were 24 which consists of 12 for threatment and 12 pieces as control. Variables measured were proximate to each treatment and the growth of rotifers. The result of the research revealed the enrichment length of rotifers with Bacillus sp. has significantly (P Key words: rotifers, Bacillus, enrichment period, proximate   ABSTRAK Brachionus plicatilis merupakan pakan alami yang banyak digunakan dalam pembenihan. Karakteristik rotifer sebagai biokapsul secara praktis dapat meningkatkan kualitas rotifer. Bacillus sp. mampu memperbaiki nutrisi rotifer dengan memproduksi vitamin, detoksikasi pangan maupun melalui aktivitas enzimatis seperti protease, lipase, dan amilase. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh pengkayaan Bacillus sp. terhadap kualitas nutrisi dan pertumbuhan rotifer. Wadah penelitian menggunakan bak fiber volume 1 ton yang berisikan Nannochloropsis sp. dengan kepadatan 105 cell

  6. Significant Improvement Selected Mediators of Inflammation in Phenotypes of Women with PCOS after Reduction and Low GI Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Szczuko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers suggest an increased risk of atherosclerosis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. In the available literature, there are no studies on the mediators of inflammation in women with PCOS, especially after dietary intervention. Eicosanoids (HETE and HODE were compared between the biochemical phenotypes of women with PCOS (normal and high androgens and after the 3-month reduction diet. Eicosanoid profiles (9(S-HODE, 13(S-HODE, 5(S-HETE, 12(S-HETE, 15(S-HETE, 5(S-oxoETE, 16(R-HETE, 16(S-HETE and 5(S, 6(R-lipoxin A4, 5(S, 6(R, 15(R-lipoxin A4 were extracted from 0.5 ml of plasma using solid-phase extraction RP-18 SPE columns. The HPLC separations were performed on a 1260 liquid chromatograph. No significant differences were found in the concentration of analysed eicosanoids in phenotypes of women with PCOS. These women, however, have significantly lower concentration of inflammatory mediators than potentially healthy women from the control group. Dietary intervention leads to a significant (p<0.01 increase in the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators, reaching similar levels as in the control group. The development of inflammatory reaction in both phenotypes of women with PCOS is similar. The pathways for synthesis of proinflammatory mediators in women with PCOS are dormant, but can be stimulated through a reduction diet. Three-month period of lifestyle change may be too short to stimulate the pathways inhibiting inflammatory process.

  7. Induction Based Training leads to Highly Significant Improvements of Objective and Subjective Suturing Ability in Junior Doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Garry

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Simulation based training has shown to be of benefit in the education of medical students. However, the impact of induction based clinical simulation on surgical ability of qualified doctors remains unclear.The aim of this study was to establish if a 60 minute teaching session integrated into an Emergency Medicine speciality induction program produces statistically significant improvements in objective and subjective suturing abilities of junior doctors commencing an Emergency Medicine rotation.Methods: The objective suturing abilities of 16 Foundation Year Two doctors were analysed using a validated OSATs scale prior to a novel teaching intervention. The doctors then undertook an intensive hour long workshop receiving one to one feedback before undergoing repeat OSATs assessment.Subjective ability was measured using a 5 point likert scale and self-assessed competency reporting interrupted suturing before and after the intervention. Photographs of wound closure before and after the intervention were recorded for further blinded assessment of impact of intervention. A survey regarding continued ability was repeated at four months following the intervention. The study took place on 7/12/16 during the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust Emergency Medicine induction in the Royal Victoria Hospital Belfast. The hospital is a regional level 1 trauma centre that has annual departmental attendances in excess of 200,000.All new junior doctors commencing the Emergency Medicine rotation were invited to partake in the study. All 16 agreed. The group consisted of a mixture of undergraduate and postgraduate medicaldoctors who all had 16 months experience working in a variety of medical or surgical jobs previously.Results: Following the teaching intervention objective and subjective abilities in interrupted suturing showed statistically significant improvement (P>0.005. Self-reporting of competency of independently suturingwounds improved from 50

  8. Depressive and anxiety disorders in the postpartum period: how prevalent are they and can we improve their detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Marie-Paule V; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Priest, Susan R; Reilly, Nicole; Wilhelm, Kay; Saint, Karen; Parker, Gordon

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) period prevalence and comorbidity for depression and anxiety disorder in a cohort of women assessed during the first 6-8 months postpartum and (2) to examine the benefits of combining the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with a simple "interval symptom" question to optimize screening postpartum. Women aged over 18 (N = 1,549) were assessed during late pregnancy and reviewed at approximately 2, 4, and 6-8 months postpartum using the EPDS and an "interval symptom" question. The latter asked about any depressive symptoms in the interval since the last EPDS. Women who scored >12 on the EPDS and/or positive on the "interval symptom" question were then administered the CIDI. A further 65 randomly selected women that screened negative were also administered the CIDI. Loss to postnatal follow-up was very significant, and returns rates were inconsistent across the three postnatal time points. Almost 25% of those who screened positive did not complete a CIDI. For screen-positive status, a total of 314 (24.4%) of those that returned questionnaires (N = 1,289) screened positive at least once across the 6- to 8-month interval. Of these, 79 were lost to follow-up; thus, 235 (74.8%) completed a CIDI. In this group, 34.7% had been positive both on the EPDS and the "interval" question, 15.9% on the EPDS alone, and 49.4% on the "interval" question alone. For the CIDI diagnosis and estimated 6- to 8-month period CIDI prevalence, among those 235 women who screened positive and completed a CIDI, 67.2% met the criteria for a CIDI diagnosis, as did 16.9% of those who screened negative. The breakdown in CIDI diagnoses in the 235 women was 32.8% major depression (± anxiety disorder); 26.4% minor depression alone; and 8.1% with a primary anxiety disorder (approximately half with minor depression). Put another way, 20.4% of these women had an anxiety disorder

  9. The European Academy laparoscopic “Suturing Training and Testing’’ (SUTT) significantly improves surgeons’ performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Z.; Tanos, V.; Van Belle, Y.; Carvalho, J.L.; Campo, R.

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of suturing training and testing (SUTT) model by laparoscopy was evaluated, measuring the suturingskill acquisition of trainee gynecologists at the beginning and at the end of a teaching course. During a workshop organized by the European Academy of Gynecological Surgery (EAGS), 25 participants with three different experience levels in laparoscopy (minor, intermediate and major) performed the 4 exercises of the SUTT model (Ex 1: both hands stitching and continuous suturing, Ex 2: right hand stitching and intracorporeal knotting, Ex 3: left hand stitching and intracorporeal knotting, Ex 4: dominant hand stitching, tissue approximation and intracorporeal knotting). The time needed to perform the exercises is recorded for each trainee and group and statistical analysis used to note the differences. Overall, all trainees achieved significant improvement in suturing time (p psychomotor skills, surgery, teaching, training suturing model. PMID:26977264

  10. Codon Optimization Significantly Improves the Expression Level of α-Amylase Gene from Bacillus licheniformis in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Rong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Amylase as an important industrial enzyme has been widely used in starch processing, detergent, and paper industries. To improve expression efficiency of recombinant α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis, the α-amylase gene from B. licheniformis was optimized according to the codon usage of Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris and expressed in P. pastoris. Totally, the codons encoding 305 amino acids were optimized in which a total of 328 nucleotides were changed and the G+C content was increased from 47.6 to 49.2%. The recombinants were cultured in 96-deep-well microplates and screened by a new plate assay method. Compared with the wild-type gene, the optimized gene is expressed at a significantly higher level in P. pastoris after methanol induction for 168 h in 5- and 50-L bioreactor with the maximum activity of 8100 and 11000 U/mL, which was 2.31- and 2.62-fold higher than that by wild-type gene. The improved expression level makes the enzyme a good candidate for α-amylase production in industrial use.

  11. Dry period cooling ameliorates physiological variables and blood acid base balance, improving milk production in murrah buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of evaporative cooling during late gestation on physiological responses, blood gas and acid base balance and subsequent milk production of Murrah buffaloes. To investigate this study sixteen healthy pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes (second to fourth parity) at sixty days prepartum were selected in the months of May to June and divided into two groups of eight animals each. One group of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling system during dry period. Group second buffaloes (Noncooled/NCL) remained as control without provision of cooling during dry period. The physiological responses viz. Rectal temperature (RT), Respiratory rate (RR) and Pulse rate were significantly ( P Milk yield, FCM, fat yield, lactose yield and total solid yield was significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in cooled group of Murrah buffaloes.

  12. Pt-decorated GaN nanowires with significant improvement in H2 gas-sensing performance at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Q N; Yam, F K; Hassan, Z; Bououdina, M

    2015-12-15

    Superior sensitivity towards H2 gas was successfully achieved with Pt-decorated GaN nanowires (NWs) gas sensor. GaN NWs were fabricated via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) route. Morphology (field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) and crystal structure (high resolution X-ray diffraction) characterizations of the as-synthesized nanostructures demonstrated the formation of GaN NWs having a wurtzite structure, zigzaged shape and an average diameter of 30-166nm. The Pt-decorated GaN NWs sensor shows a high response of 250-2650% upon exposure to H2 gas concentration from 7 to 1000ppm respectively at room temperature (RT), and then increases to about 650-4100% when increasing the operating temperature up to 75°C. The gas-sensing measurements indicated that the Pt-decorated GaN NWs based sensor exhibited efficient detection of H2 at low concentration with excellent sensitivity, repeatability, and free hysteresis phenomena over a period of time of 100min. The large surface-to-volume ratio of GaN NWs and the catalytic activity of Pt metal are the most influential factors leading to the enhancement of H2 gas-sensing performances through the improvement of the interaction between the target molecules (H2) and the sensing NWs surface. The attractive low-cost, low power consumption and high-performance of the resultant decorated GaN NWs gas sensor assure their uppermost potential for H2 gas sensor working at low operating temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Complete Au@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced plasmonic absorption enabling significantly improved photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiqiang; Sun, Yugang; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Guozhu; Zhang, Fengshou; Liu, Dilong; Cai, Weiping; Li, Yue; Yang, Xianfeng; Li, Cuncheng

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic absorption in the visible range due to the Au NP cores. They also show a significantly improved photocatalytic performance in comparison with their single-component counterparts, i.e., the Au NPs and ZnO NPs. Moreover, the high catalytic activity of the as-synthesized Au@ZnO core-shell NPs can be maintained even after many cycles of photocatalytic reaction. Our results shed light on the fact that the Au@ZnO core-shell NPs represent a promising class of candidates for applications in plasmonics, surface-enhanced spectroscopy, light harvest devices, solar energy conversion, and degradation of organic pollutants.Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic

  14. Combat-related intradural gunshot wound to the thoracic spine: significant improvement and neurologic recovery following bullet removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwes, Thijs M; Ward, William H; Lee, Kendall H; Freedman, Brett A

    2015-02-01

    The vast majority of combat-related penetrating spinal injuries from gunshot wounds result in severe or complete neurological deficit. Treatment is based on neurological status, the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, and local effects of any retained fragment(s). We present a case of a 46-year-old male who sustained a spinal gunshot injury from a 7.62-mm AK-47 round that became lodged within the subarachnoid space at T9-T10. He immediately suffered complete motor and sensory loss. By 24-48 hours post-injury, he had recovered lower extremity motor function fully but continued to have severe sensory loss (posterior cord syndrome). On post-injury day 2, he was evacuated from the combat theater and underwent a T9 laminectomy, extraction of the bullet, and dural laceration repair. At surgery, the traumatic durotomy was widened and the bullet, which was laying on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, was removed. The dura was closed in a water-tight fashion and fibrin glue was applied. Postoperatively, the patient made a significant but incomplete neurological recovery. His stocking-pattern numbness and sub-umbilical searing dysthesia improved. The spinal canal was clear of the foreign body and he had no persistent CSF leak. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed contusion of the spinal cord at the T9 level. Early removal of an intra-canicular bullet in the setting of an incomplete spinal cord injury can lead to significant neurological recovery following even high-velocity and/or high-caliber gunshot wounds. However, this case does not speak to, and prior experience does not demonstrate, significant neurological benefit in the setting of a complete injury.

  15. Lipid Replacement Therapy Drink Containing a Glycophospholipid Formulation Rapidly and Significantly Reduces Fatigue While Improving Energy and Mental Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Settineri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common complaint of patients seeking general medical care and is often treated with stimulants. It is also important in various physical activities of relatively healthy men and women, such as sports performance. Recent clinical trials using patients with chronic fatigue have shown the benefit of Lipid Replacement Therapy in restoring mitochondrial electron transport function and reducing moderate to severe chronic fatigue. Methods: Lipid Replacement Therapy was administered for the first time as an all-natural functional food drink (60 ml containing polyunsaturated glycophospholipids but devoid of stimulants or herbs to reduce fatigue. This preliminary study used the Piper Fatigue Survey instrument as well as a supplemental questionnaire to assess the effects of the glycophospholipid drink on fatigue and the acceptability of the test drink in adult men and women. A volunteer group of 29 subjects of mean age 56.2±4.5 years with various fatigue levels were randomly recruited in a clinical health fair setting to participate in an afternoon open label trial on the effects of the test drink. Results: Using the Piper Fatigue instrument overall fatigue among participants was reduced within the 3-hour seminar by a mean of 39.6% (p<0.0001. All of the subcategories of fatigue showed significant reductions. Some subjects responded within 15 minutes, and the majority responded within one hour with increased energy and activity and perceived improvements in cognitive function, mental clarity and focus. The test drink was determined to be quite acceptable in terms of taste and appearance. There were no adverse events from the energy drink during the study.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:245-254Conclusions: The Lipid Replacement Therapy functional food drink appeared to be a safe, acceptable and potentially useful new method to reduce fatigue, sustain energy and improve perceptions of mental function.

  16. [Periods for growth and quality improvement of fish in context of animal welfare compliant management of commercial fish ponds--a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrock, Michael; Brämick, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, management of commercial fish ponds requires consideration of animal welfare legislation. In particular, it is forbidden to immediately catch fish that have recently been stocked into put-and-take fishponds. Rather, after stocking is completed, a short-term fishing ban period needs to be adhered to that allows the fishes the opportunity to grow and/or significantly improve in overall quality. The duration of the fishing ban varies considerably among German federal states. A literature review, therefore, was undertaken to identify the amount of time required by adult fish to reach changes in various parameters of quality (proximate composition, fillet colour, odour/taste, stress response), and growth.The literature search revealed that some of the selected parameters (odour/taste, stress response) can change within 24 hours, potentially resulting in improved fish flesh quality. With a time span of about four weeks, feeding-induced changes in proximate composition took the longest among the parameters tested to realize significant changes in fish flesh quality. Transportation-related reductions in body mass are overcome and succeeded by net growth within one to two weeks depending on food availability. Maintaining the fish under species-specific conditions and providing the optimal environment to meet their physiological demands, however, are critical prerequisites for growth and quality improvement. In conclusion there is science-based justification for fishing ban periods ranging from 24 hours to four weeks. Final determination of its duration, therefore, remains a careful balancing of values.

  17. Significance and development of the utilization of brown coal high temperature coke in the economy of the GDR for the period 1964 to 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, E.; Heschel, W.

    1979-01-01

    Brown coal high temperature coke production in GDR in the years since 1964 is described. In 1969 the second large brown coal high temperature coking plant, Schwarze Pumpe, went into operation, increasing the total brown coal high temperature coke production to 2 million tons annually. Utilization of the coke size classes in mm from 0-3.15, 3.15-20, 20-31.5, 31.5-45 and greater than 45 mm in the metallurgical, chemical, and energy industries as well as for household heating is shown with figures from 1964, 1970 and 1974. The increasing use of coke in households partly as briquet substitution is also shown (in 1970 42% of the coke was used in households). The substitution of black coal coke by brown coal coke in additional fields of industrial production was also further advanced. Coke production at the Schwarze Pumpe plant is scheduled to increase to 1.6 million tons by 1985 by means of the application of improved coking technologies. Investigations for future industrial solutions to the following coking problems are being conducted: processing coke fines (which make up 10 to 12% of the total produced coke) by briquetting with binders into formed coke, firing coke fines in blast furnaces and power plants, mixed briquetting of coke fines with limestone for carbide production and mixed briquetting of coke and ore fines for metallurgical purposes. (8 refs.) (In German)

  18. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognitive responses in urban children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian eCalderon-Garciduenas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children. We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1 and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty g of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11± 3.4 days (range 9 to 24 days to 18 children (10.55yrs, SD =1.45; 11F/7M. Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p=0.0002. Fifteen children (83% showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

  19. Flexible deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes for significant improvement of quantum efficiencies by external bending

    KAUST Repository

    Shervin, Shahab; Oh, Seung Kyu; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Keon Hwa; Asadirad, Mojtaba; Kim, Seung Hwan; Kim, Jeomoh; Pouladi, Sara; Lee, Sung-Nam; Li, Xiaohang; Kwak, Joon-Seop; Ryou, Jae-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) light at the wavelength range of 250‒280 nm (UVC spectrum) is essential for numerous applications such as sterilization, purification, sensing, and communication. III-nitride-based DUV light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs), like other solid-state lighting sources, offer a great potential to replace the conventional gas-discharged lamps with short lifetimes and toxic-element-bearing nature. However, unlike visible LEDs, the DUV LEDs are still suffering from low quantum efficiencies (QEs) and low optical output powers. In this work, reported is a new route to improve QEs of AlGaN-based DUV LEDs using mechanical flexibility of recently developed bendable thin-film structures. Numerical studies show that electronic band structures of AlGaN heterostructures and resulting optical and electrical characteristics of the devices can be significantly modified by external bending through active control of piezoelectric polarization. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is enhanced higher than three times, when the DUV LEDs are moderately bent to induce in-plane compressive strain in the heterostructure. Furthermore, efficiency droop at high injection currents is mitigated and turn-on voltage of diodes decreases with the same bending condition. The concept of bendable DUV LEDs with a controlled external strain can provide a new path for high-output-power and high-efficiency devices.

  20. Flexible deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes for significant improvement of quantum efficiencies by external bending

    KAUST Repository

    Shervin, Shahab

    2018-01-26

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) light at the wavelength range of 250‒280 nm (UVC spectrum) is essential for numerous applications such as sterilization, purification, sensing, and communication. III-nitride-based DUV light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs), like other solid-state lighting sources, offer a great potential to replace the conventional gas-discharged lamps with short lifetimes and toxic-element-bearing nature. However, unlike visible LEDs, the DUV LEDs are still suffering from low quantum efficiencies (QEs) and low optical output powers. In this work, reported is a new route to improve QEs of AlGaN-based DUV LEDs using mechanical flexibility of recently developed bendable thin-film structures. Numerical studies show that electronic band structures of AlGaN heterostructures and resulting optical and electrical characteristics of the devices can be significantly modified by external bending through active control of piezoelectric polarization. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is enhanced higher than three times, when the DUV LEDs are moderately bent to induce in-plane compressive strain in the heterostructure. Furthermore, efficiency droop at high injection currents is mitigated and turn-on voltage of diodes decreases with the same bending condition. The concept of bendable DUV LEDs with a controlled external strain can provide a new path for high-output-power and high-efficiency devices.

  1. Novel ventilation design of combining spacer and mesh structure in sports T-shirt significantly improves thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Au, Joe Sau-chuen; Fan, Jintu; Zheng, Rong

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports on novel ventilation design in sports T-shirt, which combines spacer and mesh structure, and experimental evidence on the advantages of design in improving thermal comfort. Evaporative resistance (Re) and thermal insulation (Rc) of T-shirts were measured using a sweating thermal manikin under three different air velocities. Moisture permeability index (i(m)) was calculated to compare the different designed T-shirts. The T-shirts of new and conventional designs were also compared by wearer trials, which were comprised of 30 min treadmill running followed by 10 min rest. Skin temperature, skin relative humidity, heart rate, oxygen inhalation and energy expenditure were monitored, and subjective sensations were asked. Results demonstrated that novel T-shirt has 11.1% significant lower im than control sample under windy condition. The novel T-shirt contributes to reduce the variation of skin temperature and relative humidity up to 37% and 32%, as well as decrease 3.3% energy consumption during exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Significant improvement of thermal stability of glucose 1-dehydrogenase by introducing disulfide bonds at the tetramer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Haitao; Gao, Fen; Liu, Danfeng; Li, Zeli; Xu, Xiaohong; Wu, Min; Zhao, Yuhua

    2013-12-10

    Rational design was applied to glucose 1-dehydrogenase (LsGDH) from Lysinibacillus sphaericus G10 to improve its thermal stability by introduction of disulfide bridges between subunits. One out of the eleven mutants, designated as DS255, displayed significantly enhanced thermal stability with considerable soluble expression and high specific activity. It was extremely stable at pH ranging from 4.5 to 10.5, as it retained nearly 100% activity after incubating at different buffers for 1h. Mutant DS255 also exhibited high thermostability, having a half-life of 9900min at 50°C, which was 1868-fold as that of its wild type. Moreover, both of the increased free energy of denaturation and decreased entropy of denaturation of DS255 suggested that the enzyme structure was stabilized by the engineered disulfide bonds. On account of its robust stability, mutant DS255 would be a competitive candidate in practical applications of chiral chemicals synthesis, biofuel cells and glucose biosensors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Imparting improvements in electrochemical sensors: evaluation of different carbon blacks that give rise to significant improvement in the performance of electroanalytical sensing platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicentini, Fernando Campanhã; Ravanini, Amanda E.; Figueiredo-Filho, Luiz C.S.; Iniesta, Jesús; Banks, Craig E.; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Three different carbon black materials have been evaluated as a potential modifier, however, only one demonstrated an improvement in the electrochemical properties. The carbon black structures were characterised with SEM, XPS and Raman spectroscopy and found to be very similar to that of amorphous graphitic materials. The modifications utilised were constructed by three different strategies (using ultrapure water, chitosan and dihexadecylphosphate). The fabricated sensors are electrochemically characterised using N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-para-phenylenediamine and both inner-sphere and outer-sphere redox probes, namely potassium ferrocyanide(II) and hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride, in addition to the biologically relevant and electroactive analytes, dopamine (DA) and acetaminophen (AP). Comparisons are made with an edge-plane pyrolytic graphite and glassy-carbon electrode and the benefits of carbon black implemented as a modifier for sensors within electrochemistry are explored, as well as the characterisation of their electroanalytical performances. We reveal significant improvements in the electrochemical performance (excellent sensitivity, faster heterogeneous electron transfer rate (HET)) over that of a bare glassy-carbon and edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode and thus suggest that there are substantial advantages of using carbon black as modifier in the fabrication of electrochemical based sensors. Such work is highly important and informative for those working in the field of electroanalysis where electrochemistry can provide portable, rapid, reliable and accurate sensing protocols (bringing the laboratory into the field), with particular relevance to those searching for new electrode materials

  4. Changes in T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network during early period of ibrutinib therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients: the significant decrease in T regulatory cells number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhorecka, Monika; Goracy, Aneta; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Kowal, Malgorzata; Ibanez, Blanca; Jankowska-Lecka, Olga; Macheta, Arkadiusz; Nowaczynska, Aleksandra; Drab-Urbanek, Elzbieta; Chocholska, Sylwia; Jawniak, Dariusz; Hus, Marek

    2017-05-23

    B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation signal plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and kinase inhibitors directed toward the BCR pathway are now the promising anti-leukemic drugs. Ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, demonstrates promising clinical activity in CLL. It is reported that ibrutinib, additionally to directly targeting leukemic cells, also inhibits the interactions of these cells with T cells, macrophages and accessory cells. Assessment of these mechanisms is important because of their non -direct anti-leukemic effects and to identify possible side effects connected with long-term drug administration.The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo effects of ibrutinib on T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network in CLL. The analysis was performed on a group of 19 patients during first month of ibrutinib therapy. The standard multicolor flow cytometry and cytometric bead array methods were used for assessment of T-cell subsets and cytokines/chemokines, respectively.The data obtained indicates that Ibrutinib treatment results in changes in T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network in CLL patients. Particularly, a significant reduction of T regulatory cells in peripheral blood was observed. By targeting these populations of T cells Ibrutinib can stimulate rejection of tumor cells by the immune system.

  5. Mobile physician reporting of clinically significant events-a novel way to improve handoff communication and supervision of resident on call activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Christopher; Peterson, Stephen J; Aronow, Wilbert S; Sule, Sachin; Mumtaz, Arif; Shah, Tushar; Eskridge, Etta; Wold, Eric; Stallings, Gary W; Burak, Kathleen Kelly; Goldberg, Randy; Guo, Gary; Sekhri, Arunabh; Mathew, George; Khera, Sahil; Montoya, Jessica; Sharma, Mala; Paudel, Rajiv; Frishman, William H

    2014-12-01

    Reporting of clinically significant events represents an important mechanism by which patient safety problems may be identified and corrected. However, time pressure and cumbersome report entry procedures have discouraged the full participation of physicians. To improve the process, our internal medicine training program developed an easy-to-use mobile platform that combines the reporting process with patient sign-out. Between August 25, 2011, and January 25, 2012, our trainees entered clinically significant events into i-touch/i-phone/i-pad based devices functioning in wireless-synchrony with our desktop application. Events were collected into daily reports that were sent from the handoff system to program leaders and attending physicians to plan for rounds and to correct safety problems. Using the mobile module, residents entered 31 reportable events per month versus the 12 events per month that were reported via desktop during a previous 6-month study period. Advances in information technology now permit clinically significant events that take place during "off hours" to be identified and reported (via handoff) to next providers and to supervisors via collated reports. This information permits hospital leaders to correct safety issues quickly and effectively, while attending physicians are able to use information gleaned from the reports to optimize rounding plans and to provide additional oversight of trainee on call patient management decisions.

  6. Impact of improved neonatal care on the profile of retinopathy of prematurity in rural neonatal centers in India over a 4-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinekar, Anand; Jayadev, Chaitra; Kumar, Siddesh; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Dogra, Mangat Ram; Bauer, Noel J; Shetty, Bhujang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report the reduction in the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in rural India over a 4-year period following the introduction of improved neonatal care practices. Methods The Karnataka Internet Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity program (KIDROP), is a tele-medicine network that screens for ROP in different zones of Karnataka state in rural India. North Karnataka is the most underdeveloped and remote zone of this program and did not have any ROP screening programs before the intervention of the KIDROP in 2011. Six government and eleven private neonatal centers in this zone were screened weekly. Specific neonatal guidelines for ROP were developed and introduced in these centers. They included awareness about risk factors, oxygen regulation protocols, use of pulse oxymetry, monitoring postnatal weight gain, nutritional best practices, and management of sepsis. The incidence and severity of ROP were compared before the guidelines were introduced (Jan 2011 to Dec 2012) and after the guidelines were introduced (July 2013 to June 2015). Results During this 4-year period, 4,167 infants were screened over 11,390 imaging sessions. The number of enrolled infants increased from 1,825 to 2,342 between the two periods (P<0.001). The overall incidence of any stage ROP reduced significantly from 26.8% to 22.4% (P<0.001). The incidence of treatment-requiring ROP reduced from 20.7% to 16% (P=0.06), and of the treated disease, aggressive posterior ROP reduced from 20.8% to 13.1% (P=0.23) following introduction of the guidelines. Discussion Rural neonatal centers in middle-income countries have a large, unscreened burden of ROP. Improving neonatal care in these centers can positively impact the incidence and severity of ROP even in a relatively short period. A combined approach of a robust ROP screening program and improved neonatal care practices is required to address the challenge. PMID:28539801

  7. Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in southern Ethiopia: significance of improved HIV-related care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimelis, Techalew; Tassachew, Yayehyirad; Lambiyo, Tariku

    2016-05-10

    Intestinal parasitic infections are known to cause gastroenteritis, leading to higher morbidity and mortality, particularly in people living with HIV/AIDS. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients receiving care at a hospital in Ethiopia where previous available baseline data helps assess if improved HIV-related care has reduced infection rates. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa University Hospital in southern Ethiopia from May, 2013 to March, 2014. A consecutive sample of 491 HIV- infected patients with diarrhea or a CD4 T cell count intestinal parasites. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University. Physicians managed participants found to be infected with any pathogenic intestinal parasite. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the study population was 35.8 %. The most prevalent parasites were Cryptosporidium (13.2 %), followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.2 %), and Giardia lamblia (7.9 %). The rate of single and multiple infections were 25.5 and 10.3 %, respectively. Patients with a CD4 T cell count intestinal parasitic infection or cryptosporidiosis compared to those with counts ≥ 200 cells/μl, but with some type of diarrhea. The study shows high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the study population. However, the results in the current report are significantly lower compared to previous findings in the same hospital. The observed lower infection rate is encouraging and supports the need to strengthen and sustain the existing intervention measures in order to further reduce intestinal parasitic infections in people living with HIV/AIDS.

  8. Extended-release niacin/laropiprant significantly improves lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus irrespective of baseline glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bays HE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Harold E Bays,1 Eliot A Brinton,2 Joseph Triscari,3 Erluo Chen,3 Darbie Maccubbin,3 Alexandra A MacLean,3 Kendra L Gibson,3 Rae Ann Ruck,3 Amy O Johnson-Levonas,3 Edward A O’Neill,3 Yale B Mitchel3 1Louisville Metabolic & Atherosclerosis Research Center (L-MARC, Louisville, KY, USA; 2Utah Foundation for Biomedical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: The degree of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM may alter lipid levels and may alter the efficacy of lipid-modifying agents. Objective: Evaluate the lipid-modifying efficacy of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT in subgroups of patients with T2DM with better or poorer glycemic control. Methods: Post hoc analysis of clinical trial data from patients with T2DM who were randomized 4:3 to double-blind ERN/LRPT or placebo (n=796, examining the lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT in patients with glycosylated hemoglobin or fasting plasma glucose levels above and below median baseline levels. Results: At Week 12 of treatment, ERN/LRPT significantly improved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein (a, compared with placebo, with equal efficacy in patients above or below median baseline glycemic control. Compared with placebo, over 36 weeks of treatment more patients treated with ERN/LRPT had worsening of their diabetes and required intensification of antihyperglycemic medication, irrespective of baseline glycemic control. Incidences of other adverse experiences were generally low in all treatment groups. Conclusion: The lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT are independent of the degree of baseline glycemic control in patients with T2DM (NCT00485758. Keywords: lipid-modifying agents, hyperglycemia, LDL, HDL, triglycerides

  9. Level and period of realimentation to assess improvement in body condition and carcass quality in cull ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Randhir Singh; Soren, Nira Manik; Sahoo, Artabandhu; Karim, Shaikh Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Improvement in body condition was assessed in 40 cull ewes (>6 years), equally distributed in two groups and realimented with ad libitum roughage (gram straw) and two levels of concentrate feeding, i.e., 2.5 % (T(1)) of live weight (LW) and ad libitum (T(2)). Five representative animals from an initial 45 were slaughtered at the initiation of the study (0 day) and five animals from each treatment at 44, 67, and 90 days of experiment for carcass attributes. Improvement in body condition score (BCS), nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were assessed at 44, 67, and 90 days. Metabolism trial of 6-day collection of feed, feces, and urine samples was conducted on five representative ewes from each group after 60 days of feeding. The level of concentrate feeding on LW gain and BCS was significant, and the duration of realimentation showed a linear improvement (P body condition of cull ewes for quality mutton production.

  10. Improving significantly the failure strain and work hardening response of LPSO-strengthened Mg-Y-Zn-Al alloy via hot extrusion speed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xinghe; Chee, Winston; Chan, Jimmy; Kwok, Richard; Gupta, Manoj

    2017-07-01

    The effect of hot extrusion speed on the microstructure and mechanical properties of MgY1.06Zn0.76Al0.42 (at%) alloy strengthened by the novel long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase was systematically investigated. Increase in the speed of extrusion accelerated dynamic recrystallization of α-Mg via particle-stimulated nucleation and grain growth in the alloy. The intensive recrystallization and grain growth events weakened the conventional basal texture and Hall-Petch strengthening in the alloy which led to significant improvement in its failure strain from 4.9% to 19.6%. The critical strengthening contribution from LPSO phase known for attributing high strength to the alloy was observed to be greatly undermined by the parallel competition from texture weakening and the adverse Hall-Petch effect when the alloy was extruded at higher speed. Absence of work hardening interestingly observed in the alloy extruded at lower speed was discussed in terms of its ultra-fine grained microstructure which promoted the condition of steady-state defect density in the alloy; where dislocation annihilation balances out the generation of new dislocations during plastic deformation. One approach to improve work hardening response of the alloy to prevent unstable deformation and abrupt failure in service is to increase the grain diameter in the alloy by judiciously increasing the extrusion speed.

  11. Interventions that effectively target Anopheles funestus mosquitoes could significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south-eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindoa, Emmanuel W; Matowo, Nancy S; Ngowo, Halfan S; Mkandawile, Gustav; Mmbando, Arnold; Finda, Marcelina; Okumu, Fredros O

    2017-01-01

    An. arabiensis (44.1%). Though An. arabiensis is still the most abundant vector species here, the remaining malaria transmission is predominantly mediated by An. funestus, possibly due to high insecticide resistance and high survival probabilities. Interventions that effectively target An. funestus mosquitoes could therefore significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south-eastern Tanzania.

  12. Interventions that effectively target Anopheles funestus mosquitoes could significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south–eastern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matowo, Nancy S.; Ngowo, Halfan S.; Mkandawile, Gustav; Mmbando, Arnold; Finda, Marcelina; Okumu, Fredros O.

    2017-01-01

    An. arabiensis (44.1%). Though An. arabiensis is still the most abundant vector species here, the remaining malaria transmission is predominantly mediated by An. funestus, possibly due to high insecticide resistance and high survival probabilities. Interventions that effectively target An. funestus mosquitoes could therefore significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south–eastern Tanzania. PMID:28542335

  13. Effectiveness of an extended period of flashing lights and strategic signage to increase the salience of alcohol-gel dispensers for improving hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Babak; Li, Aimee; Patel, Rakesh; Harmsen, Irene E; Sabri, Elham; Kyeremanteng, Kwadwo; D'Egidio, Gianni

    2016-07-01

    Multiple factors affect compliance with hand hygiene, including conspicuity of alcohol-gel dispensers. Previous studies have shown that flashing lights increase hand hygiene compliance; however, the durability of this effect has not been studied. We affixed flashing lights to hand sanitizer dispensers for a total of 6 weeks. Regression analysis was used to compare compliance rates between the beginning and end of the intervention. Our secondary objective was to determine whether compliance rates in cold weather could be improved by adding a sign separated in time and space from the dispensers. Flashing lights improved hand hygiene compliance from 11.8% to 20.7%, and this effect was unchanged over the 6-week study period. Fully charged lights resulted in a greater compliance increase. A preemptive sign did not have a significant effect on hand hygiene rates nor did absolute temperatures. Flashing lights are a simple, inexpensive way of improving hand hygiene. Brighter lights appear to have a greater effect; however, this must be balanced with annoyance in specific settings. Temperature did not have a significant effect; however, this may be because the relationship does not fit a linear model. Other interventions, such as signs, may need to be tailored specifically to individual hospital environments. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Significant Improvement in Sleep in People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Residential Settings by Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylkema, T.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although about 15 to 50 percent of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) living in residential settings suffer from sleep problems, scant attention is paid to these problems. Most available studies focus on pharmaceutical solutions. In this study we focus on improving sleep in people with intellectual disabilities living in…

  15. Brief Communication: Upper Air Relaxation in RACMO2 Significantly Improves Modelled Interannual Surface Mass Balance Variability in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Berg, W. J.; Medley, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO2) has been a powerful tool for improving surface mass balance (SMB) estimates from GCMs or reanalyses. However, new yearly SMB observations for West Antarctica show that the modelled interannual variability in SMB is poorly simulated by RACMO2, in contrast to ERA-Interim, which resolves this variability well. In an attempt to remedy RACMO2 performance, we included additional upper-air relaxation (UAR) in RACMO2. With UAR, the correlation to observations is similar for RACMO2 and ERA-Interim. The spatial SMB patterns and ice-sheet-integrated SMB modelled using UAR remain very similar to the estimates of RACMO2 without UAR. We only observe an upstream smoothing of precipitation in regions with very steep topography like the Antarctic Peninsula. We conclude that UAR is a useful improvement for regional climate model simulations, although results in regions with steep topography should be treated with care.

  16. Improving winter leaf area index estimation in evergreen coniferous forests and its significance in carbon and water fluxes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Chen, J. M.; Luo, X.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling of carbon and water fluxes at the continental and global scales requires remotely sensed LAI as inputs. For evergreen coniferous forests (ENF), severely underestimated winter LAI has been one of the issues for mostly available remote sensing products, which could cause negative bias in the modeling of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Unlike deciduous trees which shed all the leaves in winter, conifers retains part of their needles and the proportion of the retained needles depends on the needle longevity. In this work, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used to model GPP and ET at eight FLUXNET Canada ENF sites. Two sets of LAI were used as the model inputs: the 250m 10-day University of Toronto (U of T) LAI product Version 2 and the corrected LAI based on the U of T LAI product and the needle longevity of the corresponding tree species at individual sites. Validating model daily GPP (gC/m2) against site measurements, the mean RMSE over eight sites decreases from 1.85 to 1.15, and the bias changes from -0.99 to -0.19. For daily ET (mm), mean RMSE decreases from 0.63 to 0.33, and the bias changes from -0.31 to -0.16. Most of the improvements occur in the beginning and at the end of the growing season when there is large correction of LAI and meanwhile temperature is still suitable for photosynthesis and transpiration. For the dormant season, the improvement in ET simulation mostly comes from the increased interception of precipitation brought by the elevated LAI during that time. The results indicate that model performance can be improved by the application the corrected LAI. Improving the winter RS LAI can make a large impact on land surface carbon and energy budget.

  17. Prospective trial of angiography and embolization for all grade III to V blunt splenic injuries: nonoperative management success rate is significantly improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Preston R; Chang, Michael C; Hoth, J Jason; Mowery, Nathan T; Hildreth, Amy N; Martin, R Shayn; Holmes, James H; Meredith, J Wayne; Requarth, Jay A

    2014-04-01

    Nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt splenic injury is well accepted. Substantial failure rates in higher injury grades remain common, with one large study reporting rates of 19.6%, 33.3%, and 75% for grades III, IV, and V, respectively. Retrospective data show angiography and embolization can increase salvage rates in these severe injuries. We developed a protocol requiring referral of all blunt splenic injuries, grades III to V, without indication for immediate operation for angiography and embolization. We hypothesized that angiography and embolization of high-grade blunt splenic injury would reduce NOM failure rates in this population. This was a prospective study at our Level I trauma center as part of a performance-improvement project. Demographics, injury characteristics, and outcomes were compared with historic controls. The protocol required all stable patients with grade III to V splenic injuries be referred for angiography and embolization. In historic controls, referral was based on surgeon preference. From January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2012, there were 168 patients with grades III to V spleen injuries admitted; NOM was undertaken in 113 (67%) patients. The protocol was followed in 97 patients, with a failure rate of 5%. Failure rate in the 16 protocol deviations was 25% (p = 0.02). Historic controls from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 were compared with the protocol group. One hundred and fifty-three patients with grade III to V injuries were admitted during this period, 80 (52%) patients underwent attempted NOM. Failure rate was significantly higher than for the protocol group (15%, p = 0.04). Use of a protocol requiring angiography and embolization for all high-grade spleen injuries slated for NOM leads to a significantly decreased failure rate. We recommend angiography and embolization as an adjunct to NOM for all grade III to V splenic injuries. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Migration ability and Toll-like receptor expression of human mesenchymal stem cells improves significantly after three-dimensional culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Panpan; Liu, Zilin; Li, Xue; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Lan, Jing; Shi, Qing; Li, Dong; Ju, Xiuli

    2017-09-16

    While the conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture protocol is well accepted for the culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), this method fails to recapitulate the in vivo native three-dimensional (3D) cellular microenvironment, and may result in phenotypic changes, and homing and migration capacity impairments. MSC preparation in 3D culture systems has been considered an attractive preparatory and delivery method recently. We seeded human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUCMSCs) in a 3D culture system with porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM), and investigated the phenotypic changes, the expression changes of some important receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) when hUCMSCs were transferred from 2D to 3D systems, as well as the alterations in in vivo homing and migration potential. It was found that the percentage of CD105-positive cells decreased significantly, whereas that of CD34- and CD271-positive cells increased significantly in 3D culture, compared to that in 2D culture. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR6, and CXCR4 in hUCMSCs were increased significantly upon culturing with PADM for 3 days, compared to the levels in 2D culture. The numbers of migratory 3D hUCMSCs in the heart, liver, spleen, and bone marrow were significantly greater than the numbers of 2D hUCMSCs, and the worst migration occurred in 3D + AMD3100 (CXCR4 antagonist) hUCMSCs. These results suggested that 3D culture of hUCMSCs with PADM could alter the phenotypic characteristics of hUCMSCs, increase their TLR and CXCR4 expression levels, and promote their migratory and homing capacity in which CXCR4 plays an important role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The patient's safety - For a dynamics of improvement. Nr 3. How to analyze your significant radiation protection events?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this publication is to present event analysis methods which are the most frequently used by radiotherapy departments. After an indication of key figures concerning radiotherapy patients, sessions and events, the document indicates the objectives and steps of an event analysis. It presents various analysis methods: Ishikawa diagram (or 5M method or causes-effects diagram), the cause tree, the ALARM method (association of litigation and risk management), the ORION method. It proposes a comparison between these five methods, their possibilities, their limits. Good practices are outlined in terms of data acquisition, method choice, event analysis, and improvement actions. The use of the cause tree analysis is commented by members of the Limoges hospital radiotherapy department, and that of the Ishikawa method by a member of the Beauvais hospital

  20. Significant improvement of bone mineral density by denosumab treatment in Japanese osteoporotic patients following breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Y

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yukio Nakamura,1,2 Mikio Kamimura,3 Akio Morikawa,4 Akira Taguchi,5 Takako Suzuki,1 Hiroyuki Kato1 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Showa-Inan General Hospital, Komagane, 3Center for Osteoporosis and Spinal Disorders, Kamimura Orthopaedic Clinic, Matsumoto, 4Department of Surgery, Showa-Inan General Hospital, Komagane, 5Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Japan Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of denosumab in patients with osteoporosis (OP and non-metastatic breast cancer following treatment of 1 surgery, 2 surgery and aromatase inhibitors, and 3 surgery, aromatase inhibitors, and anti-cancer agents, compared with those in primary OP patients. Patients and methods: In this retrospective 24-month study, patients were divided into the primary OP group (34 cases or OP receiving breast cancer treatment group (breast cancer group; 17 cases. We measured serum calcium, whole parathyroid hormone (PTH, 1,25OH2D3, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b, and bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar 1–4 vertebrae (L-BMD and bilateral total hips (H-BMD for 24 months. Results: The percent changes of serum calcium in the breast cancer group were significantly lower than those in the primary OP group at 1 week, 1 and 12 months. The percent changes of whole PTH in the primary OP group were significantly lower than those in the breast cancer group at 2 and 4 months. Significant differences were found between the groups at 18 months (-34.5% in the primary OP group and -52.6% in the breast cancer group, respectively for the percent changes of BAP. Significant differences were found between the groups at 12, 18, and 24 months (-39.7% in the primary OP group and -64.0% in the breast cancer group at 24 months, respectively for the percent

  1. A study to determine whether targeted education significantly improves the perception of human torture in medical students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Munawwar; Ghaffar, Usama B; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad; Rivzi, Shameem Jahan

    2010-08-01

    This study was undertaken to find out the knowledge of torture in MBBS students. A fair comparison was done by selecting two groups of medical students; one, to whom torture was not taught ie, pretaught group (PrTG, n = 125), and second, to whom torture was taught in classroom ie, post-taught group (PoTG, n = 110) in more than one sessions. The topic on torture was taught under many headings maximising the effort to cover as much as possible; namely, definition, geographical distribution, types of torture (physical, psychological and sexual), post-torture sequelae, sociopolitical environment prevailing in the country, doctors' involvement in torture, rehabilitation of torture victims and the UNO's role in containment of torture. In all a questionnaire was designed having MCQ types on these aspects. It was found that significant level of difference in perception and knowledge about torture existed amongst the groups, and this was further accentuated in medical and non-medical intratopics. 'P' value of each question was computed separately. It was found that the study was statistically significant and reestablished the need of fortifying the gossameric firmament of education specific to torture.

  2. Drilling for improvement : Statoil and Halliburton report significant cost savings and more accurate well placement at the Leismer demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2010-07-15

    This article discussed new improvements in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) made by Statoil and Halliburton at the Leismer demonstration project. The Leismer project is Statoil's inaugural project in oil sands development, and will have a capacity to produce 10,000 barrels per day through 4 separate well pads with 23 well pairs. Challenges to the project included the long lateral sections required for the well pairs to remain parallel to each other while remaining within the target formation. An azimuthal deep resistivity (ADR) tool was used to detect the proximity of the wellbore to shale and water zones. Use of the tool allowed operators to modify the planned well trajectory in order to optimize placements within the reservoir. A rotary steerable system (RSS) was used increase injection times. The project was completed 6 to 8 weeks ahead of schedule. Applications have now been filed for a further 10 phases that will produce 240,000 barrels per day. 1 fig.

  3. Icariin combined with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells significantly improve the impaired kidney function in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wang, Li; Chu, Xiaoqian; Cui, Huantian; Bian, Yuhong

    2017-04-01

    At present, the main therapy for chronic renal failure (CRF) is dialysis and renal transplantation, but neither obtains satisfactory results. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (huMSCs) are isolated from the fetal umbilical cord which has a high self-renewal and multi-directional differentiation potential. Icariin (ICA), a kidney-tonifying Chinese Medicine can enhance the multipotency of huMSCs. Therefore, this work seeks to employ the use of ICA-treated huMSCs for the treatment of chronic renal failure. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine (Cr) analyses showed amelioration of functional parameters in ICA-treated huMSCs for the treatment of CRF rats at 3, 7, and 14 days after transplantation. ICA-treated huMSCs can obviously increase the number of cells in injured renal tissues at 3, 7, and 14 days after transplantation by optical molecular imaging system. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that ICA-treated huMSCs reduced the levels of fibrosis in CRF rats at 14 days after transplantation. Superoxide dismutase and Malondialdehyde analyses showed that ICA-treated huMSCs reduced the oxidative damage in CRF rats. Moreover, transplantation with ICA-treated huMSCs decreased inflammatory responses, promoted the expression of growth factors, and protected injured renal tissues. Taken together, our findings suggest that ICA-treated huMSCs could improve the kidney function in CRF rats.

  4. Improvement of Fabry Disease-Related Gastrointestinal Symptoms in a Significant Proportion of Female Patients Treated with Agalsidase Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcox, William R; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Martins, Ana Maria

    2018-01-01

    of organ involvement. Although variable, gastrointestinal symptoms are among the most common and significant early clinical manifestations; they tend to persist into adulthood if left untreated. To further understand the effects of sustained enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with agalsidase beta......Fabry disease, an X-linked inherited lysosomal storage disorder, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding α-galactosidase, GLA. In patients with Fabry disease, glycosphingolipids accumulate in various cell types, triggering a range of cellular and tissue responses that result in a wide spectrum...... on gastrointestinal symptoms in heterozygotes, a data analysis of female patients enrolled in the Fabry Registry was conducted. To be included, females of any age must have received agalsidase beta (average dose 1.0 mg/kg every 2 weeks) for at least 2.5 years. Measured outcomes were self-reported gastrointestinal...

  5. Towards an improved prediction of the free radical scavenging potency of flavonoids: the significance of double PCET mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amić, Ana; Marković, Zoran; Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina M; Stepanić, Višnja; Lučić, Bono; Amić, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    The 1H(+)/1e(-) and 2H(+)/2e(-) proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes of free radical scavenging by flavonoids were theoretically studied for aqueous and lipid environments using the PM6 and PM7 methods. The results reported here indicate that the significant contribution of the second PCET mechanism, resulting in the formation of a quinone/quinone methide, effectively discriminates the active from inactive flavonoids. The predictive potency of descriptors related to the energetics of second PCET mechanisms (the second O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE2) related to hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism, and the second electron transfer enthalpy (ETE2) related to sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanism) are superior to the currently used indices, which are related to the first 1H(+)/1e(-) processes, and could serve as primary descriptors in development of the QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationships) of flavonoids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Amphoteric Ion-Exchange Membranes with Significantly Improved Vanadium Barrier Properties for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibel, Olga; Rojek, Tomasz; Schmidt, Thomas J; Gubler, Lorenz

    2017-07-10

    All-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs) have attracted considerable interest as promising energy-storage devices that can allow the efficient utilization of renewable energy sources. The membrane, which separates the porous electrodes in a redox flow cell, is one of the key components in VRBs. High rates of crossover of vanadium ions and water through the membrane impair the efficiency and capacity of a VRB. Thus, membranes with low permeation rate of vanadium species and water are required, also characterized by low resistance and stability in the VRB environment. Here, we present a new design concept for amphoteric ion-exchange membranes, based on radiation-induced grafting of vinylpyridine into an ethylene tetrafluoroethylene base film and a two-step functionalization to introduce cationic and anionic exchange sites, respectively. During long-term cycling, redox flow cells containing these membranes showed higher efficiency, less pronounced electrolyte imbalance, and significantly reduced capacity decay compared to the cells with the benchmark material Nafion 117. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Rommelaere, Heidi; Stortelers, Catelijne; Van Gucht, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days) and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate), when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP. PMID:27483431

  8. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Terryn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate, when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP.

  9. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2015-11-01

    Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1-T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20-30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  10. Marrying Step Feed with Secondary Clarifier Improvements to Significantly Increase Peak Wet Weather Treatment Capacity: An Integrated Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A

    2017-08-01

      The need to increase the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of the City of Akron, Ohio, Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) provided the opportunity to test an integrated methodology for maximizing the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of activated sludge systems. An initial investigation, consisting of process modeling of the secondary treatment system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the existing relatively shallow secondary clarifiers (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter units), indicated that a significant increase in capacity from 416 000 to 684 000 m3/d or more was possible by adding step feed capabilities to the existing bioreactors and upgrading the existing secondary clarifiers. One of the six treatment units at the WRF was modified, and an extensive 2-year testing program was conducted to determine the total peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity achievable. The results demonstrated that a peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity approaching 974 000 m3/d is possible as long as secondary clarifier solids and hydraulic loadings could be separately controlled using the step feed capability provided. Excellent sludge settling characteristics are routinely experienced at the City of Akron WRF, raising concerns that the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity could not be maintained should sludge settling characteristics deteriorate for some reason. Computational fluid dynamics analysis indicated that the impact of the deterioration of sludge settling characteristics could be mitigated and the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity maintained by further use of the step feed capability provided to further reduce secondary clarifier solids loading rates at the identified high surface overflow rates. The results also demonstrated that effluent limits not only for total suspended solids (TSS) and five-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (cBOD5) could be

  11. Improvement of the management of infants, children and adults with a molecular diagnosis of Enterovirus meningitis during two observational study periods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Archimbaud

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses (EVs are a major cause of aseptic meningitis, and RNA detection using molecular assay is the gold standard diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an EV positive diagnosis on the clinical management of patients admitted for meningitis over the course of two observational study periods (2005 and 2008-09 in the same clinical departments. We further investigated in multivariate analysis various factors possibly associated with hospital length of stay (LOS in all age groups (infants, children, and adults. The results showed an overall improvement in the management of patients (n = 142 between the study periods, resulting in a significantly shorter hospital LOS for adults and children, and a shorter duration of antibiotic use for adults and infants. In multivariate analysis, we observed that the time from molecular test results to discharge of patients and the median duration of antibiotic treatment were associated with an increase in LOS in all age groups. In addition, among adults, the turnaround time of the molecular assay was significantly correlated with LOS. The use of CT scan in children and hospital admission outside the peak of EV prevalence in infants tended to increase LOS. In conclusion, the shorter length of stay of patients with meningitis in this study was due to various factors including the rapidity of the EV molecular test (particularly in adults, greater physician responsiveness after a positive result (in adults and children, and greater experience on the part of physicians in handling EV meningitis, as evidenced by the shorter duration of antibiotic use in adults and infants.

  12. Improvement of the Management of Infants, Children and Adults with a Molecular Diagnosis of Enterovirus Meningitis during Two Observational Study Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archimbaud, Christine; Ouchchane, Lemlih; Mirand, Audrey; Chambon, Martine; Demeocq, François; Labbé, André; Laurichesse, Henri; Schmidt, Jeannot; Clavelou, Pierre; Aumaître, Olivier; Regagnon, Christel; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Henquell, Cécile; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are a major cause of aseptic meningitis, and RNA detection using molecular assay is the gold standard diagnostic test. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an EV positive diagnosis on the clinical management of patients admitted for meningitis over the course of two observational study periods (2005 and 2008–09) in the same clinical departments. We further investigated in multivariate analysis various factors possibly associated with hospital length of stay (LOS) in all age groups (infants, children, and adults). The results showed an overall improvement in the management of patients (n = 142) between the study periods, resulting in a significantly shorter hospital LOS for adults and children, and a shorter duration of antibiotic use for adults and infants. In multivariate analysis, we observed that the time from molecular test results to discharge of patients and the median duration of antibiotic treatment were associated with an increase in LOS in all age groups. In addition, among adults, the turnaround time of the molecular assay was significantly correlated with LOS. The use of CT scan in children and hospital admission outside the peak of EV prevalence in infants tended to increase LOS. In conclusion, the shorter length of stay of patients with meningitis in this study was due to various factors including the rapidity of the EV molecular test (particularly in adults), greater physician responsiveness after a positive result (in adults and children), and greater experience on the part of physicians in handling EV meningitis, as evidenced by the shorter duration of antibiotic use in adults and infants. PMID:23874676

  13. Five-year results from a prospective multicentre study of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation demonstrate sustained removal of significant pulmonary regurgitation, improved right ventricular outflow tract obstruction and improved quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hager, Alfred; Schubert, Stephan; Ewert, Peter

    2017-01-01

    . The EQ-5D quality of life utility index and visual analogue scale scores were both significantly improved six months post PPVI and remained so at five years. CONCLUSIONS: Five-year results following PPVI demonstrate resolved moderate or severe pulmonary regurgitation, improved right ventricular outflow...

  14. Tools for improving safety management in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet occupational accidents analysis period of 1998-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasjord, Halvard L

    2006-01-01

    Reporting of human accidents in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet has always been very difficult because there has been no tradition in making reports on all types of working accidents among fishermen, if the accident does not seem to be very serious or there is no economical incentive to report. Therefore reports are only written when the accidents are serious or if the fisherman is reported sick. Reports about an accident are sent to the insurance company, but another report should also be sent to the Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD). Comparing of data from one former insurance company and NMD shows that the real numbers of injuries or serious accidents among Norwegian fishermen could be up to two times more than the numbers reported to NMD. Special analyses of 1690 accidents from the so called PUS-database (NMD) for the period 1998-2002, show that the calculated risk was 23.6 accidents per 1000 man-years. This is quite a high risk level, and most of the accidents in the fishing fleet were rather serious. The calculated risks are highest for fishermen on board the deep sea fleet of trawlers (28.6 accidents per 1000 man-years) and also on the deep sea fleet of purse seiners (28.9 accidents per 1000 man-years). Fatal accidents over a longer period of 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006 are also roughly analysed. These data from SINTEF's own database show that the numbers of fatal accidents have been decreasing over this long period, except for the two periods 1980-84 and 1990-94 where we had some casualties with total losses of larger vessels with the loss of most of the crew, but also many others typical work accidents on smaller vessels. The total numbers of registered Norwegian fishermen and also the numbers of man-years have been drastically reduced over the 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006. The risks of fatal accidents have been very steady over time at a high level, although there has been a marked risk reduction since 1990-94. For the last 8.5-year period of January 1998

  15. improvement of the programs of formation of Asco in the period 2010-2015. achievements and actions in March

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Heredia, R.

    2015-01-01

    The improvement plan is one of the plans of action included in the Strategic Plan of ANAV and is focused on achieving and consolidating the commitment of managers with the training, being them the training program for their unit owners. also the gradual implementation of the methodology Systematic Approach to Training and consolidate the structure of committees of training as a tool of management of training programmes. (Author)

  16. Addition of 2-(ethylamino)acetonitrile group to nitroxoline results in significantly improved anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Ana; Sosič, Izidor; Kos, Špela; Tratar, Urša Lampreht; Breznik, Barbara; Kranjc, Simona; Mirković, Bojana; Gobec, Stanislav; Lah, Tamara; Serša, Gregor; Kos, Janko

    2017-08-29

    Lysosomal cysteine peptidase cathepsin B, involved in multiple processes associated with tumor progression, is validated as a target for anti-cancer therapy. Nitroxoline, a known antimicrobial agent, is a potent and selective inhibitor of cathepsin B, hence reducing tumor progression in vitro and in vivo . In order to further improve its anti-cancer properties we developed a number of derivatives using structure-based chemical synthesis. Of these, the 7-aminomethylated derivative (compound 17 ) exhibited significantly improved kinetic properties over nitroxoline, inhibiting cathepsin B endopeptidase activity selectively. In the present study, we have evaluated its anti-cancer properties. It was more effective than nitroxoline in reducing tumor cell invasion and migration, as determined in vitro on two-dimensional cell models and tumor spheroids, under either endpoint or real time conditions. Moreover, it exhibited improved action over nitroxoline in impairing tumor growth in vivo in LPB mouse fibrosarcoma tumors in C57Bl/6 mice. Taken together, the addition of a 2-(ethylamino)acetonitrile group to nitroxoline at position 7 significantly improves its pharmacological characteristics and its potential for use as an anti-cancer drug.

  17. Impact of improved neonatal care on the profile of retinopathy of prematurity in rural neonatal centers in India over a 4-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinekar, Anand; Jayadev, Chaitra; Kumar, Siddesh; Mangalesh, Shwetha; Dogra, Mangat Ram; Bauer, Noel J; Shetty, Bhujang

    2016-01-01

    To report the reduction in the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in rural India over a 4-year period following the introduction of improved neonatal care practices. The Karnataka Internet Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity program (KIDROP), is a tele-medicine network that screens for ROP in different zones of Karnataka state in rural India. North Karnataka is the most underdeveloped and remote zone of this program and did not have any ROP screening programs before the intervention of the KIDROP in 2011. Six government and eleven private neonatal centers in this zone were screened weekly. Specific neonatal guidelines for ROP were developed and introduced in these centers. They included awareness about risk factors, oxygen regulation protocols, use of pulse oxymetry, monitoring postnatal weight gain, nutritional best practices, and management of sepsis. The incidence and severity of ROP were compared before the guidelines were introduced (Jan 2011 to Dec 2012) and after the guidelines were introduced (July 2013 to June 2015). During this 4-year period, 4,167 infants were screened over 11,390 imaging sessions. The number of enrolled infants increased from 1,825 to 2,342 between the two periods ( P large, unscreened burden of ROP. Improving neonatal care in these centers can positively impact the incidence and severity of ROP even in a relatively short period. A combined approach of a robust ROP screening program and improved neonatal care practices is required to address the challenge.

  18. Improvement in health expectancy at ages 50 and 65 in Denmark during the period 2004-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeune, Bernard; Eriksen, Mette Lindholm; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2015-01-01

    was even longer in both genders and it increased by 1.5-4.0 years depending on age, gender and health indicator. Consequently, expected lifetime in an unhealthy state decreased and the proportions of lifetime in a healthy state increased. The disability effect of the health gain was stronger than......-2011. METHODS: The study was based on nationwide register data on mortality and data on health status from the SHARE surveys carried out in 2004/2005, 2006/2007 and 2010/2011. Expected lifetime in various health states was estimated by Sullivan's method. Changes from 2004 to 2011 were decomposed...... into contributions from changes in mortality and prevalence of activity limitations. RESULTS: During the period 2004-2011 LE increased by about 1 year at both age 50 and age 65. However, the increase in expected lifetime in self-rated good health, without long-term health problems and without activity limitations...

  19. Co-overexpressing a Plasma Membrane and a Vacuolar Membrane Sodium/Proton Antiporter Significantly Improves Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Necla; Sun, Li; Jarrett, Philip; Yang, Xiaojie; Mishra, Neelam; Chen, Lin; Kadioglu, Asim; Shen, Guoxin; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis gene AtNHX1 encodes a vacuolar membrane-bound sodium/proton (Na+/H+) antiporter that transports Na+ into the vacuole and exports H+ into the cytoplasm. The Arabidopsis gene SOS1 encodes a plasma membrane-bound Na+/H+ antiporter that exports Na+ to the extracellular space and imports H+ into the plant cell. Plants rely on these enzymes either to keep Na+ out of the cell or to sequester Na+ into vacuoles to avoid the toxic level of Na+ in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of AtNHX1 or SOS1 could improve salt tolerance in transgenic plants, but the improved salt tolerance is limited. NaCl at concentration >200 mM would kill AtNHX1-overexpressing or SOS1-overexpressing plants. Here it is shown that co-overexpressing AtNHX1 and SOS1 could further improve salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, making transgenic Arabidopsis able to tolerate up to 250 mM NaCl treatment. Furthermore, co-overexpression of AtNHX1 and SOS1 could significantly reduce yield loss caused by the combined stresses of heat and salt, confirming the hypothesis that stacked overexpression of two genes could substantially improve tolerance against multiple stresses. This research serves as a proof of concept for improving salt tolerance in other plants including crops. PMID:26985021

  20. Co-overexpressing a Plasma Membrane and a Vacuolar Membrane Sodium/Proton Antiporter Significantly Improves Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Necla; Sun, Li; Jarrett, Philip; Yang, Xiaojie; Mishra, Neelam; Chen, Lin; Kadioglu, Asim; Shen, Guoxin; Zhang, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The Arabidopsis gene AtNHX1 encodes a vacuolar membrane-bound sodium/proton (Na(+)/H(+)) antiporter that transports Na(+) into the vacuole and exports H(+) into the cytoplasm. The Arabidopsis gene SOS1 encodes a plasma membrane-bound Na(+)/H(+) antiporter that exports Na(+) to the extracellular space and imports H(+) into the plant cell. Plants rely on these enzymes either to keep Na(+) out of the cell or to sequester Na(+) into vacuoles to avoid the toxic level of Na(+) in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of AtNHX1 or SOS1 could improve salt tolerance in transgenic plants, but the improved salt tolerance is limited. NaCl at concentration >200 mM would kill AtNHX1-overexpressing or SOS1-overexpressing plants. Here it is shown that co-overexpressing AtNHX1 and SOS1 could further improve salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, making transgenic Arabidopsis able to tolerate up to 250 mM NaCl treatment. Furthermore, co-overexpression of AtNHX1 and SOS1 could significantly reduce yield loss caused by the combined stresses of heat and salt, confirming the hypothesis that stacked overexpression of two genes could substantially improve tolerance against multiple stresses. This research serves as a proof of concept for improving salt tolerance in other plants including crops. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  1. Periodic TiO2 Nanostructures with Improved Aspect and Line/Space Ratio Realized by Colloidal Photolithography Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Berthod

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents substantial improvements of the colloidal photolithography technique (also called microsphere lithography with the goal of better controlling the geometry of the fabricated nano-scale structures—in this case, hexagonally arranged nanopillars—printed in a layer of directly photopatternable sol-gel TiO2. Firstly, to increase the achievable structure height the photosensitive layer underneath the microspheres is deposited on a reflective layer instead of the usual transparent substrate. Secondly, an increased width of the pillars is achieved by tilting the incident wave and using multiple exposures or substrate rotation, additionally allowing to better control the shape of the pillar’s cross section. The theoretical analysis is carried out by rigorous modelling of the photonics nanojet underneath the microspheres and by optimizing the experimental conditions. Aspect ratios (structure height/lateral structure size greater than 2 are predicted and demonstrated experimentally for structure dimensions in the sub micrometer range, as well as line/space ratios (lateral pillar size/distance between pillars greater than 1. These nanostructures could lead for example to materials exhibiting efficient light trapping in the visible and near-infrared range, as well as improved hydrophobic or photocatalytic properties for numerous applications in environmental and photovoltaic systems.

  2. Significant improvement of olfactory performance in sleep apnea patients after three months of nasal CPAP therapy - Observational study and randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Boerner

    Full Text Available The olfactory function highly impacts quality of life (QoL. Continuous positive airway pressure is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and is often applied by nasal masks (nCPAP. The influence of nCPAP on the olfactory performance of OSA patients is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the sense of smell before initiation of nCPAP and after three months treatment, in moderate and severe OSA patients.The sense of smell was assessed in 35 patients suffering from daytime sleepiness and moderate to severe OSA (apnea/hypopnea index ≥ 15/h, with the aid of a validated test battery (Sniffin' Sticks before initiation of nCPAP therapy and after three months of treatment. Additionally, adherent subjects were included in a double-blind randomized three weeks CPAP-withdrawal trial (sub-therapeutic CPAP pressure.Twenty five of the 35 patients used the nCPAP therapy for more than four hours per night, and for more than 70% of nights (adherent group. The olfactory performance of these patients improved significantly (p = 0.007 after three months of nCPAP therapy. When considering the entire group of patients, olfaction also improved significantly (p = 0.001. In the randomized phase the sense of smell of six patients deteriorated under sub-therapeutic CPAP pressure (p = 0.046 whereas five patients in the maintenance CPAP group showed no significant difference (p = 0.501.Olfactory performance improved significantly after three months of nCPAP therapy in patients suffering from moderate and severe OSA. It seems that this effect of nCPAP is reversible under sub-therapeutic CPAP pressure.ISRCTN11128866.

  3. Effects of a community scorecard on improving the local health system in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: qualitative evidence using the most significant change technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lara S; Labrecque, Guillaume; Batonon, Isatou; Salsi, Viviana; Ratnayake, Ruwan

    2015-01-01

    More than a decade of conflict has weakened the health system in the Democratic Republic of Congo and decreased its ability to respond to the needs of the population. Community scorecards have been conceived as a way to increase accountability and responsiveness of service providers, but there is limited evidence of their effects, particularly in fragile and conflict-affected contexts. This paper describes the implementation of community scorecards within a community-driven reconstruction project in two provinces of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Between June 2012 and November 2013, 45 stories of change in the health system were collected from village development committee, health committee, community members (20 men and 18 women) and healthcare providers (n = 7) in 25 sites using the Most Significant Change technique. Stories were analyzed qualitatively for content related to the types and mechanisms of change observed. The most salient changes were related to increased transparency and community participation in health facility management, and improved quality of care. Quality of care included increased access to services, improved patient-provider relationships, improved performance of service providers, and improved maintenance of physical infrastructure. Changes occurred through many different mechanisms including provider actions in response to information, pressure from community representatives, or supervisors; and joint action and improved collaboration by health facility committees and providers. Although it is often assumed that confrontation is a primary mechanism for citizens to change state-provided services, this study demonstrates that healthcare providers may also be motivated to change through other means. Positive experiences of community scorecards can provide a structured space for interface between community members and the health system, allowing users to voice their opinions and preferences and bridge information gaps for both

  4. An improved model to determine the inception of positive upward leader–streamer system considering the leader propagation during dark period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Shijun; He Junjia; Chen Weijiang

    2013-01-01

    Stem–leader transition and front-streamer inception are two essential conditions for the inception of positive upward leader–streamer system (LSS). Previous models have not considered the initial-leader propagation during dark period and have not been verified systematically. In this paper, a series of positive upward discharge simulation experiments was designed and carried out. Characteristic parameters of the discharge process related to the inception of positive upward LSS, namely, the first-corona inception voltage, the first-corona charge, the dark period, and the LSS inception voltage, were obtained. By comparing these experiment results with simulation results calculated using previous models, it was found that it is improper to assume that the length of the initial leader is a fixed value. Finally, an improved inception model of positive upward LSS considering the leader propagation during dark period was developed and verified with experiment results.

  5. Integrated approaches to improve birth outcomes: perinatal periods of risk, infant mortality review, and the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shin Margaret; Donatoni, Giannina; Bemis, Cathleen; Donovan, Kevin; Harding, Cynthia; Davenport, Deborah; Gilbert, Carol; Kasehagen, Laurin; Peck, Magda G

    2010-11-01

    This article provides an example of how Perinatal Periods of Risk (PPOR) can provide a framework and offer analytic methods that move communities to productive action to address infant mortality. Between 1999 and 2002, the infant mortality rate in the Antelope Valley region of Los Angeles County increased from 5.0 to 10.6 per 1,000 live births. Of particular concern, infant mortality among African Americans in the Antelope Valley rose from 11.0 per 1,000 live births (7 cases) in 1999 to 32.7 per 1,000 live births (27 cases) in 2002. In response, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Maternal, Child, and Adolescent Health Programs partnered with a community task force to develop an action plan to address the issue. Three stages of the PPOR approach were used: (1) Assuring Readiness; (2) Data and Assessment, which included: (a) Using 2002 vital records to identify areas with the highest excess rates of feto-infant mortality (Phase 1 PPOR), and (b) Implementing Infant Mortality Review (IMR) and the Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB) Project, a population-based study to identify potential factors associated with adverse birth outcomes. (Phase 2 PPOR); and (3) Strategy and Planning, to develop strategic actions for targeted prevention. A description of stakeholders' commitments to improve birth outcomes and monitor infant mortality is also given. The Antelope Valley community was engaged and ready to investigate the local rise in infant mortality. Phase 1 PPOR analysis identified Maternal Health/Prematurity and Infant Health as the most important periods of risk for further investigation and potential intervention. During the Phase 2 PPOR analyses, IMR found a significant proportion of mothers with previous fetal loss (45%) or low birth weight/preterm (LBW/PT) birth, late prenatal care (39%), maternal infections (47%), and infant safety issues (21%). After adjusting for potential confounders (maternal age, race, education level, and marital status), the

  6. Can Periodical Examinations of Employees Be Useful in Detection of Glycaemia Impairment and Improving Patients’ Adherence to Medical Recommendations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Marcinkiewicz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide epidemiological data indicates insufficient diagnosis of diabetes as an increasing public health problem. In the search for solutions to this disadvantageous situation, occupational medicine health services seem to open up a unique opportunity to recognize some abnormalities in the early stages, especially among the asymptomatic working-age population. 316 workers underwent obligatory prophylactic examinations. In patients with twice assayed FGL ≥ 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L an additional intervention was implemented, including further diagnostic processes and therapy in General Practice (GP, followed by examination by an occupational health specialist within 3 months. The diagnosis of previously unknown diabetes was established among 2.5% of examined workers. All patients referred to the GP due to detected glycaemia impairment visited their doctor and finished the diagnostic process, took up therapy constrained by the occupational health physician to show the effects of intervention within 3 months. Prophylactic medical check-ups allow improved compliance and medical surveillance over glycaemia impairment in patients with prediabetes states, unknown diabetes or uncontrolled clinical course of diabetes. Considering fasting glucose level during mandatory prophylactic examination helps effective prevention of diabetes and its complications and thus provides public health system benefits.

  7. Oral administration of an HSP90 inhibitor, 17-DMAG, intervenes tumor-cell infiltration into multiple organs and improves survival period for ATL model mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikebe, E; Kawaguchi, A; Tezuka, K; Taguchi, S; Hirose, S; Matsumoto, T; Mitsui, T; Senba, K; Nishizono, A; Hori, M; Hasegawa, H; Yamada, Y; Ueno, T; Tanaka, Y; Sawa, H; Hall, W; Minami, Y; Jeang, K T; Ogata, M; Morishita, K; Hasegawa, H; Fujisawa, J; Iha, H

    2013-01-01

    In the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from the carriers of the human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) or the patients with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB)-mediated antiapoptotic signals are constitutively activated primarily by the HTLV-1-encoded oncoprotein Tax. Tax interacts with the I κB kinase regulatory subunit NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) to activate NF-κB, and this interaction is maintained in part by a molecular chaperone, heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90), and its co-chaperone cell division cycle 37 (CDC37). The antibiotic geldanamycin (GA) inhibits HSP90's ATP binding for its proper interaction with client proteins. Administration of a novel water-soluble and less toxic GA derivative, 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin hydrochloride (17-DMAG), to Tax-expressing ATL-transformed cell lines, C8166 and MT4, induced significant degradation of Tax. 17-DMAG also facilitated growth arrest and cellular apoptosis to C8166 and MT4 and other ATL cell lines, although this treatment has no apparent effects on normal PBLs. 17-DMAG also downregulated Tax-mediated intracellular signals including the activation of NF-κB, activator protein 1 or HTLV-1 long terminal repeat in Tax-transfected HEK293 cells. Oral administration of 17-DMAG to ATL model mice xenografted with lymphomatous transgenic Lck-Tax (Lck proximal promoter-driven Tax transgene) cells or HTLV-1-producing tumor cells dramatically attenuated aggressive infiltration into multiple organs, inhibited de novo viral production and improved survival period. These observations identified 17-DMAG as a promising candidate for the prevention of ATL progression

  8. Improving the stability of coal slurries: Quarterly progress report for the period March 15, 1987-June 15, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogler, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    Gum tragacanth, GT has been found to stabilize colloidal solutions. The stabilization effect with GT depends significantly on the pore size of the filter membrane. To investigate the dependence of the stabilization effect on the pore size of filter membrane, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FT-IR was employed. The FT-IR spectra showed that the chemical structure of GT was identical before and after the filtration. Next, the gel permeation chromatography was carried out, and it was found that the molecular weight distribution changes due to the filtration. Therefore, in order to study the effect of molecular weight on the stabilization effect, the amount of GT adsorbed, the zeta potential and steric layer thickness were measured. The results showed that the greater stabilization effect for the GT having the greater proportion of higher molecular weight fraction can be attributed to the greater steric layer thickness. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. The Improvement of the Methodological Approaches to Calculating the Payback Period for Investment in order to Estimate Expenses on Establishing the Economic Security Service of an Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melikhova Tetiana O.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to improve the methodological approaches to calculating the payback period for investment in order to determine the payback period for expenses on establishing the economic security service of an enterprise. It is found that the source of payback of investment at the enterprise level is cash flow product. These revenues (the result go to formation of a cash flow (expenses used to finance investment and financial activities. There proposed methods for determining the gross, net, actual, and specified payback periods for advanced investments in the long-term, which use the accumulated product of cash flow or accumulated cash flow as a source of financing. Analytic relationships between the gross, net, current, and specified payback periods for advanced investments that take into account the relationship between the accumulated gross, net, current and specified cash flows are proposed. The considered options for payback of advanced investment at the enterprise level will provide an opportunity to develop methods for determining the payback period for expenses on establishing the economic security service of an enterprise.

  10. The Effect of Centering Pregnancy versus Traditional Prenatal Care Models on Improved Adolescent Health Behaviors in the Perinatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman, Gylynthia; Chhatre, Gayatri; Darolia, Renuka; Tefera, Eshetu; Damle, Lauren; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica

    2015-10-01

    To determine if the CenteringPregnancy model of prenatal care improves maternal health behaviors in adolescent pregnancy. We conducted a retrospective chart review comparing 150 pregnant adolescents who received prenatal care between 2008 to 2012 with CenteringPregnancy to those receiving care in traditional prenatal care models with either multiprovider or single-provider visits. Outcome measures included weight gain during pregnancy, compliance to prenatal care appointments, infant feeding method, postpartum follow up and contraceptive use postpartum. A χ(2) analysis was used to compare outcomes between the 3 groups at a 2-tailed α of .05. Fifty individuals were evaluated in each group. Adolescents in the CenteringPregnancy group were more likely to comply with prenatal and postpartum visits and to meet the 2009 Institute of Medicine gestational weight guidelines for weight gain in pregnancy than were adolescents in either multiprovider (62.0% vs 38.0%, P = .02) or single-provider (62.0% vs 38.0%, P = .02) groups. The CenteringPregnancy group was also more likely to solely breastfeed compared with adolescents in the multiprovider group (40.0% vs 20.0%, P = .03) and include breastfeeding in addition to bottle-feeding compared with both multiprovider (32.0% vs 14.0%, P = .03) and single-provider (32.0% vs 12.0%, P = .03) patient groups. Additionally, the CenteringPregnancy group had increased uptake of long-acting reversible contraception and were less likely to suffer from postpartum depression. CenteringPregnancy Prenatal Care program aids in compliance to prenatal visits, appropriate weight gain, increased uptake of highly effective contraception, and breastfeeding among adolescent mothers. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Improvements for extending the time between maintenance periods for the Heidelberg ion beam therapy center (HIT) ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, Tim, E-mail: tim.winkelmann@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Cee, Rainer; Haberer, Thomas; Naas, Bernd; Peters, Andreas; Schreiner, Jochen [Heidelberger Ionenstrahl-Therapie Centrum (HIT), D -69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    The clinical operation at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) started in November 2009; since then more than 1600 patients have been treated. In a 24/7 operation scheme two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce protons and carbon ions. The modification of the low energy beam transport line and the integration of a third ion source into the therapy facility will be shown. In the last year we implemented a new extraction system at all three sources to enhance the lifetime of extraction parts and reduce preventive and corrective maintenance. The new four-electrode-design provides electron suppression as well as lower beam emittance. Unwanted beam sputtering effects which typically lead to contamination of the insulator ceramics and subsequent high-voltage break-downs are minimized by the beam guidance of the new extraction system. By this measure the service interval can be increased significantly. As a side effect, the beam emittance can be reduced allowing a less challenging working point for the ion sources without reducing the effective beam performance. This paper gives also an outlook to further enhancements at the HIT ion source testbench.

  12. Influence of the water quality improvement on fish population in the Seine River (Paris, France) over the 1990-2013 period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Sam; Rocher, Vincent

    2016-01-15

    Over the past 20 years, rules concerning wastewater treatment and quality of water discharged into the environment have changed considerably. Huge investments have been made in Paris conurbation to improve waste water treatment processes in accordance with the European Water Framework Directive. The interdepartmental association for sewage disposal in Paris conurbation (SIAAP) carried out a monitoring of both fish assemblages and water quality in the Seine River around the Paris conurbation (France) since the early 90's. The main goal of this study was to estimate the influence of the water quality improvement on fish. On one hand, the study confirmed the improvement of the water quality (dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen, organic matter) in the Seine River, mostly focused downstream of Paris conurbation. On the other hand, an increase of the number of species occurred from 1990 (14) to 2013 (21). Moreover, changes in the river Seine assemblages happened over that 23-year period with emergence of sensitive species (ruffe, scalpin and pike-perch). The improvement of the water quality was also reported with respect to the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI). However, no variation of pollutant concentrations in roach, eel and chub muscles has been observed. An exceedance of the environmental quality standards have even been reported all over this period as regards mercury and organochlorine.

  13. A facile template method to synthesize significantly improved LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 using corn stalk as a bio-template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guiyang; Kong, Xin; Sun, Hongyan; Wang, Baosen; Yi, Zhongzhou; Wang, Quanbiao

    2014-01-01

    In order to simplify the template method for the synthesis of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, a facile template method using plant stalks as bio-templates has been introduced. Based on this method, LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 spinel with a significantly improved electrochemical performance has been synthesized using corn stalk as a template. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared pectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been used to investigate the phase composition and micro-morphologies of the products. Charge-discharge measurements in lithium cells, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) have been used to study the electrochemical performance of the products. The results indicate that the templated product exhibits higher crystallinity than that of non-templated product. Both of the templated product and the non-templated product are combination of the ordered space group P4 3 32 and the disordered Fd-3 m. The specific BET surface area of the templated product is about twice larger than that of the non-templated product. Moreover, the electrochemical performances of the templated product including specific capacity, cycling stability and rate capability are significantly improved as compared with the non-templated product, due to its higher crystallinity, larger Li + diffusion coefficient and lower charge transfer resistance

  14. Arthroscopic Debridement for Primary Degenerative Osteoarthritis of the Elbow Leads to Significant Improvement in Range of Motion and Clinical Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochacki, Kyle R; Jack, Robert A; Hirase, Takashi; McCulloch, Patrick C; Lintner, David M; Liberman, Shari R; Harris, Joshua D

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether arthroscopic debridement of primary elbow osteoarthritis results in statistically significant and clinically relevant improvement in (1) elbow range of motion and (2) clinical outcomes with (3) low complication and reoperation rates. A systematic review was registered with PROSPERO and performed using PRISMA guidelines. Databases were searched for studies that investigated the outcomes of arthroscopic debridement for the treatment of primary osteoarthritis of the elbow in adult human patients. Study methodological quality was analyzed. Studies that included post-traumatic arthritis were excluded. Elbow motion and all elbow-specific patient-reported outcome scores were eligible for analysis. Comparisons between preoperative and postoperative values from each study were made using 2-sample Z-tests (http://in-silico.net/tools/statistics/ztest) using a P value osteoarthritis results in statistically significant and clinically relevant improvement in elbow range of motion and clinical outcomes with low complication and reoperation rates. Systematic review of level IV studies. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transplantation of N-Acetyl Aspartyl-Glutamate Synthetase-Activated Neural Stem Cells after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury Significantly Improves Neurological Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Neural stem cells (NSCs hold considerable potential as a therapeutic tool for repair of the damaged nervous system. In the current study, we examined whether transplanted N-acetyl aspartyl-glutamate synthetase (NAAGS-activated NSCs (NAAGS/NSCs further improve neurological recovery following traumatic brain injury (TBI in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Animals received TBI and stereotactic injection of NSCs, NAAGS/NSCs or phosphate buffered saline without cells (control into the injured cortex. NAAGS protein expression was detected through western blot analysis. Dialysate NAAG levels were analyzed with radioimmunoassay. Cell apoptosis was detected via TUNEL staining. The expression levels of specific pro-inflammatory cytokines were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Groups with transplanted NSCs and NAAGS/NSCs displayed significant recovery of the motor behavior, compared to the control group. At 14 and 21 days post-transplantation, the motor behavior in NAAGS/NSC group was significantly improved than that in NSC group (pConclusion: Our results collectively demonstrate that NAAGS/NSCs provide a more powerful autoplastic therapy for the injured nervous system.

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Characterization and evaluation of femtosecond laser-induced sub-micron periodic structures generated on titanium to improve osseointegration of implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bryan E. J.; Exir, Hourieh; Weck, Arnaud; Grandfield, Kathryn

    2018-05-01

    Reproducible and controllable methods of modifying titanium surfaces for dental and orthopaedic applications are of interest to prevent poor implant outcomes by improving osseointegration. This study made use of a femtosecond laser to generate laser-induced periodic surface structures with periodicities of 300, 620 and 760 nm on titanium substrates. The reproducible rippled patterns showed consistent submicron scale roughness and relatively hydrophobic surfaces as measured by atomic force microscopy and contact angle, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy identified a thicker oxide layer on ablated surfaces compared to controls. In vitro testing was conducted using osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells. Cell metabolism on the laser-ablated surfaces was comparable to controls and alkaline phosphatase activity was notably increased at late time points for the 620 and 760 nm surfaces compared to controls. Cells showed a more elongated shape on laser-ablated surfaces compared to controls and showed perpendicular alignment to the periodic structures. This work has demonstrated the feasibility of generating submicron features on an implant material with the ability to influence cell response and improve implant outcomes.

  19. How Good Is Good: Improved Tracking and Managing of Safety Goals, Performance Indicators, Production Targets and Significant Events Using Learning Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, Rommey B.; Saull, John W.

    2002-01-01

    We show a new way to track and measure safety and performance using learning curves derived on a mathematical basis. When unusual or abnormal events occur in plants and equipment, the regulator and good management practice requires they be reported, investigated, understood and rectified. In addition to reporting so-called 'significant events', both management and the regulator often set targets for individual and collective performance, which are used for both reward and criticism. For almost completely safe systems, like nuclear power plants, commercial aircraft and chemical facilities, many parameters are tracked and measured. Continuous improvement has to be demonstrated, as well as meeting reduced occurrence rates, which are set as management goals or targets. This process usually takes the form of statistics for availability of plant and equipment, forced or unplanned maintenance outage, loss of safety function, safety or procedural violations, etc. These are often rolled up into a set of so-called 'Performance Indicators' as measures of how well safety and operation is being managed at a given facility. The overall operating standards of an industry are also measured. A whole discipline is formed of tracking, measuring, reporting, managing and understanding the plethora of indicators and data. Decreasing occurrence rates and meeting or exceeding goals are seen and rewarded as virtues. Managers and operators need to know how good is their safety management system that has been adopted and used (and paid for), and whether it can itself be improved. We show the importance of accumulated experience in correctly measuring and tracking the decreasing event and error rates speculating a finite minimum rate. We show that the rate of improvement constitutes a measurable 'learning curve', and the attainment of the goals and targets can be affected by the adopted measures. We examine some of the available data on significant events, reportable occurrences, and loss of

  20. Spirulina Supplements Improved the Nutritional Status of Undernourished Children Quickly and Significantly: Experience from Kisantu, the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Féfé Khuabi Matondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Despite high levels of malnutrition, there is still very little information on the nutritional benefits of Spirulina, a natural alga that provides essential amino acids, rare essential lipids, and numerous minerals and vitamins, to undernourished children in the world. Methods. We carried out a prospective study of 50 children aged between six and 60 months. The intervention group consisted of 16 children who received 10 g of Spirulina daily, as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre, and the control group of 34 children who just received the local diet. Both groups of children were assessed on day zero, day 15, and day 30. Results. After treatment, the weight-for-age Z scores and weight-for-height Z scores increased significantly in the intervention group. At day 15, there was a statistically significant difference between the mean corpuscular volume, total proteins, and albumin (p<0.05 in both groups, in favour of the intervention group, and at day 30, this difference extended to all of the studied parameters (p<0.05. Conclusion. This study found that the nutritional status of undernourished children who received Spirulina supplements as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre improved quickly and significantly.

  1. Why did the breast cancer lymph node status distribution improve in Denmark in the pre-mammography screening period of 1978-1994?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, K.; Vaeth, M.; Rootzen, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Background. Danish breast cancer patients diagnosed in 1978-1994 experienced a trend over time towards a more favourable distribution of lymph node status at time of diagnosis, which was not due to mammography screening. We investigated how this trend could be explained by patient characteristics...... at diagnosis: age (biological processes), calendar period (e.g. environmental changes), birth cohort (living conditions over a life time), post-menopausal status (a predictor of less favourable nodal status), and tumour diameter (a marker of detection time). Material and methods. The data set consisted of 22...... using an EM algorithm in order to reduce misclassification. Results and discussion. We found that the improved lymph node status distribution was most likely a period effect due to a combination of earlier detection of clinical tumours, explaining most of the trend in node-positive breast cancer...

  2. Scissor-type knife significantly improves self-completion rate of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection: Single-center prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashina, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Yoji; Nagai, Kengo; Matsuura, Noriko; Ito, Takashi; Fujii, Mototsugu; Hanaoka, Noboru; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya; Ishihara, Ryu; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2017-05-01

    Colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (C-ESD) is recognized as a difficult procedure. Recently, scissors-type knives were launched to reduce the difficulty of C-ESD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combined use of a scissors-type knife and a needle-type knife with a water-jet function (WJ needle-knife) for C-ESD compared with using the WJ needle-knife alone. This was a prospective randomized controlled trial in a referral center. Eighty-five patients with superficial colorectal neoplasms were enrolled and randomly assigned to undergo C-ESD using a WJ needle-knife alone (Flush group) or a scissor-type knife-supported WJ needle-knife (SB Jr group). Procedures were conducted by two supervised residents. Primary endpoint was self-completion rate by the residents. Self-completion rate was 67% in the SB Jr group, which was significantly higher than that in the Flush group (39%, P = 0.01). Even after exclusion of four patients in the SB Jr group in whom C-ESD was completed using the WJ needle-knife alone, the self-completion rate was significantly higher (63% vs 39%; P = 0.03). Median procedure time among the self-completion cases did not differ significantly between the two groups (59 vs 51 min; P = 0.14). No fatal adverse events were observed in either group. In this single-center phase II trial, scissor-type knife significantly improved residents' self-completion rate for C-ESD, with no increase in procedure time or adverse events. A multicenter trial would be warranted to confirm the validity of the present study. © 2016 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  3. Call-to-balloon time dashboard in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction results in significant improvement in the logistic chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Maaike P J; Velders, Matthijs A; Smeekes, Martin; Drexhage, Olivier S; Hautvast, Raymond W M; Ytsma, Timon; Schalij, Martin J; Umans, Victor A W M

    2017-08-04

    Timely reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients is associated with superior clinical outcomes. Aiming to reduce ischaemic time, an innovative system for home-to-hospital (H2H) time monitoring was implemented, which enabled real-time evaluation of ischaemic time intervals, regular feedback and improvements in the logistic chain. The objective of this study was to assess the results after implementation of the H2H dashboard for monitoring and evaluation of ischaemic time in STEMI patients. Ischaemic time in STEMI patients transported by emergency medical services (EMS) and treated with pPCI in the Noordwest Ziekenhuis, Alkmaar before (2008-2009; n=495) and after the implementation of the H2H dashboard (2011-2014; n=441) was compared. Median time intervals were significantly shorter in the H2H group (door-to-balloon time 32 [IQR 25-43] vs. 40 [IQR 28-55] minutes, p-value dashboard was independently associated with shorter time delays. Real-time monitoring and feedback on time delay with the H2H dashboard improves the logistic chain in STEMI patients, resulting in shorter ischaemic time intervals.

  4. MO-FG-204-03: Using Edge-Preserving Algorithm for Significantly Improved Image-Domain Material Decomposition in Dual Energy CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, W; Niu, T; Xing, L; Xiong, G; Elmore, K; Min, J; Zhu, J; Wang, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To significantly improve dual energy CT (DECT) imaging by establishing a new theoretical framework of image-domain material decomposition with incorporation of edge-preserving techniques. Methods: The proposed algorithm, HYPR-NLM, combines the edge-preserving non-local mean filter (NLM) with the HYPR-LR (Local HighlY constrained backPRojection Reconstruction) framework. Image denoising using HYPR-LR framework depends on the noise level of the composite image which is the average of the different energy images. For DECT, the composite image is the average of high- and low-energy images. To further reduce noise, one may want to increase the window size of the filter of the HYPR-LR, leading resolution degradation. By incorporating the NLM filtering and the HYPR-LR framework, HYPR-NLM reduces the boost material decomposition noise using energy information redundancies as well as the non-local mean. We demonstrate the noise reduction and resolution preservation of the algorithm with both iodine concentration numerical phantom and clinical patient data by comparing the HYPR-NLM algorithm to the direct matrix inversion, HYPR-LR and iterative image-domain material decomposition (Iter-DECT). Results: The results show iterative material decomposition method reduces noise to the lowest level and provides improved DECT images. HYPR-NLM significantly reduces noise while preserving the accuracy of quantitative measurement and resolution. For the iodine concentration numerical phantom, the averaged noise levels are about 2.0, 0.7, 0.2 and 0.4 for direct inversion, HYPR-LR, Iter- DECT and HYPR-NLM, respectively. For the patient data, the noise levels of the water images are about 0.36, 0.16, 0.12 and 0.13 for direct inversion, HYPR-LR, Iter-DECT and HYPR-NLM, respectively. Difference images of both HYPR-LR and Iter-DECT show edge effect, while no significant edge effect is shown for HYPR-NLM, suggesting spatial resolution is well preserved for HYPR-NLM. Conclusion: HYPR

  5. YH12852, a potent and highly selective 5-HT4 receptor agonist, significantly improves both upper and lower gastrointestinal motility in a guinea pig model of postoperative ileus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Z; Lee, Y J; Yang, H; Jeong, E J; Sim, J Y; Park, H

    2017-10-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is a transient gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility that commonly develops after abdominal surgery. YH12852, a novel, potent and highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 (5-HT 4 ) receptor agonist, has been shown to improve both upper and lower GI motility in various animal studies and may have applications for the treatment of POI. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanism of action of YH12852 in a guinea pig model of POI to explore its therapeutic potential. The guinea pig model of POI was created by laparotomy, evisceration, and gentle manipulation of the cecum for 60 seconds, followed by closure with sutures under anesthesia. Group 1 received an oral administration of vehicle or YH12852 (1, 3, 10 or 30 mg/kg) only, while POI Group 2 was intraperitoneally pretreated with vehicle or 5-HT 4 receptor antagonist GR113808 (10 mg/kg) prior to oral dosing of vehicle or YH12852 (3 or 10 mg/kg). Upper GI transit was evaluated by assessing the migration of a charcoal mixture in the small intestine, while lower GI transit was assessed via measurement of fecal pellet output (FPO). YH12852 significantly accelerated upper and lower GI transit at the doses of 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg and reached its maximal effect at 10 mg/kg. These effects were significantly blocked by pretreatment of GR113808 10 mg/kg. Oral administration of YH12852 significantly accelerates and restores delayed upper and lower GI transit in a guinea pig model of POI. This drug may serve as a useful candidate for the treatment of postoperative ileus. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Improved survival for women with stage I breast cancer in south-east Sweden: A comparison between two time periods before and after increased use of adjuvant systemic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Patrik; Fohlin, Helena; Arnesson, Lars-Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. Continuous minor steps of improvement in the management of breast cancer have resulted in decreased mortality rates during the last decades. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of patients with stage I breast cancer diagnosed during two time periods that differed with respect to adjuvant systemic therapy. Material and methods. The studied population consisted of all women < 60 years of age, who were diagnosed breast cancer stage I between 1986 and 1999 in south-east Sweden, a total of 1 407 cases. The cohort was divided into two groups based on the management programmes of 1986 and 1992, hereafter referred to as Period 1 and Period 2. Before 1992 the only adjuvant systemic therapy recommended was tamoxifen for hormone receptor positive patients aged 50 years or older. During Period 2 the use of adjuvant treatment was extended to younger patients at high risk, identified by a high tumour S-phase fraction, with either hormonal or cytotoxic treatment. Results. The estimated distant recurrence-free survival rate was significantly higher during Period 2 than during Period 1 (p = 0.008). Subgroup analysis showed that the most evident reduction of distant recurrence risk was among hormone receptor-negative patients (HR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31-1.09, p = 0.09) and among patients with a high tumour S-phase fraction (HR = 0.53, 0.30-0.93, p = 0.028). The risk reduction between the periods was still statistically significant in multivariate analysis when adjusting for different tumour characteristics and treatment modalities, indicating an influence of other factors not controlled for. One such factor may be the duration of tamoxifen treatment, which likely was more frequently five years during Period 2 than during Period 1. Conclusions. We conclude that the causes of the increase in distant recurrence free survival for women with breast cancer stage I are complex. The results support though that high-risk subgroups of stage I breast cancer patients

  7. In vivo topical application of acetyl aspartic acid increases fibrillin-1 and collagen IV deposition leading to a significant improvement of skin firmness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillbro, J M; Merinville, E; Cattley, K; Al-Bader, T; Hagforsen, E; Nilsson, M; Mavon, A

    2015-10-01

    Acetyl aspartic acid (A-A-A) was discovered through gene array analysis with corresponding Cmap analysis. We found that A-A-A increased keratinocyte regeneration, inhibited dermal matrix metalloprotease (MMP) expression and relieved fibroblast stiffness through reduction of the fibroblast stiffness marker F-actin. Dermal absorption studies showed successful delivery to both the epidermal and dermal regions, and in-use trial demonstrated that 1% A-A-A was well tolerated. In this study, the aim was to investigate whether A-A-A could stimulate the synthesis of extracellular matrix supporting proteins in vivo and thereby improving the viscoelastic properties of human skin by conducting a dual histological and biophysical clinical study. Two separate double-blind vehicle-controlled in vivo studies were conducted using a 1% A-A-A containing oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion. In the histological study, 16 female volunteers (>55 years of age) exhibiting photodamaged skin on their forearm were included, investigating the effect of a 12-day treatment of A-A-A on collagen IV (COLIV) and fibrillin-1. In a subsequent pilot study, 0.1% retinol was used for comparison to A-A-A (1%). The biomechanical properties of the skin were assessed in a panel of 16 women (>45 years of age) using the standard Cutometer MPA580 after topical application of the test products for 28 days. The use of multiple suction enabled the assessment of F4, an area parameter specifically representing skin firmness. Twelve-day topical application of 1% A-A-A significantly increased COLIV and fibrillin with 13% and 6%, respectively, compared to vehicle. 1% A-A-A and 0.1% retinol were found to significantly reduce F4 after 28 days of treatment by 15.8% and 14.7%, respectively, in the pilot Cutometer study. No significant difference was found between retinol and A-A-A. However, only A-A-A exhibited a significant effect vs. vehicle on skin firmness which indicated the incremental benefit of A-A-A as a skin

  8. Low- and high-volume of intensive endurance training significantly improves maximal oxygen uptake after 10-weeks of training in healthy men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnt Erik Tjønna

    Full Text Available Regular exercise training improves maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, but the optimal intensity and volume necessary to obtain maximal benefit remains to be defined. A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise training with low-volume but high-intensity may be a time-efficient means to achieve health benefits. In the present study, we measured changes in VO2max and traditional cardiovascular risk factors after a 10 wk. training protocol that involved three weekly high-intensity interval sessions. One group followed a protocol which consisted of 4×4 min at 90% of maximal heart rate (HRmax interspersed with 3 min active recovery at 70% HRmax (4-AIT, the other group performed a single bout protocol that consisted of 1×4 min at 90% HRmax (1-AIT. Twenty-six inactive but otherwise healthy overweight men (BMI: 25-30, age: 35-45 y were randomized to either 1-AIT (n = 11 or 4-AIT (n = 13. After training, VO2max increased by 10% (∼5.0 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 and 13% (∼6.5 mL⋅kg(-1⋅min(-1 after 1-AIT and 4-AIT, respectively (group difference, p = 0.08. Oxygen cost during running at a sub-maximal workload was reduced by 14% and 13% after 1-AIT and 4-AIT, respectively. Systolic blood pressure decreased by 7.1 and 2.6 mmHg after 1-AIT and 4-AIT respectively, while diastolic pressure decreased by 7.7 and 6.1 mmHg (group difference, p = 0.84. Both groups had a similar ∼5% decrease in fasting glucose. Body fat, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and ox-LDL cholesterol only were significantly reduced after 4-AIT. Our data suggest that a single bout of AIT performed three times per week may be a time-efficient strategy to improve VO2max and reduce blood pressure and fasting glucose in previously inactive but otherwise healthy middle-aged individuals. The 1-AIT type of exercise training may be readily implemented as part of activities of daily living and could easily be translated into programs designed to improve public health

  9. Significant Improvement of Puncture Accuracy and Fluoroscopy Reduction in Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy With Novel Lumbar Location System: Preliminary Report of Prospective Hello Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guoxin; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhang, Hailong; Wu, Xinbo; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; Fan, Yunshan; He, Shisheng

    2015-12-01

    Prospective nonrandomized control study.The study aimed to investigate the implication of the HE's Lumbar LOcation (HELLO) system in improving the puncture accuracy and reducing fluoroscopy in percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED).Percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy is one of the most popular minimally invasive spine surgeries that heavily depend on repeated fluoroscopy. Increased fluoroscopy will induce higher radiation exposure to surgeons and patients. Accurate puncture in PTED can be achieved by accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory.The HELLO system mainly consists of self-made surface locator and puncture-assisted device. The surface locator was used to identify the exact puncture target and the puncture-assisted device was used to optimize the puncture trajectory. Patients who had single L4/5 or L5/S1 lumbar intervertebral disc herniation and underwent PTED were included the study. Patients receiving the HELLO system were assigned in Group A, and those taking conventional method were assigned in Group B. Study primary endpoint was puncture times and fluoroscopic times, and the secondary endpoint was location time and operation time.A total of 62 patients who received PTED were included in this study. The average age was 45.35 ± 8.70 years in Group A and 46.61 ± 7.84 years in Group B (P = 0.552). There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index, conservative time, and surgical segment between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). The puncture times were 1.19 ± 0.48 in Group A and 6.03 ± 1.87 in Group B (P HELLO system is accurate preoperative location and definite trajectory. This preliminary report indicated that the HELLO system significantly improves the puncture accuracy of PTED and reduces the fluoroscopic times, preoperative location time, as well as operation time. (ChiCTR-ICR-15006730).

  10. Significantly improving the yield of recombinant proteins in Bacillus subtilis by a novel powerful mutagenesis tool (ARTP): Alkaline α-amylase as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingfang; Yang, Haiquan; Chen, Xianzhong; Sun, Bo; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Zhemin; Song, Jiangning; Fan, You; Shen, Wei

    2015-10-01

    In this study, atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP), a promising mutation breeding technique, was successfully applied to generate Bacillus subtilis mutants that yielded large quantities of recombinant protein. The high throughput screening platform was implemented to select those mutants with the highest yield of recombinant alkaline α-amylase (AMY), including the preferred mutant B. subtilis WB600 mut-12#. The yield and productivity of recombinant AMY in B. subtilis WB600 mut-12# increased 35.0% and 8.8%, respectively, the extracellular protein concentration of which increased 37.9%. B. subtilis WB600 mut-12# exhibited good genetic stability. Cells from B. subtilis WB600 mut-12# became shorter and wider than those from the wild-type. This study is the first to report a novel powerful mutagenesis tool (ARTP) that significantly improves the yield of recombinant proteins in B. subtilis and may therefore play an important role in the high expression level of proteins in recombinant microbial hosts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cross accumulative roll bonding—A novel mechanical technique for significant improvement of stir-cast Al/Al2O3 nanocomposite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Kamali; Amirkhanlou, Sajjad; Khorsand, Shohreh

    2014-01-01

    Lightweight metal-matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs—metal matrix with nanosized ceramic particles) can be of significance for automobile, aerospace, and numerous other applications. There are some problems in obtaining suitable mechanical properties of MMNCs, including weak bonding between reinforcement and matrix, non-uniformity of reinforcement nanoparticles and high porosity content. In this study, aluminum/alumina nanocomposite was fabricated by stircasting method. Subsequently, cross accumulative roll bonding (CARB) process was used as an effective method for refinement of microstructure and improvement of mechanical properties. The microstructural evolution and the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites during various CARB cycles were examined by the Archimedes method, X-ray defractometer, scanning electron microscopy and tensile testing. The results showed that the microstructure of the nanocomposite after eight cycles of CARB had an excellent distribution of alumina nanoparticles in aluminum matrix without any remarkable porosity. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the crystallite size of the nanocomposite was 71 nm by employing eight cycles of CARB technique. Mechanical experiment also indicated that the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation of the nanocomposite increased as the number of CARB cycles increased. After eight CARB cycles, ultimate tensile strength and the elongation values reached 344 MPa and 6.4%, which were 3.13 and 3.05 times greater than those of as-cast nanocomposites, respectively

  12. Physiologically-based, predictive analytics using the heart-rate-to-Systolic-Ratio significantly improves the timeliness and accuracy of sepsis prediction compared to SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Omar K; Hendren, Sandra; Santiago, Ethel; Nye, Brittany; Abraham, Prasad

    2017-04-01

    Enhancing the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment of severe sepsis by using physiologically-based, predictive analytical strategies has not been fully explored. We hypothesize assessment of heart-rate-to-systolic-ratio significantly increases the timeliness and accuracy of sepsis prediction after emergency department (ED) presentation. We evaluated the records of 53,313 ED patients from a large, urban teaching hospital between January and June 2015. The HR-to-systolic ratio was compared to SIRS criteria for sepsis prediction. There were 884 patients with discharge diagnoses of sepsis, severe sepsis, and/or septic shock. Variations in three presenting variables, heart rate, systolic BP and temperature were determined to be primary early predictors of sepsis with a 74% (654/884) accuracy compared to 34% (304/884) using SIRS criteria (p < 0.0001)in confirmed septic patients. Physiologically-based predictive analytics improved the accuracy and expediency of sepsis identification via detection of variations in HR-to-systolic ratio. This approach may lead to earlier sepsis workup and life-saving interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Polyethylene imine/graphene oxide layer-by-layer surface functionalization for significantly improved limit of detection and binding kinetics of immunoassays on acrylate surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Celina M; Mishra, Rohit; Kinahan, David J; Ferreira, Marystela; Ducrée, Jens

    2017-10-01

    Antibody immobilization on polymeric substrates is a key manufacturing step for microfluidic devices that implement sample-to-answer automation of immunoassays. In this work, a simple and versatile method to bio-functionalize poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), a common material of such "Lab-on-a-Chip" systems, is proposed; using the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technique, we assemble nanostructured thin films of poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) and graphene oxide (GO). The wettability of PMMA surfaces was significantly augmented by the surface treatment with (PEI/GO) 5 film, with an 81% reduction of the contact angle, while the surface roughness increased by 600%, thus clearly enhancing wettability and antibody binding capacity. When applied to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), the limit of detection of PMMA surface was notably improved from 340pgmL -1 on commercial grade polystyrene (PS) and 230pgmL -1 on plain PMMA surfaces to 130pgmL -1 on (PEI/GO) 5 treated PMMA. Furthermore, the accelerated antibody adsorption kinetics on the LbL films of GO allowed to substantially shorten incubation times, e.g. for anti-rat IgG adsorption from 2h down to 15min on conventional and treated surfaces, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigations into the analysis of the rate of decay of the compound action potentials recorded from the rat sciatic nerve after death: significance for the prediction of the post-mortem period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokes, L D; Daniel, D; Flint, T; Barasi, S

    1991-01-01

    There have been a number of papers that have reported the investigations of electrical stimulation of muscle groups in order to determine the post-mortem period. To the authors knowledge, no techniques have been described that analyse the compound action potentials (CAP) of various nerve fibre groups after death. This paper reports the monitoring of both the amplitude and latency changes of the CAP recorded from a stimulated rat sciatic nerve after death. Initial results suggest that the method my be useful in determining the early post-mortem period within 1 or 2 h after death. It may also be of use in measuring nerve conduction delay in various pathological conditions that can affect the neural network; for example diabetes.

  15. Kinetics of improved 1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucohydrolase biosynthesis from a newly isolated Aspergillus oryzae IIB-6 and parameter significance analysis by 2-factorial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Bilqees; Ali, Sikander

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen different mould cultures viz. Aspergillus, Alternaria, Arthroderma, Trichoderma, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Chochliobolus were isolated from the soil samples of Qatar by serial dilution method. The preliminary screening of isolates was done by selecting initial colonies showing relatively bigger zones of starch hydrolysis on nutrient agar plates. The isolates were then subjected to secondary screening by submerged fermentation (SmF). The 1,4-α-D-glucan glucohydrolase (GGH) activity ranged from 1.906-12.675 U/ml/min. The product yield was analysed in dependence of mycelial morphology, biomass level and protein content. The isolate Aspergillus oryzae llB-6 which gave maximum enzyme production was incubated in M3 medium containing 20 g/l starch, 10 g/l lactose, 8.5 g/l yeast extract, 6 g/l corn steep liquor (CSL), 1.2 g/l MgSO4.7H2O, 1.3 g/l NH4Cl, 0.6 g/l CaCl2.2H2O, pH 5 at 30±2°C and 200 rpm. On the basis of kinetic variables, notably Qp (0.058±0.01(a) U/g/h), Yp/s (0.308±0.03(ab) U/g) and qp (0.210±0.032(abc) U/g fungal biomass/h), A. oryzae IIB-6 was found to be a hyper producer of GGH (LSD 0.0345) compared to A. kawachii IIB-2. A noticeable enhancement in enzyme activity of over 30% was observed (13.917±1.01 U/ml/min) when the process parameters viz. cultural conditions (pH 5, incubation period 72 h) and nutritional requirements (6 g/l CSL, 9.5 g/l yeast extract, 10 g/l starch, 20 g/l lactose) were further optimized using a 2-factorial Plackett-Burman design. The model terms were found to be highly significant (HS, p≤0.05), indicating the potential utility of the culture (dof~3).

  16. High-intensity preoperative training improves physical and functional recovery in the early post-operative periods after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Casaña, Jose; Ezzatvar, Yasmin

    2017-01-01

    the preoperative period reduces pain and improves lower limb muscle strength, ROM and functional task performance before surgery, resulting in a reduced length of stay at the hospital and a faster physical and functional recovery after TKA. The present training programme can be used by specialists to speed up......-four subjects (7 men, 37 women) scheduled for unilateral TKA for osteoarthritis (OA) during 2014 participated in this randomized controlled trial. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Physical Functioning Scale of the Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF-36), a 10-cm visual...... analogue scale (VAS), isometric knee flexion, isometric knee extension, isometric hip abduction, active knee range of motion and functional tasks (Timed Up and Go test and Stair ascent-descent test) were assessed at 8 weeks before surgery (T1), after 8 weeks of training (T2), 1 month after TKA (T3...

  17. Improving a Complement-fixation Test for Equine Herpesvirus Type-1 by Pretreating Sera with Potassium Periodate to Reduce Non-specific Hemolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    BANNAI, Hiroshi; NEMOTO, Manabu; TSUJIMURA, Koji; YAMANAKA, Takashi; KONDO, Takashi; MATSUMURA, Tomio

    2013-01-01

    Non-specific hemolysis has often been observed during complement-fixation (CF) tests for equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1), even when the sera have virus-specific CF antibodies. This phenomenon has also been reported in CF tests for various infectious diseases of swine. We found that the sera from 22 of 85 field horses (25.9%) showed non-specific hemolysis during conventional CF testing for EHV-1. Because pretreatment of swine sera with potassium periodate (KIO4) improves the CF test for swine influenza, we applied this method to horse sera. As we expected, horse sera treated with KIO4 did not show non-specific hemolysis in the EHV-1 CF test, and precise determination of titers was achieved. PMID:24834005

  18. An Evidence-Based Education Program For Adults About Child Sexual Abuse (“Prevent It!” Significantly Improves Behaviours As Well As Attitudes And Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA, called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behaviour of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes towards it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85% agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behaviour (our primary outcome variable. Behavioural questions asked individuals to select behaviours used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking how many times in the previous 3-months have you talked about healthy sexual development or child sexual abuse with a child you know; suspected a child was sexually abused; taken steps to protect a child; or reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 – 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behaviour and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from 25% at baseline

  19. Why did the breast cancer lymph node status distribution improve in Denmark in the pre-mammography screening period of 1978-1994?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostgaard, Klaus; Lynge, Elsebeth; Vaeth, Michael; Rootzen, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Background. Danish breast cancer patients diagnosed in 1978-1994 experienced a trend over time towards a more favourable distribution of lymph node status at time of diagnosis, which was not due to mammography screening. We investigated how this trend could be explained by patient characteristics at diagnosis: age (biological processes), calendar period (e.g. environmental changes), birth cohort (living conditions over a life time), post-menopausal status (a predictor of less favourable nodal status), and tumour diameter (a marker of detection time). Material and methods. The data set consisted of 22 955 patients aged 30-69 years at time of diagnosis with known lymph node status, known tumour diameter, known menopausal status, and clinically detected tumours, available from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG). Age, period, cohort, menopausal status, and tumour diameter were used as predictors in generalised linear models with either node-positive status (at least one of the excised lymph nodes being tumour-positive) or severely node-positive status (at least half of the excised lymph nodes being tumour-positive) as outcomes. Lymph node status was assessed both empirically and estimated using an EM algorithm in order to reduce misclassification. Results and discussion. We found that the improved lymph node status distribution was most likely a period effect due to a combination of earlier detection of clinical tumours, explaining most of the trend in node-positive breast cancer and half of the trend in severely node-positive breast cancer, and some unknown factor affecting lymph node status but not necessarily other tumour characteristics

  20. Electronic simulation of the supported liquid membrane in electromembrane extraction systems: Improvement of the extraction by precise periodical reversing of the field polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazami, Hamid Reza; Nojavan, Saeed; Zahedi, Pegah; Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple equivalent circuit has been proposed for a supported liquid membrane. • A dual charge transfer mechanism was proposed for electromembrane extraction. • An improvement was observed by precise periodical reversing of the field polarity. - Abstract: In order to understand the limitations of electromebrane extraction procedure better, a simple equivalent circuit has been proposed for a supported liquid membrane consisting of a resistor and a low leakage capacitor in series. To verify the equivalent circuit, it was subjected to a simulated periodical polarity changing potential and the resulting time variation of the current was compared with that of a real electromembrane extraction system. The results showed a good agreement between the simulated current patterns and those of the real ones. In order to investigate the impact of various limiting factors, the corresponding values of the equivalent circuit were estimated for a real electromembrane extraction system and were attributed to the physical parameters of the extraction system. A dual charge transfer mechanism was proposed for electromembrane extraction by combining general migration equation and fundamental aspects derived from the simulation. Dual mechanism comprises a current dependent contribution of analyte in total current and could support the possibility of an improvement in performance of an electromembrane extraction by application of an asymmetric polarity changing potential. The optimization of frequency and duty cycle of the asymmetric polarity exchanging potential resulted in a higher recovery (2.17 times greater) in comparison with the conventional electromebrane extraction. The simulation also provided more quantitative approaches toward the investigation of the mechanism of extraction and contribution of different limiting factors in electromembrane extraction. Results showed that the buildup of the double layer is the main limiting factor and the Joule heating has

  1. Improving the performance of reflex Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) testing in triaging women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS): A restrospective study in a tertiary hospital in United Arab Emirates (UAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhreldin, Marwa; Elmasry, Karim

    2016-02-03

    Cervical cancer is the second commonest cancer in women worldwide. Infection with oncogenic types of human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor for developing cervical cancer. Reflex High risk HPV (HR-HPV) testing is of significant value in the assessment of Papanicolaou (Pap) smear results where ASCUS are identified. To improve the performance of reflex HR-HPV testing in triage of ASCUS and analyze the factors impacting it. In this study, we generated a database of 9641 women who had cervical smears collected during the study period from the cytopathology record in a large tertiary hospital in UAE. These included 297 smears with ASCUS diagnosis. All cases were retrospectively followed up with a mean duration of 2.44 years. We analyzed data according to the outcome based on several follow-up Pap smear analysis as the reference assessment. We detected HR-HPV infection in 17.9% of cases. 9.1% ASCUS cases can be more accurate in premenopausal women upon adding age group and presenting complaint as a triage item. This improves the performance of reflex HPV testing and the subsequent selection of high risk patients for colposcopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary tea polyphenol supplementation improved egg production performance, albumen quality, and magnum morphology of Hy-Line Brown hens during the late laying period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Cui; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Wu, Shu-Geng; Qi, Guang-Hai

    2018-02-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate how dietary supplementation of tea polyphenols (TP) and tea catechins (TC) affect laying performance, albumen quality, ovomucin composition, and magnum morphology of laying hens in the late phase of production. Two hundred seventy Hy-Line Brown laying hens (64 wk old) were assigned to a basal diet (the control), the basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg tea polyphenols (TP200) or 200 mg/kg tea catechins (TC200). Each treatment had 6 replicates with 15 hens each. The feeding trial lasted 10 wks. Over the course of the trial, dietary supplementation with TP200 significantly increased the egg production (EP) and improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) in wk 6 to 10 and wk 1 to 10 (P hens fed TP200 were higher than those of hens fed the control diet at wks 8 and 10 (P 0.05). The SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that bands of the ovomucin fractions in the TP200 group had the highest intensity compared with those of the control and TC200 groups. Compared with the control, there was a significant increase in protein sulfhydryl (SH) content of the albumen in the TP200 group at the end of experiment, while a significant decrease in protein carbonyl content and protein surface hydrophobicity (P hens. In addition, TP rather than TC could improve the health status of the magnum for aged layers.

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Effect of Harvest Period on the Proximate Composition and Functional and Sensory Properties of Gari Produced from Local and Improved Cassava (Manihot esculenta Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse Laya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at evaluating the proximate composition and functional and sensory characteristics of gari obtained from five cassava varieties (EN, AD, TMS92/0326, TMS96/1414, and IRAD4115. These cassavas were harvested during the dry season 12 months after planting (12MAP and in the rainy season (15MAP. Results showed that the characteristics of gari varied significantly (p<0.05 with the variety and the harvest period. Gari from EN cassava harvested at 12MAP had the highest total carbohydrates (78.07% dry weight, starch (61%, and proteins content, while gari from TMS 96/1414 variety (12MAP had high amino acids (10.25 mg/g and phenolic compounds (9.31 mg/g content. The gari from IRAD4115 had the highest value of ash content (20.62 mg/g at 12MAP. The soluble sugar content was high in the gari from cassava harvested at 12MAP while free cyanide reduced significantly in gari from cassava harvested at 12MAP. The water absorption capacity, swelling power, and bulk density were significantly (p<0.05 high in the gari from EN cassava variety at 12MAP. Compared to commercial gari (3.30, gari from EN local cassava had the best overall acceptability (4.35 followed by those obtained from TMS92/0326 and TMS92/1414 varieties, respectively.

  1. The Significance of Emotions and Professional Relations for Accommodating a Web-Based Ulcer Record and Improving Home-Based Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne G. Ekeland

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of technological performance, medical improvements and economic effectiveness is generally considered sufficient for judging advances in healthcare. In this paper, I aim to add knowledge about the ways human emotions and professional relations play roles in the processes of accommodating new technologies for quality improvements. A newly-implemented, web-based ulcer record service for patients with chronic skin ulcers constitutes the case. After one year, only a few home care nurses were using the service, interacting with a specialist team. The result was disappointing, but the few users were enthusiastic. An explorative, qualitative study was initiated to understand the users, the processes that accounted for use and how improvements were enacted. In the paper, I expose the emotional aspects of the record accommodation by analyzing the ways emotions were translated in the process and how they influenced the improvements. I contend that use came about through a heterogeneous assemblage of ethical engagement and compassionate emotions stemming from frustration, combined with technological affordances and relations between different professionals. Certain aspects of the improvements are exposed. These are discussed as: (1 reconciliations between the medical facts and rational judgments, on one side, and the emotional and subjective values for judging quality, on the other; and (2 mediation between standardized and personalized care. The healing of ulcers was combined with a sense of purpose and wellbeing to validate improvements. Emotions were strongly involved, and the power of evaluative emotions and professional relations should be further explored to add to the understanding of innovation processes and to validate quality improvements.

  2. The Significance of Emotions and Professional Relations for Accommodating a Web-Based Ulcer Record and Improving Home-Based Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeland, Anne G

    2015-01-22

    Evidence of technological performance, medical improvements and economic effectiveness is generally considered sufficient for judging advances in healthcare. In this paper, I aim to add knowledge about the ways human emotions and professional relations play roles in the processes of accommodating new technologies for quality improvements. A newly-implemented, web-based ulcer record service for patients with chronic skin ulcers constitutes the case. After one year, only a few home care nurses were using the service, interacting with a specialist team. The result was disappointing, but the few users were enthusiastic. An explorative, qualitative study was initiated to understand the users, the processes that accounted for use and how improvements were enacted. In the paper, I expose the emotional aspects of the record accommodation by analyzing the ways emotions were translated in the process and how they influenced the improvements. I contend that use came about through a heterogeneous assemblage of ethical engagement and compassionate emotions stemming from frustration, combined with technological affordances and relations between different professionals. Certain aspects of the improvements are exposed. These are discussed as: (1) reconciliations between the medical facts and rational judgments, on one side, and the emotional and subjective values for judging quality, on the other; and (2) mediation between standardized and personalized care. The healing of ulcers was combined with a sense of purpose and wellbeing to validate improvements. Emotions were strongly involved, and the power of evaluative emotions and professional relations should be further explored to add to the understanding of innovation processes and to validate quality improvements.

  3. Problem Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovary syndrome. Read our information on PCOS for teens , and see your doctor if you think you may have PCOS. Major weight loss. Girls who have anorexia will often stop having periods. When to see ...

  4. Rescreening for abnormal vaginal flora in pregnancy and re-treating with clindamycin vaginal cream significantly increases cure and improvement rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamont, R F; Taylor-Robinson, D; Bassett, P

    2012-01-01

    We investigated 199 pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) who received clindamycin vaginal cream (CVC) for three days and compared with 205 women treated with placebo. The vaginal flora was assessed at each visit. At the second visit, 71% in the CVC group were cured/improved, compared...

  5. Three lifestyle-related issues of major significance for public health among the Inuit in contemporary Greenland: a review of adverse childhood conditions, obesity, and smoking in a period of social transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina V L

    2018-01-01

    Greenland is a country in transition from a colonial past with subsistence hunting and fishing to an urban Nordic welfare state. Epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases has been evident since the 1950s. Ninety percent of the population is Inuit. We studied three public health issues based on published literature, namely adverse childhood experiences, addictive behavior, and suicide; diet and obesity; and smoking. Alcohol consumption was high in the 1970s and 1980s with accompanying family and social disruption. This is still a cause of poor mental health and suicides in the generations most affected. The diet is changing from a traditional diet of fish and marine mammals to imported food including food items rich in sugar and fat from domestic animals, and the level of physical activity is decreasing with an ensuing epidemic rise in obesity. The prevalence of smoking is high at around 60% among both men and women and is only slowly decreasing. Smoking shows large social variation, and tobacco-related diseases are widespread. The diseases and conditions outlined above all contribute towards a low life expectancy at birth-69 years for men and 74 years for women in 2011-2015-compared with 78 and 84 years for men and women, respectively, on average in the European countries. The translation of government public health programs into local activities needs strengthening, and it must be realized that the improvement of public health is a long-term process.

  6. Addendum to the article: Misuse of null hypothesis significance testing: Would estimation of positive and negative predictive values improve certainty of chemical risk assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Newman, Michael C; Zubrod, Jochen P; Seitz, Frank; Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Schulz, Ralf

    2015-03-01

    We argued recently that the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) are valuable metrics to include during null hypothesis significance testing: They inform the researcher about the probability of statistically significant and non-significant test outcomes actually being true. Although commonly misunderstood, a reported p value estimates only the probability of obtaining the results or more extreme results if the null hypothesis of no effect was true. Calculations of the more informative PPV and NPV require a priori estimate of the probability (R). The present document discusses challenges of estimating R.

  7. Significant mobility improvement of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors annealed in a low temperature wet ambient environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallorina, Michael Paul A.; Bermundo, Juan Paolo S.; Fujii, Mami N.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu

    2018-05-01

    Transparent amorphous oxide semiconducting materials such as amorphous InGaZnO used in thin film transistors (TFTs) are typically annealed at temperatures higher than 250 °C to remove any defects present and improve the electrical characteristics of the device. Previous research has shown that low cost and low temperature methods improve the electrical characteristics of the TFT. With the aid of surface and bulk characterization techniques in comparison to the device characteristics, this work aims to elucidate further on the improvement mechanisms of wet and dry annealing ambients that affect the electrical characteristics of the device. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry results show that despite outward diffusion of -H and -OH species, humid annealing ambients counteract outward diffusion of these species, leading to defect sites which can be passivated by the wet ambient. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy results show that for devices annealed for only 30 min in a wet annealing environment, the concentration of metal-oxide bonds increased by as much as 21.8% and defects such as oxygen vacancies were reduced by as much as 18.2% compared to an unannealed device. Our work shows that due to the oxidizing power of water vapor, defects are reduced, and overall electrical characteristics are improved as evidenced with the 150 °C wet O2, 30 min annealed sample which exhibited the highest mobility of 5.00 cm2/V s, compared to 2.36 cm2/V s for a sample that was annealed at 150 °C in a dry ambient atmospheric environment for 2 h.

  8. Incidentally detected enhancing lesions found in breast MRI: analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient and T2 signal intensity significantly improves specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arponen, Otso; Masarwah, Amro; Taina, Mikko [Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio University Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Radiology, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Radiology, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); Sutela, Anna; Koenoenen, Mervi; Hakumaeki, Juhana; Sudah, Mazen [Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio University Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Radiology, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); Sironen, Reijo [Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Pathology, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Clinical Pathology and Forensic Medicine, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); University of Eastern Finland, Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland); Vanninen, Ritva [Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio University Hospital, Diagnostic Imaging Centre, Department of Clinical Radiology, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Radiology, PO Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland); University of Eastern Finland, Cancer Center of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the value of adding T2- and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to the BI-RADS registered classification in MRI-detected lesions. This retrospective study included 112 consecutive patients who underwent 3.0T structural breast MRI with T2- and DWI on the basis of EUSOMA recommendations. Morphological and kinetic features, T2 signal intensity (T2 SI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) findings were assessed. Thirty-three (29.5 %) patients (mean age 57.0 ± 12.7 years) had 36 primarily MRI-detected incidental lesions of which 16 (44.4 %) proved to be malignant. No single morphological or kinetic feature was associated with malignancy. Both low T2 SI (P = 0.009) and low ADC values (≤0.87 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}s{sup -1}, P < 0.001) yielded high specificity (80.0 %/80.0 %). The BI-RADS classification supplemented with information from DWI and T2-WI improved the diagnostic performance of the BI-RADS classification as sensitivity remained 100 % and specificity improved from 30 % to 65.0 %. The numbers of false positive lesions declined from 39 % (N = 14) to 19 % (N = 7). MRI-detected incidental lesions may be challenging to characterize as they have few specific malignancy indicating features. The specificity of MRI can be improved by incorporating T2 SI and ADC values into the BI-RADS assessment. (orig.)

  9. A new anti-microbial combination prolongs the latency period, reduces acute histologic chorioamnionitis as well as funisitis, and improves neonatal outcomes in preterm PROM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JoonHo; Romero, Roberto; Kim, Sun Min; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Park, Chan-Wook; Park, Joong Shin; Jun, Jong Kwan; Yoon, Bo Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Antibiotic administration is a standard practice in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM). Specific anti-microbial agents often include ampicillin and/or erythromycin. Anaerobes and genital mycoplasmas are frequently involved in preterm PROM, but are not adequately covered by antibiotics routinely used in clinical practice. Our objective was to compare outcomes of PROM treated with standard antibiotic administration versus a new combination more effective against these bacteria. A retrospective study compared perinatal outcomes in 314 patients with PROM 23 ng/mL). (1) Patients treated with regimen 2 had a longer median antibiotic-to-delivery interval than those with regimen 1 [median (interquartile range) 23 d (10-51 d) versus 12 d (5-52 d), p acute histologic chorioamnionitis (50.5% versus 66.7%, p hemorrhage (IVH) and cerebral palsy (CP) were significantly lower in patients allocated to regimen 2 than regimen 1 (IVH: 2.1% versus 19.0%, p acute histologic chorioamnionitis/funisitis, and improved neonatal outcomes in patients with preterm PROM. These findings suggest that the combination of anti-microbial agents (ceftriaxone, clarithromycin, and metronidazole) may improve perinatal outcome in preterm PROM.

  10. Improving the Comprehension of Students with Significant Developmental Disabilities: Systematic Instruction on the Steps for Completing and Using a Graphic Organizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Alexander P.

    2015-01-01

    A single-subject, multiple-baseline across participants design was used to examine the functional relation between systematic instruction and the ability to complete a graphic organizer and recall facts about informational texts by students with significant development disabilities. Four high school students enrolled in an adapted academic program…

  11. Significantly improved photovoltaic performance in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with graphene oxide /PEDOT:PSS double decked hole transport layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Saqib; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Shahid, Muhammad Mehmood; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2017-01-13

    This work demonstrates the high performance graphene oxide (GO)/PEDOT:PSS doubled decked hole transport layer (HTL) in the PCDTBT:PC 71 BM based bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic device. The devices were tested on merits of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), reproducibility, stability and further compared with the devices with individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs. Solar cells employing GO/PEDOT:PSS HTL yielded a PCE of 4.28% as compared to either of individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs where they demonstrated PCEs of 2.77 and 3.57%, respectively. In case of single GO HTL, an inhomogeneous coating of ITO caused the poor performance whereas PEDOT:PSS is known to be hygroscopic and acidic which upon direct contact with ITO reduced the device performance. The improvement in the photovoltaic performance is mainly ascribed to the increased charge carriers mobility, short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and decreased series resistance. The well matched work function of GO and PEDOT:PSS is likely to facilitate the charge transportation and an overall reduction in the series resistance. Moreover, GO could effectively block the electrons due to its large band-gap of ~3.6 eV, leading to an increased shunt resistance. In addition, we also observed the improvement in the reproducibility and stability.

  12. Significantly improved photovoltaic performance in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with graphene oxide /PEDOT:PSS double decked hole transport layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Saqib; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Shahid, Muhammad Mehmood; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates the high performance graphene oxide (GO)/PEDOT:PSS doubled decked hole transport layer (HTL) in the PCDTBT:PC71BM based bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic device. The devices were tested on merits of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), reproducibility, stability and further compared with the devices with individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs. Solar cells employing GO/PEDOT:PSS HTL yielded a PCE of 4.28% as compared to either of individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs where they demonstrated PCEs of 2.77 and 3.57%, respectively. In case of single GO HTL, an inhomogeneous coating of ITO caused the poor performance whereas PEDOT:PSS is known to be hygroscopic and acidic which upon direct contact with ITO reduced the device performance. The improvement in the photovoltaic performance is mainly ascribed to the increased charge carriers mobility, short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and decreased series resistance. The well matched work function of GO and PEDOT:PSS is likely to facilitate the charge transportation and an overall reduction in the series resistance. Moreover, GO could effectively block the electrons due to its large band-gap of ~3.6 eV, leading to an increased shunt resistance. In addition, we also observed the improvement in the reproducibility and stability.

  13. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 1. Recommendations for technology developments with potential to significantly improve low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-02-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 1 provides an executive summary and a general introduction to the four-volume set, in addition to recommendations for research and development (R and D) for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) treatment. Generic, long-range, and/or high-risk programs identified and prioritized as needed R and D in the LLRW field include: (1) systems analysis to develop decision methodology; (2) alternative processes for dismantling, decontaminating, and decommissioning; (3) ion exchange; (4) incinerator technology; (5) disposal technology; (6) demonstration of advanced technologies; (7) technical assistance; (8) below regulatory concern materials; (9) mechanical treatment techniques; (10) monitoring and analysis procedures; (11) radical process improvements; (12) physical, chemical, thermal, and biological processes; (13) fundamental chemistry; (14) interim storage; (15) modeling; and (16) information transfer. The several areas are discussed in detail

  14. Carbohydrate gel ingestion significantly improves the intermittent endurance capacity, but not sprint performance, of adolescent team games players during a simulated team games protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shaun M; Turner, Anthony P; Sanderson, Mark F; Sproule, John

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ingesting a carbohydrate (CHO) gel on the intermittent endurance capacity and sprint performance of adolescent team games players. Eleven participants [mean age 13.5 ± 0.7 years, height 1.72 ± 0.08 m, body mass (BM) 62.1 ± 9.4 kg] performed two trials separated by 3-7 days. In each trial, they completed four 15 min periods of part A of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST), followed by an intermittent run to exhaustion (part B). In the 5 min pre-exercise, participants consumed 0.818 mL kg(-1) BM of a CHO or a non-CHO placebo gel, and a further 0.327 mL kg(-1) BM every 15 min during part A of the LIST (38.0 ± 5.5 g CHO h(-1) in the CHO trial). Intermittent endurance capacity was increased by 21.1% during part B when the CHO gel was ingested (4.6 ± 2.0 vs. 3.8 ± 2.4 min, P games players during a simulated team games protocol.

  15. Long-term mortality benefits of air quality improvement during the twelfth five-year-plan period in 31 provincial capital cities of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Cai, Yuanyuan; Feng, Baixiang; Cao, Ganxiang; Lin, Hualiang; Xiao, Jianpeng; Li, Xing; Liu, Sha; Pei, Lei; Fu, Li; Yang, Xinyi; Zhang, Bo; Ma, Wenjun

    2018-01-01

    The severe air pollution across China in the past several years has made the Chinese government recognize its significant impacts on public health and society, and take enormous efforts to improve the air quality all over the country, especially during the Twelfth Five-Year Plan (12th FYP). However, the overall effectiveness of these air pollution control policies remains unclear. In this study, we selected the 31 municipalities and provincial capital cities in mainland China as study settings. We collected the annual average population size, mortality rates (total mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, total cancer, lung cancer and breast cancer) and concentrations of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, SO2 and NO2) in each capital city from 2010 to 2015 from national or local Statistical Yearbooks. The effect sizes of air pollutants on mortality were obtained from previously published meta analyses or cohort studies. We first estimated the annual mortality rates attributed to the changes in air pollutant concentrations for every city in each year. Then, we further estimated the mortality benefits in the scenarios where the air quality had reached the grade II levels of Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. In most capital cities, we observed dominant decreases in air pollutant concentrations during the 12th FYP, particularly from 2013 to 2015, which has led to significant mortality benefits for the public. A total of 121,658 deaths (0.441‰) have been prevented due to the decrease of PM2.5concentrations from 2013 to 2015 in all included cities. The morality benefits were larger in capital cities located in the key regions (the three main regions and ten city groups) than the other cities. In addition, more mortality benefits could be obtained in the future if the air quality reaches the grade II levels of Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) or WHO guidelines. We

  16. Tumor-selective replication herpes simplex virus-based technology significantly improves clinical detection and prognostication of viable circulating tumor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wen; Bao, Li; Yang, Shaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells remains a significant challenge due to their vast physical and biological heterogeneity. We developed a cell-surface-marker-independent technology based on telomerase-specific, replication-selective oncolytic herpes-simplex-virus-1 that targets telomerase......-reverse-transcriptase-positive cancer cells and expresses green-fluorescent-protein that identifies viable CTCs from a broad spectrum of malignancies. Our method recovered 75.5-87.2% of tumor cells spiked into healthy donor blood, as validated by different methods, including single cell sequencing. CTCs were detected in 59-100% of 326...

  17. Combined use of hyperbaric and hypobaric ropivacaine significantly improves hemodynamic characteristics in spinal anesthesia for caesarean section: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZheFeng Quan

    Full Text Available To observe the hemodynamic changes of parturients in the combined use of hyperbaric (4 mg and hypobaric (6 mg ropivacaine during spinal anesthesia for caesarean section in this randomized double-blind study.Parturients (n = 136 undergoing elective cesarean delivery were randomly and equally allocated to receive either combined hyperbaric and hypobaric ropivacaine (Group A or hyperbaric ropivacaine (Group B. Outcome measures were: hemodynamic characteristics, maximum height of sensory block, time to achieve T8 sensory blockade level, incidence of complications, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min, and neonatal blood gas analysis.Group A had a lower level of sensory blockade (T6 [T6-T7] and longer time to achieve T8 sensory blockade level (8 ± 1.3 min than did patients in Group B (T3 [T2-T4] and 5 ± 1.0 min, respectively; P < 0.001, both. The incidence rates for hypotension, nausea, and vomiting were significantly lower in Group A (13%, 10%, and 3%, respectively than Group B (66%, 31%, and 13%; P < 0.001, P = 0.003, P = 0.028.Combined use of hyperbaric (4 mg and hypobaric (6 mg ropivacaine significantly decreased the incidences of hypotension and complications in spinal anesthesia for caesarean section by extending induction time and decreasing the level of sensory blockade.Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-TRC-13004622.

  18. Disruption of the 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction significantly improves the erythroid defect in a mouse model for Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaako, P; Debnath, S; Olsson, K; Zhang, Y; Flygare, J; Lindström, M S; Bryder, D; Karlsson, S

    2015-11-01

    Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital erythroid hypoplasia caused by haploinsufficiency of genes encoding ribosomal proteins (RPs). Perturbed ribosome biogenesis in DBA has been shown to induce a p53-mediated ribosomal stress response. However, the mechanisms of p53 activation and its relevance for the erythroid defect remain elusive. Previous studies have indicated that activation of p53 is caused by the inhibition of mouse double minute 2 (Mdm2), the main negative regulator of p53, by the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP). Meanwhile, it is not clear whether this mechanism solely mediates the p53-dependent component found in DBA. To approach this question, we crossed our mouse model for RPS19-deficient DBA with Mdm2(C305F) knock-in mice that have a disrupted 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction. Upon induction of the Rps19 deficiency, Mdm2(C305F) reversed the p53 response and improved expansion of hematopoietic progenitors in vitro, and ameliorated the anemia in vivo. Unexpectedly, disruption of the 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction also led to selective defect in erythropoiesis. Our findings highlight the sensitivity of erythroid progenitor cells to aberrations in p53 homeostasis mediated by the 5S RNP-Mdm2 interaction. Finally, we provide evidence indicating that physiological activation of the 5S RNP-Mdm2-p53 pathway may contribute to functional decline of the hematopoietic system in a cell-autonomous manner over time.

  19. Cognitive cooperation groups mediated by computers and internet present significant improvement of cognitive status in older adults with memory complaints: a controlled prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Rosso Krug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the effect of participating in cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE percent variation of outpatients with memory complaints attending two memory clinics. Methods A prospective controlled intervention study carried out from 2006 to 2013 with 293 elders. The intervention group (n = 160 attended a cognitive cooperation group (20 sessions of 1.5 hours each. The control group (n = 133 received routine medical care. Outcome was the percent variation in the MMSE. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, schooling, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypothyroidism, depression, vascular diseases, polymedication, use of benzodiazepines, exposure to tobacco, sedentary lifestyle, obesity and functional capacity. The final model was obtained by multivariate linear regression. Results The intervention group obtained an independent positive variation of 24.39% (CI 95% = 14.86/33.91 in the MMSE compared to the control group. Conclusion The results suggested that cognitive cooperation groups, mediated by computers and the internet, are associated with cognitive status improvement of older adults in memory clinics.

  20. Significantly improved surface morphology of N-polar GaN film grown on SiC substrate by the optimization of V/III ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gaoqiang; Zhang, Yuantao; Yu, Ye; Yan, Long; Li, Pengchong; Han, Xu; Chen, Liang; Zhao, Degang; Du, Guotong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, N-polar GaN films with different V/III ratios were grown on vicinal C-face SiC substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. During the growth of N-polar GaN film, the V/III ratio was controlled by adjusting the molar flow rate of ammonia while keeping the trimethylgallium flow rate unchanged. The influence of the V/III ratio on the surface morphology of N-polar GaN film has been studied. We find that the surface root mean square roughness of N-polar GaN film over an area of 20 × 20 μm2 can be reduced from 8.13 to 2.78 nm by optimization of the V/III ratio. Then, using the same growth conditions, N-polar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were grown on the rough and the smooth N-polar GaN templates, respectively. Compared with the LED grown on the rough N-polar GaN template, dramatically improved interface sharpness and luminescence uniformity of the InGaN/GaN MQWs are achieved for the LED grown on the smooth N-polar GaN template.

  1. A clinically based prognostic index for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a cut-off at 70 years of age significantly improves prognostic stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Anne O.; Pedersen, Michael; d'Amore, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of rituximab and generally improved health among elderly patients have increased the survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The International Prognostic Index (IPI) from 1992 is based on pre-rituximab data from clinical trials including several lymphoma ...... dehydrogenase (LDH), stage and albumin level, and (2) a separate age-adjusted DLBCL-PI for patients 1 extranodal lesion, however excluding stage....... subtypes. We applied IPI factors to a population-based rituximab-treated cohort of 1990 patients diagnosed 2000-2010 and explored new factors and the optimal prognostic age cut-off for DLBCL. Multivariate-analyses (MVA) confirmed the prognostic value of all IPI factors except the presence of > 1 extranodal...... lesion. The optimal age cut-off was 70 years. In a MVA of albumin, lymphocyte count, sex, immunoglobulin G, bulky disease, hemoglobin and B-symptoms, only albumin was prognostic. We propose: (1) a modified DLBCL prognostic index (DLBCL-PI) including: age (70 years), performance status (PS), lactate...

  2. PolySearch2: a significantly improved text-mining system for discovering associations between human diseases, genes, drugs, metabolites, toxins and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifeng; Liang, Yongjie; Wishart, David

    2015-07-01

    PolySearch2 (http://polysearch.ca) is an online text-mining system for identifying relationships between biomedical entities such as human diseases, genes, SNPs, proteins, drugs, metabolites, toxins, metabolic pathways, organs, tissues, subcellular organelles, positive health effects, negative health effects, drug actions, Gene Ontology terms, MeSH terms, ICD-10 medical codes, biological taxonomies and chemical taxonomies. PolySearch2 supports a generalized 'Given X, find all associated Ys' query, where X and Y can be selected from the aforementioned biomedical entities. An example query might be: 'Find all diseases associated with Bisphenol A'. To find its answers, PolySearch2 searches for associations against comprehensive collections of free-text collections, including local versions of MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central full-text articles, Wikipedia full-text articles and US Patent application abstracts. PolySearch2 also searches 14 widely used, text-rich biological databases such as UniProt, DrugBank and Human Metabolome Database to improve its accuracy and coverage. PolySearch2 maintains an extensive thesaurus of biological terms and exploits the latest search engine technology to rapidly retrieve relevant articles and databases records. PolySearch2 also generates, ranks and annotates associative candidates and present results with relevancy statistics and highlighted key sentences to facilitate user interpretation. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin (GO Inclusion to Induction Chemotherapy Eliminates Leukemic Initiating Cells and Significantly Improves Survival in Mouse Models of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy C Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO is an anti-CD33 antibody-drug conjugate for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Although GO shows a narrow therapeutic window in early clinical studies, recent reports detailing a modified dosing regimen of GO can be safely combined with induction chemotherapy, and the combination provides significant survival benefits in AML patients. Here we tested whether the survival benefits seen with the combination arise from the enhanced reduction of chemoresidual disease and leukemic initiating cells (LICs. Herein, we use cell line and patient-derived xenograft (PDX AML models to evaluate the combination of GO with daunorubicin and cytarabine (DA induction chemotherapy on AML blast growth and animal survival. DA chemotherapy and GO as separate treatments reduced AML burden but left significant chemoresidual disease in multiple AML models. The combination of GO and DA chemotherapy eliminated nearly all AML burden and extended overall survival. In two small subsets of AML models, chemoresidual disease following DA chemotherapy displayed hallmark markers of leukemic LICs (CLL1 and CD34. In vivo, the two chemoresistant subpopulations (CLL1+/CD117− and CD34+/CD38+ showed higher ability to self-renewal than their counterpart subpopulations, respectively. CD33 was coexpressed in these functional LIC subpopulations. We demonstrate that the GO and DA induction chemotherapy combination more effectively eliminates LICs in AML PDX models than either single agent alone. These data suggest that the survival benefit seen by the combination of GO and induction chemotherapy, nonclinically and clinically, may be attributed to the enhanced reduction of LICs.

  4. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    and their quality was improved considerably toward the end of this period. The profound cultural innovations of the Middle Helladic period were initially interpreted as a result of violent population movement and troubles provoked by the coming of the first Indo-European races. However, this matter does no more...... Helladic period is considered as a period of economic and social decline it was the time during which the mainland features merged with the insular influence, that is all the Aegean elements which led to the creation of the Mycenaean civilization were mixed in a creative way....

  5. Insulin-Like growth factor-II (IGF-II) prevents proinflammatory cytokine-induced apoptosis and significantly improves islet survival after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amy; Mohanasundaram, Daisy; Kireta, Svjetlana; Jessup, Claire F; Drogemuller, Chris J; Coates, P Toby H

    2013-03-15

    The early loss of functional islet mass (50-70%) due to apoptosis after clinical transplantation contributes to islet allograft failure. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II is an antiapoptotic protein that is highly expressed in β-cells during development but rapidly decreases in postnatal life. We used an adenoviral (Ad) vector to overexpress IGF-II in isolated rat islets and investigated its antiapoptotic action against exogenous cytokines interleukin-1β- and interferon-γ-induced islet cell death in vitro. Using an immunocompromised marginal mass islet transplant model, the ability of Ad-IGF-II-transduced rat islets to restore euglycemia in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient diabetic recipients was assessed. Ad-IGF-II transduction did not affect islet viability or function. Ad-IGF-II cytokine-treated islets exhibited decreased cell death (40% ± 2.8%) versus Ad-GFP and untransduced control islets (63.2% ± 2.5% and 53.6% ± 2.3%, respectively). Ad-IGF-II overexpression during cytokine treatment resulted in a marked reduction in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive apoptotic cells (8.3% ± 1.4%) versus Ad-GFP control (41% ± 4.2%) and untransduced control islets (46.5% ± 6.2%). Western blot analysis confirmed that IGF-II inhibits apoptosis via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway. Transplantation of IGF-II overexpressing islets under the kidney capsule of diabetic mice restored euglycemia in 77.8% of recipients compared with 18.2% and 47.5% of Ad-GFP and untransduced control islet recipients, respectively (Pislet transplant outcomes in vivo. Antiapoptotic gene transfer is a potentially powerful tool to improve islet survival after transplantation.

  6. Significant reduction of radiation exposure to operator and staff during cardiac interventions by analysis of radiation leakage and improved lead shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuon, Eberhard; Schmitt, Moritz; Dahm, Johannes B

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to disclose and to reduce occupational radiation leakage in invasive cardiology. Prospectively, we analyzed various dose parameters for 330 coronary procedures. We used a Rando phantom to measure scatter entrance skin air kerma to the operator (S-ESAK-O) during fluoroscopy for all standard tube angulations, and to plot isodose lines for 0 degrees /0 degrees -posterior anterior angulation. The patient's measured dose area product due to diagnostic catheterization and elective percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was 6.2 and 10.4 Gycm(2), which represents 11% and 13% of currently typical values, respectively. With use of 0.5- and 1.0-mm overcouch and undercouch shielding, it was possible to reduce the mean of 4,686 nSv/Gycm(2) to 677 and 277 nSv/Gycm(2), respectively. Closure of radiation leakage up to 897 microSv/hour at the operator's gonadal height (80 to 105 cm), not heretofore described, was achieved by an additional 1.0-mm, lead-equivalent undercouch-top and overcouch-flap adjacent to the table, down to a S-ESAK-O/dose area product level of 47.5 nSv/Gycm(2). With use of a 0.5-mm lead apron, collar, glasses, foot-switch shield and 1.0-mm lead cover around the patient's thighs, the operator received a mean S-ESAK-O of 8.5, while his forehead, eyes, thyroid, chest, gonads, and hands were exposed to 68.2, 1.2, 1.2, 1.2, 0.8, and 58.2 nSv/Gycm(2), respectively. In conclusion, radiation-attenuating intervention techniques and improved lead protection can effectively contribute to a new state of the art in invasive cardiology, with reduction of operator radiation exposure to 0.8% of typical S-ESAK-O levels in advanced catheterization laboratories.

  7. A new optical method improves fluorescence guided diagnosis of bladder tumor in the outpatient department and reveals significant photo bleaching problems in established inpatients PDD techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindvold, Lars R.; Hermann, Gregers G.

    2013-03-01

    Photo dynamic diagnosis (PDD) is a convenient and well-documented procedure for diagnosis of bladder cancer and tumours using endoscopic techniques. At present, this procedure is available only for routine use in an operating room (OR) and often with substantial photobleaching effects of the photosensitizer. We present a novel optical design of the endoscopic PDD procedure that allows the procedure to be performed in the outpatient department (OPD) and not only in the OR. Thereby, inpatient procedures lasting 1-2 days may be replaced by a few hours lasting procedure in the OPD. Urine blurs the fluorescence during PDD used in the OPD. Urine contains fluorescent metabolites that are excited by blue light giving an opaque green fluorescence confounding the desired red fluorescence (PDD) from the tumour tissue. Measurements from the clinical situation has shown that some systems for PPD based on blue light illumination (PDD mode) and white light illumination used for bladder tumour diagnosis and surgery suffers some inherent disadvantages, i.e., photo bleaching in white light that impairs the possibility for PDD as white light usually is used before the blue light for PDD. Based on spectroscopic observations of urine and the photoactive dye Protoporphyrin IX used in PDD a novel optical system for use with the cystoscope has been devised that solves the problem of green fluorescence from urine. This and the knowledge of photo-bleaching pitfalls in established systems make it possible to perform PDD of bladder tumours in the OPD and to improve PDD in the OR.

  8. Improving lifetime trajectories for vulnerable young children and families living with significant stress and social disadvantage: the early years education program randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Brigid; Tseng, Yi-Ping; Coombs, Nichola; Kennedy, Anne; Borland, Jeff

    2014-09-17

    Children who experience neglect and abuse are likely to have impaired brain development and entrenched learning deficiencies. Early years interventions such as intensive education and care for these children are known to have the potential to increase their human capital. The Early Years Education Program (EYEP) is a new program offered by the Children's Protection Society (CPS) in Melbourne, Australia. EYEP is targeted at the needs of children who have been or are at risk of being abused or neglected. It has the dual focus of seeking to address the consequences of abuse and neglect on children's brain development and redressing their learning deficiencies. Our objective is to determine whether EYEP can improve school readiness by conducting a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of its impacts. The RCT is being conducted with 90 participants (45 intervention and 45 control). Eligible children must be aged under three years and assessed as having two or more risk factors as defined in the Department of Human Services Best Interest Case Practice Model. The intervention group participate for three years (or until school entry) in EYEP. The trial does not provide any early years education or care to the control group. Data are being collected on outcome measures for participants in EYEP and the control group at the baseline, at yearly intervals for three years, and six months after commencing the first year of school. Outcome measures encompass children's health and development, academic ability and emotional and behavioural regulation; and quality of parenting practices. The study will evaluate the impact of EYEP on these outcomes, and undertake a benefit-cost analysis of the program. Findings from the study have the potential to influence the quality of care and education for the large population of children in Australia who are at risk of abuse and neglect, as well as for children in mainstream childcare. The study will provide up-to-date evidence on the impact of an

  9. Physicochemical state of the nanotopographic surface of commercially pure titanium following anodization-hydrothermal treatment reveals significantly improved hydrophilicity and surface energy profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Jun; Ito, Shigeki; Miura, Shingo; Miyata, Kyohei; Ishibashi, Kanji

    2012-01-01

    A method of coating commercially pure titanium (cpTi) implants with a highly crystalline, thin hydroxyapatite (HA) layer using discharge anodic oxidation followed by hydrothermal treatment (Spark discharged Anodic oxidation treatment ; SA-treated cpTi) has been reported for use in clinical dentistry. We hypothesized that a thin HA layer with high crystallinity and nanostructured anodic titanium oxide film on such SA-treated cpTi implant surfaces might be a crucial function of their surface-specific potential energy. To test this, we analyzed anodic oxide (AO) cpTi and SA-treated cpTi disks by SEM and AFM. Contact angles and surface free energy of each disk surface was measured using FAMAS software. High-magnification SEM and AFM revealed the nanotopographic structure of the anodic titanium oxide film on SA-treated cpTi; however, this was not observed on the AO cpTi surface. The contact angle and surface free energy measurements were also significantly different between AO cpTi and SA-treated cpTi surfaces (Tukey's, P<0.05). These data indicated that the change of physicochemical properties of an anodic titanium oxide film with HA crystals on an SA-treated cpTi surface may play a key role in the phenomenon of osteoconduction during the process of osseointegration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Combined use of hyperbaric and hypobaric ropivacaine significantly improves hemodynamic characteristics in spinal anesthesia for caesarean section: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, ZheFeng; Tian, Ming; Chi, Ping; Li, Xin; He, HaiLi; Luo, Chao

    2015-01-01

    To observe the hemodynamic changes of parturients in the combined use of hyperbaric (4 mg) and hypobaric (6 mg) ropivacaine during spinal anesthesia for caesarean section in this randomized double-blind study. Parturients (n = 136) undergoing elective cesarean delivery were randomly and equally allocated to receive either combined hyperbaric and hypobaric ropivacaine (Group A) or hyperbaric ropivacaine (Group B). Outcome measures were: hemodynamic characteristics, maximum height of sensory block, time to achieve T8 sensory blockade level, incidence of complications, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min, and neonatal blood gas analysis. Group A had a lower level of sensory blockade (T6 [T6-T7]) and longer time to achieve T8 sensory blockade level (8 ± 1.3 min) than did patients in Group B (T3 [T2-T4] and 5 ± 1.0 min, respectively; P hyperbaric (4 mg) and hypobaric (6 mg) ropivacaine significantly decreased the incidences of hypotension and complications in spinal anesthesia for caesarean section by extending induction time and decreasing the level of sensory blockade. Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-TRC-13004622.

  11. Multimeric recombinant M2e protein-based ELISA: a significant improvement in differentiating avian influenza infected chickens from vaccinated ones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Hadifar

    Full Text Available Killed avian influenza virus (AIV vaccines have been used to control H5N1 infections in countries where the virus is endemic. Distinguishing vaccinated from naturally infected birds (DIVA in such situations however, has become a major challenge. Recently, we introduced the recombinant ectodomain of the M2 protein (M2e of H5N1 subtype as a novel tool for an ELISA based DIVA test. Despite being antigenic in natural infection the monomer form of the M2e used in ELISA had limited antigenicity and consequently poor diagnostic capability. To address this shortcoming, we evaluated the use of four tandem copies of M2e (tM2e for increased efficiency of M2e antibody detection. The tM2e gene of H5N1 strain from Indonesia (A/Indonesia/CDC540/2006 was cloned into a pMAL- p4x expression vector and expressed in E.coli as a recombinant tM2e-MBP or M2e-MBP proteins. Both of these, M2e and tM2e antigens reacted with sera obtained from chickens following live H5N1 infection but not with sera from vaccinated birds. A significantly stronger M2e antibody reaction was observed with the tM2e compared to M2e antigen. Western blotting also supported the superiority of tM2e over M2e in detection of specific M2e antibodies against live H5N1 infection. Results from this study demonstrate that M2e tetramer is a better antigen than single M2e and could be more suitable for an ELISA based DIVA test.

  12. Improving sensitivity of linear regression-based cell type-specific differential expression deconvolution with per-gene vs. global significance threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Edmund R; Dozmorov, Mikhail G

    2016-10-06

    The goal of many human disease-oriented studies is to detect molecular mechanisms different between healthy controls and patients. Yet, commonly used gene expression measurements from blood samples suffer from variability of cell composition. This variability hinders the detection of differentially expressed genes and is often ignored. Combined with cell counts, heterogeneous gene expression may provide deeper insights into the gene expression differences on the cell type-specific level. Published computational methods use linear regression to estimate cell type-specific differential expression, and a global cutoff to judge significance, such as False Discovery Rate (FDR). Yet, they do not consider many artifacts hidden in high-dimensional gene expression data that may negatively affect linear regression. In this paper we quantify the parameter space affecting the performance of linear regression (sensitivity of cell type-specific differential expression detection) on a per-gene basis. We evaluated the effect of sample sizes, cell type-specific proportion variability, and mean squared error on sensitivity of cell type-specific differential expression detection using linear regression. Each parameter affected variability of cell type-specific expression estimates and, subsequently, the sensitivity of differential expression detection. We provide the R package, LRCDE, which performs linear regression-based cell type-specific differential expression (deconvolution) detection on a gene-by-gene basis. Accounting for variability around cell type-specific gene expression estimates, it computes per-gene t-statistics of differential detection, p-values, t-statistic-based sensitivity, group-specific mean squared error, and several gene-specific diagnostic metrics. The sensitivity of linear regression-based cell type-specific differential expression detection differed for each gene as a function of mean squared error, per group sample sizes, and variability of the proportions

  13. Can a brief period of double J stenting improve the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi sized 1 to 2 cm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh; Das, Ranjit Kumar; Basu, Supriya; Dey, Ranjan Kumar; Gupta, Rupesh; Deb, Partha Pratim

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is an established modality for renal calculi. Its role for large stones is being questioned. A novel model of temporary double J (DJ) stenting followed by ESWL was devised and outcomes were assessed. Materials and Methods The study included 95 patients with renal calculi sized 1 to 2 cm. Patients were randomized into 3 groups. Group 1 received ESWL only, whereas group 2 underwent stenting followed by ESWL. In group 3, a distinct model was applied in which the stent was kept for 1 week and then removed, followed by ESWL. Procedural details, analgesic requirements, and outcome were analyzed. Results Eighty-eight patients (male, 47; female, 41) were available for analysis. The patients' mean age was 37.9±10.9 years. Stone profile was similar among groups. Group 3 received fewer shocks (mean, 3,155) than did group 1 (mean, 3,859; p=0.05) or group 2 (mean, 3,872; p=0.04). The fragmentation rate was similar in group 3 (96.7%) and groups 1 (81.5%, p=0.12) and 2 (87.1%, p=0.16). Overall clearance in group 3 was significantly improved (83.3%) compared with that in groups 1 (63.0%, p=0.02) and 2 (64.5%, p=0.02) and was maintained even in lower pole stones. The percentage successful outcome in groups 1, 2, and 3 was 66.7%, 64.5%, and 83.3%, respectively (p=0.21). The analgesic requirement in group 2 was higher than in the other groups (p=0.00). Group 2 patients also had more grade IIIa (2/3) and IIIB (1/2) complications. Conclusions Stenting adversely affects stone clearance and also makes the later course uncomfortable. Our model of brief stenting followed by ESWL provided better clearance, comfort, and a modest improvement in outcome with fewer sittings and steinstrasse in selected patients with large renal calculi. PMID:28261679

  14. Can a brief period of double J stenting improve the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for renal calculi sized 1 to 2 cm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Sharma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL is an established modality for renal calculi. Its role for large stones is being questioned. A novel model of temporary double J (DJ stenting followed by ESWL was devised and outcomes were assessed. Materials and Methods: The study included 95 patients with renal calculi sized 1 to 2 cm. Patients were randomized into 3 groups. Group 1 received ESWL only, whereas group 2 underwent stenting followed by ESWL. In group 3, a distinct model was applied in which the stent was kept for 1 week and then removed, followed by ESWL. Procedural details, analgesic requirements, and outcome were analyzed. Results: Eighty-eight patients (male, 47; female, 41 were available for analysis. The patients’ mean age was 37.9±10.9 years. Stone profile was similar among groups. Group 3 received fewer shocks (mean, 3,155 than did group 1 (mean, 3,859; p=0.05 or group 2 (mean, 3,872; p=0.04. The fragmentation rate was similar in group 3 (96.7% and groups 1 (81.5%, p=0.12 and 2 (87.1%, p=0.16. Overall clearance in group 3 was significantly improved (83.3% compared with that in groups 1 (63.0%, p=0.02 and 2 (64.5%, p=0.02 and was maintained even in lower pole stones. The percentage successful outcome in groups 1, 2, and 3 was 66.7%, 64.5%, and 83.3%, respectively (p=0.21. The analgesic requirement in group 2 was higher than in the other groups (p=0.00. Group 2 patients also had more grade IIIa (2/3 and IIIB (1/2 complications. Conclusions: Stenting adversely affects stone clearance and also makes the later course uncomfortable. Our model of brief stenting followed by ESWL provided better clearance, comfort, and a modest improvement in outcome with fewer sittings and steinstrasse in selected patients with large renal calculi.

  15. Significant improvement of electrochemical performance of Cu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LiVPO4F cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. YU ZHANGa,∗, XIAOLAN BAIb ... and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). ... Analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) ... studied with a SEM (JSM-7500F, Japan) equipped with.

  16. Improved Spectral Resolution of Long-Period Fiber Grating Sensors for Ultra-High Temperature Environments Using Narrow Interferences between Regenerated Gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin; Russell, J; Gao, Shaorui

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of D-shape fiber in combination with an optical analog of Ramsey fringes using LPGs are presented. The mode-profiles of the sensor were characterized experimentally to provide deeper knowledge about improved functionality.......The advantages of D-shape fiber in combination with an optical analog of Ramsey fringes using LPGs are presented. The mode-profiles of the sensor were characterized experimentally to provide deeper knowledge about improved functionality....

  17. Improvement of the training process of qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding in the general preparatory stage of the preparatory period, taking into account the biological cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Mulyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of the methodology of the training process of qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding in the general preparatory stage of the preparatory period, taking into account the biological cycle. Material & Methods: in the study participated 18 qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding, included in the Kharkov region team of bodybuilding. Results: comparative characteristic of the most frequently used methodology of the training process in bodybuilding are shows. An optimal methodology for qualified female athletes engaged in bodybuilding has been developed and justified, depending on the initial form of the athlete at the beginning of the general preparatory stage of the training. The dependence of the change in the body weight of female athletes from the training process is shows. Conclusion: on the basis of the study, the author suggests an optimal training methodology depending on the mesocycle of training in the preparatory period in the general preparatory stage.

  18. Nitrogen Nutrition Improves the Potential of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Alleviate the Effects of Drought Stress during Vegetative Growth Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Muhammad; Tian, Zhongwei; Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Tahir; Cui, Yakun; Liu, Yang; Zahoor, Rizwan; Jiang, Dong; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Efficient nitrogen (N) nutrition has the potential to alleviate drought stress in crops by maintaining metabolic activities even at low tissue water potential. This study was aimed to understand the potential of N to minimize the effects of drought stress applied/occur during tillering (Feekes stage 2) and jointing (Feekes stage 6) growth stages of wheat by observing the regulations and limitations of physiological activities, crop growth rate during drought periods as well as final grain yields at maturity. In present study, pot cultured plants of a wheat cultivar Yangmai-16 were exposed to three water levels [severe stress at 35-40% field capacity (FC), moderate stress at 55-60% FC and well-watered at 75-80% FC] under two N rates (0.24 g and 0.16 g/kg soil). The results showed that the plants under severe drought stress accompanied by low N exhibited highly downregulated photosynthesis, and chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence during the drought stress periods, and showed an accelerated grain filling rate with shortened grain filling duration (GFD) at post-anthesis, and reduced grain yields. Severe drought-stressed plants especially at jointing, exhibited lower Chl and Rubisco contents, lower efficiency of photosystem II and greater grain yield reductions. In contrast, drought-stressed plants under higher N showed tolerance to drought stress by maintaining higher leaf water potential, Chl and Rubisco content; lower lipid peroxidation associated with higher superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities during drought periods. The plants under higher N showed delayed senescence, increased GFD and lower grain yield reductions. The results of the study suggested that higher N nutrition contributed to drought tolerance in wheat by maintaining higher photosynthetic activities and antioxidative defense system during vegetative growth periods.

  19. Pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli have improved feed efficiency and indicators of inflammation with dietary supplementation of tryptophan and methionine in the immediate post-weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capozzalo, Meeka M; Kim, Jae Cheol; Htoo, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that pigs challenged with an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli (ETEC) will improve performance by dietary supplementation of sulfur amino acids (SAA) and tryptophan (Trp) above the current recommended levels in the immediate post-weaning period. Male pigs (n ...... of inflammation and SAA supplementation decreased the pro-inflammatory interferon-gamma response and improved protein utilisation, as measured by PU, whereas supplementation with both Trp and SAA improved feed conversion ratio....... interferon-gamma regardless of dietary Trp or day of sampling (P = 0.043). Increasing dietary SAA decreased plasma urea (PU) levels on Days 5, 8 and 14 (P

  20. Improvement of quality service in Uruguay - plans developed and its results in the period 93-95. Fault statistic as a parameter of measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, J.; Rodriguez, R.; Rondoni, A.; Pardo, A. [U.T.E. (Uruguay)

    1997-12-31

    The present paper aims to describe the improvement process of the quality of the product and the technical service that has been undertaken in UTE since 1990 and to show the results obtained so far as well as the actions foreseen in the future. In addition the system for the quality control is developed. It is structured based on global and individual indexes supported by the corporate centralised and distributed informatic tools that the company possess. This control system has allowed us to carry out a pursuit of the relative evolution of the quality year to year and to establish absolute comparisons with companies from the region and from Europe. The current situation and the improvements for Montevideo, are described. (author)

  1. Revision of failed hip resurfacing to total hip arthroplasty rapidly relieves pain and improves function in the early post operative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muirhead-Allwood Sarah K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We reviewed the results of 25 consecutive patients who underwent revision of a hip resurfacing prosthesis to a total hip replacement. Revisions were performed for recurrent pain and effusion, infection and proximal femoral fractures. Both components were revised in 20 cases. There were 12 male and 13 female patients with average time to revision of 34.4 and 26.4 months respectively. The mean follow up period was 12.7 months (3 to 31. All patients reported relief of pain and excellent satisfaction scores. Two patients experienced stiffness up to three months post operatively. Pre operative Oxford, Harris and WOMAC hip scores were 39.1, 36.4 and 52.2 respectively. Mean post operative scores at last follow up were 17.4, 89.8 and 6.1 respectively (p

  2. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  3. Extension and improvement of Central Station District heating budget period 1 and 2, Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Project aim was to reduce pollution levels in the City of Krakow through the retirement of coal-fired (hand and mechanically-stoked) boiler houses. This was achieved by identifying attractive candidates and connecting them to the Krakow district heating system, thus permitting them to eliminate boiler operations. Because coal is less costly than district hot water, the district heating company Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Energetyki Cieplnej S.A., henceforth identified as MPEC, needed to provide potential customers with incentives for purchasing district heat. These incentives consisted of offerings which MPEC made to the prospective client. The offerings presented the economic and environmental benefits to district heating tie-in and also could include conservation studies of the facilities, so that consumption of energy could be reduced and the cost impact on operations mitigated. Because some of the targeted boiler houses were large, the capacity of the district heating network required enhancement at strategic locations. Consequently, project construction work included both enhancement to the district piping network as well as facility tie-ins. The process of securing new customers necessitated the strengthening of MPEC`s competitive position in Krakow`s energy marketplace, which in turn required improvements in marketing, customer service, strategic planning, and project management. Learning how US utilities address these challenges became an integral segment of the project`s scope.

  4. Improving anxiety regulation in patients with breast cancer at the beginning of the survivorship period: a randomized clinical trial comparing the benefits of single-component and multiple-component group interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckaert, Isabelle; Lewis, Florence; Delevallez, France; Herman, Sophie; Caillier, Marie; Delvaux, Nicole; Libert, Yves; Liénard, Aurore; Nogaret, Jean-Marie; Ogez, David; Scalliet, Pierre; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Van Houtte, Paul; Razavi, Darius

    2017-08-01

    To compare in a multicenter randomized controlled trial the benefits in terms of anxiety regulation of a 15-session single-component group intervention (SGI) based on support with those of a 15-session multiple-component structured manualized group intervention (MGI) combining support with cognitive-behavioral and hypnosis components. Patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer were randomly assigned at the beginning of the survivorship period to the SGI (n = 83) or MGI (n = 87). Anxiety regulation was assessed, before and after group interventions, through an anxiety regulation task designed to assess their ability to regulate anxiety psychologically (anxiety levels) and physiologically (heart rates). Questionnaires were used to assess psychological distress, everyday anxiety regulation, and fear of recurrence. Group allocation was computer generated and concealed till baseline completion. Compared with patients in the SGI group (n = 77), patients attending the MGI group (n = 82) showed significantly reduced anxiety after a self-relaxation exercise (P = .006) and after exposure to anxiety triggers (P = .013) and reduced heart rates at different time points throughout the task (P = .001 to P = .047). The MGI participants also reported better everyday anxiety regulation (P = .005), greater use of fear of recurrence-related coping strategies (P = .022), and greater reduction in fear of recurrence-related psychological distress (P = .017) compared with the SGI group. This study shows that an MGI combining support with cognitive-behavioral techniques and hypnosis is more effective than an SGI based only on support in improving anxiety regulation in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Consistent and significant improvement of nighttime voiding frequency (nocturia) with silodosin in men with LUTS suggestive of BPH: pooled analysis of three randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase III studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Andreas; Schneider, Tim; Cruz, Francisco; Oelke, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    Nocturia is prevalent and bothersome in men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of BPH (LUTS/BPH). α-Adrenoceptor antagonists without subtype selectivity have inconsistently shown significant effects on nocturia in these patients. We explored the effects of the α1A-adrenoceptor subtype-selective antagonist silodosin on nocturia by analyzing three placebo-controlled registration studies. Responses to question 7 of the IPSS questionnaire were analyzed for the entire study population and patients with ≥ 2 voids/night at baseline. Improvement/worsening rates for nocturia were calculated for once-daily silodosin 8 mg and placebo. Silodosin effects on the mean number of nocturnal voids were compared with placebo, and the number of patients in whom nocturia was reduced to silodosin or placebo; 1,266 men (85 %) had ≥ 2 voids/night at baseline. Compared to placebo, more men treated with silodosin reported about nocturia improvement (53.4 vs. 42.8 %, p Silodosin significantly reduced nocturia within each study and pooled cohort compared to placebo (p silodosin and placebo had reductions of ≥ 1 voids/night, respectively (p = 0.0003), and significantly more patients with silodosin had nocturia episodes at study end compared to placebo (29.3 vs. 19.0 %; p = 0.0002). Although a weak impact on nocturia is already known from α-adrenoceptor antagonists without subtype selectivity, the individual placebo-controlled studies and the pooled data analysis showed that the α1A-adrenoceptor subtype-selective antagonist silodosin consistently and significantly improves nocturia in men with LUTS/BPH.

  6. Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure at a higher rate improve oxygenation in the early period after cardiac surgery--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urell, Charlotte; Emtner, Margareta; Hedenström, Hans; Tenling, Arne; Breidenskog, Marie; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2011-07-01

    In addition to early mobilisation, a variety of breathing exercises are used to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery. The optimal duration of the treatment is not well evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 30 versus 10 deep breaths hourly, while awake, with positive expiratory pressure on oxygenation and pulmonary function the first days after cardiac surgery. A total of 181 patients, undergoing cardiac surgery, were randomised into a treatment group, performing 30 deep breaths hourly the first postoperative days, or into a control group performing 10 deep breaths hourly. The main outcome measurement arterial blood gases and the secondary outcome pulmonary function, evaluated with spirometry, were determined on the second postoperative day. Preoperatively, both study groups were similar in terms of age, SpO(2), forced expiratory volume in 1s and New York Heart Association classification. On the second postoperative day, arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) was 8.9 ± 1.7 kPa in the treatment group and 8.1 ± 1.4 kPa in the control group (p = 0.004). Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) was 92.7 ± 3.7% in the treatment group and 91.1 ± 3.8% in the control group (p = 0.016). There were no differences in measured lung function between the groups or in compliance to the breathing exercises. Compliance was 65% of possible breathing sessions. A significantly increased oxygenation was found in patients performing 30 deep breaths the first two postoperative days compared with control patients performing 10 deep breaths hourly. These results support the implementation of a higher rate of deep breathing exercises in the initial phase after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Interventions to significantly improve service uptake and retention of HIV-positive pregnant women and HIV-exposed infants along the prevention of mother-to-child transmission continuum of care: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrazo, Alexandra C; Firth, Jacqueline; Amzel, Anouk; Sedillo, Rebecca; Ryan, Julia; Phelps, B Ryan

    2018-02-01

    Despite the success of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programmes, low uptake of services and poor retention pose a formidable challenge to achieving the elimination of vertical HIV transmission in low- and middle-income countries. This systematic review summarises interventions that demonstrate statistically significant improvements in service uptake and retention of HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants along the PMTCT cascade. Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed studies. Outcomes of interest included uptake of services, such as antiretroviral therapy (ART) such as initiation, early infant diagnostic testing, and retention of HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants. Interventions that led to statistically significant outcomes were included and mapped to the PMTCT cascade. An eight-item assessment tool assessed study rigour. CRD42017063816. Of 686 citations reviewed, 11 articles met inclusion criteria. Ten studies detailed maternal outcomes and seven studies detailed infant outcomes in PMTCT programmes. Interventions to increase access to antenatal care (ANC) and ART services (n = 4) and those using lay cadres (n = 3) were most common. Other interventions included quality improvement (n = 2), mHealth (n = 1), and counselling (n = 1). One study described interventions in an Option B+ programme. Limitations included lack of HIV testing and counselling and viral load monitoring outcomes, small sample size, geographical location, and non-randomized assignment and selection of participants. Interventions including ANC/ART integration, family-centred approaches, and the use of lay healthcare providers are demonstrably effective in increasing service uptake and retention of HIV-positive mothers and their infants in PMTCT programmes. Future studies should include control groups and assess whether interventions developed in the context of earlier 'Options' are

  8. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  9. Medicare and Medicaid programs: Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment and Ambulatory Surgical Center Payment Systems and Quality Reporting Programs; electronic reporting pilot; Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities Quality Reporting Program; revision to Quality Improvement Organization regulations. Final rule with comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    This final rule with comment period revises the Medicare hospital outpatient prospective payment system (OPPS) and the Medicare ambulatory surgical center (ASC) payment system for CY 2013 to implement applicable statutory requirements and changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems. In this final rule with comment period, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the payment rates for Medicare services paid under the OPPS and those paid under the ASC payment system. In addition, this final rule with comment period updates and refines the requirements for the Hospital Outpatient Quality Reporting (OQR) Program, the ASC Quality Reporting (ASCQR) Program, and the Inpatient Rehabilitation Facility (IRF) Quality Reporting Program. We are continuing the electronic reporting pilot for the Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program, and revising the various regulations governing Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs), including the secure transmittal of electronic medical information, beneficiary complaint resolution and notification processes, and technical changes. The technical changes to the QIO regulations reflect CMS' commitment to the general principles of the President's Executive Order on Regulatory Reform, Executive Order 13563 (January 18, 2011).

  10. Prevention measures for avoiding unexpected drifting of marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from sea water. Positioning and monitoring system for marine component and improvement of its positioning accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Masao; Kasai, Noboru; Seko, Noriaki; Hasegawa, Shin; Takeda, Hayato; Katakai, Akio; Sugo, Takanobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Kawabata, Yukiya [Ebara Reseach Co., Ltd., Fujisawa, Kanagawa (Japan); Onuma, Kenji [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    Positioning and monitoring system for marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from seawater with adsorbent was designed and assembled to avoid unexpected drifting accident. This system which was set on float part of the marine component obtains the positioning data from GPS satellites and sends them to Takasaki and Mutsu establishments through satellite communication. In both establishments, the position data were shown in computer displays. As characteristic test for 20 days in the real sea, 262 data were obtained every 2 hours. The twice of the distance root mean square (2DRMS) was 223.7 m. To improve this performance, three new functions were added to the present firmware. There are to raise positioning resolutions in longitude and latitude from 0.001 to 0.00001 degree, to remove the reflection of GPS signal from sea surface, and to average remaining three positioning data after maximum and minimum data were omitted from continuous five positioning data. The improved system shows the 2DRMS positioning of 15.5 m. This performance is enough to prevent marine component from its drifting accident. (author)

  11. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  12. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  13. Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) significantly improve prostate cancer detection at initial biopsy in a total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Matteo; Bruzzese, Dario; Perdonà, Sisto; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Musi, Gennaro; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Chun, Felix K; Terracciano, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA) overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa) at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC) of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA) were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77) was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76) and PCA3 (0.73) with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247). These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60), % fPSA (AUC = 0.62) and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63). At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume) increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS) compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (pphi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2-10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA.

  14. OnabotulinumtoxinA 100U provides significant improvements in overactive bladder symptoms in patients with urinary incontinence regardless of the number of anticholinergic therapies used or reason for inadequate management of overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievert, K-D; Chapple, C; Herschorn, S; Joshi, M; Zhou, J; Nardo, C; Nitti, V W

    2014-10-01

    A prespecified pooled analysis of two placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials evaluated whether the number of prior anticholinergics used or reason for their discontinuation affected the treatment response to onabotulinumtoxinA 100U in overactive bladder (OAB) patients with urinary incontinence (UI). Patients with symptoms of OAB received intradetrusor injections of onabotulinumtoxinA 100U or placebo, sparing the trigone. Change from baseline at week 12 in UI episodes/day, proportion of patients reporting a positive response ('greatly improved' or 'improved') on the treatment benefit scale (TBS), micturition and urgency were evaluated by number of prior anticholinergics (1, 2 or ≥ 3) and reason for their discontinuation (insufficient efficacy or side effects). Adverse events (AE) were assessed. Patients had taken an average of 2.4 anticholinergics before study enrolment. OnabotulinumtoxinA reduced UI episodes/day from baseline vs. placebo, regardless of the number of prior anticholinergics (-2.82 vs. -1.52 for one prior anticholinergic; -2.58 vs. -0.58 for two prior anticholinergics; and -2.92 vs. -0.73 for three or more prior anticholinergics; all p reason for discontinuation. OnabotulinumtoxinA reduced the episodes of urgency and frequency of micturition vs. placebo in all groups. AEs were well tolerated, with a comparable incidence in all groups. In patients with symptoms of OAB who were inadequately managed by one or more anticholinergics, onabotulinumtoxinA 100U provided significant and similar treatment benefit and safety profile regardless of the number of prior anticholinergics used or reason for inadequate management of OAB. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00910845, NCT00910520. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Significant accomplishments, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    BTS data is vital to improve transportation decision making, as well as evaluations of performance and what works in the nations transportation systems. As BTS continues its course of producing relevant, accurate, and timely transportation d...

  16. Application of reservoir characterization and advanced technology to improve recovery and economics in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. End of budget period report, August 3, 1994--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A.R.; Hinterlong, G.; Watts, G.; Justice, J.; Brown, K.; Hickman, T.S.

    1997-12-01

    The Oxy West Welch project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO{sub 2} injection projects in a lower quality shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. The research and design phase primarily involves advanced reservoir characterization and accelerating the production response. The demonstration phase will implement the reservoir management plan based on an optimum miscible CO{sub 2} flood as designed in the initial phase. During Budget Period 1, work was completed on the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatments and the hydraulic fracture design. Analysis of the CO{sub 2} stimulation treatment provided a methodology for predicting results. The hydraulic fracture treatment proved up both the fracture design approach a and the use of passive seismic for mapping the fracture wing orientation. Although the 3-D seismic interpretation is still being integrated into the geologic model and interpretation of borehole seismic is still underway, the simulator has been enhanced to the point of giving good waterflood history matches. The simulator-forecasted results for an optimal designed miscible CO{sub 2} flood in the demonstration area gave sufficient economics to justify continuation of the project into Budget Period 2.

  17. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Yasamin; Ghodrati, Naeimeh; Zibaeenezhad, Mohammad-Javad; Faghih, Shiva

    Controversy exists as to whether the lipid-lowering properties of kefir drink (a fermented probiotic dairy product) in animal models could be replicated in humans. To assess and compare the potential lipid-lowering effects of kefir drink with low-fat milk in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. In this 8-week, single-center, multiarm, parallel-group, outpatient, randomized controlled trial, 75 eligible Iranian women aged 25 to 45 years were randomly allocated to kefir, milk, or control groups. Women in the control group received a weight-maintenance diet containing 2 servings/d of low-fat dairy products, whereas subjects in the milk and kefir groups received a similar diet containing 2 additional servings/d (a total of 4 servings/d) of dairy products from low-fat milk or kefir drink, respectively. At baseline and study end point, serum levels/ratios of total cholesterol (TC), low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC and HDLC), triglyceride, Non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, LDLC/HDLC, and triglyceride/LDLC were measured as outcome measures. After 8 weeks, subjects in the kefir group had significantly lower serum levels/ratios of lipoproteins than those in the control group (mean between-group differences were -10.4 mg/dL, -9.7 mg/dL, -11.5 mg/dL, -0.4, and -0.3 for TC, LDLC, non-HDLC, TC/HDLC, and LDLC/HDLC, respectively; all P < .05). Similar results were observed in the milk group. However, no such significant differences were found between the kefir and milk groups. Kefir drink causes a significant yet similar improvement in serum lipid profile, compared with low-fat milk, in a dairy-rich diet in overweight or obese premenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) Significantly Improve Prostate Cancer Detection at Initial Biopsy in a Total PSA Range of 2–10 ng/ml

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdonà, Sisto; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; D’Esposito, Vittoria; Cosimato, Vincenzo; Buonerba, Carlo; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Musi, Gennaro; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Chun, Felix K.; Terracciano, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA) overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi) and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3) have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa) at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2–10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC) of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA) were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77) was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76) and PCA3 (0.73) with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247). These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60), % fPSA (AUC = 0.62) and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63). At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume) increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS) compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (p<0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, both phi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2–10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA. PMID:23861782

  19. Prostate Health Index (Phi and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3 significantly improve prostate cancer detection at initial biopsy in a total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ferro

    Full Text Available Many efforts to reduce prostate specific antigen (PSA overdiagnosis and overtreatment have been made. To this aim, Prostate Health Index (Phi and Prostate Cancer Antigen 3 (PCA3 have been proposed as new more specific biomarkers. We evaluated the ability of phi and PCA3 to identify prostate cancer (PCa at initial prostate biopsy in men with total PSA range of 2-10 ng/ml. The performance of phi and PCA3 were evaluated in 300 patients undergoing first prostate biopsy. ROC curve analyses tested the accuracy (AUC of phi and PCA3 in predicting PCa. Decision curve analyses (DCA were used to compare the clinical benefit of the two biomarkers. We found that the AUC value of phi (0.77 was comparable to those of %p2PSA (0.76 and PCA3 (0.73 with no significant differences in pairwise comparison (%p2PSA vs phi p = 0.673, %p2PSA vs. PCA3 p = 0.417 and phi vs. PCA3 p = 0.247. These three biomarkers significantly outperformed fPSA (AUC = 0.60, % fPSA (AUC = 0.62 and p2PSA (AUC = 0.63. At DCA, phi and PCA3 exhibited a very close net benefit profile until the threshold probability of 25%, then phi index showed higher net benefit than PCA3. Multivariable analysis showed that the addition of phi and PCA3 to the base multivariable model (age, PSA, %fPSA, DRE, prostate volume increased predictive accuracy, whereas no model improved single biomarker performance. Finally we showed that subjects with active surveillance (AS compatible cancer had significantly lower phi and PCA3 values (p<0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively. In conclusion, both phi and PCA3 comparably increase the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa in total PSA range 2-10 ng/ml at initial biopsy, outperforming currently used %fPSA.

  20. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  1. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  2. This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’ simultaneously. The analysis also showed that partially labor has positive and significant influence on the business success, yet innovation and promotion have insignificant and positive influence on the business success.

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Inggrita Gusti Sari; Muchtar, Yasmin Chairunnisa

    2013-01-01

    This research is to study the factors which influence the business success of small business ‘processed rotan’. The data employed in the study are primary data within the period of July to August 2013, 30 research observations through census method. Method of analysis used in the study is multiple linear regressions. The results of analysis showed that the factors of labor, innovation and promotion have positive and significant influence on the business success of small busine...

  3. Pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli have improved feed efficiency and indicators of inflammation with dietary supplementation of tryptophan and methionine in the immediate post-weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capozzalo, Meeka M; Kim, Jae Cheol; Htoo, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that pigs challenged with an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli (ETEC) will improve performance by dietary supplementation of sulfur amino acids (SAA) and tryptophan (Trp) above the current recommended levels in the immediate post-weaning period. Male pigs (n...... arrangement of treatments with two levels of SID SAA : Lys ratio (0.52 vs 0.60) and two levels of SID Trp : Lys ratio (0.16 vs 0.24). Diets did not contain any antimicrobial compounds. Pigs were individually housed and were fed diets for 14 days after weaning. Pigs were infected with ETEC (3.44 × 108 CFU....../mL, serotype O149 : K91 : K88) on Days 5, 6, and 7 after weaning. Pigs were bled on Days 5, 8 and 14 and subsequently analysed for plasma levels of acute-phase proteins, urea, cytokines (Days 5 and 8 only) and amino acids (Days 5 and 8 only). Increasing Trp (P = 0.036) and SAA (P = 0.028) improved feed...

  4. IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbofung Carl MF

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent in vitro study indicates that IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the traditional West African food plant Irvingia gabonensis, favorably impacts adipogenesis through a variety of critical metabolic pathways including PPAR gamma, leptin, adiponectin, and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of IGOB131, an extract of Irvingia gabonensis, on body weight and associated metabolic parameters in overweight human volunteers. Methods The study participants comprised of 102 healthy, overweight and/or obese volunteers (defined as BMI > 25 kg/m2 randomly divided into two groups. The groups received on a daily basis, either 150 mg of IGOB131 or matching placebo in a double blinded fashion, 30–60 minutes before lunch and dinner. At baseline, 4, 8 and 10 weeks of the study, subjects were evaluated for changes in anthropometrics and metabolic parameters to include fasting lipids, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and leptin. Results Significant improvements in body weight, body fat, and waist circumference as well as plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin and leptin levels were observed in the IGOB131 group compared with the placebo group. Conclusion Irvingia gabonensis administered 150 mg twice daily before meals to overweight and/or obese human volunteers favorably impacts body weight and a variety of parameters characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. This is the first double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial regarding the anti-obesity and lipid profile modulating effects of an Irvingia gabonensis extract. The positive clinical results, together with our previously published mechanisms of gene expression modulation related to key metabolic pathways in lipid metabolism, provide impetus for much larger clinical studies. Irvingia gabonensis extract may prove to be a useful tool in dealing with the

  5. Signifikante Verbesserungen eines klinischen Untersuchungskurses nach einfachen strukturierten Veränderungen des Lehrinhalts und der Lehrmethoden [Significant improvement of a clinical training course in physical examination after basic structural changes in the teaching content and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bott-Flügel, Lorenz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Regular student evaluations at the Technical University Munich indicate the necessity for improvement of the clinical examination course. The aim of this study was to examine if targeted measures to restructure and improve a clinical examination course session lead to a higher level of student satisfaction as well as better self-assessment of the acquired techniques of clinical examination.Methods: At three medical departments of the Technical University Munich during the 2010 summer semester, the quantitative results of 49 student evaluations (ratings 1-6, German scholastic grading system of the clinical examination course were compared for a course before and a course after structured measures for improvement. These measures included structured teaching instructions, handouts and additional material from the Internet.Results: 47 evaluations were completed before and 34 evaluations after the measures for improvement. The measures named above led to a significant improvement of the evaluative ratings in the following areas: short introduction to the topic of each clinical examination course (from 2.4±1.2 to1.7±1.0; p=0.0020 and to basic measures of hygiene (from 3.8±1.9 to 2.5±1.8; p=0.004, structured demonstration of each clinical examination step (from 2.9±1.5 to 1.8±1.0; p=0.001, sufficient practice of each clinical examination step (from 3.1±1.8 to 2.2±1.4; p=0.030 structured feedback on each clinical examination step (from 3.0±1.4 to 2.3±1.0; p=0.0070, use of handouts (from 5.2±1.4 to 1.8±1.4; p[german] Hintergrund: Die regelmäßigen Evaluationen der Studierenden der Technischen Universität München deuten auf einen Verbesserungsbedarf des klinischen Untersuchungskurses hin. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es, zu prüfen, ob gezielte Maßnahmen zur Umstrukturierung und Verbesserung eines Untersuchungskurstages zu einer höheren Zufriedenheit der Studierenden und zu einer besseren Selbsteinschätzung der

  6. Influence of Kinesitherapy on Gait in Patients with Ischemic Stroke in the Chronic Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danche Vasileva

    2015-10-01

    CONCLUSION: The applied specialized kinesitherapeutic methodology continued later as exercise program at home, which significantly improved gait cadence and speed of movement in patients with ischemic stroke in the chronic period and is with a supportive prolonged exposure.

  7. Periodically modulated dark states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2018-04-01

    Phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (PEIT) may be interpreted by the Autler-Townes Splitting (ATS), where the coupled states are split by the coupling laser field, or by the quantum destructive interference (QDI), where the atomic phases caused by the coupling laser and the probe laser field cancel. We propose modulated experiments to explore the PEIT in an alternative way by periodically modulating the coupling and the probe fields in a Λ-type three-level system initially in a dark state. Our analytical and numerical results rule out the ATS interpretation and show that the QDI interpretation is more appropriate for the modulated experiments. Interestingly, dark state persists in the double-modulation situation where control and probe fields never occur simultaneously, which is significant difference from the traditional dark state condition. The proposed experiments are readily implemented in atomic gases, artificial atoms in superconducting quantum devices, or three-level meta-atoms in meta-materials.

  8. Forward Period Analysis Method of the Periodic Hamiltonian System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Wang

    Full Text Available Using the forward period analysis (FPA, we obtain the period of a Morse oscillator and mathematical pendulum system, with the accuracy of 100 significant digits. From these results, the long-term [0, 1060] (time unit solutions, ranging from the Planck time to the age of the universe, are computed reliably and quickly with a parallel multiple-precision Taylor series (PMT scheme. The application of FPA to periodic systems can greatly reduce the computation time of long-term reliable simulations. This scheme provides an efficient way to generate reference solutions, against which long-term simulations using other schemes can be tested.

  9. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  10. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  11. The Periodic Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  12. Book Reviews in Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt, Harold J.

    All recent issues of periodicals found which contain indexed book reviews are listed in this compilation from Drake Memorial Library at the New York State University at Brockport. The periodicals are listed by 29 subject headings in this informal guide designed to be used at Drake Library. The number of reviews in the periodical in a recent year…

  13. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  14. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  15. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  16. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  17. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  18. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  19. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  20. Availability of periodically tested systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    There is at the present time a need in accurate models to asess the availability of periodically tested stand-by systems. This paper shows how to improve the well known 'saw-tooth curve' model in order to take into account various reliability parameters. A model is developed to assess the pointwise and the mean availabilities of periodically tested stand-by systems. Exact and approxination formulae are given. In addition, the model developed herein leads to optimize the test interval in order to minimize the mean unavailability. A safety diesel in a nuclear power plant is given as an example

  1. Significant improvement in performances of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 through surface modification with high ordered Al-doped ZnO electro-conductive layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hongdan; Xia, Bingbo; Liu, Weiwei; Fang, Guoqing; Wu, Jingjing; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Ruixue; Kaneko, Shingo; Zheng, Junwei; Wang, Hongyu; Li, Decheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Al-doped ZnO (AZO)-coated LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 (LNMO) was prepared by sol–gel method. AZO-coated LNMO electrode shows excellent rate capability and a remarkable improvement in the cyclic performance at a high rate at elevated temperature. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO (AZO)-coated LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 (LNMO) was prepared by a traditional sol–gel method. • Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer grown on the surface of LNMO is high ordered. • At a high rate of 10 C, the discharge capacity of the AZO-coated LNMO electrode can reach 114 mAh g −1 . • Al-doped ZnO (AZO) modification improved cyclic performance of LNMO at high temperatures. - Abstract: Al-doped ZnO (AZO)-coated LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 (LNMO) was prepared by sol–gel method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicates that AZO layer grown on the surface of LNMO is high ordered. The results of electrochemical performance measurements reveal that the AZO-coated LNMO electrode displays the best rate capability compared with the bare LNMO and ZnO-coated LNMO, even at a high rate of 10 C. The discharge capacity of the AZO-coated LNMO electrode can still reach 114.3 mAh g −1 , about 89% of its discharge capacity at 0.1 C. Moreover, AZO-coated LNMO electrode shows a remarkable improvement in the cyclic performance at a high rate at elevated temperature due to the protective effect of AZO coating layer. The electrode delivers a capacity of 120.3 mAh g −1 with the capacity retention of 95% at 5 C in 50 cycles at 50 °C. The analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) indicates that AZO-coated LNMO possesses the lowest charge transfer resistance compared to the bare LNMO and ZnO-coated LNMO, which may be responsible for improved rate capability

  2. Significant improvement in performances of LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} through surface modification with high ordered Al-doped ZnO electro-conductive layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hongdan; Xia, Bingbo [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Laboratory of Lithium Ion Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Liu, Weiwei [Changzhou Institute of Energy Storage Materials & Devices, Changzhou 213000 (China); Fang, Guoqing; Wu, Jingjing; Wang, Haibo; Zhang, Ruixue [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Laboratory of Lithium Ion Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Kaneko, Shingo [Key Laboratory of Lithium Ion Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zheng, Junwei [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Laboratory of Lithium Ion Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Wang, Hongyu [Changzhou Institute of Energy Storage Materials & Devices, Changzhou 213000 (China); Li, Decheng, E-mail: lidecheng@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Key Laboratory of Lithium Ion Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of Chemical Power Sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Al-doped ZnO (AZO)-coated LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} (LNMO) was prepared by sol–gel method. AZO-coated LNMO electrode shows excellent rate capability and a remarkable improvement in the cyclic performance at a high rate at elevated temperature. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO (AZO)-coated LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} (LNMO) was prepared by a traditional sol–gel method. • Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer grown on the surface of LNMO is high ordered. • At a high rate of 10 C, the discharge capacity of the AZO-coated LNMO electrode can reach 114 mAh g{sup −1}. • Al-doped ZnO (AZO) modification improved cyclic performance of LNMO at high temperatures. - Abstract: Al-doped ZnO (AZO)-coated LiNi{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} (LNMO) was prepared by sol–gel method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicates that AZO layer grown on the surface of LNMO is high ordered. The results of electrochemical performance measurements reveal that the AZO-coated LNMO electrode displays the best rate capability compared with the bare LNMO and ZnO-coated LNMO, even at a high rate of 10 C. The discharge capacity of the AZO-coated LNMO electrode can still reach 114.3 mAh g{sup −1}, about 89% of its discharge capacity at 0.1 C. Moreover, AZO-coated LNMO electrode shows a remarkable improvement in the cyclic performance at a high rate at elevated temperature due to the protective effect of AZO coating layer. The electrode delivers a capacity of 120.3 mAh g{sup −1} with the capacity retention of 95% at 5 C in 50 cycles at 50 °C. The analysis of electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) indicates that AZO-coated LNMO possesses the lowest charge transfer resistance compared to the bare LNMO and ZnO-coated LNMO, which may be responsible for improved rate capability.

  3. Painful menstrual periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... into two groups, depending on the cause: Primary dysmenorrhea Secondary dysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that ...

  4. Ritual Significance in Mycenaean Hairstyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu, Florence Sheng-chieh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the frescoes excavated from Bronze Age sites on the Greek mainland provide evidence for female figures in the Mycenaean society, the hairstyles of these figures have not been studied in detail. As in many other ancient cultures, hairstyles were not only an exhibition of beauty and fashion, but they also represented certain age groups or a person’s social status. The Mycenaeans inherited many of their hairstyles from their Minoan predecessors, although differences existed as well. It is also possible there may have been a shift in meaning for seemingly similar looking hairstyles from the Minoan to the Mycenaean periods. Female figures, which compose most of the Mycenaean figures in frescoes known to date, are fine examples for discussing the artistic representation and potential significance of Mycenaean hairstyles. By comparing with Minoan hairstyles, discussions of Mycenaean examples lead to conclusions in the relationship between hairstyles and ritual activities in the Mycenaean society.

  5. First-line endoscopic treatment with over-the-scope clips significantly improves the primary failure and rebleeding rates in high-risk gastrointestinal bleeding: A single-center experience with 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Schrag, Hans-Jürgen; Glatz, Torben; Walker, Christine; Fischer, Andreas; Thimme, Robert

    2016-11-07

    To evaluate rebleeding, primary failure (PF) and mortality of patients in whom over-the-scope clips (OTSCs) were used as first-line and second-line endoscopic treatment (FLET, SLET) of upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB, LGIB). A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database identified all patients with UGIB and LGIB in a tertiary endoscopic referral center of the University of Freiburg, Germany, from 04-2012 to 05-2016 ( n = 93) who underwent FLET and SLET with OTSCs. The complete Rockall risk scores were calculated from patients with UGIB. The scores were categorized as < or ≥ 7 and were compared with the original Rockall data. Differences between FLET and SLET were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to evaluate the factors that influenced rebleeding after OTSC placement. Primary hemostasis and clinical success of bleeding lesions (without rebleeding) was achieved in 88/100 (88%) and 78/100 (78%), respectively. PF was significantly lower when OTSCs were applied as FLET compared to SLET (4.9% vs 23%, P = 0.008). In multivariate analysis, patients who had OTSC placement as SLET had a significantly higher rebleeding risk compared to those who had FLET (OR 5.3; P = 0.008). Patients with Rockall risk scores ≥ 7 had a significantly higher in-hospital mortality compared to those with scores < 7 (35% vs 10%, P = 0.034). No significant differences were observed in patients with scores < or ≥ 7 in rebleeding and rebleeding-associated mortality. Our data show for the first time that FLET with OTSC might be the best predictor to successfully prevent rebleeding of gastrointestinal bleeding compared to SLET. The type of treatment determines the success of primary hemostasis or primary failure.

  6. On some periodicity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim o...

  7. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  8. Periods and Nori motives

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  9. The energetic significance of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.

  10. Elaborate strategy for preparing Li4Ti5O12-based anode materials with significantly improved lithium storage: TiO2 nanodots in-situ decoration and hierarchical structure construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Tian, Qinghua; Huang, Jun; Bao, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhengxi; Yang, Li

    2017-11-01

    Spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) has attracted extensive attention as potential anode materials for power lithium-ion batteries due to its outstanding structural stability and remarkable safety. However, it's practical application yet be limited by such disadvantages of dissatisfied specific capacity, poor electron conductivity and low lithium-ion diffusion coefficient. Thus, design and preparation of LTO anodes with desirable performance is still a challenge. Herein, we have successfully and greatly improved the performance of LTO anodes, in terms of rate capability, life and specific capacity in particular via dot-to-face anatase TiO2in-situ decoration and hierarchical structure construction under a facile approach (directly using the tetrabutyl titanate as titanium source instead of specially prepared titanium oxide precursors). The as-prepared LTO-based anode (denoted as T-LTO) delivers an ultra-high reversible specific capacity of 196.5 mAh g-1 after 300 cycles at 20 mA g-1, and superior rate performance and even ultra-long life of more than 145.8 mAh g-1 at 28.5C between 1.0 and 3.0 V. The achieved outstanding electrochemical performance largely surpasses that of reportedly state-of-the-art LTO-based anode materials. This work may open up a broader vision into developing advanced LTO-based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Improved Culture Medium (TiKa) for Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis (MAP) Matches qPCR Sensitivity and Reveals Significant Proportions of Non-viable MAP in Lymphoid Tissue of Vaccinated MAP Challenged Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Tim J.; Munshil, Tulika; Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen

    2017-01-01

    The quantitative detection of viable pathogen load is an important tool in determining the degree of infection in animals and contamination of foodstuffs. Current conventional culture methods are limited in their ability to determine these levels in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis......Ka culture equates well with qPCR and provides important evidence that accuracy in estimating viable MAP load using DNA tests alone may vary significantly between samples of mucosal and lymphatic origin....... (MAP) due to slow growth, clumping and low recoverability issues. The principle goal of this study was to evaluate a novel culturing process (TiKa) with unique ability to stimulate MAP growth from low sample loads and dilutions. We demonstrate it was able to stimulate a mean 29-fold increase...

  12. Sigmoid Volvulus Complicating Postpartum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey E. Ward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sigmoid volvulus is a rare complication of pregnancy and the puerperium. Case. A 19-year-old patient, gravida 1 para 0 at 41 0/7 weeks of gestation, admitted for late-term induction of labor underwent an uncomplicated primary low transverse cesarean delivery for arrest of descent. Her postoperative period was complicated by sudden onset of abdominal pain and the ultimate diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus. Conclusion. Prompt surgical evaluation of an acute abdomen in the postpartum period is essential; delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to significant maternal morbidity and mortality.

  13. Mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Berenstein

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  14. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  15. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  16. Super periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  17. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  18. The Periodic Table CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  19. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  20. A novel self-micro-emulsifying delivery system (SMEDS) formulation significantly improves the fasting absorption of EPA and DHA from a single dose of an omega-3 ethyl ester concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yan; Nyheim, Hilde; Haram, Else Marie; Moritz, Joseph M; Hustvedt, Svein Olaf

    2017-10-16

    , respectively. C max was also increased for both EPA and DHA 2.7- to 9.2-fold. PRF-021 is a novel SMEDS formulation of Omega-3-acid EE demonstrating a marked improvement in absorption of a single dose of EPA and DHA EE under fasted conditions. This allows adequate absorption of Omega-3 from the supplement without the requirement of a high-fat meal.

  1. Solvothermal-assisted evaporation-induced self-assembly process for significant improvement in the textural properties of γ-Al2O3, and study dye adsorption efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Ghosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the textural properties of γ-Al2O3 prepared by solvothermal-assisted evaporation-induced self-assembly (SA-EISA and conventional evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA processes has been carried out using aluminum isopropoxide, triblock copolymer-type nonionic surfactant (Pluronic P123 and ethanol. The solvothermal reaction was carried out at 100 °C for 24 h followed by slow drying at 60 °C for 48 h. The synthesized products were characterized by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA, differential thermal analysis (DTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, N2 adsorption–desorption study and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The γ-Al2O3 prepared by SA-EISA process became stable up to 1000 °C. The powder prepared by SA-EISA process resulted in a significant increase in textural properties (BET surface area, pore volume and pore diameter compared to that prepared by conventional EISA process. A better adsorption capacity for Congo red, a carcinogenic dye used in textile industry, was exhibited by the powders prepared by SA-EISA process. A proposed mechanism was illustrated for the formation of mesoporous γ-Al2O3 obtained by EISA and SA-EISA processes.

  2. Supersymmetrically transformed periodic potentials

    OpenAIRE

    C, David J. Fernandez

    2003-01-01

    The higher order supersymmetric partners of a stationary periodic potential are studied. The transformation functions associated to the band edges do not change the spectral structure. However, when the transformation is implemented for factorization energies inside of the forbidden bands, the final potential will have again the initial band structure but it can have bound states encrusted into the gaps, giving place to localized periodicity defects.

  3. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan; Suresh Rama Chandran; Geetha Thirumalnesan; Nedumaran Doraisamy

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recove...

  4. Differences in night-time and daytime ambulatory blood pressure when diurnal periods are defined by self-report, fixed-times, and actigraphy: Improving the Detection of Hypertension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, John N; Muntner, Paul; Abdalla, Marwah; Diaz, Keith M; Viera, Anthony J; Reynolds, Kristi; Schwartz, Joseph E; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether defining diurnal periods by self-report, fixed-time, or actigraphy produce different estimates of night-time and daytime ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). Over a median of 28 days, 330 participants completed two 24-h ABP and actigraphy monitoring periods with sleep diaries. Fixed night-time and daytime periods were defined as 0000-0600 h and 1000-2000 h, respectively. Using the first ABP period, within-individual differences for mean night-time and daytime ABP and kappa statistics for night-time and daytime hypertension (systolic/diastolic ABP≥120/70 mmHg and ≥135/85 mmHg, respectively) were estimated comparing self-report, fixed-time, or actigraphy for defining diurnal periods. Reproducibility of ABP was also estimated. Within-individual mean differences in night-time systolic ABP were small, suggesting little bias, when comparing the three approaches used to define diurnal periods. The distribution of differences, represented by 95% confidence intervals (CI), in night-time systolic and diastolic ABP and daytime systolic and diastolic ABP was narrowest for self-report versus actigraphy. For example, mean differences (95% CI) in night-time systolic ABP for self-report versus fixed-time was -0.53 (-6.61, +5.56) mmHg, self-report versus actigraphy was 0.91 (-3.61, +5.43) mmHg, and fixed-time versus actigraphy was 1.43 (-5.59, +8.46) mmHg. Agreement for night-time and daytime hypertension was highest for self-report versus actigraphy: kappa statistic (95% CI) = 0.91 (0.86,0.96) and 1.00 (0.98,1.00), respectively. The reproducibility of mean ABP and hypertension categories was similar using each approach. Given the high agreement with actigraphy, these data support using self-report to define diurnal periods on ABP monitoring. Further, the use of fixed-time periods may be a reasonable alternative approach.

  5. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  6. Numerical simulations of significant orographic precipitation in Madeira island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Flavio Tiago; Ducrocq, Véronique; Salgado, Rui; Costa, Maria João

    2016-03-01

    High-resolution simulations of high precipitation events with the MESO-NH model are presented, and also used to verify that increasing horizontal resolution in zones of complex orography, such as in Madeira island, improve the simulation of the spatial distribution and total precipitation. The simulations succeeded in reproducing the general structure of the cloudy systems over the ocean in the four periods considered of significant accumulated precipitation. The accumulated precipitation over the Madeira was better represented with the 0.5 km horizontal resolution and occurred under four distinct synoptic situations. Different spatial patterns of the rainfall distribution over the Madeira have been identified.

  7. Periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluck, E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF) [de

  8. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly.

  9. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  10. Quantifying the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Allsop

    Full Text Available Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV. This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt.A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p=0.0001. Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p=0.03. Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p=0.001.Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes.

  11. Immunophenotyping in leukemia and its diagnostic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Kresno

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification of cell surface markers, defined as clusters of differentiation antigens (CD’s could be used to classify and sub-classify leukemia. Although the same antigens are expressed on normal cells, the phenotype on malignant cells are aberrantly and frequently asynchronously expressed and may be present in combinations not observed in normal blood or bone marrow. Aberrant expression of surface antigens corresponds with poor therapeutic response and short survival. Additional surface marker analysis complementary to morphologic evaluation and cytochemical staining has greatly improved our ability to characterize hematologic malignancies. A review and illustration on the diagnostic significance of immunophenotyping in leukemia will be presented. Data from 225 patients having complete assessments including morphology, cytochemistry and immunophenotyping in the period of 1994-2001 were collected and analyzed. Based on morphologic evaluation and cytochemistry, the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia were established in 51.1% and 48.9% of cases, respectively. Based on immunophenotyping AML was found in 49.0% of the cases. ALL could be classified into 4.9% pre-B-ALL, 18.7% B-ALL, and 14.7% T-ALL. Cases expressing cross-lineage antigens were found in 12.7%. The prognostic significance of these aberrant expression of antigens for those cases has yet to be established but some of the cases responded poorly to therapy. Immunophenotyping provides the tool to: 1 distinguish normal from clonal populations of leukemic cells; 2 define lineage and reveal the stage of maturation; 3 identify inappropriate expression of lineage associated antigens; 4 provides more informations to establish diagnosis and prognosis compared to standard methods. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 195-202 Keywords: Immunophenotyping, clusters of differentiation antigens, lineage associated antigens

  12. How periodic are terahertz quantum cascade lasers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, T; Vogl, P

    2009-01-01

    We apply a novel non-equilibrium Green's function method for open quantum devices to analyze quantum cascade lasers. We find the carrier distribution in typical resonant phonon THz-QCLs to develop a periodicity that differs from the geometric periodicity of the QCL. We propose a design improvement that thermalizes electrons at threshold bias and thereby pins the electron density to the QCL periodicity.

  13. How periodic are terahertz quantum cascade lasers?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, T; Vogl, P, E-mail: tillmann.kubis@wsi.tum.d [Walter Schottky Institute, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    We apply a novel non-equilibrium Green's function method for open quantum devices to analyze quantum cascade lasers. We find the carrier distribution in typical resonant phonon THz-QCLs to develop a periodicity that differs from the geometric periodicity of the QCL. We propose a design improvement that thermalizes electrons at threshold bias and thereby pins the electron density to the QCL periodicity.

  14. The decreasing period of AG Phe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerruti, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Seven UBV photoelectric times of minimum light are presented. They shift the photographically known period 0 . d 613 to 0 . d 380. The improvement of the light elements leads to a reliable shortening of the period. A rough determination of the mass-ratio permitted to give an estimate of the mass transfer in the system. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab. (author)

  15. Hereditary periodic fever syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, MF; Frenkel, J

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are defined by recurrent attacks of generalised inflammation for which no infectious or auto-immune cause can be identified. For most of these disorders, the molecular basis has recently been elucidated. This has opened the prospect of novel therapeutic

  16. Almost periodic Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, J.; Lima, R.

    1984-01-01

    These lectures are devoted to recent developments in the theory of almost-periodic Schroedinger Operators. We specially describe the algebraic point of view, with applications to gap-labelling theorems. Particular models are also presented which exhibit various spectral properties. (orig.)

  17. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed

  18. Periodic Table of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  19. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  20. Areva 2007 results: accelerated growth and significantly improved profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    The AREVA group recorded accelerated growth and increased profitability in 2007, meeting both of its objectives for the year. The group made strategic inroads in fast growing markets. AREVA's integrated model met with record success in China, where GGNPC acquired two EPR nuclear islands in a combined order including both the reactors and the fuel, and the creation of a joint venture in engineering. Its T and D division was awarded the largest contract of its history in Qatar, making it the leader in a region where T and D was not even present a few years ago. For more than three years, AREVA has built up its capacity to meet surging demand in the nuclear power and T and D markets through an active policy of research and development and by capitalizing on the diversity and strength of its partnerships. Areva hired 8,600 people in 2006 and 11,500 people in 2007; this represents an investment in recruitment, training and integration of approximately euro 200 million per year. For 2008, the group foresees a further increase in its backlog, sales revenue and operating income. The Areva Group financial statements for 2007 are summarized below: - Backlog: euro 39.8 billion, up 55%; - Sales revenue: euro 11.9 billion, up 9.8% (up 10.4% like-for-like); - Operating income: euro 751 million, i.e. 6.3% operating margin, up 2.6 points compared with 2006; - Net income attributable to equity holders of the parent: euro 743 million (euro 20.95 per share), up from euro 649 million in 2006 (euro 18.31 per share); - Net debt: euro 1.954 billion, linked to the acquisition of UraMin; - Dividend: euro 6.77, to be proposed to the Annual General Meeting of Shareholders convening on April 17, 2008

  1. Inhaler Reminders Significantly Improve Asthma Patients' Use of Controller Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just for Kids Library School Tools Videos Virtual Allergist Education & Training Careers in ... Support the AAAAI Foundation Donate Utility navigation Español Journals Annual Meeting Member Login / My Membership Search navigation ...

  2. Depression in pregnancy and postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Mamta; Sood, A K

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out in a service hospital, with the aim to study the prevalence and incidence of depression in pregnancy and postpartum period. Eighty Four consecutive patients attending the antenatal outpatient in the Obstetrics & Gynaecology department in their last trimester of pregnancy were recruited for the study. They were assessed on Beck Depression Inventory thrice viz. during third trimester of pregnancy, within 3 days of delivery (early postpartum period) & within 4-8 weeks of delivery (late postpartum period).The prevalence of depression was 8.3%, 20% and 12.8% respectively at three ratings. The incidence was 16% and 10% in the early & late postpartum period respectively. Further analysis revealed that depression in pregnancy correlated significantly with depression in early postpartum period, but not with late postpartum period. Depression in early postpartum period correlated with depression in late postpartum period.These findings have implications for early detection and care of women at risk for developing depression.

  3. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself

  4. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  5. Categorization of ber varieties in relation to blooming period, fruit setting and harvesting time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, N.; Abbas, M.M.; Ishfaq, M.; Memon, N.U.N.

    2013-01-01

    Thirty four local Ber varieties were evaluated at Horticultural Research Institute AARI, Faisalabad, Horticultural Research Station Bahawalpur (Punjab) and Jujube Research Station, Tandojam (Sindh). Traits viz. total period of blooming (dates), peak period of blooming (dates), total period of fruit set (dates), peak period of fruit set (dates), total period of fruit harvest (dates), peak period of fruit harvest (dates), total flowering days, peak flowering days, total fruit setting days, peak fruit setting days, total harvesting days and peak harvesting days were studied. The results revealed significant differences in parameters studied except total period of blooming under Tandojam, Sindh conditions. Varieties were classified as early, mid and late season for both provinces. Local varieties had potential for further manipulation in terms of variety improvement to attract growers for extensive ber cultivations under changing global climatic scenario. (author)

  6. improvement of the programs of formation of Asco in the period 2010-2015. achievements and actions in March; Mejora de los programas de Formacion de Asco en el periodo 2010-2015. Logros conseguidos y acciones en marcha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Heredia, R.

    2015-07-01

    The improvement plan is one of the plans of action included in the Strategic Plan of ANAV and is focused on achieving and consolidating the commitment of managers with the training, being them the training program for their unit owners. also the gradual implementation of the methodology Systematic Approach to Training and consolidate the structure of committees of training as a tool of management of training programmes. (Author)

  7. Polysheroidal periodic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truskova, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    Separation of variables in the Helmholtz N-dimensional (N≥4) equation in polyspheroidal coordinate systems leads to the necessity of solving equations going over into equations for polyspheroidal periodic functions used for solving the two-centre problem in quantum mechanics, the three-body problem with Coulomb interaction, etc. For these functions the expansions are derived in terms of the Jacobi polynomials and Bessel functions. Their basic properties, asymptotics are considered. The algorithm of their computer calculations is developed. The results of numerical calculations are given

  8. Deciphering Periodic Methanol Masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, Bringfried; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus; Hopp, Ulrich; Kraus, Alex; Linz, Hendrik; Sanna, Alberto; Sobolev, Andrej; Wolf, Verena

    2018-05-01

    Impressive progress has been made in recent years on massive star formation, yet the involved high optical depths even at submm/mm wavelengths make it difficult to reveal its details. Recently, accretion bursts of massive YSOs have been identified to cause flares of Class II methanol masers (methanol masers for short) due to enhanced mid-IR pumping. This opens a new window to protostellar accretion variability, and implies that periodic methanol masers hint at cyclic accretion. Pinning down the cause of the periodicity requires joint IR and radio monitoring. We derived the first IR light curve of a periodic maser host from NEOWISE data. The source, G107.298+5.639, is an intermediate-mass YSO hosting methanol and water masers which flare every 34.5 days. Our recent joint K-band and radio observations yielded first but marginal evidence for a phase lag between the rise of IR and maser emission, respectively, and revealed that both NEOWISE and K-band light curves are strongly affected by the light echo from the ambient dust. Both the superior resolution of IRAC over NEOWISE and the longer wavelengths compared to our ground-based imaging are required to inhibit the distractive contamination by the light echo. Thus, we ask for IRAC monitoring of G107 to cover one flare cycle, in tandem with 100-m Effelsberg and 2-m Wendelstein radio and NIR observations to obtain the first high-quality synoptic measurements of this kind of sources. The IR-maser phase lag, the intrinsic shape of the IR light curves and their possible color variation during the cycle allow us to constrain models for the periodic maser excitation. Since methanol masers are signposts of intermediate-mass and massive YSOs, deciphering their variability offers a clue to the dynamics of the accretion-mediated growth of massive stars and their feedback onto the immediate natal environment. The Spitzer light curve of such a maser-hosting YSO would be a legacy science product of the mission.

  9. Handgun waiting periods reduce gun deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Michael; Malhotra, Deepak; Poliquin, Christopher

    2017-11-14

    Handgun waiting periods are laws that impose a delay between the initiation of a purchase and final acquisition of a firearm. We show that waiting periods, which create a "cooling off" period among buyers, significantly reduce the incidence of gun violence. We estimate the impact of waiting periods on gun deaths, exploiting all changes to state-level policies in the Unites States since 1970. We find that waiting periods reduce gun homicides by roughly 17%. We provide further support for the causal impact of waiting periods on homicides by exploiting a natural experiment resulting from a federal law in 1994 that imposed a temporary waiting period on a subset of states. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. Detection of significant protein coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, David; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of proteins cannot be fully understood without taking into account the coevolutionary linkages entangling them. From a practical point of view, coevolution between protein families has been used as a way of detecting protein interactions and functional relationships from genomic information. The most common approach to inferring protein coevolution involves the quantification of phylogenetic tree similarity using a family of methodologies termed mirrortree. In spite of their success, a fundamental problem of these approaches is the lack of an adequate statistical framework to assess the significance of a given coevolutionary score (tree similarity). As a consequence, a number of ad hoc filters and arbitrary thresholds are required in an attempt to obtain a final set of confident coevolutionary signals. In this work, we developed a method for associating confidence estimators (P values) to the tree-similarity scores, using a null model specifically designed for the tree comparison problem. We show how this approach largely improves the quality and coverage (number of pairs that can be evaluated) of the detected coevolution in all the stages of the mirrortree workflow, independently of the starting genomic information. This not only leads to a better understanding of protein coevolution and its biological implications, but also to obtain a highly reliable and comprehensive network of predicted interactions, as well as information on the substructure of macromolecular complexes using only genomic information. The software and datasets used in this work are freely available at: http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/pMT/. pazos@cnb.csic.es Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Sensible heat has significantly affected the global hydrological cycle over the historical period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhre, G; Samset, B H; Hodnebrog, Ø; Andrews, T; Boucher, O; Faluvegi, G; Fläschner, D; Forster, P M; Kasoar, M; Kharin, V; Kirkevåg, A; Lamarque, J-F; Olivié, D; Richardson, T B; Shawki, D; Shindell, D; Shine, K P; Stjern, C W; Takemura, T; Voulgarakis, A

    2018-05-15

    Globally, latent heating associated with a change in precipitation is balanced by changes to atmospheric radiative cooling and sensible heat fluxes. Both components can be altered by climate forcing mechanisms and through climate feedbacks, but the impacts of climate forcing and feedbacks on sensible heat fluxes have received much less attention. Here we show, using a range of climate modelling results, that changes in sensible heat are the dominant contributor to the present global-mean precipitation change since preindustrial time, because the radiative impact of forcings and feedbacks approximately compensate. The model results show a dissimilar influence on sensible heat and precipitation from various drivers of climate change. Due to its strong atmospheric absorption, black carbon is found to influence the sensible heat very differently compared to other aerosols and greenhouse gases. Our results indicate that this is likely caused by differences in the impact on the lower tropospheric stability.

  12. Stone anchors from Bet Dwarka Island, Gujarat, Coast, India: Significance to historical period maritime activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Bet Dwarka Island is situated on the extreme west of Indian territory in Jamnagar district of Gujarat. Underwater, the most preserved remains of ancient maritime activity could be the stone anchors of different types, as every boat requires...

  13. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  14. Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Hart, Jeffrey D.; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both

  15. Log-periodic dipole antenna with low cross-polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    In this work, log-periodic antennas with improved cross-polarization level were studied. It was found that some modifications of the traditional design lead to an essential improvement of the co-to-cross polarization ratio up to 40 dB. An improved design of a log-periodic dipole antenna with low...

  16. Would Be Prophylactic Administrations of Low Concentration of Alendronate an Alternative for Improving the Craniofacial Bone Repair? A Preliminary Study Focused in the Period of Cellular Differentiation and Tissue Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göhringer, Isabella; Muller, Carmem L Storrer; Cunha, Emanuelle Juliana; Passoni, Giuliene Nunes De Souza; Vieira, Juliana Souza; Zielak, João Cesar; Scariot, Rafaela; Deliberador, Tatiana Miranda; Giovanini, Allan Fernando

    2017-10-01

    Alendronate (ALN) is a nitrogen-bisphosphonate that may induce an anabolic effect on craniofacial bone repair when administrated in low doses. Based on this premise, this study analyzed the influence of prophylactic low doses of ALN on bone healing in defects created in rabbit mandible. A 5 × 2-mm diameter deep defect was created in the calvaria of 28 rabbits. Fourteen of these rabbits received previously 50 μg/kg of 1% sodium ALN for 4 weeks, while the other rabbits received only 0.9% physiological saline solution (control). Animals were euthanized at 15 and 60 days postsurgery (n = 7), and the data were analyzed using histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry using the anti-CD34, bone morphogenetic protein -2 (BMP-2), and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 antibodies. On the 15th day postsurgery, the specimens that received previous treatment with ALN demonstrated large vascular lumen and intense positivity to CD34 either concentrated in endothelium or cells spread among the reparative tissue. These results coincided with intense positivity for BMP-2+ cells and TGF-β1 that was concentrated in both cells and perivascular area. In contrast, the control group revealed scarce cells that exhibited CD34, BMP-2+, and the TGF-β1 was restricted for perivascular area on well-formed granulation tissue. These patterns of immunohistochemical result, especially found on the 15th day of analysis, seem to be responsible for the development of larger quantities of bone matrix in the specimens that receive ALN on the 60th day postsurgery. These preliminary results showed that the prophylactic administration of low doses of ALN might be an alternative to craniofacial bone craniofacial bone repair because it increases the immunopositivity for TGF-β1 and consequently improves the CD34+ and BMP-2+ cells on reparative sites.

  17. Variable-Period Undulators for Synchrotron Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  18. Variable-Period Undulators For Synchrotron Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Gopal; Lewellen, John; Shu, Deming; Vinokurov, Nikolai

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high-energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  19. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie-Anne Marquet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low” the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1, whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON. Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05 compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism.

  20. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Hausswirth, Christophe; Molle, Odeline; Hawley, John A.; Burke, Louise M.; Tiollier, Eve; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low”) the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1), whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON). Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05) compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism. PMID:27897989

  1. Testing periodically integrated autoregressive models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPeriodically integrated time series require a periodic differencing filter to remove the stochastic trend. A non-periodic integrated time series needs the first-difference filter for similar reasons. When the changing seasonal fluctuations for the non-periodic integrated series can be

  2. Soil physicochemical properties and their significance for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil physicochemical properties and their significance for sustainable sugarcane production in Kesem Allaideghe plains irrigation project area, Eastern Ethiopia. ... In order to improve soil structure and water availability, addition of gypsum, plant residues and organic matter are recommended. Keywords: Soil survey ...

  3. The RNAissance period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkowski, David; Nair, Smita K

    2016-08-01

    The concept that RNA has played a major role in the evolution of life stems from the "RNA World" hypothesis. This role of RNA was not immediately appreciated. Similarly, the scientific community has just recently begun to recognize the true potential of RNA as the drug of choice for gene therapy, cellular reprogramming and vaccination. While it is perhaps the most unstable of the three most commonly used biotherapeutics, the others being DNA and protein, the advantages that using RNA presents are now being realized at a high rate. The development of methods to protect it from degradation and deliver it in vivo has fueled more research into uses that were once considered heretical. In this age of enlightenment we are seeing significant investments in the 'RNA approach' both in academia and industry. Thus, along with developing RNA encoding antigens for vaccine development for cancer and infectious diseases, RNA is now used to program cells in vivo or ex vivo. In the following review we have chosen to highlight a few of the most recent studies that use RNA as a means to alter a disease state. These papers were chosen to indicate the breadth of research that is ongoing and hopefully to inspire others to consider new ways to treat cancer, infectious disease, or genetic disorders with RNA-based approaches.

  4. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  5. Significant Lactic Acidosis from Albuterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Diercks

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a clinical entity that demands rapid assessment and treatment to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. With increased lactate use across many clinical scenarios, lactate values themselves cannot be interpreted apart from their appropriate clinical picture. The significance of Type B lactic acidosis is likely understated in the emergency department (ED. Given the mortality that sepsis confers, a serum lactate is an important screening study. That said, it is with extreme caution that we should interpret and react to the resultant elevated value. We report a patient with a significant lactic acidosis. Though he had a high lactate value, he did not require aggressive resuscitation. A different classification scheme for lactic acidosis that focuses on the bifurcation of the “dangerous” and “not dangerous” causes of lactic acidosis may be of benefit. In addition, this case is demonstrative of the potential overuse of lactates in the ED.

  6. Periodic feedback stabilization for linear periodic evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gengsheng

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a number of recent advances regarding periodic feedback stabilization for linear and time periodic evolution equations. First, it presents selected connections between linear quadratic optimal control theory and feedback stabilization theory for linear periodic evolution equations. Secondly, it identifies several criteria for the periodic feedback stabilization from the perspective of geometry, algebra and analyses respectively. Next, it describes several ways to design periodic feedback laws. Lastly, the book introduces readers to key methods for designing the control machines. Given its coverage and scope, it offers a helpful guide for graduate students and researchers in the areas of control theory and applied mathematics.

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved; Quarterly progress report, October--December 1993: Volume 12, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  11. Performance Improvement for Quasi Periodical Disturbances in PH Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEBEL, K.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Proper operation of control systems is essential for achieving good economic results and reducing control effort. The paper is focused on presenting a new application of a well-known concept. The main scope of the paper is a practical presentation of obtaining a minimum process performance index by means of known statistical tools. This is achievable by appropriate selection of the correction value for set-point and the width of the time window of a statistical algorithm. The proposed novel algorithm was successfully implemented in the pilot neutralization process. On one hand, the proposed algorithm is a corrector of the statistical properties of the control error, and, on the other one, of a set point of the control system.

  12. The historical significance of oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. V. Thirgood

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  13. Periodization Theory: Confronting an Inconvenient Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, John

    2018-04-01

    Periodization theory has, over the past seven decades, emerged as the preeminent training planning paradigm. The philosophical underpinnings of periodization theory can be traced back to the integration of diverse shaping influences, whereby coaching beliefs and traditions were blended with historically available scientific insights and contextualized against pervading social planning models. Since then, many dimensions of elite preparation have evolved significantly, as driven by a combination of coaching innovations and science-led advances in training theory, techniques, and technologies. These advances have been incorporated into the fabric of the pre-existing periodization planning framework, yet the philosophical assumptions underpinning periodization remain largely unchallenged and unchanged. One particularly influential academic sphere of study, the science of stress, particularly the work of Hans Selye, is repeatedly cited by theorists as a central pillar upon which periodization theory is founded. A fundamental assumption emanating from the early stress research is that physical stress is primarily a biologically mediated phenomenon: a presumption translated to athletic performance contexts as evidence that mechanical training stress directly regulates the magnitude of subsequent 'fitness' adaptations. Interestingly, however, since periodization theory first emerged, the science of stress has evolved extensively from its historical roots. This raises a fundamental question: if the original scientific platform upon which periodization theory was founded has disintegrated, should we critically re-evaluate conventional perspectives through an updated conceptual lens? Realigning periodization philosophy with contemporary stress theory thus presents us with an opportunity to recalibrate training planning models with both contemporary scientific insight and progressive coaching practice.

  14. Synthetic definition of biological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffington, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The central theme of the workshop is recounted and the views of the authors are summarized. Areas of broad agreement or disagreement, unifying principles, and research needs are identified. Authors' views are consolidated into concepts that have practical utility for the scientist making impact assessments. The need for decision-makers and managers to be cognizant of the recommendations made herein is discussed. Finally, bringing together the diverse views of the workshop participants, a conceptual definition of biological significance is synthesized

  15. Periodic waves in nonlinear metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Jing-Hua; Yan, Jie-Yun; Tian, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Periodic waves are presented in this Letter. With symbolic computation, equations for monochromatic waves are studied, and analytic periodic waves are obtained. Factors affecting properties of periodic waves are analyzed. Nonlinear metamaterials, with the continuous distribution of the dielectric permittivity obtained, are different from the ones with the discrete distribution. -- Highlights: ► Equations for the monochromatic waves in transverse magnetic polarization have been studied. ► Analytic periodic waves for the equations have been obtained. ► Periodic waves are theoretically presented and studied in the nonlinear metamaterials.

  16. A Bayesian test for periodic signals in red noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, S.

    2010-02-01

    Many astrophysical sources, especially compact accreting sources, show strong, random brightness fluctuations with broad power spectra in addition to periodic or quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) that have narrower spectra. The random nature of the dominant source of variance greatly complicates the process of searching for possible weak periodic signals. We have addressed this problem using the tools of Bayesian statistics; in particular, using Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques to approximate the posterior distribution of model parameters, and posterior predictive model checking to assess model fits and search for periodogram outliers that may represent periodic signals. The methods developed are applied to two example data sets, both long XMM-Newton observations of highly variable Seyfert 1 galaxies: RE J1034 + 396 and Mrk 766. In both cases, a bend (or break) in the power spectrum is evident. In the case of RE J1034 + 396, the previously reported QPO is found but with somewhat weaker statistical significance than reported in previous analyses. The difference is due partly to the improved continuum modelling, better treatment of nuisance parameters and partly to different data selection methods.

  17. Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-02-01

    This article proposes a nonparametric method for estimating the period and values of a periodic sequence when the data are evenly spaced in time. The period is estimated by a "leave-out-one-cycle" version of cross-validation (CV) and complements the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both theoretically and by simulation.We also propose a nonparametric test of the null hypothesis that the data have constantmean against the alternative that the sequence of means is periodic. Finally, our methodology is demonstrated on three well-known time series: the sunspots and lynx trapping data, and the El Niño series of sea surface temperatures. © 2012 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Quality.

  18. Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Wei; Chen Tianping

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases

  19. Photolysis of Periodate and Periodic Acid in Aqueous Solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Knud; Kläning, U. K.

    1978-01-01

    The photochemistry of periodate and periodic acid in aqueous solution was studied (i) by quantum yield measurements at low light intensity (ii) by flash photolysis, and (iii) by photolysis of glassy samples at 77 K. The photochemical studies were supplemented with pulse radiolysis studies...... of aqueous periodate solutions and with kinetic studies using stopped-flow technique. In strongly alkaline solution the photodecomposition of periodate proceeds via formation of O– and IVI. At pH solution O3 P is formed in a small...

  20. Clinical significance of neonatal menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have clearly shown the existence of a spectrum of endometrial progesterone responses in neonatal endometrium, varying from proliferation to full decidualization with menstrual-like shedding. The bleedings represent, similar to what occurs in adult menstruation, a progesterone withdrawal bleeding. Today, the bleeding is completely neglected and considered an uneventful episode of no clinical significance. Yet clinical studies have linked the risk of bleeding to a series of events indicating fetal distress. The potential link between the progesterone response and major adolescent disorders requires to be investigated by prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cross wavelet analysis: significance testing and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maraun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a detailed evaluation of cross wavelet analysis of bivariate time series. We develop a statistical test for zero wavelet coherency based on Monte Carlo simulations. If at least one of the two processes considered is Gaussian white noise, an approximative formula for the critical value can be utilized. In a second part, typical pitfalls of wavelet cross spectra and wavelet coherency are discussed. The wavelet cross spectrum appears to be not suitable for significance testing the interrelation between two processes. Instead, one should rather apply wavelet coherency. Furthermore we investigate problems due to multiple testing. Based on these results, we show that coherency between ENSO and NAO is an artefact for most of the time from 1900 to 1995. However, during a distinct period from around 1920 to 1940, significant coherency between the two phenomena occurs.

  2. Periodic tests: a human factors analysis of documentary aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perinet, Romuald; Rousseau, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Periodic tests are technical inspections aimed at verifying the availability of the safety-related systems during operation. The French licensee, Electricite de France (EDF), manages periodic tests according to procedures, methods of examination and a frequency, which were defined when the systems were designed. These requirements are defined by national authorities of EDF in a reference document composed of rules of testing and tables containing the reference values to be respected. This reference document is analyzed and transformed by each 'Centre Nucleaire de Production d'Electricite' (CNPE) into station-specific operating ranges of periodic tests. In 2003, the IRSN noted that significant events for safety (ESS) involving periodic tests represented more than 20% of ESS between 2000 and 2002. Thus, 340 ESS were related to non-compliance with the conditions of the test and errors in the implementation of the procedures. A first analysis showed that almost 26% of all ESSs from 2000 to 2002 were related to periodic tests. For many of them, the national reference document and the operating ranges of tests were involved. In this context, the 'Direction Generale de la Surete Nucleaire' (DGSNR), requested the 'Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire' (IRSN) to examine the process of definition and implementation of the periodic tests. The IRSN analyzed about thirty French Licensee event reports occurring during the considered period (2000-2002). The IRSN also interviewed the main persons responsible for the processes and observed the performance of 3 periodic tests. The results of this analysis were presented to a group of experts ('Groupe Permanent') charged with delivering advice to the DGSNR about the origin of the problems identified and the improvements to be implemented. The main conclusions of the IRSN addressed the quality of the prescriptive documents. In this context, EDF decided to carry out a thorough analysis of the whole process. The first

  3. Using periodicity to mitigate ground vibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of trenches, barriers and wave impeding blocks on the transmission path between a source and receiver can be used for mitigation of ground vibration. However, to be effective a barrier must have a depth of about one wavelength of the waves to be mitigated. Hence, while great reductions......: A soil with periodic stiffening (ground improvement) and a ground with periodic changes in the surface elevation obtained by artificial landscaping. By means of a two-dimensional finite-element model, the stiffness and mass matrices are determined for a single cell of the ground with horizonal...

  4. Moral significance of phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil; Savulescu, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in neuroimaging suggests that some patients diagnosed as being in the persistent vegetative state are actually conscious. In this paper, we critically examine this new evidence. We argue that though it remains open to alternative interpretations, it strongly suggests the presence of consciousness in some patients. However, we argue that its ethical significance is less than many people seem to think. There are several different kinds of consciousness, and though all kinds of consciousness have some ethical significance, different kinds underwrite different kinds of moral value. Demonstrating that patients have phenomenal consciousness--conscious states with some kind of qualitative feel to them--shows that they are moral patients, whose welfare must be taken into consideration. But only if they are subjects of a sophisticated kind of access consciousness--where access consciousness entails global availability of information to cognitive systems--are they persons, in the technical sense of the word employed by philosophers. In this sense, being a person is having the full moral status of ordinary human beings. We call for further research which might settle whether patients who manifest signs of consciousness possess the sophisticated kind of access consciousness required for personhood.

  5. Clinical significance of the fabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodevski, A.; Lazarova-Tosovska, D.; Zhivadinovik, J.; Lazareska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: There is variable number of sesamoid bones in the human body; one of them is fabella, located in the tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle. Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of fabella in the Macedonian population and to discuss about clinical importance of this bone. Materials and methods: We retrospectively examined radiographs of 53 patients who had knee exams undertaken for a variety of clinical reasons, performed as a part of their medical treatment. Over a time span of six months, 53 patients (38 males and 15 females, age range 19-60 years, mean age of 36.7±12.3 years) were examined. Results: In seven (13.2%) patients of 53 analyzed reports, fabella was found in the lateral tendon of gastrocnemius muscle. We did not find a significant gender or side difference in the appearance of fabella. Conclusion: Although anatomic studies emphasized a lack of significance of the fabella, this bone has been associated with a spectrum of pathology affecting the knee as fabellar syndrome, perineal nerve injury and fracture. We should think of this sesamoid bone while performing diagnostic and surgical procedures

  6. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  7. No significant fuel failures (NSFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domaratzki, Z.

    1979-01-01

    It has long been recognized that no emergency core cooling system (ECCS) could be absolutely guaranteed to prevent fuel failures. In 1976 the Atomic Energy Control Board decided that the objective for an ECCS should be to prevent fuel failures, but if the objective could not be met it should be shown that the consequences are acceptable for dual failures comprising any LOCA combined with an assumed impairment of containment. Out of the review of the Bruce A plant came the definition of 'no significant fuel failures': for any postulated LOCA combined with any one mode of containment impairment the resultant dose to a person at the edge of the exclusion zone is less than the reference dose limits for dual failures

  8. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  9. Periodic instantons and scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlebnikov, S.Yu.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tinyakov, P.G.

    1991-04-01

    We discuss the role of periodic euclidean solutions with two turning points and zero winding number (periodic instantons) in instanton induced processes below the sphaleron energy E sph . We find that the periodic instantons describe certain multiparticle scattering events leading to the transitions between topologically distinct vacua. Both the semiclassical amplitudes and inital and final states of these transitions are determined by the periodic instantons. Furthermore, the corresponding probabilities are maximal among all states of given energy. We show that at E ≤ E sph , the periodic instantons can be approximated by infinite chains of ordinary instantons and anti-instantons, and they naturally emerge as deformations of the zero energy instanton. In the framework of 2d abelian Higgs model and 4d electroweak theory we show, however, that there is not obvious relation between periodic instantons and two-particle scattering amplitudes. (orig.)

  10. Ethical issues recognized by critical care nurses in the intensive care units of a tertiary hospital during two separate periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Won; Moon, Jae Young; Ku, Eun Yong; Kim, Sun Jong; Koo, Young-Mo; Kim, Ock-Joo; Lee, Soon Haeng; Jo, Min-Woo; Lim, Chae-Man; Armstrong, John David; Koh, Younsuck

    2015-04-01

    This research aimed to investigate the changes in ethical issues in everyday clinical practice recognized by critical care nurses during two observation periods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data obtained by prospective questionnaire surveys of nurses in the intensive care units (ICU) of a tertiary university-affiliated hospital in Seoul, Korea. Data were collected prospectively during two different periods, February 2002-January 2003 (Period 1) and August 2011-July 2012 (Period 2). Significantly fewer cases with ethical issues were reported in Period 2 than in Period 1 (89 cases [2.1%] of 4,291 ICU admissions vs. 51 [0.5%] of 9,302 ICU admissions, respectively; P ethical issues in both Periods occurred in MICU. The major source of ethical issues in Periods 1 and 2 was behavior-related. Among behaviorrelated issues, inappropriate healthcare professional behavior was predominant in both periods and mainly involved resident physicians. Ethical issue numbers regarding end-oflife (EOL) care significantly decreased in the proportion with respect to ethical issues during Period 2 (P = 0.044). In conclusion, the decreased incidence of cases with identified ethical issues in Period 2 might be associated with ethical enhancement related with EOL and improvements in the ICU care environment of the studied hospital. However, behaviorrelated issues involving resident physicians represent a considerable proportion of ethical issues encountered by critical care nurses. A systemic approach to solve behavior-related issues of resident physicians seems to be required to enhance an ethical environment in the studied ICU.

  11. Holonomic systems for period mappings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingyue, E-mail: jychen@brandeis.edu [Department of Mathematics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Huang, An, E-mail: anhuang@math.harvard.edu [Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lian, Bong H., E-mail: lian@brandeis.edu [Department of Mathematics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Period mappings were introduced in the sixties [4] to study variation of complex structures of families of algebraic varieties. The theory of tautological systems was introduced recently [7,8] to understand period integrals of algebraic manifolds. In this paper, we give an explicit construction of a tautological system for each component of a period mapping. We also show that the D-module associated with the tautological system gives rise to many interesting vanishing conditions for period integrals at certain special points of the parameter space.

  12. Microprocessor controlled digital period meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Rusch, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    A microprocessor controlled digital period meter has been developed and tested operationally on a reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The principle of operation is the mathematical relationship between asymptotic periods and pulse counting circuitry. This relationship is used to calculate and display the reactor periods over a range of /plus or minus/1 second to /plus or minus/999 seconds. The time interval required to update each measurement automatically varies from 8 seconds at the lowest counting rates to 2 seconds at higher counting rates. The paper will describe hardware and software design details and show the advantages of this type of Period Meter over the conventional circuits. 1 ref

  13. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  14. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  15. Statistical Significance for Hierarchical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K.; Liu, Yufeng; Hayes, D. Neil; Marron, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. PMID:28099990

  16. Global warming: the significance of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.; Le Treut, H.; Laponche, B.

    2008-01-01

    the concept of Global Warming Potential (GWP) indicates the relative contribution to global warming over a given period (for example 100 years) of a pulse emission at the start of the period of 1 kg of a specific greenhouse gas (GHG) in comparison to the contribution, over the same period, of an emission of 1 kg of CO 2 . The GWPs calculated for different time intervals take into account the differences in atmospheric lifetimes of the different GHGs. Using the '100-year GWP' to measure non CO 2 GHG emissions is not well suited to the case of permanent or long lifetime measures whose effectiveness is to be assessed at a given time horizon. In this context, it contributes to significantly playing down the importance of reducing emissions of GHGs with short atmospheric lifetimes. Thus, for example, methane which is not emitted over the period 2020- 2100 as a result of a landfill site being closed in 2020 will have an impact (as opposed to if the site remained in operation) that would be far greater towards 2100 compared to a CO 2 emission source that has also been stopped permanently and whose climate impact is measured in an equivalent manner. Using the GWP is only appropriate if applied year after year to time horizons considered to be of concern or decisive by climate studies, thus in particular 2050, 2100 and 2150. This is all the more significant as climate experts' current concerns lead them not only to advocate long-term stabilisation of GHG concentrations but also to avoid as far as possible intermediate excess of these concentrations over the coming century. Finally, it is noted that CH 4 prevention policies implemented in the short term may continue to have a long-term impact greater than merely taking into account the current GWP would imply. To more or less ignore the impact of CH 4 as it is unsuitable for accounting purposes affects the exclusive character of the link that may exist between the issue of GHGs and that of energy. Furthermore, if the

  17. Comparison of Periodized and Non-Periodized Resistance Training on Maximal Strength: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tyler D; Tolusso, Danilo V; Fedewa, Michael V; Esco, Michael R

    2017-10-01

    Periodization is a logical method of organizing training into sequential phases and cyclical time periods in order to increase the potential for achieving specific performance goals while minimizing the potential for overtraining. Periodized resistance training plans are proposed to be superior to non-periodized training plans for enhancing maximal strength. The primary aim of this study was to examine the previous literature comparing periodized resistance training plans to non-periodized resistance training plans and determine a quantitative estimate of effect on maximal strength. All studies included in the meta-analysis met the following inclusion criteria: (1) peer-reviewed publication; (2) published in English; (3) comparison of a periodized resistance training group to a non-periodized resistance training group; (4) maximal strength measured by 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat, bench press, or leg press. Data were extracted and independently coded by two authors. Random-effects models were used to aggregate a mean effect size (ES), 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and potential moderators. The cumulative results of 81 effects gathered from 18 studies published between 1988 and 2015 indicated that the magnitude of improvement in 1RM following periodized resistance training was greater than non-periodized resistance training (ES = 0.43, 95% CI 0.27-0.58; P training status (β = -0.59; P = 0.0305), study length (β = 0.03; P = 0.0067), and training frequency (β = 0.46; P = 0.0123) were associated with a change in 1RM. These results indicate that undulating programs were more favorable for strength gains. Improvements in 1RM were greater among untrained participants. Additionally, higher training frequency and longer study length were associated with larger improvements in 1RM. These results suggest that periodized resistance training plans have a moderate effect on 1RM compared to non-periodized training plans. Variation in training stimuli

  18. Detecting periodicities with Gaussian processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Durrande

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of detecting and quantifying the periodic component of a function given noise-corrupted observations of a limited number of input/output tuples. Our approach is based on Gaussian process regression, which provides a flexible non-parametric framework for modelling periodic data. We introduce a novel decomposition of the covariance function as the sum of periodic and aperiodic kernels. This decomposition allows for the creation of sub-models which capture the periodic nature of the signal and its complement. To quantify the periodicity of the signal, we derive a periodicity ratio which reflects the uncertainty in the fitted sub-models. Although the method can be applied to many kernels, we give a special emphasis to the Matérn family, from the expression of the reproducing kernel Hilbert space inner product to the implementation of the associated periodic kernels in a Gaussian process toolkit. The proposed method is illustrated by considering the detection of periodically expressed genes in the arabidopsis genome.

  19. Scheduling periodic tasks with slack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korst, J.H.M.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Lenstra, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the problem of nonpreemptively scheduling periodic tasks on a minimum number of identical processors, assuming that some slack is allowed in the time between successive executions of a periodic task. We prove that the problem is NP-hard in the strong sense. Necessary and sufficient

  20. Rationalization of Comet Halley's periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Michael J. S.

    1990-01-01

    The sense of long axis orientation of Comet Halley during the Vega 1 encounter must be reversed from that deduced by Sagdeev et al. (1986) in order to harmonize the comet nucleus' Vega/Giotto-observed orientations with periodicities extracted from time-series brightness data. It is also demonstrated that Vega/Giotto observations can be satisfied by either a 2.2- or 3.7-day long-axis free precession period. A novel Fourier algorithm is used to reanalyze five independent data sets; strong evidence is adduced for periods harmonically related to a 7.4-day period. The preferred candidate models for Halley's nuclear rotation are characterized by a long-axis precession period of 3.7 days.

  1. Orbital periods of recurrent novae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    The class of recurrent novae (RN) with thermonuclear runaways contains only three systems (T Pyx, U Sco, and V394 CrA), for which no orbital periods are known. This paper presents a series of photometric observations where the orbital periods for all three systems are discovered. T Pyx is found to have sinusoidal modulation with an amplitude of 0.08 mag and a period of 2.3783 h (with a possible alias of 2.6403 h). U Sco is found to be an eclipsing system with an eclipse amplitude of roughly 1.5 mag and an orbital period of 1.2344 days. V394 CrA is found to have sinusoidal modulation with an amplitude of 0.5 mag and a period of 0.7577 days. Thus two out of three RN with thermonuclear runaways (or five out of six for all RN) have evolved companions. 16 refs

  2. Chaos to periodicity and periodicity to chaos by periodic perturbations in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qianshu; Zhu Rui

    2004-01-01

    A three-variable model of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction system subject to external sinusoidal perturbations is investigated by means of frequency spectrum analysis. In the period-1 window of the model, the transitions from periodicity to chaos are observed; in the chaotic window, the transitions from chaos to periodicity are found. The former might be understood by the circle map of two coupled oscillators, and the latter is partly explained by the resonance between the main frequency of the chaos and the frequency of the external periodic perturbations

  3. PERIODIC SIGNALS IN BINARY MICROLENSING EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xinyi; Stefano, Rosanne Di; Esin, Ann; Taylor, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational microlensing events are powerful tools for the study of stellar populations. In particular, they can be used to discover and study a variety of binary systems. A large number of binary lenses have already been found through microlensing surveys and a few of these systems show strong evidence of orbital motion on the timescale of the lensing event. We expect that more binary lenses of this kind will be detected in the future. For binaries whose orbital period is comparable to the event duration, the orbital motion can cause the lensing signal to deviate drastically from that of a static binary lens. The most striking property of such light curves is the presence of quasi-periodic features, which are produced as the source traverses the same regions in the rotating lens plane. These repeating features contain information about the orbital period of the lens. If this period can be extracted, then much can be learned about the lensing system even without performing time-consuming, detailed light-curve modeling. However, the relative transverse motion between the source and the lens significantly complicates the problem of period extraction. To resolve this difficulty, we present a modification of the standard Lomb–Scargle periodogram analysis. We test our method for four representative binary lens systems and demonstrate its efficiency in correctly extracting binary orbital periods

  4. Long-period maintenance program of JRR-3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Yoji; Onozaki, Michio; Kakefuda, Kazuhiro

    1999-01-01

    The JRR-3M is a swimming pool type research reactor with maximum thermal output of 20 MW, classed in a large-scale research reactor and composed of numerous facilities. An operation cycle consists of 4 weeks of continuously reactor operation and 1 week of shutdown work such as fuel exchange and irradiation sample handling. The temporary and small-scale maintenance is also carried out during the shutdown period. Systematic maintenance period through a year usually follows 2 stages. The former stage of about 4 weeks is prepared to maintain the general facilities related to the overall reactor system such as computer system. The latter stage of about 9 weeks is prepared to maintain the other individual facilities such as cooling facilities and control facilities that are to be inspected by the regulatory body. Since preventive maintenance is required in order to achieve an improvement of safety, reliability and availability throughout the life cycle of the reactor, a long-period maintenance program should be prepared properly in consideration of an ageing degradation of the facilities. The long-period maintenance program of JRR-3M, which determines not only the replacement frequency but also the maintenance frequency of the facilities, is made on the basis of an ageing degradation of the facilities, irradiation effects of the materials, recommendations from the manufacturer and JRR-3M maintenance records. The replacement frequency recommended by the manufacturer is examined from the viewpoint of the safety significance of the facilities and availability of the components. The program is arranged so that it may not concentrate the replacement of the facilities in the specific fiscal year and smooth the budget and maintenance period throughout the life cycle of the reactor. There have been two unanticipated failures of the facilities, which required rearranging the program. (author)

  5. Swiss solar power statistics 2007 - Significant expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostettler, T.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the 2007 statistics for solar power in Switzerland. A significant number of new installations is noted as is the high production figures from newer installations. The basics behind the compilation of the Swiss solar power statistics are briefly reviewed and an overview for the period 1989 to 2007 is presented which includes figures on the number of photovoltaic plant in service and installed peak power. Typical production figures in kilowatt-hours (kWh) per installed kilowatt-peak power (kWp) are presented and discussed for installations of various sizes. Increased production after inverter replacement in older installations is noted. Finally, the general political situation in Switzerland as far as solar power is concerned are briefly discussed as are international developments.

  6. Iraqi architecture in mogul period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Shatha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Iraqi architecture have many periods passed through it until now, each on from these periods have it is architectural style, also through time these styles interacted among us, to creating kind of space forming, space relationships, and architectural elements (detailed treatments, the research problem being from the multi interacted architectural styles causing some of confused of general characteristic to every style, that we could distinguish by it. Research tries to study architecture style through Mogul Conquest to Baghdad. Aim of research follow main characteristic for this architectural style in the Mogul periods on the level of form, elements, and treatments. Research depending on descriptive and analytical all buildings belong to this period, so from analyzing there style by, general form for building, architectural elements, and it architectural treatment, therefore; repeating this procedures to every building we get some similarities, from these similarities we can making conclusion about pure characteristic of the style of these period. Other side, we also discover some Dissimilar in the building periods, these will lead research to make what interacting among styles in this period, after all that we can drew clearly main characteristic of Architectural Style for Mogul Conquest in Baghdad

  7. Prognosis following cancer surgery during holiday periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagergren, Jesper; Mattsson, Fredrik; Lagergren, Pernilla

    2017-11-15

    Surgery is the mainstay curative treatment in most cancer. We aimed to test the new hypothesis that cancer surgery performed during holiday periods is associated with worse long-term prognosis than for non-holiday periods. This nationwide Swedish population-based cohort study included 228,927 patients during 1997-2014 who underwent elective resectional surgery for a cancer where the annual number of resections was over 100. The 16 eligible cancer sites were grouped into 10 cancer groups. The exposure, holiday periods, was classified as wide (14-weeks) or narrow (7-weeks). Surgery conducted inside versus outside holiday periods was compared regarding overall disease-specific (main outcome) and overall all-cause (secondary outcome) mortality. Cox regression provided hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity, hospital volume, calendar period and tumor stage. Surgery conducted during wide and narrow holiday periods were associated with increased HRs of disease-specific mortality for cancer of the breast (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03-1.13 and HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.12) and possibly of cancer of the liver-pancreas-bile ducts (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.99-1.20 and HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.99-1.26). Sub-groups with cancer of the colon-rectum, head-and-neck, prostate, kidney-urine bladder and thyroid also experienced statistically significantly worse prognosis following surgery conducted during holiday periods. No influence of surgery during holiday was detected for cancer of the esophagus-stomach, lung or ovary-uterus. All-cause HRs were similar to the disease-specific HRs. The prognosis following cancer surgery might not be fully maintained during holiday periods for all cancer sites. © 2017 UICC.

  8. The Periodic Table in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raos, N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian (Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts was the first academy to elect D. I. Mendeleev as its honorary member (1882, whereas the periodic table of the elements has been taught regularly at the Zagreb University since 1888. The early interest of Croatian chemists in the periodic table should be attributed primarily to their pan-Slavic attitude, particularly as proof that Slavic people were able to produce "their own Newtons" (M. V. Lomonosov and D. I. Mendeleev. Such enthusiastic views, however, did not help in analyzing the contribution of Mendeleev and other scientists to the discovery and development of the periodic table of the elements.

  9. Periodically patterned structures for nanoplasmonic and biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Akshit

    Periodically patterned nanostructures have imparted profound impact on diverse scientific disciplines. In physics, chemistry, and materials science, artificially engineered photonic crystals have demonstrated an unprecedented ability to control the propagation of photons through light concentration and diffraction. The field of photonic crystals has led to many technical advances in fabricating periodically patterned nanostructures in dielectric/metallic materials and controlling the light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. In the field of biomaterials, it is of great interest to apply our knowledge base of photonic materials and explore how such periodically patterned structures control diverse biological functions by varying the available surface area, which is a key attribute for surface hydrophobicity, cell growth and drug delivery. Here we describe closely related scientific applications of large-scale periodically patterned polymers and metal nanostructures. The dissertation starts with nanoplasmonics for improving photovoltaic devices, where we design and optimize experimentally realizable light-trapping nanostructures using rigorous scattering matrix simulations for enhancing the performance of organic and perovskite solar cells. The use of periodically patterned plasmonic metal cathode in conjunction with polymer microlens array significantly improves the absorption in solar cells, providing new opportunities for photovoltaic device design. We further show the unprecedented ability of nanoplasmonics to concentrate light at the nanoscale by designing a large-area plasmonic nanocup array with frequency-selective optical transmission. The fabrication of nanostructure is achieved by coating non-uniform gold layer over a submicron periodic nanocup array imprinted on polystyrene using soft lithography. The gold nanocup array shows extraordinary optical transmission at a wavelength close to the structure period. The resonance wavelength for transmission can be

  10. Topological imprint for periodic orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Jesús San; Moscoso, Ma José; Gómez, A González

    2012-01-01

    The more self-crossing points an orbit has the more complex it is. We introduce the topological imprint to characterize crossing points and focus on the period-doubling cascade. The period-doubling cascade topological imprint determines the topological imprint for orbits in chaotic bands. In addition, there is a closer link between this concept and the braids studied by Lettelier et al (2000 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 33 1809–25). (paper)

  11. Minimum period and the gap in periods of Cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paczynski, B.; Sienkiewicz, R.

    1983-01-01

    The 81 minute cutoff to the orbital periods of hydrogen-rich cataclysmic binaries is consistent with evolution of those systems being dominated by angular momentum losses due to gravitational radiation. Unfortunately, many uncertainties, mainly poorly known atmospheric opacities below 2000 K, make is physically impossible to verify the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation by using the observed cutoff at 81 minutes. The upper boundary of the gap in orbital periods observed at about 3 hours is almost certainly due to enhanced angular momentum losses from cataclysmic binaries which have longer periods. The physical mechanism of those losses is not identified, but a possible importance of stellar winds is pointed out. The lower boundary of the gap may be explained with the oldest cataclysmic binaries, whose periods evolved past the minimum at 81 minutes and reached the value of 2 hours within about 12 x 10 9 years after the binary had formed. Those binaries should have secondary components of only 0.02 solar masses, and their periods could be used to estimate ages of the oldest cataclysmic stars, and presumably the age of Galaxy. An alternative explanation for the gap requires that binaries should be detached while crossing the gap. A possible mechanism for this phenomenon is discussed. It requires the secondary components to be about 0.2 solar masses in the binaries just below the gap

  12. Policy Uncertainty, Investment and Commitment Periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Today's investment decisions in key sectors such as energy, forestry or transport have significant impacts on the levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the coming decades. Given the economic and environmental long-term implications of capital investment and retirement, a climate mitigation regime should aim to encourage capital investment in climate-friendly technologies. Many factors affect technology choice and the timing of investment, including investor expectations about future prices and policies. Recent international discussions have focused on the importance of providing more certainty about future climate policy stringency. The design of commitment periods can play a role in creating this environment. This paper assesses how the length of commitment periods influences policy uncertainty and investment decisions. In particular, the paper analyses the relationship between commitment period length and near term investment decisions in climate friendly technology.

  13. Commuting periodic operators and the periodic Wigner function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zak, J

    2004-01-01

    Commuting periodic operators (CPO) depending on the coordinate x-hat and the momentum p-hat operators are defined. The CPO are functions of the two basic commuting operators exp(i x-hat 2π/a) and exp(i/h p-hat a), with a being an arbitrary constant. A periodic Wigner function (PWF) w(x, p) is defined and it is shown that it is applicable in a normal expectation value calculation to the CPO, as done in the original Wigner paper. Moreover, this PWF is non-negative everywhere, and it can therefore be interpreted as an actual probability distribution. The PWF w(x, p) is shown to be given as an expectation value of the periodic Dirac delta function in the phase plane. (letter to the editor)

  14. Administration of antibiotics to ewes at the beginning of the dry-period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Ioannis G; Fthenakis, George C

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present paper is to review the significance of administration of antibiotics at the end of a lactation period/beginning of the dry-period in ewes. During the stage of active involution, there is an increased risk of new mastitis cases and recrudescence of subclinical infections that had occurred during the previous lactation period. The main pathogens involved in the so-called 'dry-period mastitis' are coagulase-negative staphylococci. The principle of antibiotic administration at the end of a lactation period involves the intramammary infusion of a preparation to both mammary glands of ewes in the flock. Although a variety of products is licensed for administration in ewes, preferably the product for administration should be selected on the results of susceptibility testing of bacteria to be isolated from samples from ewes in the flock. In many clinical studies from around the world, performed in dairy- or mutton-production flocks, administration of antimicrobial agents at the end of a lactation period has been found beneficial in curing intramammary infections present at cessation of a lactation period, as well as in minimising the risk for intramammary infections during the dry-period. In dairy flocks, there are also benefits from increase in milk yield and decrease flock bulk milk mean somatic cell counts during the subsequent lactation period. Antibiotic administration at drying-off may be performed to all animals in a flock ('complete') or only to those considered to be infected ('selective'). In all cases, after administration of the antibiotic, definite and complete cessation of the lactation period is essential for success of the procedure. Moreover, maintenance of the prescribed withdrawal periods is essential to safeguard public health. The procedure should always be applied as part of a strategic udder health management plan in a flock; implementation improves the welfare of animals and affords significant financial benefits to the

  15. Nanopublication beyond the sciences: the PeriodO period gazetteer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Golden

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The information expressed in humanities datasets is inextricably tied to a wider discursive environment that is irreducible to complete formal representation. Humanities scholars must wrestle with this fact when they attempt to publish or consume structured data. The practice of “nanopublication,” which originated in the e-science domain, offers a way to maintain the connection between formal representations of humanities data and its discursive basis. In this paper we describe nanopublication, its potential applicability to the humanities, and our experience curating humanities nanopublications in the PeriodO period gazetteer.

  16. Factoring local sequence composition in motif significance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Patrick; Keich, Uri

    2008-01-01

    We recently introduced a biologically realistic and reliable significance analysis of the output of a popular class of motif finders. In this paper we further improve our significance analysis by incorporating local base composition information. Relying on realistic biological data simulation, as well as on FDR analysis applied to real data, we show that our method is significantly better than the increasingly popular practice of using the normal approximation to estimate the significance of a finder's output. Finally we turn to leveraging our reliable significance analysis to improve the actual motif finding task. Specifically, endowing a variant of the Gibbs Sampler with our improved significance analysis we demonstrate that de novo finders can perform better than has been perceived. Significantly, our new variant outperforms all the finders reviewed in a recently published comprehensive analysis of the Harbison genome-wide binding location data. Interestingly, many of these finders incorporate additional information such as nucleosome positioning and the significance of binding data.

  17. Periodic testing in operative action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larm, T.

    2005-01-01

    Periodic testing forms a remarkable part of the regular work tasks of the shift crew. Testing is generally carried out beside the daily monitoring and control work. Even remarkable plant related differences may occur in the procedures and routines used in periodic testing. The goal is still always the same, to regularly ensure that the systems and equipment are in working order according to their design. This presentation studies with examples the execution and scope of periodic testing as well as the routines and procedures used in the testing in Loviisa power plant. The presentation is based on the testing procedures of Loviisa power plant and the aim is not to compare them to the procedures of other plants. The scope of periodic testing has increased and the routines and procedures have been developed as the operation experience has increased. The assessment of the need of periodic testing and the consideration of the practical execution possibilities should be a part of the plant's planning phase as a part of the planning process. (orig.)

  18. Inflation from periodic extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro [Department of Physics, Keio University, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Tatsuta, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: thigaki@rk.phys.keio.ac.jp, E-mail: y_tatsuta@akane.waseda.jp [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2017-07-01

    We discuss a realization of a small field inflation based on string inspired supergravities. In theories accompanying extra dimensions, compactification of them with small radii is required for realistic situations. Since the extra dimension can have a periodicity, there will appear (quasi-)periodic functions under transformations of moduli of the extra dimensions in low energy scales. Such a periodic property can lead to a UV completion of so-called multi-natural inflation model where inflaton potential consists of a sum of multiple sinusoidal functions with a decay constant smaller than the Planck scale. As an illustration, we construct a SUSY breaking model, and then show that such an inflaton potential can be generated by a sum of world sheet instantons in intersecting brane models on extra dimensions containing orbifold. We show also predictions of cosmic observables by numerical analyzes.

  19. Periodicity, the Canon and Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Scanlon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic according to this title is admittedly a broad one, embracing two very general concepts of time and of the cultural valuation of artistic products. Both phenomena are, in the present view, largely constructed by their contemporary cultures, and given authority to a great extent from the prestige of the past. The antiquity of tradition brings with it a certain cachet. Even though there may be peripheral debates in any given society which question the specifics of periodization or canonicity, individuals generally accept the consensus designation of a sequence of historical periods and they accept a list of highly valued artistic works as canonical or authoritative. We will first examine some of the processes of periodization and of canon-formation, after which we will discuss some specific examples of how these processes have worked in the sport of two ancient cultures, namely Greece and Mesoamerica.

  20. Automated Periodicals System at a Community College Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Harp

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available Automated systems need not be extensive to save time and improve efficiency. Moraine Valley's off-line operation, based on a file of 715 periodical titles, generates renewal orders, sends claims, and records subscription histories.

  1. Periodicity and repeatability in data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwood, D.

    Using magnetic data from the first two years in Saturn orbit, the basic periodicity of apparent is examined with the aim of elucidating the `cam' shaft model of Espinosa et al. (2003) identifying the nature of the `cam' and giving a definitive period for its rotation. An initial hypothesis, supported by the spectral analysis of analysis of the first 8 months in orbit Gianpieri et al. (2006), is made that the source of the period is linked to something inside the planet and therefore that the source inertia means that the period effectively does not change over the 2 years. Moreover one expects that the source phase is fixed. Using this approach, not only can the period identified by spectral analysis (647.1 + 0.6 min.) be verified but also by phase analysis between successive passes over the 2 years the period can be refined to 647.6 + 0.1 min. The signal itself is remarkably reproducible from pass to pass. It appears in all three components of the field and its polarisation is unambiguously not attributable to direct detection of an internal field. Not only does the signal not decay rapidly with distance from the planet, but although it has the m=1 symmetry of a tilted dipole, the field lines diverge from the planet indicating an exterior source. This feature led to the `cam' model. The polarisation and comparisons of passes with different latitude profiles show a surprising north-south symmetry in the azimuthal field. The absence of asymmetry with respect to the magnetic equator rules out a direct magnetospheric-ionospheric interaction source. Accordingly, it is proposed that the basic `cam' effect is generated by a single hemisphere anomaly which creates hemisphere to hemisphere field aligned currents. The existence of Saturn phase related anomaly appears to produce a basic asymmetry in the inner magnetosphere that sets the phase of both an inflowing and outflowing sector in a rotating circulation system.

  2. Hydrogen purification by periodic adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barg, Christian; Secchi, Argimiro R.; Trierweiler, Jorge O. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: cbarg@enq.ufrgs.br; arge@enq.ufrgs.br; jorge@enq.ufrgs.br

    2000-07-01

    The periodic adsorption processes have been widely used for industrial applications, mainly because it spends less energy than the usual gas separation processes, like the cryogenic distillation. The largest commercial application of periodic adsorption processes is the pressure swing adsorption (PSA) applied to hydrogen purification. Although its wide use in the chemical and petrochemical industry, there are no reports in the open literature about complete modeling studies of a complex commercial unit, with multiple adsorbents and multiple beds and several feed components. This study has as objective the modeling, optimization and dynamical analysis of an industrial PSA unit for hydrogen purification. (author)

  3. [Stress after labour - significance for maternal health behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, M; Schücking, B

    2012-04-01

    Maternal stress and lack of social support in the postpartum period have a negative impact on health behaviour of new mothers. Midwives can enhance mother's coping with stress and improve their social support by early interventions in postpartum care. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. The existence and global exponential stability of a periodic solution of a class of delay differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, X H; Zou, Xingfu

    2009-01-01

    By employing Schauder's fixed point theorem and a non-Liapunov method (matrix theory, inequality analysis), we obtain some new criteria that ensure existence and global exponential stability of a periodic solution to a class of functional differential equations. Applying these criteria to a cellular neural network with time delays (delayed cellular neural network, DCNN) under a periodic environment leads to some new results that improve and generalize many existing ones we know on this topic. These results are of great significance in designs and applications of globally stable periodic DCNNs

  5. Did the corporatization of Portuguese hospitals significantly change their productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Diogo; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2015-04-01

    This paper aims to investigate if the market structure reforms in the Portuguese health system have improved hospital performance and productivity. A robust non-parametric Malmquist index is applied to measure group performance. The significance of the results achieved is examined using a conditional and non-conditional subsampling bootstrapped-based methodology, enhanced by the likelihood cross validation criterion based on the k-nearest neighbors method. The sample contains information about 216 non-corporatized and 176 corporatized Portuguese hospitals for the period 2002–2009. Five models were applied, based on three study dimensions (internment, emergencies and doctor visits). The results show that although corporatized hospitals presented the highest efficiency consistency, they had also the lowest levels of productivity, while the hospitals under the traditional administrative public management system were the ones with the best average performance. However, several best practices were also found in all groups, being the limited companies were often dominated by both noncorporatized and public enterprise entities. Consistent output ranges where all groups present dominance over the others were also identified. It was possible to conclude that the more autonomy the hospital had from the Ministry of Health, the lower was its productivity.

  6. Prognostic significance of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia after revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Suneet; Lomnitz, David J; Mirchandani, Sunil; Stein, Kenneth M; Markowitz, Steven M; Slotwiner, David J; Iwai, Sei; Das, Mithilesh K; Lerman, Bruce B

    2002-04-01

    Two randomized trials (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial [MADIT] and Multicenter Unsustained Tachycardia Trial [MUSTT]) suggest that implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) placement is associated with improved survival in patients with coronary artery disease, depressed left ventricular function, and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) who also have inducible sustained VT. However, neither study directly addresses the management of such patients who develop nonsustained VT early after revascularization. We evaluated 109 consecutive patients who underwent electrophysiologic testing to evaluate nonsustained VT, which occurred 5 +/- 4 days following revascularization. Sustained monomorphic VT was inducible in 46 (42%) patients; these patients received an ICD. The remaining 63 (58%) noninducible patients received neither antiarrhythmic drug therapy nor an ICD. During 27 +/- 12 months of follow-up, 15 (33%) of 45 patients with an implanted ICD received at least one appropriate therapy from the device and 26 (24%) of the 109 study patients died. The 1- and 2-year freedom from ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation or sudden death in noninducible patients (97% and 93%) was significantly greater than that of inducible patients (84% and 71%; P = 0.001). However, no difference was observed in total mortality. Patients with nonsustained VT during the early postrevascularization period who have inducible VT have a high incidence of arrhythmic events. Although this study was not designed to assess the impact of ICD placement on the total mortality of inducible patients, the finding that one third of these patients received appropriate ICD therapy suggests that the device may have a protective effect in these patients.

  7. Regional and global significance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    Measures to combat poverty and improve the standard of living in countries of the Third World will inevitably boost global demand for energy, and energy conservation measures will not be able to offset this increase. Nuclear energy will regain significance in the framework of approaches adopted to resolve the energy problem, which primarily is an ecologic problem created by an extremely large flow of materials. The extraordinarily high energy density of nuclear fuels can contribute to markedly reduce the flow of materials; and at that, electric energy is an efficient substitute for primary energy forms. Thus nuclear electricity generation is of double benefit to the ecology. Engineering goals in nuclear technology thus gain a service aspect, with progress in power plant engineering and design aiming not only at enhanced engineered safety, but also at regaining public acceptance of and confidence in nuclear power plant technology. (orig./UA) [de

  8. Periodic and quasiperiodic revivals in periodically driven interacting quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitz, David J.; Lazarides, Achilleas; Bar Lev, Yevgeny

    2018-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that interparticle interactions generically destroy dynamical localization in periodically driven systems, resulting in diffusive transport and heating. In this Rapid Communication we rigorously construct a family of interacting driven systems which are dynamically localized and effectively decoupled from the external driving potential. We show that these systems exhibit tunable periodic or quasiperiodic revivals of the many-body wave function and thus of all physical observables. By numerically examining spinless fermions on a one-dimensional lattice we show that the analytically obtained revivals of such systems remain stable for finite systems with open boundary conditions while having a finite lifetime in the presence of static spatial disorder. We find this lifetime to be inversely proportional to the disorder strength.

  9. Cosmophysical periods in European history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirskij, B.M.; Kislovskij, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    In social systems there are rhythms synchronised by cosmical periods. These rhythms have partly biological origin. Some natural cycles also might influence upon historical processes (as such as climatic and epidemical). The analysis of the literature shows that there is rhythmic component in European history where solar activity cycles -11 and 340 years are presented. 17 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Genius of the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    'Isn't it the work of a genius!' exclaimed Academician V.I. Spitsyn, USSR, a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee when talking to an Agency audience in January. His listeners shared his enthusiasm. Academician Spitsyn was referring to the first formulation a hundred years ago by Professor Dmitry I. Mendeleyev of the Periodic Law of Elements. (author)

  11. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  12. Periodic linear differential stochastic processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakernaak, H.

    1975-01-01

    Periodic linear differential processes are defined and their properties are analyzed. Equivalent representations are discussed, and the solutions of related optimal estimation problems are given. An extension is presented of Kailath and Geesey’s [1] results concerning the innovations representation

  13. Model selection in periodic autoregressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the issue of period autoagressive time series models (PAR) selection in practice. One aspect of model selection is the choice for the appropriate PAR order. This can be of interest for the valuation of economic models. Further, the appropriate PAR order is important

  14. Periodic progress report, 6 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    This is the first progress report of the BriteEuram project named "High Power Laser Cutting for Heavy Industry" ("Powercut"). The report contains a summary of the objectives of the first period, an overview of the technical progress, a comparison between the planed and the accomplished work...

  15. Autoinflammatory Diseases with Periodic Fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Erdal; Bilginer, Yelda; Ozen, Seza

    2017-07-01

    One purpose of this review was to raise awareness for the new autoinflammatory syndromes. These diseases are increasingly recognized and are in the differential diagnosis of many disease states. We also aimed to review the latest recommendations for the diagnosis, management, and treatment of these patients. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS), and hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome/mevalonate kinase deficiency (HIDS/MVKD) are the more common autoinflammatory diseases that are characterized by periodic fevers and attacks of inflammation. Recently much collaborative work has been done to understand the characteristics of these patients and to develop recommendations to guide the physicians in the care of these patients. These recent recommendations will be summarized for all four diseases. FMF is the most common periodic fever disease. We need to further understand the pathogenesis and the role of single mutations in the disease. Recently, the management and treatment of the disease have been nicely reviewed. CAPS is another interesting disease associated with severe complications. Anti-interleukin-1 (anti-IL-1) treatment provides cure for these patients. TRAPS is characterized by the longest delay in diagnosis; thus, both pediatricians and internists should be aware of the characteristic features and the follow-up of these patients. HIDS/MVKD is another autoinflammatory diseases characterized with fever attacks. The spectrum of disease manifestation is rather large in this disease, and we need further research on biomarkers for the optimal management of these patients.

  16. Optical orthogonal code-division multiple-access system - Part 2: Multibits/sequence-period OOCDMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuck M.

    1994-08-01

    In a recently proposed optical orthogonal code division multiple-access (OOCDMA) system, one bit of user's data is transmitted per sequence-period, and a threshold is employed for the final bit decision. In this paper, a system that can transmit multibits per sequence-period is introduced, and avalanche photodiode (APD) noise, thermal noise, and interference, are included. This system, derived by exploiting orthogonal properties of the OOCDMA code sequence and using a maximum search (instead of a threshold) in the final decision, is log(sub 2) F times higher in throughput, where F is sequence-period. For example, four orders of magnitude are better in bit error probability at - 56 dBW received laser power, with F = 1000 chips, 10 'marks' in a sequence, and 10 users of 30 Mb/s data rate for one-bit/sequence-period and 270 Mb/s data rate for multibits/sequence-period system. Furthermore, an exact analysis is performed for the log(sub 2)F bits/sequence-period system with a hard-limiter placed before the receiver, and its performance is compared to the performance without hard-limiter, for the chip-synchronous case. The improvement from using a hard-limiter is significant in the log(sub 2)F bits/sequence-period OCCDMA system.

  17. Vertebrate fauna of the Roman period, migrations period and Medieval period in Vojvodina (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmanović Darko P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on current published and unpublished research results, a total of 16 vertebrate species members of mammal (Mammalia, bird (Aves and osteichthyes (Osteichthyes classes have been registered at 11 archaeological sites from the Roman Period in Vojvodina. Mammals dominate with 12 species and one genus, birds are present with 3 species, and osteichthyes with one. From the Migration Period, at 9 sites, 22 vertebrate species have been registered, of which 13 species and one genus of mammals, 4 species and one genus of birds, and 5 species from the Osteichthyes class. At 8 sites from the Medieval Period, 16 vertebrate species have been registered. Mammals are the most numerous class with 10 species and one genus, while birds are present with 4 species and one genus. Furthermore, two species of osteichthyes have also been registered.

  18. Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals. Cumulative Issue January - December 1972. Volume 23, Number 4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rucks, Frances

    1972-01-01

    The Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals is a subject index to significant articles, news items and editorials appearing in 65 English language military and aeronautical periodicals...

  19. Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals. Cumulative Issue January - December 1979. Volume 30, Number 4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1979-01-01

    The Air University Library Index to Military Periodicals is a subject index to significant articles, news items and editorials appearing in 68 English language military and aeronautical periodicals...