WorldWideScience

Sample records for period proximal effects

  1. Effect of azithromycin on acid reflux, hiatus hernia and proximal acid pocket in the postprandial period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, W. O.; Bennink, R. J.; de Ruigh, A. A.; Hirsch, D. P.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background The risk for acidic reflux is mainly determined by the position of the gastric acid pocket. It was hypothesised that compounds affecting proximal stomach tone might reduce gastro-oesophageal reflux by changing the acid pocket position. Objective To study the effect of azithromycin (Azi)

  2. Effect of azithromycin on acid reflux, hiatus hernia and proximal acid pocket in the postprandial period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohof, W O; Bennink, R J; de Ruigh, A A; Hirsch, D P; Zwinderman, A H; Boeckxstaens, G E

    2012-12-01

    The risk for acidic reflux is mainly determined by the position of the gastric acid pocket. It was hypothesised that compounds affecting proximal stomach tone might reduce gastro-oesophageal reflux by changing the acid pocket position. To study the effect of azithromycin (Azi) on acid pocket position and acid exposure in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). Nineteen patients with GORD were included, of whom seven had a large hiatal hernia (≥3 cm) (L-HH) and 12 had a small or no hiatal hernia (S-HH). Patients were randomised to Azi 250 mg/day or placebo during 3 days in a crossover manner. On each study day, reflux episodes were detected using concurrent high-resolution manometry and pH-impedance monitoring after a standardised meal. The acid pocket was visualised using scintigraphy, and its position was determined relative to the diaphragm. Azi reduced the number of acid reflux events (placebo 8.0±2.2 vs Azi 5.6±1.8, pacid exposure (placebo 10.5±3.8% vs Azi 5.9±2.5%, preflux episodes. Acid reflux occurred mainly when the acid pocket was located above, or at the level of, the diaphragm, rather than below the diaphragm. Treatment with Azi reduced hiatal hernia size and resulted in a more distal position of the acid pocket compared with placebo (below the diaphragm 39% vs 29%, p=0.03). Azi reduced the rate of acid reflux episodes in patients with S-HH (38% to 17%) to a greater extent than in patients with L-HH (69% to 62%, p=0.04). Azi reduces acid reflux episodes and oesophageal acid exposure. This effect was associated with a smaller hiatal hernia size and a more distal position of the acid pocket, further indicating the importance of the acid pocket in the pathogenesis of GORD. http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=1970 NTR1970.

  3. Proximity effect at Millikelvin temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Proximity effects have been studied extensively for the past 25 years. Typically, they are in films several thousand angstroms thick at temperatures not so far below T/sub CNS/, the transition temperature of the NS system. Interesting is, however, the proximity effect at temperatures much lower than T/sub CNS/. In this case, the Cooper-pair amplitudes are not small and very long pair penetration lengths into the normal metal can be expected. Thus, we have observed pair penetration lengths. For these investigations very suitable specimens are commercial wires of one filament of NbTi or Nb embedded in a copper matrix. The reasons are the high transmission coefficient at the interface between the copper and the superconductor and the fact that the copper in these commercial wires is rather clean with electron free paths between 5 to 10 μm long. In this paper, the magnetic properties of thick proximity systems in the range of temperatures between T/sub CNS/ and 5 x 10/sup -4/ T/sub CNS/ in both low and high magnetic fields are discussed

  4. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-01-01

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors)

  5. Equilibrium properties of proximity effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, D.; Pothier, H.; Gueron, S.; Birge, N.O.; Devoret, M.

    1996-12-31

    The proximity effect in diffusive normal-superconducting (NS) nano-structures is described by the Usadel equations for the electron pair correlations. We show that these equations obey a variational principle with a potential which generalizes the Ginzburg-Landau energy functional. We discuss simple examples of NS circuits using this formalism. In order to test the theoretical predictions of the Usadel equations, we have measured the density of states as a function of energy on a long N wire in contact with a S wire at one end, at different distances from the NS interface. (authors). 12 refs.

  6. Effect of Harvest Period on the Proximate Composition and Functional and Sensory Properties of Gari Produced from Local and Improved Cassava (Manihot esculenta Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonse Laya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at evaluating the proximate composition and functional and sensory characteristics of gari obtained from five cassava varieties (EN, AD, TMS92/0326, TMS96/1414, and IRAD4115. These cassavas were harvested during the dry season 12 months after planting (12MAP and in the rainy season (15MAP. Results showed that the characteristics of gari varied significantly (p<0.05 with the variety and the harvest period. Gari from EN cassava harvested at 12MAP had the highest total carbohydrates (78.07% dry weight, starch (61%, and proteins content, while gari from TMS 96/1414 variety (12MAP had high amino acids (10.25 mg/g and phenolic compounds (9.31 mg/g content. The gari from IRAD4115 had the highest value of ash content (20.62 mg/g at 12MAP. The soluble sugar content was high in the gari from cassava harvested at 12MAP while free cyanide reduced significantly in gari from cassava harvested at 12MAP. The water absorption capacity, swelling power, and bulk density were significantly (p<0.05 high in the gari from EN cassava variety at 12MAP. Compared to commercial gari (3.30, gari from EN local cassava had the best overall acceptability (4.35 followed by those obtained from TMS92/0326 and TMS92/1414 varieties, respectively.

  7. Transverse and Longitudinal proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, Pryianka; Chand, Hum; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2018-04-01

    With close pairs (˜1.5arcmin) of quasars (QSOs), absorption in the spectra of a background quasar in the vicinity of a foreground quasar can be used to study the environment of the latter quasar at kpc-Mpc scales. For this we used a sample of 205 quasar pairs from the Sloan Digital Sky-Survey Data Release 12 (SDSS DR12) in the redshift range of 2.5 to 3.5 by studying their H I Ly-α absorption. We study the environment of QSOs both in the longitudinal as well as in the transverse direction by carrying out a statistical comparison of the Ly-α absorption lines in the quasar vicinity to that of the absorption lines caused by the inter-galactic medium (IGM). This comparison was done with IGM, matched in absorption redshift and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to that of the proximity region. In contrast to the measurements along the line-of-sight, the regions transverse to the quasars exhibit enhanced H I Ly-α absorption. This discrepancy can either be interpreted as due to an anisotropic emission from the quasars or as a consequence of their finite lifetime.

  8. Giant proximity effect in ferromagnetic bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Silvia; Charlton, Tim; Quintanilla, Jorge; Suter, Andreas; Moodera, Jagadeesh; Prokscha, Thomas; Salman, Zaher; Forgan, Ted

    2013-03-01

    The proximity effect is a phenomenon where an ordered state leaks from a material into an adjacent one over some finite distance, ξ. For superconductors, this distance is ~ the coherence length. Nevertheless much longer-range, ``giant'' proximity effects have been observed in cuprate junctions. This surprising effect can be understood as a consequence of critical opalescence. Since this occurs near all second order phase transitions, giant proximity effects should be very general and, in particular, they should be present in magnetic systems. The ferromagnetic proximity effect has the advantage that its order parameter (magnetization) can be observed directly. We investigate the above phenomenon in Co/EuS bilayer films, where both materials undergo ferromagnetic transitions but at rather different temperatures (bulk TC of 1400K for Co and 16.6K for EuS). A dramatic increase in the range of the proximity effect is expected near the TC of EuS. We present the results of our measurements of the magnetization profiles as a function of temperature, carried out using the complementary techniques of low energy muon rotation and polarized neutron reflectivity. Work supported by EPSRC, STFC and ONR grant N00014-09-1-0177 and NSF grant DMR 0504158.

  9. Proximity effects in ferromagnet/superconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H.L.; Sun, G.Y.; Yang, L.Y.; Xing, D.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The Nambu spinor Green's function approach is applied to study proximity effects in ferromagnet/superconductor (FM/SC) structures. They include the induced superconducting order parameter and density of states (DOS) with superconducting feature on the FM side, and spin-dependent DOS within the energy gap on the SC side. The latter indicates an appearance of gapless superconductivity and a coexistence of ferromagnetism and superconductivity in a small regime near the interface. The influence of exchange energy in FM and barrier strength at interface on the proximity effects is discussed

  10. The Life Saving Effects of Hospital Proximity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoli, Paola; Grembi, Veronica

    We assess the lifesaving effect of hospital proximity using data on fatality rates of road-traffic accidents. While most of the literature on this topic is based on changes in distance to the nearest hospital triggered by hospital closures and use OLS estimates, our identification comes from......) increases the fatality rate by 13.84% on the sample average. This is equal to a 0.92 additional death per every 100 accidents. We show that OLS estimates provide a downward biased measure of the real effect of hospital proximity because they do not fully solve spatial sorting problems. Proximity matters...... more when the road safety is low; the emergency service is not properly organized, and the nearest hospital has lower quality standards....

  11. Effect of drought/irrigation on proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enset [Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman] is an important root crop serving as a carbohydrate rich food source in Ethiopia. Perennial crops, like enset, are often exposed to recurrent dry periods which could greatly affect their growth, physiology and yield. The effect of induced drought/irrigation on the proximate ...

  12. Proximity effects in topological insulator heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiao-Guang; Wu Guang-Fen; Zhang Gu-Feng; Culcer Dimitrie; Zhang Zhen-Yu; Chen Hua

    2013-01-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) are bulk insulators that possess robust helical conducting states along their interfaces with conventional insulators. A tremendous research effort has recently been devoted to Tl-based heterostructures, in which conventional proximity effects give rise to a series of exotic physical phenomena. This paper reviews our recent studies on the potential existence of topological proximity effects at the interface between a topological insulator and a normal insulator or other topologically trivial systems. Using first-principles approaches, we have realized the tunability of the vertical location of the topological helical state via intriguing dual-proximity effects. To further elucidate the control parameters of this effect, we have used the graphene-based heterostructures as prototypical systems to reveal a more complete phase diagram. On the application side of the topological helical states, we have presented a catalysis example, where the topological helical state plays an essential role in facilitating surface reactions by serving as an effective electron bath. These discoveries lay the foundation for accurate manipulation of the real space properties of the topological helical state in TI-based heterostructures and pave the way for realization of the salient functionality of topological insulators in future device applications. (topical review - low-dimensional nanostructures and devices)

  13. A proximity effect in adults' contamination intuitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Kim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Magical beliefs about contagion via contact (Rozin, Nemeroff, Wane, and Sherrod, 1989 may emerge when people overgeneralize real-world mechanisms of contamination beyond their appropriate boundaries (Lindeman and Aarnio, 2007. Do people similarly overextend knowledge of airborne contamination mechanisms? Previous work has shown that very young children believe merely being close to a contamination source can contaminate an item (Springer and Belk 1994; we asked whether this same hyper-avoidant intuition is also reflected in adults' judgments. In two studies, we measured adults' ratings of the desirability of an object that had made contact with a source of contamination, an object nearby that had made no contact with the contaminant, and an object far away that had also made no contact. Adults showed a clear proximity effect, wherein objects near the contamination source were perceived to be less desirable than those far away, even though a separate group of adults unanimously acknowledged that contaminants could not possibly have made contact with either the nearby or far-away object (Study 1. The proximity effect also remained robust when a third group of adults was explicitly told that no contaminating particles had made contact with the objects at any time (Study 2. We discuss implications of our findings for extending the scope of magical contagion effects beyond the contact principle, for understanding the persistence of intuitive theories despite broad acceptance of science-based theories, and for constraining interpretations of the developmental work on proximity beliefs.

  14. Superconducting proximity effect in topological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeg, Christopher R.

    In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the proximity effect due to its role in the realization of topological superconductivity. In this dissertation, we discuss several results that have been obtained in the field of proximity-induced superconductivity and relate the results to the search for Majorana fermions. First, we show that repulsive electron-electron interactions can induce a non-Majorana zero-energy bound state at the interface between a conventional superconductor and a normal metal. We show that this state is very sensitive to disorder, owing to its lack of topological protection. Second, we show that Rashba spin-orbit coupling, which is one of the key ingredients in engineering a topological superconductor, induces triplet pairing in the proximity effect. When the spin-orbit coupling is strong (i.e., when the characteristic energy scale for spin-orbit coupling is comparable to the Fermi energy), the induced singlet and triplet pairing amplitudes can be comparable in magnitude. Finally, we discuss how the size of the proximity-induced gap, which appears in a low-dimensional material coupled to a superconductor, evolves as the thickness of the (quasi-)low-dimensional material is increased. We show that the induced gap can be comparable to the bulk energy gap of the underlying superconductor in materials that are much thicker than the Fermi wavelength, even in the presence of an interfacial barrier and strong Fermi surface mismatch. This result has important experimental consequences for topological superconductivity, as a sizable gap is required to isolate and detect the Majorana modes.

  15. Noise measurements on proximity effect bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, S.K.; Mercereau, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Audio frequency noise density measurements were performed on weakly superconducting proximity effect bridges on using a cooled transformer and room temperature low noise preamplifier. The noise temperature of the measuring system is approximately 4 0 K for a 0.9 Ω resistor. Noise density was measured as a function of bias current and temperature for the bridges. Excess noise above that expected from Johnson noise for a resistor equal to the dynamic resistance of the bridges was observed in the region near the critical current of the device. At high currents compared to the critical current, the noise density closely approaches that given by Johnson noise

  16. Giant proximity effect and critical opalescence in EuS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Timothy; Ramos, Silvia; Quintanilla, Jorge; Suter, Andreas; Moodera, Jagadeesh

    2015-03-01

    The proximity effect is a type of wetting phenomenon where an ordered state, usually magnetism or superconductivity, ``leaks'' from one material into an adjacent one over some finite distance. For superconductors, the characteristic range is of the order of the coherence length, usually hundreds of nm. Nevertheless much longer, ``giant'' proximity effects have been observed in cuprate perovskite junctions. Such giant proximity effects can be understood by taking into account the divergence of the pairing susceptibility in the non-superconducting material when it is itself close to a superconducting instability: a superconducting version of critical opalescence. Since critical opalescence occurs in all second order phase transitions, giant proximity effects are expected to be general, therefor there must be a giant ferromagnetic proximity effect. Compared to its superconducting counterpart, the giant ferromagnetic proximity effect has the advantage that the order parameter (magnetization) can be observed directly. We have fabricated Co/EuS thin films and measured the magnetization profiles as a function of temperature using the complementary techniques of low energy muon relaxation and polarized neutron reflectivity. Details of the proximity effect near TCEuS will be presented.

  17. Planetary period oscillations in Saturn's magnetosphere: New results from the F-ring and proximal orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provan, G.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Bunce, E. J.; Hunt, G. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate planetary period oscillations (PPOs) in Saturn's magnetosphere using Cassini magnetic field data during the high cadence ( 7 days) F-ring and proximal orbits. Previous results have shown that there are two PPO systems, one in each hemisphere. Both PPO periods show seasonal dependence, and since mid-2014 the Northern PPO period has been 10.8 h and the Southern PPO period 10.7 h. The beat period of the two oscillations is 45 days. Previous results demonstrated that in the Northern (Southern) polar region only pure Northern (Southern) oscillations can be observed, whilst in the equatorial region both oscillations are present and constructively and destructively interfere over the beat-cycle of the two oscillations. The PPOs are believed to be driven by twin-cell convection patterns in the polar ionosphere/thermosphere regions, with two systems of field-aligned currents transmitting the PPO flows to the magnetospheric plasma.The F-ring and proximal orbits uniquely observe the PPOs over 6 orbits during each PPO beat cycle. This high-cadence data demonstrates that over a beat cycle both the periods and amplitudes of the PPO observed within the each polar region are modulated by the PPO system from the opposite hemisphere. When the two oscillations are in phase (anti-phase) the `drag' of one system on the other acts to decrease (increase) the amplitude of the oscillations and the two PPO periods diverge (converge). We present a theoretical model showing that this coupling is due to the PPO flows from one hemisphere not just being communicated to the magnetosphere as previously assumed, but also to the opposite hemisphere. The result is inter-hemispheric coupling of the PPO flow systems within the ionosphere/thermosphere system, so that the northern PPO system drives a northern twin-cell convection pattern in the southern hemisphere, and vice versa, thus leading to the observed polar modulations of the PPOs.We will also present PPO phase models determined

  18. Proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-08-18

    Aug 18, 2010 ... transmission lines on ornamental plant growth. Zeki Demir ... The effects of proximity to power-line on specific leaf area and seedling dbh were tested .... during vegetation season is about 72% and common wind blow.

  19. Effect of age on proximal esophageal response to swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira Dantas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that the ageing process affects esophageal motility. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the age on the proximal esophageal response to wet swallows. METHOD: We measured the proximal esophageal response to swallows of a 5 mL bolus of water in 69 healthy volunteers, 20 of them aged 18-30 years (group I, 27 aged 31-50 years (group II, and 22 aged 51-74 years (group III. We used the manometric method with continuous perfusion. The proximal esophageal contractions were recorded 5 cm from a pharyngeal recording site located 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. The time between the onset of the pharyngeal and of the proximal esophageal recording (pharyngeal-esophageal time and the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of the proximal esophageal contraction were measured. RESULTS: The pharyngeal-esophageal time was shorter in group I subjects than in group II and III subjects (P<0.05. The duration of proximal esophageal contractions was longer in group I than in groups II and III (P<0.001. There was no differences between groups in the amplitude or area under the curve of contractions. There were no differences between groups II and III for any of the measurements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the age may affects the response of the proximal esophagus to wet swallows.

  20. On some periodicity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim o...

  1. Superconducting proximity effect in mesoscopic superconductor/normal-metal junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Takayanagi, H; Toyoda, E

    1999-01-01

    The superconducting proximity effect is discussed in mesoscopic superconductor/normal-metal junctions. The newly-developed theory shows long-range phase-coherent effect which explaines early experimental results of giant magnetoresistance oscillations in an Andreev interferometer. The theory also shows that the proximity correction to the conductance (PCC) has a reentrant behavior as a function of energy. The reentrant behavior is systematically studied in a gated superconductor-semiconductor junction. A negative PCC is observed in the case of a weak coupling between the normal metal and the external reservoir. Phase coherent ac effect is also observed when rf is irradiated to the junction.

  2. Effect of smoking and sun drying on proximate composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of smoking and sun drying on proximate composition of Diplotaxodon fish species (Ndunduma) from lake Malawi, Malawi. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... The fish were washed then weighed and thereafter, smoked in a traditional smoking kiln and sun dried on reed mats.

  3. Proximity effect in normal metal-multiband superconductor hybrid structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Alexander; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Kupriyanov, M. Yu

    2004-01-01

    A theory of the proximity effect in normal metal¿multiband superconductor hybrid structures is formulated within the quasiclassical Green's function formalism. The quasiclassical boundary conditions for multiband hybrid structures are derived in the dirty limit. It is shown that the existence of

  4. User's proximity effects for talk mode in mobile phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelosi, Mauro; B. Knudsen, Mikael; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    Thanks to a recent grip study, 3D CAD model of the human hand have been generated, investigating user's proximity effects for talk mode in mobile phones. The simulation results show that the human hand exhibits a major contribution in determining the total loss when compared to the phantom head...

  5. Proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The proximity effects of high voltage electric power transmission lines on Leyland Cypress (xCupressocyparis leylandii (Dallim. and A.B. Jacks.) Dallim) and Japanese Privet (Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.) growth were examined in a private nursery located in Sakarya, Turkey. Five transect were randomly chosen in both ...

  6. Effects of fermentation and extrusion on the proximate composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of extrusion and fermentation on the proximate composition and organoleptic properties of six combinations (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50) of sorghum - soya blend were investigated. A total number of 19 microorganisms were isolated during the fermentation of sorghum-soya extrudates; these ...

  7. Effect of Soaking Time on Proximate and Mineral Compositions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of soaking time on some composition of yellow maize was investigated. Yellow maize seeds (Zea mays) were soaked in deionized water for 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours respectively followed by draining, drying and milling. The unsoaked seeds were milled and served as the control. Proximate and mineral compositions ...

  8. Assessing the Effect of Spatial Proximity on Urban Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gomes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Land-Use/Cover Change (LUCC reacts to demographic pressures, economic trends, or improved transport networks. Urban growth with implications on LUCC patterns can be measured using a diversity of methods. Our study derives from Tobler’s first law of geography: ‘everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant ones’. We identified and measured the influence of neighbouring distance on urban growth from the edge of existing urban areas. For that, we have developed a method, built using the NetLogo software tool, which we called Land-use chAnge and Neighbouring Distance (LAND. We selected Torres Vedras (Portugal to conduct our case study due to its increasing urban development in the past few years. The periods of analysis were 1995–2010, 1995–2007, and 2007–2010. The results have shown the influence and the effect of strong spatial correlation between the proximity of existing artificial surfaces and the emergence of new ones. The understanding of the patterns of urban growth is helpful to plan forward land developments. This method can be used to write guidelines for decision makers to monitor urban expansion and define spatial planning priorities.

  9. Theory of the superconducting proximity effect below the transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvert, W.

    1975-01-01

    The form of the low-temperature theory of the superconducting proximity effect depends on whether the non-linear terms are assumed to depend only on the local value of the gap or on its average value over some finite range. The local assumption leads to smaller values of the gap and to unphysical results at low temperatures. The effect of non-locality is significant even in the Ginsburg-Landau regime. (author)

  10. Proximal and distal effects of play on child compliance with a brain-injured parent.

    OpenAIRE

    Ducharme, J M; Rushford, N

    2001-01-01

    Individuals with brain injury may experience severe cognitive and other impairments. For brain-injured parents, such deficits may be associated with child behavior problems, including noncompliance. We assessed the effects of a play period conducted by a brain-injured father on the compliance of his son, who had become uncooperative with his father after the injury. The child consistently demonstrated improved compliance during proximal and distal compliance sessions that followed father-son ...

  11. Modelling and Analysis of Proximity Effect in IGBT Fuses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Rasmussen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    The demand for protection of power electronic applications has during the last couple of years increased regarding the high-power IGBT modules. The consequences of electrical faults can be severe in special cases; not only on the equipment but also to people, if safety principles are not applied....... Even with an active protection, a high power IGBT still has a risk of exhibiting a violent rupture in the case of a fault if e.g. IGBT fuses are not protecting it. By introducing fuses into voltage source converters a better protection of IGBT's can be achieved. However, skin and proximity effects...

  12. Effect of a feed/fast protocol on pH in the proximal equine stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, L; Sanchez, L C; Baptiste, K E; Olsen, S N

    2009-09-01

    Risk factors for the development of gastric squamous ulcers include various management procedures, such as intermittent feed deprivation that can occur during weight management regimens or stall and dry lot confinement. To investigate the effect of intermittent feed deprivation relative to continuous feed intake on proximal intragastric pH, specifically in the region of the squamous mucosa of the lesser curvature. In 6 horses, pH electrodes were placed just inside of the oesophageal sphincter in the stomach for each of two 72 h protocols (A and B) in a randomised, cross-over design. Protocol A consisted of 12 h fed, 12 h fasted, 24 h fed and 24 h fasted, in sequence. Protocol B consisted of 72 h fed. During the fed periods of each protocol, horses had ad libitum access to coastal Bermuda hay and were fed sweet feed (1 kg, b.i.d.). Horses had ad libitum access to water at all times. Proximal intragastric pH was significantly lower during protocol A, than during protocol B. However, hourly mean pH was significantly different only during the day and evening hours between protocols. During protocol B, mean proximal pH decreased significantly from 03.00 to 09.00 compared to 19.00 to 23.00 h. A moderate positive correlation of hay intake vs. proximal gastric pH could be established. Intermittent feed deprivation decreased proximal gastric pH in horses relative to those horses for which feed was not restricted. However, the effect was only significant when fasting occurred during the day and evening hours, as a nocturnal decrease in pH occurred simultaneously in the fed horses. Episodes of daytime feed deprivation should be avoided if possible, as proximal gastric acid exposure rapidly increases during such events.

  13. Proximity effect in normal-superconductor hybrids for quasiparticle traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinkhani, Amin [Peter Grunberg Institute (PGI-2), Forschungszentrum Julich, D-52425 Julich (Germany); JARA-Institute for Quantum Information, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Coherent transport of charges in the form of Cooper pairs is the main feature of Josephson junctions which plays a central role in superconducting qubits. However, the presence of quasiparticles in superconducting devices may lead to incoherent charge transfer and limit the coherence time of superconducting qubits. A way around this so-called ''quasiparticle poisoning'' might be using a normal-metal island to trap quasiparticles; this has motivated us to revisit the proximity effect in normal-superconductor hybrids. Using the semiclassical Usadel equations, we study the density of states (DoS) both within and away from the trap. We find that in the superconducting layer the DoS quickly approaches the BCS form; this indicates that normal-metal traps should be effective at localizing quasiparticles.

  14. Proximity effect tunneling into virtual bound state alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, I.M.; Roongkkeadsakoon, S.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of a narrow virtual bound state formed by transition metal impurities dissolved in the normal layer of a superconducting proximity effect sandwich are studied. Using standard renormalization techniques, we obtain the changes in the transition temperatures and the jumps in the specific heat at T/sub c/ as a function of the thickness of the normal layer, of the widths of the virtual bound states, and of the impurity concentrations. It is seen that narrow virtual bound states lead to decrease in the transition temperatures, while broad virtual bound states do not. It if further seen that the narrow virtual bound state causes the reduced specific heat jump at T/sub c/ to deviate from the BCS behavior expected of the pure sandwich

  15. An efficient dose-compensation method for proximity effect correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Han Weihua; Yang Xiang; Zhang Yang; Yang Fuhua; Zhang Renping

    2010-01-01

    A novel simple dose-compensation method is developed for proximity effect correction in electron-beam lithography. The sizes of exposed patterns depend on dose factors while other exposure parameters (including accelerate voltage, resist thickness, exposing step size, substrate material, and so on) remain constant. This method is based on two reasonable assumptions in the evaluation of the compensated dose factor: one is that the relation between dose factors and circle-diameters is linear in the range under consideration; the other is that the compensated dose factor is only affected by the nearest neighbors for simplicity. Four-layer-hexagon photonic crystal structures were fabricated as test patterns to demonstrate this method. Compared to the uncorrected structures, the homogeneity of the corrected hole-size in photonic crystal structures was clearly improved. (semiconductor technology)

  16. Phase holograms in PMMA with proximity effect correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Paul D.; Muller, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Complex computer generated phase holograms (CGPH's) have been fabricated in PMMA by partial e-beam exposure and subsequent partial development. The CGPH was encoded as a sequence of phase delay pixels and written by the JEOL JBX-5D2 E-beam lithography system, a different dose being assigned to each value of phase delay. Following carefully controlled partial development, the pattern appeared rendered in relief in the PMMA, which then acts as the phase-delay medium. The exposure dose was in the range 20-200 micro-C/sq cm, and very aggressive development in pure acetone led to low contrast. This enabled etch depth control to better than plus or minus lambda(sub vis)/60. That result was obtained by exposing isolated 50 micron square patches and measuring resist removal over the central area where the proximity effect dose was uniform and related only to the local exposure. For complex CGPH's with pixel size of the order of the e-beam proximity effect radius, the patterns must be corrected for the extra exposure caused by electrons scattered back up out of the substrate. This has been accomplished by deconvolving the two-dimensional dose deposition function with the desired dose pattern. The deposition function, which plays much the same role as an instrument response function, was carefully measured under the exact conditions used to expose the samples. The devices fabricated were designed with 16 equal phase steps per retardation cycle, were up to 1 cm square, and consisted of up to 100 million 0.3-2.0 micron square pixels. Data files were up to 500 MB long and exposure times ranged to tens of hours. A Fresnel phase lens was fabricated that had diffraction limited optical performance with better than 85 percent efficiency.

  17. Proximity Effect Induced Spin Injection in Phosphorene on Magnetic Insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haoqi; Li, Bin; Yang, Jinlong

    2017-11-08

    Black phosphorus is a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics with a moderate electronic band gap and a high carrier mobility. Introducing the magnetism into black phosphorus will widely expand its application scope and may present a bright prospect in spintronic nanodevices. Here, we report our first-principles calculations of spin-polarized electronic structure of monolayer black phosphorus (phosphorene) adsorbed on a magnetic europium oxide (EuO) substrate. Effective spin injection into the phosphorene is realized by means of interaction with the nearby EuO(111) surface, i.e., proximity effect, which results in spin-polarized electrons in the 3p orbitals of phosphorene, with the spin polarization at Fermi level beyond 30%, together with an exchange-splitting energy of ∼0.184 eV for conduction-band minimum of the adsorbed phosphorene corresponding to an energy region where only one spin channel is conductive. The energy region of these exchange-splitting and spin-polarized band gaps of the adsorbed phosphorene can be effectively modulated by in-plane strain. Intrinsically high and anisotropic carrier mobilities at the conduction-band minimum of the phosphorene also become spin-polarized mainly due to spin polarization of deformation potentials and are not depressed significantly after the adsorption. These extraordinary properties would endow black phosphorus with great potentials in the future spintronic nanodevices.

  18. Effects of Fermentation and Extrusion on the Proximate Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    protein malnutrition persists as a principal health problem among children .... Proximate analysis: Moisture content ... nitrogen by a factor of 6.25. Crude fat ... Statistical analysis: The data were ..... interaction of amino acid in maillard reactions.

  19. Effects of Planting Locations on the Proximate Compositions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Ash, moisture, crude fat, crude fibre, carbohydrate and protein contents were determined according ... All fruits, vegetables, legumes (beans and peas), and the grains we eat ... isolate and quantify each proximate present in the plant material.

  20. Caries status and proximal lesion behaviour during a 6-year period in young adult Danes: an epidemiological investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, Stefania; Chavarría, Nathaly; Ekstrand, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Studies have indicated that many initial proximal caries lesions progress and are eventually restored even if the patients have been under comprehensive preventive programmes. The objectives of the study were (1) to describe the 1996-year baseline caries status of male Danish conscripts and (2......) to assess their early proximal lesions 6-year behaviour. In 1996, all 20-year-old conscripts at Central Barrack Birkerød (n = 115) went through an oral examination, including visual surface-level fillings' recording and a radiographic examination with bitewing radiographs that assessed the proximal......-surface caries and restoration patterns. After 6 years, the behaviour of proximal lesions was studied in 73 of these subjects, and oral health habits were assessed through a questionnaire. Mean number of filled surfaces was 7.5, of which 23% were posterior proximal. Radiographically, the mean number of proximal...

  1. Depressionary Effect of Proximity of Residential Properties to Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Past studies have researched these impacts using a variety of hedonic models and Marginal Implicit Pricing, however, this study takes a special focus on the resident's perspective based on the linear proximity to waste disposal sites. 260 questionnaires were distributed to residents within 1km to the site and Estate ...

  2. Effect of thermal processing methods on the proximate composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritive value of raw and thermal processed castor oil seed (Ricinus communis) was investigated using the following parameters; proximate composition, gross energy, mineral constituents and ricin content. Three thermal processing methods; toasting, boiling and soaking-and-boiling were used in the processing of the ...

  3. Effect of drying temperatures on the proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of the proximate composition showed that the nutritional qualities of the dried eggs were retained during drying thus the drying temperature did not affect the quality of eggs. The moisture contents of the dried whole egg, dried egg yolk and dried egg white at the different temperatures range from 6.25 -7.23%, ...

  4. Resistive transition of two-dimensional arrays of proximity-effect Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    Results of measurements on large arrays of PbBi/Cu proximity-effect junctions are presented. Extrapolation of the critical current measured at low temperature to the region at and above T/sub c/ allows us to describe the initial drop in resistance by a simple model of the proximity effect, and also to define an effective temperature T' = E/sub J/(T/sub c/)T/E/sub J/(T) for describing the vortex-unbinding transition. This extrapolation has also allowed comparison of the magnitude of the universal jump in the renormalized coupling strength E/sub J/(T) with prediction, after allowance for renormalization effects. A simple decomposition of the vortex population above T/sub c/ into a sum of thermally-generated and currents-split components allows us to compare data taken at finite voltage sensitivity with theory. This idea is used to understand the broadened universal scaling of this data in a form consistent with the theory of Halperin and Nelson, suitably modified for array samples. Except for temperatures very near the transition temperature, these results can differ significantly from the continuum results of Halperin and Nelson and may be more appropriate for description of junction arrays and some granular films. New experimental data are also presented which show a periodic variation of the resistance of these arrays with the magnetic flux per cell in units of the flux quantum, including a secondary minimum at the half-quantum points. A simple model is presented which accounts for the existence, shape, and magnitude of this periodic variation in terms of vortex core energies. Observations of the current dependence of this periodic variation are presented, and a qualitative model of this effect is discussed

  5. The Effect of Ethnolinguistic Differences on Proximity between Cantonese and Mandarin Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Lanna Oi-Ling; Lewis, George F.

    1999-01-01

    Examined effects of ethnolinguistic differences on social proximity between Cantonese- and Mandarin-speaking Chinese children in a day care center. Found that each group of children was more likely to be in closer proximity to children speaking their own language than to children speaking the other language during free choice floor- and group-time…

  6. Reversible effects of acute hypertension on proximal tubule sodium transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y; Magyar, C E; Norian, J M

    1998-01-01

    Acute hypertension provokes a rapid decrease in proximal tubule sodium reabsorption with a decrease in basolateral membrane sodium-potassium-ATPase activity and an increase in the density of membranes containing apical membrane sodium/hydrogen exchangers (NHE3) [Y. Zhang, A. K. Mircheff, C. B....... Renal cortex lysate was fractionated on sorbitol gradients. Basolateral membrane sodium-potassium-ATPase activity (but not subunit immunoreactivity) decreased one-third to one-half after BP was elevated and recovered after BP was normalized. After BP was elevated, 55% of the apical NHE3 immunoreactivity......, smaller fractions of sodium-phosphate cotransporter immunoreactivity, and apical alkaline phosphatase and dipeptidyl-peptidase redistributed to membranes of higher density enriched in markers of the intermicrovillar cleft (megalin) and endosomes (Rab 4 and Rab 5), whereas density distributions...

  7. DMPD: Proximal effects of Toll-like receptor activation in dendritic cells. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17142025 Proximal effects of Toll-like receptor activation in dendritic cells. Watt...) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Proximal effects of Toll-like receptor activation in dendritic cells. PubmedID... 17142025 Title Proximal effects of Toll-like receptor activation in dendritic ce

  8. Functional results following fractures of the proximal humerus. A controlled clinical study comparing two periods of immobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, B; Angermann, P; Larsen, T K

    1989-01-01

    In order to compare 1 and 3 weeks of immobilization following proximal humeral fractures a prospective controlled trial was performed in 85 patients. Clinical follow-up according to the Neer assessment system was done after 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. One week of immobilization resulted in a better...

  9. Parallel double-plate capacitive proximity sensor modelling based on effective theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Nan; Zhu, Haiye; Wang, Wenyu; Gong, Yu

    2014-01-01

    A semi-analytical model for a double-plate capacitive proximity sensor is presented according to the effective theory. Three physical models are established to derive the final equation of the sensor. Measured data are used to determine the coefficients. The final equation is verified by using measured data. The average relative error of the calculated and the measured sensor capacitance is less than 7.5%. The equation can be used to provide guidance to engineering design of the proximity sensors

  10. Temperature dependence of the superconducting proximity effect quantified by scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stępniak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present the first systematic study on the temperature dependence of the extension of the superconducting proximity effect in a 1–2 atomic layer thin metallic film, surrounding a superconducting Pb island. Scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS measurements reveal the spatial variation of the local density of state on the film from 0.38 up to 1.8 K. In this temperature range the superconductivity of the island is almost unaffected and shows a constant gap of a 1.20 ± 0.03 meV. Using a superconducting Nb-tip a constant value of the proximity length of 17 ± 3 nm at 0.38 and 1.8 K is found. In contrast, experiments with a normal conductive W-tip indicate an apparent decrease of the proximity length with increasing temperature. This result is ascribed to the thermal broadening of the occupation of states of the tip, and it does not reflect an intrinsic temperature dependence of the proximity length. Our tunneling spectroscopy experiments shed fresh light on the fundamental issue of the temperature dependence of the proximity effect for atomic monolayers, where the intrinsic temperature dependence of the proximity effect is comparably weak.

  11. Role of calcium in the dopaminergic effect on the proximal convoluted tubule of rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Y.L.; Chatsudthipong, V.; Su-Tsai, S.M.; von Riotte, A.

    1986-01-01

    Microperfusion studies have shown that dopamine inhibits fluid and bicarbonate absorption in the rate proximal tubule. These studies are designed to examine the cellular mechanism underlying the proximal cellular response to dopamine action. In the isolated proximal cells, dopamine, in the concentration of 10 -6 M or less, had no effect on cAMP production. However, dopamine could increase cytosolic calcium concentration (from 90 nM to 210 nM) as measured by fluorospectrometry with fura-2 as a calcium indicator. Ca-45 flux studies have shown that dopamine could increase initial influx but not the steady state uptake of Ca. Dopamine could also increase efflux of Ca. In situ microperfusion of proximal tubule and peritubular capillaries has demonstrated that Ca ionophore, A23187 (10 -6 M), could simulate the inhibitory effects of dopamine on fluid and biocarbonate absorption. There was no additive effect observed when both agents were added together in the capillary perfusate. Removal of calcium from the perfusate could partially blunt the effect of dopamine. These results suggest that intracellular calcium plays a crucial role in the dopaminergic regulation of proximal tubular transport

  12. Search for a proximity effect induced gap in gold/high Tc junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessau, D.S.; Wells, B.O.; Shen, Z.; Spicer, W.E.; Arko, A.J.; List, R.S.; Olson, C.G.; Eom, C.B.; Mitzi, D.B.; Kapitulnik, A.; Geballe, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    We have used high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy to search for a proximity effect induced superconducting gap in gold overlayers on c-axis single crystals of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 and a-axis thin films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . These two junction types give us a representative sampling of very well characterized near-ideal interfaces (gold/c-axis Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 ) and junctions in which the geometry more strongly favors the existence of the proximity effect but the interfacial quality may not be as ideal (gold/a-axis YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 ). In neither of these junction types did we observe any evidence for a proximity effect induced gap, and we place an upper limit of approximately 5 meV on its existence in the junctions that we have studied

  13. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters effect alkalinization of canine renal proximal tubular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellas, J.; Hammerman, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    We have demonstrated the presence of specific receptors for tumor-promoting phorbol esters in the plasma membrane of the canine renal proximal tubular cell. These compounds affect proximal tubular metabolism in vitro. For example, we have shown that they inhibit gluconeogenesis in canine renal proximal tubular segments. Tumor-promoting phorbol esters have been shown to effect alkalinization of non-renal cells, by enhancing Na + -H + exchange across the plasma membrane. To determine whether the actions of tumor-promoting phorbol esters in proximal tubular segments might be mediated by a similar process, we incubated suspensions of segments from dog kidney with these compounds and measured changes in intracellular pH using [ 14 C]-5,5-dimethoxazoladine-2-4-dione (DMO) and flow dialysis. Incubation of segments with phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate, but not inactive phorbol ester, 4 γ phorbol, effected alkalinization of cells within the segments in a concentration-dependent manner. Alkalinization was dependent upon the presence of extracellular [Na + ] > intracellular [Na + ], was prevented by amiloride and was demonstrable in the presence of SITS. Our findings suggest that tumor-promoting esters stimulate the Na + -H + exchanger known to be present in the brush border membrane of the renal proximal tubular cell. It is possible that the stimulation reflects a mechanism by which phorbol esters affect metabolic processes in these cells

  14. Genetic and cropping cycle effects on proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variance components analysis revealed significant (P<0.05) genotype (G), cropping cycle (C) and G x C interaction effects on most of the traits. The percent protein content was not influenced by any of the variance components. ... Principal component analysis suggested carbohydrate, fat, moisture and level of antinutrient ...

  15. Geometrical correction of the e-beam proximity effect for raster scan systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belic, Nikola; Eisenmann, Hans; Hartmann, Hans; Waas, Thomas

    1999-06-01

    Increasing demands on pattern fidelity and CD accuracy in e- beam lithography require a correction of the e-beam proximity effect. The new needs are mainly coming from OPC at mask level and x-ray lithography. The e-beam proximity limits the achievable resolution and affects neighboring structures causing under- or over-exposion depending on the local pattern densities and process settings. Methods to compensate for this unequilibrated does distribution usually use a dose modulation or multiple passes. In general raster scan systems are not able to apply variable doses in order to compensate for the proximity effect. For system of this kind a geometrical modulation of the original pattern offers a solution for compensation of line edge deviations due to the proximity effect. In this paper a new method for the fast correction of the e-beam proximity effect via geometrical pattern optimization is described. The method consists of two steps. In a first step the pattern dependent dose distribution caused by back scattering is calculated by convolution of the pattern with the long range part of the proximity function. The restriction to the long range part result in a quadratic sped gain in computing time for the transformation. The influence of the short range part coming from forward scattering is not pattern dependent and can therefore be determined separately in a second step. The second calculation yields the dose curve at the border of a written structure. The finite gradient of this curve leads to an edge displacement depending on the amount of underground dosage at the observed position which was previously determined in the pattern dependent step. This unintended edge displacement is corrected by splitting the line into segments and shifting them by multiples of the writers address grid to the opposite direction.

  16. Effect of camber and thickness on the aerodynamic properties of an airfoil in ground proximity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad, M.; Kazemi, F. J.

    2001-01-01

    A linear vortex panel method is extended to include the effect of ground proximity on the aerodynamic properties of two dimensional airfoils. The image method is used to model the ground effect. According to the results, lift coefficient of an airfoil may increase or decrease in ground effect based on a combinative effect of its camber, thickness, angle of attack and ground clearance. Airfoils with different section parameters are analysed and their relative effectiveness are compared

  17. Proximity effect on patterning characteristics of hole patterns in synchrotron radiation lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somemura, Yoh; Deguchi, Kimiyoshi; Miyoshi, Kazunori

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports the results of analyzing the proximity effect on the patterning characteristics for plural neighboring hole patterns in synchrotron radiation lithography. Fresnel diffraction simulation was used and pattern replication experiments were performed with pattern pitch, proximity gap, and mask contrast as parameters. Even when the pattern pitch (hole:space) is 1:1, pattern sizes down to 0.2 μm can be replicated with a large dose margin under a large proximity gap condition up to 40 μm, irrespective of the mask contrast. A low-contrast (2.5) mask has an advantage over the conventional-contrast (7) mask in that it allows the use of a larger proximity gap when replicating hole patterns with a size of 0.1-0.2 μm. Moreover, the phase-shifting mask we previously proposed improves the exposure latitude and widens the proximity gap, so that it is possible to use a 20-μm gap to replicate 0.1-μm hole patterns for a pitch of 1:1 and to use a 30-μm gap for a pitch of 1:2. (author)

  18. Objective quantification of the food proximity effect on grapes, chocolate and cracker consumption in a Swedish high school. A temporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlet, Billy; Fagerberg, Petter; Glossner, Andrew; Ioakimidis, Ioannis

    2017-01-01

    Close food proximity leads to increased short-term energy intake, potentially contributing to the long-term development of obesity. However, its precise effects on eating behaviour are still unclear, especially with food available for extended periods of time. This study involved two similar high school student groups (15-17 years old), which had ad libitum access to grapes, chocolates and crackers during an hour-long experimental session. In the distal condition the foods were placed 6 meters away from the students (n = 24), in contrast to the proximal condition (n = 17) were the food was placed near the students. The identification of the type and the quantification of the amount of each food selected, for each individual serving, was facilitated through use of food scales and video recording. In the proximal condition individuals served themselves grapes and crackers more often and consumed more chocolate than in the distal condition. In total, participants in the proximal condition ingested significantly more energy (726 kcal vs. 504 kcal; p = 0.029), without reporting higher fullness. Food proximity also affected the temporal distribution of servings, with the first five minutes of the sessions corresponding to 53.1% and 45.6% of the total energy intake for the distal and proximal conditions, respectively. After the first five minutes, the servings in the distal condition were strongly clustered in time, with many students getting food together. In the proximal condition however, students displayed an unstructured pattern of servings over time. In conclusion, this study strengthens past evidence regarding the important role of food proximity on individual energy intake and, for the first time, it associates continuous food proximity to the emergence of unstructured eating over time. These conclusions, expanded upon by future studies, could support the creation of meaningful intervention strategies based on spatially and temporally controlled food availability.

  19. Magnetic proximity effects in nanoparticle composite systems and macrocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbs, Genevieve

    2017-07-01

    concerning their electrical transport properties, whereby several nanoparticle phenomena could be observed. Another highlight of this work is the successful preparation of three-dimensional iron oxide nanoparticle assemblies on length scales of >1000 μm by carefully adjusting the parameters of a newly developed centrifuge assisted sedimentation method. Extensive SEM studies combined with magnetometry and sophisticated SAXS experiments resulted in a comprehensive overview on the morphology and magnetism of these so-called 'macrocrystals', as well as on the nanoparticle arrangement inside them. Like this, highly correlated systems with a macroscopic expansion could be manufactured. Finally, a nanoparticle/palladium multilayer was prepared. It demonstrates that the polarization and magnetoresistance effects found in the two-dimensional systems can only partially be transfered to three dimensional assemblies. In conclusion, this work shows how two- and three-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies can be prepared, how their properties are modified at different stages of preparation and how a polarizable matrix material influences the particles and vice versa.

  20. Magnetic proximity effects in nanoparticle composite systems and macrocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbs, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    concerning their electrical transport properties, whereby several nanoparticle phenomena could be observed. Another highlight of this work is the successful preparation of three-dimensional iron oxide nanoparticle assemblies on length scales of >1000 μm by carefully adjusting the parameters of a newly developed centrifuge assisted sedimentation method. Extensive SEM studies combined with magnetometry and sophisticated SAXS experiments resulted in a comprehensive overview on the morphology and magnetism of these so-called 'macrocrystals', as well as on the nanoparticle arrangement inside them. Like this, highly correlated systems with a macroscopic expansion could be manufactured. Finally, a nanoparticle/palladium multilayer was prepared. It demonstrates that the polarization and magnetoresistance effects found in the two-dimensional systems can only partially be transfered to three dimensional assemblies. In conclusion, this work shows how two- and three-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies can be prepared, how their properties are modified at different stages of preparation and how a polarizable matrix material influences the particles and vice versa.

  1. Spatiotemporal Proximity Effects in Visual Short-Term Memory Examined by Target-Nontarget Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Raju P.; Pardhan, Shahina; van der Linde, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a limited-capacity system that holds a small number of objects online simultaneously, implying that competition for limited storage resources occurs (Phillips, 1974). How the spatial and temporal proximity of stimuli affects this competition is unclear. In this 2-experiment study, we examined the effect of the…

  2. Antenna Proximity Effects for Talk and Data Modes in Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelosi, Mauro; Franek, Ondrej; Knudsen, Miakel Bergholz

    2010-01-01

    Based on a recent study of the ways a phone is held (a grip study), CAD models of the human hand have been generated, and antenna proximity effects for both talk and data modes in mobile phones have been investigated using an FDTD code. The simulation results showed that the hand, and especially...

  3. Effect of coffee on motor and sensory function of proximal stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, P. J.; Samsom, M.; Roelofs, J. M.; Smout, A. J.

    2001-01-01

    Some people attribute dyspeptic symptoms to drinking coffee, suggesting that coffee affects one or more functions of the proximal gastrointestinal tract. In a randomized controlled, cross-over, single-blinded study, the effects of coffee on gastric relaxation, gastric wall compliance and sensations,

  4. Proximity Effect between Two Superconductors Spatially Resolved by Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cherkez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the proximity effect in an atomic-scale controlled junction between two different superconductors. Elaborated on a Si(111 surface, the junction comprises a Pb nanocrystal with an energy gap Δ_{1}=1.2  meV, connected to a crystalline atomic monolayer of lead with Δ_{2}=0.23  meV. Using in situ scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we probe the local density of states of this hybrid system both in space and in energy, at temperatures below and above the critical temperature of the superconducting monolayer. Direct and inverse proximity effects are revealed with high resolution. Our observations are precisely explained with the help of a self-consistent solution of the Usadel equations. In particular, our results demonstrate that in the vicinity of the Pb islands, the Pb monolayer locally develops a finite proximity-induced superconducting order parameter, well above its own bulk critical temperature. This leads to a giant proximity effect where the superconducting correlations penetrate inside the monolayer a distance much larger than in a nonsuperconducting metal.

  5. Effective propagation in a perturbed periodic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurel, Agnès; Pagneux, Vincent

    2008-08-01

    In a recent paper [D. Torrent, A. Hakansson, F. Cervera, and J. Sánchez-Dehesa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 204302 (2006)] inspected the effective parameters of a cluster containing an ensemble of scatterers with a periodic or a weakly disordered arrangement. A small amount of disorder is shown to have a small influence on the characteristics of the acoustic wave propagation with respect to the periodic case. In this Brief Report, we inspect further the effect of a deviation in the scatterer distribution from the periodic distribution. The quasicrystalline approximation is shown to be an efficient tool to quantify this effect. An analytical formula for the effective wave number is obtained in one-dimensional acoustic medium and is compared with the Berryman result in the low-frequency limit. Direct numerical calculations show a good agreement with the analytical predictions.

  6. Effective propagation in a perturbed periodic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, Agnes; Pagneux, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper [D. Torrent, A. Hakansson, F. Cervera, and J. Sanchez-Dehesa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 204302 (2006)] inspected the effective parameters of a cluster containing an ensemble of scatterers with a periodic or a weakly disordered arrangement. A small amount of disorder is shown to have a small influence on the characteristics of the acoustic wave propagation with respect to the periodic case. In this Brief Report, we inspect further the effect of a deviation in the scatterer distribution from the periodic distribution. The quasicrystalline approximation is shown to be an efficient tool to quantify this effect. An analytical formula for the effective wave number is obtained in one-dimensional acoustic medium and is compared with the Berryman result in the low-frequency limit. Direct numerical calculations show a good agreement with the analytical predictions

  7. The intermediate effect of geographic proximity on intergenerational support: A comparison of France and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Heylen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The geographic proximity of parents and adult children is a key element of intergenerational solidarity. Many studies have identified geographical distance as an important determinant of intergenerational support: living nearby increases the amount of mutual support provided. It can, however, also be regarded as a dimension of intergenerational solidarity: the current degree of proximity is the result of past migration decisions made by both generations, in which present and future care demands potentially played a key role. OBJECTIVE We take this endogenous nature of geographical distance into account by examining theindirect effect of the determinants of the actual level of support through geographical distance. Both upward support (personal care provided to mother and downward support (help with childcare received from mother are considered. METHODS Path analyses are performed on data from the Generations and Gender Survey for France and Bulgaria using a general latent-variable modelling framework in multiple-group models. RESULTS In addition to strongly affecting the level of support provided and received, geographical distance itself is affected by several individual and family-related variables, which in turn have an indirect effect on the level of intergenerational support. The results suggest that proximity can be used as an adaptive strategy: e.g., working adult children in France receive more help with childcare because of their greater proximity to their mothers. Having a greater care need may have triggered this choice of residence. Similarly, single parents with no partner to rely on tend to live closer to their mothers, and therefore receive more help. CONCLUSIONS Geographic proximity can be considered a latent form of solidarity that functions as a mediator between background factors and manifest, functional solidarity.

  8. Magnetic field dependence of the critical superconducting current induced by the proximity effect in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, T.; Kawabe, U.; Yamada, E.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic field dependence of the critical superconducting current induced by the proximity effect in heavily-boron-doped Si is studied experimentally. It is found that the critical current flowing through the p-type-Si-coupled junction decreases with increasing applied magnetic field. The critical current can be expressed as the product of three factors: the current induced by de Gennes's proximity effect, the exponential decrease due to pair breaking by the magnetic field, and the usual diffraction-pattern-like dependence on the magnetic field due to the Josephson effect. The second factor depends on the carrier concentration in the semiconductor. The local critical current shows a rapid decrease at the edge of the electrodes

  9. Vitamins and administration periods effects on haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vitamins and administration periods effects on haematological parameters of broiler ... Data obtained on haematological indices were subjected to Analysis of ... été répartis sur base de l'égalisation du poids en neuf (9) groupes de traitement, ...

  10. The effect of inferomedial screw on postoperative shoulder function and mechanical alignment in proximal humerus fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Murat; Desteli, Engin Eren; İmren, Yunus; Üztürk, Ali; Kılıç, Mesut; Sezgin, Hicabi

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical and radiologic results of locking plate fixation with or without inferomedial screw (IMS) in surgically treated proximal humerus fractures. Thirty-six patients with displaced proximal humerus fractures from two centers were operated using locking plate. All of the fractures were classified according to the Neer classification. In 18 of the cases, an additional IMS running through the medial curvature of the surgical neck was used. There was no significant difference among both groups in terms of height, gender, weight, and mechanism of injury. The fractures were evaluated according to the radiographic and functional findings during follow-up period of 14 months in average (range 8-32 months). At the end of first year, shoulder radiographs were received and shoulder examinations were performed using ASES scores. Humeral head-shaft angles were measured by true AP projections. Head-shaft angle measurements were categorized as varus if 145. Mean time for fracture healing was 18 weeks. Complete union was achieved in 35 patients by the end of 6 months. In one of the 18 displaced proximal humerus fractures of IMS (+) group, the head-shaft angle was measured to be <125, whereas six patients had varus deviation in IMS (-) group at follow-up (p < 0.05). Mean ASES scores of IMS (+) group and IMS (-) group were 58.21 ± 5.82 and 38.61 ± 3.44, respectively (p < 0.001). Use of inferomedial screw running through the medial curvature of surgical neck prevents varus deformity and improves functional outcome after surgical treatment for proximal humerus fractures.

  11. Many-body localization proximity effects in platforms of coupled spins and bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, J.; Nandkishore, R. M.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss the onset of many-body localization in a one-dimensional system composed of a XXZ quantum spin chain and a Bose-Hubbard model linearly coupled together. We consider two complementary setups, depending whether spatial disorder is initially imprinted on spins or on bosons; in both cases, we explore the conditions for the disordered portion of the system to localize by proximity of the other clean half. Assuming that the dynamics of one of the two parts develops on shorter time scales than the other, we can adiabatically eliminate the fast degrees of freedom, and derive an effective Hamiltonian for the system's remainder using projection operator techniques. Performing a locator expansion on the strength of the many-body interaction term or on the hopping amplitude of the effective Hamiltonian thus derived, we present results on the stability of the many-body localized phases induced by proximity effect. We also briefly comment on the feasibility of the proposed model through modern quantum optics architectures, with the long-term perspective to realize experimentally, in composite open systems, Anderson or many-body localization proximity effects.

  12. Experimental test of proximity effect theories by surface impedance measurements on the Pb-Sn system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hook, J.R.; Battilana, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The proximity effect in the Pb-Sn system in zero magnetic field has been studied by measuring the surface impedance at 3 GHz of a thin film of tin evaporated on to a bulk lead substrate. The results are compared with the predictions of theories of the proximity effect. It is found that good agreement can be obtained by using a theory due to Hook and Waldram of the spatial variation of the superconducting order parameter Δ inside each metal together with suitable boundary conditions on Δ at the interface between the metals. The required boundary conditions are a generalization to the case of non-zero electron reflection at the interface of the boundary conditions given by Zaitsev for the Ginsburg-Landau equation. (author)

  13. Effects of phospho- and calciotropic hormones on electrolyte transport in the proximal tubule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Justin J; Plain, Allein; Beggs, Megan R

    2017-01-01

    ), active vitamin D 3, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). The organs central to this are the kidneys, intestine, and bone. In the kidney, the proximal tubule reabsorbs the majority of filtered calcium and phosphate, which amounts to more than 60% and 90%, respectively. The basic molecular mechanisms......Calcium and phosphate are critical for a myriad of physiological and cellular processes within the organism. Consequently, plasma levels of calcium and phosphate are tightly regulated. This occurs through the combined effects of the phospho- and calciotropic hormones, parathyroid hormone (PTH...... as their regulation of active vitamin D 3 synthesis in this nephron segment. The integrative effects of both phospho- and calciotropic hormones on proximal tubular solute transport and subsequently whole body calcium-phosphate balance thus have been further complicated. Here, we first review the molecular mechanisms...

  14. What Contributes to the Split-Attention Effect? The Role of Text Segmentation, Picture Labelling, and Spatial Proximity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florax, Mareike; Ploetzner, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In the split-attention effect spatial proximity is frequently considered to be pivotal. The transition from a spatially separated to a spatially integrated format not only involves changes in spatial proximity, but commonly necessitates text segmentation and picture labelling as well. In an experimental study, we investigated the influence of…

  15. Proximity effect in semiconductor films with spin-splitting and spin-orbit interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelsen, Jens; Grein, Roland [Institut fuer Theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Superconducting heterostructures with spin-active materials have emerged as promising platforms for engineering topological superconductors featuring Majorana bound states at surfaces, edges and vortices. Here we present a method for evaluating, from a microscopic model, the band structure of a semiconductor film of finite thickness deposited on top of a conventional superconductor. Analytical expressions for the proximity induced gap openings are presented in terms of microscopic parameters and the proximity effect in presence of spin-orbit and exchange splitting is visualized in terms of Andreev reflection processes. An expression for the topological invariant, associated with the existence of Majorana bound states, is shown to depend only on parameters of the semiconductor film. The finite thickness of the film leads to resonant states in the film giving rise to a complex band structure with the topological phase alternating between trivial and non-trivial as the parameters are tuned of the film are tuned.

  16. Effects on residential property values of proximity to a site contaminated with radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.; Olshansky, S.J.; Segel, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    An issue often raised by the public regarding waste sites is whether distance from these sites affects residential property values. Previous research has studied changes in the housing market in communities near Three Mile Island after the 1979 accident and after the 1979 accident and legal precedents of compensation for loss of property value because of proximity to hazardous areas. However, this research has not addressed effects on residential property values of proximity specifically to hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites. The effects of the proximity of residences to such a site in West Chicago, Illinois - used for many years for disposal of thorium waste from processing ores - were investigated in this study. Sales of single-family residences located within about 0.4 km and 1.6 km from the site. Trends in average annual selling prices were analyzed both before and after publicity appeared about the existence of the radioactive material at the site. Results indicate that older residences (built before 1950) located within about 0.4 km of the disposal site experienced a prolonged depression in selling prices after the publicity in comparison with older residences located farther from the site and with all transactions on newer residences. These results confirm to some extent public perceptions and potentially raise legal issues associated with property values. Suggestions are provided for mitigative measures to alleviate these issues

  17. Effects on residential property values of proximity to a site contaminated with radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.; Olshansky, S.J.; Segel, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    An issue often raised by the public regarding projects that involve hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites is whether distance from these sites affects residential property values. Previous research has studied changes in the housing market in communities near Three Mile Island after the 1979 accident and legal precedents of compensation for loss of property value because of proximity to hazardous areas. However, this research has not addressed effects on residential property values of proximity specifically to hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites. The effects of the proximity of residence to such a site in West Chicago, Illinois - used for many years for disposal of thorium waste from processing ores - were investigated in this study. Single-family residence sales located within about 0.4 km of the West Chicago site were compared with residence sales located between 0.4 km and 1.6 km from the site. Trends in average annual selling prices were analyzed both before and after publicity appeared about the existence of the radioactive material at the site. Results indiate that older residences (built before 1950) located within about 0.4 km of the disposal site experienced a prolonged depression in selling prices after the publicity, in comparison with older residences located farther from the site and with all transactions on newer residences. These results confirm to some extent public perceptions and potentially raise legal issues associated with property values. Suggestions are provided for mitigative measures to alleviate these issues. 22 references, 1 figure

  18. Superconducting proximity effect in MBE grown Nb-InAs junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Carolyn; Xue, Chi; Law, Stephanie; Eckstein, James

    2013-03-01

    Several proposals for the realization of Majorana fermions rely on excellent quality proximity coupling between a superconductor and a high-mobility semiconductor. We examine the long-range proximity coupling between MBE-grown InAs and in situ grown superconducting overlayers by fabricating transport devices, and investigate the effect of substrate choice and growth conditions on the quality of the MBE InAs. GaAs is commonly available as a high quality insulating substrate. Overcoming its lattice mismatch with InAs using GaSb and AlSb layers results in locally smooth terraced surfaces, but global spiral dislocation structures also appear and have a negative impact on the InAs mobility. Growing InAs on homoepitaxial GaSb results in improved morphology and increases the mean free path. We compare the proximity effect in devices made both ways. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Materials Sciences under Award No. DE-FG02 07ER46453, through the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

  19. Ceramic superconductor/metal composite materials employing the superconducting proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Matthew J.

    2002-01-01

    Superconducting composite materials having particles of superconducting material disposed in a metal matrix material with a high electron-boson coupling coefficient (.lambda.). The superconducting particles can comprise any type of superconductor including Laves phase materials, Chevrel phase materials, A15 compounds, and perovskite cuprate ceramics. The particles preferably have dimensions of about 10-500 nanometers. The particles preferably have dimensions larger than the superconducting coherence length of the superconducting material. The metal matrix material has a .lambda. greater than 0.2, preferably the .lambda. is much higher than 0.2. The metal matrix material is a good proximity superconductor due to its high .lambda.. When cooled, the superconductor particles cause the metal matrix material to become superconducting due to the proximity effect. In cases where the particles and the metal matrix material are chemically incompatible (i.e., reactive in a way that destroys superconductivity), the particles are provided with a thin protective metal coating. The coating is chemically compatible with the particles and metal matrix material. High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cuprate ceramic particles are reactive and therefore require a coating of a noble metal resistant to oxidation (e.g., silver, gold). The proximity effect extends through the metal coating. With certain superconductors, non-noble metals can be used for the coating.

  20. The superconducting proximity effect in epitaxial Al/Pb nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H; Vantomme, A; Temst, K; Picot, T; Houben, K; Moorkens, T; Van Haesendonck, C; Van Bael, M J; Grigg, J; Brown, S A; Biermans, E; Bals, S

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the superconducting properties of Pb nanoparticles with a diameter ranging from 8 to 20 nm, synthesized by Pb + ion implantation in a crystalline Al matrix. A detailed structural characterization of the nanocomposites reveals the highly epitaxial relation between the Al crystalline matrix and the Pb nanoparticles. The Al/Pb nanocomposites display a single superconducting transition, with the critical temperature T c increasing with the Pb content. The dependence of T c on the Pb/Al volume ratio was compared with theoretical models of the superconducting proximity effect based on the bulk properties of Al and Pb. A very good correspondence with the strong-coupling proximity effect model was found, with an electron–phonon coupling constant in the Pb nanoparticles slightly reduced compared to bulk Pb. Our result differs from other studies on Pb nanoparticle based proximity systems where weak-coupling models were found to better describe the T c dependence. We infer that the high interface quality resulting from the ion implantation synthesis method is a determining factor for the superconducting properties. Critical field and critical current measurements support the high quality of the nanocomposite superconducting films. (paper)

  1. Specific heat jump at T/sub c/ of proximity effect sandwiches containing nonmagnetic localized states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneeratankul, S.; Tang, I.M.

    1987-01-01

    The decrease in the transition temperature and the jump in the specific heat at T/sub c/ of proximity effect sandwiches containing nonmagnetic Anderson impurities in the normal layer are studied. The effects of the resonant scattering by the impurities are treated in the same manner as that used by Kaiser in his study of the effects of resonant scattering on the properties of bulk superconductors. Numerical calculations of the decrease in T/sub c/ and the jump in the specific heat at T/sub c/ as a function of the thickness of the normal layer are presented

  2. Effect of alphatocopherol on diameter of proximal convoluted tubules of kidney in diabetic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of alphatocopherol supplement on proximal convoluted tubular diameter of kidney in diabetic mice. Methods: The randomised controlled trials was conducted partly at the National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad, and partly in Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, from November 2009 to November 2010. Thirty adult female mice BALB/C were randomly divided into three equal groups. Group A served as the control group. Group B was made diabetic by the intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Group C received injection streptozotocin and was fed with alphatocopherol (vitamin E) supplemented diet. After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed for histomorphological study. Results: Diabetes caused significant changes in the diameter of proximal tubule of Experimental Group B (diabetic) compared to the controls in Group A, but these changes were prevented in alphatocopherol treated Group C. Tubular diameter in Group B was significantly reduced compared to the Control Group A (p 0.05). Conclusion: Significant difference in proximal tubular diameter of kidneys between diabetic and alphatocopherol treated diabetic mice confirm that vitamin E does extend a protective role in improving diabetic nephropathy. (author)

  3. Magnetic field dependence of the superconducting proximity effect in a two atomic layer thin metallic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caminale, Michael; Leon Vanegas, Augusto A.; Stepniak, Agnieszka; Oka, Hirofumi; Fischer, Jeison A.; Sander, Dirk; Kirschner, Juergen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The intriguing possibility to induce superconductivity in a metal, in direct contact with a superconductor, is under renewed interest for applications and for fundamental aspects. The underlying phenomenon is commonly known as proximity effect. In this work we exploit the high spatial resolution of scanning tunneling spectroscopy at sub-K temperatures and in magnetic fields. We probe the differential conductance along a line from a superconducting 9 ML high Pb nanoisland into the surrounding two layer thin Pb/Ag wetting layer on a Si(111) substrate. A gap in the differential conductance indicates superconductivity of the Pb island. We observe an induced gap in the wetting layer, which decays with increasing distance from the Pb island. This proximity length is 21 nm at 0.38 K and 0 T. We find a non-trivial dependence of the proximity length on magnetic field. Surprisingly, we find that the magnetic field does not affect the induced superconductivity up to 0.3 T. However, larger fields of 0.6 T suppress superconductivity in the wetting layer, where the Pb island still remains superconducting. We discuss the unexpected robustness of induced superconductivity in view of the high electronic diffusivity in the metallic wetting layer.

  4. Morphoquantitative effects of acute diabetes on the myenteric neurons of the proximal colon of adult rats Efeitos morfoquantitativos do diabetes agudo sobre os neurônios mioentéricos do colo proximal de ratos adultos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Montserrat D.P. Furlan

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acute diabetes on the density and size of the myenteric neurons of the proximal colon of adult rats were investigated. The injection of streptozotocin was followed by a period of observation of seven days, during which the diabetic animals showed weight loss, excessive food and water intake, large urinary debt and hyperglicemia. The whole-mounts from the proximal colon were stained with the techniques of Giemsa and of the NADH-diaphorase, and the employment of these techniques made it possible to verify a decrease on the neuronal density and on the cell body size of the myenteric neurons in the colon of the diabetic rats. These observations were discussed in terms of the pathophysiology of the diabetes and the experimental protocol.Foram investigados os efeitos do diabetes agudo sobre a densidade e o tamanho dos neurônios mioentéricos do colo proximal de ratos adultos. À injeção de estreptozootocina seguiu-se um período de observação de sete dias, durante os quais os animais diabéticos apresentaram perda de peso, ingestão excessiva de alimento e água, grande débito urinário e hiperglicemia. Os preparados de membrana do colo proximal foram corados pelas técnicas de Giemsa e da NADH-diaforase. A aplicação dessas técnicas permitiu constatar uma redução da densidade neuronal e do tamanho do corpo celular dos neurônios mioentéricos no colo dos ratos diabéticos. Essas observações foram discutidas em termos da patofisiologia do diabetes e do protocolo experimental.

  5. Effects of Hand Proximity and Movement Direction in Spatial and Temporal Gap Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemers, Michael; Fischer, Martin H

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on the interplay between static manual postures and visual attention revealed enhanced visual selection near the hands (near-hand effect). During active movements there is also superior visual performance when moving toward compared to away from the stimulus (direction effect). The "modulated visual pathways" hypothesis argues that differential involvement of magno- and parvocellular visual processing streams causes the near-hand effect. The key finding supporting this hypothesis is an increase in temporal and a reduction in spatial processing in near-hand space (Gozli et al., 2012). Since this hypothesis has, so far, only been tested with static hand postures, we provide a conceptual replication of Gozli et al.'s (2012) result with moving hands, thus also probing the generality of the direction effect. Participants performed temporal or spatial gap discriminations while their right hand was moving below the display. In contrast to Gozli et al. (2012), temporal gap discrimination was superior at intermediate and not near hand proximity. In spatial gap discrimination, a direction effect without hand proximity effect suggests that pragmatic attentional maps overshadowed temporal/spatial processing biases for far/near-hand space.

  6. Effects of angiotensin II and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption in the rat proximal tubule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatsudthipong, V.; Chan, Y.L.

    1986-01-01

    Microperfusion of proximal convoluted tubule(PCT) and peritubular capillaries was performed to examine the effects of angiotensin II(Ang II) and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption. Bicarbonate was determined by microcalorimetry and C-14 inulin was used as a volume marker. The rates of bicarbonate absorption (JHCO 3 ) was 143 peq/min x mm and fluid absorption(Jv) was 2.70 nl/min x mm, when PCT and capillary perfusate contained normal Ringer solution. Addition of Ang II (10 -6 M) to the capillary perfusate caused reductions of JHCO 3 and Jv by 35%. A similar effect was observed when ionomycin was added to the capillary perfusate. Ang II antagonist, (Sar 1 , Ile 8 )-Angiotensin II(10 -6 M), completely blocked the inhibitory effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO 3 . Removal of calcium from both luminal and capillary perfusate did not change the effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO 3 . Our results indicate that Ang II inhibits the sodium-hydrogen exchanger in the proximal tubule via interacting with angiotensin receptor. The mechanism of Ang II action may involve mobilization of intracellular calcium

  7. Wind Energy Facilities and Residential Properties: The Effect of Proximity and View on Sales Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Diego State University; Bard Center for Environmental Policy at Bard College; Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2011-06-23

    With increasing numbers of communities considering wind power developments, empirical investigations regarding related community concerns are needed. One such concern is that proximate property values may be adversely affected, yet relatively little research exists on the subject. The present research investigates roughly 7,500 sales of single-family homes surrounding 24 existing U.S. wind facilities. Across four different hedonic models, and a variety of robustness tests, the results are consistent: neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have a statistically significant effect on sales prices, yet further research is warranted.

  8. Proximity Effect Transfer from NbTi into a Semiconductor Heterostructure via Epitaxial Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann, A C C; Suominen, H J; Kjærgaard, Morten

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the transfer of the superconducting properties of NbTi, a large-gap high-critical-field superconductor, into an InAs heterostructure via a thin intermediate layer of epitaxial Al. Two device geometries, a Josephson junction and a gate-defined quantum point contact, are used...... to characterize interface transparency and the two-step proximity effect. In the Josephson junction, multiple Andreev reflections reveal near-unity transparency with an induced gap Δ* = 0.50 meV and a critical temperature of 7.8 K. Tunneling spectroscopy yields a hard induced gap in the InAs adjacent...

  9. The effect of proximity to major roads on indoor air quality in typical Australian dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Sarah J.; Galbally, Ian E.; Powell, Jennifer C.; Keywood, Melita D.; Molloy, Suzie B.; Cheng, Min; Selleck, Paul W.

    2011-04-01

    An Indoor Air Quality Study of residential dwellings was carried out in Melbourne, Australia, and a subset of the data was analysed to investigate the effect of proximity to major roads on indoor air quality (IAQ). Seven-day measurements of PM 10, NO 2, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, along with continuous CO and PM 2.5 measurements were utilised. The measurements were made indoors and outdoors in 27 dwellings; 15 Near Road (300 m from a major road). Dwellings were sampled for one week each in Winter/Spring 2008 and Summer/Autumn 2009, over an eight month period. Analysis of 7-day measurements showed that NO 2 and toluene were elevated at the 5% significance level both indoors and outdoors at Near Road Dwellings compared to Far Road Dwellings. Indoor/Outdoor (I/O) ratios of NO 2 and toluene were not significantly different between Near and Far Road dwellings giving no evidence of any anomalous dominant indoor source for NO 2 and toluene in Near Road dwellings. Indoor NO 2 was significantly correlated to gas stovetop and oven use in both Near and Far Road dwellings. In the absence of gas cooking, indoor NO 2 was elevated in Near Road dwellings relative to Far Road dwellings by approximately 4 ppb and this can be attributed to infiltration of outdoor air. I/O ratios for NO 2 were 2 indicating that indoor sources dominate with minor contribution from outdoors. Hence the relative contribution of roadways to indoor NO 2 is potentially greater than the relative contribution of roadways to indoor toluene. Findings elsewhere suggest that a similar outdoor enhancement of traffic related NO 2 (˜5 ppb) increases risk of lung cancer and childhood asthma ( Brauer et al., 2000; Nyberg et al., 2000). A simple conceptual model indicated spatial and temporal variance in the concentrations was the biggest limitation in detecting roadway influence outside Near Road dwellings for PM 10, PM 2.5 and NO 2 while measurement uncertainty was also important for CO.

  10. Proximity effect in superconductor/ferromagnet hetero-structures as a function of interface properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Julio; Patino, Edgar J.

    2014-03-01

    Superconductor/ferromagnet heterostructures are currently a subject of strong research due to novel phenomena resulting from the proximity effect. Among the most investigated ones are the oscillations of the critical temperature as function of the ferromagnet thickness. The oscillatory behavior of Tc is theoretically explained as to be result of the generation of the FFLO (Fulde-Ferrel-Larkin-Ovchinnikov) state of Cooper pairs under the presence of the exchange field of the ferromagnet. With the advancement of experimental techniques for S/F bilayers growth new questions regarding the effect of the interface transparency can to be addressed. For instance the influence of the interface roughness on the proximity effect. For studying this phenomenon Nb/Co and Nb/Cu/Co samples were sputtered on SiO2 substrates with different roughness. Characterization of these samples show a significant variation of Tc with the interface roughness. This results point towards a possible relationship between transparency and roughness of the interface. Proyecto Semilla Facultad de Ciencias Universidad de los Andes.

  11. Effects of Acids, Bases, and Heteroatoms on Proximal Radial Distribution Functions for Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bao Linh; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2015-04-14

    The proximal distribution of water around proteins is a convenient method of quantifying solvation. We consider the effect of charged and sulfur-containing amino acid side-chain atoms on the proximal radial distribution function (pRDF) of water molecules around proteins using side-chain analogs. The pRDF represents the relative probability of finding any solvent molecule at a distance from the closest or surface perpendicular protein atom. We consider the near-neighbor distribution. Previously, pRDFs were shown to be universal descriptors of the water molecules around C, N, and O atom types across hundreds of globular proteins. Using averaged pRDFs, a solvent density around any globular protein can be reconstructed with controllable relative error. Solvent reconstruction using the additional information from charged amino acid side-chain atom types from both small models and protein averages reveals the effects of surface charge distribution on solvent density and improves the reconstruction errors relative to simulation. Solvent density reconstructions from the small-molecule models are as effective and less computationally demanding than reconstructions from full macromolecular models in reproducing preferred hydration sites and solvent density fluctuations.

  12. Longitudinal effects of contextual and proximal factors on mother-infant interactions among Brazilian adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Eva; DeSousa, Diogo; Koller, Silvia H; Volling, Brenda L

    2016-05-01

    Adolescent mothers often come from vulnerable backgrounds which might impact the quality of both maternal and infant behavior. Despite the negative impact of adolescent motherhood for maternal and infant behavior, social support may decrease the risks and promote maternal behavior toward the infant. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the effects of proximal (maternal behavior) and distal (mother's perceived social support) variables on infant development in a sample of Brazilian adolescent mothers and their infants. Thirty-nine adolescent mothers (Mage=17.26years; SD=1.71) were observed interacting with their infants at 3 and 6 months postpartum and reported on social support. Results revealed that maternal and infant behavior were associated within and across times. Mothers' perceived social support at 3 months had an indirect effect on infant behavior at 6 months, totally mediated by maternal behavior at 6 months. Our findings revealed the mutual influence between maternal and infant behavior, revealing a proximal process. The results also underscored the importance of the passage of time in the interplay between mother-infant interactions and their developmental context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Studying the superconductor-ferromagnet proximity effect with polarised neutron reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchell, Nathan; Cooper, Joshaniel; Kinane, Christy; Witt, James; Burnell, Gavin; Langridge, Sean

    At the interface between a superconductor (S) and ferromagnet (F), an inhomogeneity can convert singlet Cooper pairs into the (spin aligned) long ranged triplet component (LRTC). The manipulation of the LRTC forms the basis of the emerging field of super-spintronics. Several theoretical works predict modification to the local magnetic state inside the S layer with the inclusion of triplet Cooper pairs, however there are now several experimental observations which disagree on both the magnitude and direction of this induced moment (see for example and). Here we report on measurements of the proximity effect using polarised neutron reflectometry, a technique sensitive to changes in the total magnetisation of a S-F heterostructure. Our results suggest that a `smoking gun' direct signature of the LRTC is below the sensitivity of our technique, we are able to study the inverse effect namely a modification to the ferromagnetism by proximity to singlet superconductivity. These observations are supported by XMCD measurements showing changes to the Fe and Co below the S layer Tc.

  14. The Effect of Proximal Lunate Morphology “Zapico Classification” on Kienböck’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Davod Jafari; Hooman Shariatzadeh; Bahman Hosseini

    2017-01-01

    Background The Kienböck's disease (KD), even today, has many obscurities. Its etiologies as well as classifications are under constant change and debate, therefore we decided to define the effect of proximal lunate morphology on KD and its usefulness in evaluating the course of the disease. Objectives The purpose of this study is to compare the 3 different morphologies of the proximal lunate as defined by Antuna-Zapico (A-Z) in KD...

  15. Human kidney proximal tubule cells are vulnerable to the effects of Rauwolfia serpentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossoba, Miriam E; Flynn, Thomas J; Vohra, Sanah; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L; Sprando, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Rauwolfia serpentina (or Snake root plant) is a botanical dietary supplement marketed in the USA for maintaining blood pressure. Very few studies have addressed the safety of this herb, despite its wide availability to consumers. Its reported pleiotropic effects underscore the necessity for evaluating its safety. We used a human kidney cell line to investigate the possible negative effects of R. serpentina on the renal system in vitro, with a specific focus on the renal proximal tubules. We evaluated cellular and mitochondrial toxicity, along with a variety of other kidney-specific toxicology biomarkers. We found that R. serpentina was capable of producing highly detrimental effects in our in vitro renal cell system. These results suggest more studies are needed to investigate the safety of this dietary supplement in both kidney and other target organ systems.

  16. Proximal Humerus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diercks, Ron L.; Bain, Gregory; Itoi, Eiji; Di Giacomo, Giovanni; Sugaya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the bony structures of the proximal humerus. The proximal humerus is often regarded as consisting of four parts, which assists in understanding function and, more specially, describes the essential parts in reconstruction after fracture or in joint replacement. These are the

  17. Substrate modulation of fatty acid effects on energization and respiration of kidney proximal tubules during hypoxia/reoxygenation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Bienholz

    Full Text Available Kidney proximal tubules subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation develop a nonesterified fatty acid-induced energetic deficit characterized by persistent partial mitochondrial deenergization that can be prevented and reversed by citric acid cycle substrates. To further assess the role of competition between fatty acids and substrates on inner membrane substrate carriers in the deenergization and the contribution to deenergization of fatty acid effects on respiratory function, digitonin-permeabilized rabbit and mouse tubules were studied using either addition of exogenous oleate after control normoxic incubation or increases of endogenous fatty acids produced by hypoxia/reoxygenation. The results demonstrated major effects of matrix oxaloacetate accumulation on succinate-supported energization and respiration and their modification by fatty acids. Improvements of energization in the presence of fatty acids by glutamate were shown to result predominantly from lowering matrix oxaloacetate rather than from amelioration of transmembrane cycling of fatty acids and uncoupling. Mouse tubules had 2.5 fold higher rates of succinate utilization, which resulted in stronger effects of oxaloacetate accumulation than rabbit tubules. Hypoxia/reoxygenation induced respiratory inhibition that was more severe for complex I-dependent substrates. Fatty acids themselves did not acutely contribute to this respiratory inhibition, but lowering them during 60 min. reoxygenation to allow recovery of ATP during that period alleviated it. These data clarify the basis for the nonesterified fatty acid-induced mitochondrial energetic deficit in kidney proximal tubules that impairs structural and functional recovery and provide insight into interactions that need to be considered in the design of substrate-based interventions to improve mitochondrial function.

  18. The effect of phonon-mediated charge transfer and internal proximity effect on the properties of multigap cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresin, V.Z.; Wolf, S.A.; Deutscher, G.

    1992-01-01

    The theoretical model capable of calculating the superconducting properties (e.g. Tc, energy gaps, etc) of materials such as Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 which consist of two conducting subsystem (planes and chains) is developed. The system is characterized by two energies gaps. The interplay of two channels (phonon-mediated processes and the intrinsic proximity effect) inducing the superconducting state in the chains is studied. The proximity effect combined with the phonon-mediated channel appears to be favorable for superconductivity. The theory describes the effect of the oxygen ordering on Tc and the induced gap and allows us to explain a number of experiments including the plateau in Tc versus oxygen, the large residual microwave losses, zero-bias anomalies and the temperature dependence of the penetration depth. (orig.)

  19. The role of proximal social contexts: Assessing stigma-by-association effects on leader appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Morela; Avery, Derek R; Tonidandel, Scott; Hebl, Mikki R; Smith, Alexis N; McKay, Patrick F

    2016-01-01

    Prior research suggests that segregation in the U.S. workplace is on the rise (Hellerstein, Neumark, & McInerney, 2008); as such, leaders are more likely to lead groups of followers composed primarily of their own race (Elliot & Smith, 2001; Smith & Elliott, 2002). Drawing from theory on stigma-by-association, the authors posit that such segregated proximal social contexts (i.e., the leader's group of followers) can have detrimental effects on leader appraisals. Specifically, they argue that leaders of mostly Black follower groups experience stigmatization based on race stereotypic beliefs, which affects how they are viewed in the eyes of observers. The results of a large field study show performance evaluations generally tend to be lower when the proportion of Black followers is higher. Moreover, 3 experiments demonstrate that the impact of proximal social contexts extends to other outcomes (i.e., perceptions of market value and competency) but appears limited to those who are less internally and externally motivated to control their prejudice. Taken together, these findings explain how workplace segregation systematically can create a particular disadvantage for Black leaders. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Effects of lead intoxication on intercellular junctions and biochemical alterations of the renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Moreno, L G; Quintanar-Escorza, M A; González, S; Mondragón, R; Cerbón-Solorzáno, J; Valdés, J; Calderón-Salinas, J V

    2009-10-01

    Lead intoxication is a worldwide health problem which frequently affects the kidney. In this work, we studied the effects of chronic lead intoxication (500 ppm of Pb in drinking water during seven months) on the structure, function and biochemical properties of rat proximal tubule cells. Lead-exposed animals showed increased lead concentration in kidney, reduction of calcium and amino acids uptake, oxidative damage and glucosuria, proteinuria, hematuria and reduced urinary pH. These biochemical and physiological alterations were related to striking morphological modifications in the structure of tubule epithelial cells and in the morphology of their mitochondria, nuclei, lysosomes, basal and apical membranes. Interestingly, in addition to the nuclei, inclusion bodies were found in the cytoplasm and in mitochondria. The epithelial cell structure modifications included an early loss of the apical microvillae, followed by a decrement of the luminal space and the respective apposition and proximity of apical membranes, resulting in the formation of atypical intercellular contacts and adhesion structures. Similar but less marked alterations were observed in subacute lead intoxication as well. Our work contributes in the understanding of the physiopathology of lead intoxication on the structure of renal tubular epithelial cell-cell contacts in vivo.

  1. Torrefaction of oil palm frond: The effect of process condition to calorific value and proximate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanty, W.; Helwani, Z.; Zulfansyah

    2018-04-01

    Oil palm frond can be used as alternative energy source by torrefaction process. Torrefaction is a treatment process of biomass into solid fuel by heating within temperature range of 200-300°C in an inert environment. This research aims to result solid fuel through torrefaction and to study the effect of process variable interaction. Torrefaction of oil palm frond was using fixed bed horizontal reactor with operation condition of temperature (225-275 °C), time (15-45 minutes) and nitrogen flow rate (50-150 ml/min). Responses resulted were calorific value and proximate (moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon). Analysis result was processed by using Design Expert v7.0.0. Result obtained for calorific value was 17.700-19.600 kJ/kg and for the proximate were moisture range of 3-4%; ash range of 1.5-4%; volatile matter of 45-55% and fixed carbon of 37-46%. The most affecting factor signficantly towards the responses was temperature then followed by time and nitrogen flow rate.

  2. The proximate memory mechanism underlying the survival-processing effect: richness of encoding or interactive imagery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroneisen, Meike; Erdfelder, Edgar; Buchner, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Nairne and collaborators showed that assessing the relevance of words in the context of an imagined survival scenario boosts memory for these words. Although this survival-processing advantage has attracted a considerable amount of research, little is known about the proximate memory mechanism mediating this effect. Recently, Kroneisen and Erdfelder (2011) argued that it is not survival processing itself that facilitates recall but rather the richness and distinctiveness of encoding that is triggered by the survival-processing task. Alternatively, however, it is also conceivable that survival processing fosters interactive imagery, a process known to improve associative learning. To test these explanations we compared relevance-rating and interactive imagery tasks for survival and control scenarios. Results show that the survival advantage replicates in the relevance-rating condition but vanishes in the interactive imagery condition. This refutes the interactive imagery explanation and corroborates the richness-of-encoding hypothesis of the survival-processing effect.

  3. Period Effects, Cohort Effects, and the Narrowing Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use Age-Period-Cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effe...

  4. Vorticity generation and wake transition for a translating circular cylinder: Wall proximity and rotation effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hourigan, K.; Rao, A.; Brøns, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The wake transitions of generic bluff bodies, such as a circular cylinder, near a wall are important because they provide understanding of different transition paths towards turbulence, and give some insight into the effect of surface modifications on the flow past larger downstream structures......-annihilate with opposite-signed vorticity, and can be stored at a free surface, thus conserving the total vorticity, or circulation. Vorticity generation, diffusion and storage are demonstrated for a cylinder translating and rotating near a wall. The wake characteristics and the wake transitions are shown to change...... dramatically under the influence of cylinder rotation and wall proximity. At gaps between the cylinder and the wall of less than approximately 0.25 cylinder diameter, the wake becomes three dimensional prior to becoming unsteady, while for larger gaps the initial transition is to an unsteady two...

  5. On the proximity effect in a superconductive slab bordered by metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liniger, W.

    1993-01-01

    The first Ginzburg-Landau equation for the order parameter ψ in the absence of magnetic fields is solved analytically for a superconducting slab of thickness 2d boardered by semi-infinite regions of normal metal at each face. The real-valued normalized wave function f=ψ/ψ ∞ depends only on the transversal spatial coordinate x, normalized with respect to the coherence length ξ of the superconductor, provided the de Gennes boundary condition df/dx=f/b is used. The closed-form solution expresses x as an elliptic integral of f, depending on the normalized parameters d and b. It is predicted theoretically that, for b c =arctan(1/b), the proximity effect is so strong that the superconductivity is completely suppressed. In fact, in this case, the first Ginzburg-Landau equation possesses only the trivial solution f≡0

  6. Meissner effect in clean proximity-contact N-S double layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashitani, S.; Nagai, K.

    1994-01-01

    The Meissner effect in proximity-contact normal-superconducting (N-S) double layers is discussed in the clean limit. We obtain the quasi-classical Green's function linear in the vector potential such that satisfies the boundary conditions at the layer ends and also at the N-S interface with a finite reflection coefficient R. We find that, when there is no pairing interaction in the normal layer, the diamagnetic current in the normal layer is constant in space, consequently the magnetic field decreases linearly in the normal layer. To compare our theory with experiments, we calculate the screening length and find a good agreement in the temperature dependence with the experiments in the Au-Nb system. (orig.)

  7. Does Interdisciplinary Research Lead to Higher Citation Impact? The Different Effect of Proximal and Distal Interdisciplinarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegros-Yegros, Alfredo; Rafols, Ismael; D’Este, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the effect of degree of interdisciplinarity on the citation impact of individual publications for four different scientific fields. We operationalise interdisciplinarity as disciplinary diversity in the references of a publication, and rather than treating interdisciplinarity as a monodimensional property, we investigate the separate effect of different aspects of diversity on citation impact: i.e. variety, balance and disparity. We use a Tobit regression model to examine the effect of these properties of interdisciplinarity on citation impact, controlling for a range of variables associated with the characteristics of publications. We find that variety has a positive effect on impact, whereas balance and disparity have a negative effect. Our results further qualify the separate effect of these three aspects of diversity by pointing out that all three dimensions of interdisciplinarity display a curvilinear (inverted U-shape) relationship with citation impact. These findings can be interpreted in two different ways. On the one hand, they are consistent with the view that, while combining multiple fields has a positive effect in knowledge creation, successful research is better achieved through research efforts that draw on a relatively proximal range of fields, as distal interdisciplinary research might be too risky and more likely to fail. On the other hand, these results may be interpreted as suggesting that scientific audiences are reluctant to cite heterodox papers that mix highly disparate bodies of knowledge—thus giving less credit to publications that are too groundbreaking or challenging. PMID:26266805

  8. Bringing employees closer : the effect of proximity on communication when teams function under time pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, S.F.D.; Eerde, van W.; Rutte, C.G.; Chai, K.H.

    2012-01-01

    Some studies have assumed close proximity to improve team communication on the premise that reduced physical distance increases the chance of contact and information exchange. However, research showed that the relationship between team proximity and team communication is not always straightforward

  9. Spin-filtering effect and proximity effect in normal metal/ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal/superconductor junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Yang Wei; Yang Xinjian; Qin Minghui; Xu Yihong

    2007-01-01

    Taking into account the thickness of the ferromagnetic insulator (FI), the spin-filtering effect and proximity effect in normal metal/ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal/superconductor (NM/FI/NM/SC) junctions are studied based on an extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) theory. It is shown that a spin-dependent energy shift during the tunneling process induces splitting of the sub-energy gap conductance peaks and the spin polarization in the ferromagnetic insulator causes an imbalance of the peak heights. Different from the ferromagnet the spin-filtering effect of the FI cannot cause the reversion of the normalized conductance in NM/FI/NM/SC junctions

  10. Period effects, cohort effects, and the narrowing gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use age-period-cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Period Effects, Cohort Effects, and the Narrowing Gender Wage Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use Age-Period-Cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. PMID:24090861

  12. Insulin's acute effects on glomerular filtration rate correlate with insulin sensitivity whereas insulin's acute effects on proximal tubular sodium reabsorption correlate with salt sensitivity in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC; Bakker, SJL; Serne, EH; ter Wee, PM; Gans, ROB

    1999-01-01

    Background. Insulin induces increasing distal tubular sodium reabsorption. Opposite effects of insulin to offset insulin-induced sodium retention are supposedly increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and decreases in proximal tubular sodium reabsorption. Defects in these opposing effects

  13. Trajectory planning for effective close-proximity sensing with agile vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Baron Jon

    Unmanned systems are expected to continue growing in usefulness for surveillance missions. Advancing technology in vehicle maneuverability and miniature control systems is allowing new sensing missions to be considered where the vehicle operates in close proximity to the targets it is sensing. This presents challenges not present in stand-off sensing missions commonly performed by unmanned systems. Vehicle motion is directly linked to sensing quality and thus must be considered in the mission-planning phase to ensure adequate sensing is performed. This dissertation presents a methodology for generating kinematically feasible trajectories through cluttered environments which satisfy sensing effectiveness requirements for multiple targets. Vehicles carrying a single line-of-sight (LOS) sensor are considered and the coupling between vehicle motion and sensor orientation is explicitly addressed. Algorithms are introduced which improve upon the required path time while preserving the sensing effectiveness. Surrogate modeling is also introduced as a method to improve trajectories in terms of any specified cost function. The sensor-based path planning framework is adapted for a highly agile unmanned aircraft capable of flying at high angles-of-attack and the results are presented as an example of the usefulness of these trajectory planning techniques. The inclusion of the unique high angle-of-attack flight capability is shown to provide improvements in both the sensing effectiveness and the overall path time.

  14. The effect of two different renal denervation strategies on blood pressure in resistant hypertension: Comparison of full-length versus proximal renal artery ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijie; Ling, Zhiyu; Du, Huaan; Song, Wenxin; Xu, Yanping; Liu, Zengzhang; Su, Li; Xiao, Peilin; Yuan, Yuelong; Lu, Jiayi; Zhang, Jianhong; Li, Zhifeng; Shao, Jiang; Zhong, Bin; Zhou, Bei; Woo, Kamsang; Yin, Yuehui

    2016-11-01

    Renal denervation (RDN) is used to manage blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant hypertension (rHT), but effectiveness is still a concern, and key arterial portion for successful RDN is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of proximal versus full-length renal artery ablation in patients with resistant hypertension (rHT). Forty-seven patients with rHT were randomly assigned to receive full-length ablation (n = 23) or proximal ablation (n = 24) of the renal arteries. All lesions were treated with radiofrequency energy via a saline-irrigated catheter. Office BP was measured during 12 months of follow-up and ambulatory BP at baseline and 6 months (n = 15 in each group). Compared with full-length ablation, proximal ablation reduced the number of ablation points in both the right (6.1 ± 0.7 vs. 3.3 ± 0.6, P renal arteries (6.2 ± 0.7 vs. 3.3 ± 0.8, P  0.5). Similar office BPs was reduced by -39.4 ± 11.5/-20.9 ± 7.1 mm Hg at 6 months and -38.2 ± 10.3/-21.5 ± 5.8 mm Hg at 12 months in the full-length group (P efficacy and safety profile compared with full-length RDN, and propose the proximal artery as the key portion for RDN. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Proximity effects and Josephson currents in ferromagnet. Spin-triplet superconductors junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrade, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Spin-triplet superconductivity, first attached to the description of 3 He, is now generally considered to also occur in heavy-fermions compounds and in perovskite ruthenium oxide Sr 2 RuO 4 . The latter material is especially interesting since many experiments show strong evidences for a unitary chiral spin-triplet state. Moreover, the recent fabrication of thin heterostructures made of ferromagnetic SrRuO 3 on the top of Sr 2 RuO 4 strongly encourages new theoretical studies on the interplay between spin-triplet superconductor and ferromagnet in similar fashion to spin-singlet superconductors. Using an extended tight-binding Hamiltonian to model the superconductor, we discuss in this thesis the specific proximity effects of such interface by solving self-consistently the Bogoliubov-De Gennes equations on two- and three-dimensional lattices in the ballistic limit. We obtain the spatial profile of the superconducting order parameters at the interface as well as the spin-polarisation and the current across the Josephson junctions. In contrast to heterostructures made of spin-singlet superconductor, we show that the physical properties at the interface are not only controlled by the strength of the magnetization inside the ferromagnet but also by its orientation due to the existence of a finite pair spin projection of the spin-triplet Cooper pairs. We analyse in the first part the spin-polarisation and the Gibbs free energy at the three-dimensional ferromagnet-chiral spin-triplet superconductor interface. Then, the second part of the thesis is dedicated to the study of the Josephson junctions made of a chiral spin-triplet superconductor and a ferromagnetic barrier. More precisely, we analyse the existence of 0-π state transitions in two- and three-dimensional junctions with respect to the strength and the orientation of the magnetization. Finally, we study the proximity effects at the interface of helical spin-triplet superconductors. They differ from the chiral

  16. The effect of proximity to hurricanes Katrina and Rita on subsequent hurricane outlook and optimistic bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Craig; Lueck, Michelle; Marlatt, Holly; Peek, Lori

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated how individuals living on the Gulf Coast perceived hurricane risk after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. It was hypothesized that hurricane outlook and optimistic bias for hurricane risk would be associated positively with distance from the Katrina-Rita landfall (more optimism at greater distance), controlling for historically based hurricane risk and county population density, demographics, individual hurricane experience, and dispositional optimism. Data were collected in January 2006 through a mail survey sent to 1,375 households in 41 counties on the coast (n = 824, 60% response). The analysis used hierarchal regression to test hypotheses. Hurricane history and population density had no effect on outlook; individuals who were male, older, and with higher household incomes were associated with lower risk perception; individual hurricane experience and personal impacts from Katrina and Rita predicted greater risk perception; greater dispositional optimism predicted more optimistic outlook; distance had a small effect but predicted less optimistic outlook at greater distance (model R(2) = 0.21). The model for optimistic bias had fewer effects: age and community tenure were significant; dispositional optimism had a positive effect on optimistic bias; distance variables were not significant (model R(2) = 0.05). The study shows that an existing measure of hurricane outlook has utility, hurricane outlook appears to be a unique concept from hurricane optimistic bias, and proximity has at most small effects. Future extension of this research will include improved conceptualization and measurement of hurricane risk perception and will bring to focus several concepts involving risk communication. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Protective Effects of Pistacia lentiscus L. fruit extract against calcium oxalate monohydrate induced proximal tubular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraft-Bahloul, Nassima; Husson, Cécile; Ourtioualous, Meriam; Sinaeve, Sébastien; Atmani, Djebbar; Stévigny, Caroline; Nortier, Joëlle L; Antoine, Marie-Hélène

    2017-09-14

    The world prevalence of kidney stones is increasing and plants are frequently used to treat urolithiasis. Pistacia lentiscus L, a plant which freely grows around the Mediterranean basin areas, is widely used for various pathologies. P. lentiscus has an important impact as it has economical value on top of its pharmacological interest. Decoctions of its aerial parts and/or resin are used to treat kidney stones. To in vitro assess the potential nephroprotective effect of Pistacia lentiscus ethanolic fruit extract (PLEF) on proximal tubular cells in response to the adhesion of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals. Human Kidney [HK]-2 cells were incubated with and without COM in the presence or absence of PLEF. Cell viability was measured by the resazurin assay. The expression of E-cadherin was analyzed by PCR. The extracellular production of H 2 O 2 was measured by Amplex® Red H 2 O 2 Assay. The numbers of detached or non-adherent COM crystals in the presence of PLEF were microscopically captured and counted using ImageJ software. The interaction of PLEF with COM and the effect of PLEF on crystal size were analyzed by flow cytometry. The spectrophotometric measurement of turbidity was performed for assessing the COM concentration. PLEF incubated with COM was able to increase the cell viability. The decrease of E-cadherin expression after incubation with COM was counteracted by PLEF. Overproduction of H 2 O 2 induced by COM was also inhibited by PLEF. Observations using flow cytometry showed that interactions between PLEF and the COM crystals occurred. PLEF was also effective in reducing the particles size and in lowering COM concentration. Our data show that COM tubulotoxicity can be significantly reversed by PLEF -at least in part- via an inhibition of COM crystals adhesion onto the apical membrane. This early beneficial effect of PLEF needs to be further investigated as a useful strategy in nephrolithiasis prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  18. Probing odd-triplet contributions to the long-ranged proximity effect by scanning tunneling spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diesch, Simon; Machon, Peter; Belzig, Wolfgang; Scheer, Elke [Universitaet Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany); Suergers, Christoph; Beckmann, Detlef [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In conventional superconductors, electrons are bound in singlet Cooper pairs, i.e. with opposite spin. More recently, experiments on superconductor-ferromagnet-systems have shown Cooper pairs tunneling through ferromagnetic layers, indicating Cooper pairs of equal spin, thus corresponding to a long-range triplet proximity effect. Most experimental evidence for triplet superconductivity comes from observations of the thickness dependence of the Josephson current through a ferromagnetic barrier, but there is an increasing interest in obtaining direct spectroscopic evidence. This project aims at analyzing the electronic density of states of a thin diffusive normal metal layer (Ag) coupled to a superconductor (Al) across a ferromagnetic insulator (EuS) using a scanning tunneling microscope in spectroscopy mode at 280 mK. For this purpose, we fabricated EuS films of different thicknesses and acquired spectroscopic data at different magnetic fields. We observe significant broadening of the superconductive energy gap and a variety of sub-gap structures including zero-bias conductance peaks induced by the presence of the ferromagnet.

  19. Effects of mercury on lysosomal protein digestion in the kidney proximal tubule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, K.M.; Christensen, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of mercury on renal lysosomal protein digestion was studied after administration of mercury in vitro and in vivo. Mercuric chloride or methylmercury chloride was added in vitro to lysosomal enzymes isolated from normal rats, and subsequently, digestion experiments were carried out using 125 I-labeled lysozyme or cytochrome c as substrate proteins. Both mercury compounds produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the degradation of the proteins, mercuric chloride being the strongest inhibitor. Mercuric chloride was also administered to rats in vivo for 5 to 8 months. Renal lysosomal enzymes from these animals also had a decreased ability to digest the two substrate proteins. Furthermore, the digestion of lysozyme intravenously injected into mercury-intoxicated rats was decreased in renal cortical slices incubated in vitro. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that intravenously injected labeled lysozyme was located primarily over lysosomes in proximal tubule cells 1 hour after injection in both control animals and mercury-intoxicated rats. These results suggest a decreased catabolism of low molecular weight proteins in the kidney during chronic mercury intoxication

  20. Effects of human proximity and nomadic grazing on the diversity of medicinal plants in temperate hindukush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan, M.; Tariq, A.

    2015-01-01

    Over exploitation and overgrazing are considered major factors for decreasing plant species diversity. However, we do need some more exploration on the types of anthropogenic disturbances responsible for variation in species decline among different regions. Therefore, the current study was conducted in a temperate Hindukush region of Pakistan with the aim to assess human settlements pressure on the diversity of medicinal plants. Field data was collected from 15 plots, of which 5 plots each were randomly selected at three distant locations in derived woodland forest. Near to community plots were heavily disturbed due to natives proximity, 2 kilometer away plots from the native community were moderately disturbed, while 4 kilometer away plots were under the disturbance regime from temporary settlers (Nomads). We have found all 10 studied medicinal plant species at 2 Km distance followed by 8 species found at 4 km distance. Economically important species such as Bergenia ciliata, Paeonia emodi, Podophyllum emodi, Valeriana jatamansi and Viola canescens were completely absent near village. Similarly, density (8.72 n m-2) and species richness (8.2 n 40 m-2) were found significantly highest at 2 km distance than other locations. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) showed that among forest stand structural variables, slope was the influencing variable related to the density of only Bergenia ciliata. In conclusions, moderate disturbance is associated to increase in the diversity of medicinal plants, while high anthropogenic pressures the otherwise. Hence, effective management strategies may be adopted to conserve such precious eroding flora. (author)

  1. Proximity effect depression of the critical temperature in two-phase Nb-Ti superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meingast, C.; Daeumling, M.; Lee, P.J.; Larbalestier, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    The superconducting critical temperature of high critical current density Nb-Ti composites has been measured at various stages in the critical current optimization process. This process involves heat treatment steps which cause precipitation of normal α-Ti and make the matrix more Nb rich. T/sub c/ rises from 9.1 to 9.5 K during this stage. The final optimization stage involves extensive wire drawing during which the α-Ti precipitates are reduced to less than a coherence length in thickness. This does not result in a reduction in J/sub c/ but T/sub c/ is found to fall from 9.44 to 8.7 K during this step. The depression of T/sub c/ is found to be in fair agreement with the predicted proximity effect suppression of T/sub c/. Wires of optimum transport critical current density are seen to have T/sub c/ of around 9 K

  2. Effect of Au proximity on the LSMO surface: An ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, D.; Stroppa, A.; Picozzi, S.; Brivio, S.; Cantoni, M.; Bertacco, R.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the proximity of Au on the electronic and magnetic properties of La 0.66 Sr 0.33 MnO 3 (LSMO) has been investigated by means of ab initio calculations within the density-functional theory. The calculations show an orbital reconstruction of the interfacial Mn, which is due more to the presence of a discontinuity rather than to a real chemical interaction with Au atoms. In fact, the same orbital reconstruction is found in the free LSMO surface. In both cases of Au/LSMO and LSMO surface, the Mn magnetic moments change very little with respect to the bulk case. In general, the calculations show a negligible influence of the Au atomic layer on LSMO at an ideal interface, with the LSMO surface magnetic and electronic properties essentially unchanged. - Highlights: ► Three structures considered: bulk LSMO, Au/LSMO and vacuum LSMO interfaces. ► At the two interfaces the formation of a discontinuity creates an orbital ordering. ► DFT calculations point toward an enhancement of the magnetization at the interface. ► Negligible chemical interaction with gold is seen for a 2D ideal interface. ► Crucial role of the 3D nature of Au on LSMO in depressing LSMO magnetic properties.

  3. Effects of phospho- and calciotropic hormones on electrolyte transport in the proximal tubule [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin J. Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and phosphate are critical for a myriad of physiological and cellular processes within the organism. Consequently, plasma levels of calcium and phosphate are tightly regulated. This occurs through the combined effects of the phospho- and calciotropic hormones, parathyroid hormone (PTH, active vitamin D3, and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23. The organs central to this are the kidneys, intestine, and bone. In the kidney, the proximal tubule reabsorbs the majority of filtered calcium and phosphate, which amounts to more than 60% and 90%, respectively. The basic molecular mechanisms responsible for phosphate reclamation are well described, and emerging work is delineating the molecular identity of the paracellular shunt wherein calcium permeates the proximal tubular epithelium. Significant experimental work has delineated the molecular effects of PTH and FGF23 on these processes as well as their regulation of active vitamin D3 synthesis in this nephron segment. The integrative effects of both phospho- and calciotropic hormones on proximal tubular solute transport and subsequently whole body calcium-phosphate balance thus have been further complicated. Here, we first review the molecular mechanisms of calcium and phosphate reabsorption from the proximal tubule and how they are influenced by the phospho- and calciotropic hormones acting on this segment and then consider the implications on both renal calcium and phosphate handling as well as whole body mineral balance.

  4. Effect of paddock vs. stall housing on 24 hour gastric pH within the proximal and ventral equine stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, L; Sanchez, L C; Olsen, S N; Baptiste, K E; Merritt, A M

    2008-06-01

    Stall housing has been suggested as a risk factor for ulcer development in the equine stomach; however, the exact pathogenesis for this has not been established. To investigate the effect of 3 environmental situations (grass paddock, stall alone or stall with adjacent companion) on pH in the proximal and the ventral stomach. Six horses with permanently implanted gastric cannulae were used in a randomised, cross-over, block design. Each horse rotated through each of three 24 h environmental situations. Horses remained on their normal diet (grass hay ad libitum and grain b.i.d.) throughout the study. Intragastric pH was measured continuously for 72 h just inside the lower oesophageal sphincter (proximal stomach) and via a pH probe in the gastric cannula (ventral stomach). Neither proximal nor ventral 24 h gastric pH changed significantly between the 3 environmental situations. Mean hourly proximal gastric pH decreased significantly in the interval from 01.00-09.00 h compared to the interval from 13.00-20.00 h, regardless of environmental situation. Median hourly proximal pH only differed in the interval from 06.00-07.00 h compared to the interval 14.00-19.00 h. Neither mean nor median hourly ventral gastric pH varied significantly with the time of day. The change in housing status used in the current study did not affect acid exposure within either region of the equine stomach. The pH in the ventral stomach was uniformly stable throughout the study, while the proximal pH demonstrated a 24 h circadian pattern.

  5. Effects of SGLT2 inhibition in human kidney proximal tubular cells--renoprotection in diabetic nephropathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Panchapakesan

    Full Text Available Sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors are oral hypoglycemic agents used to treat patients with diabetes mellitus. SGLT2 inhibitors block reabsorption of filtered glucose by inhibiting SGLT2, the primary glucose transporter in the proximal tubular cell (PTC, leading to glycosuria and lowering of serum glucose. We examined the renoprotective effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin to determine whether blocking glucose entry into the kidney PTCs reduced the inflammatory and fibrotic responses of the cell to high glucose. We used an in vitro model of human PTCs. HK2 cells (human kidney PTC line were exposed to control 5 mM, high glucose (HG 30 mM or the profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ1; 0.5 ng/ml in the presence and absence of empagliflozin for up to 72 h. SGLT1 and 2 expression and various inflammatory/fibrotic markers were assessed. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to determine the binding of phosphorylated smad3 to the promoter region of the SGLT2 gene. Our data showed that TGFβ1 but not HG increased SGLT2 expression and this occurred via phosphorylated smad3. HG induced expression of Toll-like receptor-4, increased nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid binding for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB and activator protein 1, induced collagen IV expression as well as interleukin-6 secretion all of which were attenuated with empagliflozin. Empagliflozin did not reduce high mobility group box protein 1 induced NF-κB suggesting that its effect is specifically related to a reduction in glycotoxicity. SGLT1 and GLUT2 expression was not significantly altered with HG or empagliflozin. In conclusion, empagliflozin reduces HG induced inflammatory and fibrotic markers by blocking glucose transport and did not induce a compensatory increase in SGLT1/GLUT2 expression. Although HG itself does not regulate SGLT2 expression in our model, TGFβ increases SGLT2 expression through phosphorylated smad3.

  6. Effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade on proximal tubular fluid reabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Karlsen, F M; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1997-01-01

    flow rate decreased by 2.0 +/- 0.8 nl/min, and early distal NaCl concentration decreased by 4.3 +/- 0.8 mM (mean +/- SE). No changes were observed after microperfusion with saline. Because the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism was operating in the closed-loop mode, the decreased NaCl load...... to the macula densa will be compensated by an increase in the single-nephron glomerular filtration rate. In agreement with this, the early proximal flow rate, measured proximal to the site of losartan administration, increased by 5.7 +/- 1.3 nl/min. The increase in the rate of proximal reabsorption between...

  7. A periodic table of effective field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Clifford [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics,California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA (United States); Kampf, Karol; Novotny, Jiri [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics,Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University,Prague (Czech Republic); Shen, Chia-Hsien [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics,California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA (United States); Trnka, Jaroslav [Center for Quantum Mathematics and Physics (QMAP),Department of Physics, University of California,Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    We systematically explore the space of scalar effective field theories (EFTs) consistent with a Lorentz invariant and local S-matrix. To do so we define an EFT classification based on four parameters characterizing 1) the number of derivatives per interaction, 2) the soft properties of amplitudes, 3) the leading valency of the interactions, and 4) the spacetime dimension. Carving out the allowed space of EFTs, we prove that exceptional EFTs like the non-linear sigma model, Dirac-Born-Infeld theory, and the special Galileon lie precisely on the boundary of allowed theory space. Using on-shell momentum shifts and recursion relations, we prove that EFTs with arbitrarily soft behavior are forbidden and EFTs with leading valency much greater than the spacetime dimension cannot have enhanced soft behavior. We then enumerate all single scalar EFTs in d<6 and verify that they correspond to known theories in the literature. Our results suggest that the exceptional theories are the natural EFT analogs of gauge theory and gravity because they are one-parameter theories whose interactions are strictly dictated by properties of the S-matrix.

  8. A combined use of proximal sensors can magnify the terroir effect of every vintage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priori, Simone; Bianconi, Nadia; Valboa, Giuseppe; Barbetti, Roberto; Fantappiè, Maria; L'Abate, Giovanni; Lorenzetti, Romina; Mocali, Stefano; Pellegrini, Sergio; Leprini, Marco; Perria, Rita; Storchi, Paolo; Costantini, Edoardo

    2014-05-01

    Grape composition, which affects the wine sensory qualities, depends on vine features (rootstock, scion, vine health) and vineyard management as much as environmental factors. Mapping soil at the vineyard scale, in particular, helps in optimizing the terroir expression of the wine. The terroir effect however varies every year, in dependence of the interaction between climate and soil. Aim of this research work was to set a methodology to dimension homogeneous harvest zones (HZ) in the vineyard and to test the vintage effect on them. Four terroir macro-units were selected within a wide farm in the Chianti Classico D.O.C.G. district (Siena, Central Italy). The selected macro-units represented the most common viticultural environments of the Chianti Classico D.O.C.G. and they were: 1) hills of high altitude (450-500 m a.s.l.) on feldspathic sandstones, with shallow sandy soils; 2) hills of high altitude (400-500 m a.s.l.) on clayey-calcareous flysches, with stony and calcareous soils; 3) hills of moderate altitude (250-350 m a.s.l.) on Pliocene sandy marine deposits; 4) hills and fluvial terraces of moderate altitude (200-300 m a.s.l., 50-100 m above the present river valley) on ancient fluvial deposits. Selected vineyards of each terroir macro-unit was surveyed by soil proximal sensing, to define two homogeneous zones (HZ) in terms of soil features in each macro-unit. The sensors used were: i) γ-ray spectrometer, to map the variability of soil surface in terms of parent material, texture and stoniness; ii) electromagnetic induction sensor (EMI) to determine the spatial variability of texture and soil moisture in the sub-surface horizons; iii) time domain reflectometry (TDR), to measure soil moisture content in the sub-surface soil horizon (30-50 cm). TDR measurements were performed in fixed points (about 1 each 1,000 m2) three times a year, during spring shoot growth (beginning of April), berries veraison (end of July-beginning of August) and final ripening phase

  9. X radiation effect in the proximal contorted renal tubules of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, I.P.

    1977-01-01

    Exposing C 57B1, 100 days old, mice to X-ray radiation in doses of 150, 300 and 400 R was observed in the proximal contorted renal tubules. An early appearance of unspecific alterations which are peculiar to ageing [pt

  10. Effect of size and site on the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of proximal urinary stones in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Enmar I; Morsi, Hany A; Elsheemy, Mohammed S; Aboulela, Waseem; Eissa, Mohamed A

    2013-06-01

    To determine the effect of location and size of stones on the outcome of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in children. In 2008-2010, 150 children (median age 6.6 years) with radio-opaque ureteric and renal stones measuring ≤4 cm were treated. Exclusion criteria were coagulation disorders, pyelonephritis, distal obstruction, non-functioning kidney and hypertension. ESWL was performed under general anesthesia. Follow up period was 5-22 months. 186 stones were treated: 76 calyceal, 92 pelvic and 18 proximal ureteral. Mean stone size was 1.3 cm. A total of 312 sessions were performed (mean per stone = 1.67 sessions). The mean number of shock waves per session was 2423.68. Overall stone-free rate was 89.24%. Having a calyceal location did not significantly affect the stone-free rate (p = 0.133). The failure rate was significantly higher (66.7%) in stones >3 cm in size (p auxillary ureteroscopy and 4 uretrolithotomy for treatment of steinstrasse. ESWL is a safe and effective method for treatment of stones up to 2 cm in children. Rate of auxillary procedures increases in stones >2 cm in size. About 80% of failures were associated with stone size >1.35 cm while 52.3% of completely cleared stones were associated with size <1.35 cm. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fabricating a silicon nanowire by using the proximity effect in electron beam lithography for investigation of the Coulomb blockade effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangao; Fang Zhonghui; Chen Kunji; Xu Jun; Huang Xinfan

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to fabricate a silicon nanowire relying on the proximity effect in electron beam lithography with a low acceleration voltage system by designing the exposure patterns with a rhombus sandwiched between two symmetric wedges. The reproducibility is investigated by changing the number of rhombuses. A device with a silicon nanowire is constructed on a highly doped silicon-on-insulator wafer to measure the electronic transport characteristics. Significant nonlinear behavior of current-voltage curves is observed at up to 150 K. The dependence of current on the drain voltage and back-gate voltage shows Coulomb blockade oscillations at 5.4 K, revealing a Coulomb island naturally formed in the nanowire. The mechanism of formation of the Coulomb island is discussed.

  12. Proximate effects of temperature versus evolved intrinsic constraints for embryonic development times among temperate and tropical songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton, Riccardo; Martin, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    The relative importance of intrinsic constraints imposed by evolved physiological trade-offs versus the proximate effects of temperature for interspecific variation in embryonic development time remains unclear. Understanding this distinction is important because slow development due to evolved trade-offs can yield phenotypic benefits, whereas slow development from low temperature can yield costs. We experimentally increased embryonic temperature in free-living tropical and north temperate songbird species to test these alternatives. Warmer temperatures consistently shortened development time without costs to embryo mass or metabolism. However, proximate effects of temperature played an increasingly stronger role than intrinsic constraints for development time among species with colder natural incubation temperatures. Long development times of tropical birds have been thought to primarily reflect evolved physiological trade-offs that facilitate their greater longevity. In contrast, our results indicate a much stronger role of temperature in embryonic development time than currently thought.

  13. Fitts's law in a selective reaching task: the proximity-to-hand effect of action-centered attention revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Timothy N; Zbinden, Michele

    2009-01-01

    The "proximity-to-hand" effect refers to the finding that distractors between the home position and the target cause more interference in a selective reaching movement than distractors farther from the home position. Based largely on the proximity-to-hand effect, Tipper, Lortie, and Baylis (1992) proposed that attention is distributed in an action-centered framework such that the interference caused by a specific stimulus depends on the action. The current experiments sought to determine if there is an attentional preference for stimuli closer to home or for stimuli that activate more efficiently executed actions regardless of the location. Results supported the latter hypothesis in that the greatest interference was observed when the distractor activated an action with a lower index of difficulty than the target, even though that distractor was farther from home than the target. These findings indicate that the action context mediates the influence that nontarget stimuli have on the processing of target responses.

  14. Particulate matter over a seven year period in urban and rural areas within, proximal and far from mining and power station operations in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, A G; Zoras, S; Evagelopoulos, V

    2006-11-01

    Lignite mining operations and lignite-fired power stations result in major particulate pollution (fly ash and fugitive dust) problems in the areas surrounding these activities. The problem is more complicated, especially, for urban areas located not far from these activities, due to additional contribution from the urban pollution sources. Knowledge of the distribution of airborne particulate matter into size fraction has become an increasing area of focus when examining the effects of particulate pollution. On the other hand, airborne particle concentration measurements are useful in order to assess the air pollution levels based on national and international air quality standards. These measurements are also necessary for developing air pollutants control strategies or for evaluating the effectiveness of these strategies, especially, for long periods. In this study an attempt is made in order to investigate the particle size distribution of fly ash and fugitive dust in a heavy industrialized (mining and power stations operations) area with complex terrain in the northwestern part of Greece. Parallel total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microm (PM10) concentrations are analyzed. These measurements gathered from thirteen monitoring stations located in the greater area of interest. Spatial, temporal variation and trend are analyzed over the last seven years. Furthermore, the geographical variation of PM10 - TSP correlation and PM10/TSP ratio are investigated and compared to those in the literature. The analysis has indicated that a complex system of sources and meteorological conditions modulate the particulate pollution of the examined area.

  15. Studies of proximity-effect and tunneling in YBCO/metal layered films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, L.H.; Barner, J.B.; Feldmann, W.L.; Farrow, L.A.; Miceli, P.F.; Ramesh, R.; Wilkens, B.J.; Bagley, B.G.; Tarascon, J.M.; Wernick, J.H. (Bellcore, Red Bank, NJ (USA)); Giroud, M. (CRTBT-CNRS, Grenoble (France)); Rowell, J.M. (Conductus, Sunnyvale, CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The short coherence length of the high-Tc superconductors, coupled with their tendency to form non-superconducting surface layers, accounts for the difficulty in achieving good tunnel junctions. A proximity layer of a longer coherence length normal metal (N) is expected to ''draw out'' Cooper pairs. Our goal is to fabricate reproducible, planar tunnel junctions of SNIS layered structures for proximity tunneling spectroscopy. Such structures of YBCO/N/I/Pb and SNS structures of YBCO/N/Pb indicate that the normal metal produces a low resistance contact to the YBCO surface with a supercurrent observed in the SNS. The insulating barrier in the SNIS is reproducible, insulating and continuous: A sharp Pb gap and phonons from the counter-electrode are routinely observed. (orig.).

  16. Studies of proximity-effect and tunneling in YBCO/metal layered films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, L.H.; Barner, J.B.; Feldmann, W.L.; Farrow, L.A.; Miceli, P.F.; Ramesh, R.; Wilkens, B.J.; Bagley, B.G.; Tarascon, J.M.; Wernick, J.H.; Giroud, M.; Rowell, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The short coherence length of the high-T c superconductors, coupled with their tendency to form non-superconducting surface layers, accounts for the difficulty in achieving good tunnel junctions. A proximity layer of a longer coherence length normal metal (N) is expected to draw out Cooper pairs. The authors' goal is to fabricate reproducible, planar tunnel junctions of SNIS layered structures for proximity tunneling spectroscopy. They discuss how such structures of YBCO/N/I/Pb and SNS structures of YBCO/N/Pb indicate that the normal metal produces a low resistance contact to the YBCO surface with a supercurrent observed in the SNS. The insulating barrier in the SNIS is reproducible, insulating and continuous: A sharp Pb gap and phonons from the counter-electrode are routinely observed

  17. Effect of cisplatin on proximal convoluted and straight segments of the rat kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, G; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1988-01-01

    lithium clearance (CLi/Cin) and e-TT/OT was observed (from 270 +/- 32 to 387 +/- 60 microliters/min/g kidney weight, 0.202 +/- 0.03 to 0.340 +/- 0.06 and 0.415 +/- 0.02 to 0.497 +/- 0.02, respectively). These increases indicate an increased fluid delivery from both the proximal straight segment...

  18. Effect of NPK and Poultry Manure on Growth, Yield, and Proximate Composition of Three Amaranths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Oyedeji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study compares the growth, yield, and proximate composition of Amaranthus hybridus, Amaranthus cruentus, and Amaranthus deflexus, grown with poultry manure and NPK in relation to the unfertilized soil of Ilorin, Nigeria. Viable seeds of the Amaranths raised in nursery for two weeks were transplanted (one plant per pot into unfertilized soil (control and soils fertilized with either NPK or poultry manure (PM at 30 Kg ha−1 rate arranged in randomized complete block design with four replicates. Data were collected on plant height, stem girth, number of leaves, leaf area, and number of branches from 1 week after transplanting (1 WAT. Fresh weight, dry weight, and proximate composition were determined at 6 WAT. Except for the length, breadth, and number of leaves, the order of growth parameters and yield in the three Amaranthus species was NPK > PM > control. NPK grown Amaranthus species had the highest protein while PM-grown vegetables had the highest ash content. Crude fibre in A. cruentus grown with PM was significantly higher than NPK and the control. The NPK treatment of A. hybridus and A. deflexus had the highest crude fibre content. NPK and PM favoured growth and yield of the Amaranthus species but influenced proximate composition differently.

  19. Testing legal assumptions regarding the effects of dancer nudity and proximity to patron on erotic expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, D; Blumenthal, E; Donnerstein, E; Kunkel, D; Shafer, B J; Lichtenstein, A

    2000-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted in order to test the assumptions by the Supreme Court in Barnes v. Glen Theatre, Inc. (1991) and the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals in Colacurcio v. City of Kent (1999) that government restrictions on dancer nudity and dancer-patron proximity do not affect the content of messages conveyed by erotic dancers. A field experiment was conducted in which dancer nudity (nude vs. partial clothing) and dancer-patron proximity (4 feet; 6 in.; 6 in. plus touch) were manipulated under controlled conditions in an adult night club. After male patrons viewed the dances, they completed questionnaires assessing affective states and reception of erotic, relational intimacy, and social messages. Contrary to the assumptions of the courts, the results showed that the content of messages conveyed by the dancers was significantly altered by restrictions placed on dancer nudity and dancer-patron proximity. These findings are interpreted in terms of social psychological responses to nudity and communication theories of nonverbal behavior. The legal implications of rejecting the assumptions made by the courts in light of the findings of this study are discussed. Finally, suggestions are made for future research.

  20. Statistical Detection of the He ii Transverse Proximity Effect: Evidence for Sustained Quasar Activity for >25 Million Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Tobias M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Worseck, Gabor [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Hennawi, Joseph F. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Crighton, Neil H. M. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Lukić, Zarija [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Oñorbe, Jose, E-mail: tschmidt@mpia.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-10-17

    The reionization of helium at z ~ 3 is the final phase transition of the intergalactic medium and supposed to be driven purely by quasars. The He ii transverse proximity effect—enhanced He ii transmission in a background sightline caused by the ionizing radiation of a foreground quasar—therefore offers a unique opportunity to probe the morphology of He ii reionization and to investigate the emission properties of quasars, e.g., ionizing emissivity, lifetime and beaming geometry. We use the most-recent HST/COS far-UV dataset of 22 He ii absorption spectra and conduct our own dedicated optical spectroscopic survey to find foreground quasars around these He ii sightlines. Based on a set of 66 foreground quasars, we perform the first statistical analysis of the He ii transverse proximity effect. Despite a large object-to-object variance, our stacking analysis reveals an excess in the average He ii transmission near the foreground quasars at 3σ significance. This statistical evidence for the transverse proximity effect is corroborated by a clear dependence of the signal strength on the inferred He ii ionization rate at the background sightline. Our detection places, based on the transverse light crossing time, a geometrical limit on the quasar lifetime of t{sub Q} > 25 Myr. This evidence for sustained activity of luminous quasars is relevant for the morphology of H i and He ii reionization and helps to constrain AGN triggering mechanisms, accretion physics and models of black hole mass assembly. We show how future modeling of the transverse proximity effect can additionally constrain quasar emission geometries and e.g., clarify if the large observed object-to-object variance can be explained by current models of quasar obscuration.

  1. Proximity effects on the spin density waves in X/Cr(001) multilayers (X = Sn, V, and Mn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amitouche, F.; Bouarab, S.; Tazibt, S.; Vega, A.; Demangeat, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present ab initio density functional calculations of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of X 2 /Cr 36 (001) and X 1 /Cr 37 (001) multilayers, with X = Sn, V and Mn, to investigate the impact of the proximity effects of the X layers on the spin density waves of the Cr slab. We find different magnetic profiles corresponding to the spin density wave and to the layered antiferromagnetic configurations. The nature of the different magnetic solutions is discussed in terms of the different interfacial environments in the proximity of Sn, V or Mn. The magnetic behavior at the interface is discussed in connection with the electronic structure through the density of electronic states projected at the interfacial X and Cr sites. We compare the results with those previously obtained for Fe 3 /X 1 /Cr 37 /X 1 (001) multilayers to analyze the role played by the ferromagnetic iron slab.

  2. Where should a laminoplasty start? The effect of the proximal level on post-laminoplasty loss of lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Keith W; Neustein, Thomas M; Rhee, John M

    2016-06-01

    Open-door laminoplasty is a useful operation in the surgical management of cervical myelopathy with favorable outcomes and relatively low complications. One potential undesirable outcome is a decrease in cervical lordosis postoperatively. It is unknown whether the most proximal level undergoing laminoplasty affects the magnitude of loss of lordosis. This study aimed to compare the loss of cervical lordosis postoperatively in patients for whom the most proximal level undergoing laminoplasty is C3 versus C4. A retrospective radiographic review at an academic center was carried out. A total of 65 patients at a single institution who underwent plated open door laminoplasty for cervical myelopathy by multiple surgeons over a 5-year period were included. The primary outcome was change in cervical lordosis, which was the difference in C2-T1 Cobb angle between the postoperative and preoperative films. Patients were divided into two groups based on the most proximal vertebral level undergoing laminoplasty. There were 49 patients who underwent laminoplasty beginning at C3, whereas 16 patients underwent laminoplasty beginning at C4. The C2-T1 Cobb angle was measured on the preoperative film and on the final postoperative follow-up film. The difference between these values was calculated for each patient, and the mean of the differences for the C3 group was compared with that of the C4 group. When C3 was the proximal plated laminoplasty level, loss of lordosis averaged 9°. In contrast, when C4 was the proximal plated level, loss of lordosis was significantly less and averaged only 3° (p=.047). In the group as a whole, mean preoperative lordosis was 18° compared with 11° postoperatively, for an overall 7° loss of lordosis. Starting the laminoplasty at C4 led to significantly less loss of lordosis than starting at C3. When the pattern of spinal cord compression does not require laminoplasty at C3, consideration should be given to making C4 the most cephalad laminoplasty

  3. Suppression of period-doubling and nonlinear parametric effects in periodically perturbed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.; Wiesenfeld, K.

    1986-01-01

    We consider the effect on a generic period-doubling bifurcation of a periodic perturbation, whose frequency ω 1 is near the period-doubled frequency ω 0 /2. The perturbation is shown to always suppress the bifurcation, shifting the bifurcation point and stabilizing the behavior at the original bifurcation point. We derive an equation characterizing the response of the system to the perturbation, analysis of which reveals many interesting features of the perturbed bifurcation, including (1) the scaling law relating the shift of the bifurcation point and the amplitude of the perturbation, (2) the characteristics of the system's response as a function of bifurcation parameter, (3) parametric amplification of the perturbation signal including nonlinear effects such as gain saturation and a discontinuity in the response at a critical perturbation amplitude, (4) the effect of the detuning (ω 1 -ω 0 /2) on the bifurcation, and (5) the emergence of a closely spaced set of peaks in the response spectrum. An important application is the use of period-doubling systems as small-signal amplifiers, e.g., the superconducting Josephson parametric amplifier

  4. Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Proximal Contour of Class II Composite Restorations on Stress Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abachizadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of proximal contour of class II composite restorations placed with straight or contoured matrix band using composite resins with different modulus of elasticity on stress distribution by finite element method. Methods: In order to evaluate the stress distribution of class II composite restorations using finite element method, upper right first molar and second premolar were modeled. Proximal boxes were designed and restored with universal Z250 and packable P60 composite resins (3M ESPE using two matrix systems: flat Tofflemire matrix and precurved sectional matrix. Finally models were evaluated under loads of 200 and 400 Newton at 90 degrees angle and the results were graphically illustrated in the form of Von Misses stresses. Results: In general the stress obtained under 400 Newton load was significantly greater than the stress of models under 200 Newton load. Von Misses stress distribution pattern of two different Z250 and P60 composites were very similar in all modes of loading and proximal contour. In all analyzed models there was a significant difference between models restored with Tofflemire matrix with flat contour and models restored with sectional matrix with curved contour. This difference was greater in first molar than second premolar. Conclusion: Use of a contoured matrix band results in less stress in class II composite resin restorations.

  5. Effects from magnetic boundary conditions in superconducting-magnetic proximity systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Baker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A superconductor-magnetic proximity system displays singlet-triplet pair correlations in the magnetization as a function of inhomogeneities of the magnetic profile. We discuss how the magnetic boundary conditions affects differently the curvature and winding number of rotating magnetizations in the three commonly used structures to generate long range triplet components: an exchange spring, a helical structure and a misaligned magnetic multilayer. We conclude that the choice of the system is dictated by the goal one wishes to achieve in designing a spintronic device but note that only the exchange spring presently offers an experimentally realizable magnetic profile that is tunable.

  6. Proximity effect bilayer nano superconducting quantum interference devices for millikelvin magnetometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blois, A., E-mail: a.blois@ucl.ac.uk; Rozhko, S.; Romans, E. J. [London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London (UCL), 17-19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Hao, L.; Gallop, J. C. [National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-21

    Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) incorporating thin film nanobridges as weak links have sensitivities approaching that required for single spin detection at 4.2 K. However, due to thermal hysteresis they are difficult to operate at much lower temperatures which hinder their application to many quantum measurements. To overcome this, we have developed nanoscale SQUIDs made from titanium-gold proximity bilayers. We show that their electrical properties are consistent with a theoretical model developed for heat flow in bilayers and demonstrate that they enable magnetic measurements to be made on a sample at system temperatures down to 60 mK.

  7. Effects of regrowth period, season and harvesting frequency on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of regrowth period, season and harvesting frequency on the yield and nutritive value of Chloris gayana in the southern highlands of Tanzania. ... In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and metabolisable energy (ME) declined faster with increasing periods of growth in the early than in the late wet season. ME ranged ...

  8. Proximity effect of Pb on CeCu6 and La0.05Ce0.95Cu6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.P.; Tipparachi, U.; Yang, H.D.; Wang, J.T.; Chen, B.; Chen, J.C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy fermion materials have attracted a great deal of attention since 1979. These materials which contain a rare earth (U, or Ce, etc.) element exhibit unusual behavior at low temperature. The effective mass m* of the Landau quasiparticles is found to be orders of magnitude higher than that of a bare electron. Some of the Heavy Fermion materials become superconductors at low temperature. The pairing of electrons in these superconductors may not be of s symmetry like those in BCS type superconductors. The mismatch in electronic mass and the difference in pairing state between the light conventional superconducting electrons and the heavy fermion electrons have brought the coupling between light electrons (BCS type) and the heavy fermion electrons into question. Proximity effect of Pb on CeCu 6 , Pb on La 0.05 Ce 0.95 Cu 6 , and Pb on Cu was used to investigate the coupling between the conventional superconducting electrons of Pb and the heavy electrons in CeCu 6 or La 0.05 Ce 0.95 Cu 6 . In this experiment proximity effect was found between Pb and CeCu 6 , as well as between Pb and La 0.05 Ce 0.95 Cu 6 . However, the proximity effect is small when compared with that between Pb and Cu. This indicates a much shorter extrapolation length in the heavy fermion materials than in Cu. Such a phenomenon can be explained by the mismatch in effective mass between the superconducting Pb electrons and the heavy fermion electrons

  9. Effects of intravenous bumetanide administration on renal haemodynamics and proximal and distal tubular sodium reabsorption in conscious rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalmi, M.; Petersen, J.S.; Christensen, S. (Department of pharmacology, University of Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1989-01-01

    The renal effects of 0.02-62.5 mg/kg bumetanide given as intravenous bolus injections were studied in water diuretic conscious rats. Clearances of {sup 14}C-tetraethylammonium, {sup 3}H-inulin and lithium were used as markers for renal plasma flow (RPF), glomerular filtion rate (GFR) and proximal tubular output, respectively. Bumetanide caused biphasic, transient and dose-independent changes in the renal haemodynamics without significant alterations of the filtration fraction. At dose-levels above 0.02 mg/kg bumetanide increased urine flow, absolute and fractional Na excretion as well as the indices for fractional output of Na from the proximal tubules (C{sub Li}/C{sub I}n) and the distal nephron segments (C{sub Na}/C{sub Li}). The changes in C{sub Li}/C{sub In} became maximal at doses above 0.5 mg/kg, whereas C{sub Na}/C{sub Li} was increased with the dose up to 12.5 mg/kg. Paradoxically, doses above 12.5 mg/kg were less natriuretic due to a decrease of C{sub Na}/C{sub Li}. It is concluded that in rats bumetanide is an effective although short-acting diuretic when administered intravenously. When comparing peak responses bumetanide is equipotent to furosemide but has a lower maximal efficacy. Judged from the changes in fractional lithium excretion, the natriuretic effect of bumetanide is effected by inhibition of Na reabsorption in the proximal tubule in addition to the well-known effect on the distal nephron segment. (author).

  10. Proximity effect and Andreev reflection in single-C{sub 60} junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Jonathan; Neel, Nicolas; Kroeger, Joerg [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Single C{sub 60} molecules deposited on an ultrathin oxide film on Nb(110) were investigated using a low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscope. Spectroscopy of the differential conductance (dI/dV) in the tunnelling range indicates proximity-induced superconductivity in junctions comprising the oxide layer as well as single C{sub 60} molecules. Andreev reflection is enhanced upon controlled fabrication of tip-surface contacts. With decreasing electrode separation the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer energy gap gradually evolves into a zero-bias peak in dI/dV spectra reflecting the spectroscopic signature of Andreev reflection. The current-voltage characteristics of the tunnelling and contact junctions are well described by the Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk theory. Our spectroscopic data evidence the influence of the electrodes' atomic-scale structure on electron transport across normal metal-superconductor interfaces.

  11. Proximity effect and hot-electron diffusion in Ag/Al2O3/Al tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netel, H.; Jochum, J.; Labov, S.E.; Mears, C.A.; Frank, M.; Chow, D.; Lindeman, M.A.; Hiller, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    We have fabricated Ag/Al 2 O 3 /Al tunnel junctions on Si substrates using a new process. This process was developed to fabricate superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) on the surface of a superconductor. These junctions allow us to study the proximity effect of a superconducting Al film on a normal metal trapping layer. In addition, these devices allow us to measure the hot-electron diffusion constant using a single junction. Lastly these devices will help us optimize the design and fabrication of tunnel junctions on the surface of high-Z, ultra-pure superconducting crystals. 5 refs., 8 figs

  12. Exploring the Effect of Geographical Proximity and University Quality on University-Industry Collaboration in the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Reichstein, Toke; Salter, Ammon

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the effect of geographical proximity and university quality on university–industry collaboration in the United Kingdom, Regional Studies. This paper concerns the geographical distance between a firm and the universities in its local area. It is argued that firms' decisions to collaborat...... collaboration. However, it is also found that if faced with the choice, firms appear to give preference to the research quality of the university partner over geographical closeness. This is particularly true for high-research and development intensive firms....

  13. Valley-locked thermospin effect in silicene and germanene with asymmetric magnetic field induced by ferromagnetic proximity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xuechao; Wang, Yun-Tong; Wen, Rui; Wang, Shu-Xuan; Tian, Yue; Zhou, Xingfei; Chen, Wei; Yang, Zhihong

    2018-02-01

    Silicene and germanene, as graphenelike materials with observable spin-orbit couplings and two distinctive valleys, have potential applications in future low-dissipation spintronics and valleytronics. We here propose a magnetic system of silicene or germanene intercalated between two ferromagetic (FM) dielectric layers, and find that the system with a proximity-induced asymmetric magnetic field supports an attractive phenomenon named the valley-locked spin-dependent Seebeck effect (VL-SSE) driven by a thermal gradient. The VL-SSE indicates that the carries from only one valley could be thermally excited, with opposite spin polarization counterpropagating along the thermal gradient direction, while nearly no carrier from the other insulating valley is excited due to the relatively wide band gap. It is also illustrated that the VL-SSE here does not survive in the usual FM or anti-FM systems, and can be destroyed by the overlarge temperature broadening. Moreover, we prove that the signal for VL-SSE can be weakened gradually with the enhancement of the local interlayer electric field, and be strengthened lineally by increasing the source-drain temperature difference in a caloritronic field effect transistor. Further calculations indicate that the VL-SSE is robust against many perturbations, including the global and local Fermi levels as well as the magnetic strength. These findings about the valley-locked thermospin effect provide a nontrivial and convenient dimension to control the quantum numbers of spin and valley and are expected to be applied in future spin-valley logic circuits and energy-saving devices.

  14. Effects of melatonin implantation during the slow period of cashmere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin implantation during the slow period of cashmere growth on fibre production in Inner Mongolian cashmere goats. It was found that melatonin implantation had no effect on the growth rate of cashmere, except from February to March when the rate of treated goats ...

  15. The effect of L-cysteine on the portion-selective uptake of cadmium in the renal proximal tubule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Masataka; Sano, Kenichi; Webb, M.

    1987-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd), co-administered with an excess of L-cysteine, accumulates rapidly in the kidneys of the rat. After subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 3 μmol CdCl 2 /kg body wt the concentrations of Cd in the blood and kidneys increase with the dose of cysteine over the range 0.06-5.0 mmol/kg body wt. At cysteine doses of less than 1.5 mmol/kg body wt the ratio of the concentrations of Cd in the outer medulla and cortex of the kidney remains the same as that after the injection of Cd alone. This ratio, however, is more than doubled at dose levels of 5-10 mmol cysteine/kg body wt. Hepatic uptake of Cd is unaffected by doses of cysteine below 1.5 mmol/kg body wt but decreases markedly at higher doses. In animals that are dosed simultaneously with 5 mmol cysteine/kg body wt, renal uptake of 109 Cd is known to occur in the straight segments of the proximal tubules. At a dose level of less than 1.5 mmol cysteine/kg body wt the present autoradiographical studies show that 109 Cd is taken up predominantly by the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney cortex. At the critical dose level (1.5 mmol/kg body wt), cysteine decreases the retention of Cd at the s.c. injection site, but probably has little effect on the distribution of Cd between protein and other carrier molecules in the blood. This distribution, however, is altered at higher cysteine dose levels. It is suggested that, under the latter conditions, stable Cd-cysteine complexes are formed in the blood and are filtered readily through the glomeruli. These complexes are taken up in the kidney at the sites of cysteine reabsorption which, by studies with L-[ 35 S]-cysteine, are identified as the straight segments of the proximal tubules. (orig.)

  16. Methods to Evaluate the Effect of Ethanol on the Folate Analogue: Fluorescein Methotrexate Uptake in Human Proximal Tubular Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar JT Gowder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol-induced folate deficiency is due to effects of ethanol on folate metabolism and absorption. We have already shown by using different methods that ethanol interferes with reabsorption of folate from the proximal tubule. In this study, we have used the folate analogue, the fluorescein methotrexate (FL-MTX, in order to evaluate effects of ethanol on FL-MTX uptake by the human proximal tubular (HPT cells by using a confocal microscope and fluoroskan microplate reader. Since endothelins (ETs play a major role in a number of diseases and also in the damage induced by a variety of chemicals, we have used endothelin-B (ET-B and protein kinase-C (PKC inhibitors to evaluate the role of endothelin in ethanol-mediated FL-MTX uptake by using fluoroskan microplate reader. Confocal microscope and fluoroskan studies reveal that cellular absorption of FL-MTX is concentration-dependent. Moreover, ethanol concentration has an impact on FL-MTX uptake. Fluoroskan studies reveal that the ethanol-induced decrease in FL-MTX uptake is reversed by adding the ET-B receptor antagonist (RES-701-1 or PKC-selective inhibitor (BIM. Thus, we can conclude that ethanol may act via ET and ET in turn may act via ET-B receptor and the PKC signaling pathway to impair FL-MTX transport.

  17. Substance use changes and social role transitions: proximal developmental effects on ongoing trajectories from late adolescence through early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E; Maslowsky, Julie; Bachman, Jerald G; O'Malley, Patrick M; Maggs, Jennifer L; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2010-11-01

    Substance use changes rapidly during late adolescence and early adulthood. This time in the life course is also dense with social role changes, as role changes provide dynamic context for individual developmental change. Using nationally representative, multiwave longitudinal data from age 18 to 28, we examine proximal links between changes in social roles and changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood. We find that changes in family roles, such as marriage, divorce, and parenthood, have clear and consistent associations with changes in substance use. With some notable exceptions, changes in school and work roles have weaker effects on changes in substance use compared to family roles. Changes in socializing (i.e., nights out for fun and recreation) and in religiosity were found to mediate the relationship of social role transitions to substance use. Two time-invariant covariates, socioeconomic background and heavy adolescent substance use, predicted social role status, but did not moderate associations, as within-person links between social roles and substance use were largely equivalent across groups. This paper adds to the cascading effects literature by considering how, within individuals, more proximal variations in school, work, and family roles relate to variations in substance use, and which roles appear to be most influential in precipitating changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood.

  18. Investigation of the influence of the proximity effect and randomness on a photolithographically fabricated photonic crystal nanobeam cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsumoto, Tomohiro; Kumazaki, Hajime; Ishida, Rammaru; Tanabe, Takasumi

    2018-01-01

    Recent progress on the fabrication techniques used in silicon photonics foundries has enabled us to fabricate photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavities using a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible process. A high Q two-dimensional PhC nanocavity and a one-dimensional nanobeam PhC cavity with a Q exceeding 100 thousand have been fabricated using ArF excimer laser immersion lithography. These are important steps toward the fusion of silicon photonics devices and PhC devices. Although the fabrication must be reproducible for industrial applications, the properties of PhC nanocavities are sensitively affected by the proximity effect and randomness. In this study, we quantitatively investigated the influence of the proximity effect and randomness on a silicon nanobeam PhC cavity. First, we discussed the optical properties of cavities defined with one- and two-step exposure methods, which revealed the necessity of a multi-stage exposure process for our structure. Then, we investigated the impact of block structures placed next to the cavities. The presence of the blocks modified the resonant wavelength of the cavities by about 10 nm. The highest Q we obtained was over 100 thousand. We also discussed the influence of photomask misalignment, which is also a possible cause of disorders in the photolithographic fabrication process. This study will provide useful information for fabricating integrated photonic circuits with PhC nanocavities using a photolithographic process.

  19. Effects on Magnetic Properties of GaMnAs Induced by Proximity of Topological Insulator Bi2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bac, Seul-Ki; Lee, Hakjoon; Lee, Sangyeop; Choi, Seonghoon; Lee, Sanghoon; Liu, X.; Dobrowolska, M.; Furdyna, J. K.

    2018-04-01

    Effects induced by a topological insulator Bi2Se3 on the magnetic properties of an adjacent GaMnAs film have been investigated using transport measurements. We observed three conspicuous effects in the GaMnAs layer induced by the proximity of the Bi2Se3 overlayer. First, our resistivity data as a function of temperature show that the GaMnAs layer adjacent to the Bi2Se3 displayed strongly metallic behavior, as compared with the GaMnAs control specimen. Second, the Curie temperature of the GaMnAs in the bilayer was observed to be higher than that of the control layer, in our case by nearly a factor of two. Finally, we observed significant changes in the in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the GaMnAs in the bilayer, in the form of much higher values of both cubic and uniaxial anisotropy parameters. This latter feature manifests itself in a rather spectacular increase of the coercive field observed in magnetization reversal across the in-plane hard axis. These results suggest that proximity of an adjacent Bi2Se3 layer represents an important tool for modifying and controlling the ferromagnetic properties of GaMnAs film, and could thus be used to optimize this and similar materials for applications in spintronic devices.

  20. Proximity induced ferromagnetism, superconductivity, and finite-size effects on the surface states of topological insulator nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Parijat; Kubis, Tillmann; Tan, Yaohua; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 are well known 3D-topological insulators (TI). Films made of these materials exhibit metal-like surface states with a Dirac dispersion and possess high mobility. The high mobility metal-like surface states can serve as building blocks for a variety of applications that involve tuning their dispersion relationship and opening a band gap. A band gap can be opened either by breaking time reversal symmetry, the proximity effect of a superconductor or ferromagnet or adjusting the dimensionality of the TI material. In this work, methods that can be employed to easily open a band gap for the TI surface states are assessed. Two approaches are described: (1) Coating the surface states with a ferromagnet which has a controllable magnetization axis. The magnetization strength of the ferromagnet is incorporated as an exchange interaction term in the Hamiltonian. (2) An s-wave superconductor, because of the proximity effect, when coupled to a 3D-TI opens a band gap on the surface. Finally, the hybridization of the surface Dirac cones can be controlled by reducing the thickness of the topological insulator film. It is shown that this alters the band gap significantly.

  1. Substance Use Changes and Social Role Transitions: Proximal Developmental Effects on Ongoing Trajectories from Late Adolescence through Early Adulthood*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E.; Maslowsky, Julie; Bachman, Jerald G.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2010-01-01

    Substance use changes rapidly during late adolescence and early adulthood. Not coincidentally, this time in the life course is also dense with social role changes, as role changes provide dynamic context for individual developmental change. Using nationally representative, multiwave longitudinal data from age 18 to 28, we examine proximal links between changes in social roles and changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood. We find that changes in family roles, such as marriage, divorce, and parenthood, have clear and consistent associations with changes in substance use. With some notable exceptions, changes in school and work roles have weaker effects on changes in substance use compared to family roles. Changes in socializing (i.e., nights out for fun and recreation) and in religiosity were found to mediate the relationship of social role transitions to substance use. Two time- invariant covariates, socioeconomic background and heavy adolescent substance use, predicted social role status, but did not moderate associations, as within-person links between social roles and substance use were largely equivalent across groups. This paper adds to the cascading effects literature by considering how, within individuals, more proximal variations in school, work, and family roles relate to variations in substance use; and which roles appear to be most influential in precipitating changes in substance use during the transition to adulthood. PMID:20883590

  2. Dressed topological insulators. Rashba impurity, Kondo effect, magnetic impurities, proximity-induced superconductivity, hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posske, Thore Hagen

    2016-01-01

    Topological insulators are electronic phases that insulate in the bulk and accommodate a peculiar, metallic edge liquid with a spin-dependent dispersion. They are regarded to be of considerable future use in spintronics and for quantum computation. Besides determining the intrinsic properties of this rather novel electronic phase, considering its combination with well-known physical systems can generate genuinely new physics. In this thesis, we report on such combinations including topological insulators. Specifically, we analyze an attached Rashba impurity, a Kondo dot in the two channel setup, magnetic impurities on the surface of a strong three-dimensional topological insulator, the proximity coupling of the latter system to a superconductor, and hybrid systems consisting of a topological insulator and a semimetal. Let us summarize our primary results. Firstly, we determine an analytical formula for the Kondo cloud and describe its possible detection in current correlations far away from the Kondo region. We thereby rely on and extend the method of refermionizable points. Furthermore, we find a class of gapless topological superconductors and semimetals, which accommodate edge states that behave similarly to the ones of globally gapped topological phases. Unexpectedly, we also find edge states that change their chirality when affected by sufficiently strong disorder. We regard the presented research helpful in future classifications and applications of systems containing topological insulators, of which we propose some examples.

  3. Dressed topological insulators. Rashba impurity, Kondo effect, magnetic impurities, proximity-induced superconductivity, hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posske, Thore Hagen

    2016-02-26

    Topological insulators are electronic phases that insulate in the bulk and accommodate a peculiar, metallic edge liquid with a spin-dependent dispersion. They are regarded to be of considerable future use in spintronics and for quantum computation. Besides determining the intrinsic properties of this rather novel electronic phase, considering its combination with well-known physical systems can generate genuinely new physics. In this thesis, we report on such combinations including topological insulators. Specifically, we analyze an attached Rashba impurity, a Kondo dot in the two channel setup, magnetic impurities on the surface of a strong three-dimensional topological insulator, the proximity coupling of the latter system to a superconductor, and hybrid systems consisting of a topological insulator and a semimetal. Let us summarize our primary results. Firstly, we determine an analytical formula for the Kondo cloud and describe its possible detection in current correlations far away from the Kondo region. We thereby rely on and extend the method of refermionizable points. Furthermore, we find a class of gapless topological superconductors and semimetals, which accommodate edge states that behave similarly to the ones of globally gapped topological phases. Unexpectedly, we also find edge states that change their chirality when affected by sufficiently strong disorder. We regard the presented research helpful in future classifications and applications of systems containing topological insulators, of which we propose some examples.

  4. Proximity-effect and tunneling in YBa2Cu3O7/metal layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, L.H.; Feldmann, W.L.; Barner, J.B.; Farrow, L.A.; Miceli, P.F.; Ramesh, R.; Wilkens, B.J.; Bagley, B.G.; Giroud, M.; Rowell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Superconducting thin films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 are prepared in-situ by on-axis sputter deposition from a single, composite target. The planar magnetron target composition of YBa:Cu = 1.08:1.76:4.5 sputtered onto MgO at T ∼ 750 degrees C in a 600 mTorr Ar-O 2 atmosphere yields reproducible superconducting films having T c (R = 0) > 80 K and stoichiometry 1:2:3, that are shiny and of near epitaxial crystalline quality. In order to ensure clean interfaces, YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 /normal metal bilayers (to form SNS' Josephson junctions) and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 /normal metal/insulating barrier trilayers (to form SNIS' proximity tunnel junctions) are grown completely in-situ. (The S' = Pb counter electrode is evaporated ex-situ.) A supercurrent and Shapiro steps are observed in microwave irradiated SNS' (N = Ag) small area (5 x 10 -5 cm 2 junctions. In SNIS' tunnel junctions, high-quality Pb tunnelling is observed

  5. The Analysis of Treatment Modes of Juxta-articular Fractures of Proximal Part of a Femur and their Effect (Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Kauts

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns the current status of the topical problem in traumatology - treatment of juxta-articular fractures of proximal part of a femur and their effect. Analytical review of domestic and foreign literature has allowed to determine the basic problems in treatment of the particular group of patients and to define long-term trends of osteosynthesis of juxta-articular fractures of proximal part of a femur at the present stage

  6. Proximity effects on the spin density waves in X/Cr(001) multilayers (X = Sn, V, and Mn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amitouche, F. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. No17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Bouarab, S., E-mail: bouarab_said@mail.ummto.d [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. No17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Tazibt, S. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. No17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Vega, A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Demangeat, C. [Institut de Physique, 3 rue de l' Universite 67000 Strasbourg (France)

    2011-01-03

    We present ab initio density functional calculations of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of X{sub 2}/Cr{sub 36}(001) and X{sub 1}/Cr{sub 37}(001) multilayers, with X = Sn, V and Mn, to investigate the impact of the proximity effects of the X layers on the spin density waves of the Cr slab. We find different magnetic profiles corresponding to the spin density wave and to the layered antiferromagnetic configurations. The nature of the different magnetic solutions is discussed in terms of the different interfacial environments in the proximity of Sn, V or Mn. The magnetic behavior at the interface is discussed in connection with the electronic structure through the density of electronic states projected at the interfacial X and Cr sites. We compare the results with those previously obtained for Fe{sub 3}/X{sub 1}/Cr{sub 37}/X{sub 1}(001) multilayers to analyze the role played by the ferromagnetic iron slab.

  7. Effects of individual and proximate educational context on intimate partner violence: a population-based study of women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Leland K; Kawachi, Ichiro; Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Subramanian, S V

    2008-03-01

    We examined the role of women's education and proximate educational context on intimate partner violence (IPV). We examined a sample of 83627 married women aged 15 to 49 years from the 1998 to 1999 Indian National Family Health Survey. We used multilevel multiple logistic regression modeling to estimate the relative effect of women's and their husband's levels of education, spousal education differential, and community-level literacy on women's risk of recent and lifetime IPV. In adjusted models, odds of recent IPV among women without any education were 5.61 times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.53, 8.92) those of college-educated women, and odds among wives of uneducated men were 1.84 times (95% CI=1.44, 2.35) those of wives of college-educated men. Women with more education than their husbands were more likely than those with educational parity to report recent IPV (odds ratio [OR]=1.18; 95% CI=1.05, 1.33). The results were similar for lifetime IPV. After we controlled for individual factors, as community male and female literacy levels increased, likelihood of IPV declined. Although increasing women's levels of education is crucial to reducing IPV for women, proximate educational context is also an important factor in reducing this public health burden.

  8. The effects of knee immobilization on marrow adipocyte hyperplasia and hypertrophy at the proximal rat tibia epiphysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Guy; Uhthoff, Hans K; Solanki, Sanjay; Laneuville, Odette

    2017-09-01

    Marrow adipose deposition is observed during aging and in association with extended periods of immobility. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia to bone marrow fat deposition induced by immobilization of the rat knee joint for 2, 4, 16 or 32 weeks. Histomorphometric analyses compared immobilized to sham-operated proximal tibia from age and gender matched rats to assess the contribution of aging and duration of immobilization on the number and size of marrow adipocytes. Results indicated that marrow adipose tissue increased with the duration of immobilization and was significant larger at 16 weeks compared to the sham-operated group (0.09956±0.13276mm 2 vs 0.01990±0.01100mm 2 , p=0.047). The marrow adipose tissue was characterized by hyperplasia of adipocytes with a smaller average size after 2 and 4 weeks of immobilization (at 2 weeks hyperplasia: 68.86±33.62 vs 43.57±24.47 adipocytes/mm 2 , p=0.048; at 4 weeks hypotrophy: 0.00036±0.00019 vs 0.00046±0.00023mm 2 , p=0.027), and by adipocyte hypertrophy after 16 weeks of immobilization (0.00083±0.00049 vs 0.00046±0.00028mm 2 , p=0.027) compared to sham-operated. Both immobilized and sham-operated groups showed marrow adipose conversion with age; immobilized (p=0.008; sham: p=0.003). Overall, fat deposition in the bone marrow of the proximal rat tibia epiphysis and induced by knee joint immobilization was characterized by hyperplasia of small adipocytes in the early phase and by adipocyte hypertrophy in the later phase. Mediators of marrow fat deposition after immobilization and preventive countermeasures need to be investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of varying incubation periods on cytotoxicity and virucidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Backgrounds: Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. has an anti-HIV activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of incubation periods on the cytotoxicity and virucidal activities of the J. gendarussa leaves extract on MOLT-4 cells. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxicity assay was evaluated by using the WST-1 test with ...

  10. The effects of incubation period and temperature on the Hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of incubation period and temperature on the Hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) technique for detection of faecal contamination in water. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Journal Home ... A total of 171 water samples from 3 sources were analyzed for the presence of faecal contamination by

  11. Effects of storage conditions and storage period on nutritional and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the effects of storage conditions and storage period on the nutritional and other qualities of stored yam tubers were investigated. ... environment, signs of deterioration of the tuber such as sprouting, weight loss and rotting and some ...

  12. Effective medium of periodic fluid-solid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jun; Wu, Ying; Liu, Zhengyou

    2012-01-01

    An analytic solution of the effective mass density and bulk modulus of a periodic fluid-solid composite is obtained by using the multiple-scattering theory in the long-wavelength limit. It is shown that when the concentration of solid inclusions

  13. effects of hatching egg weight and length of storage period

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    metinpetek

    There were no significant effects of egg storage period on body weight and feed ... chicks from all groups were reared under the same growing conditions in battery ... on hatching time, apparent fertility, hatchability of fertile and total eggs data ...

  14. Effect of Maternal Depression on Child Behavior: A Sensitive Period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagner, Daniel M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Seeley, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maternal depression during the child's first year of life (i.e., sensitive period) on subsequent behavior problems. Method: Participants were 175 mothers participating in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) who met lifetime diagnostic criteria for major depressive…

  15. Effects of Molasses and Storage Period on the Chemical, Microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of molasses and storage periods on the chemical composition, microbial and fermentation characteristics of silage produced from guinea grass and cassava leaves mixture. Guinea grass was harvested at 2 months regrowth from an established pasture and cassava tops ...

  16. Effects of Long Period Ocean Tides on the Earth's Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Richard S.; Chao, Ben F.; Desai, Shailen D.

    1996-01-01

    The spectra of polar motion excitation functions exhibit enhanced power in the fortnightly tidal band. This enhanced power is attributed to ocean tidal excitation. Ocean tide models predict polar motion excitation effects that differ with each other, and with observations, by factors as large as 2-3. There is a need for inproved models for the effect of long-period ocean tides on Earth's rotation.

  17. Communication and proximity effects on outcomes attributable to sense of presence in distance bioinformatics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisiak Richard

    2011-03-01

    . Dispersed videoconferencing students indicated the highest levels of interaction and there was evidence they interacted more. Conclusion Results do not strongly support proximity as a sense of presence factor affecting performance and attitudes, but do suggest communication medium may affect interactivity.

  18. Communication and proximity effects on outcomes attributable to sense of presence in distance bioinformatics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatis, Craig; Berner, Eta S; Hammack, Glenn; Smith, Steve; Maisiak, Richard; Ackerman, Michael

    2011-03-14

    levels of interaction and there was evidence they interacted more. Results do not strongly support proximity as a sense of presence factor affecting performance and attitudes, but do suggest communication medium may affect interactivity.

  19. Periodicity-induced effects and method in vibro-acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2014-01-01

    of the lecture is to illustrate these issues in simple examples and to discuss possible applications and generalisations. First, the eigenfrequency spectra of finite periodic structures are compared with the location of stop-bands for their infinite counterparts. This is done with the special attention being...... of the lecture is concerned with the numerical implementation of the Floquet theory and the experimental demonstration of periodicity effects. A brief exposition of the Wave Finite Element method and an assessment of its validity range in canonical benchmark problems are presented. The results of experimental...

  20. [Comparison of clinical effect on locking plate for proximal humeral fracture with or without application of inferomedial screws].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiu-wu; Fan, Jian; Yuan, Feng

    2016-06-01

    To compare clinical outcomes of locking plate for proximal humeral fracture whether application of inferomedial screws. From January 2012 to July 2013, 46 patients with proximal humeral fracture underwent locking plates were retrospectively analyzed. There were 25 males and 21 females aged from 29 to 80 years old with an average of 55.1 years old. Among them, 25 patients were treated with inferomedial screws (support group), including 13 males and 12 females aged from 38 to 80 years old with an average of (55.8 ± 11.8) years old; 8 cases were part two fracture,10 cases were part three fracture and 7 cases were part four fracture according to Neer classification. Twenty-one patients were treated without inferomedial screws (non-support group), including 12 males and 9 females aged from 29 to 79 years old with an average of (54.2 ± 14.8)years old; 6 cases were part two fracture, 9 cases were part three fracture and 6 cases were part four fracture according to Neer classification. Operative time, fracture healing time and complications were observed and compared, Neer scoring of shoulder joint were used to evaluate clinical effect. All patients were followed up from 12 to 41 months with an average of 15.6 months. Operative time and fracture healing time in support group was (1.6 ± 0.4) h and (3.0 ± 0.6) months, and (1.5 ± 0.4) h and (3.1 ± 0.6) months in non-support group, while there was no statistical difference in operative time and fracture healing time between two groups. There was significant differences in Neer score between support group (89.7± 4.9) and non-support group (83.1 ± 7.1). No complication occurred in support group,while 4 cases occurred complications in non-support group. Locking plate with inferomedial screws for proximal humeral fracture has advantages of stable fixation, less complications, quick recovery of function and satisfied clinical effect.

  1. Effect of different cooking methods on proximate and mineral composition of striped snakehead fish (Channa striatus, Bloch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimuthu, K; Thilaga, M; Kathiresan, S; Xavier, R; Mas, R H M H

    2012-06-01

    The effects of different cooking methods (boiling, baking, frying and grilling) on proximate and mineral composition of snakehead fish were investigated. The mean content of moisture, protein, fat and ash of raw fish was found to be 77.2 ± 2.39, 13.9 ± 2.89, 5.9 ± 0.45 and 0.77 ± 0.12% respectively. The changes in the amount of protein and fat were found to be significantly higher in frying and grilling fish. The ash content increased significantly whereas that of the minerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn and Mn) was not affected in all cooking methods. Increased in Cu contents and decreased in P contents were observed in all cooking methods except grilling. In the present study, the grilling method of cooking is found to be the best for healthy eating.

  2. Dose-dependent effects of an immune challenge at both ultimate and proximate levels in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrand, M; Dowling, D K

    2014-05-01

    Immune responses are highly dynamic. The magnitude and efficiency of an immune response to a pathogen can change markedly across individuals, and such changes may be influenced by variance in a range of intrinsic (e.g. age, genotype, sex) and external (e.g. abiotic stress, pathogen identity, strain) factors. Life history theory predicts that up-regulation of the immune system will come at a physiological cost, and studies have confirmed that increased investment in immunity can reduce reproductive output and survival. Furthermore, males and females often have divergent reproductive strategies, and this might drive the evolution of sex-specific life history trade-offs involving immunity, and sexual dimorphism in immune responses per se. Here, we employ an experiment design to elucidate dose-dependent and sex-specific responses to exposure to a nonpathogenic immune elicitor at two scales--the 'ultimate' life history and the underlying 'proximate' immune level in Drosophila melanogaster. We found dose-dependent effects of immune challenges on both male and female components of reproductive success, but not on survival, as well as a response in antimicrobial activity. These results indicate that even in the absence of the direct pathogenic effects that are associated with actual disease, individual life histories respond to a perceived immune challenge--but with the magnitude of this response being contingent on the initial dose of exposure. Furthermore, the results indicate that immune responses at the ultimate life history level may indeed reflect underlying processes that occur at the proximate level. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Quantum Proximity Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that at long wavelengths λ an s-wave scatterer can have a scattering cross section σ on the order of λ 2 , much larger than its physical size, as measured by the range of its potential. Very interesting phenomena can arise when two or more identical scatterers are placed close together, well within one wavelength. We show that, for a pair of identical scatterers, an extremely narrow p-wave open-quote open-quote proximity close-quote close-quote resonance develops from a broader s-wave resonance of the individual scatterers. A new s-wave resonance of the pair also appears. The relation of these proximity resonances (so called because they appear when the scatterers are close together) to the Thomas and Efimov effects is discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  4. Effective thermoelastic properties of composites with periodicity in cylindrical coordinates

    KAUST Repository

    Chatzigeorgiou, George

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this work is to study composites that present cylindrical periodicity in the microstructure. The effective thermomechanical properties of these composites are identified using a modified version of the asymptotic expansion homogenization method, which accounts for unit cells with shell shape. The microscale response is also shown. Several numerical examples demonstrate the use of the proposed approach, which is validated by other micromechanics methods. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Flux flow and proximity effects in aligned Pb--Cd eutectic lamellar structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, C. R.

    1977-09-01

    A high speed directional solidification technique was used to fabricate lamellar Pb-Cd and (Pb-Mg)--(Cd-Mg) superconductor-normal metal composites in which all the lamellae are oriented perpendicular to the broad surface of the sample. These lamellar composites are found to behave like a large number (approximately 1000) of superconducting-normal-superconducting junctions. For the Pb-Cd eutectic system, the critical current densities and critical fields have shown no dependence upon the lamellar periods between 1.0 and 3.1 microns. The critical current density of the aligned lamellar Pb-Cd structures was enhanced approximately 50% when compared to quenched eutectic alloy and to pure Pb. The superconducting transition temperature, T/sub c/, varies inversely with the square of the thickness of the superconducting material as expected from Ginzburg-Landau theory. Upon annealing, the Pb lamellae change from type II to type I superconductivity.

  6. Flux flow and proximity effects in aligned Pb--Cd eutectic lamellar structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, C.R.

    1977-09-01

    A high speed directional solidification technique was used to fabricate lamellar Pb-Cd and (Pb-Mg)--(Cd-Mg) superconductor-normal metal composites in which all the lamellae are oriented perpendicular to the broad surface of the sample. These lamellar composites are found to behave like a large number (approximately 1000) of superconducting-normal-superconducting junctions. For the Pb-Cd eutectic system, the critical current densities and critical fields have shown no dependence upon the lamellar periods between 1.0 and 3.1 microns. The critical current density of the aligned lamellar Pb-Cd structures was enhanced approximately 50% when compared to quenched eutectic alloy and to pure Pb. The superconducting transition temperature, T/sub c/, varies inversely with the square of the thickness of the superconducting material as expected from Ginzburg-Landau theory. Upon annealing, the Pb lamellae change from type II to type I superconductivity

  7. Transverse Periodic Beam Loading Effects in a Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Byrd, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Uneven beam fill patterns in storage rings, such as gaps in the fill patterns, leads to periodic, or transient loading of the modes of the RF cavities. We show that an analogous effect can occur in the loading of a dipole cavity mode when the beam passes off the electrical center of the cavity mode. Although this effect is small, it results in a variation of the transverse offset of the beam along the bunch train. For ultralow emittance beams, such as optimized third generation light sources and damping rings, this effect results in a larger projected emittance of the beam compared with the single bunch emittance. The effect is particularly strong for the case when a strong dipole mode has been purposely added to the ring, such as a deflecting, or 'crab' cavity. We derive an approximate analytic solution for the variation of the beam-induced deflecting voltage along the bunch train.

  8. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie-Anne Marquet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low” the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1, whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON. Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05 compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism.

  9. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Hausswirth, Christophe; Molle, Odeline; Hawley, John A.; Burke, Louise M.; Tiollier, Eve; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low”) the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1), whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON). Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05) compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism. PMID:27897989

  10. Endplate effect on aerodynamic characteristics of three-dimensional wings in close free surface proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hwan Jung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the aerodynamic characteristics of a three-dimensional (3D wing with an endplate in the vicinity of the free surface by solving incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the turbulence closure model. The endplate causes a blockage effect on the flow, and an additional viscous effect especially near the endplate. These combined effects of the endplate significantly reduce the magnitudes of the velocities under the lower surface of the wing, thereby enhancing aerodynamic performance in terms of the force coefficients. The maximum lift-to-drag ratio of a wing with an endplate is increased 46% compared to that of wing without an endplate at the lowest clearance. The tip vortex of a wing-with-endplate (WWE moved laterally to a greater extent than that of a wing-without-endplate (WOE. This causes a decrease in the induced drag, resulting in a reduction in the total drag.

  11. Effective diffusion in time-periodic linear planar flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indeikina, A.; Chang, H.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that when a point source of solute is inserted into a time-periodic, unbounded linear planar flow, the large-time, time-average transport of the solute can be described by classical anisotropic diffusion with constant effective diffusion tensors. For a given vorticity and forcing period, elongational flow is shown to be the most dispersive followed by simple shear and rotational flow. Large-time diffusivity along the major axis of the time-average concentration ellipse, whose alignment is predicted from the theory, is shown to increase with vorticity for all flows and decrease with increasing forcing frequency for elongational flow and simple shear. For the interesting case of rotational flow, there exist discrete resonant frequencies where the time-average major diffusivity reaches local maxima equal to the time-average steady flow case with zero forcing frequency

  12. Influence of Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptomatology on Adolescent Substance Use: Developmentally Proximal versus Distal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of developmentally specific windows at which key predictors of adolescent substance use are most influential is a crucial task for informing the design of appropriately targeted substance use prevention and intervention programs. The current study examined effects of conduct problems and depressive symptomatology on changes in…

  13. Effect of Flos carthami Extract and α1-Adrenergic Antagonists on the Porcine Proximal Ureteral Peristalsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Yuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been proposed to prevent urolithiasis. In China, Flos carthami (FC, also known as Carthamus tinctorius (Safflower; Chinese name: Hong Hua/紅花 has been used to treat urological diseases for centuries. We previously performed a screening and confirmed the in vivo antilithic effect of FC extract. Here, ex vivo organ bath experiment was further performed to study the effect of FC extract on the inhibition of phenylepinephrine (PE (10−4 and 10−3 M ureteral peristalsis of porcine ureters with several α1-adrenergic antagonists (doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin as experimental controls. The results showed that doxazosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin dose (approximately 4.5 × 10−6 − 4.5 × 10−1 μg/mL dependently inhibited both 10−4 and 10−3 M PE-induced ureteral peristalsis. FC extract achieved 6.2% ± 10.1%, 21.8% ± 6.8%, and 24.0% ± 5.6% inhibitions of 10−4 M PE-induced peristalsis at doses of 5 × 103, 1 × 104, and 2 × 104 μg/mL, respectively, since FC extract was unable to completely inhibit PE-induced ureteral peristalsis, suggesting the antilithic effect of FC extract is related to mechanisms other than modulation of ureteral peristalsis.

  14. Effective medium of periodic fluid-solid composites

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jun

    2012-05-24

    An analytic solution of the effective mass density and bulk modulus of a periodic fluid-solid composite is obtained by using the multiple-scattering theory in the long-wavelength limit. It is shown that when the concentration of solid inclusions is high, the effective mass density is structure dependent and differs significantly from the leading-order dipole solution, whereas Wood\\'s formula is accurately valid, independently of the structures. Numerical evaluations from the analytic solution are shown to be in excellent agreement with finite-element simulations. In the vicinity of the tight-packing limit, the critical behavior of the effective mass density is also studied and it is independent of the lattice symmetry. © 2012 Europhysics Letters Association.

  15. The Effect of Local Fatigue Induced at Proximal and Distal Muscles of Lower Extremity in Sagittal Plane on Visual Dependency in Quiet Standing Postural Stability of Healthy Young Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Soleymani-Far

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of local muscle fatigue induced at proximal and distal segments of lower extremity on sagittal plane mover on visual dependency in quiet standing postural stability. Materials & Methods: In this Quasi–experimental study (before – after comparison sagittal plane prime movers of the ankle and hip musculature were fatigued using isokinetic contractions at two test sessions with a randomized order and one week interval. Twenty five healthy young female students were َselected by using non probability selection and sample of convenience and asked to maintain single leg upright posture as immobile as possible. RMS and SD of Center of Pressure displacements were assessed in 30 seconds and consequently, the eyes were closed after 15 seconds. A analysis of variance (ANOVA for repeated measures was used to analyze the effect of the following factors over two periods of 5 seconds immediately before and after eye closure: (1 fatigue, (2 vision, (3 segment of fatigue. Results: The main effects of each within-subject factors (fatigue, vision and segment of fatigue were significant (P<0.05. The analysis of RMS and SD of Center of Pressure demonstrated a significant interaction between fatigue and vision, and fatigue and segment of fatigue so that the effects of Fatigue on Proximal segment and eye closed conditions were increased. Conclusion: The visual dependency for control of postural stability incremented following muscle fatigue. Proximal muscle fatigue lead to exaggeration of visual dependency for control of postural stability. Based on the present results, emphasis on the proprioception of proximal segment of lower extremity may be recommended for postural stability training.

  16. Wind Energy Facilities and Residential Properties: The Effect of Proximity and View on Sales Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2010-04-01

    With an increasing number of communities considering nearby wind power developments, there is a need to empirically investigate community concerns about wind project development. One such concern is that property values may be adversely affected by wind energy facilities, and relatively little research exists on the subject. The present research investigates roughly 7,500 sales of single-family homes surrounding 24 existing U.S. wind facilities. Across four different hedonic models the results are consistent: neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have a statistically significant effect on home sales prices.

  17. Effects of periodic modulation on the Landau-Zener transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Suqing; Fu Libin; Liu Jie; Zhao Xiangeng

    2005-01-01

    We study the quantum tunnelling of a two-level crossing system which extends the standard Landau-Zener model with applying a periodic modulation on its energy sweep. By directly integrating the time evolution operator we obtain the analytic expressions of tunnelling probability in the cases of high and low modulation frequency limit as well as in weak inter-level coupling limit. Our formula clarify the conditions for resonance occurrence, with the help of it we can readily manipulate the system in a desired way, say, to enhance or suppress the tunnelling probability effectively through adjusting the modulation properly

  18. Architecture of Gothic Period and Its Effect to Clothing Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife YILDIZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Root of the word Gothic comes from a German tribe which lives in region of the Gotland of Scandinavia. Gothic period is a movement which ends the Midde Age and opens Renaissance. Alth ough seen in all branches of the art, Gothic is widely a style of architecture. Having been originated from the Roman architecture, Gothic Architecture come out in the second half of the 12th century and continued its existence until the half of the 16th c entury when classical architecture come out. In Europe, Gothic painting, sculpture and architecture were dominant and preserved its popularity until the Renaissance. Fashion means all the temporary new styles which come out in a certain period of time with the desires of dressing up, being different, wearing the most desirable. Although seen as two different design field, when we examine closely, we can see that fashion and architecture has many common point from the past to present. As man is the common po int of this two field, they naturally affect each other. Gothic architecture inspired clothing designs, which is enough to show how much they affected each other. In this study, our purpose is to reveal effects of the Gothic architecture on the clothing d esigns. The style used in the Gothic period architecture and models and styles in clothing designs was presented with the help of table of specification. According to this, both fields' sharing common aesthetic concern and same theoritic and ideologic bas e was accompanied by stylistic and structural similarities accordingly. Designers in this two different fields turned even to themselves for inspiration and technical strategy. Environmental and cultural factors affect both fashion designers and architects . When seen as a part of historical process, clothes and buildings with their important cultural and economic conditions are priceless anthropological buildings which show technological developments within the period.

  19. Wind Energy Facilities and Residential Properties: The Effect of Proximity and View on Sales Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2010-04-01

    With wind energy expanding rapidly in the U.S. and abroad, and with an increasing number of communities considering nearby wind power developments, there is a need to empirically investigate community concerns about wind project development. One such concern is that property values may be adversely affected by wind energy facilities, and relatively little existing research exists on the subject. The present research is based on almost 7,500 sales of single-family homes situated within ten miles of 24 existing wind facilities in nine different U.S. states. The conclusions of the study are drawn from four different hedonic pricing models. The model results are consistent in that neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have a statistically significant effect on home sales prices.

  20. Possible health effects of living in proximity to mining sites near Potosí, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Sara; Das, Riva; Strosnider, William H J; Wilson, Robin Taylor

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the health effects of living downstream from mines in the Potosí region of Bolivia. Histories, physical examinations, and urinalyses were completed on adults recruited from mining and nonmining villages in Bolivia. Blood concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb were determined in a subset of participants. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Mining region participants had significantly higher frequencies of hypertension, hematuria, and ketonuria. Hematuria was significantly elevated among those watering livestock downstream from mines and eating grains from their own farm (odds ratio = 4.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 17.7). Significantly higher blood concentrations of Pb were observed in a subsample of participants with hematuria (4.80 μg/dL vs 10.91 μg/dL; P = 0.026). Efforts to abate environmental exposure to toxic metals seem warranted.

  1. Supporting families in a high-risk setting: proximal effects of the SAFEChildren preventive intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolan, Patrick; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David

    2004-10-01

    Four hundred twenty-four families who resided in inner-city neighborhoods and had a child entering 1st grade were randomly assigned to a control condition or to a family-focused preventive intervention combined with academic tutoring. SAFEChildren, which was developed from a developmental-ecological perspective, emphasizes developmental tasks and community factors in understanding risk and prevention. Tracking of linear-growth trends through 6 months after intervention indicated an overall effect of increased academic performance and better parental involvement in school. High-risk families had additional benefits for parental monitoring, child-problem behaviors, and children's social competence. High-risk youth showed improvement in problem behaviors and social competence. Results support a family-focused intervention that addresses risk in low-income communities as managing abnormal challenges.

  2. Proximal ecological effects of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    The diversity of ecosystems and volcanic processes involved in the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, southwest Washington, provide an excellent setting for examining effects of volcanic events on ecosystems. These eruptions included a lateral blast, debris avalanche, mudflows, pyroclastic flows, and airfall tephra. Affected ecosystems within 30 km of the vent were lakes, streams, upland and riparian forest, and meadows. Ecological disturbances imposed by the Mount St. Helens events were predominantly physical, rather than climatic or chemical which are the dominant classes of disturbances considered in analysis of global catastrophes. Analysis of ecosystem response to disturbance should be based on consideration of composition and structure of the predisturbance system in terms that represent potential survivability of organisms, mechanisms in the primary disturbance, initial survivors, secondary disturbances arising from the primary disturbance and the biological responses to secondary disturbances, invasion of the site by new propagules, interactions among secondary disturbance processes and surviving and invading organisms. Predicting ecosystem response to disturbance is enchanced by considering the mechanisms of disturbance rather than type of disturbance. In the 1980 Mount St. Helens events, the disturbance types, involved primarily the mechanisms of sedimentation, heating, and shear stress. Each disturbance type involved one or more mechanisms. Ecosystem response varied greatly across the landscape. Analysis of ecosystem response to disturbance, regardless of type, should include detailed consideration of the properties of individual species, primary and secondary disturbance mechanisms, and their distributions across landscapes.

  3. Anomalous Hall effect in semiconductor quantum wells in proximity to chiral p -wave superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F.; Yu, T.; Wu, M. W.

    2018-05-01

    By using the gauge-invariant optical Bloch equation, we perform a microscopic kinetic investigation on the anomalous Hall effect in chiral p -wave superconducting states. Specifically, the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity in the absence of the magnetic field is zero as a consequence of Galilean invariance in our description. As for the extrinsic channel, a finite anomalous Hall current is obtained from the impurity scattering with the optically excited normal quasiparticle current even at zero temperature. From our kinetic description, it can be clearly seen that the excited normal quasiparticle current is due to an induced center-of-mass momentum of Cooper pairs through the acceleration driven by ac electric field. For the induced anomalous Hall current, we show that the conventional skew-scattering channel in the linear response makes the dominant contribution in the strong impurity interaction. In this case, our kinetic description as a supplementary viewpoint mostly confirms the results of Kubo formalism in the literature. Nevertheless, in the weak impurity interaction, this skew-scattering channel becomes marginal and we reveal that an induction channel from the Born contribution dominates the anomalous Hall current. This channel, which has long been overlooked in the literature, is due to the particle-hole asymmetry by nonlinear optical excitation. Finally, we study the case in the chiral p -wave superconducting state with a transverse conical magnetization, which breaks the Galilean invariance. In this situation, the intrinsic anomalous Hall conductivity is no longer zero. Comparison of this intrinsic channel with the extrinsic one from impurity scattering is addressed.

  4. Study of the proximity effect in the Nb'/Fe.sub.x./sub.Si.sub.1-x./sub./Nb tunnel junctions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vávra, O.; Gaži, Š.; Bydžovský, J.; Kováčová, E.; Frait, Zdeněk; Maryško, Miroslav; Vávra, I.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 240, - (2002), s. 583-585 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : proximity effect * superconductivity * weak ferromagnetism * tunneling Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.046, year: 2002

  5. The effect of age on the carcass composition, portion yield and proximate composition of two rabbit genetic types in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. North

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the carcass component yields and meat proximate composition of 2 rabbit genetic types (Californian and hybrid New Zealand Red×Californian, with 5 rabbits per genetic type being slaughtered every 2 wk throughout the study period (9-17 wk to evaluate the effect of age on these traits. Slaughter weight, reference yield, portion yield (hind leg, foreleg and fore part, as percentage of slaughter weight, meat yield, skin weight and the fat content of the meat (percentage of wet weight increased significantly with age, while the full gastrointestinal tract, liver, head and feet decreased significantly. This is likely a reflection of the early-maturing nature of bone and viscera and later maturing nature of muscle and fat. These results indicate that delaying slaughter to 13 wk tends to improve yields for valuable carcass components. The Californian had a significantly higher total meat yield at 11 and 17 wk and higher portion meat yields at 9 (hind leg, 11 (hind leg and fore part and 13 (foreleg weeks than the hybrid. This was likely due to the later maturation of the hybrid and the influence of the New Zealand Red on carcass quality. It therefore appears that the Californian may be more favourable for meat production, from a carcass and meat quality perspective.

  6. Effects of human population density and proximity to markets on coral reef fishes vulnerable to extinction by fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, T D; Cinner, J E; Green, A; Pressey, R L

    2013-06-01

    Coral reef fisheries are crucial to the livelihoods of tens of millions of people; yet, widespread habitat degradation and unsustainable fishing are causing severe depletion of stocks of reef fish. Understanding how social and economic factors, such as human population density, access to external markets, and modernization interact with fishing and habitat degradation to affect fish stocks is vital to sustainable management of coral reef fisheries. We used fish survey data, national social and economic data, and path analyses to assess whether these factors explain variation in biomass of coral reef fishes among 25 sites in Solomon Islands. We categorized fishes into 3 groups on the basis of life-history characteristics associated with vulnerability to extinction by fishing (high, medium, and low vulnerability). The biomass of fish with low vulnerability was positively related to habitat condition. The biomass of fishes with high vulnerability was negatively related to fishing conducted with efficient gear. Use of efficient gear, in turn, was strongly and positively related to both population density and market proximity. This result suggests local population pressure and external markets have additive negative effects on vulnerable reef fish. Biomass of the fish of medium vulnerability was not explained by fishing intensity or habitat condition, which suggests these species may be relatively resilient to both habitat degradation and fishing. © 2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Electrical and proximity-magnetic effects induced quantum Goos–Hänchen shift on the surface of topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuai, Jian [School of Physics and Electronics, Yancheng Teachers College, Yancheng, 224002 Jiangsu (China); Da, H.X., E-mail: haixia8779@163.com [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, 117576 (Singapore)

    2014-03-15

    We use scattering matrix method to theoretically demonstrate that the quantum Goos–Hänchen shift of the surface on three-dimensional topological insulator coated by ferromagnetic strips is sensitive to the magnitude of ferromagnetic magnetization. The dependence of quantum Goos–Hänchen shift on magnetization and gate bias is investigated by performing station phase approach. It is found that quantum Goos–Hänchen shift is positive and large under the magnetic barrier but may be positive as well as negative values under the gate bias. Furthermore, the position of quantum Goos–Hänchen peak can also be modulated by the combination of gate bias and proximity magnetic effects. Our results indicate that topological insulators are another candidates to support quantum Goos–Hänchen shift. - Highlights: • Quantum Goos–Hänchen shift of the surface on three-dimensional topological insulators is first investigated. • The magnetization affects quantum Goos–Hänchen shift of the surface on three-dimensional topological insulators. • Quantum Goos–Hänchen shift of the surface on three-dimensional topological insulators can be manipulated by the gate voltages.

  8. Effect of Cooking Method on the Proximate, Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Compositions of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolara Olusola Oluwaniyi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The proximate, amino acid and fatty acid compositions of the fillet and oil from Clarias gariepinus (Catfish and Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia were determined. The moisture content ranged from 76.27 % for catfish to 79.97 % for tilapia while the oil content ranged from 7.80 % for tilapia and 11.00 % for catfish. Ash content was in the range 8.03 – 9.16 % and the protein content was 15.83 - 18.48 %. Cooking – boiling, roasting or frying – resulted in a variation in the nutrient composition but with no significant effect on the amino acid composition except for the samples fried with palm oil which resulted in significantly reduced essential amino acids contents. All the fish samples – both fresh and processed – have amino acid scores less than 100, with lysine, threonine and the sulphur-containing amino acids being among the limiting amino acids. Both fish samples contain more unsaturated than saturated fatty acids.

  9. Effect of STA-proximal MCA bypass. Improvement of cerebral blood flow and metabolism and neuropsychological function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Akira; Funayama, Masayuki; Miura, Kazuyuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Kuroda, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Toshiaki

    1998-01-01

    We investigated cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism in patients with hemodynamic ischemia by positron emission tomography (PET) and thermal diffusion flow meter. We also studied neuropsychological functions to evaluate the effects of surgical revascularization. Bypass surgery of the superficial temporal artery to the proximal middle cerebral artery was performed on 26 patients satisfying the following categories: stenosis or occlusive lesion in main cerebral arteries; no marked focus of infarction on CT or MRI. PET was performed before and 1 month after the operation, and CBF, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were analyzed. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) was also calculated after acetazolamide challenge. CBF during the operation was continuously measured with a thermal diffusion flow meter. CO 2 response of CBF was analyzed before and after anastomosis. Neuropsychological functions were evaluated by Hasegawa dementia scale revised (HDS-R), mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Wechsler adult intelligence scale revised (WAIS-R). Before the operation, increase in OEF accorded with the decrease in CBF, and a significant relationship between both CBF and CVRC, and OEF and CVRC was found. A decrease in CVRC was noted prior to a decrease in CBF and elevation of OEF. CVRC caused by acetazolamide might reflect CO 2 reactivity. Significant improvement of CBF and CVRC, and normalization of OEF were observed after the operation. Also, significant improvement of neuropsychological function was observed by HDS-R and WAIS-R. Disturbance in neuropsychological function might reflect elevation of OEF. (author)

  10. Modeling Periodic Impulsive Effects on Online TV Series Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peihua; Zhu, Anding; Fang, Qiwen; Wang, Xi

    Online broadcasting substantially affects the production, distribution, and profit of TV series. In addition, online word-of-mouth significantly affects the diffusion of TV series. Because on-demand streaming rates are the most important factor that influences the earnings of online video suppliers, streaming statistics and forecasting trends are valuable. In this paper, we investigate the effects of periodic impulsive stimulation and pre-launch promotion on on-demand streaming dynamics. We consider imbalanced audience feverish distribution using an impulsive susceptible-infected-removed(SIR)-like model. In addition, we perform a correlation analysis of online buzz volume based on Baidu Index data. We propose a PI-SIR model to evolve audience dynamics and translate them into on-demand streaming fluctuations, which can be observed and comprehended by online video suppliers. Six South Korean TV series datasets are used to test the model. We develop a coarse-to-fine two-step fitting scheme to estimate the model parameters, first by fitting inter-period accumulation and then by fitting inner-period feverish distribution. We find that audience members display similar viewing habits. That is, they seek new episodes every update day but fade away. This outcome means that impulsive intensity plays a crucial role in on-demand streaming diffusion. In addition, the initial audience size and online buzz are significant factors. On-demand streaming fluctuation is highly correlated with online buzz fluctuation. To stimulate audience attention and interpersonal diffusion, it is worthwhile to invest in promotion near update days. Strong pre-launch promotion is also a good marketing tool to improve overall performance. It is not advisable for online video providers to promote several popular TV series on the same update day. Inter-period accumulation is a feasible forecasting tool to predict the future trend of the on-demand streaming amount. The buzz in public social communities

  11. Modeling Periodic Impulsive Effects on Online TV Series Diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihua Fu

    Full Text Available Online broadcasting substantially affects the production, distribution, and profit of TV series. In addition, online word-of-mouth significantly affects the diffusion of TV series. Because on-demand streaming rates are the most important factor that influences the earnings of online video suppliers, streaming statistics and forecasting trends are valuable. In this paper, we investigate the effects of periodic impulsive stimulation and pre-launch promotion on on-demand streaming dynamics. We consider imbalanced audience feverish distribution using an impulsive susceptible-infected-removed(SIR-like model. In addition, we perform a correlation analysis of online buzz volume based on Baidu Index data.We propose a PI-SIR model to evolve audience dynamics and translate them into on-demand streaming fluctuations, which can be observed and comprehended by online video suppliers. Six South Korean TV series datasets are used to test the model. We develop a coarse-to-fine two-step fitting scheme to estimate the model parameters, first by fitting inter-period accumulation and then by fitting inner-period feverish distribution.We find that audience members display similar viewing habits. That is, they seek new episodes every update day but fade away. This outcome means that impulsive intensity plays a crucial role in on-demand streaming diffusion. In addition, the initial audience size and online buzz are significant factors. On-demand streaming fluctuation is highly correlated with online buzz fluctuation.To stimulate audience attention and interpersonal diffusion, it is worthwhile to invest in promotion near update days. Strong pre-launch promotion is also a good marketing tool to improve overall performance. It is not advisable for online video providers to promote several popular TV series on the same update day. Inter-period accumulation is a feasible forecasting tool to predict the future trend of the on-demand streaming amount. The buzz in public

  12. Modeling Periodic Impulsive Effects on Online TV Series Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qiwen; Wang, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Background Online broadcasting substantially affects the production, distribution, and profit of TV series. In addition, online word-of-mouth significantly affects the diffusion of TV series. Because on-demand streaming rates are the most important factor that influences the earnings of online video suppliers, streaming statistics and forecasting trends are valuable. In this paper, we investigate the effects of periodic impulsive stimulation and pre-launch promotion on on-demand streaming dynamics. We consider imbalanced audience feverish distribution using an impulsive susceptible-infected-removed(SIR)-like model. In addition, we perform a correlation analysis of online buzz volume based on Baidu Index data. Methods We propose a PI-SIR model to evolve audience dynamics and translate them into on-demand streaming fluctuations, which can be observed and comprehended by online video suppliers. Six South Korean TV series datasets are used to test the model. We develop a coarse-to-fine two-step fitting scheme to estimate the model parameters, first by fitting inter-period accumulation and then by fitting inner-period feverish distribution. Results We find that audience members display similar viewing habits. That is, they seek new episodes every update day but fade away. This outcome means that impulsive intensity plays a crucial role in on-demand streaming diffusion. In addition, the initial audience size and online buzz are significant factors. On-demand streaming fluctuation is highly correlated with online buzz fluctuation. Conclusion To stimulate audience attention and interpersonal diffusion, it is worthwhile to invest in promotion near update days. Strong pre-launch promotion is also a good marketing tool to improve overall performance. It is not advisable for online video providers to promote several popular TV series on the same update day. Inter-period accumulation is a feasible forecasting tool to predict the future trend of the on-demand streaming amount

  13. Comment: Distinguishing Cohort Effects from Age*Period Effects on Non-Marital Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In the article "Cohort Effects on Non-marital Fertility," in this issue of "Social Forces," Jean Stockard employs a novel strategy for disentangling cohort, period, and age effects on the non-marital fertility ratio. In a model with fixed-effect controls for age and for time period, the author documents evidence for three cohort-specific factors…

  14. Preliminary study on leadership proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinea Valentina Mihaela

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In general, it is agreed that effective leadership requires a certain degree of proximity, either physical or mental, which enables leaders to maintain control over their followers and communicate their vision. Although we agree with the leadership proximity principles which states that leaders are able to efficiently serve only those people with whom they interact frequently, in this article we focus instead on the disadvantages of being too close and the way in which close proximity can actually hurt the effectiveness of leadership. The main effects that we discuss regard the way in which proximity and familiarity allow followers to see the weaknesses and faults of the leader much more easily and thus diminish the leader’s heroic aura, and the emotional bias that results from a leader being too familiar with his followers which will impede the process of rational decision making. As a result, we argue that there exists a functional proximity which allows the leader the necessary space in which to perform effective identity work and to hide the backstage aspects of leadership, while also allowing him an emotional buffer zone which will enable him to maintain the ability to see clearly and make rational decisions.

  15. Effect of osteosynthesis, primary hemiarthroplasty, and non-surgical management for displaced four-part fractures of the proximal humerus in elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Frich, Lars Henrik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fractures of the proximal humerus are common injuries and account for 4-5 percent of all fractures, second only to hip and wrist fractures. The incidence is positively correlated with age and osteoporosis, and is likely to increase. Displaced four-part fractures are among the most...... severe injuries, accounting for 2-10 percent of proximal humeral fractures. The optimal intervention is disputed. Two previous randomised trials were very small and involved a noticeable risk of bias, and systematic reviews consequently conclude that there is inadequate basis for evidence-based treatment...... ten national shoulder units within a two-year period. We plan to include 162 patients. A central randomisation unit will allocate patients. All patients will receive a standardised three-month rehabilitation program of supervised physiotherapy regardless of treatment allocation. Patients...

  16. Quantum system under periodic perturbation: Effect of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotta, M.; Joichi, I.; Matsumoto, S.; Yoshimura, M.

    1997-01-01

    In many physical situations the behavior of a quantum system is affected by interaction with a larger environment. We develop, using the method of an influence functional, how to deduce the density matrix of the quantum system incorporating the effect of environment. After introducing the characterization of the environment by spectral weight, we first devise schemes to approximate the spectral weight, and then a perturbation method in field theory models, in order to approximately describe the environment. All of these approximate models may be classified as extended Ohmic models of dissipation whose differences are in the high frequency part. The quantum system we deal with in the present work is a general class of harmonic oscillators with an arbitrary time-dependent frequency. The late time behavior of the system is well described by an approximation that employs a localized friction in the dissipative part of the correlation function appearing in the influence functional. The density matrix of the quantum system is then determined in terms of a single classical solution obtained with the time-dependent frequency. With this one can compute the entropy, the energy distribution function, and other physical quantities of the system in a closed form. A specific application is made to the case of a periodically varying frequency. This dynamical system has a remarkable property when the environmental interaction is switched off: The effect of the parametric resonance gives rise to an exponential growth of the populated number in higher excitation levels, or particle production in field theory models. The effect of the environment is investigated for this dynamical system and it is demonstrated that there exists a critical strength of the friction for the parametric effect. (Abstract Truncated)

  17. Estudo anatômico do terço proximal do fêmur: impacto femoroacetabular e o efeito cam Anatomic study of the proximal third of the femur: femoroacetabular impact and the cam effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Labronici

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as varia��ões anatômicas da extremidade proximal do fêmur que pudessem desenvolver o impacto femoroacetabular. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 199 espécimes anatômicos de fêmures esqueleticamente maduros. Os fêmures foram medidos para determinar o ângulo da anteversão do colo femoral, ângulo cervicodiafisário, esfericidade da cabeça femoral em ântero-posterior e súpero-inferior, ângulo entre a epífise e o colo femoral anterior, ângulo entre a epífise e o colo em perfil, distância em ântero-posterior a 5mm da junção cabeça e colo e distância em ântero-posterior da base do colo. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o subgrupo com impacto apresentou diâmetro da junção a 5mm (p = 0,0001 e cam-cabeça (% (p = 0,0001 significativamente maiores e base-cam (% (p = 0,0001 significativamente menor que o subgrupo sem impacto. Identificou-se que cam-cabeça (% > 80 e base-cam (% OBJECTIVE: to analyze anatomical variations of the proximal end of femur that could cause a femoroacetabular impact. METHODS: 199 skeletically mature anatomical specimens of femurs were used. The femurs were measured in order to determine the anteversion angle of the femoral neck, neckshaft angle, sphericity of the femoral head at anteroposterior and superoinferior, angle between epiphysis and the anterior femoral neck, angle between epiphysis and the neck at lateral plane, anteroposterior distance at 5mm of the head and neck junction and anteroposterior distance of the neck base. RESULTS: we found that the impact subgroup presented a significantly larger junction diameter of 5mm (p = 0.0001 and cam-head (% (p= 0.0001, while base-cam (% (p = 0.0001 showed a significantly smaller diameter than the subgroup without impact. It was identified that cam-head (% > 80 e base-cam (% < 73 were identified as the optimal impact points. CONCLUSION: our study showed that the effect cam, caused by anatomical variations of the proximal femoral end focused the

  18. Effect of storage period on the accuracy of elastomeric impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Batista Franco

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate the effect of the storage period on the accuracy of recently developed elastomeric materials. METHODS: Simultaneous impressions of a steel die were taken using a polyether (I: Impregum Soft Heavy and Light body, 3M ESPE and vinyl polysiloxane (P: Perfectim Blue Velvet and Flexi-Velvet, J.Morita. The trays were loaded with the heavy-bodied impression materials while the light-bodied impression materials were simultaneously spread on the steel die. The impressions were poured after 2 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days. Impressions were stored at approximately 55% relative humidity and room temperature. Ten replicas were produced for each experimental condition (n=60. Accuracy of the stone dies was assessed with a depth-measuring microscope. The difference in height between the surface of the stone die and a standard metallic ring was recorded in micrometers at four demarcated points, by two independent examiners. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (a = 0.05. RESULTS: Significant differences were found among the groups. Smaller discrepancies were observed when pouring was performed up to 24 hours (I-2h= 65.0 ± 15.68 µm; I-24h= 81.6 ± 11.13 µm for the polyether, and up to 7 days for the vinyl polysiloxane (P-2h= 79.1 ± 13.82 µm; P-24h= 96.8 ± 6.02 µm; P-7d= 81.4 ± 4.3 µm. Significant dimensional discrepancies, however, were observed when polyether was stored for 7 days (I-7d= 295.3 ± 17.4 µm. CONCLUSION: Storage may significantly affect the dimensional accuracy of impressions and, thus, a maximum period and storage condition should be specified for the recently developed materials.

  19. Analyzing the Effects of Human-Aware Motion Planning on Close-Proximity Human–Robot Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this work was to examine human response to motion-level robot adaptation to determine its effect on team fluency, human satisfaction, and perceived safety and comfort. Background: The evaluation of human response to adaptive robotic assistants has been limited, particularly in the realm of motion-level adaptation. The lack of true human-in-the-loop evaluation has made it impossible to determine whether such adaptation would lead to efficient and satisfying human–robot interaction. Method: We conducted an experiment in which participants worked with a robot to perform a collaborative task. Participants worked with an adaptive robot incorporating human-aware motion planning and with a baseline robot using shortest-path motions. Team fluency was evaluated through a set of quantitative metrics, and human satisfaction and perceived safety and comfort were evaluated through questionnaires. Results: When working with the adaptive robot, participants completed the task 5.57% faster, with 19.9% more concurrent motion, 2.96% less human idle time, 17.3% less robot idle time, and a 15.1% greater separation distance. Questionnaire responses indicated that participants felt safer and more comfortable when working with an adaptive robot and were more satisfied with it as a teammate than with the standard robot. Conclusion: People respond well to motion-level robot adaptation, and significant benefits can be achieved from its use in terms of both human–robot team fluency and human worker satisfaction. Application: Our conclusion supports the development of technologies that could be used to implement human-aware motion planning in collaborative robots and the use of this technique for close-proximity human–robot collaboration. PMID:25790568

  20. Analyzing the effects of human-aware motion planning on close-proximity human-robot collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasota, Przemyslaw A; Shah, Julie A

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this work was to examine human response to motion-level robot adaptation to determine its effect on team fluency, human satisfaction, and perceived safety and comfort. The evaluation of human response to adaptive robotic assistants has been limited, particularly in the realm of motion-level adaptation. The lack of true human-in-the-loop evaluation has made it impossible to determine whether such adaptation would lead to efficient and satisfying human-robot interaction. We conducted an experiment in which participants worked with a robot to perform a collaborative task. Participants worked with an adaptive robot incorporating human-aware motion planning and with a baseline robot using shortest-path motions. Team fluency was evaluated through a set of quantitative metrics, and human satisfaction and perceived safety and comfort were evaluated through questionnaires. When working with the adaptive robot, participants completed the task 5.57% faster, with 19.9% more concurrent motion, 2.96% less human idle time, 17.3% less robot idle time, and a 15.1% greater separation distance. Questionnaire responses indicated that participants felt safer and more comfortable when working with an adaptive robot and were more satisfied with it as a teammate than with the standard robot. People respond well to motion-level robot adaptation, and significant benefits can be achieved from its use in terms of both human-robot team fluency and human worker satisfaction. Our conclusion supports the development of technologies that could be used to implement human-aware motion planning in collaborative robots and the use of this technique for close-proximity human-robot collaboration.

  1. Effect of STA-proximal MCA bypass. Improvement of cerebral blood flow and metabolism and neuropsychological function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Akira; Funayama, Masayuki; Miura, Kazuyuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Suzuki, Michiyasu; Kuroda, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Toshiaki [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-11-01

    We investigated cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism in patients with hemodynamic ischemia by positron emission tomography (PET) and thermal diffusion flow meter. We also studied neuropsychological functions to evaluate the effects of surgical revascularization. Bypass surgery of the superficial temporal artery to the proximal middle cerebral artery was performed on 26 patients satisfying the following categories: stenosis or occlusive lesion in main cerebral arteries; no marked focus of infarction on CT or MRI. PET was performed before and 1 month after the operation, and CBF, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were analyzed. Cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CVRC) was also calculated after acetazolamide challenge. CBF during the operation was continuously measured with a thermal diffusion flow meter. CO{sub 2} response of CBF was analyzed before and after anastomosis. Neuropsychological functions were evaluated by Hasegawa dementia scale revised (HDS-R), mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Wechsler adult intelligence scale revised (WAIS-R). Before the operation, increase in OEF accorded with the decrease in CBF, and a significant relationship between both CBF and CVRC, and OEF and CVRC was found. A decrease in CVRC was noted prior to a decrease in CBF and elevation of OEF. CVRC caused by acetazolamide might reflect CO{sub 2} reactivity. Significant improvement of CBF and CVRC, and normalization of OEF were observed after the operation. Also, significant improvement of neuropsychological function was observed by HDS-R and WAIS-R. Disturbance in neuropsychological function might reflect elevation of OEF. (author)

  2. Effect of Rearing Periods on the Production of Hybrid Catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fingerling production of hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Heterobanchus longifilis) was investigated over three rearing periods of 3 weeks, 4 weeks and 5 weeks in fertilized earthen ponds during the rainy season. At harvest, fingerling mean weight was directly related to length of rearing period, while survival rate and ...

  3. Effect of various periodic forces on Duffing oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bifurcations and chaos in the ubiquitous Duffing oscillator equation with different external periodic forces are studied numerically. The external periodic forces considered are sine wave, square wave, rectified sine wave, symmetric saw-tooth wave, asymmetric saw-tooth wave, rectangular wave with amplitude-dependent ...

  4. Proximity credentials: A survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, L.J.

    1987-04-01

    Credentials as a means of identifying individuals have traditionally been a photo badge and more recently, the coded credential. Another type of badge, the proximity credential, is making inroads in the personnel identification field. This badge can be read from a distance instead of being veiewed by a guard or inserted into a reading device. This report reviews proximity credentials, identifies the companies marketing or developing proximity credentials, and describes their respective credentials. 3 tabs

  5. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  6. A critical period for gravitational effects on otolith formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederhold, M.; Harrison, J.

    Gravity and linear acceleration are sensed in fish by the saccule, utricle (as in mammals) and lagena, each with a solid otolith. Previous experiments in which eggs or larvae of a marine mollusk ( plysia) or fish larvae were raised on aA centrifuge, demonstrated that the size of the otolith or statoconia (in Aplysia) were reduced, in a graded manner, as the gfield was increased, suggesting that some- control mechanism was acting to normalize the weight of the mass. Pre-mated adult female swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) were flown in the CEBAS aquarium system on space shuttle missions STS 89 and STS-90 (Neurolab). Developing- larvae were removed from the adult ovaries after shuttle landing. Otolith sizes were compared between ground- and flight -reared larvae of similar sizes. For later-stage swordtail larvae, with spine lengths from 3 to 6 mm from STS-90 (16 days), the growth of the otolith with increasing spine length was significantly greater in the flight - reared fish for all three otoliths, from the saccule (saggita), utricle (lapillus) and lagena (astericus). However, juvenile fish, 1 cm long at launch, showed no significant difference in otolith size between flight - and ground-reared animals. In very early stage larvae from STS-89 (9 days), with spine length of 1.5 to 3.5 mm, the utricular and saccular otoliths were actually larger in the ground-reared larvae. Thus, it appears that late-stage fish embryos reared in space do produce larger-than - normal otoliths, apparently in an attempt to c mpensate for the reduced weight ofo the test mass in space. However, the results from very early-stage larvae and juvenile fish suggest that there is a fairly short critical period during which altered gravity can affect the size of the test mass. Recent studies on the development of the inner ear of the zebrafish (Danio raria) may explain the critical period for gravitational effects on otolith growth. By 16 hours after zebrafish fertilization (at 28.5 o

  7. Periodicity-induced effects and methods in vibro-acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    issue addressed in the paper is an influence of the corrugation shape and amplitude on the broadness and location of the stop- and pass-bands in an infinite periodic structure. Explicit asymptotic formulae for the stop band borders are given and the topology of the stop band pattern is explained......The paper is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of waveguide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim...... of the paper is to illustrate these issues in simple examples and to discuss possible applications and generalisations. First, the eigenfrequency spectra of finite periodic structures are compared with the location of stop-bands for their infinite counterparts. Special attention is paid to eigenfrequencies...

  8. Effect from Hyperbolic Law in Periodic Table of Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazan A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperbola curves Y = K/X and Y = ( mx + n / ( px + q at determination of the upper limit of the Periodic System have been studied. Their interdependence is shown by the example of mathematical calculations in chemistry.

  9. Effect of proximal vagotomy and Roux-en-Y diversion on gastric emptying kinetics in asymptomatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, J L; Penninckx, F; Siegel, J A; Vandenborre, P; Van Cutsem, E; Vandenmaegdenbergh, V; De Roo, M

    1990-10-01

    The role of the distal stomach in gastric emptying was studied. Ten patients with proximal gastric vagotomy (PV) and 10 age-matched patients with Roux-en-Y gastro-jejunostomy (R-Y) were compared with 10 healthy controls. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined by the use of Tc-99m SC scrambled eggs and In-111 DTPA. In PV, gastric emptying of both solids and liquids was delayed; the prolongation with solids was mainly accounted for by an abnormal lag phase. In R-Y patients, no lag phase was observed, and the solid emptying curve pattern was characterized by early rapid emptying followed by very slow emptying. Both the solid and liquid phases were prolonged. The lag phase is affected by proximal vagotomy and is mainly determined by the distal stomach, which appears to be essential for normal emptying.

  10. Effect of proximal vagotomy and Roux-en-Y diversion on gastric emptying kinetics in asymptomatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.; Penninckx, F.; Siegel, J.A.; Vandenborre, P.; Van Cutsem, E.; Vandenmaegdenbergh, V.; De Roo, M.

    1990-01-01

    The role of the distal stomach in gastric emptying was studied. Ten patients with proximal gastric vagotomy (PV) and 10 age-matched patients with Roux-en-Y gastro-jejunostomy (R-Y) were compared with 10 healthy controls. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined by the use of Tc-99m SC scrambled eggs and In-111 DTPA. In PV, gastric emptying of both solids and liquids was delayed; the prolongation with solids was mainly accounted for by an abnormal lag phase. In R-Y patients, no lag phase was observed, and the solid emptying curve pattern was characterized by early rapid emptying followed by very slow emptying. Both the solid and liquid phases were prolonged. The lag phase is affected by proximal vagotomy and is mainly determined by the distal stomach, which appears to be essential for normal emptying

  11. Effect of proximal vagotomy and Roux-en-Y diversion on gastric emptying kinetics in asymptomatic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbain, J.L.; Penninckx, F.; Siegel, J.A.; Vandenborre, P.; Van Cutsem, E.; Vandenmaegdenbergh, V.; De Roo, M. (Univ. Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium))

    1990-10-01

    The role of the distal stomach in gastric emptying was studied. Ten patients with proximal gastric vagotomy (PV) and 10 age-matched patients with Roux-en-Y gastro-jejunostomy (R-Y) were compared with 10 healthy controls. Gastric emptying of solids and liquids was determined by the use of Tc-99m SC scrambled eggs and In-111 DTPA. In PV, gastric emptying of both solids and liquids was delayed; the prolongation with solids was mainly accounted for by an abnormal lag phase. In R-Y patients, no lag phase was observed, and the solid emptying curve pattern was characterized by early rapid emptying followed by very slow emptying. Both the solid and liquid phases were prolonged. The lag phase is affected by proximal vagotomy and is mainly determined by the distal stomach, which appears to be essential for normal emptying.

  12. Experimental study of superconductivity induced by proximity effects; Etude experimentale de la supraconductivite induite par effets de proximite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinet, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-15

    We present a study of the proximity effects between a superconductor (InBi or PbBi alloys) and a 'normal' metal (Zn or Sn respectively, above their critical temperature) using essentially the tunneling techniques. On the N side, some specific properties of such an induced superconductivity are described: linear variation of the pair potential near the critical temperature of the binary layer, T{sub CNS}; reduced energy scale at T{sub CNS}; evidence of a thermodynamic critical field (called breakdown field) presented by N above its critical temperature. On the S side, we study crossing from a gapless to a quasi gapless regime. This gives a proof of a finite coherence length at T{sub CNS}. Experimental details (in particular about the preparation and measurement of tunneling junctions) are given in annexe. Possible applications are suggested. (author) [French] Nous presentons une etude experimentale des effets de proximite entre un supraconducteur (alliages d'InBi ou de PbBi) et un metal 'normal' (Zn ou Sn respectivement, pris au-dessus de leur temperature critique), en utilisant principalement des mesures d'effet tunnel. Du cote N, on met en evidence des proprietes specifiques de cette supraconductivite induite: comportement lineaire du potentiel de paires pres de la temperature critique du bilame, T{sub CNS}; echelle d'energie reduite a T{sub CNS}; apparition d'un champ critique thermodynamique (appele champ de basculement) dans N au-dessus de sa temperature critique. Du cote S, nous etudions le passage continu d'une situation 'sans bande interdite' a basse temperature et en champ fort, a une situation 'pratiquement sans bande interdite' pres de T{sub CNS} en champ nul. Ceci fournit une preuve de la non divergence de la longueur de coherence a T{sub CNS}. Les techniques experimentales (et en particulier la preparation et la mesure de jonctions tunnel) sont decrites en detail dans une annexe. On envisage des applications pratiques possibles. (auteur)

  13. Effect of tube potential and image receptor on the detection of natural proximal caries in primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogur, Elif; Baksı, B Güniz; Orhan, Kaan; Paksoy, S Candan; Dogan, Salih; Erdal, Yılmaz S; Mert, Ali

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the detection of proximal caries in primary teeth at three different tube potentials using Ektaspeed films, storage phosphor plates (SPPs), and a charge-coupled device (CCD). Fifty-three extracted human primary molars with natural proximal caries were radiographed with three different imaging modalities--Digora Optime SPP system, RVGui CCD system, and Ektaspeed films--at 50-, 65-, and 70-kV tube potentials. Three observers scored the resultant images for the presence or absence of caries. The definitive diagnosis was determined by stereomicroscopic assessment. The diagnostic accuracy for each imaging modality was expressed as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (A(z)). Differences among the A(z) values were assessed using two-way ANOVA and t tests. Kappa was used to measure inter- and intra-observer agreement. Higher accuracy was found for SPPs compared to film and CCD images at all tube potentials. Accuracy was significantly different only at 50-kV tube setting in favor of SPPs (p tube potential for the diagnosis of proximal caries since further advantages include the elimination of chemical processing, image enhancement, and a better low-contrast detectability performance.

  14. Effectiveness of Percutaneous Proximal Closing Wedge Osteotomy With Akin Osteotomy to Correct Severe Hallux Valgus Determined by Radiographic Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, Toshinori; Suzuki, Seiichi

    2017-04-01

    Some authors reported the results from percutaneous distal metatarsal osteotomy for hallux valgus recently. On the other hand, there are few reports of percutaneous proximal metatarsal osteotomy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the radiographic results of percutaneous proximal closing wedge osteotomy with Akin osteotomy for correction of severe hallux valgus and increasing longitudinal arch height. Consecutive 17 feet (mean age = 70.8 years) were investigated. The mean follow-up was 22 months. Excision of medial eminence, distal soft tissue release, and Akin osteotomy were all performed percutaneously and concurrently. Weight-bearing anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the feet were acquired preoperatively and at final follow-up. On the anteroposterior radiographs, hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, and first metatarsal shortening were measured. On the lateral radiographs, talometatarsal angle, calcaneal pitch angle, and first metatarsal dorsiflexion were measured. The average improvements in hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle were 27.6° and 9.9°, respectively. The average first metatarsal shortening was 2.7 mm. The first metatarsal dorsiflexion improved by 2.2°; however, other parameters did not improve significantly. In conclusion, percutaneous proximal closing wedge osteotomy with Akin osteotomy corrects severe hallux valgus; however, the procedure does not increase the medial longitudinal arch. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case series.

  15. Interacting effects of uniform flow, plane shear, and near-wall proximity on the heat and mass transfer of respiratory aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worth Longest, P. [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Kleinstreuer, C. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2004-10-01

    Individual and interacting effects of uniform flow, plane shear, and near-wall proximity on spherical droplet heat and mass transfer have been assessed for low Reynolds number conditions beyond the creeping flow regime. Validated resolved volume simulations were used to compute heat and mass transfer surface gradients of two-dimensional axisymmetric droplets and three-dimensional spherical droplets near planar wall boundaries for conditions consistent with inhalable aerosols (5 {<=} d {<=} 300 {mu}m) in the upper respiratory tract. Results indicate that planar shear significantly impacts droplet heat and mass transfer for shear-based Reynolds numbers greater than 1, which occur for near-wall respiratory aerosols with diameters in excess of 50 {mu}m. Wall proximity is shown to significantly enhance heat and mass transfer due to conduction and diffusion at separation distances less than five particle diameters and for small Reynolds numbers. For the Reynolds number conditions of interest, significant non-linear effects arise due to the concurrent interaction of uniform flow and shear such that linear superposition of Sherwood or Nusselt number terms is not allowable. Based on the validated numeric simulations, multivariable Sherwood and Nusselt number correlations are provided to account for individual flow characteristics and concurrent non-linear interactions of uniform flow, planar shear, and near-wall proximity. These heat and mass transfer correlations can be applied to effectively compute condensation and evaporation rates of potentially toxic or therapeutic aerosols in the upper respiratory tract, where non-uniform flow and wall proximity are expected to significantly affect droplet transport, deposition, and vapor formation. (author)

  16. Periodicity effects of axial waves in elastic compound rods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R. B.; Sorokin, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Floquet analysis is applied to the Bernoulli-Euler model for axial waves in a periodic rod. Explicit asymptotic formulae for the stop band borders are given and the topology of the stop band pattern is explained. Eigenfrequencies of the symmetric unit cell are determined by the Phase-closure Prin......Floquet analysis is applied to the Bernoulli-Euler model for axial waves in a periodic rod. Explicit asymptotic formulae for the stop band borders are given and the topology of the stop band pattern is explained. Eigenfrequencies of the symmetric unit cell are determined by the Phase......-closure Principle, and their correspondence with stop band formation is shown. Steady-state and transient dynamics of a periodic rod of finite length are analysed numerically and the difference in structural response when excitation is done in either stop- or pass bands is demonstrated. A physical interpretation...

  17. Studies of marine macroalgae: saline desert water cultivation and effects of environmental stress on proximate composition. Final subcontract report. [Gracilaria tikvahiae; Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryther, J.H.; DeBusk, T.A.; Peterson, J.E.

    1985-11-01

    The results presented in this report address the growth potential of marine macroalgae cultivated in desert saline waters, and the effects of certain environmental stresses (e.g., nitrogen, salinity, and temperature) on the proximate composition of several marine macroalgae. Two major desert saline water types were assayed for their ability to support the growth of Gracilaria, Ulva, and Caulerpa. Both water types supported short term growth, but long term growth was not supported. Carbohydrate levels in Gracilaria were increased by cultivation under conditions of high salinity, low temperature, and low nitrogen and phosphorous availability. Data suggests that it may be possible to maximize production of useful proximate constituents by cultivating the algae under optimum conditions for growth, and then holding the resulting biomass under the environmental conditions which favor tissue accumulation of the desired storage products. 16 refs., 21 figs., 19 tabs.

  18. Effect of the Critical Period of Weed Interference on Optimum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study was carried out at the National Root Crop Research Institute experimental farm to determine the critical period of weed interference and magnitude of yield loss caused by weed on turmeric in 2008 and 2009 cropping season. Turmeric was subjected to 13 weeding regimes using randomized complete block ...

  19. Effect of various periodic forces on Duffing oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ω respectively. However, the Fourier series of all the forces except the force sin ωt considered in our study have various frequencies. The frequencies present in the forces and in the periodic solution confined to the left well alone corresponding to the amplitude f = 0.2 are studied by constructing the Fourier series. 352.

  20. Effects of substituting fishmeal with immobilized urea periodate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth trails were conducted with Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings (mean weight 0.88 + 0.02 g) to evaluate the suitability of incorporating immobilized urea periodate oxidized Lignocellulosic Materials (LCMs) namely, Acha (Digitaria exilis (Staph) and Rice (Oryza sativa (L.) straws for substituting fishmeal from the reference ...

  1. Safety and effectiveness of the INVATEC MO.MA proximal cerebral protection device during carotid artery stenting: results from the ARMOUR pivotal trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansel, Gary M; Hopkins, L Nelson; Jaff, Michael R; Rubino, Paolo; Bacharach, J Michael; Scheinert, Dierk; Myla, Subbarao; Das, Tony; Cremonesi, Alberto

    2010-07-01

    The multicenter ARMOUR (ProximAl PRotection with the MO.MA Device DUring CaRotid Stenting) trial evaluated the 30-day safety and effectiveness of the MO.MA Proximal Cerebral Protection Device (Invatec, Roncadelle, Italy) utilized to treat high surgical risk patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS). Distal embolic protection devices (EPD) have been traditionally utilized during CAS. The MO.MA device acts as a balloon occlusion "endovascular clamping" system to achieve cerebral protection prior to crossing the carotid stenosis. This prospective registry enrolled 262 subjects, 37 roll-in and 225 pivotal subjects evaluated with intention to treat (ITT) from September 2007 to February 2009. Subjects underwent CAS using the MO.MA device. The primary endpoint, myocardial infarction, stroke, or death through 30 days (30-day major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events [MACCE]) was compared to a performance goal of 13% derived from trials utilizing distal EPD. For the ITT population, the mean age was 74.7 years with 66.7% of the cohort being male. Symptomatic patients comprised 15.1% and 28.9% were octogenarians. Device success was 98.2% and procedural success was 93.2%. The 30-day MACCE rate was 2.7% [95% CI (1.0-5.8%)] with a 30-day major stroke rate of 0.9%. No symptomatic patient suffered a stroke during this trial. The ARMOUR trial demonstrated that the MO.MA(R) Proximal Cerebral Protection Device is safe and effective for high surgical risk patients undergoing CAS. The absence of stroke in symptomatic patients is the lowest rate reported in any independently adjudicated prospective multicenter registry trial to date. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Effective hydraulic resistance of actuator nozzle generating a periodic jet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 179, JUN 2012 (2012), s. 211-222 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA02020795 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nozzle * periodic flow * compressibility Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.841, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924424712001781

  3. Interactive toxicity of inorganic mercury and trichloroethylene in rat and human proximal tubules: Effects on apoptosis, necrosis, and glutathione status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lash, Lawrence H.; Putt, David A.; Hueni, Sarah E.; Payton, Scott G.; Zwickl, Joshua

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneous or prior exposure to one chemical may alter the concurrent or subsequent response to another chemical, often in unexpected ways. This is particularly true when the two chemicals share common mechanisms of action. The present study uses the paradigm of prior exposure to study the interactive toxicity between inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ) and trichloroethylene (TRI) or its metabolite S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC) in rat and human proximal tubule. Pretreatment of rats with a subtoxic dose of Hg 2+ increased expression of glutathione S-transferase-α1 (GSTα1) but decreased expression of GSTα2, increased activities of several GSH-dependent enzymes, and increased GSH conjugation of TRI. Primary cultures of rat proximal tubular (rPT) cells exhibited both necrosis and apoptosis after incubation with Hg 2+ . Pretreatment of human proximal tubular (hPT) cells with Hg 2+ caused little or no changes in GST expression or activities of GSH-dependent enzymes, decreased apoptosis induced by TRI or DCVC, but increased necrosis induced by DCVC. In contrast, pretreatment of hPT cells with TRI or DCVC protected from Hg 2+ by decreasing necrosis and increasing apoptosis. Thus, whereas pretreatment of hPT cells with Hg 2+ exacerbated cellular injury due to TRI or DCVC by shifting the response from apoptosis to necrosis, pretreatment of hPT cells with either TRI or DCVC protected from Hg 2+ -induced cytotoxicity by shifting the response from necrosis to apoptosis. These results demonstrate that by altering processes related to GSH status, susceptibilities of rPT and hPT cells to acute injury from Hg 2+ , TRI, or DCVC are markedly altered by prior exposures

  4. Comparison of effect of body position, prone or supine, on the result of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in patients with stones in the proximal ureter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zomorrodi, A.; Elahian, A.; Ghorbani, N.; Tavoosi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether positioning of patient, prone or supine, plays a significant role on the treatment of stones in the proximal ureter with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). 68 patients with proximal ureteric stones underwent ESWL. The procedure was performed in the supine position in 35 (Group1) and the prone position in 33 patients (Group2). Stone-free rates, repeat ESWL rates, shocks per patient and shocks per session were compared in both groups. The mean session number per patient was 1.93+-0.82 in Group 1 and 1.88+-0.79 in Group 2 (P=0.786). The stone free rates, three months after ESWL, were 81.8% in group 1 and 82.9% in Group 2 (P=>0.05). Thus these two parameters were similar in both groups. Also, the number of shocks per session was 3066.1 +- 346.3 in Group 1 and 3148+-621.0 in Group 2. This difference was no significant (P=0.49). Our study suggests that the treatment of proximal ureteric stones with ESWL in the prone position is a safe and effective as when the patient is placed in the supine position. (author)

  5. Modeling the effects of palm-house proximity on the theoretical risk of Chagas disease transmission in a rural locality of the Orinoco basin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Erazo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chagas disease is a major public health concern in Latin America and it is transmitted by insects of the subfamily Triatominae, including Rhodnius spp. Since palm trees are ubiquitous in Colombia and a habitat for Rhodnius spp., the presence of palms near villages could increase contact rates between vectors and humans. Therefore, knowing whether a relationship exists between the proximity of palms to villages and the abundance and distribution of vectors therein, may be critical for Chagas disease prevention programs. Adapting a mathematical model for R. prolixus population dynamics in a small village, we model the implications of changing distances between palms and dwellings, to the risk of Chagas disease infection. Methods We implemented a mathematical model that reflects R. prolixus population dynamics in a small village located in the department of Casanare (Colombia to study the role of palm-house proximity. We varied the distance between palms and houses by monitoring the network global efficiency metric. We constructed 1,000 hypothetical villages varying distances and each one was run 100 times. Results According to the model, as palm-house proximity increases, houses were more likely to be visited by triatomine bugs. The number of bugs per unit time increased progressively in a non-linear fashion with high variability. We stress the importance of village configuration on the model output. Conclusions From a theoretical perspective, palm-house proximity may have a positive effect on the incidence of Chagas disease. The model predicts a 1% increase in new human cases per year when houses and palms are brought closer by 75%.

  6. Effects of advanced glycation end products on ezrin-dependent functions in LLC-PK1 proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Leon A; Gallicchio, Marisa A; McRobert, E Anne; Tikoo, Anjali; Cooper, Mark E

    2005-06-01

    We have recently shown that advanced glycation products (AGEs) bind to the ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) family of proteins. ERM proteins act as cross-linkers between cell membrane proteins and the actin cytoskeleton. They are also involved in signal transduction pathways. They therefore have a critical role in normal cell processes, including modulation of cell shape, adhesion, and motility. We postulate that AGEs may contribute to diabetic complications by disrupting ERM function. In support of this hypothesis, AGEs inhibit ezrin-dependent tubulogenesis of proximal tubule cells. Phosphorylation is an important activating mechanism for ERM proteins, and AGEs inhibit ezrin phosphorylation mediated by the epidermal growth factor receptor.

  7. Long-range spin-singlet proximity effect for a Josephson system with a single-crystal ferromagnet due to its band-structure features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeev, M. V.; Proshin, Yu. N.

    2018-03-01

    A possible explanation for the long-range proximity effect observed in single-crystalline cobalt nanowires sandwiched between two tungsten superconducting electrodes [Nat. Phys. 6, 389 (2010), 10.1038/nphys1621] is proposed. The theoretical model uses properties of a ferromagnet band structure. Specifically, to connect the exchange field with the momentum of quasiparticles the distinction between the effective masses in majority and minority spin subbands and the Fermi-surface anisotropy are considered. The derived Eilenberger-like equations allowed us to obtain a renormalized exchange interaction that is completely compensated for some crystallographic directions under certain conditions. The proposed theoretical model is compared with previous approaches.

  8. The effect of proximal tibial slope on dynamic stability testing of the posterior cruciate ligament- and posterolateral corner-deficient knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrigliano, Frank A; Suero, Eduardo M; Voos, James E; Pearle, Andrew D; Allen, Answorth A

    2012-06-01

    Proximal tibial slope has been shown to influence anteroposterior translation and tibial resting point in the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-deficient knee. The effect of proximal tibial slope on rotational stability of the knee is unknown. Change in proximal tibial slope produced via osteotomy can influence both static translation and dynamic rotational kinematics in the PCL/posterolateral corner (PLC)-deficient knee. Controlled laboratory study. Posterior drawer, dial, and mechanized reverse pivot-shift (RPS) tests were performed on hip-to-toe specimens and translation of the lateral and medial compartments measured utilizing navigation (n = 10). The PCL and structures of the PLC were then sectioned. Stability testing was repeated, and compartmental translation was recorded. A proximal tibial osteotomy in the sagittal plane was then performed achieving either +5° or -5° of tibial slope variation, after which stability testing was repeated (n = 10). Analysis was performed using 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA; α = .05). Combined sectioning of the PCL and PLC structures resulted in a 10.5-mm increase in the posterior drawer, 15.5-mm increase in the dial test at 30°, 14.5-mm increase in the dial test at 90°, and 17.9-mm increase in the RPS (vs intact; P slope (high tibial osteotomy [HTO] +5°) in the PCL/PLC-deficient knee reduced medial compartment translation by 3.3 mm during posterior drawer (vs deficient; P slope (HTO -5°) caused a 4.8-mm increase in medial compartment translation (vs deficient state; P slope diminished static posterior instability of the PCL/PLC-deficient knee as measured by the posterior drawer test but had little effect on rotational or dynamic multiplanar stability as assessed by the dial and RPS tests, respectively. Conversely, decreasing posterior slope resulted in increased posterior instability and a significant increase in the magnitude of the RPS. These results suggest that increasing posterior tibial slope may improve

  9. Why direct effects of predation complicate the social brain hypothesis: And how incorporation of explicit proximate behavioral mechanisms might help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bijl, Wouter; Kolm, Niclas

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of studies have found that large brains may help animals survive by avoiding predation. These studies provide an alternative explanation for existing correlative evidence for one of the dominant hypotheses regarding the evolution of brain size in animals, the social brain hypothesis (SBH). The SBH proposes that social complexity is a major evolutionary driver of large brains. However, if predation both directly selects for large brains and higher levels of sociality, correlations between sociality and brain size may be spurious. We argue that tests of the SBH should take direct effects of predation into account, either by explicitly including them in comparative analyses or by pin-pointing the brain-behavior-fitness pathway through which the SBH operates. Existing data and theory on social behavior can then be used to identify precise candidate mechanisms and formulate new testable predictions. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Peculiarities in mice embriogenesis under serotonin effect in pre- and post-irradiation period in prenervous period of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinova, M.M.; Panaeva, S.V.; Podmareva, O.N.; Turpaev, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Effect of serotonin and X-ray irradiation on mice embriogenesis in prenervous period of development is studied. The above factors were applied separately and in combination (in various doses, with change of sequence). It is shown that development of embriotoxic effect of serotonin is determined by embryos age. Six-day embryos are most sensitive. Eight-day embryos are characterized by absence of toxic effect of serotonin doses applied. The eighth day embryos are most radiosensitive, whereas the six-day ones are less radiosensitive. Serotonin administered to mice females before and after irradiation on the eight day of pregnancy produced radioprotective and therapeutic effect, and on the sixth-seventh days intensified negative radiation consequences. 15 refs.; 2 tabs

  11. Explaining variation in adult Anopheles indoor resting abundance: the relative effects of larval habitat proximity and insecticide-treated bed net use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Robert S; Messina, Joseph P; MacFarlane, David W; Bayoh, M Nabie; Gimnig, John E; Giorgi, Emanuele; Walker, Edward D

    2017-07-17

    Spatial determinants of malaria risk within communities are associated with heterogeneity of exposure to vector mosquitoes. The abundance of adult malaria vectors inside people's houses, where most transmission takes place, should be associated with several factors: proximity of houses to larval habitats, structural characteristics of houses, indoor use of vector control tools containing insecticides, and human behavioural and environmental factors in and near houses. While most previous studies have assessed the association of larval habitat proximity in landscapes with relatively low densities of larval habitats, in this study these relationships were analysed in a region of rural, lowland western Kenya with high larval habitat density. 525 houses were sampled for indoor-resting mosquitoes across an 8 by 8 km study area using the pyrethrum spray catch method. A predictive model of larval habitat location in this landscape, previously verified, provided derivations of indices of larval habitat proximity to houses. Using geostatistical regression models, the association of larval habitat proximity, long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) use, house structural characteristics (wall type, roof type), and peridomestic variables (cooking in the house, cattle near the house, number of people sleeping in the house) with mosquito abundance in houses was quantified. Vector abundance was low (mean, 1.1 adult Anopheles per house). Proximity of larval habitats was a strong predictor of Anopheles abundance. Houses without an LLIN had more female Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus than houses where some people used an LLIN (rate ratios, 95% CI 0.87, 0.85-0.89; 0.84, 0.82-0.86; 0.38, 0.37-0.40) and houses where everyone used an LLIN (RR, 95% CI 0.49, 0.48-0.50; 0.39, 0.39-0.40; 0.60, 0.58-0.61). Cooking in the house also reduced Anopheles abundance across all species. The number of people sleeping in the house, presence of cattle near the house

  12. Effect of different brine concentrations and ripening period on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    25240, Erzurum, Turkey. Accepted 25 ... ripened soft cheese that is maturated in brine to develop the desired ... functions, salt exerts a number of important effects on cheese. ..... In: Fox PF (ed) Cheese: chemistry, physics and.

  13. The effect of season, sex, and portion on the carcass characteristics, pH, color, and proximate composition of Egyptian Goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldenhuys, Greta; Hoffman, Louwrens C; Muller, Nina

    2013-12-01

    The carcass yield, physical characteristics, and proximate composition of Egyptian geese (Alopochen aegyptiacus), a southern African gamebird species, have been studied. A total of 69 geese were harvested during 2 seasons: summer (n = 36) and winter (n = 33). This total group of geese consisted of 27 female birds and 42 male birds. Sex alone affected (P ≤ 0.05) the live and carcass weights, and the average muscle weight (g) of each portion was higher for the male fowl. The data does not indicate differences between the meat's physical characteristics on account of sex; however, the meat from the female birds did have a higher intramuscular fat content. Season (winter vs. summer) did not influence the average muscle weights (g) of the breast, thigh, and drumstick portions, but the intramuscular fat content content of the birds hunted in winter was higher. Muscle color and pH differed as a result of season with the summer meat having a higher pH and more vivid red color compared with winter. The physical characteristics and the proximate composition of the breast, thigh, and drumstick portions varied considerably. This is essentially connected to a difference in physical activity of the muscles in the portions. Overall, this study revealed that to ensure a consistent eating quality the harvesting periods of Egyptian geese should be considered.

  14. Respiratory and allergic health effects in a young population in proximity of a major industrial park in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwahaibi, Adil; Zeka, Ariana

    2016-02-01

    Sohar industrial zone (SIZ), Oman, which started operating in 2006, contains many industries that potentially affect the health of the local population. This study's aim was to evaluate the health effects in a young population living near SIZ. Patient visits to state health clinics for acute respiratory diseases (ARD), asthma, conjunctivitis and dermatitis were obtained for the period of 2006 to 2010, for children ages 5 to 10, ≥20 km to represent high, intermediate and control exposure zones, respectively. Age-specific and gender-specific monthly counts of visits were modelled using generalised additive models controlling for time trends. The high and intermediate exposure zones were later combined together due to the similarity of associations. Exposure effect modification by age, gender and socioeconomic status (SES) was also tested. Living within 10 km from SIZ showed a greater association with ARD (risk ratio (RR)=2.5; 95% CI=2.3 to 2.7), asthma (RR=3.7; 95% CI=3.1 to 4.5), conjunctivitis (RR=3.1; 95% CI=2.9 to 3.5) and dermatitis (RR=2.7; 95% CI=2.5 to 3.0) when compared with the control zone. No differences in associations were found for gender and SES groups; greater effects were noticed in the ≤14-year-old group for asthma. This is the first study conducted in Oman to examine the health effects of a young population living near an industrial park. We hope that these findings will contribute in future developments of environmental health policies in Oman. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty versus Hemiarthroplasty for the Management of Complex Proximal Humeral Fractures in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhoff, Georg; O'Hara, Nathan N; D'Cruz, Jennifer; Sprague, Sheila A; Bansback, Nick; Evaniew, Nathan; Slobogean, Gerard P

    2017-03-01

    There is ongoing debate regarding the optimal surgical treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) compared with hemiarthroplasty (HA) in the management of complex proximal humeral fractures, using a cost-utility analysis. On the basis of data from published literature, a cost-utility analysis was conducted using decision tree and Markov modeling. A single-payer perspective, with a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of Can$50,000 (Canadian dollars), and a lifetime time horizon were used. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was used as the study's primary outcome measure. In comparison with HA, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained for RTSA was Can$13,679. One-way sensitivity analysis revealed the model to be sensitive to the RTSA implant cost and the RTSA procedural cost. The ICER of Can$13,679 is well below the WTP threshold of Can$50,000, and probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated that 92.6% of model simulations favored RTSA. Our economic analysis found that RTSA for the treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures in the elderly is the preferred economic strategy when compared with HA. The ICER of RTSA is well below standard WTP thresholds, and its estimate of cost-effectiveness is similar to other highly successful orthopedic strategies such as total hip arthroplasty for the treatment of hip arthritis. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Retrieval of Effective Parameters of Subwavelength Periodic Photonic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlov, Alexey A.; Yankovskaya, Elizaveta A.; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the standard Nicolson Ross Weir method of effective permittivity and permeability restoration of photonic structures for the case of subwavelength metal-dielectric multilayers. We show that the direct application of the standard method yields a false zero-epsilon point and an associated...

  17. 29 CFR 785.3 - Period of effectiveness of interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED General... policies inconsistent with any portion of this part are superseded by it. The Portal-to-Portal Bulletin (part 790 of this chapter) is still in effect except insofar as it may not be consistent with any...

  18. Enhancing quantum effects via periodic modulations in optomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Alessandro; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2012-07-01

    Parametrically modulated optomechanical systems have been recently proposed as a simple and efficient setting for the quantum control of a micromechanical oscillator: relevant possibilities include the generation of squeezing in the oscillator position (or momentum) and the enhancement of entanglement between mechanical and radiation modes. In this paper we further investigate this modulation regime, considering an optomechanical system with one or more parameters being modulated over time. We first apply a sinusoidal modulation of the mechanical frequency and characterize the optimal regime in which the visibility of purely quantum effects is maximal. We then introduce a second modulation on the input laser intensity and analyze the interplay between the two. We find that an interference pattern shows up, so that different choices of the relative phase between the two modulations can either enhance or cancel the desired quantum effects, opening new possibilities for optimal quantum control strategies.

  19. Effect of different brine concentrations and ripening period on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheeses made from pasteurized milk (65°C for 30 min) were ripened in 11, 14 and 17 g 100 ml-1 NaCl for 90 days at 7±1°C. Some physicochemical and biochemical analyses were carried out during storage time. The effects of brine concentrations on total solids, protein, ash, salt, pH, and WSN values were found to be ...

  20. The Effect of Widowhood on Parent-Child Relationships in Korea: Do Parents' Filial Expectations and Geographic Proximity to Children Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Hwa; Yoon, Hyunsook; Lim, Yeon Ok; Heo, Sun-Young

    2016-03-01

    Although previous research based on data from the U.S. suggests that parents' widowhood is associated with increased emotional support from children, little is known about the impact of late-life widowhood on intergenerational relationships in other cultures. Using data of Korean older adults, this paper examined: (1) the effect of widowhood on both positive and negative aspects of parent-child relationships and (2) whether these effects are moderated by older adults' expectations about children's filial responsibilities and the geographic proximity to their children. Analyses are based on data from the Hallym Aging Study, a stratified multi-stage probability sample of older adults living in the cities of Seoul and Chuncheon in Korea. Compared to married older adults, widowed persons in this sample reported higher levels of ambivalence, lower levels of positive interactions, and higher levels of negative interactions with their children. Parents' notion about filial responsibilities did not have a significant moderating effect, whereas geographic proximity to children was a significant moderator. Findings suggest that widowhood is associated with greater strain in intergenerational relationships in Korea. Helping widowed older adults forge constructive relationships with their children may enhance both bereaved older adults' and their children's well-being in this cultural milieu.

  1. Neighborhoods and manageable proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Stavrides

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The theatricality of urban encounters is above all a theatricality of distances which allow for the encounter. The absolute “strangeness” of the crowd (Simmel 1997: 74 expressed, in its purest form, in the absolute proximity of a crowded subway train, does not generally allow for any movements of approach, but only for nervous hostile reactions and submissive hypnotic gestures. Neither forced intersections in the course of pedestrians or vehicles, nor the instantaneous crossing of distances by the technology of live broadcasting and remote control give birth to places of encounter. In the forced proximity of the metropolitan crowd which haunted the city of the 19th and 20th century, as well as in the forced proximity of the tele-presence which haunts the dystopic prospect of the future “omnipolis” (Virilio 1997: 74, the necessary distance, which is the stage of an encounter between different instances of otherness, is dissipated.

  2. Effect of weaning period on nutritional status children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, S.; Naz, F.; Jamalvi, S.W.; Ali, S.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effect of age of introduction and the type of weaning foods used, on the nutritional status of children under three years of age. Three hundred and fifty-nine children under 3 years were included in the study. Based on the age of commencement of weaning, the children were categorized as children weaned at appropriate and inappropriate age. For the type of weaning foods, the children were grouped into two categories based on the nature of food items. Children for whom weaning was started at the recommended age of 4-6 months were found to be significantly less malnourished on anthropometric measurements as compared to the other set in which weaning was started at an earlier or later age. Significant statistical difference was noted in the children weaned on nutritious home-made items compared to children having commercial foods. (author)

  3. Proximate composition and nutritional characterization of Chia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dairy product associated with several beneficial nutritional and health effects. ... The results for amino acids showed that the essential and non-essential amino ... proximate composition and nutritional (amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals ...

  4. Effects of oral hygiene, residual caries and cervical Marginal-gaps on the survival of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment approach restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M Kemoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART approach has been in existence for a while, the reasons for the poor performance of multisurface ART restorations are not very clear. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of oral hygiene, residual caries and cervical marginal-gaps on survival of proximal ART restorations. Settings: Two rural divisions in Kenya were selected for the study. Design: A randomized clinical trial. Material and Methods: The 804 children in the study had their baseline- and 2-year dental plaque levels documented. Each child received one proximal restoration in a primary molar using ART approach, together with trained and pre-tested operators/assistants, three glass ionomer cements (GIC-brands and two tooth-isolation methods. The restorations were clinically evaluated soon after placement and after 2 years. Post-restorative bite-wing radiographs taken soon after restoration were also evaluated. Statistical analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 14 computer programme was used and results tested using Pearson′s correlation, Cox Proportional Hazards regression analysis and Multiple Logistic regression models tests. Results: At baseline and after 2 years, the mean cumulative survival and plaque index changed from 94.4% to 30.8% and 2.34 (Standard Deviation, or SD of 0.46 to 1.92 (SD 2.1 respectively, with higher plaque indices associated with higher restoration failures. Of the 507 radiographs evaluated, 48 (9.5%, 63 (12.4% and 9 (1.8% restorations had residual caries (RC, cervical marginal-gaps (CMG and both RC/CMG respectively. Survival of the restorations with RC/CMG was significantly lower (p = 0.003 compared to those with RC or without RC. Conclusion: Low survival of proximal restorations in the study was associated with the presence of cervical marginal-gaps.

  5. Electromagnetic properties of proximity systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresin, Vladimir Z.

    1985-07-01

    Magnetic screening in the proximity system Sα-Mβ, where Mβ is a normal metal N, semiconductor (semimetal), or a superconductor, is studied. Main attention is paid to the low-temperature region where nonlocality plays an important role. The thermodynamic Green's-function method is employed in order to describe the behavior of the proximity system in an external field. The temperature and thickness dependences of the penetration depth λ are obtained. The dependence λ(T) differs in a striking way from the dependence in usual superconductors. The strong-coupling effect is taken into account. A special case of screening in a superconducting film backed by a size-quantizing semimetal film is considered. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data.

  6. Electromagnetic properties of proximity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresin, V.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic screening in the proximity system S/sub α/-M/sub β/, where M/sub β/ is a normal metal N, semiconductor (semimetal), or a superconductor, is studied. Main attention is paid to the low-temperature region where nonlocality plays an important role. The thermodynamic Green's-function method is employed in order to describe the behavior of the proximity system in an external field. The temperature and thickness dependences of the penetration depth lambda are obtained. The dependence lambda(T) differs in a striking way from the dependence in usual superconductors. The strong-coupling effect is taken into account. A special case of screening in a superconducting film backed by a size-quantizing semimetal film is considered. The results obtained are in good agreement with experimental data

  7. Ceramic/metal and A15/metal superconducting composite materials exploiting the superconducting proximity effect and method of making the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    A composite superconducting material made of coated particles of ceramic superconducting material and a metal matrix material is disclosed. The metal matrix material fills the regions between the coated particles. The coating material is a material that is chemically nonreactive with the ceramic. Preferably, it is silver. The coating serves to chemically insulate the ceramic from the metal matrix material. The metal matrix material is a metal that is susceptible to the superconducting proximity effect. Preferably, it is a NbTi alloy. The metal matrix material is induced to become superconducting by the superconducting proximity effect when the temperature of the material goes below the critical temperature of the ceramic. The material has the improved mechanical properties of the metal matrix material. Preferably, the material consists of approximately 10% NbTi, 90% coated ceramic particles (by volume). Certain aspects of the material and method will depend upon the particular ceramic superconductor employed. An alternative embodiment of the invention utilizes A15 compound superconducting particles in a metal matrix material which is preferably a NbTi alloy

  8. Ceramic/metal and A15/metal superconducting composite materials exploiting the superconducting proximity effect and method of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Matthew J.

    1999-01-01

    A composite superconducting material made of coated particles of ceramic superconducting material and a metal matrix material. The metal matrix material fills the regions between the coated particles. The coating material is a material that is chemically nonreactive with the ceramic. Preferably, it is silver. The coating serves to chemically insulate the ceramic from the metal matrix material. The metal matrix material is a metal that is susceptible to the superconducting proximity effect. Preferably, it is a NbTi alloy. The metal matrix material is induced to become superconducting by the superconducting proximity effect when the temperature of the material goes below the critical temperature of the ceramic. The material has the improved mechanical properties of the metal matrix material. Preferably, the material consists of approximately 10% NbTi, 90% coated ceramic particles (by volume). Certain aspects of the material and method will depend upon the particular ceramic superconductor employed. An alternative embodiment of the invention utilizes A15 compound superconducting particles in a metal matrix material which is preferably a NbTi alloy.

  9. The effects of proximal withdrawal states on job attitudes, job searching, intent to leave, and employee turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junchao Jason; Lee, Thomas W; Mitchell, Terence R; Hom, Peter W; Griffeth, Rodger W

    2016-10-01

    We present the first major test of proximal withdrawal states theory (PWST; Hom, Mitchell, Lee, & Griffeth, 2012). In addition, we develop and test new ideas to demonstrate how PWST improves our understanding and prediction of employee turnover. Across 2 studies, we corroborate that reluctant stayers (those who want to leave but have to stay) are similar to enthusiastic leavers (those who want to leave and can leave) in affective commitment, job satisfaction, and job embeddedness, and that reluctant leavers (those who want to stay but have to leave) are similar to enthusiastic stayers (those who want to stay and can stay) on these dimensions. We find that job satisfaction and job embeddedness more strongly influence the intent to leave and job search behavior for enthusiastic stayers and leavers than for reluctant stayers and leavers. More important, we show that for those experiencing low control over their preference for leaving or staying (i.e., reluctant stayers and leavers), traditional variables such as job satisfaction, job embeddedness, and intent to leave are poor predictors of their turnover behavior. We further demonstrate that focusing on enthusiastic stayers and leavers can significantly enhance the accuracy of job satisfaction, job embeddedness, and intent to leave for predicting actual employee turnover. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Effects of processing on proximate and fatty acid compositions of six commercial sea cucumber species of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishanthan, G; Kumara, P A D A; de Croos, M D S T; Prasada, D V P; Dissanayake, D C T

    2018-05-01

    Processing and its impacts on proximate composition and fatty acid profile of six sea cucumber species; Bohadschia marmorata, Stichopus chloronotus, Holothuria spinifera, Thelenota anax, Holothuria scabra and Bohadschia sp. 1 collected from the northwest coast of Sri Lanka were analyzed. Sea cucumbers are processed into bêche - de - mer by both domestic and industrial level processors following the similar steps of cleaning, evisceration, first boiling, salting, second boiling and drying. However, domestically processed bêche - de - mer always reported a higher percentage of moisture, crude ash, crude fat and lower percentage of crude protein than industrially processed products. Although processing resulted in a significant reduction of total SFA and MUFA in fresh individuals of most of these species, total PUFA increased significantly in processed individuals excluding Bohadschia species. Palmitic acid was found to be the most dominant fatty acid in all these species followed by eicosapentaenoic acid, which showed a significant increase in processed products, except Bohadschia sp. 1. Total MUFA were higher than total SFA in all sea cucumber species having exceptions in Bohadchia sp.1 and fresh S. chloronotus. These findings will make a significant contribution to fill the gaps in existing information as no any previous information is available for species like H. spinifera and S. chloronotus .

  11. Seismic Site Effects from the Seafloor Motion Recorded by the Short-period Ocean Bottom Seismometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. Y.; Cheng, W. B.; Chin, S. J.; Hsu, S. K.; Dong, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    For decades, it has been mentioned that submarine slope failures are spatially linked to the presence of gas hydrates/gas-charged sediments. When triggered by earthquakes, oversteepen and instable sediments may prompt breakouts of the slopes containing gas hydrates and cause submarine landslides and tsunamis. Widely distributed BSRs have been observed in the area offshore of southwestern Taiwan where the active accretionary complex meets with the passive China continental margin. In the region, large or small scale landslides were also reported based on seismic interpretations. In order to clarify the link between earthquake, landslide and the presence of gas hydrate, we evaluate the response of seafloor sediments in regard to passive dynamic loads. Horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratios are used to characterize the local sediment response. Ambient noise as well as distant earthquakes are used as generators of the passive dynamic loads. Based on this study, we aim to characterize the site in terms of its physical properties and the local site effect produced by shallow marine sediments. The results show that the maximum H/V ratios appeared in the range of 5-10 Hz, where the horizontal amplitudes increased by an order of magnitude relative to the vertical amplitude. The stations located in the northwestern part of study area were characterized by another relatively small peak at proximately 2 Hz, which may indicates the presence of a discontinuity of sediments. For most stations, the H/V ratios estimated based on the earthquake (i.e. strong input signal) and noise (background, micro-seismic noise) records were characterized by different pattern. No distinct peak is observed for the H/V pattern calculated during earthquakes. This phenomenon may suggest that no clear sedimentary boundary exist when a stronger motion applies. Estimating H/V spectral ratios of data recorded by the seven short period OBSs (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) deployed in the southwest Taiwan

  12. Probing the (empirical quantum structure embedded in the periodic table with an effective Bohr model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Nardin Favaro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The atomic shell structure can be observed by inspecting the experimental periodic properties of the Periodic Table. The (quantum shell structure emerges from these properties and in this way quantum mechanics can be explicitly shown considering the (semi-quantitative periodic properties. These periodic properties can be obtained with a simple effective Bohr model. An effective Bohr model with an effective quantum defect (u was considered as a probe in order to show the quantum structure embedded in the Periodic Table. u(Z shows a quasi-smoothed dependence of Z, i.e., u(Z ≈ Z2/5 - 1.

  13. Proximal collagenous gastroenteritides:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Riis, Lene Buhl; Danese, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    AIM: While collagenous colitis represents the most common form of the collagenous gastroenteritides, the collagenous entities affecting the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract are much less recognized and possibly overlooked. The aim was to summarize the latest information through a syste...

  14. Proximal femoral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, Henrik; Teixidor, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    searched the homepages of the national heath authorities and national orthopedic societies in West Europe and found 11 national or regional (in case of no national) guidelines including any type of proximal femoral fracture surgery. RESULTS: Pathway consensus is outspread (internal fixation for un...

  15. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  16. Aspergillus-fermented Jatropha curcas seed cake: proximate composition and effects on biochemical indices in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAOZIYAT SULAIMAN ADENIKE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated Jatropha curcas seed cake fermented by Aspergillus niger for use as a potential source of protein in animal feed production. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (A–D, of 3 rats each and fed different protein-rich diets for 4 weeks. Group 1 (control was fed with soybean as a protein source, while Groups 2, 3, and 4 were given feeds supplemented instead with Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas, unfermented J. curcas, and a mix of Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas and soybean (1:1, respectively. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, and their serum and vital organs were harvested for further analyses. Proximate analyses of the various diet combinations showed significant (P < 0.05 variations in crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, and ash content. Enzyme assays (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase in rat serum and tissue homogenates indicate that the detoxification of J. curcas kernel cake by A. niger fermentation is viable and promising. Body weight generally did not differ significantly between the groups, but all rats put on weight in week 1 (Group 2 most strongly. The initial weight gain was followed by a slight decreasing trend in all groups in weeks 2–4, probably due to an adaptation mechanism. One rat fed with the unfermented cake (Group 3 died in week 2, confirming that the cake is not safe for direct consumption until it is processed. Our data support further use of Aspergillus-fermented J. curcas as an alternative protein source in animal feed preparation.

  17. Low speed wind tunnel test of ground proximity and deck edge effects on a lift cruise fan V/STOL configuration, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, V. R.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristics were determined of a lift cruise fan V/STOL multi-mission configuration in the near proximity to the edge of a small flat surface representation of a ship deck. Tests were conducted at both static and forward speed test conditions. The model (0.12 scale) tested was a four fan configuration with modifications to represent a three fan configuration. Analysis of data showed that the deck edge effects were in general less critical in terms of differences from free air than a full deck (in ground effect) configuration. The one exception to this was when the aft edge of the deck was located under the center of gravity. This condition, representative of an approach from the rear, showed a significant lift loss. Induced moments were generally small compared to the single axis control power requirements, but will likely add to the pilot work load.

  18. Effects of Colored Noise on Periodic Orbits in a One-Dimensional Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Guo; Ai, Bao-Quan

    2011-06-01

    Noise can induce inverse period-doubling transition and chaos. The effects of the colored noise on periodic orbits, of the different periodic sequences in the logistic map, are investigated. It is found that the dynamical behaviors of the orbits, induced by an exponentially correlated colored noise, are different in the mergence of transition, and the effects of the noise intensity on their dynamical behaviors are different from the effects of the correlation time of noise. Remarkably, the noise can induce new periodic orbits, namely, two new orbits emerge in the period-four sequence at the bifurcation parameter value μ = 3.5, four new orbits in the period-eight sequence at μ = 3.55, and three new orbits in the period-six sequence at μ = 3.846, respectively. Moreover, the dynamical behaviors of the new orbits clearly show the resonancelike response to the colored noise.

  19. Effects of Colored Noise on Periodic Orbits in a One-Dimensional Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fengguo; Ai Baoquan

    2011-01-01

    Noise can induce inverse period-doubling transition and chaos. The effects of the colored noise on periodic orbits, of the different periodic sequences in the logistic map, are investigated. It is found that the dynamical behaviors of the orbits, induced by an exponentially correlated colored noise, are different in the mergence of transition, and the effects of the noise intensity on their dynamical behaviors are different from the effects of the correlation time of noise. Remarkably, the noise can induce new periodic orbits, namely, two new orbits emerge in the period-four sequence at the bifurcation parameter value μ = 3.5, four new orbits in the period-eight sequence at μ = 3.55, and three new orbits in the period-six sequence at μ = 3.846, respectively. Moreover, the dynamical behaviors of the new orbits clearly show the resonancelike response to the colored noise. (general)

  20. Recent hip fracture trends in Sweden and Denmark with age-period-cohort effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosengren, B E; Björk, J; Cooper, C

    2017-01-01

    This study used nationwide hip fracture data from Denmark and Sweden during 1987-2010 to examine effects of (birth) cohort and period. We found that time trends, cohort, and period effects were different in the two countries. Results also indicated that hip fracture rates may increase in the not ...

  1. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy to probe odd-triplet contributions to the long-ranged proximity effect in Al-EuS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diesch, Simon; Machon, Peter; Belzig, Wolfgang; Scheer, Elke [Universitaet Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany); Suergers, Christoph; Beckmann, Detlef [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Experiments on superconductor-ferromagnet-systems have shown Cooper pairs tunneling through ferromagnetic layers, indicating Cooper pairs of equal spin, thus corresponding to a long-range triplet proximity effect. Most experimental evidence for triplet superconductivity comes from observations of the thickness dependence of the Josephson current through a ferromagnetic barrier, but there is an increasing interest in obtaining direct spectroscopic evidence. This project aims to analyze the DOS of thin films of the ferromagnetic insulator europium sulfide on superconducting aluminum or vice versa, using a scanning tunneling microscope in spectroscopy mode at 280 mK and in varying magnetic fields. We observe significant broadening of the superconducting energy gap and a variety of sub-gap structures induced by the presence of the ferromagnet and interpret our findings based on the diffusive theory.

  2. Effects of dry period length on clinical mastitis and other major clinical health disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Sørensen, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Four, 7-, and 10-wk dry periods were randomly assigned to 366 dairy cows in eight herds. A multiple polytomous logistic regression analysis was conducted with the objective to reveal possible important effects of the dry period on the risk of contracting major clinical health disorders. Several...... complex statistical interactions were revealed. Complications around and after drying off occurred least frequently at 7-wk dry periods. There was little evidence of an effect of the dry period on the risk of clinical mastitis and other severe clinical disorders around and after calving. With short...... like milk yield at drying off and previous mastitis are much more important predisposing factors....

  3. A preliminary clinical trial using flowable glass-ionomer cement as a liner in proximal-ART restorations: the operator effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonifácio, C.C.; Hesse, D.; Bönecker, M.; van Loveren, C.; van Amerongen, W.E.; Raggio, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    .Objectives: This in vivo study was carried out to assess the influence of the operator experience on the survival rate of proximal-ART restorations using a two-layer technique to insert the glass-ionomer cement (GIC). Study Design: Forty five proximal cavities in primary molars were restored in a

  4. Two Stages repair of proximal hypospadias: Review of 33 cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HussamHassan

    Background/Purpose: Proximal hypospadias with chordee is the most challenging variant of hypospadias to reconstruct. During the last 10 years, the approach to sever hypospadias has been controversial. Materials & Methods: During the period from June 2002 to December 2009, I performed 33 cases with proximal.

  5. Periodicity effects on compound waves guided by a thin metal slab sandwiched between two periodically nonhomogeneous dielectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2017-10-01

    Surface-plasmon-polariton waves can be compounded when a sufficiently thin metal layer is sandwiched between two half spaces filled with dissimilar periodically nonhomogeneous dielectric materials. We solved the boundary-value problem for compound waves guided by a layer of a homogeneous and isotropic metal sandwiched between a structurally chiral material (SCM) and a periodically multilayered isotropic dielectric (PMLID) material. We found that the periodicities of the PMLID material and the SCM are crucial to excite a multiplicity of compound guided waves arising from strong coupling between the two interfaces.

  6. [Curative effect analysis on proximal frmoral nail antirotation for the treatment of femoral intertrochanteric fracture and integrity of lateral trochanteric wall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Qin, De-an; Guo, Xiu-sheng

    2015-06-01

    To explore clinical efficacy and key matters for the treatment of femoral intertrochanteric fracture and integrity of lateral trochanteric wall by proximal frmoral nail antirotation (PFNA). From June 2010 to December 2012,210 femoral intertrochanteric fracture patients treated with PFNA were retrospectively analyzed, including 76 males and 134 females aged from 46 to 96 years old with an average of 71 years old. All fracture were caused by injury and classified to type I (5 cases) type II (16 cases), type III (73 cases) and type IV (116 cases) according to Evans classification. The time of getting out of bed, postoperative complications and displacement of screw blade and fracture healing were observed, Baumgaertner criteria were used to evaluate quality of fracture reduction, Harris criteria were used to evaulate hip joint function. All incisions were healed at stage I, no complications occurred except incomplete of lateral trochanteric wall patients without reconstruction, other patients could get out of bed with crutches at one week and all patients discharged from hospital at 10 days after operation. One hundred and seventy-eight patients were followed up from 3 to 17 months with an average of 10 months. One case occurred unhealed fracture displacement caused by screw blade cutting, 2 cases occurred screw blade transfomed to proximal and out femoral head, other patients obtained fracture healing at 12 to 16 weeks after operation. According to Baumgaertner criteria, 130 cases obtained good results, 45 cases acceptable, and 3 poor; while 107 cases obtained excellent results, 65 good, 3 good and 3 poor according to Harris score. PFNA with mechanical advantage of intramedullary fixation has advantsges of stable fixation, shorter operation time, minimally invasive. Satisfied clinical effects could obtained by grasping fixation principle, dealing with negative factors in operation. Intraoperative reconstruction for integrity of lateral trochanteric wall could assure

  7. Theoretical effects of fully ductile versus fully brittle behaviors of bone tissue on the strength of the human proximal femur and vertebral body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawathe, Shashank; Yang, Haisheng; Fields, Aaron J; Bouxsein, Mary L; Keaveny, Tony M

    2015-05-01

    The influence of the ductility of bone tissue on whole-bone strength represents a fundamental issue of multi-scale biomechanics. To gain insight, we performed a computational study of 16 human proximal femurs and 12 T9 vertebral bodies, comparing the whole-bone strength for the two hypothetical bounding cases of fully brittle versus fully ductile tissue-level failure behaviors, all other factors, including tissue-level elastic modulus and yield stress, held fixed. For each bone, a finite element model was generated (60-82 μm element size; up to 120 million elements) and was virtually loaded in habitual (stance for femur, compression for vertebra) and non-habitual (sideways fall, only for femur) loading modes. Using a geometrically and materially non-linear model, the tissue was assumed to be either fully brittle or fully ductile. We found that, under habitual loading, changing the tissue behavior from fully ductile to fully brittle reduced whole-bone strength by 38.3±2.4% (mean±SD) and 39.4±1.9% for the femur and vertebra, respectively (p=0.39 for site difference). These reductions were remarkably uniform across bones, but (for the femur) were greater for non-habitual (57.1±4.7%) than habitual loading (pductile cases. These theoretical results suggest that the whole-bone strength of the proximal femur and vertebra can vary substantially between fully brittle and fully ductile tissue-level behaviors, an effect that is relatively insensitive to bone morphology but greater for non-habitual loading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Proximity friction reexamined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krappe, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    The contribution of inelastic excitations to radial and tangential friction form-factors in heavy-ion collisions is investigated in the frame-work of perturbation theory. The dependence of the form factors on the essential geometrical and level-density parameters of the scattering system is exhibited in a rather closed form. The conditions for the existence of time-local friction coefficients are discussed. Results are compared to form factors from other models, in particular the transfer-related proximity friction. For the radial friction coefficient the inelastic excitation mechanism seems to be the dominant contribution in peripheral collisions. (orig.)

  9. Proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Lawrence X

    2002-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal femur include fractures of the head, neck, intertrochanteric, and subtrochanteric regions. Head fractures commonly accompany dislocations. Neck fractures and intertrochanteric fractures occur with greatest frequency in elderly patients with a low bone mineral density and are produced by low-energy mechanisms. Subtrochanteric fractures occur in a predominantly strong cortical osseous region which is exposed to large compressive stresses. Implants used to address these fractures must be able to accommodate significant loads while the fractures consolidate. Complications secondary to these injuries produce significant morbidity and include infection, nonunion, malunion, decubitus ulcers, fat emboli, deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, pneumonia, myocardial infarction, stroke, and death.

  10. Experimental observation of parametric effects near period doubling in a loss-modulated CO2 laser

    OpenAIRE

    Chizhevsky, V. N.

    1996-01-01

    A number of parametric effects, such as suppression of period doubling, shift of the bifurcation point, scaling law relating the shift and the perturbation amplitude, influence of the detuning on the suppression, reaching of the maximum gain between the original and shifted bifurcation points, and scaling law for idler power are experimentally observed near period doubling bifurcation in a loss-driven CO2 laser that is subjected to periodic loss perturbations at a frequency that is close to a...

  11. Environmental influence on the effect of gamma irradiation on proximate chemical composition of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; Farhatullah; Khan, S.; Iqbal, M.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of 10, 20 and 30 krad gamma rays on Ash, Moisture, Crude protein, Crude fat, Crude fibre and Nitrogen free extract contents of barely variety, C-63 sown on 5th and 20th November and 5th December were observed. Sowing dates had significant effects for all characters except moisture percentage and carbohydrates. Ash, moisture and carbohydrates percentages had increased due to early sowing, while crude protein, fat and fibre percentages had decreased due to late sowing. Radiation effects were highly significant for all characters except moisture percentage. The severity of stimulatory or inhibitory effect, in general, was dependent upon the intensity of radiation doses and time of sowing for all characters studied. Maximum stimulatory effects were due to 30 krad which were 6.23, 32.78, 4.92 and 29.07% for Ash, Protein, fat and fibre, respectively than their respective controls. The retarding effects of 14.57 and 8.20% for moisture and carbohydrate were also found due to 30 krad, as compared with their respective controls

  12. Effects of weak nonlinearity on dispersion relations and frequency band-gaps of periodic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2015-01-01

    of these for nonlinear problems is impossible or cumbersome, since Floquet theory is applicable for linear systems only. Thus the nonlinear effects for periodic structures are not yet fully uncovered, while at the same time applica-tions may demand effects of nonlinearity on structural response to be accounted for....... The present work deals with analytically predicting dynamic responses for nonlinear continuous elastic periodic structures. Specifically, the effects of weak nonlinearity on the dispersion re-lation and frequency band-gaps of a periodic Bernoulli-Euler beam performing bending os-cillations are analyzed......The analysis of the behaviour of linear periodic structures can be traced back over 300 years, to Sir Isaac Newton, and still attracts much attention. An essential feature of periodic struc-tures is the presence of frequency band-gaps, i.e. frequency ranges in which waves cannot propagate...

  13. Separating the effects of age, period and birth cohort on seafood consumption in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Lund, Eiliv

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...

  14. Experimental evidence for the effect of small wind turbine proximity and operation on bird and bat activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Minderman

    Full Text Available The development of renewable energy technologies such as wind turbines forms a vital part of strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Although large wind farms generate the majority of wind energy, the small wind turbine (SWT, units generating <50 kW sector is growing rapidly. In spite of evidence of effects of large wind farms on birds and bats, effects of SWTs on wildlife have not been studied and are likely to be different due to their potential siting in a wider range of habitats. We present the first study to quantify the effects of SWTs on birds and bats. Using a field experiment, we show that bird activity is similar in two distance bands surrounding a sample of SWTs (between 6-18 m hub height and is not affected by SWT operation at the fine scale studied. At shorter distances from operating turbines (0-5 m, bat activity (measured as the probability of a bat "pass" per hour decreases from 84% (71-91% to 28% (11-54% as wind speed increases from 0 to 14 m/s. This effect is weaker at greater distances (20-25 m from operating turbines (activity decreases from 80% (65-89% to 59% (32-81%, and absent when they are braked. We conclude that bats avoid operating SWTs but that this effect diminishes within 20 m. Such displacement effects may have important consequences especially in landscapes where suitable habitat is limiting. Planning guidance for SWTs is currently lacking. Based on our results we recommend that they are sited at least 20 m away from potentially valuable bat habitat.

  15. Effects of Framing Proximal Benefits of Quitting and Motivation to Quit as a Query on Communications About Tobacco Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Sarah; Sheeran, Paschal; Jarman, Kristen; Ranney, Leah M; Schmidt, Allison M; Huang, Li-Ling; Goldstein, Adam O

    2017-10-01

    Little is known on how to communicate messages on tobacco constituents to tobacco users. This study manipulated three elements of a message in the context of a theory-based communication campaign about tobacco constituents: (1) latency of response efficacy (how soon expected health benefits would accrue), (2) self-efficacy (confidence about quitting), and (3) interrogative cue ("Ready to be tobacco-free?"). Smokers (N = 1669, 55.4% women) were recruited via an online platform, and were randomized to a 3 (Latency of response efficacy) × 2 (Self-efficacy) × 2 (Interrogative cue) factorial design. The dependent variables were believability, credibility, perceived effectiveness of the communication message, and action expectancies (likelihood of seeking additional information and help with quitting). Latency of response efficacy influenced believability, perceived effectiveness, credibility, and action expectancies. In each case, scores were higher when specific health benefits were said to accrue within 1 month, as compared to general health benefits occurring in a few hours. The interrogative cue had a marginal positive effect on perceived effectiveness. The self-efficacy manipulation had no reliable effects, and there were no significant interactions among conditions. Smokers appear less persuaded by a communication message on constituents where general health benefits accrue immediately (within a few hours) than specific benefits over a longer timeframe (1 month). Additionally, smokers appeared to be more persuaded by messages with an interrogative cue. Such findings may help design more effective communication campaigns on tobacco constituents to smokers. This paper describes, for the first time, how components of tobacco constituent messages are perceived. We now know that smokers appear to be less persuaded by communication messages where general health benefits accrue immediately (within a few hours) than specific benefits over a longer timeframe (1 month

  16. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  17. A periodic-type dose effect of insulin in the blood glucose level of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated in this paper the effect of a periodic-type insulin dose on a diabetic patient. An appropriate matching condition is introduced in our problem by expressing the insulin dose using a Fourier series expansion. Our result gives insight to the state of the patient over a period of administration. Clearly, there is the ...

  18. The Effects of Reducing the Entitlement Period to Unemployment Insurance Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, N.; van der Klaauw, B.

    This paper exploits a substantial reform of the Dutch UI law to study the effect of the entitlement period on job finding and subsequent labor market outcomes. Using detailed administrative data covering the full population we find that reducing the entitlement period increases the job finding rate,

  19. Multi-Periodic Photonic Hyper-Crystals: Volume Plasmon Polaritons and the Purcell Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Iorsh, I. V.; Orlov, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate superior degree of control over volume plasmon polariton propagation and the Purcell effect in multi-period (4-layer unit cell) plasmonic multilayers, which can be viewed as multiscale hyperbolic metamaterials or multi-periodic photonic hyper-crystals. © 2014 OSA....

  20. Echosonography with proximity sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaisiam, W; Laithong, T; Meekhun, S; Chaiwathyothin, N; Thanlarp, P; Danworaphong, S

    2013-01-01

    We propose the use of a commercial ultrasonic proximity sensor kit for profiling an altitude-varying surface by employing echosonography. The proximity sensor kit, two identical transducers together with its dedicated operating circuit, is used as a profiler for the construction of an image. Ultrasonic pulses are emitted from one of the transducers and received by the other. The time duration between the pulses allows us to determine the traveling distance of each pulse. In the experiment, the circuit is used with the addition of two copper wires for directing the outgoing and incoming signals to an oscilloscope. The time of flight of ultrasonic pulses can thus be determined. Square grids of 5 × 5 cm 2 are made from fishing lines, forming pixels in the image. The grids are designed to hold the detection unit in place, about 30 cm above a flat surface. The surface to be imaged is constructed to be height varying and placed on the flat surface underneath the grids. Our result shows that an image of the profiled surface can be created by varying the location of the detection unit along the grid. We also investigate the deviation in relation to the time of flight of the ultrasonic pulse. Such an experiment should be valuable for conveying the concept of ultrasonic imaging to physical and medical science undergraduate students. Due to its simplicity, the setup could be made in any undergraduate laboratory relatively inexpensively and it requires no complex parts. The results illustrate the concept of echosonography. (paper)

  1. Location, Root Proximity, and Glyphosate-use History Modulate the Effects of Glyphosate on Fungal Community Networks of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate is the most-used herbicide worldwide and an essential tool for weed control in no-till cropping systems. However, concerns have been raised regarding the long-term effects of glyphosate on soil microbial communities. We examined the impact of repeated glyphosate application on bulk and rh...

  2. Hyper-Binding across Time: Age Differences in the Effect of Temporal Proximity on Paired-Associate Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karen L.; Trelle, Alexandra; Hasher, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Older adults show hyper- (or excessive) binding effects for simultaneously and sequentially presented distraction. Here, we addressed the potential role of hyper-binding in paired-associate learning. Older and younger adults learned a list of word pairs and then received an associative recognition task in which rearranged pairs were formed from…

  3. Experimental evidence for the effect of small wind turbine proximity and operation on bird and bat activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderman, Jeroen; Pendlebury, Chris J; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Park, Kirsty J

    2012-01-01

    The development of renewable energy technologies such as wind turbines forms a vital part of strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Although large wind farms generate the majority of wind energy, the small wind turbine (SWT, units generating wind farms on birds and bats, effects of SWTs on wildlife have not been studied and are likely to be different due to their potential siting in a wider range of habitats. We present the first study to quantify the effects of SWTs on birds and bats. Using a field experiment, we show that bird activity is similar in two distance bands surrounding a sample of SWTs (between 6-18 m hub height) and is not affected by SWT operation at the fine scale studied. At shorter distances from operating turbines (0-5 m), bat activity (measured as the probability of a bat "pass" per hour) decreases from 84% (71-91%) to 28% (11-54%) as wind speed increases from 0 to 14 m/s. This effect is weaker at greater distances (20-25 m) from operating turbines (activity decreases from 80% (65-89%) to 59% (32-81%)), and absent when they are braked. We conclude that bats avoid operating SWTs but that this effect diminishes within 20 m. Such displacement effects may have important consequences especially in landscapes where suitable habitat is limiting. Planning guidance for SWTs is currently lacking. Based on our results we recommend that they are sited at least 20 m away from potentially valuable bat habitat.

  4. Effects of seeding date and seeding rate on yield, proximate composition and total tannins content of two Kabuli chickpea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ruggeri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted in open field to assess the effect of seeding season and density on the yield, the chemical composition and the accumulation of total tannins in grains of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cultivars (Pascià and Sultano. Environmental conditions and genetic factors considerably affected grain yield, nutrient and total tannins content of chickpea seeds, giving a considerable range in its qualitative characteristics. Results confirmed cultivar selection as a central factor when a late autumn-early winter sowing is performed. In effect, a more marked resistance to Ascochyta blight (AB of Sultano, allowed better agronomic performances when favourable-to-AB climatic conditions occur. Winter sowing appeared to be the best choice in the Mediterranean environment when cultivating to maximise the grain yield (+19%. Spring sowing improved crude protein (+10% and crude fibre (+8% content, whereas it did not significantly affect the accumulation of anti-nutrients compounds such as total tannins. The most appropriate seeding rate was 70 seeds m–2, considering that plant density had relatively little effect on the parameters studied.

  5. Effects of Two Linguistically Proximal Varieties on the Spectral and Coarticulatory Properties of Fricatives: Evidence from Athenian Greek and Cypriot Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Themistocleous

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have explored the acoustic structure of fricatives, yet there has been very little acoustic research on the effects of dialects on the production of fricatives. This article investigates the effects of two linguistically proximal Modern Greek dialects, Athenian Greek and Cypriot Greek on the temporal, spectral, and coarticulatory properties of fricatives and aims to determine the acoustic properties that convey information about these two dialects. Productions of voiced and voiceless labiodental, dental, alveolar, palatal, and velar fricatives were extracted from a speaking task from typically speaking female adult speakers (25 Cypriot Greek and 20 Athenian Greek speakers. Measures were made of spectral properties, using a spectral moments analysis. The formants of the following vowel were measured and second degree polynomials of the formant contours were calculated. The findings showed that Athenian Greek and Cypriot Greek fricatives differ in all spectral properties across all places of articulation. Also, the co-articulatory effects of fricatives on following vowel were different depending on the dialect. Duration, spectral moments, and the starting frequencies of F1, F2, F3, and F4 contributed the most to the classification of dialect. These findings provide a solid evidence base for the manifestation of dialectal information in the acoustic structure of fricatives.

  6. TREATMENT OF INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY OCCLUSION USING PROXIMAL CEREBRAL PROTECTION DEVICE AND ITS EFFECT ON THE BLOOD PRESSURE DYNAMICS. CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. В. Shukurov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, according to the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, about 200 thousand people died from stroke. Strokes are considered as the main cause of disability of the population, causing huge economic damage to the country. One of the most common causes of ischemic stroke is atherosclerosis of the branches of the aortic arch. The most common localization of atherosclerotic plaques is the extracranial section of the carotid arteries – bifurcation and ostium of the common carotid artery and the internal carotid artery. Recanalization of occlusion of the internal carotid artery until recently was an insoluble task for interventional surgery due to the high risk of distal embolization. The invention and use of the proximal cerebral protection device, which ensure the complete cessation of blood flow, has changed the situation. Effect of carotid revascularization on arterial hypertension, due to the effect on the baroreceptors of the carotid plexus by balloon angioplasty, which leads to a reflex decrease in arterial pressure, is an additional advantage of the endovascular technique in some cases. This effect requires further study. One also needs to pay careful attention to the diagnosis and imaging of carotid artery lesions before procedure. This clinical case is the illustration that an adequate assessment of the risk factors for intraoperative complications allows to achieve maximum results of endovascular treatment.

  7. Near or far away? A proximity and emotion, not size and emotion effect using Russian dolls [poster presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, AK; Taylor, N; Baguley, T

    2013-01-01

    The size and emotion effect is the tendency for children to draw people/objects with a positive emotional charge larger than those with a negative or neutral charge. Here we explored the novel idea that drawing size might be acting as a proxy for depth (physical or perceived), in a 2D environment. Forty-two children (aged 3-11 years) chose, from 2 sets of Matryoshka dolls, a doll to represent a person with positive, negative or neutral charge, which they placed in front of themselves on a she...

  8. Coupling of reciprocal vectors and corresponding degeneracy effect in a dual-periodic optical superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Yiqiang

    2006-01-01

    A dual-periodic structure for quasi-phase matching cascaded optical parametric interactions is proposed. Due to the coupling of reciprocal vectors between the original and imposed periodic sequence, the reciprocal vectors and the corresponding effective nonlinear coefficients is no longer the simple combination of two periodic structures. The new analytical expression of the effective nonlinear coefficients is deduced and given. The degeneracy phenomena and the novel extinction rule resulting from the coupling of reciprocal vectors are found and investigated. The corresponding physical nature is also discussed

  9. Nonlocal thermoelectric effects and nonlocal Onsager relations in a three-terminal proximity-coupled superconductor-ferromagnet device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machon, Peter; Belzig, Wolfgang [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Eschrig, Matthias [SEPnet and Hubbard Theory Consortium, Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    We study thermal and charge transport in a three-terminal setup consisting of a superconducting and two ferromagnetic contacts. We predict that the simultaneous presence of spin-filtering and of spin-dependent scattering phase shifts at each of the two interfaces will lead to very large nonlocal thermoelectric effects both in clean and in disordered systems. The symmetries of thermal and electric transport coefficients are related to fundamental thermodynamic principles by the Onsager reciprocity. Our results show that a nonlocal version of the Onsager relations for thermoelectric currents holds in a three terminal quantum coherent ferromagnet-superconductor heterostructure including spin-dependent crossed Andreev reflection and coherent electron transfer processes.

  10. Effects of different loading patterns on the trabecular bone morphology of the proximal femur using adaptive bone remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banijamali, S Mohammad Ali; Oftadeh, Ramin; Nazarian, Ara; Goebel, Ruben; Vaziri, Ashkan; Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the changes in the bone density of human femur model as a result of different loadings were investigated. The model initially consisted of a solid shell representing cortical bone encompassing a cubical network of interconnected rods representing trabecular bone. A computationally efficient program was developed that iteratively changed the structure of trabecular bone by keeping the local stress in the structure within a defined stress range. The stress was controlled by either enhancing existing beam elements or removing beams from the initial trabecular frame structure. Analyses were performed for two cases of homogenous isotropic and transversely isotropic beams.Trabecular bone structure was obtained for three load cases: walking, stair climbing and stumbling without falling. The results indicate that trabecular bone tissue material properties do not have a significant effect on the converged structure of trabecular bone. In addition, as the magnitude of the loads increase, the internal structure becomes denser in critical zones. Loading associated with the stumbling results in the highest density;whereas walking, considered as a routine daily activity, results in the least internal density in different regions. Furthermore, bone volume fraction at the critical regions of the converged structure is in good agreement with previously measured data obtained from combinations of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT). The results indicate that the converged bone architecture consisting of rods and plates are consistent with the natural bone morphology of the femur. The proposed model shows a promising means to understand the effects of different individual loading patterns on the bone density.

  11. Children's proximal societal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt

    2018-01-01

    that is above or outside the institutional setting or the children’s everyday life, but something that is represented through societal structures and actual persons participating (in political ways) within the institutional settings, in ways that has meaning to children’s possibilities to participate, learn...... and develop. Understanding school or kindergarten as (part of) the children’s proximal societal conditions for development and learning, means for instance that considerations about an inclusive agenda are no longer simply thoughts about the school – for economic reasons – having space for as many pupils...... as possible (schools for all). Such thoughts can be supplemented by reflections about which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to present our children with, and which version of ‘the societal’ we wish to set up as the condition for children’s participation and development. The point is to clarify or sharpen...

  12. Proximity detection system underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Kent [Mine Site Technologies (Australia)

    2008-04-15

    Mine Site Technologies (MST) with the support ACARP and Xstrata Coal NSW, as well as assistance from Centennial Coal, has developed a Proximity Detection System to proof of concept stage as per plan. The basic aim of the project was to develop a system to reduce the risk of the people coming into contact with vehicles in an uncontrolled manner (i.e. being 'run over'). The potential to extend the developed technology into other areas, such as controls for vehicle-vehicle collisions and restricting access of vehicle or people into certain zones (e.g. non FLP vehicles into Hazardous Zones/ERZ) was also assessed. The project leveraged off MST's existing Intellectual Property and experience gained with our ImPact TRACKER tagging technology, allowing the development to be fast tracked. The basic concept developed uses active RFID Tags worn by miners underground to be detected by vehicle mounted Readers. These Readers in turn provide outputs that can be used to alert a driver (e.g. by light and/or audible alarm) that a person (Tag) approaching within their vicinity. The prototype/test kit developed proved the concept and technology, the four main components being: Active RFID Tags to send out signals for detection by vehicle mounted receivers; Receiver electronics to detect RFID Tags approaching within the vicinity of the unit to create a long range detection system (60 m to 120 m); A transmitting/exciter device to enable inner detection zone (within 5 m to 20 m); and A software/hardware device to process & log incoming Tags reads and create certain outputs. Tests undertaken in the laboratory and at a number of mine sites, confirmed the technology path taken could form the basis of a reliable Proximity Detection/Alert System.

  13. Distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx in distal thumb amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansü, Eren; Ünal, Mehmet Bekir; Parmaksızoğlu, Fatih; Gürcan, Serkan

    2015-01-01

    Thumb amputation is a major cause of hand dysfunction, and the treatment for distal thumb amputations remains controversial. Although finger reconstruction methods using distraction lengthening are known to restore finger length and function, we found no reports in the literature regarding phalangeal lengthening in thumb amputations. We aimed to evaluate proximal phalangeal lengthening in thumb amputations at or near the interphalangeal (IP) joint. We retrospectively evaluated patients who had undergone distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx of the thumb. All patients underwent osteotomy, either during the initial procedure or as a second-stage procedure. Distraction began 10 days after osteotomy with the use of an external fixator that remained in place until ossification of the gap occurred without bone grafting. Patients were evaluated using the QuickDASH score. Fourteen patients with a mean age of 27 years and a mean follow-up period of 7 years were enrolled. The mean phalangeal lengthening achieved was 20 mm. Ossification occurred at all distraction sites, and the fixators were maintained for a mean of 85 days. The mean healing index was 42.5 days/cm. All 14 patients achieved the desired amount of phalangeal lengthening without major complications such as nonunion, premature union, or gross infection. For reconstruction in cases of distal thumb amputations, distraction lengthening of the proximal phalanx can be used to improve absolute length, web space, and grip distance. The technique is safe and effective, improves functionality/cosmesis, and offers a low complication risk.

  14. Effect of soft drinks on proximal plaque pH at normal and low salivary secretion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ann-Katrin; Lingström, Peter; Birkhed, Dowen

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different types of drinks on plaque pH during normal and drug-induced low salivary secretion rates. Three drinks were tested in 10 healthy adult subjects: 1) Coca-Cola regular, 2) Coca-Cola light, and 3) fresh orange juice. pH was measured in the maxillary incisor and premolar region with the microtouch method. The area under the pH curve (AUC) was calculated. During normal salivary condition, mouth-rinsing with Coca-Cola regular resulted in a slightly more pronounced drop in pH during the first few minutes than it did with orange juice. After this initial phase, both products showed similar and relatively slow pH recovery. Coca-Cola light also resulted in low pH values during the very first minutes, but thereafter in a rapid recovery back to baseline. During dry mouth conditions, the regular Cola drink showed a large initial drop in pH, and slightly more pronounced than for orange juice. After the initial phase, both products had a similar and slow recovery back to baseline. At most time-points, AUC was significantly greater in dry conditions compared to normal conditions for Coca-Cola regular and orange juice, but not for Coca-Cola light. Coca-Cola light generally showed a significantly smaller AUC than Coca-Cola regular and orange juice. The main conclusion from this study is that a low salivary secretion rate may accentuate the fall in pH in dental plaque after gentle mouth-rinsing with soft drinks.

  15. Biochemical proximates of pumpkin (Cucurbitaeae spp.) and their beneficial effects on the general well-being of poultry species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilonu, M C; Nwafor, I C; Umesiobi, D O; Sedibe, M M

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing need to increase productivity in poultry. Growth hormones and antibiotics have the ability to improve health, weight gain and feed efficiency in meat-producing animals. The growth-promoting antibiotics are administered to poultry to improve the general performance of the chicken. However, the use of the xenobiotic drugs in food-producing animals has been a concern and a sensitive issue of debate for several decades in the EU and many other regional blocks of the world. Consequently, the use of hormones in animal production has been banned in Italy, Denmark and Germany for over 4-5 decades, while Belgium and Greece had never permitted its use for livestock fattening purposes. Bioactive phytochemicals exhibit antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties and consequently have several beneficial effects on appetite, growth and the immune status of the animal. In South Africa, different species of pumpkin are produced for food due to their high nutrient content. The flesh serves as a traditional food, while the seeds and peels are commonly discarded. Pumpkin seed extract is reported to be useful for immunomodulation, reproductive health, therapeutics over a wide range of disease conditions and stimulates metabolism of accumulated fats. Studies have also shown that pumpkin seeds are a valuable source of protein and fat. Their complexity and extent of bioactivity offers sustainable prospects for natural control of pathogenic/parasitic organisms, stimulate nutrition or enhance resistance to disease infections, and reduce abdominal fat and serum levels of harmful lipids, while increasing serum levels of beneficial lipids. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. SGLT2 Inhibitors: Glucotoxicity and Tumorigenesis Downstream the Renal Proximal Tubule?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinat, Romina; Nualart, Francisco; Yáñez, Alejandro J

    2016-08-01

    At present, diabetes mellitus is the main cause of end-stage renal disease. Effective glycaemic management is the most powerful tool to delay the establishment of diabetic complications, such as diabetic kidney disease. Together with reducing blood glucose levels, new anti-diabetic agents are expected not only to control the progression but also to restore known defects of the diabetic kidney. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are promising anti-diabetic agents that reduce hyperglycaemia by impairing glucose reabsorption in proximal tubule of the kidney and increasing glucosuria. SGLT2 inhibitors have shown to reduce glucotoxicity in isolated proximal tubule cells and also to attenuate expression of markers of overall kidney damage in experimental animal models of diabetes, but the actual renoprotective effect for downstream nephron segments is still unknown and deserves further attention. Here, we briefly discuss possible undesired effects of enhanced glucosuria and albuminuria in nephron segments beyond the proximal tubule after SGLT2 inhibitor treatment, offering new lines of research to further understand the renoprotective action of these anti-diabetic agents. Strategies blocking glucose reabsorption by renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) may be protective for RPTEC, but downstream nephron segments will still be exposed to high glucose and albumin levels through the luminal face. The actual effect of constant enhanced glucosuria over distal nephron segments remains to be established. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1635-1637, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. PROXIMITY MANAGEMENT IN CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Dorin BUMBENECI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the level of assimilation for the terms "Proximity Management" and "Proximity Manager", both in the specialized literature and in practice. The study has two parts: the theoretical research of the two terms, and an evaluation of the use of Proximity management in 32 companies in Gorj, Romania. The object of the evaluation resides in 27 companies with less than 50 employees and 5 companies with more than 50 employees.

  18. Parametric effect of a spatially periodic voltage depression on operation of Cerenkov sources of electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusinovich, G.S.; Vlasov, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    In microwave sources of coherent Cerenkov radiation the electrons usually propagate near the rippled wall of a slow-wave structure. These ripples cause the periodic modulation of electron potential depression, and therefore, lead to periodic modulation of electron axial velocities. Since the period of this electrostatic pumping is the period of the slow-wave structure the parametric coupling of electrons to originally nonsynchronous spatial harmonics of the microwave field may occur. This effect can be especially important for backward-wave oscillators (BWO's) driven by high current, relativistic electron beams. In the paper both linear and nonlinear theories of the relativistic resonant BWO with periodic modulation of electron axial velocities are developed and results illustrating the evolution of the linear gain function and the efficiency of operation in the large-signal regime are presented

  19. [Effect of antecedent dry period on water quality of urban storm runoff pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo

    2009-12-01

    Identified the main factor influencing urban rainfall-runoff pollution provides a scientific basis for urban rainfall-runoff pollution control and management. Therefore, starting in May 2006, a study was conducted to characterize water quality from representative land uses types in Zhenjiang to analyse the effect of antecedent dry period on stormwater runoff quality. The results show that the beginning of rainfall, with the increase of antecedent dry periods, the percentages of less than 40 microm is increased, the correlation of the water quality parameters (TN, TP, Zn, Pb, Cu, TSS and COD) and antecedent dry period shows a significant positive correlation, dissolved pollutants in the initial period surface runoff is increased. These findings show that facilitating the recognition of antecedent dry periods is the main factor influencing the change in concentration and partitioning of pollutants to provide the scientific basis for non-point source pollution control and management.

  20. The effect of short recovery period investment on least-cost generation system expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiqun He; David, A.K.; Fernando, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of the short recovery period of private investment on least-cost generation system expansion is analysed, and a trade-off method for generation system expansion, which gives consideration to both the least-cost strategy and the short recovery period of private investment, is presented. First, the optimal mix of generation units under a standard recovery period for all units is established, and then the surcharge, due to the difference between the short recovery period and the standard recovery period, is calculated and shared between all units. The former is an optimization to make best use of natural resources, and the latter is a trade-off method to spread the surcharge throughout the system. (Author)

  1. Effect of eddy current damping on phononic band gaps generated by locally resonant periodic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Efe; Yilmaz, Cetin

    2017-02-01

    The effect of eddy current damping on a novel locally resonant periodic structure is investigated. The frequency response characteristics are obtained by using a lumped parameter and a finite element model. In order to obtain wide band gaps at low frequencies, the periodic structure is optimized according to certain constraints, such as mass distribution in the unit cell, lower limit of the band gap, stiffness between the components in the unit cell, the size of magnets used for eddy current damping, and the number of unit cells in the periodic structure. Then, the locally resonant periodic structure with eddy current damping is manufactured and its experimental frequency response is obtained. The frequency response results obtained analytically, numerically and experimentally match quite well. The inclusion of eddy current damping to the periodic structure decreases amplitudes of resonance peaks without disturbing stop band width.

  2. Effect of a carbonated HAP/β-glucan composite bone substitute on healing of drilled bone voids in the proximal tibial metaphysis of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, Leszek; Pawłowska, Marta; Radzki, Radosław P.; Bieńko, Marek; Polkowska, Izabela; Belcarz, Anna; Karpiński, Mirosław; Słowik, Tymoteusz; Matuszewski, Łukasz; Ślósarczyk, Anna; Ginalska, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    A novel elastic hydroxyapatite-based composite of high surgical handiness has been developed. Its potential application in orthopedics as a filler of bone defects has been studied. The biomaterial was composed of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAP) granules and polysaccharide polymer (β-1,3-glucan). Cylinders of 4 mm in diameter and 6 mm in length were implanted into bone cavities created in the proximal metaphysis of tibiae of 24 New Zealand white rabbits. 18 sham-operated animals were used as controls. After 1, 3 or 6 months, the rabbits were euthanized, the bones were harvested and subjected to analysis. Radiological images and histological sections revealed integration of implants with bone tissue with no signs of graft rejection. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) indicated the stimulating effect of the biomaterial on bone formation and mineralization. Densitometry (DXA) analysis suggested that biomineralization of bones was preceded by bioresorption and gradual disappearance of porous ceramic granules. The findings suggest that the CHAP–glucan composite material enables regeneration of bone tissue and could serve as a bone defect filler. - Highlights: • Highly porous carbonate HAP granules and β-1,3-glucan were used to fill bone voids. • Critical size defects of rabbit tibiae were filled with the composite scaffolds. • Biocompatibility, mineralization and osseointegration of implants were examined. • Histological analysis indicated a high biocompatibility of composite grafts. • We report penetration of bony tissue into implants and advanced osseointegration

  3. Effects of Replacement of Fishmeal with other Alternative Plant Sources in the Feed on Proximate Composition of Muscle, Liver and Ovary in Tilapia (Oreochromis nioloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Ghanim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The major objective of this experiment was to assess the effect of alternate plant protein sources as a replacement for fish meal in feed on the proximate composition of muscle, liver and tissue in Oreochromis niloticus. O. niloticus of average size (average Weight 45.00±1.25 g, total length 13.28±1.42 cm were stocked in 100 L glass aquarium. Fish were fed with three experimental feeds (A, B and C and reference commercial feed (D for 16 weeks. Feed A, B and C was prepared from four different plant sources and fish meal (40 % crude protein. Fish were fed at the rate 3 % of body weight daily. It has been observed that tilapia fed with feed B in which 20 % fish meal was replaced compared to feed C with other plant sources of protein, had shown significantly higher total protein in their muscle compared to diet other experimental and commercial feeds. In O. niloticus minimum lipid content was recorded in fish fed with diet B compared to A, C and commercial feed. It has been concluded that 20-40% level of fish meal can be replaced in the diet of fish without having any impact on growth and chemical composition of muscle.

  4. Effect of a carbonated HAP/β-glucan composite bone substitute on healing of drilled bone voids in the proximal tibial metaphysis of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, Leszek, E-mail: leszek.borkowski@umlub.pl [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Pawłowska, Marta; Radzki, Radosław P.; Bieńko, Marek [Department of Animal Physiology, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 12, 20-033 Lublin (Poland); Polkowska, Izabela [Department and Clinic of Animal Surgery, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Głęboka 30, 20-612 Lublin (Poland); Belcarz, Anna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Karpiński, Mirosław [Department of Companion and Wildlife Animals, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Akademicka 13, 20-950 Lublin (Poland); Słowik, Tymoteusz [Independent Radiology Unit at Lublin Small Animals Medical Centre, Stefczyka 11, 20-151 Lublin (Poland); Matuszewski, Łukasz [Children' s Orthopaedic Clinic and Rehabilitation Department, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 2, 20-093 Lublin (Poland); Ślósarczyk, Anna [Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Ginalska, Grażyna [Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 1, 20-093 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-08-01

    A novel elastic hydroxyapatite-based composite of high surgical handiness has been developed. Its potential application in orthopedics as a filler of bone defects has been studied. The biomaterial was composed of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAP) granules and polysaccharide polymer (β-1,3-glucan). Cylinders of 4 mm in diameter and 6 mm in length were implanted into bone cavities created in the proximal metaphysis of tibiae of 24 New Zealand white rabbits. 18 sham-operated animals were used as controls. After 1, 3 or 6 months, the rabbits were euthanized, the bones were harvested and subjected to analysis. Radiological images and histological sections revealed integration of implants with bone tissue with no signs of graft rejection. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) indicated the stimulating effect of the biomaterial on bone formation and mineralization. Densitometry (DXA) analysis suggested that biomineralization of bones was preceded by bioresorption and gradual disappearance of porous ceramic granules. The findings suggest that the CHAP–glucan composite material enables regeneration of bone tissue and could serve as a bone defect filler. - Highlights: • Highly porous carbonate HAP granules and β-1,3-glucan were used to fill bone voids. • Critical size defects of rabbit tibiae were filled with the composite scaffolds. • Biocompatibility, mineralization and osseointegration of implants were examined. • Histological analysis indicated a high biocompatibility of composite grafts. • We report penetration of bony tissue into implants and advanced osseointegration.

  5. EFFECT OF CRUDE CASSAVA WATER EXTRACT AS A NATURAL HERBICIDE ON PROXIMATE COMPOSITION AND BIOACCUMULATION OF HYDROCYANIC ACID IN FOOD COMPONENTS OF COWPEA -VIGNA UNGUICULATA (L WALP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajumoke Oke FAYINMINNU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was a field trial of two experiments to examine the effect of crude cassava water extract (CCWE as a natural post-emergence herbicide on nutritional quality and bioaccumulation of hydrocyanic acid in cowpea seeds. The spraying of CCWE on cowpea plants was carried out weekly for 5weeks. Treatments of CCWE at 25 and 50% concentrations of MS6 (Manihot Selection, TMS30555 (Tropical Manihot Selection and Bulk CCWE (different cassava varieties, hand weeded and unweeded (controls were laid in randomised complete block design with three replications respectively. At maturity, dry samples of cowpea `Ife brown` seeds were ground to fine powder and the proximate composition and bioaccumulation of hydrocyanic acid in the two experiments were determined. Significant variations (p0.05 among the herbicide treatments. It was therefore recommended that CCWE could be used as a natural post-emergence herbicide in cowpea production without altering the nutritional quality and residue of hydrocyanic acid in cowpea seeds.

  6. Comparative study of the effect of dry and wet ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe spice on the proximate and microbial safety of soybean beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbola Oladele Dauda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean beverage, most common nutritious local beverage in Nigeria and in the world, is a high protein beverage used as a dairy milk substitute with the limited utilization due to natural or ambient conditions that serve as growth medium for microorganisms. Hence, it has a short shelf life. This study examines the shelf life of soybean beverage preserved with the ginger spice (dried at 70 ˚C, 80 ˚C, 90 ˚C and 100 ˚C, and 2 g and 4 g of fresh/wet ginger respectively over 7-week period. The samples were (A: plain soybean beverage; B: 200 ml soybean beverage + 2 g of ginger dried at 100 ˚C; C: 200 ml soybean beverage + 2 g ginger dried at 90 ˚C; D: 200 ml soybean beverage + 2 g ginger dried at 80 ˚C; E: 200 ml soybean beverage + 2 g ginger dried at 70 ˚C; F: 200 ml soybean beverage + 2 g fresh ginger; and G: 200 ml soybean beverage + 4 g fresh ginger respectively. The proximate, pH, microbial and sensory analyses of samples ranged as follows: 87.35% - 90.83% for the moisture content; 0.58% - 0.65% ash content; 4.65% - 4.96% protein; 0.10%-0.26% fibre content; 2.06% - 2.98% crude fat and 1.68% - 4.17% carbohydrate, and pH values ranged from 6.2 - 6.5. Microbiological analysis over storage period showed that the control sample ranged from 0.4×106 -8.3×106 cfu/ml, and treated samples from 0.4×106 to 2.4×106 cfu/ml. Low values of the samples treated with dry ginger spice were preserved better than others, probably due to preservative and anti-microbial properties of the spice. Sensory evaluation, carried out by twenty-eight persons, showed that the sample E: (200 ml soymilk+ 2 g ginger dried at 70 ˚C was most preferred (with respect to taste, aroma and overall acceptability, while there was a significant difference in the appearance of the samples.

  7. The Pro-collusive Effect of Increasing the Repose Period for Price Fixing Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Jeroen Hinloopen

    2005-01-01

    This discussion paper resulted in the publication The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy (2007), 7(1), 1135. Intuitively, extending the period of repose for price fixing agreements enhances the effectiveness of competition policy enforcement. This paper proofs this intuition wrong. As extending the repose period reduces cartel members' defection payoff while it leaves unaltered expected compliance profits, it induces cartels to be more stable internally.

  8. Effect of Storage Period on Dimensional Stability of Alginplus and Hydrogum 5

    OpenAIRE

    Shima Aalaei; Rohollah Ganj-Khanloo; Fatemeh Gholami

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of storage period on dimensional stability of Alginplus and Hydrogum 5.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, 60 impressions were taken of an upper jaw typodont, including 10 impressions for each storage period to be tested (12 minutes, 24 and 120 hours) for each type of alginate. Then, the impressions were stored in an incubator with stable temperature and humidity, and poured using a type III dental stone. Subsequently...

  9. Effects of age, gender, and stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimi, Mitsunobu

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on age-related changes in visual short-term memory using visual stimuli that did not allow verbal encoding. Experiment 1 examined the effects of age and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. Experiment 2 examined the effects of age, gender, and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. The worst memory performance and the largest performance difference between the age groups were observed in the shortest stimulus presentation period conditions. The performance difference between the age groups became smaller as the stimulus presentation period became longer; however, it did not completely disappear. Although gender did not have a significant effect on d' regardless of the presentation period in the young group, a significant gender-based difference was observed for stimulus presentation periods of 500 ms and 1,000 ms in the older group. This study indicates that the decline in visual short-term memory observed in the older group is due to the interaction of several factors.

  10. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  11. Effect of osteosynthesis, primary hemiarthroplasty, and non-surgical management for displaced four-part fractures of the proximal humerus in elderly: a multi-centre, randomised clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Frich, Lars Henrik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fractures of the proximal humerus are common injuries and account for 4-5 percent of all fractures, second only to hip and wrist fractures. The incidence is positively correlated with age and osteoporosis, and is likely to increase. Displaced four-part fractures are among the most...... severe injuries, accounting for 2-10 percent of proximal humeral fractures. The optimal intervention is disputed. Two previous randomised trials were very small and involved a noticeable risk of bias, and systematic reviews consequently conclude that there is inadequate basis for evidence-based treatment...... ten national shoulder units within a two-year period. We plan to include 162 patients. A central randomisation unit will allocate patients. All patients will receive a standardised three-month rehabilitation program of supervised physiotherapy regardless of treatment allocation. Patients...

  12. Support for Marijuana (Cannabis Legalization: Untangling Age, Period, and Cohort Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Campbell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In three large, nationally representative surveys of U.S. 12th graders, college students, and adults ('N' = 9 million conducted 1968–2015, Americans became significantly more supportive of legal marijuana (cannabis starting in the mid-1980’s. Hierarchical models using age-period-cohort analysis on the adult (General Social Survey sample showed that the increased support for legalization is primarily a time period effect rather than generational or age effect; thus, Americans of all ages became more supportive of legal marijuana. Among 12th graders, support for marijuana legalization was closely linked to perceptions of marijuana safety.

  13. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter shows how careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Presents 3 systems that utilize critical periods to study low-level effects: 1) cell kinetics as an indicator of nervous-system maldevelopment; 2) oocyte depletion; and 3) homeotic shifts in the skeleton. Discusses application of the sensitive systems to the testing of chemicals and the role of sensitive stages in estimating risk. Suggests that tests such as the 3 discussed in this paper, which are developed with strict attention to specific critical periods, can provide rapid and sensitive means for revealing whether an agent is capable of causing developmental interference. Concludes that epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the endpoints being studied

  14. Dependence of spectrum on period and twist effect of the pulsars magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitov, Yu.P.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis of flux depsities at 102, 408 and 2700 MHz shows that the mean spectral radio luminosity of pUlsars anti Lsub(ν) depends on their period P. The radio luminosity on the average, decreases with the increasing period at all three freqUercies. The character and power of the period dependence anti Lsub(ν)(P) are different at different freqUencies caUsing the corresponding period dependence of the mean radio spectrUm and, particularly, of the spectral index anti αsub(1-4)(102-408 MHz), anti αsub(1-4)(P) varies as Psup(1.7) for P 408 (P) varies as Psup(-1.3) in the period interval 0.3 408 and the period derivatives P, between αsub(1-4) and P. In this connection, the arthor draws the conclusion that period dependences of the spectral radio luminosity and of the spectrum of pulsars are caused by geometrical factors. Quantitative estimates show that the twist effect of magnetic field lines caused by the reaction of magnetic-dipole radiation may be such a geometrical factor, which increases the field line curvatUre (as compared to the dipole field). The twist curvature rhosub(rot)sup(-1) varies as PsUp(-3)xrsup(2) (r is the radial distance from a star) causes the observed period dependence anti Lsub(ν)(P) owing to the curvature emission mechanism. The twist effect of the magnetic field gives the possibility to estimate height levels r of the radio emission regions in a pulsar from the observed function anti Lsub(π)(P). At 408 MHz for an ''average statistic'' pulsar with P> or approximately 0.3 s the level r 408 =1x10 9 cm

  15. Does recall period have an effect on cancer patients' ratings of the severity of multiple symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiuling; Trask, Peter C; Wang, Xin Shelley; Mendoza, Tito R; Apraku, Winifred A; Malekifar, Maggie; Cleeland, Charles S

    2010-08-01

    Choosing an appropriate recall period for symptom assessment in a clinical trial is dependent on the design and purpose of the trial. To examine the effects of recall on symptom severity ratings by comparing ratings made using 24-hour and seven-day recall periods of the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI). Forty-two patients in their third to eighth week of chemoradiation rated their symptoms using the MDASI on two separate occasions (T1 and T2), one week apart. At T1, patients were randomly assigned to rate symptoms using either a 24-hour or a seven-day recall. At T2, patients rated symptoms using the recall period not used at their first visit. Comparing the 24-hour and seven-day recall periods, the correlation coefficient for total symptom severity was 0.888. All correlation coefficients for symptom severity items were >0.7 except for distress (r=0.67). The percentages of moderate to severe symptoms (rated >or=5) were consistent for both recall periods, with no significant difference between recall periods in the prevalence of moderate to severe symptoms. Cronbach alpha coefficients for both 24-hour and seven-day recalls were >0.8. Symptoms from both recall periods were more severe for patients with poorer performance status. Twenty patients were cognitively debriefed; 70% thought that the seven-day recall was "more appropriate" for the MDASI, but 85% did not think that recall period would influence their answers. This study demonstrated that the MDASI in a seven-day recall format has psychometric properties consistent with the 24-hour recall version, which may promote its use in future cancer clinical trials and may inform the choice of recall period when symptoms are outcome measures. Copyright (c) 2010 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Proximal tubular hypertrophy and enlarged glomerular and proximal tubular urinary space in obese subjects with proteinuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tobar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration, increased proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, glomerular enlargement and renal hypertrophy. A single experimental study reported an increased glomerular urinary space in obese dogs. Whether proximal tubular volume is increased in obese subjects and whether their glomerular and tubular urinary spaces are enlarged is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether proximal tubules and glomerular and tubular urinary space are enlarged in obese subjects with proteinuria and glomerular hyperfiltration. METHODS: Kidney biopsies from 11 non-diabetic obese with proteinuria and 14 non-diabetic lean patients with a creatinine clearance above 50 ml/min and with mild or no interstitial fibrosis were retrospectively analyzed using morphometric methods. The cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium and lumen, the volume of the glomerular tuft and of Bowman's space and the nuclei number per tubular profile were estimated. RESULTS: Creatinine clearance was higher in the obese than in the lean group (P=0.03. Proteinuria was similarly increased in both groups. Compared to the lean group, the obese group displayed a 104% higher glomerular tuft volume (P=0.001, a 94% higher Bowman's space volume (P=0.003, a 33% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular epithelium (P=0.02 and a 54% higher cross-sectional area of the proximal tubular lumen (P=0.01. The nuclei number per proximal tubular profile was similar in both groups, suggesting that the increase in tubular volume is due to hypertrophy and not to hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Obesity-related glomerular hyperfiltration is associated with proximal tubular epithelial hypertrophy and increased glomerular and tubular urinary space volume in subjects with proteinuria. The expanded glomerular and urinary space is probably a direct consequence of glomerular hyperfiltration. These effects may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity

  17. Effects of seed density and proximity to refuge habitat on seed predation rates for a rare and a common Lupinus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Eleanor A; Patten, Melissa V; Knight, Tiffany M

    2017-03-01

    Biotic interactions such as seed predation can play a role in explaining patterns of abundance among plant species. The effect of seed predation will depend on how the strength of predation differs across species and environments, and on the degree to which seed loss at one life-cycle phase increases fitness at another phase. Few studies have simultaneously quantified predispersal and postdispersal predation in co-occurring rare and common congeners, despite the value of estimating both for understanding causes of rarity. We quantified predispersal seed predation on the rare, herbaceous species Lupinus tidestromii (Fabaceae) and its common, shrubby congener L. chamissonis across multiple years in the same community. We experimentally measured postdispersal seed predation at two seed densities and locations near or far from an exotic grass housing high densities of deer mice ( Peromyscus maniculatus ), their primary, native seed predator. The common L. chamissonis had the lowest predispersal seed predation of the two lupine species, potentially because of its height: its high racemes received less predation than those low to the ground. By contrast, the same species experienced higher postdispersal seed predation, and at predators traveled long distances away from refuge habitat to consume their seeds. Across both plant species, mice preferentially predated high-density seed sources. Our results show differences in the magnitude and direction of seed predation between the species across different life-cycle phases. We demonstrated possible roles of proximity to refuge habitat, seed density, and seed size in these patterns. Congeneric comparisons would benefit from a comprehensive framework that considers seed predation across different life-cycle phases and the environmental context of predation. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  18. The effects of different methods of cooking on proximate, mineral and heavy metal composition of fish and shrimps consumed in the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; D'Souza, Reshma

    2008-03-01

    This study analyzed eight cooked species of fish and one species of shrimps (grilled, curried, fried and cooked in rice) commonly consumed in Bahrain for their proximate, mineral and heavy metal content. The results reveled that the protein content was in the range of 22.8-29.2 g/100 g, while the fat content was between 2.9-11.9 g/100 g. The energy content was the highest in the fried Scomberomorus commerson being 894.2 KJ/100 g, followed by Scomberomorus commerson cooked in rice (867.3 KJ/100 g). The samples also had a considerable content of sodium ranging from 120-600 mg/100 g, potassium (310-560 mg/100 g) phosphorous (200-330 mg/100 g), magnesium (26-54 mg/100 g) and zinc (0.4-2.0 mg/100 g), while the other minerals were present to a lower extent. Lead was present to an extent of 0.30 microg/g in the grilled Plectorhinchus sordidus while Lethrinus nebulosus cooked in rice contained 0.35 microg/g of mercury. Cadmium levels were constant at cooking fish and shrimps have an effect on their nutrient composition and heavy metal content hence, it is advisable to avoid excessive frying and use minimal salt. In addition, consuming of a wide variety of species of fish and alternating between the various modes of cooking is the best approach to achieve improved dietary habits, minimizing mercury exposure and increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake.

  19. Effect of acute acid-base disturbances on ErbB1/2 tyrosine phosphorylation in rabbit renal proximal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Lara A; Boron, Walter F

    2013-12-15

    The renal proximal tubule (PT) is a major site for maintaining whole body pH homeostasis and is responsible for reabsorbing ∼80% of filtered HCO3(-), the major plasma buffer, into the blood. The PT adapts its rate of HCO3(-) reabsorption (JHCO3(-)) in response to acute acid-base disturbances. Our laboratory previously showed that single isolated perfused PTs adapt JHCO3(-) in response to isolated changes in basolateral (i.e., blood side) CO2 and HCO3(-) concentrations but, surprisingly, not to pH. The response to CO2 concentration can be blocked by the ErbB family tyrosine kinase inhibitor PD-168393. In the present study, we exposed enriched rabbit PT suspensions to five acute acid-base disturbances for 5 and 20 min using a panel of phosphotyrosine (pY)-specific antibodies to determine the influence of each disturbance on pan-pY, ErbB1-specific pY (four sites), and ErbB2-specific pY (two sites). We found that each acid-base treatment generated a distinct temporal pY pattern. For example, the summated responses of the individual ErbB1/2-pY sites to each disturbance showed that metabolic acidosis (normal CO2 concentration and reduced HCO3(-) concentration) produced a transient summated pY decrease (5 vs. 20 min), whereas metabolic alkalosis produced a transient increase. Respiratory acidosis (normal HCO3(-) concentration and elevated CO2 concentration) had little effect on summated pY at 5 min but produced an elevation at 20 min, whereas respiratory alkalosis produced a reduction at 20 min. Our data show that ErbB1 and ErbB2 in the PT respond to acute acid-base disturbances, consistent with the hypothesis that they are part of the signaling cascade.

  20. Effect of dry period length on milk production in subsequent lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1991-01-01

    , two treatments were compared within herd. Compared with a 7-wk planned dry period, a 3-wk decrease lowered the level of milk production by 2.8 kg of 4% FCM/d in the first 84 d of the subsequent lactation, whereas a 3-wk increase raised the level of milk production by .5 kg/d. In the first 168 d......The effect of planned dry period lengths of 4, 7, and 10 wk on subsequent lactational yield was estimated with 366 cows in an experiment in which dry period was manipulated independently of milk yield prior to drying off. In two herds, all three treatments were compared within herd; in six herds...... of the subsequent lactation, the difference between 4-wk and 7-wk planned dry periods was 2.7 kg/d, and the difference between 7- and 10-wk periods was .4 kg/d. There was no indication of interaction among planned dry period length and lactation number, days open in previous lactation, previous milk yield, breed...

  1. Effect of olive storage period at two different temperatures on oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ambient and 5°C) for different periods before oil extraction at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days to investigate the effect of postharvest fruit storage on olive oil quality. Conventional analyses (acidity, peroxide value, specific extinction coefficient at 232 and 270 ...

  2. The effect of box shape on the dynamic properties of proteins simulated under periodic boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, T.A.; Mark, A.E.

    The effect of the box shape on the dynamic behavior of proteins simulated under periodic boundary conditions is evaluated. In particular, the influence of simulation boxes defined by the near-densest lattice packing (NDLP) in conjunction with rotational constraints is compared to that of standard

  3. Uncertainty in return period analysis of combined sewer overflow effects using embedded Monte Carlo simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grum, M.; Aalderink, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    The rerun periods of detrimental effects ate often used as design criteria in urban storm water management. Considerable uncertainty is associated with the models used. This is either ignored or pooled with the inherent event to event variation such as rainfall depth It is here argued that

  4. Effects of periods of nonuse and fluctuating ammonia concentration on biofilter performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Xu; Yin, Jun; Wang, Kai-Xiong; Fang, Shi

    2004-01-01

    A systematic study on the transient behavior of odor treatment using biofilters is described. The biofilters were exposed to variations in contaminant loading and periods of nonuse. Two bench-scale biofilters with different filter media were used. Mixtures of compost/perlite (5:1) and dry sludge/granular active carbon (5:1) were used as filter media. Ammonia (NH3), one of the main malodorous gases, was used as the target compound. The response of each biofilter to variations in contaminant mass loading, periodic nonuse, water content, and inlet concentration pulse was studied. The nonuse period comprised of two stages: the "idle phase" when no air was passing through the biofilters, and the "no-contaminant-loading phase" when only humidified air was passing through the biofilters. Concentration spike was applied to study the effects of shock loading on the biofilter performance. Biofilters responded effectively to NH3 concentration variations and shock loading by rapidly recovering to the original removal rates within 6-12h. The results indicated re-acclimation times ranged from several hours to longer than a day. Longer idle phase produced longer re-acclimation periods than periods of no contaminant loading. When the media was dried during the biofiltration process, elimination capacity dropped accordingly for both biofilters. After 24 h of drying, the biofilter experiment could be restarted and run for a few days for recovering.

  5. ProxImaL: efficient image optimization using proximal algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix; Diamond, Steven; Nieß ner, Matthias; Ragan-Kelley, Jonathan; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Wetzstein, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    domain-specific language and compiler for image optimization problems that makes it easy to experiment with different problem formulations and algorithm choices. The language uses proximal operators as the fundamental building blocks of a variety

  6. Aperture scaling effects with monolithic periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillators and generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missey, M; Dominic, V; Powers, P; Schepler, K L

    2000-02-15

    We used elliptical beams to demonstrate aperture scaling effects in nanosecond single-grating and multigrating periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) monolithic optical parametric oscillators and generators. Increasing the cavity Fresnel number in single-grating crystals broadened both the beam divergence and the spectral bandwidth. Both effects are explained in terms of the phase-matching geometry. These effects are suppressed when a multigrating PPLN crystal is used because the individual gratings provide small effective subapertures. A flood-pumped multigrating optical parametric generator displayed a low output beam divergence and contained 19 pairs of signal and idler frequencies.

  7. Effects of Accretionary Prisms on 3-D Long-Period Ground Motion Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y.; Koketsu, K.; Miyake, H.

    2014-12-01

    The accretionary prism along the subduction zones such as the Middle America trench or the Nankai trough is considered as an important factor affecting the generation and propagation of long-period ground motions. In Japan, the great earthquake along the Nankai subduction zone which is expected to occur in the near future can generate large long-period ground motions in the metropolitan areas such as Osaka, Nagoya and Tokyo. To investigate the effect of accretionary prism on long-period ground motions, we performed simulations of long-period ground motions for the event (Mw 7.1) that occurred off the Kii peninsula, Japan, at 10:07 on 5 September 2004 (UTC). Our simulation model ranged from the Kinki region to the Kanto region, and included the Osaka, Nobi and Kanto basin. We calculated long-period ground motions for four types of 3-D velocity structure models: (a) model with the accretionary prism (reference model), (b) model where accretionary prism has different 3-D geometry from the reference model, (c) model with the accretionary prism whose velocity, density and Q-value are shifted, (d) model without the accretionary prism. We compared the waveforms calculated for these models and concluded that the accretionary prism along the Nankai subduction zone plays roles in reducing the amplitude of direct waves and extending the duration of coda waves. This is attributed to the trap effect of accretionary prism. Our simulation also suggested that, the edge geometry along the landward side of accretionary prism has major effects on the processes of generation and propagation of long-period ground motions.

  8. A proximal point algorithm with generalized proximal distances to BEPs

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, G. C.; Neto, J. X. Cruz; Lopes, J. O.; Soares Jr, P. A.; Soubeyran, A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a bilevel problem involving two monotone equilibrium bifunctions and we show that this problem can be solved by a proximal point method with generalized proximal distances. We propose a framework for the convergence analysis of the sequences generated by the algorithm. This class of problems is very interesting because it covers mathematical programs and optimization problems under equilibrium constraints. As an application, we consider the problem of the stability and change dyna...

  9. Fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the proximal humerus have been diagnosed and managed since the earliest known surgical texts. For more than four millennia the preferred treatment was forceful traction, closed reduction, and immobilization with linen soaked in combinations of oil, honey, alum, wine, or cerate......, classification of proximal humeral fractures remains a challenge for the conduct, reporting, and interpretation of clinical trials. The evidence for the benefits of surgery in complex fractures of the proximal humerus is weak. In three systematic reviews I studied the outcome after locking plate osteosynthesis...

  10. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shihe; Wei, Xiangqing; Zhang, Fangwei

    2016-01-01

    A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations.

  11. A Time-Delayed Mathematical Model for Tumor Growth with the Effect of a Periodic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihe Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A time-delayed mathematical model for tumor growth with the effect of periodic therapy is studied. The establishment of the model is based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics and mass conservation law and is considered with a time delay in cell proliferation process. Sufficient conditions for the global stability of tumor free equilibrium are given. We also prove that if external concentration of nutrients is large the tumor will not disappear and the conditions under which there exist periodic solutions to the model are also determined. Results are illustrated by computer simulations.

  12. Proximity correction of high-dosed frame with PROXECCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Hans; Waas, Thomas; Hartmann, Hans

    1994-05-01

    Usefulness of electron beam lithography is strongly related to the efficiency and quality of methods used for proximity correction. This paper addresses the above issue by proposing an extension to the new proximity correction program PROXECCO. The combination of a framing step with PROXECCO produces a pattern with a very high edge accuracy and still allows usage of the fast correction procedure. Making a frame with a higher dose imitates a fine resolution correction where the coarse part is disregarded. So after handling the high resolution effect by means of framing, an additional coarse correction is still needed. Higher doses have a higher contribution to the proximity effect. This additional proximity effect is taken into account with the help of the multi-dose input of PROXECCO. The dose of the frame is variable, depending on the deposited energy coming from backscattering of the proximity. Simulation proves the very high edge accuracy of the applied method.

  13. Surgical management for displaced pediatric proximal humeral fractures: a cost analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shore, Benjamin J.; Hedequist, Daniel J.; Miller, Patricia E.; Waters, Peter M.; Bae, Donald S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this investigation was to determine which of the following methods of fixation, percutaneous pinning (PP) or intramedullary nailing (IMN), was more cost-effective in the treatment of displaced pediatric proximal humeral fractures (PPHF). Methods: A retrospective cohort of surgically treated PPHF over a 12-year period at a single institution was performed. A decision analysis model was constructed to compare three surgical strategies: IMN versus percutaneous pinning leav...

  14. Effect of intercropping period management on runoff and erosion in a maize cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloy, Eric; Bielders, C L

    2010-01-01

    The management of winter cover crops is likely to influence their performance in reducing runoff and erosion during the intercropping period that precedes spring crops but also during the subsequent spring crop. This study investigated the impact of two dates of destruction and burial of a rye (Secale cereale L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) cover crop on runoff and erosion, focusing on a continuous silage maize (Zea mays L.) cropping system. Thirty erosion plots with various intercrop management options were monitored for 3 yr at two sites. During the intercropping period, cover crops reduced runoff and erosion by more than 94% compared with untilled, post-maize harvest plots. Rough tillage after maize harvest proved equally effective as a late sown cover crop. There was no effect of cover crop destruction and burial dates on runoff and erosion during the intercropping period, probably because rough tillage for cover crop burial compensates for the lack of soil cover. During two of the monitored maize seasons, it was observed that plots that had been covered during the previous intercropping period lost 40 to 90% less soil compared with maize plots that had been left bare during the intercropping period. The burial of an aboveground cover crop biomass in excess of 1.5 t ha(-1) was a necessary, yet not always sufficient, condition to induce a residual effect. Because of the possible beneficial residual effect of cover crop burial on erosion reduction, the sowing of a cover crop should be preferred over rough tillage after maize harvest.

  15. Allee effect in the selection for prime-numbered cycles in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yumi; Yoshimura, Jin; Simon, Chris; Cooley, John R; Tainaka, Kei-ichi

    2009-06-02

    Periodical cicadas are well known for their prime-numbered life cycles (17 and 13 years) and their mass periodical emergences. The origination and persistence of prime-numbered cycles are explained by the hybridization hypothesis on the basis of their lower likelihood of hybridization with other cycles. Recently, we showed by using an integer-based numerical model that prime-numbered cycles are indeed selected for among 10- to 20-year cycles. Here, we develop a real-number-based model to investigate the factors affecting the selection of prime-numbered cycles. We include an Allee effect in our model, such that a critical population size is set as an extinction threshold. We compare the real-number models with and without the Allee effect. The results show that in the presence of an Allee effect, prime-numbered life cycles are most likely to persist and to be selected under a wide range of extinction thresholds.

  16. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on glucose tolerance in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Duplessis, M; Wakshlag, J J; Overton, T R; Cummings, B P; Nydam, D V

    2016-01-01

    Overfeeding energy in the dry period can affect glucose metabolism and the energy balance of transition dairy cows with potential detrimental effects on the ability to successfully adapt to early lactation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on glucose tolerance and on resting concentrations of blood glucose, glucagon, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in the peripartum period. Cows entering second or greater lactation were enrolled at dry-off (57 d before expected parturition) into 1 of 3 treatment groups following a randomized block design: cows that received a total mixed ration (TMR) formulated to meet but not exceed energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, controlled energy); cows that received a TMR supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, high energy); and cows that were fed the same diet as the controlled energy group for the first 28 d, after which the TMR was formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements until calving (n=28, intermediate energy). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) with rapid administration of 0.25 g of glucose/kg of body weight were performed 28 and 10d before expected parturition, as well as at 4 and 21 d after calving. Area under the curve for insulin and glucose, maximal concentration and time to half-maximal concentration of insulin and glucose, and clearance rates were calculated. Insulin resistance (IR) indices were calculated from baseline samples obtained during IVGTT and Spearman rank correlations determined between IVGTT parameters and IR indices. Treatment did not affect IVGTT parameters at any of the 4 time points. Correlation between IR indices and IVGTT parameters was generally poor. Overfeeding cows energy in excess of predicted requirements by approximately 50% during the entire dry period resulted in decreased postpartum basal plasma glucose and

  17. Effect of periodic environmental fluctuations on the Pearl-Verhulst model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogovchenko, Svitlana P.; Rogovchenko, Yuri V.

    2009-01-01

    We address the effect of periodic environmental fluctuations on the Pearl-Verhulst model in population dynamics and clarify several important issues very actively discussed in the recent papers by Lakshmi [Lakshmi BS. Oscillating population models. Chaos Solitons and Fractals 2003;16:183-6; Lakshmi BS. Population models with time dependent parameters. Chaos Solitons and Fractals 2005;26:719-21], Leach and Andriopoulos [Leach PGL, Andriopoulos K. An oscillatory population model. Chaos Solitons and Fractals 2004;22:1183-8], Swart and Murrell [Swart JH, Murrell HC. An oscillatory model revisited. Chaos Solitons and Fractals 2007;32:1325-7]. Firstly, we review general results regarding existence and properties of periodic solutions and examine existence of a unique positive asymptotically stable periodic solution of a non-autonomous logistic differential equation when r(t)>0. Proceeding to the case where r(t) is allowed to take on negative values, we consider a modified Pearl-Verhulst equation because, as emphasized by Hallam and Clark [Hallam TG, Clark CE. Non-autonomous logistic equations as models of populations in deteriorating environment. J Theor Biol 1981;93:303-11], use of the classic one leads to paradoxical biological conclusions. For a modified logistic equation with ω-periodic coefficients, we establish existence of a unique asymptotically stable positive periodic solution with the same period. Special attention is paid to important cases where time average of the intrinsic growth rate is non-positive. Results of computer simulation demonstrating advantages of a modified equation for modeling periodic environmental fluctuations are presented.

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PROXIMAL FEMUR LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE VERSUS PROXIMAL FEMORAL NAILING IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COMMINUTED TROCHANTERIC AND SUBTROCHANTERIC FRACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Koti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fractures of proximal femur and hip are relatively common injuries in elderly individuals constituting 11.6% of total fractures. The latest implant for management of intertrochanteric fracture is Proximal Femoral Locking Compression Plate (PF-LCP. In this study, we compare the clinical outcome of fractures treated by proximal femoral nail with that of proximal femur locking compression plate. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study consists of 24 elderly patients of peritrochanteric factures of femur satisfying the inclusion criteria who were treated with PF-LCP or PFN in Department of Orthopaedics, S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati, during a period between December 2013 to October 2015. RESULTS 24 cases were treated with PF-LCP or PFN in a randomised pattern who satisfied inclusion criteria. Intraoperative complication were found to be more with PF-LCP in contrast to PFN. Postoperative rehabilitation was easier with PFN though not statistically significant functional and anatomical outcomes were found to be better with PFN. CONCLUSION Both PFN and PF-LCP have good effectiveness in the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures with the lateral unsubstantial femoral wall in the elderly patients. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Further studies with large number of patients and long-term follow up is needed to determine the optimal implant for the internal fixation of comminuted pertrochanteric femoral fractures.

  19. Periodic vortex pinning by regular structures in Nb thin films: magnetic vs. structural effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Maria Isabel; Jonsson-Akerman, B. Johan; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2001-03-01

    The defects present in a superconducting material can lead to a great variety of static and dynamic vortex phases. In particular, the interaction of the vortex lattice with regular arrays of pinning centers such as holes or magnetic dots gives rise to commensurability effects. These commensurability effects can be observed in the magnetoresistance and in the critical current dependence with the applied field. In recent years, experimental results have shown that there is a dependence of the periodic pinning effect on the properties of the vortex lattice (i.e. vortex-vortex interactions, elastic energy and vortex velocity) and also on the dots characteristics (i.e. dot size, distance between dots, magnetic character of the dot material, etc). However, there is not still a good understanding of the nature of the main pinning mechanisms by the magnetic dots. To clarify this important issue, we have studied and compared the periodic pinning effects in Nb films with rectangular arrays of Ni, Co and Fe dots, as well as the pinning effects in a Nb film deposited on a hole patterned substrate without any magnetic material. We will discuss the differences on pinning energies arising from magnetic effects as compared to structural effects of the superconducting film. This work was supported by NSF and DOE. M.I. Montero acknowledges postdoctoral fellowship by the Secretaria de Estado de Educacion y Universidades (Spain).

  20. Weakly nonlinear dispersion and stop-band effects for periodic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    of frequency band-gaps, i.e. frequency ranges in which elastic waves cannot propagate. Most existing analytical methods in the field are based on Floquet theory [1]; e.g. this holds for the classical Hill’s method of infinite determinants [1,2], and themethod of space-harmonics [3]. However, application...... of these methods for studying nonlinear problems isimpossible or cumbersome, since Floquet theory is applicable only for linear systems. Thus the nonlinear effects for periodic structures are not yet fully uncovered, while at the same time applications may demand effects of nonlinearity on structural response...... to be accounted for.The paper deals with analytically predicting dynamic response for nonlinear elastic structures with a continuous periodic variation in structural properties. Specifically, for a Bernoulli-Euler beam with aspatially continuous modulation of structural properties in the axial direction...

  1. Are two spaces better than one? The effect of spacing following periods and commas during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca L; Bui, Becky; Schmitt, Lindsay L

    2018-04-24

    The most recent edition of the American Psychological Association (APA) Manual states that two spaces should follow the punctuation at the end of a sentence. This is in contrast to the one-space requirement from previous editions. However, to date, there has been no empirical support for either convention. In the current study, participants performed (1) a typing task to assess spacing usage and (2) an eye-tracking experiment to assess the effect that punctuation spacing has on reading performance. Although comprehension was not affected by punctuation spacing, the eye movement record suggested that initial processing of the text was facilitated when periods were followed by two spaces, supporting the change made to the APA Manual. Individuals' typing usage also influenced these effects such that those who use two spaces following a period showed the greatest overall facilitation from reading with two spaces.

  2. The effect of housing on dairy cattle behavior during the transition period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil

    2014-01-01

    with freestalls until the day before calving or signs of imminent calving in Denmark (and northern Europe), the aim of this PhD was to investigate the effect of a straw yard housing system during the last 4 weeks of the dry period compared to freestalls on; 1) lying-, feeding- and agonistic behavior before...... during the days before calving. The results show that dry cows housed in straw yards during the last 4 weeks of the dry period have a higher number of transitions between lying and standing compared to freestalls, which suggest that straw yards may facilitate a more flexible lying behavior. The flexible...... lying behavior in straw yards may be facilitated by better traction, the absence of physical limitations in the lying area, or a combination of the two. There was no difference in lying- or feeding time between cows housed in straw yards or freestalls before calving. There was no overall effect...

  3. Dynamic effective properties of heterogeneous geological formations with spherical inclusions under periodic time variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, A.; Dagan, G.; Miloh, T.

    2013-04-01

    In unsteady groundwater flow (or similar processes of heat/electrical conduction), the heterogeneous medium structure is characterized by two random properties, the conductivity K and the specific storativity S. The average head field ⟨H ⟩and the associated effective properties Kef, Sef are determined for a layer with a periodic head drop between boundaries, such that H is periodic in time, and a medium made up of a matrix with a dilute concentration of spherical inclusions. In the common quasi-steady approximation, Kef is equal to the classical steady solution while Sef = SA, the arithmetic mean. We derive expressions for the frequency dependent Kef, Sef, which are generally complex, i.e., dynamic. The main result is the delineation of the ranges of the parameters: dimensionless frequency (ω) and contrasts of conductivity (κ) and storativity (s) between the matrix and the inclusions, for which dynamic effects are significant.

  4. Human error considerations and annunciator effects in determining optimal test intervals for periodically inspected standby systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, T.P.; Martz, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    This paper incorporates the effects of four types of human error in a model for determining the optimal time between periodic inspections which maximizes the steady state availability for standby safety systems. Such safety systems are characteristic of nuclear power plant operations. The system is modeled by means of an infinite state-space Markov chain. Purpose of the paper is to demonstrate techniques for computing steady-state availability A and the optimal periodic inspection interval tau* for the system. The model can be used to investigate the effects of human error probabilities on optimal availability, study the benefits of annunciating the standby-system, and to determine optimal inspection intervals. Several examples which are representative of nuclear power plant applications are presented

  5. Proximal Femoral Varus Derotation Osteotomy in Children with Cerebral Palsy: The Effect of Age, Gross Motor Function Classification System Level, and Surgeon Volume on Surgical Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Benjamin J; Zurakowski, David; Dufreny, Chantal; Powell, Dustin; Matheney, Travis H; Snyder, Brian D

    2015-12-16

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate mid-term results of proximal femoral varus derotation osteotomy (VDRO) in children with cerebral palsy and determine what effect age, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, and surgeon volume had on surgical success. We analyzed a cohort of children with cerebral palsy who underwent VDRO for hip displacement at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital between 1994 and 2007. Age, sex, GMFCS level, preoperative radiographic parameters, previous botulinum toxin administration or soft-tissue release, adjunctive pelvic osteotomy, the performance of bilateral surgery at the index VDRO, and surgeon volume (the number of procedures performed) were recorded. Results were analyzed via univariate and multivariate analyses for association with the need for revision hip surgery. Kaplan-Meier survivorship curves were generated, determining the time from index surgery to failure (defined as the need for subsequent surgical procedures on the hip and/or pelvis, or a hip migration percentage of >50% at the time of final follow-up), and were further stratified according to osseous versus soft-tissue revision. A total of 567 VDROs were performed in 320 children (mean age [and standard deviation], 8.2 ± 3.8 years). The mean follow-up was 8.3 years (range, three to eighteen years). Of the initial 320 patients, 117 (37%) were considered to have had failure. Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that younger age at surgery (p < 0.001), increased GMFCS level (p = 0.01), and lower annual surgical hip volume (p = 0.02) were significant independent predictors of any type of surgical revision. Furthermore, soft-tissue release at VDRO was protective against revision (p = 0.02). Five-year survivorship analysis revealed a 92% success rate for children classified as GMFCS levels I and II compared with a 76% success rate for those of GMFCS level V (p < 0.01). This study demonstrated a 37% failure rate after VDRO in children with

  6. [Effect of polycystic ovary syndrome treated with the periodic therapy of acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Danhong; Zhao, Mei; Tan, Jiahong

    2017-08-12

    To observe the effects differences for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) between periodic therapy of acupuncture and diane-35 and to explore its mechanism. Sixty patients were randomly assigned into an acupuncture group and a western medication group, 30 cases in each one, 29 patients finally included with one case dropping out respectively. In the acupuncture group, periodic therapy was mainly used at bilateral Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Dahe (KI 12), Guilai (ST 29), Guanyuan (CV 4), Zhongji (CV 3), with different acupoints in the postmenstrual, intermenstrual, premenstrual periods, once every other day, 3 times a week. EA (2 Hz/100 Hz) was used at bilateral Dahe (KI 12) and Guilai (ST 29). If treatment, FSH increased and LH, LH/FSH, T decreased in the two groups (all P medication group were better than those in the acupuncture group (both P medication group, diane-35 was prescribed orally for 21 days as a course, with 7 days at interval, one tablet a day. All the treatment was started on the fifth day of the menstrual circle, for continuously 3 months. The indexes were observed before and after treatment, including the menstrual circle, acne score, body mass index (BMI), serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), LH/FSH and testosterone (T). The effects of the two groups were compared. The total effective rate was 75.9% (22/29) in the acupuncture group, which was not significantly different from 79.3% (23/29) in the western medication group ( P >0.05). The menstrual cycles were shorter after treatment in the two groups (both P 0.05). After treatment,FSH increased and LH,LH/FSH,T decreased in the two groups (all P medication group were better than those in the acupuncture group (both P <0.05). Conclusion Periodic therapy of acupuncture is probably one of the effective methods for PCOS,which can improve patients' clinical symptoms,sex hormone level,and menstrual cycle.

  7. Hydrostatic pressure and strain effects in short period InN/GaN superlattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, Niels Egede

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structures of short-period pseudomorphically grown superlattices (SLs) of the form mInN/nGaN are calculated and the band gap variation with the well and the barrier thicknesses is discussed including hydrostatic pressure effects. The calculated band gap shows a strong dependence...... strongly on the strain conditions and SL geometry, but weakly on the applied external hydrostatic pressure....

  8. Stochastic model stationarization by eliminating the periodic term and its effect on time series prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeeni, Hamid; Bonakdari, Hossein; Fatemi, Seyed Ehsan

    2017-04-01

    Because time series stationarization has a key role in stochastic modeling results, three methods are analyzed in this study. The methods are seasonal differencing, seasonal standardization and spectral analysis to eliminate the periodic effect on time series stationarity. First, six time series including 4 streamflow series and 2 water temperature series are stationarized. The stochastic term for these series obtained with ARIMA is subsequently modeled. For the analysis, 9228 models are introduced. It is observed that seasonal standardization and spectral analysis eliminate the periodic term completely, while seasonal differencing maintains seasonal correlation structures. The obtained results indicate that all three methods present acceptable performance overall. However, model accuracy in monthly streamflow prediction is higher with seasonal differencing than with the other two methods. Another advantage of seasonal differencing over the other methods is that the monthly streamflow is never estimated as negative. Standardization is the best method for predicting monthly water temperature although it is quite similar to seasonal differencing, while spectral analysis performed the weakest in all cases. It is concluded that for each monthly seasonal series, seasonal differencing is the best stationarization method in terms of periodic effect elimination. Moreover, the monthly water temperature is predicted with more accuracy than monthly streamflow. The criteria of the average stochastic term divided by the amplitude of the periodic term obtained for monthly streamflow and monthly water temperature were 0.19 and 0.30, 0.21 and 0.13, and 0.07 and 0.04 respectively. As a result, the periodic term is more dominant than the stochastic term for water temperature in the monthly water temperature series compared to streamflow series.

  9. The effects of model complexity and calibration period on groundwater recharge simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Christian; Van Freyberg, Jana; Schirmer, Mario

    2017-04-01

    A significant number of groundwater recharge models exist that vary in terms of complexity (i.e., structure and parametrization). Typically, model selection and conceptualization is very subjective and can be a key source of uncertainty in the recharge simulations. Another source of uncertainty is the implicit assumption that model parameters, calibrated over historical periods, are also valid for the simulation period. To the best of our knowledge there is no systematic evaluation of the effect of the model complexity and calibration strategy on the performance of recharge models. To address this gap, we utilized a long-term recharge data set (20 years) from a large weighting lysimeter. We performed a differential split sample test with four groundwater recharge models that vary in terms of complexity. They were calibrated using six calibration periods with climatically contrasting conditions in a constrained Monte Carlo approach. Despite the climatically contrasting conditions, all models performed similarly well during the calibration. However, during validation a clear effect of the model structure on model performance was evident. The more complex, physically-based models predicted recharge best, even when calibration and prediction periods had very different climatic conditions. In contrast, more simplistic soil-water balance and lumped model performed poorly under such conditions. For these models we found a strong dependency on the chosen calibration period. In particular, our analysis showed that this can have relevant implications when using recharge models as decision-making tools in a broad range of applications (e.g. water availability, climate change impact studies, water resource management, etc.).

  10. Determining the effect of periodic training on the basic psychomotor skills of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Deniz; Çalışkan, Nurcan; Baykara, Zehra Gocmen; Karadağ, Ayise; Karabulut, Hatice

    2015-02-01

    Basic psychomotor skill training starts in the first year in nursing education. The psychomotor skills taught in the first year of nursing training constitute a foundation for all professional practices. Conducting periodic training for skills with which students are deficient can support mastery learning. The study was conducted as an interventional study for determining the effect of periodic training on the basic psychomotor skills learned in the Fundamentals of Nursing course. The sample consisted of 70 students attending the Fundamentals of Nursing course at nursing students in a university in Ankara, over 4 years between 2010 and 2013. The study was conducted as an interventional study for a period of 4 years. The data were collected through a questionnaire that was applied 4 times at the end of each academic year. According to the results of the forms evaluated at the end of each year, 4 additional laboratory activities were conducted addressing the deficient psychomotor skills of students at the beginning of the new academic semester in the 2nd and 3rd years. In the 4th-year clinic practice, courses were arranged to practice still deficient psychomotor skills. It was determined that students practiced nearly all of the basic psychomotor skills during clinical practice and that the practices with which they felt themselves to be inadequate gradually decreased following periodic training; this decrease was significant (ppsychomotor skills of nursing students was effective. We recommend that students' psychomotor skills be evaluated periodically and repetitive training based on the results of this evaluation be provided throughout the undergraduate nursing education process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in effective moisture on the Tibetan Plateau during the period 1981-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y.; Wu, S.; Zhao, D.

    2013-12-01

    Observed evaporative demand has decreased worldwide during the past several decades. This trend is also noted on the Tibetan Plateau, a region that is particularly sensitive to climate change. However, actual evapotranspiration trends and their relationship to drought stress on the Tibetan Plateau are poorly understood. We analyzed the spatiotemporal changes in potential evapotranspiration(PET), actual evapotranspiration(AET) and effective moisture (defined as AET/PET) during 1981-2010. Climate data from 80 meteorological stations on the Tibetan Plateau were compiled for the period 1981-2010. New plant functional types were defined for the Tibetan Plateau and evapotranspiration is simulated by the modified Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ). The results show regional trends towards decreasing PET and statistically significant increases in AET (p < 0.05) and effective moisture (p < 0.001) during the period 1981-2010. A transition from significant negative to positive PET occurred in 1997. Additionally, a pronounced increase in effective moisture occurred during the period 1981-1997 because of significant decreased PET before 1997.

  12. [Augmentation technique on the proximal humerus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, A; Gebhard, F; Röderer, G

    2015-09-01

    The treatment of osteoporotic fractures is still a challenge. The advantages of augmentation with respect to primary in vitro stability and the clinical use for the proximal humerus are presented in this article. In this study six paired human humeri were randomized into an augmented and a non-augmented group. Osteosynthesis was performed with a PHILOS plate (Synthes®). In the augmented group the two screws finding purchase in the weakest cancellous bone were augmented. The specimens were tested in a 3-part fracture model in a varus bending test. The augmented PHILOS plates withstood significantly more load cycles until failure. The correlation to bone mineral density (BMD) showed that augmentation could partially compensate for low BMD. The augmentation of the screws in locked plating in a proximal humerus fracture model is effective in improving the primary stability in a cyclic varus bending test. The targeted augmentation of two particular screws in a region of low bone quality within the humeral head was almost as effective as four screws with twice the amount of bone cement. Screw augmentation combined with a knowledge of the local bone quality could be more effective in enhancing the primary stability of a proximal humerus locking plate because the effect of augmentation can be exploited more effectively limiting it to the degree required. The technique of augmentation is simple and can be applied in open and minimally invasive procedures. When the correct procedure is used, complications (cement leakage into the joint) can be avoided.

  13. A study on the effect of exclusion period on the suicidal risk among the insured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Paul S F; Chen, Feng

    2014-06-01

    An exclusion period (usually from 12 months to 2 years) is usually found in life insurance policies as a precautionary measure to prohibit people from insuring their lives with the intent to kill themselves shortly thereafter. Several studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of exclusion periods on the risk of suicide among the insured in the US and Australia. However, while Hong Kong has experienced an increase in the number of suicides among the insured, little is known about the dynamic between the exclusion period and suicide in Asia. Here we make use of death claims data from one of the major life insurance companies in Hong Kong to ascertain the impact of a 12-month exclusion period on suicide risk. We also use utility functions derived from economic theory to better understand individual choices regarding suicide among the insured. More specifically, we sought to determine whether there is a greater risk of suicide immediately following the 12-month exclusion period. We also examined whether the risk of suicide claims was higher than that of other non-suicidal claims. The study period for this investigation was from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2011, during which time there were 1935 claims based on 1243 deaths. Of these, 197 were suicide-related claims for 106 suicide deaths. The mean number of life policies held by suicidal claimants and non-suicidal claimants was 1.6 and 1.4, respectively. The average/median size of the claims (total payment made on all policies held by the insured life) was HK$665,800/426,600 and HK$497,700/276,200 for suicidal and non-suicidal deaths, respectively. The policy lifetime of the claims, or the number of days from policy issuance to suicide occurrence, ranged from 38 to 7561 days, with a mean of 2209 days, a median of 1941 days, and a standard deviation of 1544 days. The peak density of suicide claims occurred on day 1039 of the policy. Our results revealed that suicide claims tend to occur earlier than other

  14. Effects of periodic boundary conditions on equilibrium properties of computer simulated fluids. I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, L.R.; Haan, S.W.

    1981-01-01

    An exact formal theory for the effects of periodic boundary conditions on the equilibrium properties of computer simulated classical many-body systems is developed. This is done by observing that use of the usual periodic conditions is equivalent to the study of a certain supermolecular liquid, in which a supermolecule is a polyatomic molecule of infinite extent composed of one of the physical particles in the system plus all its periodic images. For this supermolecular system in the grand ensemble, all the cluster expansion techniques used in the study of real molecular liquids are directly applicable. As expected, particle correlations are translationally uniform, but explicitly anisotropic. When the intermolecular potential energy functions are of short enough range, or cut off, so that the minimum image method is used, evaluation of the cluster integrals is dramatically simplified. In this circumstance, a large and important class of cluster expansion contributions can be summed exactly, and expressed in terms of the correlation functions which result when the system size is allowed to increase without bound. This result yields a simple and useful approximation to the corrections to the particle correlations due to the use of periodic boundary conditions with finite systems. Numerical application of these results are reported in the following paper

  15. Effect of externally applied periodic force on ion acoustic waves in superthermal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Snigdha; Mandi, Laxmikanta; Chatterjee, Prasanta

    2018-04-01

    Ion acoustic solitary waves in superthermal plasmas are investigated in the presence of trapped electrons. The reductive perturbation technique is employed to obtain a forced Korteweg-de Vries-like Schamel equation. An analytical solution is obtained in the presence of externally applied force. The effect of the external applied periodic force is also observed. The effect of the spectral index (κ), the strength ( f 0 ) , and the frequency ( ω ) on the amplitude and width of the solitary wave is obtained. The result may be useful in laboratory plasma as well as space environments.

  16. Anisotropic failure and size effects in periodic honeycomb materials: A gradient-elasticity approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réthoré, Julien; Dang, Thi Bach Tuyet; Kaltenbrunner, Christine

    2017-02-01

    This paper proposes a fracture mechanics model for the analysis of crack propagation in periodic honeycomb materials. The model is based on gradient-elasticity which enables us to account for the effect of the material structure at the macroscopic scale. For simulating the propagation of cracks along an arbitrary path, the numerical implementation is elaborated based on an extended finite element method with the required level of continuity. The two main features captured by the model are directionality and size effect. The numerical predictions are consistent with experimental results on honeycomb materials but also with results reported in the literature for microstructurally short cracks in metals.

  17. Proximate composition, bread

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... indicate that carbohydrate, crude fiber, and ash contents of the .... percentage (% EE) was determined using Soxhlet system HT-extraction technique ..... composite bread and effect of label information on acceptance and ...

  18. Neurological effects of white spirit: Contribution of animal studies during a 30-year period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård; Lund, Søren Peter; Ladefoged, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that long-term occupational exposure to white spirit may cause chronic toxic encephalopathy (WHO 1996). This review summarizes the chronic nervous system effects of white spirit in animal studies during a 30-year period. First, routine histopathology was consistently...... unable to reveal adverse peripheral or central nervous system effects after inhalation of white spirit. Second, neurobehavioural studies in animals showed no adverse effect after inhalation of white spirit with a high content of aromatics in contrast to what was found with products with a low content....... Third, white spirit with a high content of aromatics induced adverse neurochemical changes at inhalation of 400 ppm and possibly already at 100 ppm. In the studied parameters, white spirit with a low content of aromatics showed no clear adverse neurochemical effects at inhalation of 400 ppm...

  19. Cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum. Effects of an atherogenic diet during the neonatal and juvenile period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, M S; Ambudkar, I S; Young, E P; Naseem, S M; Heald, F P; Shamoo, A E [Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). School of Medicine

    1985-04-01

    The effect on the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum of an atherogenic (1% cholesterol) diet fed during the neonatal vs the juvenile period of life was studied in Yorkshire swine. Male piglets were randomly assigned at birth to 1 of 4 groups: group I (control), group II (lactation feeding), group III (juvenile period feeding) and group IV (lactation and juvenile feeding). All animals were killed at 55 weeks of age and cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) isolated for assay of calcium uptake, Ca/sup 2 +/-Mg/sup 2 +/ ATPase activity, and lipid analysis by thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The amount of cholesterol/mg SR protein and the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio were higher in the animals fed during lactation (groups II and IV) and lower in those fed only during the juvenile period (group III). Phospholipid fatty acid patterns as measured by gas chromatography were unaltered in any group. Calcium uptake was markedly diminished in all experimental conditions: group II 47%, group III 65% and group IV 96%. Compared to the observed changes in calcium transport, the ATP hydrolytic activity was relatively less affected. Only in group IV a significant decrease (41%) was seen. Groups II and III show no change in ATP hydrolytic activity. The decrease in calcium uptake and altered cholesterol/phospholipid ratio without effect on ATP hydrolytic activity is consistent with an uncoupling of calcium transport related to the atherogenic diet in early life.

  20. Effect of cooling heat-stressed dairy cows during the dry period on insulin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S; Thompson, I M; Monteiro, A P A; Hayen, M J; Young, L J; Dahl, G E

    2012-09-01

    Heat stress (HT) during the dry period affects hepatic gene expression and adipose tissue mobilization during the transition period. In addition, it is postulated that HT may alter insulin action on peripheral tissues. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of cooling heat-stressed cows during the dry period on insulin effects on peripheral tissues during the transition period. Cows were dried off 46 d before expected calving and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: HT (n = 16) or cooling (CL, n = 16). During the dry period, the average temperature-humidity index was 78, but CL cows were cooled with sprinklers and fans, whereas HT cows were not. After calving, all cows were housed and managed under the same conditions. Rectal temperatures were measured twice daily (0730 and 1430 h) and respiration rate recorded 3 times weekly during the dry period. Dry matter intake was recorded daily from dry-off to 42 d relative to calving (DRC). Body weight and body condition score were measured weekly from dry-off to 42 DRC. Milk yield and composition were recorded daily to 42 wk postpartum. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) and insulin challenges (IC) were performed at dry-off, -14, 7, and 28 DRC in a subset of cows (HT, n = 8; CL, n = 8). Relative to HT, CL cows had lower rectal temperatures (39.3 vs. 39.0°C) in the afternoon and respiration rate (69 vs. 48 breath/min). Cows from the cooling treatment tended to consume more feed than HT cows prepartum and postpartum. Compared with HT, CL cows gained more weight before calving but lost more weight and body condition in early lactation. Cows from the cooling treatment produced more milk than HT cows (34.0 vs. 27.7 kg/d), but treatments did not affect milk composition. Treatments did not affect circulating insulin and metabolites prepartum, but CL cows had decreased glucose, increased nonesterified fatty acid, and tended to have lower insulin concentrations in plasma postpartum compared with HT cows. Cooling prepartum HT cows did not

  1. The effect of zeolite A supplementation in the dry period on blood mineral status around calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Enemark, J M

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained in 6 separate studies concerned with the effect of zeolite A supplementation in the dry period on blood calcium, magnesium and phosphorus status around calving. The experiments were conducted on 5 different farms, and comprised a total of 117 cows. Two...... of the experiments (exp. 5 and 6) were conducted under extensive farming conditions whereas the rest (exp. 1-4) were conducted on intensively driven farms. All cows included in the experiments had completed at least 2 lactations. The cows were allocated as either untreated control cows or zeolite treated...... experimental cows according to expected date of calving and parity. The experimental cows were fed between 0.5 and 1.0 kg of zeolite A per day during the last 2 to 4 weeks of the dry period. Blood samples were drawn on the day of calving and day one and two after calving (all experiments), three weeks before...

  2. Effect of Temperature on Feeding Period of Larval Blacklegged Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on Eastern Fence Lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulison, Eric L; Lebrun, Roger A; Ginsberg, Howard S

    2014-11-01

    Ambient temperature can influence tick development time, and can potentially affect tick interactions with pathogens and with vertebrate hosts. We studied the effect of ambient temperature on duration of attachment of larval blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, to eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus (Bosc & Daudin). Feeding periods of larvae that attached to lizards under preferred temperature conditions for the lizards (WARM treatment: temperatures averaged 36.6°C at the top of the cage and 25.8°C at the bottom, allowing behavioral thermoregulation) were shorter than for larvae on lizards held under cool conditions (COOL treatment temperatures averaged 28.4°C at top of cage and 24.9°C at the bottom). The lizards were infested with larvae four times at roughly monthly intervals. Larval numbers successfully engorging and dropping declined and feeding period was longer after the first infestation. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  3. The effect of rinsing time periods on wettability of elastomeric impression materials: in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Acar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether different rinsing time periods affected the wettability of polymerized elastomeric impression materials. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Panasil Contact Plus (PCP, Panasil Contact Non-Surfactant (PCNS, Panasil Initial Contact (PIC, Express (EXP and Impregum (IMP impression materials were tested. Standardized samples were rinsed with water for 10 s, 15 s or 20 s, and the wettability was determined by contact angle measurement through an evaluation period of 60 seconds (n=7. Non-rinsed groups were used as control. Measurements were made at 5 time points (at 0, 6, 15, 30 and 60 seconds. Kruskal Wallis test and Conover’s multiple comparison tests were used for all multiple comparisons. Bonferroni adjustment was applied for controlling Type I error (p0.002. CONCLUSION: Rinsing the surfactant-containing polyvinylsiloxane impression materials decreased their wettability, whereas no such effect was seen for the surfactant free polyvinylsiloxane and polyether impression materials.

  4. Application of estimating effective dose from external radiation using two dosimeters during maintenance periods at KNPPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young

    2008-01-01

    The application of a two-dosimeter and its algorithm and a test of its use in an inhomogeneous high radiation field are described. The goal was to develop an improved method for estimating the effective dose during maintenance periods at Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs). The use of the method in domestic and international NPPs including USA, Canada and Japan was also investigated. The algorithms used by the Canadian Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and American ANSI HPS N13.41, Lakshmanan, NCRP, EPRI and Texas A and M University were extensively analyzed as two-dosimeter algorithms. The possibility of their application to NPPs was evaluated using data for each algorithm from two-dosimeter results for an inhomogeneous high radiation field during maintenance periods at Korean NPPs. (author)

  5. Effect of periodic deuterium ion irradiation on deuterium retention and blistering in Tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of periodic irradiation on Deuterium (D retention and blistering in Tungsten (W was investigated. W samples were exposed to D plasma at a fixed fluence while varying the irradiation cycle number (1-shot, 2-shots and 3-shots. Exposure energy and flux were ∼50eV and ∼1 ×1022 D m−2 s−1, respectively. Sample temperatures were 537K and 643K. At 573K, D retention and blister density decreased with increasing number of irradiation cycle. In contrast at 643K, D retention showed no dependence on number of irradiation cycle. Therefore, sample temperature during irradiation is an important parameter in comparing the results of continuous and periodic irradiation, especially in studies involving extremely-high-flux (>1024 D m−2 s−1 irradiation and fluence dependency of D retention.

  6. Effect of Deep Drying and Torrefaction Temperature on Proximate, Ultimate Composition, and Heating Value of 2-mm Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Grind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumuluru, Jaya Shankar

    2016-06-22

    Deep drying and torrefaction compose a thermal pretreatment method where biomass is heated in the temperature range of 150-300 °C in an inert or reduced environment. The process parameters, like torrefaction temperature and residence time, have a significant impact on the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties. In this study, torrefaction experiments were conducted on 2-mm ground lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta ) using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Both deep drying and torrefaction temperature (160-270 °C) and time (15-120 min) were selected. Torrefied samples were analyzed for the proximate, ultimate, and higher heating value. The results indicate that moisture content decreases with increases in torrefaction temperature and time, where at 270 °C and 120 min, the moisture content is found to be 1.15% (w.b.). Volatile content in the lodgepole pine decreased from about 80% to about 45%, and ash content increased from 0.77% to about 1.91% at 270 °C and 120 min. The hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur content decreased to 3%, 28.24%, and 0.01%, whereas the carbon content and higher heating value increased to 68.86% and 23.67 MJ/kg at 270 °C and 120 min. Elemental ratio of hydrogen to carbon and oxygen to carbon (H/C and O/C) calculated at 270 °C and a 120-min residence time were about 0.56 and 0.47. Based on this study, it can be concluded that higher torrefaction temperatures ≥230 °C and residence time ≥15 min influence the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties of ground lodgepole pine.

  7. Effect of Deep Drying and Torrefaction Temperature on Proximate, Ultimate Composition, and Heating Value of 2-mm Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta Grind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep drying and torrefaction compose a thermal pretreatment method where biomass is heated in the temperature range of 150–300 °C in an inert or reduced environment. The process parameters, like torrefaction temperature and residence time, have a significant impact on the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties. In this study, torrefaction experiments were conducted on 2-mm ground lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Both deep drying and torrefaction temperature (160–270 °C and time (15–120 min were selected. Torrefied samples were analyzed for the proximate, ultimate, and higher heating value. The results indicate that moisture content decreases with increases in torrefaction temperature and time, where at 270 °C and 120 min, the moisture content is found to be 1.15% (w.b.. Volatile content in the lodgepole pine decreased from about 80% to about 45%, and ash content increased from 0.77% to about 1.91% at 270 °C and 120 min. The hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur content decreased to 3%, 28.24%, and 0.01%, whereas the carbon content and higher heating value increased to 68.86% and 23.67 MJ/kg at 270 °C and 120 min. Elemental ratio of hydrogen to carbon and oxygen to carbon (H/C and O/C calculated at 270 °C and a 120-min residence time were about 0.56 and 0.47. Based on this study, it can be concluded that higher torrefaction temperatures ≥230 °C and residence time ≥15 min influence the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties of ground lodgepole pine.

  8. Effect of Deep Drying and Torrefaction Temperature on Proximate, Ultimate Composition, and Heating Value of 2-mm Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) Grind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluru, Jaya

    2016-06-01

    Deep drying and torrefaction is a thermal pretreatment method, where biomass is heated in the temperature range of 150–300°C in an inert or reduced environment. The process parameters like temperature and residence time has a significant impact on proximate, ultimate, and energy properties of the biomass. In the present study, torrrefaction experiments were conducted on 2 mm lodgepole pine grind using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Both deep drying and torrefaction temperature (160–270°C) and time (15–120 min) were selected. Torrefied samples were analyzed for proximate, ultimate and energy properties. Results indicated that moisture content decreased with increases in torrefaction temperature and time, where at 270°C and 120 min, the moisture content was found to be 1.15% (w.b.). Volatile content in the biomass decreased from about 80% to about 45%, and ash content increased from 0.77 to about 1.91% at 270°C and 120 min. The hydrogen, oxygen and sulfur content decreased to 3%, 28.24%, and 0.01 whereas carbon content and higher heating value increased to 68.86% and 23.67 MJ/kg at 270°C and 120 min. H/C and O/C ratio calculated at 270°C and 120 min residence time were about 0.56 and 0.47. This study indicated that higher torrefaction temperatures >230°C and residence time >15 min influenced the proximate, ultimate, and energy properties.

  9. Comparing Early Postoperative Period Analgesic Effect of Dexketoprofene Trometamol and Lornoxicam in Mediastinoscopy Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiroglu, Gonul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed comparing early postoperative period analgesic effectiveness and the effects on opioid consumption of intravenous dexketoprofen and lornoxicam that are given preemptively. Materials and Methods: Forty patients, planned elective mediastinoscopy, were included in this prospective randomized study. These patients were classified in two groups, group D for dexketoprofene trometamol and group L for lornoxicam, randomly. 20 minutes before the operation 50 mg dexketoprofene trometamol and 8 mg lornoxicam were injected intravenously for group D and group L respectively. In postoperative intensive care unit, pain scores, mean arterial pressures, heart rates and peripheric O2 saturations of patients were recorded at 0, 10, 20, 60, 90 and 120th minutes. Results: When we evaluate the VAS score of the groups, there was a significant decrease in group D in all measured timesstatistically compairing to group L (p0.05). Conclusion: Since intravenous dexketoprofen, applied preemptively, has more potent analgesic effect and causing less opioid consumption in early postoperative period, is better than intravenous lornoxicam. PMID:25610155

  10. The Effect of Seasonal and Long-Period Geopotential Variations on the GPS Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melachroinos, Stavros A.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Beckley, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the impact of using seasonal and long-period time-variable gravity field (TVG) models on GPS orbit determination, through simulations from 1994 to 2012. The models of time-variable gravity that we test include the GRGS release RL02 GRACE-derived 10-day gravity field models up to degree and order 20 (grgs20x20), a 4 x 4 series of weekly coefficients using GGM03S as a base derived from SLR and DORIS tracking to 11 satellites (tvg4x4), and a harmonic fit to the above 4 x 4 SLR-DORIS time series (goco2s_fit2). These detailed models are compared to GPS orbit simulations using a reference model (stdtvg) based on the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) and International GNSS Service (IGS) repro1 standards. We find that the new TVG modeling produces significant along, cross-track orbit differences as well as annual, semi-annual, draconitic and long-period effects in the Helmert translation parameters (Tx, Ty, Tz) of the GPS orbits with magnitudes of several mm. We show that the simplistic TVG modeling approach used by all of the IGS Analysis Centers, which is based on the models provided by the IERS standards, becomes progressively less adequate following 2006 when compared to the seasonal and long-period TVG models.

  11. Effects of combined linear and nonlinear periodic training on physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kyung-Hun; Suk, Min-Hwa; Kang, Shin-Woo; Shin, Yun-A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined linear and nonlinear periodic training on physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers. The linear resistance training model (6 days/week) and nonlinear underwater training (4 days/week) were applied to 12 finswimmers (age, 16.08± 1.44 yr; career, 3.78± 1.90 yr) for 12 weeks. Body composition measures included weight, body mass index (BMI), percent fat, and fat-free mass. Physical fitness measures included trunk flexion forward, trunk extension backward, sargent jump, 1-repetition-maximum (1 RM) squat, 1 RM dead lift, knee extension, knee flexion, trunk extension, trunk flexion, and competition times. Body composition and physical fitness were improved after the 12-week periodic training program. Weight, BMI, and percent fat were significantly decreased, and trunk flexion forward, trunk extension backward, sargent jump, 1 RM squat, 1 RM dead lift, and knee extension (right) were significantly increased. The 50- and 100-m times significantly decreased in all 12 athletes. After 12 weeks of training, all finswimmers who participated in this study improved their times in a public competition. These data indicate that combined linear and nonlinear periodic training enhanced the physical fitness and competition times in finswimmers.

  12. A mathematical approach to the effective Hamiltonian in perturbed periodic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, C.; Martinez, A.; Sjoestrand, J.

    1991-01-01

    We describe a rigorous mathematical reduction of the spectral study for a class of periodic problems with perturbations which gives a justification of the method of effective Hamiltonians in solid state physics. We study the partial differential operators of the form P=P(hy, y, D y +A(hy)) on R n (when h>0 is small enough), where P(x, y, η) is elliptic, periodic in y with respect to some lattice Γ, and admits smooth bounded coefficients in (x, y). A(x) is a magnetic potential with bounded derivatives. We show that the spectral study of P near any fixed energy level can be reduced to the study of a finite system of h-pseudodifferential operators ε(x, hD x , h), acting on some Hilbert space depending on Γ. We then apply it to the study of the Schroedinger operator when the electric potential is periodic, and to some quasiperiodic potentials with vanishing magnetic field. (orig.)

  13. Effect of protease and duration of fattening period on dressing percentage of broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Dosković Vladimir; Bogosavljević-Bošković Snežana; Perić Lidija; Lukić Miloš; Škrbić Zdenka; Rakonjac Simeon; Petričević Veselin

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of different crude protein levels in broiler diets supplemented with 0.2% and 0.3% protease enzyme (Ronozyme Pro Act) on dressed carcass weight and dressing percentage during two fattening periods (49 and 63 days). The fast-growing strain Cobb 500 was used. At the end of the fattening trial i.e. at 49 and 63 days, 10 male and 10 female birds were randomly sacrificed from each experimental group to determine body weights and c...

  14. The Effect of Fasting Pattern on Biological Performance of Quail at Early Production Period

    OpenAIRE

    Tugiyanti, Efka

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to find out the effect of fasting pattern on biological performance of quail at early production period. 50 kg commercial feed, vitamins and medicine were applied on 140 heads of seven old day quail.  Four different fasting pattern were employed as treatment, i.e. ad libitum diet (Po); every two days fasting (P1); every three days fasting (P2); every four days fasting (P3); and every five days fasting (P4).   Ad libitum amount of  corn and water were offered...

  15. Effect Of Light Qualities And Storage Periods On The Germination Of Pennisetum Polystachion Seeds*)

    OpenAIRE

    TJITROSEMITO, S

    1992-01-01

    Seeds of the yellowish inflorescence strain of Pennisetum polystachion, collected from the field in Indonesia, were kept in the dark for 30 days, then germinated in 12-h light and 24-h light under various light qualities, namely, white, black, blue, red and far-red. There was no effect of photo-period to seed germination. Percent of seed germination under white, red, far-red, blue and dark were 49, 43, 22, 11 and 2%, respectively. White and red light did not cause any diffe...

  16. Age, period and cohort effects on adult physical activity levels from 1991 to 2011 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jiajie; Ng, Shu Wen

    2016-04-20

    To date no work has differentiated the effects of age, period, and cohort on physical activity (PA) among Chinese adults, while also considering biological, behavioral, economic, and environmental factors over time. We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) between 1991 and 2011 (20 years). The outcomes of interest are metabolic equivalent of task (MET) hours per week from work and domestic activities. Age, individual characteristics, household size, asset ownership, urbanization were included as covariates. Analyses for adult (≥20y) males (n = 29,343) and females (n = 31,094) was conducted to explicitly assess differences in PA due to age vs period effects, and implicitly assess differences by cohorts due to the period-specific experiences across individuals of varying ages. The mean age of the sample rose from 41.31 to 50.8 years and PA decreased from 427.75 ± 264.35 MET hours per week (MET-hr/wk) in 1991 to 245.99 ± 206.65 MET-hr/wk in 2011, with much steeper declines for women compared to men. For both genders, we found non-linear decreases in PA with age over time. Controlling for age effects, negative period effects on PA were observed in each survey year, and were substantial from 1993 to 2000 for males and from 1993 to 2011 for females. The interaction between survey year and age (P < 0.05) were observed from 2004 to 2011. Higher community urbanicity, vehicle ownership, TV and computer ownership, overweight and obese, higher education served as negative predictors. Bicycle ownership, bigger household size, non-professional jobs, being married and having more children (for women) were positive predictors of PA (P < 0.05). Furthermore, at any given age, individuals who were younger at baseline had higher mean PA compared with individuals older at baseline. This study followed a large cohort of adults over a significant portion of their lives. Strong age and secular trends were observed, resulting in an

  17. Effects of the infectious period distribution on predicted transitions in childhood disease dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylova, Olga; Earn, David J D

    2013-07-06

    The population dynamics of infectious diseases occasionally undergo rapid qualitative changes, such as transitions from annual to biennial cycles or to irregular dynamics. Previous work, based on the standard seasonally forced 'susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed' (SEIR) model has found that transitions in the dynamics of many childhood diseases result from bifurcations induced by slow changes in birth and vaccination rates. However, the standard SEIR formulation assumes that the stage durations (latent and infectious periods) are exponentially distributed, whereas real distributions are narrower and centred around the mean. Much recent work has indicated that realistically distributed stage durations strongly affect the dynamical structure of seasonally forced epidemic models. We investigate whether inferences drawn from previous analyses of transitions in patterns of measles dynamics are robust to the shapes of the stage duration distributions. As an illustrative example, we analyse measles dynamics in New York City from 1928 to 1972. We find that with a fixed mean infectious period in the susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) model, the dynamical structure and predicted transitions vary substantially as a function of the shape of the infectious period distribution. By contrast, with fixed mean latent and infectious periods in the SEIR model, the shapes of the stage duration distributions have a less dramatic effect on model dynamical structure and predicted transitions. All these results can be understood more easily by considering the distribution of the disease generation time as opposed to the distributions of individual disease stages. Numerical bifurcation analysis reveals that for a given mean generation time the dynamics of the SIR and SEIR models for measles are nearly equivalent and are insensitive to the shapes of the disease stage distributions.

  18. Short-term Periodization Models: Effects on Strength and Speed-strength Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Hagen; Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Mickel, Christoph; Sander, Andre; Szilvas, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Dividing training objectives into consecutive phases to gain morphological adaptations (hypertrophy phase) and neural adaptations (strength and power phases) is called strength-power periodization (SPP). These phases differ in program variables (volume, intensity, and exercise choice or type) and use stepwise intensity progression and concomitant decreasing volume, converging to peak intensity (peaking phase). Undulating periodization strategies rotate these program variables in a bi-weekly, weekly, or daily fashion. The following review addresses the effects of different short-term periodization models on strength and speed-strength both with subjects of different performance levels and with competitive athletes from different sports who use a particular periodization model during off-season, pre-season, and in-season conditioning. In most periodization studies, it is obvious that the strength endurance sessions are characterized by repetition zones (12-15 repetitions) that induce muscle hypertrophy in persons with a low performance level. Strictly speaking, when examining subjects with a low training level, many periodization studies include mainly hypertrophy sessions interspersed with heavy strength/power sessions. Studies have demonstrated equal or statistically significant higher gains in maximal strength for daily undulating periodization compared with SPP in subjects with a low to moderate performance level. The relatively short intervention period and the lack of concomitant sports conditioning call into question the practical value of these findings for competitive athletes. Possibly owing to differences in mesocycle length, conditioning programs, and program variables, competitive athletes either maintained or improved strength and/or speed-strength performance by integrating daily undulating periodization and SPP during off-season, pre-season and in-season conditioning. In high-performance sports, high-repetition strength training (>15) should be

  19. Public attitudes of wind energy in Texas: Local communities in close proximity to wind farms and their effect on decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swofford, Jeffrey; Slattery, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Wind energy is now recognized as an important energy resource throughout the world. Within the United States, the state of Texas currently has the largest wind energy capacity with 8797 total megawatts and an additional 660 MW under construction. With this rapid growth, it is important to achieve a better understanding of how wind energy is being perceived by the public. This paper explores three research strands: (i) describing the environmental attitudes of a population in close proximity to a wind farm development, (ii) determining the influence that proximity has on wind energy attitudes, and (iii) determining if the Not-In-My-Backyard (Nimby) phenomenon is appropriate for explaining human perceptions of wind energy. A survey questionnaire was developed to explore perceptions of wind energy in the region as well as general attitudes about energy and the environment. Results regarding general wind energy attitudes signify overall public support for wind energy. In addition, those living closest to the wind farm indicate the lowest levels of support, while those living farthest away indicate much stronger support. Findings support the view that the use of Nimby does not adequately explain the attitudes of local wind farm opposition. Alternative explanations and planning implications are discussed with a focus on public participation and education.

  20. Mitigating the effects of in-vehicle distractions through use of the Psychological Refractory Period paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Daryl L; Jamson, Samantha L; Carsten, Oliver M J

    2013-01-01

    Modern driving involves frequent and potentially detrimental interactions with distracting in-vehicle tasks. Distraction has been shown to slow brake reaction time and decrease lateral and longitudinal vehicle control. It is likely that these negative effects will become more prevalent in the future as advances are made in the functionality, availability, and number of in-vehicle systems. This paper addresses this problem by considering ways to manage in-vehicle task presentation to mitigate their distracting effects. A driving simulator experiment using 48 participants was performed to investigate the existence of the Psychological Refractory Period in the driving context and its effect on braking performance. Drivers were exposed to lead vehicle braking events in isolation (single-task) and with a preceding surrogate in-vehicle task (dual-task). In dual-task scenarios, the time interval between the in-vehicle and braking tasks was manipulated. Brake reaction time increased when drivers were distracted. The in-vehicle task interfered with the performance of the braking task in a manner that was dependent on the interval between the two tasks, with slower reactions following a shorter inter-task interval. This is the Psychological Refractory Period effect. These results have implications for driver safety during in-vehicle distraction. The findings are used to develop recommendations regarding the timing of in-vehicle task presentation so as to reduce their potentially damaging effects on braking performance. In future, these guidelines could be incorporated into a driver workload management system to minimise the opportunity for a driver to be distracted from the ongoing driving task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. EFFECTS OF STORAGE PERIODS AND METHODS OF OVERCOMING DORMANCY IN SEEDS OF PASSIFLORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Miranda dos Santos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of storage period and treatement with hot water at 50ºC or scarification on dormancy break down on Passiflora mucronata seeds. The storage periods were 0, 1, 4 and 12 months. The seeds were sown onto Germitest paper roll and incubated in a germination chamber under 20ºC/8h-30ºC/16h alternate temperature, at 16-h photoperiod (fluorescent light at 32 mol m-2 s-1 irradiance. The percent germination was evaluated, and the seeds germinated on moistened Germitest paper rolls in distilled water at a ratio of two and a half times the paper weight. The seeds were transferred to a germination chamber with alternating temperatures of 20-30º C and photoperiod of 16 h until the end of the experiment at 31 days. The experiment was analyzed as completely randomized designed with four replications, in which each plot was constituted by 50 seeds. The storage periods had significant effect on the variable studied, where the higher germination was obtained at freshly harvested seeds. At the first month of evaluation the germination decreased. After 4 and 12 months of storage, no germination was detected. The treatment with hot water at 50º or scarification favored the germination of the Passiflora seeds stored by one and four months, however even with the stimulus of the treatments, the values of final germination were low. The treatments were not efficient to stimulate the seed germination stored by 12 months.

  2. Effects of indomethacin on ovarian leukocytes during the periovulatory period in the rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarradas Esteban

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have investigated the effects of indomethacin (IM, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and the role of prostaglandins on the accumulation of leukocytes in the rat ovary during the periovulatory period. Adult cycling rats were injected sc with 1 mg of IM in olive oil or vehicle on the morning of proestrus. Some animals were killed at 16:00 h in proestrus. On the evening (19:00 h of proestrus, IM-treated rats were injected with 500 micrograms of prostaglandin E1 in saline or vehicle. Animals were killed at 01:30 and 09:00 h in estrus. There was an influx of macrophages, neutrophils, and eosinophils into the theca layers of preovulatory follicles, and of neutrophils and eosinophils into the ovarian medulla from 16:00 h in proestrus to 01:30 h in estrus. All these changes, except the accumulation of neutrophils in the theca layers of preovulatory follicles, were blocked by IM treatment. At 09:00 h in estrus, large clusters of neutrophils were observed in IM-treated rats, around abnormally ruptured follicles. The accumulation of leukocytes was not restored by prostaglandin supplementation, despite the inhibition of abnormal follicle rupture and restoration of ovulation in these animals. These results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in leukocyte accumulation in the ovary during the periovulatory period, and that the inhibitory effects of IM on the influx of leukocytes are not dependent on prostaglandin synthesis inhibition.

  3. Chemical effects of (n,2n) reactions on iodate and periodates systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, J.M.A. de.

    1975-12-01

    The chemical consequences of (n,2n) reactions on cristalline sodium iodate and periodates were investigated measuring the initial yield and the post irradiation thermal annealing yields (90 0 C) of the separated fractions I - , IO 3 - and IO 4 - . NaIO 3 , NaIO 3 .H 2 O and NaIO 4 , Na 4 H 2 IO 6 , Na 4 I 2 O 9 .3H 2 O containing 127 I and 129 I, or both, were irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons. Results obtained show different effects for each system and that 126 I and 128 I isotopes keep the same behaviour in the irradiated compounds containing only α 127 I or 129 I and in compounds having both 127 I and 129 I. Neither isotope effect nor qualitative differences on thermal annealing at 90 0 C were observed. The annealed fractions in the three studied periodates were IO - 3 and IO - 4 . These results differ from the ones reported previously for (n,γ) reactions on the same compounds [pt

  4. Milk progesterone profiles and the effect of the buck during the anoestrous period in goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dazhi; Liu Xianyi; Chen Faju; Song Xuehua; Wang Kairong; Liu Xiangmo; Xu Gongyi

    1991-01-01

    Milk progesterone profiles in Chengdu Mah (CM), Saanen (S) and crossbred (CM x S, F1) goats were determined using radioimmunoassay throughout the period from kidding to the beginning of the next breeding season. Different patterns of progesterone profiles were recorded in these does. When milk progesterone concentrations were elevated above 6 ng/mL for at least 6 days they were regarded as signs of ovarian activity. The frequencies of such rises during anoestrus were 4.0, 1.8 and 2.5 per animal in CM, S and F1 goats respectively. The frequencies of progesterone rise were higher than that of behavioural oestrus in the does. After exposing the does to the buck three times during the anoestrus period, no significant 'male effect' was observed on the milk progesterone level or behavioural oestrus during the first six months after kidding. The male effect on behavioural oestrus became apparent only in the seventh month after kidding, while milk progesterone levels did not change markedly compared with those of the control does. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  5. Effect of environment and fallow period on Cosmopolites sordidus population dynamics at the landscape scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyck, P-F; Dortel, E; Vinatier, F; Gaujoux, E; Carval, D; Tixier, P

    2012-10-01

    Understanding how the population dynamics of insect pests are affected by environmental factors and agricultural practices is important for pest management. To investigate how the abundance of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is related to environmental factors and the length of the fallow period in Martinique, we developed an extensive data set (18,130 observations of weevil abundance obtained with pheromone traps plus associated environmental data) and analysed it with generalized mixed-effects models. At the island scale, C. sordidus abundance was positively related to mean temperature and negatively related to mean rainfall but was not related to soil type. The number of insects trapped was highest during the driest months of the year. Abundance of C. sordidus decreased as the duration of the preceding fallow period increased. The latter finding is inconsistent with the view that fallow-generated decomposing banana tissue is an important resource for larvae that leads to an increase in the pest population. The results are consistent with the view that fallows, in association with pheromone traps, are effective for the control of the banana weevil.

  6. Effect of holographic grating period on its relaxation in a molecular glassy film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozols, A; Augustovs, P; Kokars, V; Traskovskis, K; Saharov, D

    2013-01-01

    Holographic grating (HG) relaxation has been experimentally studied in 5,5,5-triphenylpentyl 4-((4-(bis(5,5,5-triphenylpentyl)amino) phenyl) diazenyl) benzoate molecular glassy film for HG periods (Λ) of 0.50, 2.0 and 8.6 μm. A strong effect of HG period on its relaxation is found manifesting itself differently in the volume and on the surface. The volume part of HG is fairly stable during 40 days if Λ > 0.50μm whereas the surface part of HG (most probably, surface relief grating) exhibits relaxational self-enhancement which is maximal at Λ = 8.6μm. It is proposed that thermostimulated directional mass transfer in the process of relaxation can be responsible for this relaxational self-enhancement. Weak HG recording and relatively fast HG decay takes place at Λ=0.50 μm. Therefore, effective chromophore photoorientation domain of about 0.2 μm is supposed

  7. Lack of diurnal effects on periodic exercise during prolonged cold water immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubt, T J; Smith, D J

    1990-03-01

    Diurnal effects on periodic exercise were examined in 8 male divers wearing passive thermal protection during whole body immersions in 5 degrees C water for periods of up to 6 h. Studies were done during the course of 5-day air saturation dives at a depth of 1.61 ATA, with immersions beginning at 1000 h (AM) and 2200 h (PM). During each hour of immersion, leg exercise was done for 3 min each at workloads of 50, 70, and 90 W. Heart rate (HR) at each workload increased uniformly with immersion time, without a change in slope of HR vs. workload. No AM or PM differences occurred. AM resting VO2 increased linearly, and to the same extent as PM, with exposure time. VO2 at 50 W also increased at the same rate as resting values. VO2 at 70 and 90 W were similar for AM and PM and did not vary significantly during the 6-h immersions. Temporal increases in exercise HR may reflect cardiac compensation of diminished plasma volume. Workloads greater than or equal to 70 W generate enough metabolic heat in this specific condition to meet the thermogenic requirement. Lack of diurnal effects on exercise variables may be due to environmental conditions suppressing circadian rhythms.

  8. A micropuncture study of proximal tubular transport of lithium during osmotic diuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, P

    1990-01-01

    Lithium and sodium are normally reabsorbed in parallel with water by the renal proximal tubule whereby their tubular fluid-to-plasma concentration ratios (TF/P) remain close to unity throughout the proximal convoluted segment. During osmotic diuresis, the late proximal (TF/P)Na is known to decrease....... The present experiments were undertaken to study whether the late proximal TF/P for Li decreases like that of Na during osmotic diuresis. Data were obtained in a control period (C) and in two successive periods during mannitol diuresis (P1, P2). Glomerular filtration rate decreased gradually during osmotic...

  9. Thermomechanical effect of pulse-periodic laser radiation on cartilaginous and eye tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, O. I.; Zheltov, G. I.; Omelchenko, A. I.; Romanov, G. S.; Romanov, O. G.; Sobol, E. N.

    2013-08-01

    This paper is devoted to theoretical and experimental studies into the thermomechanical action of laser radiation on biological tissues. The thermal stresses and strains developing in biological tissues under the effect of pulse-periodic laser radiation are theoretically modeled for a wide range of laser pulse durations. The models constructed allow one to calculate the magnitude of pressures developing in cartilaginous and eye tissues exposed to laser radiation and predict the evolution of cavitation phenomena occurring therein. The calculation results agree well with experimental data on the growth of pressure and deformations, as well as the dynamics of formation of gas bubbles, in the laser-affected tissues. Experiments on the effect of laser radiation on the trabecular region of the eye in minipigs demonstrated that there existed optimal laser irradiation regimens causing a substantial increase in the hydraulic permeability of the radiation-exposed tissue, which can be used to develop a novel glaucoma treatment method.

  10. Thermomechanical effect of pulse-periodic laser radiation on cartilaginous and eye tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, O I; Omelchenko, A I; Sobol, E N; Zheltov, G I; Romanov, G S; Romanov, O G

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to theoretical and experimental studies into the thermomechanical action of laser radiation on biological tissues. The thermal stresses and strains developing in biological tissues under the effect of pulse-periodic laser radiation are theoretically modeled for a wide range of laser pulse durations. The models constructed allow one to calculate the magnitude of pressures developing in cartilaginous and eye tissues exposed to laser radiation and predict the evolution of cavitation phenomena occurring therein. The calculation results agree well with experimental data on the growth of pressure and deformations, as well as the dynamics of formation of gas bubbles, in the laser-affected tissues. Experiments on the effect of laser radiation on the trabecular region of the eye in minipigs demonstrated that there existed optimal laser irradiation regimens causing a substantial increase in the hydraulic permeability of the radiation-exposed tissue, which can be used to develop a novel glaucoma treatment method. (paper)

  11. Effects of extended lay-off periods on performance and operator trust under adaptable automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavaillaz, Alain; Wastell, David; Sauer, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the long-term effects of system reliability when operators do not use a system during an extended lay-off period. To examine threats to skill maintenance, 28 participants operated twice a simulation of a complex process control system for 2.5 h, with an 8-month retention interval between sessions. Operators were provided with an adaptable support system, which operated at one of the following reliability levels: 60%, 80% or 100%. Results showed that performance, workload, and trust remained stable at the second testing session, but operators lost self-confidence in their system management abilities. Finally, the effects of system reliability observed at the first testing session were largely found again at the second session. The findings overall suggest that adaptable automation may be a promising means to support operators in maintaining their performance at the second testing session. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of dynamic long-period ocean tides on changes in earth's rotation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Young; Dickman, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    As a generalization of the zonal response coefficient first introduced by Agnew and Farrell (1978), the zonal response function kappa of the solid earth-ocean system is defined as the ratio, in the frequency domain, of the tidal change in earth's rotation rate to the tide-generating potential. Amplitudes and phases of kappa for the monthly, fortnightly, and nine-day lunar tides are estimated from 2 1/2 years of VLBI UT1 observations, corrected for atmospheric angular momentum effects using NMC wind and pressure series. Using the dynamic ocean tide model of Dickman (1988, 1989), amplitudes and phases of kappa for an elastic earth-ocean system are predicted. The predictions confirm earlier results which found that dynamic effects of the longer-period ocean tides reduce the amplitude of kappa by about 1 percent.

  13. Is the psychological refractory period effect for ideomotor compatible tasks eliminated by speed-stress instructions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun Kyoung; Cho, Yang Seok; Lien, Mei-Ching; Proctor, Robert W

    2007-09-01

    It has been argued that the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect is eliminated with two ideomotor compatible tasks when instructions stress fast and simultaneous responding. Three experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. In all experiments, Task 1 required spatially compatible manual responses (left or right) to the direction of an arrow, and Task 2 required saying the name of the auditory letter A or B. In Experiments 1 and 3, the manual responses were keypresses made with the left and right hands, whereas in Experiment 2 they were left-right toggle-switch movements made with the dominant hand. Instructions that stressed response speed reduced reaction time and increased error rate compared to standard instructions to respond fast and accurately, but did not eliminate the PRP effect on Task 2 reaction time. These results imply that, even when response speed is emphasized, ideomotor compatible tasks do not bypass response selection.

  14. Vortex lattice in effective type-I superconducting films with periodic arrays of submicron holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdiyorov, G.R.; Milosevic, M.V.; Peeters, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    The vortex matter and related phenomena in superconducting films with periodic arrays of microholes (antidots) are studied within the nonlinear Ginzburg-Landau (GL) theory. By varying the GL parameter κ, the vortex-vortex interaction is fine tuned, from repulsive to attractive behavior. This interaction is of crucial importance for equilibrium vortex structures, the saturation number of the antidots, and the related quantities, such as critical current. Due to vortex attraction in effectively type-I samples, the giant-vortex state becomes energetically favorable (contrary to the type-II behavior). For the same reason, the number of vortices which can be captured by antidots, increases with decreasing κ. As a result, for given magnetic field, the critical current is larger for effectively type-I superconductors than in conventional type-II cases

  15. Effects of periodic modulation on the nonlinear Landau–Zener tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Hua, Wu; Wen-Shan, Duan

    2009-01-01

    We study the Landau–Zener tunneling of a nonlinear two-level system by applying a periodic modulation on its energy bias. We find that the two levels are splitting at the zero points of the zero order Bessel function for high-frequency modulation. Moreover, we obtain the effective coupling constant between two levels at the zero points of the zero order Bessel function by calculating the final tunneling probability at these points. It seems that the effective coupling constant can be regarded as the approximation of the higher order Bessel function at these points. For the low-frequency modulation, we find that the final tunneling probability is a function of the interaction strength. For the weak inter-level coupling case, we find that the final tunneling probability is more disordered as the interaction strength becomes larger. (general)

  16. Geometric effects of spacer grid in an annulus flow channel during reflooding period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.; Chun, S. Y.; Kim, B. D.; Park, J. K.; Yun, Y. J.; Baek, W. P.

    2004-01-01

    A number of studies on the reflooding phase were actively carried out from the early 70's due to its importance for the safety of the nuclear reactor. (Martini et al., 1973; Henry, 1974; Chung, 1978;) However, few studies have presented the spacer grid effect during the reflooding period. Since the grid is an obstruction in the flow passage, it causes an increased pressure drop due to form and skin friction losses. On the other hand, the spacer grid tends to increase the local wall heat transfer. The present work has been performed in a vertical annulus flow channel with various flow conditions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of a swirl-vane spacer grid on the rewetting phenomena during the reflooding phase

  17. Age, Period, and Cohort Effects in Psychological Distress in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Nicholson, Ryan; Kinley, Jolene; Raposo, Sarah; Stein, Murray B.; Goldner, Elliot M.; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Although treatment utilization for depression and anxiety symptoms has increased substantially in the United States and elsewhere, it remains unclear whether the underlying population distribution of psychological distress is changing over time. We estimated age, period, and cohort effects using data from 2 countries over more than 20 years, including National Health Interview Surveys from 1997 to 2010 (n = 447,058) and Canadian Community Health Surveys from 2000 to 2007 (n = 125,306). Psychological distress was measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. By period, both countries showed the highest levels of psychological distress in 2001 and the lowest levels in 2007. By age, psychological distress was highest in adolescence and during the late 40s and early 50s. By cohort, Canadian Community Health Survey results indicated a decreasing cohort effect among those born in 1922–1925 through 1935–1939 (β = −0.36, 95% confidence interval: −0.45, −0.27) and then a continuously increasing cohort effect during the remainder of the 20th century through 1989–1992 (β = 0.49, 95% confidence interval: 0.38, 0.61). The National Health Interview Survey data captured earlier-born cohorts and indicated an increased cohort effect for the earliest born (for 1912–1914, β = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.26, 0.61). In sum, individuals in the oldest and more recently born birth cohorts have higher mean psychological distress symptoms compared with those born in midcentury, underscoring the importance of a broad, population-level lens for conceptualizing mental health. PMID:24692432

  18. Effect of nutritional immunomodulation and heat stress during the dry period on subsequent performance of cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, Thiago F; Laporta, Jimena; Corra, Fabiana N; Torres, Yazielis M; Kirk, David J; McLean, Derek J; Chapman, J D; Dahl, Geoffrey E

    2017-08-01

    Heat stress in dairy cows during the dry period impairs milk yield in the next lactation. Feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Phibro Animal Health Corp., Teaneck, NJ) to lactating cows during heat stress may increase dry matter intake (DMI) and lowers respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT), but the effects in dry cows are not known. We hypothesized that OG supplementation before, during, and after the dry period (approximately 160 d total) would overcome the effects of heat stress and improve cow performance in the next lactation. Cows were randomly assigned to OG or control (placebo) treatments for the last 60 d in milk (DIM), based on mature-equivalent milk yield in the previous lactation. Cows were dried off 45 d before expected calving and randomly assigned to heat stress (HT) or cooling (CL) treatments. Thus, cows received dietary supplementation during late lactation before they were exposed to either CL or HT. After dry-off, treatment groups included heat stress with placebo (HT, only shade, 56 g/d of placebo, n = 17), HT with OG supplementation (HTOG, 56 g/d of OG, n = 19), cooling with placebo (CL, shade, fans, and soakers, 56 g/d of placebo, n = 16), and CL with OG supplementation (CLOG, 56 g/d of OG, n = 11). After parturition, all cows were kept under the same CL system and management, and all cows continued to receive OG or control treatment until 60 DIM. Cooling cows during the dry period reduced afternoon RT (CL vs. HT; 38.9 ± 0.05 vs. 39.3 ± 0.05°C) and RR (CL vs. HT; 45 ± 1.6 vs. 77 ± 1.6 breaths/min). Respiration rate was also decreased by OG supplementation under HT conditions (HTOG vs. HT; 69.7 ± 1.6 vs. 77.2 ± 1.6 breaths/min). An interaction was observed between OG supplementation and HT; HTOG cows tended to have lower morning RT compared with HT cows. During the dry period, OG reduced DMI relative to control cows. Birth weight was greater in calves from CL cows (CL vs. HT; 40.6 ± 1.09 vs. 38.7 ± 1.09 kg). No differences were detected

  19. Transient hydrodynamic finite-size effects in simulations under periodic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asta, Adelchi J.; Levesque, Maximilien; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe; Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    We use lattice-Boltzmann and analytical calculations to investigate transient hydrodynamic finite-size effects induced by the use of periodic boundary conditions. These effects are inevitable in simulations at the molecular, mesoscopic, or continuum levels of description. We analyze the transient response to a local perturbation in the fluid and obtain the local velocity correlation function via linear response theory. This approach is validated by comparing the finite-size effects on the steady-state velocity with the known results for the diffusion coefficient. We next investigate the full time dependence of the local velocity autocorrelation function. We find at long times a crossover between the expected t-3 /2 hydrodynamic tail and an oscillatory exponential decay, and study the scaling with the system size of the crossover time, exponential rate and amplitude, and oscillation frequency. We interpret these results from the analytic solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equation for the slowest modes, which are set by the system size. The present work not only provides a comprehensive analysis of hydrodynamic finite-size effects in bulk fluids, which arise regardless of the level of description and simulation algorithm, but also establishes the lattice-Boltzmann method as a suitable tool to investigate such effects in general.

  20. Femoral shaft bowing in the coronal plane has more significant effect on the coronal alignment of TKA than proximal or distal variations of femoral shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Min; Hong, Soo-Heon; Kim, Jong-Min; Lee, Bum-Sik; Kim, Dong-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Bin, Seong-Il

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine (1) variations in the shape of the proximal, middle, and distal femur in a series of Korean patients who had undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA), (2) the preoperative relationship between these three parameters and the distal valgus cutting angle referenced off the femoral intramedullary guide, and (3) whether there was any relationship between femoral bowing and variations in the shape of the proximal or distal femur in the coronal plane. The preoperative long-standing anteroposterior radiographs of 316 consecutive osteoarthritis patients who underwent primary TKA from 2009 to 2011 were examined. The femoral neck shaft angle, the femoral shaft bowing angle, and the mechanical lateral distal femoral angle were measured to assess the shape of the proximal, middle, and distal femur, respectively. The valgus cutting angle of the femur was defined as the angle between the distal anatomical and mechanical axes of the femur. The study population showed large variations in femoral shape. The mean femoral intramedullary guide angle was 6.5° ± 1.3° (range: 4°-13°). The femoral shaft bowing angle was the factor that showed the strongest correlation with this angle (P shaft angle showed no correlation (n.s.). The femoral shaft bowing angle showed a weak correlation with the mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (P = 0.001), but was not significantly correlated with the femoral neck shaft angle (n.s.). Apparent femoral bowing (>3° of lateral or medial bowing) was found in 42 (13.3 %) of cases (37 cases of lateral bowing and five of medial bowing). Cases with lateral apparent femoral bowing >3° had a distal cutting angle of 8.6° ± 2.2° relative to the femoral intramedullary guide. The femoral intramedullary guide angle was mainly influenced by femoral shaft bowing among femoral deformities in the coronal plane. Therefore, to increase the accuracy of distal femoral cut during TKA, it is necessary to confirm femoral

  1. Cancer in proximity to TV towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, B.; Gordon, I.; Hatfield, G.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The effects of low level electro-magnetic fields on cancer development are controversial. There have been few epidemiological studies on the effects of radio-frequency radiation (RFR) and differing conclusions on possible detrimental health effects in humans (Goldsmith, Int. J Occ. and Env. Hlth, 1:47-57, 1995) (WHO, Env. Health Criteria 137). An unusual opportunity to assess possible risks further arose as cancer data (1972-1990) became available covering an area of North Sydney where three TV towers are located in a populated locality. An analysis of data was undertaken comparing cancer incidence and mortality in the three municipalities which immediately surround the TV towers compared to the adjacent three surrounding municipalities. Methods Data for the RFR sources on the towers was obtained (Dept. of Communications, Radio and TV Stations, 1994). The combined field strengths of the video and audio from the three towers and four channels at increasing distances were calculated (NCRP Report 119). Data from the NSW Cancer Registry on incidence, mortality and residence for 1972-1990 available via Healthwiz were extracted by municipality and for sex and age bands 0-14, 15-69 and 70+. Privacy reasons limit the availability of more refined data. The data were examined using a Poisson regression model (Frome EL, Biometrics, 39:665-74, 1983) with the numbers of cases or deaths regarded as Poisson random variables, whose mean is a product of the person years for the observation, and functions of the variables. The variables used were age categories, sex, calendar period (1972-78, 1979-84 and 1985-90), and area (inner 0-4 km and outer 4-12 km). To compare with the whole of NSW standardised incidence ratios and standardised mortality ratios were calculated. Confidence intervals were calculated using the 'exact' method (Liddell FDK, J. Epid. and Comm. Health, 38:85-88, 1984). Calculated field strengths are well below the limits prescribed in the Australian

  2. Psychological responses to the proximity of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brügger, Adrian; Dessai, Suraje; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Morton, Thomas A.; Pidgeon, Nicholas F.

    2015-12-01

    A frequent suggestion to increase individuals' willingness to take action on climate change and to support relevant policies is to highlight its proximal consequences, that is, those that are close in space and time. But previous studies that have tested this proximizing approach have not revealed the expected positive effects on individual action and support for addressing climate change. We present three lines of psychological reasoning that provide compelling arguments as to why highlighting proximal impacts of climate change might not be as effective a way to increase individual mitigation and adaptation efforts as is often assumed. Our contextualization of the proximizing approach within established psychological research suggests that, depending on the particular theoretical perspective one takes on this issue, and on specific individual characteristics suggested by these perspectives, proximizing can bring about the intended positive effects, can have no (visible) effect or can even backfire. Thus, the effects of proximizing are much more complex than is commonly assumed. Revealing this complexity contributes to a refined theoretical understanding of the role that psychological distance plays in the context of climate change and opens up further avenues for future research and for interventions.

  3. Substituent effects on the optical properties of naphthalenediimides: A frontier orbital analysis across the periodic table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Joshua R; Guerra, Célia Fonseca; Slootweg, J Chris; Lammertsma, Koop; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias

    2016-01-15

    A comprehensive theoretical treatment is presented for the electronic excitation spectra of ca. 50 different mono-, di-, and tetrasubstituted naphthalenediimides (NDI) using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) at ZORA-CAM-B3LYP/TZ2P//ZORA-BP86/TZ2P with COSMO for simulating the effect of dichloromethane (DCM) solution. The substituents -XHn are from groups 14-17 and rows 2-5 of the periodic table. The lowest dipole-allowed singlet excitation (S0 -S1 ) of the monosubstituted NDIs can be tuned from 3.39 eV for -F to 2.42 eV for -TeH, while the S0 -S2 transition is less sensitive to substitution with energies ranging between 3.67 eV for -CH3 and 3.44 eV for -SbH2 . In the case of NDIs with group-15 and -16 substituents, the optical transitions strongly depend on the extent to which -XHn is planar or pyramidal as well as on the possible formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The accumulative effect of double and quadruple substitution leads in general to increasing bathochromic shifts, but the increased steric hindrance in tetrasubstituted NDIs can lead to deformations that diminish the effectiveness of the substituents. Detailed analyses of the Kohn-Sham orbital electronic structure in monosubstituted NDIs reveal the mesomeric destabilization of the HOMO as the primary cause of the bathochromic shift of the S0-S1 transition. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effects of season and storage period on accumulation of individual carotenoids in pumpkin flesh (Cucurbita moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswir, Irwandi; Shahidan, Norshazila; Othman, Rashidi; Has-Yun Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis; Octavianti, Fitri; bin Salleh, Mohammad Noor

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are antioxidants with pharmaceutical potential. The major carotenoids important to humans are α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-cryptoxanthin. Some of the biological functions and actions of these individual carotenoids are quite similar to each other, whereas others are specific. Besides genotype and location, other environmental effects such as temperature, light, mineral uptake, and pH have been found affect carotenoid development in plant tissues and organs. Therefore, this research investigated the effects of the season and storage periods during postharvest handling on the accumulation of carotenoid in pumpkin. This study shows that long-term storage of pumpkins resulted in the accumulation of lutein and β-carotene with a slight decrease in zeaxanthin. The amounts of β-carotene ranged from 174.583±2.105 mg/100g to 692.871±22.019 mg/100g, lutein from 19.841±9.693 mg/100g to 59.481±1.645 mg/100g, and zeaxanthin from not detected to 2.709±0.118 mg/100g. The pumpkins were collected three times in a year; they differed in that zeaxanthin was present only in the first season, while the amounts of β-carotene and lutein were the highest in the second and third seasons, respectively. By identifying the key factors among the postharvest handling conditions that control specific carotenoid accumulations, a greater understanding of how to enhance the nutritional values of pumpkin and other crops will be gained. Postharvest storage conditions can markedly enhance and influence the levels of zeaxanthin, lutein, and β-carotene in pumpkin. This study describes how the magnitudes of these effects depend on the storage period and season.

  5. Effect of gamma radiation in the ripening period of prato cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Erika Maria Roel

    2001-01-01

    The Prato (cheese washed dough) is one of the must popular cheese of Brazil and must be ripening for 45 to 60 days for to reach characteristics of flavors and texture. The present work studied the effect of gamma radiation in the ripening period of Prato cheese. Two periods of irradiation was studied, in first day and 15 th day of ripening. The cheese was irradiated with doses of 0 (non-irradiated), 1, 2, 3 and 4 kGy at a rate of 0,9696 kGy/h from a cobalto-60 source in the period referred and stored at 10-12 deg C and +- 85% RH for 60 days. The physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics and organoleptic properties were analysed every each 15 days of ripening. Through of the results observed that with the increase of the dose of radiation, decreased the total microbial count and that the irradiation retarded the ripening according to increase of the dose, this probability of the destruction of bacterial lactic. The greatest difference found was in the colour according the increasing of the dose, the cheese was more colorless, less yellow and red. Which the organoleptic properties verified that with the increase of the dose of radiation, there was a lost about the color. The cheese increase the firmness, became dryer and less creamy and tasted flavors less intense, a little more bitter and smoking compared with a control. Even though about these differences there was no refuse of Prato cheese, among the sensorial group for irradiated cheese until 2 kGy. (author)

  6. Ventricular Effective Refraction Period and Ventricular Repolarization Analysis in Experimental Tachycardiomyopathy in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Pasławska, Urszula; Gajek, Jacek; Janiszewski, Adrian; Pasławski, Robert; Zyśko, Dorota; Nicpoń, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Swine are recognized animal models of human cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known on the CHF-associated changes in the electrophysiological ventricular parameters of humans and animals. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in the durations of ventricular effective refraction period (VERP), QT and QTc intervals of pigs with chronic tachycardia-induced tachycardiomyopathy (TIC). The study was comprised of 28 adult pigs (8 females and 20 males) of the Polish Large White breed. A one-chamber pacemaker was implanted in each of the 28 pigs. Electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and electrophysiological studies were carried out prior to the pacemaker implantation and at subsequent 4-week intervals. All electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and short electrophysiological study measurements in all swine were done under general anesthesia (propofol) after premedication with midazolam, medetomidine, and ketamine. No significant changes in the duration of QT interval and corrected QT interval (QTc) were observed during consecutive weeks of the experiment. The duration of the QTc interval of female pigs was shown to be significantly longer than that of the males throughout the whole study period. Beginning from the 12th week of rapid ventricular pacing, a significant increase in duration of VERP was observed in both male and female pigs. Males and females did not differ significantly in terms of VERP duration determined throughout the whole study period. Ventricular pacing, stimulation with 2 and 3 premature impulses at progressively shorter coupling intervals and an imposed rhythm of 130 bpm or 150 bpm induced transient ventricular tachycardia in one female pig and four male pigs. One episode of permanent ventricular tachycardia was observed. The number of induced arrhythmias increased proportionally to the severity of heart failure and duration of the experiment. However, relatively aggressive protocols of stimulation were required in order to induce

  7. The effect of calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation on the healing of the proximal humerus fracture: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doetsch, A M; Faber, J; Lynnerup, N

    2004-01-01

    scan, WHO criteria), and not taking any drugs related to bone formation, including calcium or vitamin D supplementation, were randomly assigned to either oral 800 IU vitamin D3 plus 1 g calcium or placebo, in a double-blind prospective study. We measured biochemical, radiographic, and bone mineral......The purpose of this study was to (1) quantify the healing process of the human osteoporotic proximal humerus fracture (PHF) expressed in terms of callus formation over the fracture region using BMD scanning, and (2) quantify the impact of medical intervention with vitamin D3 and calcium...... on the healing process of the human osteoporotic fracture. The conservatively treated PHF was chosen in order to follow the genuine fracture healing without influence of osteosynthetic materials or casts. Thirty women (mean age = 78 years; range = 58-88) with a PHF, osteoporosis or osteopenia (based on a hip...

  8. Emotional changes occurring in women in pregnancy, parturition and lying-in period according to factors exerting an effect on a woman during the peripartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pięta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Pregnancy, parturition and childcare, which are important moments in a woman’s life, are connected with many emotional states of a future mother, a pregnant woman and a lying-in woman. The perinatal period is the time when the risk of psychological disorders in a pregnant woman may increase by even several times. [b]Objective.[/b] The objective of the study was recognition of the main emotional and psychological changes in pregnant women, those in labour and lying-in, according to the factors occurring during the peripartum period. [b]Material and method[/b]. The study was conducted in the form of a survey and covered a group of 108 mothers who were hospitalized in gynaecological-obstetric and obstetric wards in the Karol Marcinkowski Gynaecological-Obstetric University Hospital in Poznań. [b]Results[/b]. There are a number of factors which may exert a negative effect on the emotions of women in pregnancy, parturition, and during lying-in. The study showed that there is a close relationship between the occurrence of these factors and emotional states of the mothers after giving birth. [b]Conclusion[/b]. Special attention should be given to women in whom already during pregnancy factors arise which may have a negative impact on their mental state. Emotions during pregnancy, parturition and lying-in are often quite extreme, and achieve a high intensity, as well being very variable within a short period of time.

  9. Emotional changes occurring in women in pregnancy, parturition and lying-in period according to factors exerting an effect on a woman during the peripartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pięta, Beata; Jurczyk, Mieczysława Urszula; Wszołek, Katarzyna; Opala, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy, parturition and childcare, which are important moments in a woman's life, are connected with many emotional states of a future mother, a pregnant woman and a lying-in woman. The perinatal period is the time when the risk of psychological disorders in a pregnant woman may increase by even several times. Objective. The objective of the study was recognition of the main emotional and psychological changes in pregnant women, those in labour and lying-in, according to the factors occurring during the peripartum period. The study was conducted in the form of a survey and covered a group of 108 mothers who were hospitalized in gynaecological-obstetric and obstetric wards in the Karol Marcinkowski Gynaecological-Obstetric University Hospital in Poznań. There are a number of factors which may exert a negative effect on the emotions of women in pregnancy, parturition, and during lying-in. The study showed that there is a close relationship between the occurrence of these factors and emotional states of the mothers after giving birth. Special attention should be given to women in whom already during pregnancy factors arise which may have a negative impact on their mental state. Emotions during pregnancy, parturition and lying-in are often quite extreme, and achieve a high intensity, as well being very variable within a short period of time.

  10. Space Environment Effects on Materials at Different Positions and Operational Periods of ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Yugo; Ichikawa, Shoichi; Miyazaki, Eiji; Matsumoto, Koji; Ishizawa, Junichiro; Shimamura, Hiroyuki; Yamanaka, Riyo; Suzuki, Mineo

    2009-01-01

    A space materials exposure experiment was condcuted on the exterior of the Russian Service Module (SM) of the International Space Station (ISS) using the Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (MPAC&SEED) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Results reveal artificial environment effects such as sample contamination, attitude change effects on AO fluence, and shading effects of UV on ISS. The sample contamination was coming from ISS components. The particles attributed to micrometeoroids and/or debris captured by MPAC might originate from the ISS solar array. Another MPAC&SEED will be aboard the Exposure Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module, KIBO Exposure Facility (EF) on ISS. The JEM/MPAC&SEED is attached to the Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment-Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) and is exposed to space. Actually, SEDA-AP is a payload on EF to be launched by Space Shuttle flight 2J/A. In fact, SEDA-AP has space environment monitors such as a high-energy particle monitor, atomic oxygen monitor, and plasma monitor to measure in-situ natural space environment data during JEM/MPAC&SEED exposure. Some exposure samples for JEM/MPAC&SEED are identical to SM/MPAC&SEED samples. Consequently, effects on identical materials at different positions and operation periods of ISS will be evaluated. This report summarizes results from space environment monitoring samples for atomic oxygen analysis on SM/MPAC&SEED, along with experimental plans for JEM/MPAC&SEED.

  11. Effects of corner radius on periodic nanoantenna for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Bo-Kai; Lin, Shih-Che; Nien, Li-Wei; Hsueh, Chun-Hway; Li, Jia-Han

    2015-01-01

    Corner radius is a concept to approximate the fabrication limitation due to the effective beam broadening at the corner in using electron-beam lithography. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of corner radius on the electromagnetic field enhancement and resonance wavelength for three periodic polygon dimers of bowtie, twin square, and twin pentagon. The enhancement factor of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy due to the localized surface plasmon resonances in fabricated gold bowtie nanostructures was investigated using both Raman spectroscopy and finite-difference time-domain simulations. The simulated enhancement factor versus corner radius relation was in agreement with measurements and it could be fitted by a power-law relation. In addition, the resonance wavelength showed blue shift with the increasing corner radius because of the distribution of concentrated charges in a larger area. For different polygons, the corner radius instead of the tip angle is the dominant factor of the electromagnetic field enhancement because the surface charges tend to localize at the corner. Greater enhancements can be obtained by having both the smaller gap and sharper corner although the corner radius effect on intensity enhancement is less than the gap size effect. (paper)

  12. ProxImaL: efficient image optimization using proximal algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2016-07-11

    Computational photography systems are becoming increasingly diverse, while computational resources-for example on mobile platforms-are rapidly increasing. As diverse as these camera systems may be, slightly different variants of the underlying image processing tasks, such as demosaicking, deconvolution, denoising, inpainting, image fusion, and alignment, are shared between all of these systems. Formal optimization methods have recently been demonstrated to achieve state-of-the-art quality for many of these applications. Unfortunately, different combinations of natural image priors and optimization algorithms may be optimal for different problems, and implementing and testing each combination is currently a time-consuming and error-prone process. ProxImaL is a domain-specific language and compiler for image optimization problems that makes it easy to experiment with different problem formulations and algorithm choices. The language uses proximal operators as the fundamental building blocks of a variety of linear and nonlinear image formation models and cost functions, advanced image priors, and noise models. The compiler intelligently chooses the best way to translate a problem formulation and choice of optimization algorithm into an efficient solver implementation. In applications to the image processing pipeline, deconvolution in the presence of Poisson-distributed shot noise, and burst denoising, we show that a few lines of ProxImaL code can generate highly efficient solvers that achieve state-of-the-art results. We also show applications to the nonlinear and nonconvex problem of phase retrieval.

  13. Fast periodic stimulation (FPS): a highly effective approach in fMRI brain mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoqing; Gentile, Francesco; Rossion, Bruno

    2018-03-03

    Defining the neural basis of perceptual categorization in a rapidly changing natural environment with low-temporal resolution methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is challenging. Here, we present a novel fast periodic stimulation (FPS)-fMRI approach to define face-selective brain regions with natural images. Human observers are presented with a dynamic stream of widely variable natural object images alternating at a fast rate (6 images/s). Every 9 s, a short burst of variable face images contrasting with object images in pairs induces an objective face-selective neural response at 0.111 Hz. A model-free Fourier analysis achieves a twofold increase in signal-to-noise ratio compared to a conventional block-design approach with identical stimuli and scanning duration, allowing to derive a comprehensive map of face-selective areas in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex, including the anterior temporal lobe (ATL), in all individual brains. Critically, periodicity of the desired category contrast and random variability among widely diverse images effectively eliminates the contribution of low-level visual cues, and lead to the highest values (80-90%) of test-retest reliability in the spatial activation map yet reported in imaging higher level visual functions. FPS-fMRI opens a new avenue for understanding brain function with low-temporal resolution methods.

  14. Periodic variation and its effect on management and prognosis of Korean patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo Eun; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Lee, Wonjae; Cho, Youngjin; Park, Jin Sik; Choi, Ji-Yong; Jeong, Myung-Ho; Kim, Jong Hyun; Chae, Shung Chull; Kim, Young Jo; Nam, Chang-Wook; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Dong Hoon; Hong, Taek Jong; Chae, Jei Keon; Rhew, Jae Young; Kim, Kee Sik; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Oh, Byung-Hee; Park, Young Bae

    2010-05-01

    The characteristics of the periodic variation in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the subsequent effect on management and prognosis have not been fully investigated in a large number of Asian populations. From a prospective, observational multicenter online registry, 4,573 patients diagnosed as AMI in Korea from January to December 2006 were included. The highest incidence of AMI was between 8 a.m. and noon. The number of cases was highest in the winter and lowest in the autumn (13.6 vs 11.4 patients per day, Pworking hours had a shorter time to first medical contact (203+/-288 min) compared with out-of-hours onset (230+/-288 min, P=0.003). In patients who underwent primary angioplasty, out-of hours symptom onset was associated with a greater time delay in both the patient's and the medical facility's response (door-to-balloon time out-of hours vs working hours: 101+/-54 min vs 84+/-44 min, P<0.001). In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, symptoms to first medical contact showed a significant relationship to in-hospital mortality (for every 10 min of symptoms to first medical contact, odds ratio 1.006, 95% confidence interval 1.001-1.012, P=0.018) Circadian and periodic variation in AMI exists in Korean patients, which resulted in different patient behavior, hospital management and outcomes.

  15. Effects of maternal depressive symptomatology during pregnancy and the postpartum period on infant-mother attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohoka, Harue; Koide, Takayoshi; Goto, Setsuko; Murase, Satomi; Kanai, Atsuko; Masuda, Tomoko; Aleksic, Branko; Ishikawa, Naoko; Furumura, Kaori; Ozaki, Norio

    2014-08-01

    Postnatal depression has demonstrated long-term consequences on child cognitive and emotional development; however, the link between maternal and child pathology has not been clearly identified. We conducted a prospective study using self-rating questionnaires to clarify the association between bonding disorder and maternal mood during pregnancy and after childbirth. A total of 389 women participated in this study and completed questionnaires. Participants were asked to complete the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale four times during pregnancy and the postpartum period. We found statistically significant weak to moderate correlations (r = 0.14-0.39) between the EPDS and Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale scores at each testing period. Women who experienced low mood tended to have stronger bonding disorder. Furthermore, the effectiveness of attachment between the mother and child was closely related to the mood of the mother as measured by the EPDS. We observed different patterns of bonding and maternal mood. Distinct subtypes regarding maternal mood and formation of mother-to-infant attachment suggests that analysis of bonding disorder should be performed considering the course of maternal depressive symptoms. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  16. Effect of Storage Period on Dimensional Stability of Alginplus and Hydrogum 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Aalaei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of storage period on dimensional stability of Alginplus and Hydrogum 5.Materials and Methods: In this in vitro experimental study, 60 impressions were taken of an upper jaw typodont, including 10 impressions for each storage period to be tested (12 minutes, 24 and 120 hours for each type of alginate. Then, the impressions were stored in an incubator with stable temperature and humidity, and poured using a type III dental stone. Subsequently, the mesiodistal dimension, occlusogingival height, and interarch distance were measured using a digital caliper with an accuracy of 0.01mm. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and t-test (P<0.05.Results: Alginplus and Hydrogum 5 impressions were not significantly different from the master model after 12 minutes and 24 hours in terms of dimensions (P>0.05. After 120 hours, all dimensions measured on casts were significantly different from those measured on the master model, except for the mesiodistal dimension of the Hydrogum 5 impressions.Conclusions: At a consistent temperature and humidity, the Alginplus and Hydrogum 5 impressions were dimensionally stable for at least 24 hours.Keywords: Dimensional Measurement Accuracy; Dental Impression Materials; Alginic Acid

  17. Effect of Different Storage Periods and Temperatures on the Hatchability of Broiler Breeder Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmud*, M. Z. U. Khan1, Saima1 and M. A. Javed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and humidity have been the two most common variables used to manipulate the storage environment of hatching eggs. To ascertain the effects of different egg storage periods and temperatures on hatchability; 400 eggs were obtained from a broiler breeder flock of 32 weeks of age on a single day collection basis. These eggs were randomly divided into 5 equal groups of 80 eggs each. After collection these were cleaned, fumigated and stored on four temperatures viz 4oC, 16oC, room temperature (25oC and ambient temperature (29oC. Each group was further subdivided into 4 replicates having 20 eggs each. Eggs of Group A (control were set in incubator with temperature of 37.5oC and relative humidity 60% after the storage of one day. Eggs of rest of the four groups were set in the incubator after the storage of 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. Subsequently, these were shifted to hatchers on 18th day where the temperature and humidity were maintained at 36.5oC and 75%, respectively. The data on hatchability and dead-in-shell embryos for various groups were recorded. The results revealed that as the storage period increased at different temperatures, the hatchability decreased significantly (P<0.01. Similarly, as the storage time increased, the percentage of dead-in-shell embryos increased (P<0.01.

  18. Proximity effect in YBa2Cu3O7/Y0.6Pr0.4Ba2Cu3O7/YBa2Cu3O7 junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polturak, E.; Koren, G.; Cohen, D.; Aharoni, E.; Deutscher, G.

    1991-01-01

    We report critical-current measurements in all high-T c superconducting-normal-superconductor junctions using Y 0.6 Pr 0.4 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7 (with T cN =40 K) as the normal metal. Above T cN , we find a clear exponential dependence of I c on the thickness of the barrier which is characteristic of the proximity effect. The order-parameter decay length is about 120 A for T>60 K, and it diverges as T cN is approached. We estimate that ξ 0 for this material is 80±25 A

  19. Keldysh proximity action for disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigel'man, M.V.; Larkin, A.I.; Skvortsov, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We review a novel approach to the superconductive proximity effect in disordered normal-superconducting (N-S) structures. The method is based on the multicharge Keldysh action and is suitable for the treatment of interaction and fluctuation effects. As an application of the formalism, we study the subgap conductance and noise in two-dimensional N-S system in the presence of the electron-electron interaction in the Cooper channel. It is shown that singular nature of the interaction correction at large scales leads to a nonmonotonous temperature, voltage and magnetic field dependence of the Andreev conductance. (author)

  20. Effects of periodic atmospheric pressure variation on radon entry into buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Y. W.; Narasimhan, T. N.

    1992-06-01

    Using a mathematical model, we have investigated the temporal variations of radon entry into a house basement in the presence of time-dependent periodic variations of barometric pressure as well as a persistent small steady depressurization within the basement. The tool for our investigation is an integral finite difference numerical code which can solve for both diffusive and advective flux of radon in the soil gas which is treated as a slightly compressible fluid. Two different boundary conditions at the house basement are considered: (1) a dirt floor basement so that diffusion is equally or more important than advective transport, and (2) an "impermeable" cement basement except for a 1-cm-wide crack near the perimeter of the basement floor; in which case, advective transport of radon flux dominates. Two frequencies of barometric pressure fluctuation with representative values of amplitudes, based on a Fourier decomposition of barometric pressure data, were chosen in this study: one with a short period of 0.5 hour with pressure amplitude of 50 Pa, the other a diurnal variation with a period of 24 hours with the typical pressure amplitude of 250 Pa. For a homogeneous soil medium with soil permeability to air between 10-13 and 10-10 m2, we predict that the barometric fluctuations increase the radon entry into the basement by up to 120% of the steady radon inflow into the basement owing to a steady depressurization of 5 Pa. If soil permeability heterogeneity is present, such as the presence of a thin layer of higher permeability aggregate immediately below the basement floor, radon flux due to atmospheric pumping is further increased. Effects of pressure pumping on radon entry are also compared to diffusion-only transport when the steady depressurization is absent. It is found that contribution to radon entry is significant for the basement crack configuration. In particular, for pressure pumping at 0.5-hour period and for a homogeneous medium of permeability of 10

  1. Fluid-structure coupling effects on periodically transient flow of a single-blade sewage centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Ji; Yuan, Shouqi; Yuan, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    A partitioned fluid-structure interaction (FSI) solving strategy that depends on problem characteristics is applied to quantitatively obtain the coupling effects of a fluid-structure system in a single-blade centrifugal pump on the unsteady flow. A two-way coupling method is employed to realize strong FSI effects in the calculation procedure. The successful impeller oscillation measurement using two proximity sensors validated the FSI simulation accuracy in a complicated and practical fluid-structure system having a rotating component. The results show that the hydrodynamic force deviation can be observed in the results for the coupled versus uncoupled cases. Additionally, the coupled unsteady pressure is larger than the uncoupled value for every monitoring point at every impeller rotation position. Comparison results for different monitoring points under an overload condition and partial-load condition display the same regularities. To some extent, this interaction mechanism would affect the accuracy and reliability of the unsteady flow and rotor deflection analysis.

  2. Entrainment effects in periodic forcing of the flow over a backward-facing step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, T.; Medjnoun, T.; Ganapathisubramani, B.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of the Strouhal number on periodic forcing of the flow over a backward-facing step (height, H ) is investigated experimentally. Forcing is applied by a synthetic jet at the edge of the step at Strouhal numbers ranging from 0.21 effect of Strouhal number on the reattachment length is often divided into low- and high-frequency actuation, referring to specific frequencies present in the unforced flow. In the present study, variations with Strouhal number are explained based on a continuous variation of entrainment of momentum into the recirculation region rather than on specific frequencies. The reattachment length is shown to decrease linearly with entrainment of momentum. Vertical momentum flux is driven by vortices generated by the forcing, and locally vertical momentum flux is shown to be qualitatively similar to circulation for all cases considered. Total circulation (and therewith entrainment of momentum and the effect on the reattachment length) is shown to decrease with Strouhal number, whereas this is not predicted by models based on specific low and high frequencies. An empirical model for the (decay of) circulation is derived by tracking vortices in phase-locked data. This model is used to decipher relevant scaling parameters that explain the variations in circulation, entrainment of momentum, and reattachment length. Three regimes of Strouhal number are identified. A low-Strouhal-number regime is observed for which vortices are formed at a late stage relative to the recirculation region, causing a decrease in effectiveness. For high Strouhal numbers, vortices are being reingested into the actuator or are packed so close together that they cancel each other, both decreasing the effectiveness of forcing. In the intermediate regime a vortex train is formed of which the decay of circulation increases for increasing Strouhal number. The scaling of this

  3. Effects of periodic scattering potential on Landau quantization and ballistic transport of electrons in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumbs, Godfrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College, CUNY, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA and Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P de Manuel Lardizabal, 4, 20018 San Sebastian, Basque Country (Spain); Iurov, Andrii [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Huang, Danhong [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, NM 87117 (United States); Fekete, Paula [West Point Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States); Zhemchuzhna, Liubov [Department of Physics, North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina 27707 (United States)

    2014-03-31

    A two-dimensional periodic array of scatterers has been introduced to a single layer of graphene in the presence of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the graphene layer. The eigenvalue equation for such a system has been solved numerically to display the structure of split Landau subbands as functions of both wave number and magnetic flux. The effects of pseudo-spin coupling and Landau subbands mixing by a strong scattering potential have been demonstrated. Additionally, we investigated the square barrier tunneling problem when magnetic field is present, as well as demonstrate the crucial difference in the modulated band structure between graphene and the two-dimensional electron gas. The low-magnetic field regime is particularly interesting for Dirac fermions and has been discussed. Tunneling of Dirac electrons through a magnetic potential barrier has been investigated to complement the reported results on electrostatic potential scattering in the presence of an ambient magnetic field.

  4. Effect of Melatonin on Sleep in the Perioperative Period after Breast Cancer Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael Tvilling; Voigt Hansen, Melissa; Andersen, Lærke Toftegård

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether administration of an oral dose of 6 mg melatonin before bedtime perioperatively in breast cancer surgery could change sleep outcomes measured by actigraphy. METHODS: This paper reports secondary outcomes from a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized...... clinical trial where patients received 6 mg melatonin (n = 27) or placebo (n = 21) approximately 60 minutes before bedtime 3 nights preoperatively until at least one week postoperatively. Participants were monitored in the entire period with actigraphy, and were instructed to complete visual analogue scale...... significantly changed sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset after surgery, but had no effects on other objective sleep outcomes or on subjective sleep quality (VAS and KSS)....

  5. Age-specific mortality trends in France and Italy since 1900: period and cohort effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, G; Vallin, J; Vaupel, J W; Yashin, A

    1987-11-01

    The age/sex-specific mortality trends of France and Italy were studied over the 1899-1979 period in as much detail as possible in an effort to distinguish between cohort effects and those related to period changes. Complete series of mortality data by individual years of age and calendar years were available from 1869 to 1979 for Italy and from 1899 to 1982 for France. For both countries, these data include the military and civil deaths not registered in vital statistics during the war periods. They cover each national territory as defined by its present boundaries. The graphical representation method of mortality surfaces, elaborated by Vaupel, Gambill, and Yashin (1985), was adopted. The age/sex-specific mortality patterns of France and Italy have not followed the same trends, and the differences observed today are not those of 100 years ago. The mean death probabilities for the 1975-79 period were used to illustrate the age-specific patterns of mortality. Although infant mortality was higher in Italy than in France, the death probabilities at ages 1-15 for both sexes were roughly the same for both countries. At ages 15-23, they were much higher in France than in Italy, and they remained considerably higher in France up to age 55. From then on, the sexes differ: for males, the 2 countries showed similar patterns, whereas for females the probabilities were noticeably higher for France. The situation was very different for both countries at the beginning of the century. For both sexes, higher mortality was observed in Italy not only during infancy but throughout childhood and the adolescent years up to age 15. The 2 countries showed similar patterns from 15-25. Above age 25, the 2 countries had similar patterns for females, whereas male mortality was higher in France right up to the old age groups. Such differences in the age-specific mortality trends depend in part on a different development of health and social conditions but also may be due to factors concerning

  6. Effects of periodic scattering potential on Landau quantization and ballistic transport of electrons in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumbs, Godfrey; Iurov, Andrii; Huang, Danhong; Fekete, Paula; Zhemchuzhna, Liubov

    2014-01-01

    A two-dimensional periodic array of scatterers has been introduced to a single layer of graphene in the presence of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the graphene layer. The eigenvalue equation for such a system has been solved numerically to display the structure of split Landau subbands as functions of both wave number and magnetic flux. The effects of pseudo-spin coupling and Landau subbands mixing by a strong scattering potential have been demonstrated. Additionally, we investigated the square barrier tunneling problem when magnetic field is present, as well as demonstrate the crucial difference in the modulated band structure between graphene and the two-dimensional electron gas. The low-magnetic field regime is particularly interesting for Dirac fermions and has been discussed. Tunneling of Dirac electrons through a magnetic potential barrier has been investigated to complement the reported results on electrostatic potential scattering in the presence of an ambient magnetic field

  7. Effects of temperature, light and incubation period on production, germination and bioactivity of Trichoderma atroviride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryaei, A; Jones, E E; Ghazalibiglar, H; Glare, T R; Falloon, R E

    2016-04-01

    The goal was to determine the effect of temperature, light and incubation period on production, germination and bioactivity of Trichoderma atroviride LU132 against Rhizoctonia solani. The incubation temperatures of 20, 25 or 30°C were assessed on the production of T. atroviride conidia under constant light over a 25 and 50 days periods. The resulting conidia were also studied for germination and bioactivity. Conidium production was maximum at 25°C after 20 days. The second peak of conidium production occurred at 45-50 days. Incubation at 25°C after 15 days showed optimum production of T. atroviride LU132. Conidia produced at 30°C gave the greatest germination and bioactivity in comparison with incubation at 20 or 25°C. This study indicates that the temperature at which conidia of T. atroviride are produced affects germination and bioactivity. Formulations based on production of the high conidia yield may not result in optimal bioactivity and there is a trade-off between quantity and quality of T. atroviride LU132 conidia. Conidium production was shown to be a continuous process, and increased under a dark/light regime. This is the first report of bimodal conidium production in a Trichoderma biological control agent (BCA), which is likely to be on 20 days cycle, and is dependent on colony age rather than abiotic factors. Conidia produced after 15 days are likely to be the most suitable for use in commercial production of this strain as a BCA. Most studies on Trichoderma-based BCA have only shown the effect of culture conditions on the high conidia yield regardless of conidium quality. This study is the first report on conidium quality affected by principal culture conditions for Trichoderma biological control formulations. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Effect of Myostatin SNP on muscle fiber properties in male Thoroughbred horses during training period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hirofumi; Itoh, Rika; Sato, Fumio; Takebe, Naoya; Hada, Tetsuro; Tozaki, Teruaki

    2017-10-20

    Variants of the Myostatin gene have been shown to have an influence on muscle hypertrophy phenotypes in a wide range of mammalian species. Recently, a Thoroughbred horse with a C-Allele at the g.66493737C/T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been reported to be suited to short-distance racing. In this study, we examined the effect of the Myostatin SNP on muscle fiber properties in young Thoroughbred horses during a training period. To investigate the effect of the Myostatin SNP on muscle fiber before training, several mRNA expressions were relatively quantified in biopsy samples from the middle gluteal muscle of 27 untrained male Thoroughbred horses (1.5 years old) using real-time RT-PCR analysis. The remaining muscle samples were used for immunohistochemical analysis to determine the population and area of each fiber type. All measurements were revaluated in biopsy samples of the same horses after a 5-month period of conventional training. Although the expressions of Myostatin mRNA decreased in all SNP genotypes, a significant decrease was found in only the C/C genotype after training. While, expression of VEGFa, PGC1α, and SDHa mRNAs, which relate to the biogenesis of mitochondria and capillaries, was significantly higher (54-82%) in the T/T than the C/C genotypes after training. It is suggested that hypertrophy of muscle fiber is directly associated with a decrease in Myostatin mRNA expression in the C/C genotype, and that increased expressions of VEGFa, PGC1α, and SDHa in the T/T genotype might be indirectly caused by the Myostatin SNP.

  9. Downregulation of the S1P Transporter Spinster Homology Protein 2 (Spns2 Exerts an Anti-Fibrotic and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Blanchard

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sphingosine kinase (SK catalyses the formation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P, which acts as a key regulator of inflammatory and fibrotic reactions, mainly via S1P receptor activation. Here, we show that in the human renal proximal tubular epithelial cell line HK2, the profibrotic mediator transforming growth factor β (TGFβ induces SK-1 mRNA and protein expression, and in parallel, it also upregulates the expression of the fibrotic markers connective tissue growth factor (CTGF and fibronectin. Stable downregulation of SK-1 by RNAi resulted in the increased expression of CTGF, suggesting a suppressive effect of SK-1-derived intracellular S1P in the fibrotic process, which is lost when SK-1 is downregulated. In a further approach, the S1P transporter Spns2, which is known to export S1P and thereby reduces intracellular S1P levels, was stably downregulated in HK2 cells by RNAi. This treatment decreased TGFβ-induced CTGF and fibronectin expression, and it abolished the strong induction of the monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1 by the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNFα and interleukin (IL-1β. Moreover, it enhanced the expression of aquaporin 1, which is an important water channel that is expressed in the proximal tubules, and reverted aquaporin 1 downregulation induced by IL-1β/TNFα. On the other hand, overexpression of a Spns2-GFP construct increased S1P secretion and it resulted in enhanced TGFβ-induced CTGF expression. In summary, our data demonstrate that in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells, SK-1 downregulation accelerates an inflammatory and fibrotic reaction, whereas Spns2 downregulation has an opposite effect. We conclude that Spns2 represents a promising new target for the treatment of tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis.

  10. Effects of Ethanol Exposure during Distinct Periods of Brain Development on Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Christie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders occur when a mother drinks during pregnancy and can greatly influence synaptic plasticity and cognition in the offspring. In this study we determined whether there are periods during brain development that are more susceptible to the effects of ethanol exposure on hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In particular, we evaluated how the ability to elicit long-term potentiation (LTP in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG was affected in young adult rats that were exposed to ethanol during either the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd trimester equivalent. As expected, the effects of ethanol on young adult DG LTP were less severe when exposure was limited to a particular trimester equivalent when compared to exposure throughout gestation. In males, ethanol exposure during the 1st, 2nd or 3rd trimester equivalent did not significantly reduce LTP in the DG. In females, ethanol exposure during either the 1st or 2nd trimester equivalents did not impact LTP in early adulthood, but following exposure during the 3rd trimester equivalent alone, LTP was significantly increased in the female DG. These results further exemplify the disparate effects between the ability to elicit LTP in the male and female brain following perinatal ethanol exposure (PNEE.

  11. Studies on the Effect of Type and Solarization Period on Germination Percentage of Four Weed Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rostam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study the effects of soil solarization on weed control, an experiment with factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted in a fallow farm in Daregaz in 2008. Factors included solarization duration (0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks and soil moisture content (dry and moist. Soil seed bank was sampled (in two depth, 0-10 and 10-20 cm prior to the experiment and immediately after applying treatments, and germination percentage of weed species were determined. Results of this study showed that seed germination percentage in 10 cm soil depth was influenced by soil moisture and solarization and their interactions, while in 20 cm soil depth only solarization period affected the weed seed germination. Germination percentage in moist soil was less than that in dry soil. Seed germination percentage declined more by increasing solarization duration, so that the greatest decline was obtained after 6 weeks solarization. Solarization decreased germination percentage in moist soil more than that in dry soil. Overall, the results of this experiment indicated that solarization of moist soil for 6 weeks was the most effective treatment in controlling common lambsquatres (Chenopodium album, common purslane (Portulaca oleracea, redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus, and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis, while solarization of dry soil for 2 weeks was the least effective treatment for weed control. Keywords: Solarization, Soil moisture, Seed bank

  12. Life cycle replacement by gene introduction under an allee effect in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariai, Yukiko; Hayashi, Saki; Morita, Satoru; Umemura, Yoshitaka; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2011-04-06

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are divided into three species groups (-decim, -cassini, -decula) of similar but distinct morphology and behavior. Each group contains at least one species with a 17-year life cycle and one with a 13-year cycle; each species is most closely related to one with the other cycle. One explanation for the apparent polyphyly of 13- and 17-year life cycles is that populations switch between the two cycles. Using a numerical model, we test the general feasibility of life cycle switching by the introduction of alleles for one cycle into populations of the other cycle. Our results suggest that fitness reductions at low population densities of mating individuals (the Allee effect) could play a role in life cycle switching. In our model, if the 13-year cycle is genetically dominant, a 17-year cycle population will switch to a 13-year cycle given the introduction of a few 13-year cycle alleles under a moderate Allee effect. We also show that under a weak Allee effect, different year-classes ("broods") with 17-year life cycles can be generated. Remarkably, the outcomes of our models depend only on the dominance relationships of the cycle alleles, irrespective of any fitness advantages.

  13. Life cycle replacement by gene introduction under an allee effect in periodical cicadas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Nariai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp. in the USA are divided into three species groups (-decim, -cassini, -decula of similar but distinct morphology and behavior. Each group contains at least one species with a 17-year life cycle and one with a 13-year cycle; each species is most closely related to one with the other cycle. One explanation for the apparent polyphyly of 13- and 17-year life cycles is that populations switch between the two cycles. Using a numerical model, we test the general feasibility of life cycle switching by the introduction of alleles for one cycle into populations of the other cycle. Our results suggest that fitness reductions at low population densities of mating individuals (the Allee effect could play a role in life cycle switching. In our model, if the 13-year cycle is genetically dominant, a 17-year cycle population will switch to a 13-year cycle given the introduction of a few 13-year cycle alleles under a moderate Allee effect. We also show that under a weak Allee effect, different year-classes ("broods" with 17-year life cycles can be generated. Remarkably, the outcomes of our models depend only on the dominance relationships of the cycle alleles, irrespective of any fitness advantages.

  14. The proximate determinants of fertility and birth intervals in Egypt: An application of calendar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hinde

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use calendar data from the 2000 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey (DHS to assess the determinants of birth interval length among women who are in union. We make use of the well-known model of the proximate determinants of fertility, and take advantage of the fact that the DHS calendar data provide month-by-month data on contraceptive use, breastfeeding and post-partum amenorrhoea, which are the most important proximate determinants among women in union. One aim of the analysis is to see whether the calendar data are sufficiently detailed to account for all variation among individual women in birth interval duration, in that once they are controlled, the effect of background social, economic and cultural variables is not statistically significant. The results suggest that this is indeed the case, especially after a random effect term to account for the unobserved proximate determinants is included in the model. Birth intervals are determined mainly by the use of modern methods of contraception (the IUD being more effective than the pill. Breastfeeding and post-partum amenorrhoea both inhibit conception, and the effect of breastfeeding remains even after the period of amenorrhoea has ended.

  15. Dose--effect relationships for femoral fractures after multimodality limb-sparing therapy of soft-tissue sarcomas of the proximal lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Daniel; Vineberg, Karen A; Griffith, Kent A; Sabolch, Aaron; Chugh, Rashmi; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Biermann, Janet Sybil; Feng, Mary

    2012-07-15

    We investigated the clinical and dosimetric predictors for radiation-associated femoral fractures in patients with proximal lower extremity soft tissue sarcomas (STS). We examined 131 patients with proximal lower extremity STS who received limb-sparing surgery and external-beam radiation therapy between 1985 and 2006. Five (4%) patients sustained pathologic femoral fractures. Dosimetric analysis was limited to 4 fracture patients with full three-dimensional dose information, who were compared with 59 nonfracture patients. The mean doses and volumes of bone (V(d)) receiving specified doses (≥30 Gy, 45 Gy, 60 Gy) at the femoral body, femoral neck, intertrochanteric region, and subtrochanteric region were compared. Clinical predictive factors were also evaluated. Of 4 fracture patients in our dosimetric series, there were three femoral neck fractures with a mean dose of 57.6 ± 8.9 Gy, V30 of 14.5 ± 2.3 cc, V45 of 11.8 ± 1.1 cc, and V60 of 7.2 ± 2.2 cc at the femoral neck compared with 22.9 ± 20.8 Gy, 4.8 ± 5.6 cc, 2.5 ± 3.9 cc, and 0.8 ± 2.7 cc, respectively, for nonfracture patients (p fracture rate was higher than at the subtrochanteric region despite lower mean doses at these subregions. All fracture sites received mean doses greater than 40 Gy. Also, with our policy of prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing for high-risk patients, there was no significant difference in fracture rates between patients with and without periosteal excision. There were no significant differences in age, sex, tumor size, timing of radiation therapy, and use of chemotherapy between fracture and nonfracture patients. These dose-volume toxicity relationships provide RT optimization goals to guide future efforts for reducing pathologic fracture rates. Prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing may also reduce fracture risk for susceptible patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dose-Effect Relationships for Femoral Fractures After Multimodality Limb-Sparing Therapy of Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Proximal Lower Extremity

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    Pak, Daniel; Vineberg, Karen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Biostatistics Unit, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sabolch, Aaron [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chugh, Rashmi [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Biermann, Janet Sybil [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Feng, Mary, E-mail: maryfeng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: We investigated the clinical and dosimetric predictors for radiation-associated femoral fractures in patients with proximal lower extremity soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Methods and Materials: We examined 131 patients with proximal lower extremity STS who received limb-sparing surgery and external-beam radiation therapy between 1985 and 2006. Five (4%) patients sustained pathologic femoral fractures. Dosimetric analysis was limited to 4 fracture patients with full three-dimensional dose information, who were compared with 59 nonfracture patients. The mean doses and volumes of bone (V{sub d}) receiving specified doses ({>=}30 Gy, 45 Gy, 60 Gy) at the femoral body, femoral neck, intertrochanteric region, and subtrochanteric region were compared. Clinical predictive factors were also evaluated. Results: Of 4 fracture patients in our dosimetric series, there were three femoral neck fractures with a mean dose of 57.6 {+-} 8.9 Gy, V30 of 14.5 {+-} 2.3 cc, V45 of 11.8 {+-} 1.1 cc, and V60 of 7.2 {+-} 2.2 cc at the femoral neck compared with 22.9 {+-} 20.8 Gy, 4.8 {+-} 5.6 cc, 2.5 {+-} 3.9 cc, and 0.8 {+-} 2.7 cc, respectively, for nonfracture patients (p < 0.03 for all). The femoral neck fracture rate was higher than at the subtrochanteric region despite lower mean doses at these subregions. All fracture sites received mean doses greater than 40 Gy. Also, with our policy of prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing for high-risk patients, there was no significant difference in fracture rates between patients with and without periosteal excision. There were no significant differences in age, sex, tumor size, timing of radiation therapy, and use of chemotherapy between fracture and nonfracture patients. Conclusions: These dose-volume toxicity relationships provide RT optimization goals to guide future efforts for reducing pathologic fracture rates. Prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing may also reduce fracture risk for susceptible patients.

  17. Dose–Effect Relationships for Femoral Fractures After Multimodality Limb-Sparing Therapy of Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Proximal Lower Extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Daniel; Vineberg, Karen A.; Griffith, Kent A.; Sabolch, Aaron; Chugh, Rashmi; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Biermann, Janet Sybil; Feng, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated the clinical and dosimetric predictors for radiation-associated femoral fractures in patients with proximal lower extremity soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Methods and Materials: We examined 131 patients with proximal lower extremity STS who received limb-sparing surgery and external-beam radiation therapy between 1985 and 2006. Five (4%) patients sustained pathologic femoral fractures. Dosimetric analysis was limited to 4 fracture patients with full three-dimensional dose information, who were compared with 59 nonfracture patients. The mean doses and volumes of bone (V d ) receiving specified doses (≥30 Gy, 45 Gy, 60 Gy) at the femoral body, femoral neck, intertrochanteric region, and subtrochanteric region were compared. Clinical predictive factors were also evaluated. Results: Of 4 fracture patients in our dosimetric series, there were three femoral neck fractures with a mean dose of 57.6 ± 8.9 Gy, V30 of 14.5 ± 2.3 cc, V45 of 11.8 ± 1.1 cc, and V60 of 7.2 ± 2.2 cc at the femoral neck compared with 22.9 ± 20.8 Gy, 4.8 ± 5.6 cc, 2.5 ± 3.9 cc, and 0.8 ± 2.7 cc, respectively, for nonfracture patients (p < 0.03 for all). The femoral neck fracture rate was higher than at the subtrochanteric region despite lower mean doses at these subregions. All fracture sites received mean doses greater than 40 Gy. Also, with our policy of prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing for high-risk patients, there was no significant difference in fracture rates between patients with and without periosteal excision. There were no significant differences in age, sex, tumor size, timing of radiation therapy, and use of chemotherapy between fracture and nonfracture patients. Conclusions: These dose–volume toxicity relationships provide RT optimization goals to guide future efforts for reducing pathologic fracture rates. Prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing may also reduce fracture risk for susceptible patients.

  18. The effect of repeated periods of speed endurance training on performance, running economy, and muscle adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, C; Almquist, N W; Bangsbo, J

    2018-02-01

    The effect of repeated intense training interventions was investigated in eight trained male runners (maximum oxygen uptake [VO 2 -max]: 59.3±3.2 mL/kg/min, mean±SD) who performed 10 speed endurance training (SET; repeated 30-seconds "all-out" bouts) and 10 aerobic moderate-intensity training sessions during two 40-day periods (P1 and P2) separated by ~80 days of habitual training. Before and after both P1 and P2, subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO 2 -max and a repeated running test at 90% vVO 2 -max to exhaustion (RRT) to determine short-term endurance capacity. In addition, running economy (RE) was measured at 60% vVO 2 -max (11.9±0.5 km/h) and v10-km (14.3±0.9 km/h), a 10-km track-running test was performed, and a biopsy from m. vastus lateralis was collected. 10-km performance and VO 2 -max (mL/min) were the same prior to P1 and P2, whereas RE was better (P<.05) before P2 than before P1. During P1 and P2, 10-km performance (2.9% and 2.3%), VO 2 -max (2.1% and 2.6%), and RE (1.9% and 1.8% at 60% vVO 2 -max; 1.6% and 2.0% at v10-km) improved (P<.05) to the same extent, respectively. Performance in RRT was 20% better (P<.05) after compared to before P2, with no change in P1. No changes in muscle expression of Na + ,K + -ATPase α1, α2 and β1, NHE1, SERCA1 and SERCA2, actin, and CaMKII were found during neither P1 nor P2. Thus, the present study demonstrates that a second period of intense training leads to improved short-term performance and further improved RE, whereas 10-km performance and VO 2 -max improve to the same extent as during the first period. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effects of Warmness and Spatial Nonuniformity of the Plasma Waveguide on Periodic Absolute Parametric Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, N.G.; Bekheit, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The periodic absolute parametric instability (API) of the low-frequency oscillations excited by a monochromatic pumping field of arbitrary amplitude in a warm I-D nonuniform magneto active plasma is investigated. One can use the separation method to solve the two-fluid plasma equations which describe the system. The method used enables us to determine the frequencies and growth rates of unstable modes and the self-consistent electric field. Plasma electrons are considered to have a thermal velocity. One can examine different solutions for the spatial equation in the following cases: A) API in uniform Plasma B) API in nonuniform plasma, we study this case for two variants: B.1) Exact harmonic oscillator and B.2) Bounded harmonic oscillator (bounded plasma). Increment is found in the buildup of the oscillations, and it is shown that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts a stabilizing effect on the parametric instability. It is shown that the growth rate of API in warm plasma is reduced compared to cold plasma. It is found also that the warmness of the plasma has no effect on the solution of the space part of the problem ( only through the separation constant )

  20. Ideomotor compatibility in the psychological refractory period effect: 29 years of oversimplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Proctor, Robert W; Allen, Philip A

    2002-04-01

    Four experiments examined whether the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect can be eliminated with ideomotor compatible (IM) but not stimulus-response compatible (SR) tasks, as reported by A. G. Greenwald and H. G. Shulman (1973). Their tasks were used: a left or right movement to a left- or right-pointing arrow (IM) or to the word left or right (SR) for Task 1; saying "A" or "B" (IM) or "1" or "2" (SR) to an auditory A or B for Task 2. The stimulus onset asynchronies were 0, 100, 200, 300, 500, and 1,000 ms in Experiment 1, and only 0, 100, 200, and 1,000 ms in Experiments 2-4. The arrow was in the center of the screen in Experiments 1-3 and to the left or right in Experiment 4. As in Greenwald and Shulman's Experiment 2, the instructions stated that most often the 2 stimuli would be presented simultaneously. A PRP effect was obtained in all conditions, most likely because response-selection decisions are required even for IM tasks.

  1. Acute effect of different time periods of passive static stretching on the hamstring flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cini, Anelize; de Vasconcelos, Gabriela Souza; Lima, Claudia Silveira

    2017-01-01

    Several factors are associated with the presence of chronic low back pain; one of them is the flexibility of the hamstring muscles that influences the posture of the pelvic spine. Investigate the influence of two different time periods of passive static stretching on the flexibility of the hamstring. Forty-six physiotherapy students were divided into two groups performing stretching exercises: 30 s and 60 s duration. The collections consisted of: (1) pre-test: evaluation of the flexibility of the hip and knee, using a manual goniometer by means of the following tests: Straight Leg Raise Test (SLR), Passive Hip Flexion Test (PHFT) and Modified Knee Extension Test (MKET), (2) intervention: stretching with different runtimes, (3) post-test: reappraisal of flexibility, conducted immediately after the intervention. Significant difference was observed intra groups, group that did stretching exercises lasting 30 seconds (G30) (SLR p = 0.000. PHFT p = 0.003 and MKET p = 0.000) and group that did stretching exercises lasting 60 seconds (G60) (SLR p = 0.000. PHFT p = 0.001 and MKET p = 0.002). Comparing the groups, no significant difference was found (SLR p = 0.307; PHFT p = 0.904; MKET p = 0.132). Thus it can be inferred that 30 seconds are sufficient for increased flexibility of young women. Therefore the time-treatment sessions can be optimized. Only the acute effect of stretching was observed; further investigation of the long-term effect is required.

  2. Effects of warmness and spatial nonuniformity of plasma waveguide on periodic absolute parametric instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, N.G.; Bekheit, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    The periodic absolute parametric instability (API) of the low-frequency oscillations excited by a monochromatic pumping field of an arbitrary amplitude in a warm 1-D (one-dimensional) nonuniform magnetoactive plasma is investigated. The separation method can be used for solving the two-fluid plasma equations describing the system. By applying this method we were able to determine the frequencies and growth rates of unstable modes and the self-consistent electric field. Plasma electrons are considered to have a thermal velocity. Different solutions for the spatial equation can be obtained the following cases: A) API in a uniform plasma, B) API in a nonuniform plasma. The latter has been studied here for two cases: B.1) the exact harmonic oscillator and B.2) the bounded harmonic oscillator (a bounded plasma). An increment has been found in the build-up of the oscillations, and it has been shown that the spatial nonuniformity of the plasma exerts the stabilizing effect on the parametric instability. A reduced growth rate of API in the warm plasma, in comparison to the cold plasma, is reported. It has also been found that the warmness of the plasma has no effect on the solution of the space part of the problem (only through the separation constant). (authors)

  3. Effect of Different Interrepetition Rest Periods on Barbell Velocity Loss During the Ballistic Bench Press Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Padial, Paulino; Haff, G Gregory; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; García-Ramos, Miguel; Conde-Pipó, Javier; Feriche, Belén

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of introducing different interrepetition rest (IRR) periods on the ability to sustain maximum bench press throw velocity with a range of loads commonly used to develop upper-body power. Thirty-four physically active collegiate men (age: 21.5 ± 2.8 years; body mass: 75.2 ± 7.2 kg; height: 176.9 ± 4.9 cm) were tested during 2 consecutive weeks. During the first week, the maximum dynamic strength (repetition maximum [RM]) in bench press exercise was determined (RM = 76.7 ± 13.2 kg). The following week, 3 testing sessions were conducted with 48 hours apart in random order. In each day of evaluation, only 1 load (30%RM, 40%RM, or 50%RM) was assessed in the bench press throw exercise. With each load, subjects performed 3 single sets of 15 repetitions (15-minute interset rest) with 3 different sets configurations: continuous repetitions (CR), 6 seconds of IRR (IRR6), and 12 seconds of IRR (IRR12). The decrease of peak velocity (PV) was significantly lower for IRR12 compared with CR and IRR6 at least since the repetition 4. No differences between CR and IRR6 protocols were found until the repetition 7 at 30%RM and 40%RM and until the repetition 5 at 50%RM. The decrease of PV during the CR protocol was virtually linear for the 3 loads analyzed (r > 0.99); however, this linear relationship became weaker for IRR6 (r = 0.79-0.95) and IRR12 (r = 0.35-0.87). These results demonstrate that IRR periods allow increasing the number of repetitions before the onset of significant velocity losses.

  4. Effect of the first night shift period on sleep in young nurse students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietze, Ingo; Knoop, Karsten; Glos, Martin; Holzhausen, Martin; Peter, Jan Giso; Penzel, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    In young hospital nurses being exposed to a night shift work schedule for the first time in their occupational life, sleep quality is investigated quantitatively. A main sleep period and supplementary sleep periods were defined and analyzed to investigate sleep behavior and quality. A total of 30 young nurses (26 women, 4 men), mean age 20.2 +/- 2.1 years participated. A 3 week nursing school period was followed by a 3 week work period with a 3-5 night shift sub-period and recovery days. Sleep-wake behavior was assessed with an actigraph, sleep diaries, Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), and quality of life was assessed with a standard questionnaire (SF-36). Comparing the school period with the work shift period when excluding recovery days after night shift period significant increase of total sleep time within 24 h was found during the work days (ANOVA P night shift sub-period, there was just a small decline of the main sleep period at day (n.s.) which was not compensated by supplementary sleep episodes. The supplementary sleep during work day varied between 11 min (school period) and 18 min after recovery days from night shift (n.s.). Young healthy nurses tolerate the first night shift exposure very well, according to objective and subjective parameters related to quality of sleep. An increased sleep need during work days lead to longer total sleep time, but do not lead to longer supplementary sleep episodes. Young nurses tolerate the first rotating shift period and the first night shift period very well.

  5. Effects of industrial canning on the proximate composition, bioactive compounds contents and nutritional profile of two Spanish common dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrosa, Mercedes M; Cuadrado, Carmen; Burbano, Carmen; Muzquiz, Mercedes; Cabellos, Blanca; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Asensio-Vegas, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the changes produced by canning in the proximate composition and in the bioactive constituents of two "ready to eat" Spanish beans. The foremost difference in the raw beans corresponded to the lectin: a higher content was found in raw Curruquilla beans (16.50 mg 100 mg(-1)) compared with raw Almonga beans (0.6 mg 100 mg(-1)). In general, industrial canning significantly increased the protein (>7%) and dietary fibre (>5%) contents of both beans varieties. However, the minerals, total α-galactosides and inositol phosphates contents were reduced (>25%) in both canned seeds. The trypsin inhibitors content was almost abolished by canning, and no lectins were found in either of the canned samples. Canned Curruquilla showed a decrease (38%) of their antioxidant activity. These "ready to eat" beans exhibited adequate nutritive profiles according to the USDA dietary recommendations. Furthermore, they had bioactive components content that are suitable for establishing a healthy lifestyle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of proximity to a cattle feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens and evaluation of the potential for airborne transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E; Bono, James L; Woodbury, Bryan L; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Norman, Keri N; Suslow, Trevor V; López-Velasco, Gabriela; Millner, Patricia D

    2015-02-01

    The impact of proximity to a beef cattle feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens was examined. In each of 2 years, leafy greens were planted in nine plots located 60, 120, and 180 m from a cattle feedlot (3 plots at each distance). Leafy greens (270) and feedlot manure samples (100) were collected six different times from June to September in each year. Both E. coli O157:H7 and total E. coli bacteria were recovered from leafy greens at all plot distances. E. coli O157:H7 was recovered from 3.5% of leafy green samples per plot at 60 m, which was higher (P green field distance guidelines of 120 m (400 feet) may not be adequate to limit the transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to produce crops planted near concentrated animal feeding operations. Additional research is needed to determine safe set-back distances between cattle feedlots and crop production that will reduce fresh produce contamination. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Phonon structure in proximity tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate, H.G.; Carbotte, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    We have iterated to convergence, for the first time, a set of four coupled real axis Eliashberg equations for the superconducting gap and renormalization functions on each side of a proximity sandwich. We find that the phenomenological procedures developed to extract the size of the normal side electron-phonon interaction from tunneling data are often reasonable but may in some cases need modifications. In all the cases considered the superconducting phonon structure reflected on the normal side, as well as other structures, shows considerable agreement with experiment as to size, shape, and variation with barrier transmission coefficient. Finally, we study the effects of depairing on these structures

  8. A population-based longitudinal study of suicide risk in male schizophrenia patients: Proximity to hospital discharge and the moderating effect of premorbid IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Mark; Kapra, Ori; Werbeloff, Nomi; Goldberg, Shira; Fenchel, Daphna; Reichenberg, Abraham; Yoffe, Rinat; Ginat, Keren; Fruchter, Eyal; Davidson, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death in schizophrenia. Identifying factors which increase the risk of suicide among schizophrenia patients might help focus prevention efforts. This study examined risk of suicide in male schizophrenia patients using population-based data, examining the timing of suicide in relation to the last hospital discharge, and the effect of premorbid IQ on risk of suicide. Data on 930,000 male adolescents from the Israeli military draft board were linked with data from the Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry and vital statistics from the Israeli Ministry of Health. The relationship between premorbid IQ and risk for suicide was examined among 2881 males hospitalized with schizophrenia and compared to a control group of 566,726 males from the same cohort, who were not hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder, using survival analysis methods. Over a mean follow-up period of 9.9 years (SD=5.8, range: 0-22 years), 77/3806 males with schizophrenia died by suicide (a suicide rate of 204.4 per 100,000 person-years). Approximately 48% of the suicides occurred within a year of discharge from the last hospital admission for schizophrenia. Risk of suicide was higher in male schizophrenia patients with high premorbid IQ (HR=4.45, 95% CI=1.37-14.43) compared to those with normal premorbid IQ. These data indicate that male schizophrenia patients with high premorbid IQ are at particularly high risk of suicide, and the time of peak risk is during the first year after the last hospitalization discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An Effective Method of Introducing the Periodic Table as a Crossword Puzzle at the High School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joag, Sushama D.

    2014-01-01

    A simple method to introduce the modern periodic table of elements at the high school level as a game of solving a crossword puzzle is presented here. A survey to test the effectiveness of this new method relative to the conventional method, involving use of a wall-mounted chart of the periodic table, was conducted on a convenience sample. This…

  10. Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Jorjong, S.; Fievez, V.; Kemp, B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period

  11. Existence and stability of periodic solutions for a delayed prey-predator model with diffusion effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Existence and stability of spatially periodic solutions for a delay prey-predator diffusion system are concerned in this work. We obtain that the system can generate the spatially nonhomogeneous periodic solutions when the diffusive rates are suitably small. This result demonstrates that the diffusion plays an important role on deriving the complex spatiotemporal dynamics. Meanwhile, the stability of the spatially periodic solutions is also studied. Finally, in order to verify our theoretical results, some numerical simulations are also included.

  12. Effect of radiation on gestation periods in dams of Segment III beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angleton, G.M.; Lee, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    The lengths of the gestation periods for bitches whose offspring were potentially assignable to Segment III of the Long-Term Study were not affected by radiation exposure (P = .998). Other factors were found to significantly correlate with the duration of the gestation periods, including the length of the first gestation period (P < .001), size of first litter (P = .175), the average environmental temperature during pregnancy (P = .055) and the size of the second litter

  13. Effect of 16-hour duty periods on patient care and resident education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Christopher P; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Loftus, Conor G; McDonald, Furman S; Oxentenko, Amy S

    2011-03-01

    To measure the effect of duty periods no longer than 16 hours on patient care and resident education. As part of our Educational Innovations Project, we piloted a novel resident schedule for an inpatient service that eliminated shifts longer than 16 hours without increased staffing or decreased patient admissions on 2 gastroenterology services from August 29 to November 27, 2009. Patient care variables were obtained through medical record review. Resident well-being and educational variables were collected by weekly surveys, end of rotation evaluations, and an electronic card-swipe system. Patient care metrics, including 30-day mortality, 30-day readmission rate, and length of stay, were unchanged for the 196 patient care episodes in the 5-week intervention month compared with the 274 episodes in the 8 weeks of control months. However, residents felt less prepared to manage cross-cover of patients (P = .006). There was a nonsignificant trend toward decreased perception of quality of education and balance of personal and professional life during the intervention month. Residents reported working fewer weekly hours overall during the intervention (64.3 vs 68.9 hours; P = .40), but they had significantly more episodes with fewer than 10 hours off between shifts (24 vs 2 episodes; P = .004). Inpatient hospital services can be staffed with residents working shifts less than 16 hours without additional residents. However, cross-cover of care, quality of education, and time off between shifts may be adversely affected.

  14. Effects of exposure to radiation during the fetal period on behavior and growth in baby mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, I; Kameyama, Y [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1979-03-01

    In order to study the effects of exposure to a small dose of radiation during the fetal period upon behavior and growth, 2 groups of 13-day-old fetal mice were irradiated. One group consisted of 18 fetal mice given 25 R and the other of 15 given 100 R. The control group consisted of 18 fetal mice 13 days old. After birth they were all placed in the center of an open area (50 x 50 x 25 cm) for 3 minutes so as to determine the number of squares traversed ad lib. (the number which their extremities traversed for 3 minutes) and the time day when they began walking and grooming. After they were observed for 3 minutes, the time at which reflex actions such as speedy righting and auditory startle were observed was confirmed. There were no differnces between the 25 R-irradiated group and the control group. In the 100 R-irradiated group, walking was observed earlier than in the control group, and the number of squares traversed increased.

  15. Effects of exposure to radiation during the fetal period on behavior and growth in baby mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Ichiro; Kameyama, Yoshiro

    1979-01-01

    In order to study the effects of exposure to a small dose of radiation during the fetal period upon behavior and growth, 2 groups of 13-day-old fetal mice were irradiated. One group consisted of 18 fetal mice given 25 R and the other of 15 given 100 R. The control group consisted of 18 fetal mice 13 days old. After birth they were all placed in the center of an open area (50 x 50 x 25 cm) for 3 minutes so as to determine the number of squares traversed ad lib. (the number which their extremities traversed for 3 minutes) and the time day when they began walking and grooming. After they were observed for 3 minutes, the time at which reflex actions such as speedy righting and auditory startle were observed was confirmed. There were no differnces between the 25 R-irradiated group and the control group. In the 100 R-irradiated group, walking was observed earlier than in the control group, and the number of squares traversed increased. (Ichikawa, K.)

  16. Effect of additional brief counselling after periodic health examination on motivation for health behavior change [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ki Young; Lee, Cheol Min; Cho, BeLong; Lym, Youl Lee; Oh, Seung Won; Chung, Wonjoo; Lee, Jin-Seok; Park, DuShin; Kim, Han Suk

    2012-11-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of additional brief counseling by a primary care physician on lifestyle modification of examinees after a periodic health examination. 1,000 participants of the 2007 Korean national health screening program were asked to note any variation in their health behavior after participating in the screening program. The degree of comprehensive motivation for lifestyle modification was assessed in terms of stages of health behavior change. We calculated odds ratio of positive change (enhanced stage of change) with multiple logistic regression analysis and age-adjusted proportion of positive changers. Of 989 respondents, 486 and 503 received the basic and additional programs, respectively. Additional group were more likely to be positive changer than basic group (adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.19-2.65), and this was more prominent in older age group (adjusted OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.23-4.58). The age-adjusted proportions of positive changers were 22.7% (95% CI, 17.9-28.3) and 36.2% (95% CI, 30.4-42.4) in the basic and additional groups, respectively (P behavior change after the health examination. Thus, such a consultation should be considered when designing a health-screening program.

  17. Effects of doping on spin correlations in the periodic Anderson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonca, J.; Gubernatis, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the effects of hole doping on spin correlations in the two-dimensional periodic Anderson model, mainly at the full and three-quarters-full lower bands cases. In the full lower band case, strong antiferromagnetic correlations develop when the on-site repulsive interaction strength U becomes comparable to the quasiparticle bandwidth. In the three-quarters full case, a kind of spin correlation develops that is consistent with the resonance between a (π,0) and a (0,π) spin-density wave. In this state the spins on different sublattices appear uncorrelated. Hole doping away from the completely full case rapidly destroys the long-range antiferromagnetic correlations, in a manner reminiscent of the destruction of antiferromagnetism in the Hubbard model. In contrast to the Hubbard model, the doping does not shift the peak in the magnetic structure factor from the (π,π) position. At dopings intermediate to the full and three-quarters full cases, only weak spin correlations exist. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  18. Ratchet Effects, Negative Mobility, and Phase Locking for Skyrmions on Periodic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, Charles; Ray, Dipanjan; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia

    We examine the dynamics of skyrmions interacting with 1D and 2D periodic substrates in the presence of dc and ac drives. We find that the Magnus term strongly affects the skyrmion dynamics and that new kinds of phenomena can occur which are absent for overdamped ac and dc driven particles interacting with similar substrates. We show that it is possible to realize a Magnus induced ratchet for skyrmions interacting with an asymmetric potential, where the application of an ac drive can produce quantized dc motion of the skyrmions even when the ac force is perpendicular to the substrate asymmetry direction. For symmetric substrates it is also possible to achieve a negative mobility effect where the net skyrmion motion runs counter to an applied dc drive. Here, as a function of increasing dc drive, the velocity-force curves show a series of locking phases that have different features from the classic Shapiro steps found in overdamped systems. In the phase locking and ratcheting states, the skyrmions undergo intricate 2D orbits induced by the Magnus term.

  19. Strong gravity effects of rotating black holes: quasi-periodic oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, Alikram N; Esmer, Göksel Daylan; Talazan, Pamir

    2013-01-01

    We explore strong gravity effects of the geodesic motion in the spacetime of rotating black holes in general relativity and braneworld gravity. We focus on the description of the motion in terms of three fundamental frequencies: the orbital frequency, the radial and vertical epicyclic frequencies. For a Kerr black hole, we perform a detailed numerical analysis of these frequencies at the innermost stable circular orbits and beyond them as well as at the characteristic stable orbits, at which the radial epicyclic frequency attains its highest value. We find that the values of the epicyclic frequencies for a class of stable orbits exhibit good qualitative agreement with the observed frequencies of the twin peaks quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in some black hole binaries. We also find that at the characteristic stable circular orbits, where the radial (or the vertical) epicyclic frequency has maxima, the vertical and radial epicyclic frequencies exhibit an approximate 2:1 ratio even in the case of near-extreme rotation of the black hole. Next, we perform a similar analysis of the fundamental frequencies for a rotating braneworld black hole and argue that the existence of such a black hole with a negative tidal charge, whose angular momentum exceeds the Kerr bound in general relativity, does not confront with the observations of high-frequency QPOs. (paper)

  20. Protective effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide in perioperative period during open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbin; Li, Yong; Bao, Weiguo; Qiu, Shi

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects and safety aspects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) on cardiac functions of patients undergoing open-heart surgery during perioperative period. In total, 150 patients undergoing open heart surgery in the Second Hospital of Shandong Universty from August 2015 to July 2016 were randomly divided into control group and observation group each with 75 cases. Patients in control group were treated by routine rehabilitation while patients in the observation group were treated by both the routine rehabilitation and rhBNP. All the observations were made before operation, after operation and 7 days after operation. The changes of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) of patients, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac function [Cardiac output (CO), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PAWP) and central venous pressure (CVP)] of patients were measured. Further, respirator support time, ICU stay time, incidence of complications and vital signs (BP, HR, SaO2) of patients in the two groups were also compared. NT-proBNP levels of all patients improved after operation but it decreased in both groups after 7 days of operation. The decrease of NT-proBNP levels in observation group was significantly higher than that of control group. Whereas, LVEF, CO, PAWP and CVP of patients in both the groups increased after operation but effects were significantly higher in the observation group after 7 days of medication. Respirator support time and ICU stay time of patients in observation group were significantly shorter than those in control group, and the incidence of postoperative complications of patients in the observation group were significantly lower than the control group. Moreover, BP, HR and SaO2 of patients in observation group were significantly elevated in comparison to control group (Popen heart surgery, and is safe as well as reliable.

  1. Restless Legs Syndrome and Depression: Effect Mediation by Disturbed Sleep and Periodic Limb Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Brian B; Blackwell, Terri; Lee, Hochang B; Stone, Katie L; Louis, Elan D; Redline, Susan

    2016-11-01

    To investigate an association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and depression and to what extent sleep disturbance, periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS), and antidepressant medication mediate this relationship. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Older Men Study data in 982 men assessed for RLS (International RLS Study Group scale [IRLSS]) and depression (Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS]), who underwent actigraphy (for sleep latency/efficiency) and polysomnography (for PLMS). Men were split into three groups: no RLS (N = 815), mild RLS (IRLSS ≤ 12, N = 85), moderate-to-severe RLS (IRLSS > 12, N = 82). Depression was defined as GDS score ≥ 6. Logistic and linear regression assessed associations of RLS and depression or number depressive symptoms, respectively. Models were adjusted for age, site, race, education, body mass index, personal habits, benzodiazepine/dopaminergic medication, physical activity, cardiovascular risk factors, and apnea-hypopnea index. Of 982 men, 167 (17.0%) had RLS. Depression was significantly associated with moderate-to-severe RLS after adjustment (versus no RLS: OR [95% CI] 2.85 [1.23, 6.64]). Further adjustment for potential mediators attenuated effect size modestly, most for sleep efficiency (OR: 2.85-2.55). Compared with no RLS, moderate-to-severe RLS was associated with the number of depressive symptoms after adjustment (adjusted means [95% CI]; no RLS: 1.14 [1.05, 1.24] versus IRLSS > 12: 1.69 [1.32, 2.11]). Further adjustment for potential mediators did not alter effect size. For men with PLMS index at least median, number of depressive symptoms significantly increased as RLS category became more severe. Depression is more common as RLS severity worsens. The RLS-depression relationship is modestly explained by sleep disturbance and PLMS. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Reproductive health of bass in the Potomac, U.S.A., drainage: part 1. Exploring the effects of proximity to wastewater treatment plant discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R; Blazer, Vicki S; Guy, Christopher P; Pinkney, Alfred E; Mullican, John E; Alvarez, David A

    2009-05-01

    Intersex (specifically, testicular oocytes) has been observed in male smallmouth bass (SMB; Micropterus dolomieu) and other centrarchids in the South Branch of the Potomac River, U.S.A., and forks of the Shenandoah River, U.S.A., during the past five years. This condition often is associated with exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in some fish species, but such chemicals and their sources have yet to be identified in the Potomac. In an attempt to better understand the plausible causes of this condition, we investigated the reproductive health of bass sampled up- and downstream of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent point sources on the Potomac River in Maryland, U.S.A. Smallmouth bass were sampled from the Conococheague Creek and the Monocacy River, and largemouth bass (LMB; Micropterus salmoides) were collected near the Blue Plains WWTP on the mainstem of the Potomac River. Chemical analyses of compounds captured in passive samplers at these locations also were conducted. A high prevalence of intersex (82-100%) was identified in male SMB at all sites regardless of collection area. A lower prevalence of intersex (23%) was identified in male LMB collected at the Blue Plains site. When up- and downstream fish were compared, significant differences were noted only in fish from the Conococheague. Differences included condition factor, gonadosomatic index, plasma vitellogenin concentration, and estrogen to testosterone ratio. In general, chemicals associated with wastewater effluent, storm-water runoff, and agriculture were more prevalent at the downstream sampling sites. An exception was atrazine and its associated metabolites, which were present in greater concentrations at the upstream sites. It appears that proximity to effluent from WWTPs may influence the reproductive health of bass in the Potomac watershed, but inputs from other sources likely contribute to the widespread, high incidence of testicular oocytes.

  3. Revised predictions of long-period ocean tidal effects on Earth's rotation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, S. R.; Nam, Young S.

    1995-01-01

    The rotational response of Earth to long-period tidal forces, embodied in a 'zonal response function,' can be expected to vary with frequency because of variable contributions by the oceans, mantle, and core. The zonal response function has been estimated from 9 years of International Radio Interferometric Surveying (IRIS) universal time (UT1) data and compared with theoretical predictions, using a spherical harmonic tide model to compute the oceans' dynamic response, at semiannual, monthly, fortnightly, and 9-day lunisolar tidal frequencies. Different amounts of mantle anelasticity have been considered for both the oceanic and soild earth responses; predictions have been made assuming axial core-mantle coupling which is either complete or absent. Additionally, an extensive recalibration of the ocean model's frictional parameters was performed using constraints derived in part from Space92 polar motion data; zonal response function predictions have also been made employing this recalibrated ocean tide model. Our results indicate that any amount of core coupling can be ruled out at a fortnightly period and probably at a 9-day period, but not at a monthly period. Our results also suggest that the mantle responds purely elastically at a 9-day period but may behave increasingly anelastically at longer periods. A simple dispersive rule is postulated for periods ranging up to the 14-month Chandler wobble period.

  4. Effect of periodic melting on geochemical and isotopic signals in an ice core from Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohjola, V.A.; Moore, J.C.; Isaksson, E.; Jauhiainen, T.; Wal, R.S.W. van de; Martma, T.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Vaikmäe, R.

    2002-01-01

    [1] We examine the quality of atmospherically deposited ion and isotope signals in an ice core taken from a periodically melting ice field, Lomonosovfonna in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The aim is to determine the degree to which the signals are altered by periodic melting of the ice. We use

  5. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied

  6. The effect of extended periodic inspection of passenger cars and vans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Ninette; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    The purpose of this note is to perform a calculation of the costs and benefits of extended period-ic inspection of passenger cars and vans in Denmark, provided that the first inspection of pas-senger cars and vans is performed after four years, then one inspection after two years and thereafter...

  7. Serial intravascular ultrasound analysis of peri-stent remodeling and proximal and distal edge effects after sirolimus-eluting or paclitaxel-eluting stent implantation in patients with diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Maeng, Michael; Mintz, Gary S

    2009-01-01

    Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of in-stent restenosis after coronary stent implantation. Serial intravascular ultrasound was used to study chronic arterial responses and edge effects after implantation of Cypher (Cordis, Johnson & Johnson, Miami Lakes, Florida) or Taxus (Boston......-up. The increase in peri-stent external elastic membrane (EEM) volume was more pronounced in the Taxus group (292.4 +/- 132.6 to 309.5 +/- 146.8 mm(3)) than in the Cypher group (274.4 +/- 137.2 to 275.4 +/- 140.1 mm(3); p = 0.005). Peri-stent plaque volume increased in the Taxus group (152.5 +/- 73.7 to 166.......1 +/- 85.1 mm(3)), but was unchanged in the Cypher group (153.5 +/- 75.5 to 151.5 +/- 75.8 mm(3); p = 0.002). In proximal and distal reference segments, mean lumen area decreased within the entire 5-mm edge segment (proximal and distal) because of plaque progression (distal, 5.5 +/- 3.6 to 5.8 +/- 3.7 mm(2...

  8. Effect of paraelectrode processes on contraction of space charge in periodic-pulse lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arytyunyan, R. V.; Baranov, V. Yu.; Borisov, V. M.; Vinokhodov, A. Yu.; Kiryukhin, Yu. B.

    1986-05-01

    A characteristic feature of periodic-pulse electric-discharge CO2-lasers and excimer lasers is contraction of the space charge as the pulse repetition rate increases. The emission energy per pulse decreases as a consequence, with the average laser power first ceasing to increase linearly beyond a certain corner repetition rate and then decreasing beyond a certain critical repetition rate. A study of this phenomenon was made, for the purpose of separating the effect of paracathode processes from the effect of gas dynamics and then evaluating the effect of the former alone. Paraelectrode perturbations were simulated by focusing the radiation from the an XeCl-laser on the cathode surface in an atmosphere of nonabsorbing gases. Laser pulses of up to approximately 0.5 J energy and of approximately 50 ns duration were focused within a spot of 1 mm(2) area on a cathode inside a discharge chamber, with the power density of incident radiation regulated by means of an attenuator. A space charge within a volume of 2.5x4.5x9 cm(3) was generated between this specially shaped cathode and a mesh anode with an approximately 50% optical transmission coefficient. The space charge in helium and in neon was photographed, and the time lag of a discharge pulse behind a contracting laser pulse was measured as a function of the laser pulse energy for these two gases, as well as for a He+C12 gas mixture. The general trend was found to be the same in each case, the time lag increasing with increasing energy first at a slower rate up to a critical energy level and then faster. It has been established that plasma does not build up on the cathode before the laser pulse energy reaches 30 mJ (for a 3 mm(2) surface area), while plasma glow begins as the laser pulse energy reaches 150 mJ. A contracted channel begins to form within the laser-cathode interaction space, with an attendant fast increase of the time lag owing to evaporation of the cathode metal.

  9. Proximal sensing for soil carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Jacqueline R.; Viscarra Rossel, Raphael A.

    2018-05-01

    Maintaining or increasing soil organic carbon (C) is vital for securing food production and for mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, climate change, and land degradation. Some land management practices in cropping, grazing, horticultural, and mixed farming systems can be used to increase organic C in soil, but to assess their effectiveness, we need accurate and cost-efficient methods for measuring and monitoring the change. To determine the stock of organic C in soil, one requires measurements of soil organic C concentration, bulk density, and gravel content, but using conventional laboratory-based analytical methods is expensive. Our aim here is to review the current state of proximal sensing for the development of new soil C accounting methods for emissions reporting and in emissions reduction schemes. We evaluated sensing techniques in terms of their rapidity, cost, accuracy, safety, readiness, and their state of development. The most suitable method for measuring soil organic C concentrations appears to be visible-near-infrared (vis-NIR) spectroscopy and, for bulk density, active gamma-ray attenuation. Sensors for measuring gravel have not been developed, but an interim solution with rapid wet sieving and automated measurement appears useful. Field-deployable, multi-sensor systems are needed for cost-efficient soil C accounting. Proximal sensing can be used for soil organic C accounting, but the methods need to be standardized and procedural guidelines need to be developed to ensure proficient measurement and accurate reporting and verification. These are particularly important if the schemes use financial incentives for landholders to adopt management practices to sequester soil organic C. We list and discuss requirements for developing new soil C accounting methods based on proximal sensing, including requirements for recording, verification, and auditing.

  10. Enhancing Endogenous Nitric Oxide by Whole Body Periodic Acceleration Elicits Neuroprotective Effects in Dystrophic Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose R; Uryash, A; Kolster, J; Estève, E; Zhang, R; Adams, J A

    2018-03-26

    We have previously shown that inadequate dystrophin in cortical neurons in mdx mice is associated with age-dependent dyshomeostasis of resting intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and Na + ([Na + ] i ), elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, increase in neuronal damage and cognitive deficit. In this study, we assessed the potential therapeutic properties of the whole body periodic acceleration (pGz) to ameliorate the pathology observed in cortical neurons from the mdx mouse. pGz adds small pulses to the circulation, thereby increasing pulsatile shear stress to the vascular endothelium, which in turn increases production of nitric oxide (NO). We found [Ca 2+ ] i and [Na + ] i overload along with reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in mdx neurons and cognitive dysfunction. mdx neurons showed increased activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, and calpain as well as decreased cell viability. mdx neurons were more susceptible to hypoxia-reoxygenation injury than WT. pGz ameliorated the [Ca 2+ ] i , and [Na + ] i elevation and ROS overproduction and further increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced the malondialdehyde and calpains. pGz diminished cell damage and elevated [Ca 2+ ] i during hypoxia-reoxygenation and improved cognitive function in mdx mice. Moreover, pGz upregulated the expression of utrophin, dystroglycan-β and CAPON, constitutive nitric oxide synthases, prosaposin, brain-derived neurotrophic, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factors. The present study demonstrated that pGz is an effective therapeutic approach to improve mdx neurons function, including cognitive functions.

  11. Effective pollination period in "Oblačinska" sour cherry clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotirić-Akšić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain high yields there should be high flower density and fruit set in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. production. Furthermore, in order to ensure successful fertilization, there should be satisfactory stigma receptivity, rapid pollen tube growth along the style, as well as adequate ovule longevity. This manuscript presents the study of the effective pollination period (EPP of four ‘Oblačinska’ sour cherry clones (II/2, III/9, XI/3 and XIII/1 that differs in pollen germination, fruit set and yields. In order to estimate EPP, pollination was conducted in six different stages of flower development: balloon stage, 2 d before anthesis (-2, at anthesis (0, and 2, 4, 6 and 8 d after anthеsis (DAA. The initial (IFS and final fruit set (FFS were recorded under the field conditions. Alongside with this, the rate of pollen tubes growth in the style was observed with fluorescent microscopy. The experimental design was completely randomized, a two-factorial analysis of variance was carried out and individual testing was performed using LSD test (p ≤ 0.05; p ≤ 0.01. The experiment was set in triplicates. Regarding FFS, clones II/2 and III/9 showed the best results (p ≤ 0.01 in 4 and 6 DAA. The number of pollen tubes in the style of the pistil decreased with subsequent terms of pollination, while its number in the ovule increased up to sixth day after pollination, followed by a decline. Clones II/2 and III/9 showed EPP which lasted from 6 to 8 d, while EPP found in clone XI/3, lasted only 2 d. It is concluded that only clone having long EPP should be used as parents for creating new sour cherry cultivars. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063 and FP7 Project AREA 316004

  12. Energy metabolism of thoracic surgical patients in the early postoperative period. Effect of posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandi, L S; Bertolini, R; Janni, A; Gioia, A; Angeletti, C A

    1996-03-01

    To determine the effect of elective thoracic surgery on energy metabolism and gas exchange and to evaluate whether the 30-degree sitting position would affect these variables. Prospective, unblinded, controlled study. Surgical ICU in a university hospital. Twenty-two adult patients undergoing elective pulmonary resection. Posture change from supine to 30-degree sitting position. Oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), respiratory quotient (RQ), and energy expenditure (EE) were measured by means of computerized indirect calorimetry before and after surgery. Heart rate and respiratory frequency were measured continuously during gas exchange measurement. Blood gases were analyzed with an automated blood gas analyzer. Preoperatively, altering position did not affect energy metabolism, gas exchange, and cardiopulmonary variables. Postoperatively, the measured EE was 116% of the expected value. Mean EE and VO2 values for each position were higher than the preoperative values for the corresponding postures (pMean percent increases in EE, VO2, and VCO2 were significantly lower in the 30-degree sitting position than in the supine position (EE: 7.9+/-2.7% vs 14.4+/-2.3%; pexchange for each position were worse than the preoperative values for the corresponding postures (pMean arterial pressure, heart rate, and respiratory frequency for each position were higher than the preoperative values for the corresponding postures (pmean values of these variables occurred between the two positions postoperatively. The early postoperative period of patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery is characterized by a condition of impaired gas exchange and by a hypermetabolic state. Hypermetabolism can be partly mitigated by assuming the 30-degree sitting position.

  13. Effect of lavender scent inhalation on prevention of stress, anxiety and depression in the postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kianpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression are the most common problems among women in their childbearing age. Research has shown that aromatherapy administered during labor reduces anxiety in mothers. With regard to the specific biological conditions in postpartum period and the subsequent drop in hormone levels, this study investigated the effect of lavender on prevention of stress, anxiety, and postpartum depression in women. Materials and Methods: In a clinical trial, 140 women admitted to the obstetric and gynecological unit were randomly divided into aromatherapy and non-aromatherapy groups immediately after delivery. Intervention with aromatherapy consisted of inhaling three drops of lavender essential oil every 8 h with for 4 weeks. The control group received routine care after discharge and was followed up by telephone only. After 2 weeks, 1 and 3 months of delivery, women were assessed by the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale and the Edinburgh stress, anxiety, and depression scale in the two groups. Data analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and post hoc tests. Level of significance was set as 0.05 for all tests. Results: The results showed that the mean stress, anxiety, and depression at time point of 2 weeks (P = 0.012, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.003, respectively and stress, anxiety, and depression scores at time points of 1 month (P < 0.0001 and 3 months after delivery (P < 0.0001 were significantly lower in the study group compared with the control group. Conclusions: Inhaling the scent of lavender for 4 weeks can prevent stress, anxiety, and depression after childbirth.

  14. Childhood leukemia and residential proximity to industrial and urban sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Pérez, Javier; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Morales-Piga, Antonio; Pardo Romaguera, Elena; Tamayo, Ibon; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. Objectives: To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released. Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject’s residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables. Results: Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5 km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03–1.67) – particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49–3.92), surface treatment using organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24–2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07–3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22–2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22–2.15) – , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02–1.80). Conclusions: Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia. - Highlights: • We studied proximity to both industrial and urban sites on childhood leukemia. • We conducted a case–control study in

  15. Childhood leukemia and residential proximity to industrial and urban sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Pérez, Javier, E-mail: jgarcia@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); López-Abente, Gonzalo, E-mail: glabente@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Gómez-Barroso, Diana, E-mail: dgomez@externos.isciii.es [CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Morales-Piga, Antonio, E-mail: amorales@isciii.es [Rare Disease Research Institute (IIER), Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Consortium for Biomedical Research in Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Madrid (Spain); Pardo Romaguera, Elena, E-mail: elena.pardo@uv.es [Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors (RETI-SEHOP), University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Tamayo, Ibon, E-mail: ibontama@gmail.com [Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, BIODonostia Research Institute, Department of Health of the Regional Government of the Basque Country, Donostia (Spain); Fernández-Navarro, Pablo, E-mail: pfernandezn@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); and others

    2015-07-15

    Background: Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. Objectives: To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released. Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject’s residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables. Results: Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5 km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03–1.67) – particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49–3.92), surface treatment using organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24–2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07–3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22–2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22–2.15) – , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02–1.80). Conclusions: Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia. - Highlights: • We studied proximity to both industrial and urban sites on childhood leukemia. • We conducted a case–control study in

  16. Effect of Loss on Slow-light-enhanced Second Harmonic Generation in Periodic Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saravi, Sina; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Setzpfandt, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We analyze, analytically and through nonlinear simulations, the dependence of SHG efficiency on the group index in lossy periodic structures, and find that the optimal efficiency is reached for finite values of the group index....

  17. Effect of lunar periodicity on the abundance of crabs from the Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A; Ansari, Z.A; Ingole, B.S.; Sreepada, R.A; Kanti, A; Parulekar, A

    Lunar periodicity showed a significant influence on the occurrence of edible crabs (@iPortunus pelagicus, Charybdis cruciata and Portunus sanguinolentus@@). High density of these crabs was recorded in the trawl catches during full moon and new moon...

  18. Intermittent suckling during an extended lactation period: Effects on piglet behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkeveld, M.; Langendijk, P.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Koets, A.P.; Verheijden, J.H.M.; Taverne, M.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to determine how intermittent suckling (IS) affects nursing behavior, litter activity, and general behavioral patterns during lactation, and whether IS during an extended lactation period results in behavioral patterns associated with piglet distress.

  19. Age, period and cohort effects on first-child fertility in Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Keiding, Niels; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    Demographic studies of fertility are most often based solely on information about women, leaving out characteristics of men. Thereby valuable information may be lost. The present note intends to explore the potential of the classical age-period-cohort model for describing male first-child fertility...... patterns. The model was fitted to fertility data on Danish men aged 15 to 49 years in the calendar period from 1960 to 1994. We found the classical age-period-cohodt model to be an appropriate model for describing male first-child fertility patterns in Denmark. Fluctuations in age-specific male first-child...... fertility rates over period were found,  with a nadir in the mid-1980s. Furthermore, age-specific first-child fertility rates were found to be lower in men from younger cirth cohorts than in men from older birth cohorts....

  20. [The effect of breast massage at different time in the early period after cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J Y; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y J; Yang, M J; Li, X W; Sun, L L

    2017-11-06

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of breast massage at different time in the early period on maternal lactation after cesarean section. Methods: 80 women delivered by cesarean section were randomly selected from maternity ward of a hospital in Shandong province during Jan. 2013 to Jan. 2015; which were divided into four groups, with 20 patients in each. Three groups received 3 times of breast massage every 24 hoursbeginning from 2, 12 and 24 h after cesarean section, respectively. The control group didn't receive any breast massage. The starting time and status of lactation were observed and recorded after cesarean section. 5 ml venous blood sample was drawn from each patient respectively at 2 h before cesarean, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after cesarean to test the level of serum prolactin. The lactation status of each group was compared. Results: The P (50) ( P (25)- P (75)) of starting time of lactation of the three massage groups and control group were 3 (2-6) h, 4 (2-8) h, 4 (3-12) h and 4 (2-12) h, respectively, whose differences showed no statistical significance ( H =3.32, P= 0.345).The number of delivered women with adequate lactation 24 hours after cesarean was 10 in the group who received massage beginning from 2 h after cesarean; while the number was only 2 in the control group. The number of delivered women with adequate lactation 48 hours after cesarean was 18 in the group who received massage beginning from 2 h after cesarean; while the number was 8 in the control group. The differences showed statistical significances ( P values were 0.021 and 0.008, respectively). The serum prolactin level in the group of delivered women who received massage from 2 h after cesarean was separately (195.9±78.5), (176.0±96.5), (216.4±110.0), (190.0±56.8) and (184.8±69.6) μg/L at 2, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after cesarean, which were significantly higher than those in the control group (which were (128.8±40.6), (127.3±66.8), (162.2±58.8), (145.1±64.7) and (141.7±49