WorldWideScience

Sample records for period middle ages

  1. FORMATION OF THE PRECONDITIONS FOR THE EMERGENCE OF GENDER PSYCHOLOGY IN MIDDLE AGES PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Olegovna Mokhova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to analyze the main ideas of the Medieval Period authors in Europe and in Russia, in terms of identifying the most important theses of this historical period for the formation and development of the ideas of gender psychology. It is being considered the role of Christianity and the emergence of the women's education issue in the formation of gender stereotypes. In this article the Middle Ages period is being considered as a separate historical phase for the basic ideas formation in the gender psychology, which is a new approach to the history of gender science. To estimate medieval texts - European and Russian, the method of qualitative content analysis is used, by means of which the most relevant to the period ideas associated with the sexes are identified. For Europe, it inter-sexual features, for Russia - different behavioral requirements of the society associated with sexes. Conclusions contain ideas of the Middle Ages in Europe and in Russia that are relevant to the development and establishment of gender psychology. In Europe: the continuation of the ancient thesis of the initial androgyny of a human being; impact of the woman's education on her ability for development; consideration of sexuality as sinful; the issue of women's emancipation, the declining value of the large numerous families despite of a ban on interference in the reproductive cycle in the middle of the Medieval period. In Russia: the perception of inter-sexual characteristics as defined by the God; unconditional obedience of a woman to her husband; androgyny in the distribution of the farmers’ responsibilities.Objective: To analyze the main ideas of the authors of the Middle Ages in Europe and in Russia, in terms of identifying the significant theses of this historical period for the formation and development of the ideas of the gender psychology.Method of the research work: A qualitative content analysis of the texts by the authors

  2. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    and their quality was improved considerably toward the end of this period. The profound cultural innovations of the Middle Helladic period were initially interpreted as a result of violent population movement and troubles provoked by the coming of the first Indo-European races. However, this matter does no more...... Helladic period is considered as a period of economic and social decline it was the time during which the mainland features merged with the insular influence, that is all the Aegean elements which led to the creation of the Mycenaean civilization were mixed in a creative way....

  3. The role of plants in the economy of Tell Arbid, north-east Syria, in the Post-Akkadian Period and Middle Bronze Age

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    Wasylikowa Krystyna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological fieldwork carried out at the Tell Arbid site in north-eastern Syria exposed settlement remains dating from the early 3rd millennium BC to the mid 2nd millennium BC. Recent excavations in Sector P, on the eastern slope of the site, revealed the existence of a significant occupation of the Post-Akkadian/ Early Jazirah V period and of levels dated to the Early and Classic Khabur Ware/Old Jazirah/Middle Bronze Age I-II periods. Cereal remains were dominated by grains and ear fragments of hulled two-rowed barley Hordeum distichon. Less numerous were wheats represented by emmer Triticum dicoccon, einkorn T. monococcum, and macaroni wheat T. durum. The presence of bread wheat T. aestivum and six-rowed barley Hordeum vulgare could not be excluded. The two periods contained similar sets of cereals, but in the Post-Akkadian Period the percentage of hulled wheat remains was higher, while in the Middle Bronze Age (particularly in its younger phase naked wheat slightly exceeded hulled wheats. Legumes were represented by only very few seeds of lentil Lens culinaris and bitter vetch Vicia ervilia. Diaspores of wild plants were very abundant, particularly those from the families of grasses and legumes. The considerable number of ear and culm fragments probably belonging to cereals as well as numerous seeds/fruits of wild plants suggests that the plant remains originated from fodder or animal dung or belonged to threshing waste. The presence of grass stems with nodes indicated that cereals were reaped low on the straw; occasional use of uprooting was suggested by the occurrence of basal culm fragments with traces of rootlets.

  4. A Comparision of the Effect of Sugammadex on the Recovery Period and Postoperative Residual Block in Young Elderly and Middle-Aged Elderly Patients

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    Emine Yazar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The importance of the characteristics of anesthesia and postoperative residual curarization (PORC in the elderly population should be a growing concern in this century. Aims: To investigate the effect of sugammadex on the duration of the recovery from neuromuscular blocking agents and postoperative residual curarization in the young elderly and middle-aged elderly patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, followed by a train of four (TOF watch monitorization. Study Design: Prospective clinical trial study. Methods: Sixty patients over the age of 65 with American Society of Anesthesiologists I-III were divided into two groups according to their age (65-74 years old and ≥75 years old. Patients received sugammadex (2.0 mg/kg iv at the reappearance of the second twitch of the TOF as an agent for reversal of neuromuscular blockage at the end of surgery. Patients were extubated at the time of TOF ≥0.9. The patients’ TOF responses were evaluated with regards to PORC in at the 5th minute and were followed up for one hour in the recovery room. Reintubation was applied for those patients who developed PORC and had peripheric oxygen saturation <90% despite being given 6 L oxygen per min with a face mask. Results: The onset time of neuromuscular blocking agent and time from T2 to achieve TOF ratio 90% (the duration of sugammadex effect or over were found to be longer in the middle-aged elderly group than in the young elderly group. A statistically significant relationship was found between age and the duration of TOF ratio to reach 0.9 in the same direction. The PORC incidence and rate of reintubation were found to be 1.7% in all patients. Conclusion: In our opinion, it is necessary to remember that the duration of sugammadex effect on the recovery period is prolonged for patients who are aged ≥75 years compared to patients aged between 65-74 years. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ACTRN12615000758505

  5. Travel, leisure, boredom and the Middle Ages

    OpenAIRE

    Jović, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this analysis deals with the concepts of travel, leisure and boredom, with emphasis on the medieval period. What was travel to a man of the Middle Ages, and was there any place in his life for leisure, and especially boredom? Either in opposition to each other or one inside the other, homo faber, homo viator and homo ludens coexist. Entering the medieval imaginarium, we inevitably enter a sphere of three layers of societal stratification (oratores, laboratores, bellatores). The...

  6. Fatherhood and Men's Lives at Middle Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggebeen, David J.; Dew, Jeffrey; Knoester, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This article uses data on 2,024 men who were followed through the third wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the implications of fatherhood experiences for men's involvement in altruistic social activities at middle age. We find that middle-aged men (ages 45-65) who at some point in their lives become fathers are…

  7. [Comparative ophthalmology in the Middle Ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, M; Norn, O

    2001-01-01

    Descriptions of animal eyes in the Middle Ages in the learned work Physiologus from the 4th century, based on Aristoteles, Plutarc, the Bible etc. are commented on. The modern biologist is horrified, the historian understands the ethical - religious aspects behind the edifying stories concerning the lion, gazelle, eagle, snake, lizard, swallow etc. Medical science and theology were not separated in the Middle Ages.

  8. Exploring the Middle Ages with the Medieval Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Joseph D.

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates how medieval maps provide a means for studying the Middle Ages by allowing students to explore the ideology and representations of the medieval world conveyed by the maps. Explains that students also can compare the maps with literature from the same time period to further analyze the representations of the culture. (CMK)

  9. Empathic accuracy: age differences from adolescence into middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Ute; Wieck, Cornelia; Dietzel, Cathrin

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated age differences in empathic accuracy, the ability to correctly perceive others' emotions, in a sample of 151 boys and men from three age groups: adolescents (M age  = 16 years, SD = 1.04), young adults (M age  = 29 years, SD = 2.78), and middle-aged adults (M age  = 50 years, SD = 3.07). All participants viewed nine newly developed film clips, each depicting a boy or a man reliving one of three emotions (anger, sadness, or happiness), while talking about an autobiographical memory. Adolescents and middle-aged men were less accurate than young men, and these age differences were associated with parallel age differences in fluid-mechanical abilities. In addition, age differences in vocabulary, one indicator of crystallized-pragmatic intelligence, were associated with age differences in empathic accuracy in adolescent and young, but not middle-aged, men. Within the limitations of cross-sectional data, this study provides evidence for the idea that empathic accuracy is an effortful task that requires cognitive resources and, thus, may show a normative increase until young adulthood followed by periods of stability and decline in subsequent decades.

  10. Forms of corruption in the middle ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Nataša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper continues the story of corruption as a socially harmful phenomenon that affected all societies, from ancient times, through mediaeval times, to modern age. Although the concept of corruption changed in the course of history, the essence has remained the same: it encompasses the abuse of power, corruption, bribery, and offering gratuities in exchange for favors. We shall here focus on the manifestations of corruption in the Middle Ages, the period which coincided with the feudal socio-economic formation, both in its western European variety and in the Byzantine type of feudal society. In the twelfth century, the Byzantine emperors introduced the practice of granting property in land or some other source of income - pronoia - to prominent individuals as a reward for their merits. In contrast, what could be observed from the very beginning in barbarian countries, which were established in the territory of the former Western Roman Empire, were the classic vassal relations, where a fief presented the foundation of the medieval social order; it was land property which the feudal lord (suzerain granted to his vassals (military commanders and units to enjoy, manage, but not control independently. By giving land property - a pronoia or fief to a pronoiario or vassal, the feudal lord (suzerain, in a way, 'bought' their personal loyalty. Particularly conductive to corruption was the hierarchically arranged and ramified bureaucratic apparatus of the mediaeval state. Although the Byzantine highest-ranking bureaucracy was paid for their work, their arbitrariness, bribery, coarseness, and incompetence resulted in strengthening corruption. On the other hand, the greatest influence on the kings in the barbaric mediaeval states was exerted by their commanders (dukes and entourage, who often selfishly abused the benefits bestowed upon them by the kings. Polybius' statement that 'the government has made people prone to bribery and greedy' proved to be

  11. Passagens de Antiguidade Romana ao Ocidente Medieval: leituras historiográficas de um período limítrofe Passages from Roman Antiquity to the Middle Ages: historiographic lectures of a transition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José D'Assunção Barros

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca examinar algumas interpretações e perspectivas sob as quais se pode ou tem sido examinada a questão da passagem da Antiguidade Greco-Romana para a Civilização Medieval no ocidente europeu, atentando para as oscilações historiográficas produzidas nestas perspectivas em decorrência de mutações teóricas e metodológicas oriundas dos campos históricos surgidos com as novas tendências do século XX. São discutidas aqui não apenas as teses que têm norteado a compreensão sobre o fim do Império Romano do Ocidente, como também as flutuações entre as demarcações no período de transição que conduz do mundo antigo ao mundo medieval.This article aims to examine some interpretations and perspectives which can be or have been examined with regards to the question of the transition period from Greco-Roman Antiquity to the civilizations of the Middle Ages within Western Europe. It also tries to show the historiographic oscillations produced in these perspectives in consequence of the theoretical and methodological changes in the historiographic fields arising from the new tendencies of the 20th century. The discussion at hand covers not only the theses which have guided the understanding of the end of the Western Roman Empire, but also deals with the fluctuations among the limits in the transition period that leads from antiquity to the medieval world.

  12. Listening Comprehension in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Mitchell S

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this summary is to examine changes in listening comprehension across the adult lifespan and to identify factors associated with individual differences in listening comprehension. In this article, the author reports on both cross-sectional and longitudinal changes in listening comprehension. Despite significant declines in both sensory and cognitive abilities, listening comprehension remains relatively unchanged in middle-aged listeners (between the ages of 40 and 60 years) compared with young listeners. These results are discussed with respect to possible compensatory factors that maintain listening comprehension despite impaired hearing and reduced cognitive capacities.

  13. Periodicity in Age-Resolved Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esipov, Sergei

    We discuss the interplay between the non-linear diffusion and age-resolved population dynamics. Depending on the age properties of collective migration the system may exhibit continuous joint expansion of all ages or continuous expansion with age segregation. Between these two obvious limiting regimes there is an interesting window of periodic expansion, which has been previously used by us in modeling bacterial colonies of Proteus mirabilis. In order to test whether the age-dependent collective migration leads to periodicity in other systems we performed a Fourier analysis of historical data on ethnic expansions and found multiple co-existing periods of activity.

  14. Law and Learning in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume contains papers presented at the conference on "Law and Learning in the Middle Ages" held at the Carlsberg Academy in Copenhagen in May 2005. Here, a group of European and American scholars give their contribution to the examination of the theological and legal schooling...... that the 'creators' of the laws received at the major centres of learning in Europe, and address a number of important questions concerning the creation and development of legal professions and the dynamics between legal practice and theoretical, learned approaches to jurisprudence. Contributors to this volume...

  15. Genetic and Environmental Architecture of Changes in Episodic Memory from Middle to Late Middle Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzon, Matthew S.; Neale, Michael C.; Docherty, Anna R.; Franz, Carol E.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Toomey, Rosemary; Xian, Hong; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Rana, Brinda K.; McKenzie, Ruth M.; Lyons, Michael J.; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory is a complex construct at both the phenotypic and genetic level. Ample evidence supports age-related cognitive stability and change being accounted for by general and domain-specific factors. We hypothesized that general and specific factors would underlie change even within this single cognitive domain. We examined six measures from three episodic memory tests in a narrow age cohort at middle and late middle age. The factor structure was invariant across occasions. At both timepoints two of three test-specific factors (story recall, design recall) had significant genetic influences independent of the general memory factor. Phenotypic stability was moderate to high, and primarily accounted for by genetic influences, except for one test-specific factor (list learning). Mean change over time was nonsignificant for one test-level factor; one declined; one improved. The results highlight the phenotypic and genetic complexity of memory and memory change, and shed light on an understudied period of life. PMID:25938244

  16. The period-age relation for cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, Yu.N.

    1978-01-01

    The list of 119 cepheid-members of 55 clusters and associations of the Magellanic Clouds, the Galaxy, and M31 is given. The period-age relation is found from the data on 64 cepheids in 29 clusters for which the age determinations are available, the ages of extragalactic clusters were determined mainly from their integral colours. The U-B colours are found to be of much better age parameters than the B-V ones. The composite period-age relation agrees well with the theoretical one. The observed dispersion of the period-age relation leads to an estimate of the age dispersion about 1x10 7 years in the associations. Some peculiarities of the cepheids with the shortest periods amongst others in the same clusters are probably explained if they are overtone pulsators. The period-age relation may be used for an investigation of the recent history of star formation in the galaxies. This relation allows to determine the age gradient across the spiral arm in M31 which is in agreement with the density wave theory predictions. The distribution of cepheids in our Galaxy and neighbouring galaxies is consistent with the conception of star formation lasting for some dozen million years in cells with a dimension of some hundreds of parsecs

  17. Prevalence of eating disorders in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W; Rupp, Claudia I; Lackner-Seifert, Kerstin; Frey, Nadja; Whitworth, Alexandra B; Pope, Harrison G; Kinzl, Johann

    2014-04-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) in middle-aged women. We mailed anonymous questionnaires to 1,500 Austrian women aged 40-60 years, assessing ED (defined by DSM-IV), subthreshold ED, body image, and quality of life. We broadly defined "subthreshold ED" by the presence of either (1) binge eating with loss of control or (2) purging behavior, without requiring any of the other usual DSM-IV criteria for frequency or severity of these symptoms. Of the 715 (48%) responders, 33 [4.6%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.3-6.4%] reported symptoms meeting full DSM-IV criteria for an ED [bulimia nervosa = 10; binge eating disorder = 11; eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) = 12]. None displayed anorexia nervosa. Another 34 women (4.8%; CI: 3.4-6.6%) displayed subthreshold ED. These women showed levels of associated psychopathology virtually equal to the women with full-syndrome diagnoses. ED appear common in middle-aged women, with a preponderance of binge eating disorder and EDNOS diagnoses as compared to the "classical" diagnoses of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Interestingly, middle-aged women with even very broadly defined subthreshold ED showed distress and impairment comparable to women with full-scale ED. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The history and illustration of anatomy in the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Williams, Susan A; Cavdar, Safiye

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the influence of key figures on the pictorial representation of anatomy and the evolution of anatomical illustration during the Middle Ages until the time of the Renaissance, based on medical history books, journals and ancient medical books. During the early period in the Middle Ages, most illustrations were traditional drawings of emblematic nature, oftentimes unrealistic, not only because the precise knowledge of anatomy was lacking but also because the objective was to elucidate certain principles for teaching purposes. Five figure-series that came down to us through ancient manuscripts and textbooks represent the best examples of such traditional illustrations. With the advent of human dissection in the 13th and 14th centuries, a significant transformation in the depiction of anatomy began to project the practice of human dissection, as we see in the works of Mondino de Luzzi, Henri de Mondeville and Guido de Vigevano. After the invention of book printing in the second half of the 15th century, the reproduction of books was commonly practised and the woodcut made multiplication of pictures easier. Peter of Abano, Hieronymous Brunschwig, Johannes de Ketham, Johannes Peyligk, Gregory Reisch, Magnus Hundt, Laurentius Phryesen and many more included several anatomical illustrations in their treatises that demonstrated the development of anatomical illustration during the later Middle Ages.

  19. New age constraints on the Middle Stone Age occupations of Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer R; Hawkins, Alicia L; Asmerom, Yemane; Polyak, Victor; Giegengack, Robert

    2007-06-01

    Spring-deposited carbonate rocks, or tufas, exposed along the flanks of the Libyan Plateau near Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt, can provide a directly datable stratigraphic context for Middle Stone Age/Middle Paleolithic (MSA/MP) archaeological material, if such material can be found in situ within tufa strata. Two such localities (Mata'na Site G and Bulaq Wadi 3 Locus 1) described by Caton-Thompson were revisited and sampled for uranium-series analysis. At Mata'na Site G (KH/MT-02), Middle Stone Age ("Upper Levalloisian") material is underlain by tufa with a uranium-series age of 127.9+/-1.3 ka, and overlain by tufa with an age of 103+/-14 ka. At Bulaq Wadi 3 Locus 1, a uranium-series age of 114.4+/-4.2 ka on tufa capping a small collection of Middle Stone Age artifacts also provides a minimum age constraint on that material. Tufa underlying an MSA workshop (KH/MD-10) indicates that this assemblage, characterized by use of several Levallois reduction methods, was deposited after approximately 124 ka. Furthermore, uranium-series ages averaging approximately 133 ka on a Wadi Midauwara tufa (WME-10) without associated archaeological material suggest that one period of spring flow in the region began during the Marine Isotope Stage 6/5e transition, prior to the warmest portion of the last interglacial period. The dated archaeological material suggests that the distinction that has been identified between Nubian and non-Nubian complexes in the Nile Valley may hold for the Western Desert, although local complexity has yet to be fully described.

  20. Interreligious transfers in the Middle Ages: the case of astrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Stuckrad, K.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the discipline of astrology as an example of manifold interreligious contacts and transfers in the Middle Ages. Over against an image of the Middle Ages as being predominantly Christian and striving to violently suppress science, philosophy, and astrology, it is shown that in

  1. Middle-Age Gender Differences in Emotional Adjustments to Career ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined middle-age gender differences in career challenges and emotional intelligence and its counselling implications. The study aimed at sensitizing the development of adult counselling programme for the middle-age persons. Survey design was adopted to obtain samples (800) from a large population of ...

  2. Survival Outlook for Middle-Aged Populations in South Mrica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-10-12

    Oct 12, 1974 ... death at middle-age and beyond, reduces rather than in- creases ... mate longevity of populations may be genetically pro- ...... concluded that 'the characteristic life span of man and .... Ageing: The Biology of Senescence.

  3. The middle ear immune defense changes with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    of this study was to analyze the relationship between age and the mucosal immune system in the middle ear. It is hypothesized that genes involved in the middle ear immune system will change with age. A comprehensive assessment of these genetic differences using the techniques of complementary DNA has not been...... performed. Complementary DNA microarray technology was used to identify immune-related genes differentially expressed between the normal middle ear mucosa of young (10 days old) and adult rats (80 days old). Data were analyzed using tools of bioinformatics. A total of 260 age-related genes were identified...

  4. Nuclear age in the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiftah, S

    1976-01-01

    The book analyses, clarifies and summarises, from various aspects, some of the many questions concerning the motivation, the meaning, the economics, the dangers and the risks of introducing nuclear technology into the Middle East area following the recent agreements between some Mid Eastern countries and the United States, France, Germany and the U.S.S.R. about the supply of nuclear power reactors and nuclear fuel to the Middle East. The recent strong nuclear prgrams of countries such as India and Iran, who have wide-ranging ties with the Mid-Eastern countries, coupled with the huge revenues of petrodollars by the Arab countries of the area, together with the dangers of another 1973-type oil embargo are discussed and the triple crises of energy, ecology and nuclear weapons proliferation are considered.

  5. The nuclear age in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiftah, Shimon.

    1976-01-01

    The book analyses, clarifies and summarises, from various aspects, some of the many questions concerning the motivation, the meaning, the economics, the dangers and the risks of introducing nuclear technology into the Middle East area following the recent agreements between some Mid Eastern countries and the United States, France, Germany and the U.S.S.R. about the supply of nuclear power reactors and nuclear fuel to the Middle East. The recent strong nuclear prgrams of countries such as India and Iran, who have wide-ranging ties with the Mid-Eastern countries, coupled with the huge revenues of petrodollars by the Arab countries of the area, together with the dangers of another 1973-type oil embargo are discussed and the triple crises of energy, ecology and nuclear weapons proliferation are considered. (B.G.)

  6. Glazunov: From the middle ages, Op.79 / Nancy Malitz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Malitz, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Glazunov: From the middle ages, Op.79, Scenes de ballet, Op.52; Liadov: A musical snuffbox, Op.31. Scottish National Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos CD cassette ABTD 1432; CD CHAN 8804"

  7. [Life Experience following Suicide Attempt among Middle-aged Men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Eun Young; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to identify the meaning of life experience following suicide attempt among middle-aged men. A qualitative research design was adopted using van Manen's hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The participants were six middle-aged men who had attempted suicide at least one time. Data were collected in 2013 through in-depth interviews. Individual interviews were recorded; and literary, art works and phenomenological literature were searched to identify the meaning of the experience. The five essential themes of the life experience of middle-aged men who attempted suicide were 'Bitter reality confronted again', 'Anger buried deep inside', 'Broken family, inescapable fetters', 'Blocked relationships, closed world' and 'A step towards a new life'. The meaning of lived experience found in this study provides deep insight into the experience following suicide attempt in middle-aged men and crucial information to give directions to appropriate support and nursing interventions.

  8. The Middle School Concept Meets the Age of Assessments: How One Middle School Has Adapted to the New Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, Allen H.; Watts, Cherry

    2011-01-01

    The Middle School Concept brings together good teaching practices with the unique needs of pre-adolescent students. Since the passing of the NCLB, more and more attention has been generated on the results of high stakes testing. The question of what happens to the middle school concept when it confronts the demands of this new age of testing is…

  9. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction in middle-aged patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, T.; Monk, T.; Rasmussen, L.S.; Abildstrom, H.; Houx, P.J.; Korttila, K.; Kuipers, H.M.; Hanning, C.D.; Siersma, V.D.; Kristensen, D.; Canet, J.; Ibanaz, M.T.; Moller, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after noncardiac surgery is strongly associated with increasing age in elderly patients; middle-aged patients (aged 40-60 yr) may be expected to have a lower incidence, although subjective complaints are frequent. Methods: The authors compared

  10. Middle-Range Theory: Coping and Adaptation with Active Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Barajas, Martha Elba; Salazar-González, Bertha Cecilia; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther Carlota

    2017-10-01

    Various disciplines focus on a multiplicity of aspects of aging: lifestyles, personal biological factors, psychological conditions, health conditions, physical environment, and social and economic factors. The aforementioned are all related to the determinants of active aging. The aim is to describe the development of a middle-range theory based on coping and adaptation with active aging. Concepts and relationships derived from Roy's model of adaptation are included. The proposed concepts are hope, health habits, coping with aging, social relations, and active aging.

  11. Frequency of Dental Caries in Four Historical Populations from the Chalcolithic to the Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M. Grimoud

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of dental carie studies over the course of historical period underline mainly the prevalence evolution, the role of carbohydrates consumption and the impact of access to dietary resources. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare population samples from two archaeological periods the Chacolithic and Middle Age taking into account the geographical and socio economical situation. The study concerned four archaelogical sites in south west France and population samples an inlander for the Chalcolithic Age, an inlander, an costal and urban for the Middle Age. The materials studied included a total of 127 maxillaries, 103 mandibles and 3316 teeth. Data recorded allowed us to display that the Chalcolithic population sample had the lowest carie percentage and the rural inlander population samples of Middle Age the highest; in all cases molars were teeth most often affected. These ones differences could be explained according to time period, carious lesions were usually less recorded in the Chalcolithic Age than the Middle because of a lesser cultivation of cereals like in les Treilles Chacolithic population sample. In the Middle Age population samples, the rural inland sample Marsan showed the highest frequency of caries and ate more cereal than the coastal Vilarnau and the poor urban St Michel population samples, the first one ate fish and Mediterranean vegetal and fruits and the second one met difficulties to food access, in both cases the consumption of carbohydrates was lesser than Marsan population sample who lived in a geographical land convice to cereals cultivation.

  12. Incentive relativity in middle aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M; Ruetti, E

    2014-01-24

    Response to a reinforcer is affected by prior experience with different reward values of that reward, a phenomenon known as incentive relativity. Two different procedures to study this phenomenon are the incentive downshift (ID) and the consummatory anticipatory negative contrast (cANC), the former is an emotional-cognitive protocol and the latter cognitive one. Aged rodents, as also well described in aged humans, exhibit alterations in cognitive functions. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of age in the incentive' assessment using these two procedures. The results indicated that aged rats had an adequate assessment of the rewards but their performance is not completely comparable to that of young subjects. They recover faster from the ID and they had a cognitive impairment in the cANC. The results are discussed in relation to age-related changes in memory and emotion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of growth dynamics of human cranium middle fossa in foetal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomra, Andrzej; Kędzia, Alicja; Dudek, Krzysztof; Bogacz, Wiesław

    2014-01-01

    Available literature analysis demonstrated smallness of studies of cranial base. The goal of the study was to analyse the medial fossa of the human cranium in the foetal period against other fossae. Survey material consisted of 110 human foetuses at a morphological age of 16-28 weeks of foetal life, CRL 98-220 mm. Anthropological, preparation method, reverse method and statistical analysis were utilized. The survey incorporated the following computer programmes: Renishaw, TraceSurf, AutoCAD, CATIA. The reverse method seems especially interesting (impression with polysiloxane (silicone elastomer of high adhesive power used in dentistry) with 18 D 4823 activator. Elicited impression accurately reflected complex shape of cranium base. On assessing the relative rate of cranium medial fossa, the rate was found to be stable (linear model) for the whole of the analysed period and is 0.19%/week, which stands for the gradual and steady growth of the middle fossa in relation to the whole of the cranium base. At the same time, from the 16th till 28th week of foetal life, relative volume of the cranium middle fossa increases more intensively than cranium anterior fossa, whereas the cranium middle fossa volume as compared with the cranium posterior fossa is definitely slower. In the analysed period, the growth rate of the cranium base middle fossa was bigger in the 4th and 5th weeks than in the 6th and 7th weeks of foetal life. The investigations revealed cranium base asymmetry of the left side. Furthermore, the anterior fossae volume on the left side is significantly bigger than the one of the fossae on the right side. Volume growth rate is more intensive in the 4th and 5th than in the 6th and 7th weeks of foetal life. In the examined period, the relative growth rate of cranium base middle fossa is 0.19%/week and it is stable - linear model. The study revealed correlations in the form of mathematical models, which enabled foetuses age assessment.

  14. Prevalence of eating disorders in middle-aged women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.; Rupp, Claudia I.; Lackner-Seifert, Kerstin; Frey, Nadja; Whitworth, Alexandra B.; Pope, Harrison G.; Kinzl, Johann

    Objective: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders (ED) in middle-aged women. Method: We mailed anonymous questionnaires to 1,500 Austrian women aged 40-60 years, assessing ED (defined by DSM-IV), subthreshold ED, body image, and quality of life. We broadly defined

  15. [Reliability and validity of marital love scale in middle- aged and elderly couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuko; Sagara, Junko

    2012-08-01

    A marital love scale was created to study the marital quality of middle-aged and elderly couples, and the scale's reliability and validity were examined. In this study, 888 middle-aged and elderly married participants completed the marital love scale questionnaire as well as answering questions regarding marriage satisfaction and husband-wife communication. In all age groups, men scored higher than women on the marital love scale. The marital love score gradually increased from the middle-aged to the senior period, and like the marriage satisfaction score, the marital love score showed a U-shaped curve in the whole married life. The results also showed that the scale was highly correlated with marriage satisfaction and spousal self-disclosure. Thus, the validity and internal consistency of the marital love scale were confirmed.

  16. Distracted driving in elderly and middle-aged drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Johnson, Amy M; Emerson, Jamie L; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Boer, Erwin R; Rizzo, Matthew

    2012-03-01

    Automobile driving is a safety-critical real-world example of multitasking. A variety of roadway and in-vehicle distracter tasks create information processing loads that compete for the neural resources needed to drive safely. Drivers with mind and brain aging may be particularly susceptible to distraction due to waning cognitive resources and control over attention. This study examined distracted driving performance in an instrumented vehicle (IV) in 86 elderly (mean=72.5 years, SD=5.0 years) and 51 middle-aged drivers (mean=53.7 years, SD=9.3 year) under a concurrent auditory-verbal processing load created by the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). Compared to baseline (no-task) driving performance, distraction was associated with reduced steering control in both groups, with middle-aged drivers showing a greater increase in steering variability. The elderly drove slower and showed decreased speed variability during distraction compared to middle-aged drivers. They also tended to "freeze up", spending significantly more time holding the gas pedal steady, another tactic that may mitigate time pressured integration and control of information, thereby freeing mental resources to maintain situation awareness. While 39% of elderly and 43% of middle-aged drivers committed significantly more driving safety errors during distraction, 28% and 18%, respectively, actually improved, compatible with allocation of attention resources to safety critical tasks under a cognitive load. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term prognostic significance of homocysteine in middle-aged and elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Julie Falkenberg; Larsen, Bjørn Strøjer; Sabbah, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association among increased levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular events. METHODS: Hcy was measured in 670 middle-aged and elderly subjects with no previous manifest cardiovascular disease. The follow-up period was 15 years...

  18. Age effects in the human middle ear: Wideband acoustical measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, M. Patrick; Sanford, Chris A.

    2004-12-01

    Studies that have examined age effects in the human middle ear using either admittance measures at 220 or 660 Hz or multifrequency tympanometry from 200 to 2000 Hz have had conflicting results. Several studies have suggested an increase in admittance with age, while several others have suggested a decrease in admittance with age. A third group of studies found no significant age effect. This study examined 226 Hz tympanometry and wideband energy reflectance and impedance at ambient pressure in a group of 40 young adults and a group of 30 adults with age >=60 years. The groups did not differ in admittance measures of the middle ear at 226 Hz. However, significant age effects were found in wideband energy reflectance and impedance. In particular, in older adults there was a comparative decrease in reflectance from 800 to 2000 Hz but an increase near 4000 Hz. The results suggest a decrease in middle-ear stiffness with age. The findings of this study hold relevance for understanding the aging process in the auditory system, for the establishment of normative data for wideband energy reflectance, for the possibility of a conductive component to presbycusis, and for the interpretation of otoacoustic emission measurements. .

  19. Heritability of Age-Related Hearing Loss in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duan, Haiping; Zhang, Dongfeng; Liang, Yajun

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The heritability of age-related hearing loss has been studied mostly in developed countries. The authors aimed to estimate the heritability of better ear hearing level (BEHL), defined as hearing level of the better ear at a given frequency, and pure-tone averages at the middle (0.5, 1.......0, and 2.0 kHz) and high (4.0, 8.0, and 12.5 kHz) frequencies among middle-aged and elderly Chinese twins, and to explore their genetic correlations. DESIGN: This population-based twin study included 226 monozygotic and 132 dizygotic twin-pairs and 1 triplet (age range, 33 to 80 years; mean age, 51.......75 at high frequencies. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based twin study suggests that genetic factors are associated with age-related hearing loss at middle and high frequencies among middle-aged and elderly Chinese....

  20. Brief psychotic disorder in a middle aged Nigerian following the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case report illustrates the sudden onset, brief course and remission of a psychotic illness in a middle-aged Nigerian starting soon after she heard about the terrorist attacks in America. Vulnerability factors including personality traits and other concurrent life events were identified in the patients. Common mental disorder ...

  1. Low birth weight, adult BMI and inflammation in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Avlund, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the association between birthweight and adult BMI with inflammation in middle age measured by interleukin 6 (IL- 6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 18 (IL-18), high sensitivity Creactive protein (hsCRP) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf-α). The study is based on partic...

  2. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  3. Inherited leukoencephalopathies with clinical onset in middle and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannucci, Serena; Donnini, Ida; Pantoni, Leonardo

    2014-12-15

    The currently widespread use of neuroimaging has led neurologists to often face the problem of the differential diagnosis of white matter diseases. There are various forms of leukoencephalopathies (vascular, inflammatory and immunomediated, infectious, metabolic, neoplastic) and sometimes white matter lesions are expression of a genetic disease. While many inherited leukoencephalopathies fall in the child neurologist's interest, others may have a delayed or even a typical onset in the middle or old age. This field is rapidly growing and, in the last few years, many new inherited white matter diseases have been described and genetically defined. A non-delayed recognition of middle and old age inherited leukoencephalopathies appears important to avoid unnecessary tests and therapies in the patient and to possibly anticipate the diagnosis in relatives. The aim of this review is to provide a guide to direct the diagnostic process when facing a patient with a suspicion of an inherited form of leukoencephalopathy and with clinical onset in middle or old age. Based on a MEDLINE search from 1990 to 2013, we identified 24 middle and old age onset inherited leukoencephalopathies and reviewed in this relation the most recent findings focusing on their differential diagnosis. We provide summary tables to use as a check list of clinical and neuroimaging findings that are most commonly associated with these forms of leukoencephalopathies. When present, we reported specific characteristics of single diseases. Several genetic diseases may be suspected in patients with middle or old age and white matter abnormalities. In only few instances, pathognomonic clinical or associated neuroimaging features help identifying a specific disease. Therefore, a comprehensive knowledge of the characteristics of these inherited white matter diseases appears important to improve the diagnostic work-up, optimize the choice of genetic tests, increase the number of diagnosed patients, and stimulate

  4. Martial arts training attenuates arterial stiffness in middle aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter C; Ingenito, Teresa; Piccirillo, Barbara; Herbst, Meredith; Petrizzo, John; Cherian, Vincen; McCutchan, Christopher; Burke, Caitlin; Stamatinos, George; Jung, Min-Kyung

    2013-09-01

    Arterial stiffness increases with age and is related to an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Poor trunk flexibility has been shown to be associated with arterial stiffness in middle-aged subjects. The purpose of our research study was to measure arterial stiffness and flexibility in healthy middle-aged martial artists compared to age and gender matched healthy sedentary controls. Ten martial artists (54.0 ± 2.0 years), who practice Soo Bahk Do (SBD), a Korean martial art, and ten sedentary subjects (54.7 ± 1.8 years) for a total of twenty subjects took part in this cross-sectional study. Arterial stiffness was assessed in all subjects using pulse wave velocity (PWV), a recognized index of arterial stiffness. Flexibility of the trunk and hamstring were also measured. The independent variables were the martial artists and matched sedentary controls. The dependent variables were PWV and flexibility. There were significant differences, between the SBD practitioners and sedentary controls, in PWV (P = 0.004), in trunk flexibility (P= 0.002), and in hamstring length (P= 0.003). The middle-aged martial artists were more flexible in their trunk and hamstrings and had less arterial stiffness compared to the healthy sedentary controls. The flexibility component of martial art training or flexibility exercises in general may be considered as a possible intervention to reduce the effects of aging on arterial stiffness.

  5. An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ananth, Cande V.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Hamilton, Ava; Gissler, Mika; Wu, Chunsen; Liu, Shiliang; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Skjaerven, Rolv; Williams, Michelle A.; Tikkanen, Minna; Cnattingius, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although rare, placental abruption is implicated in disproportionately high rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Understanding geographic and temporal variations may provide insights into possible amenable factors of abruption. We examined abruption frequencies by maternal age, delivery year, and maternal birth cohorts over three decades across seven countries. Methods. Women that delivered in the US (n = 863,879; 1979–10), Canada (4 provinces, n = 5,407,463; 1982–11), ...

  6. Battle and Fettle of Chronically Middle-Aged Adults: Basis for Eclectic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jocelyn B. Natividad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to examine the chronically middle - aged adults’ qualit y of life in terms of physical, psychological, level of independence, social relationship, environment and spirituality, religion and personal beliefs. It also explored on their feelings and experiences toward the illness. This study used a concurrent tria ngulation type of mixed method to thoroughly explore the perceptions, difficulties and coping of chronically middle aged adults. WHO Quality of Life was used in quantitative data and interview and observation was utilized for the qualitative part. Percenta ge, weighted mean and ranking was used to analy s e the data. Results show that c hronically ill middle - aged need physical assistance, psychological support, and they have ambivalent feelings towards level of independence. On the contrary, they have a satisfy ing social relationship, secure environment to live, and an enhanced level of spirituality. Experiences of chronically ill middle aged adults arise into different meaning as to loss of control over the body, deprived healthy identity, devalued self, cyclic sadness, period of hopelessness and struggles, impact of uncertainty, support that enhance positivity, spiritual intensification and moving toward self sufficiency. An eclectic therapy is devised to address the specific needs of chronically ill middle - age d adults. Thus, a LIFE therapy as a n eclectic ism approach is devised based on the result of the study.

  7. Fatherhood and Men’s Lives at Middle Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggebeen, David J.; Dew, Jeffrey; Knoester, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses data on 2,024 men who were followed through the third wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the implications of fatherhood experiences for men’s involvement in altruistic social activities at middle age. We find that middle-aged men (ages 45–65) who at some point in their lives become fathers are significantly more likely to have altruistically oriented social relationships and be involved in service organizations compared to men who have never become fathers. Furthermore, it appears that the defining aspect of the effect of fatherhood is the level of engagement with children while they are growing up. Neither current residential status nor whether current non-residence occurs because of nest leaving is found to distinguish men’s altruistic ties. PMID:25620831

  8. The Early-Middle bronze ages tombs from the Kartal fortress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Bruiako

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The burials of Early- and Middle Bronze Age discovered by excavations of Kartal hill fort are analyzed in this article. One part of them belongs to the Pit-Grave Culture (later period, another – to the Culture Mnogovalikovaja. Allburials aresituated in the vicinity of ancient site, abandoned during the most part of the Bronze Age. The part of Pit-Grave burials representsflat/ pitgraves (non-kurgan. We assume that the seasonal settlement was located here in some periods of Bronze Age, while in the steppe of Eastern Europe dominated the populations of cattle-breeders.

  9. Conflict and Collaboration in Middle-Aged and Older Couples: II: Cardiovascular Reactivity during Marital Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W.; Uchino, Bert N.; Berg, Cynthia A.; Florsheim, Paul; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J. M.; Beveridge, Ryan M.; Skinner, Michelle A.; Ko, Kelly J.; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna

    2011-01-01

    Marital strain confers risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), perhaps though cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to stressful marital interactions. CVR to marital stressors may differ between middle-age and older adults, and types of marital interactions that evoke CVR may also differ across these age groups, as relationship contexts and stressors differ with age. We examined cardiovascular responses to a marital conflict discussion and collaborative problem solving in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Marital conflict evoked greater increases in blood pressure, cardiac output and cardiac sympathetic activation than did collaboration. Older couples displayed smaller heart rate responses to conflict than did middle-aged couples, but larger blood pressure responses to collaboration–especially older men. These effects were maintained during a post-task recovery period. Women did not display greater CVR than men on any measure or in either interaction context, though they did display greater parasympathetic withdrawal. CVR to marital conflict could contribute to the association of marital strain with CVD for middle-aged and older men and women, but other age-related marital contexts (e.g., collaboration among older couples) may also contribute to this mechanism. PMID:19485647

  10. Conflict and collaboration in middle-aged and older couples: II. Cardiovascular reactivity during marital interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Uchino, Bert N; Berg, Cynthia A; Florsheim, Paul; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J M; Beveridge, Ryan M; Skinner, Michelle A; Ko, Kelly J; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna

    2009-06-01

    Marital strain confers risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), perhaps though cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to stressful marital interactions. CVR to marital stressors may differ between middle-age and older adults, and types of marital interactions that evoke CVR may also differ across these age groups, as relationship contexts and stressors differ with age. The authors examined cardiovascular responses to a marital conflict discussion and collaborative problem solving in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Marital conflict evoked greater increases in blood pressure, cardiac output, and cardiac sympathetic activation than did collaboration. Older couples displayed smaller heart rate responses to conflict than did middle-aged couples but larger blood pressure responses to collaboration-especially in older men. These effects were maintained during a posttask recovery period. Women did not display greater CVR than men on any measure or in either interaction context, though they did display greater parasympathetic withdrawal. CVR to marital conflict could contribute to the association of marital strain with CVD for middle-aged and older men and women, but other age-related marital contexts (e.g., collaboration among older couples) may also contribute to this mechanism. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Physical activity and sexual function in middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Uchôa Leitão Cabral

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relationship between physical activity level and sexual function in middle-aged women. Methods A cross-sectional study with a sample of 370 middle-aged women (40-65 years old, treated at public health care facilities in a Brazilian city. A questionnaire was used containing enquiries on sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics: the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short form, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. Results The average age of the women studied was 49.8 years (± 8.1, 67% of whom exhibited sexual dysfunction (FSFI ≤ 26.55. Sedentary women had a higher prevalence (78.9% of sexual dysfunction when compared to active (57.6% and moderately active (66.7% females (p = 0.002. Physically active women obtained higher score in all FSFI domains (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain and total FSFI score (20.9, indicating better sexual function than their moderately active (18.8 and sedentary (15.6 counterparts (p <0.05. Conclusion Physical activity appears to influence sexual function positively in middle-aged women.

  12. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  13. Intergenerational communication satisfaction and age boundaries: comparative middle eastern data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Howard; Khajavy, Gholam Hassan; Choi, Charles W

    2012-12-01

    Guided by the communicative predicative model of aging, American and Iranian young adults' perceptions of communication with their peers, middle-aged and elderly adults were examined; subjective boundaries for these age categories were also explored. As age of target increased, so did attributions of benevolence, norms of politeness and deference, and communicative respect and avoidance; conversely, attributions of personal vitality and communication satisfaction decreased linearly. Path analysis was also adopted to examine the simultaneous relationships between the variables under study, and ultimately with cultural caveats largely supported, a hypothesized model was derived. The data were discussed in terms of their yielding refinements and elaborations to the communicative predicament and enhancement models of aging.

  14. Death anxiety in Kuwaiti middle-aged personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Al-Kandari, Yagoub

    2007-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the level of death anxiety, the sex-related differences among a middle-aged Kuwaiti personnel sample, and to explore the replicability of the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety (ASDA) factors. A sample of 236 volunteer Kuwaiti personnel took part in the study. The mean ages of men and women were 41.5 (SD = 7.5) and 40.9 (SD = 7.1), respectively. The alpha reliability of the ASDA was found to be high (.93). Women had a significantly higher mean total score on the ASDA as well as on 17 out of its 20 items. Middle-aged personnel had a significantly lower mean ASDA total score than younger college students (M age = 22). The factor analysis of the ASDA items yielded three factors: fear of dead people and tombs; fear of postmortem events; and fear of lethal disease. These factors were highly replicable with previous factors extracted from a Kuwaiti college student sample. On the basis of the present findings, there are three general conclusions as follows: death anxiety is negatively associated with age; the sex-related differences on death anxiety are salient in the Arab samples; and the ASDA has a highly replicable factor structure.

  15. Health Behavioral Patterns Associated with Psychologic Distress Among Middle-Aged Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sook Shin, PhD, RN

    2007-06-01

    Conclusion: The study found cultural characteristics of middle-aged Korean women in psychologic distress. Health care providers should consider marital satisfaction, self-actualization, nutrition, and interpersonal relations, in particular, among Korean middle-aged women.

  16. Time trends in heavy drinking among middle-aged and older adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Christina; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated an increasing proportion of heavy drinking among middle-aged and older Danes. Trends in consumption are often extremely sensitive to influence from various components of the time trends but only few have explored the age, period and cohort-related influences...... that the proportion of heavy drinking women increases in younger birth cohorts. This trend is not observed for men as their drinking pattern mainly increase slightly by calendar year. CONCLUSIONS: Our Danish observations for older aged individuals correspond to the social and cultural changes in the 1960s and 1970s...

  17. Blood DNA methylation age is not associated with cognitive functioning in middle-aged monozygotic twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starnawska, A; Tan, Q; Lenart, A

    2016-01-01

    The epigenetic clock, also known as DNA methylation age (DNAmAge), represents age-related changes of DNA methylation at multiple sites of the genome and is suggested to be a biomarker for biological age. Elevated blood DNAmAge is associated with all-cause mortality, with the strongest effects...... reported in a recent intrapair twin study where epigenetically older twins had increased mortality risk in comparison to their co-twins. In the study presented here, we hypothesize that DNAmAge in blood is associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal cognitive abilities in middle-aged individuals....... In 486 monozygotic twins, we investigated the association of DNAmAge, difference between DNAmAge and chronological age and age acceleration with cognition. Despite using a powerful paired twin design, we found no evidence for association of blood DNAmAge with cognitive abilities. This observation...

  18. Dementia in middle-aged patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Gaël; Beherec, Laurène; Hannequin, Didier; Opolczynski, Gaëlle; Rothärmel, Maud; Wallon, David; Véra, Pierre; Martinaud, Olivier; Guillin, Olivier; Campion, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies have assessed cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, very few have focused on the diagnosis of dementia. Our objectives were to accurately diagnose dementia in a cohort of middle-aged patients with schizophrenia and to assess the type of dementia. 96 patients with schizophrenia (46 inpatients and 50 outpatients), aged 50 to 70 years, underwent a psychiatric, neurological, and neuropsychological evaluation at baseline and after a 20-month follow-up. We established a 3-step procedure: 1) diagnose dementia according to the DSM-IV criteria, using the Mattis Dementia Rating and Activities of Daily Living scales; 2) characterize dementia using brain imaging, perfusion by 99mTc-ECD-SPECT and laboratory tests including Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers; and 3) search for genetic determinants. Fourteen patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of dementia. Four were diagnosed with possible or probable behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), two with probable Alzheimer's disease, two with probable vascular dementia (including one due to CADASIL), one with CNS inflammatory disease, and six could not be fully characterized. The diagnosis of dementia in middle-aged patients with schizophrenia is challenging but possible, using a multistep procedure. The most frequent condition, bvFTD, could reflect the presence of an evolutive neurodegenerative process in some patients.

  19. Dysphagia in a middle-aged female: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiq, Syed; B., Ramathilakam

    2013-01-01

    Plummer-Vinson syndrome (PVS) is characterized by a hypopharyngeal or postcricoid web causing progressive dysphagia and iron deficiency anemia. We report the case of a middle-aged female who presented to us with complaints of easy fatuigability and progressive dysphagia mainly to solids for six months.  The patient had marked pallor.  Her upper endoscopy showed hypopharyngeal web, which was confirmed by barium swallow study.  A diagnosis of Plummer-Vinson syndrome was made.  The patient was i...

  20. Anoxygenic photosynthesis modulated Proterozoic oxygen and sustained Earth's middle age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D. T.; Wolfe-Simon, F.; Pearson, A.; Knoll, A. H.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) began to accumulate in the atmosphere and surface ocean ca. 2,400 million years ago (Ma), but the persistent oxygenation of water masses throughout the oceans developed much later, perhaps beginning as recently as 580–550 Ma. For much of the intervening interval, moderately oxic surface waters lay above an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that tended toward euxinia (anoxic and sulfidic). Here we illustrate how contributions to primary production by anoxygenic photoautotrophs (including physiologically versatile cyanobacteria) influenced biogeochemical cycling during Earth's middle age, helping to perpetuate our planet's intermediate redox state by tempering O2 production. Specifically, the ability to generate organic matter (OM) using sulfide as an electron donor enabled a positive biogeochemical feedback that sustained euxinia in the OMZ. On a geologic time scale, pyrite precipitation and burial governed a second feedback that moderated sulfide availability and water column oxygenation. Thus, we argue that the proportional contribution of anoxygenic photosynthesis to overall primary production would have influenced oceanic redox and the Proterozoic O2 budget. Later Neoproterozoic collapse of widespread euxinia and a concomitant return to ferruginous (anoxic and Fe2+ rich) subsurface waters set in motion Earth's transition from its prokaryote-dominated middle age, removing a physiological barrier to eukaryotic diversification (sulfide) and establishing, for the first time in Earth's history, complete dominance of oxygenic photosynthesis in the oceans. This paved the way for the further oxygenation of the oceans and atmosphere and, ultimately, the evolution of complex multicellular organisms. PMID:19805080

  1. Self-transcendence and depression in middle-age adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellermann, C R; Reed, P G

    2001-11-01

    Self-transcendence has been found to be an important correlate of mental health in older adults and adults facing the end of life. This study extends current theory by examining the relationship of transcendence and other transcendence variables to depression in middle-age adults (N = 133). Reed's Self-Transcendence Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, and measures of parenting, acceptance and spirituality were administered. Findings indicating significant inverse correlations between self-transcendence and depression, as well as between other measures of transcendence and depression support Reed's (1991b) theory. Multiple regression analysis indicated that acceptance may be another significant correlate of depression. Significant gender differences and age-related patterns of increased levels of self-transcendence were found. Study results illuminate the need to continue research into developmentally based transcendence variables related to various experiences of health and well-being across the life span.

  2. Cross-Sectional Study of Gender Role Conflict Examining College-Aged and Middle-Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournoyer, Robert J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    College-aged (n=88) and middle-aged (n=89) men completed 5 measures that assess gender role conflict and psychological well-being. Results indicate that, compared with college-aged men, middle-aged men were less conflicted about success, power, and competition, but were more conflicted about work and family responsibilities. The discussion focuses…

  3. Dating simple flakes: Early Bronze Age flake production technology on the Middle Euphrates Steppe, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Nishiaki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aceramic flint scatters, comprising very crude cores or flakes and no formalised tools, are frequently found on the Middle Euphrates steppe of northern Syria. Previous studies suggest that many of them are residues of short-term activities by the nomads or shepherds of the Early Bronze Age. In order to verify this interpretation, a more precise chronological framework needs to be established for the Early Bronze Age lithic industry. This paper analyses stratified flake assemblages of the Early Bronze Age at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, a securely radiocarbon-dated settlement on the Middle Euphrates, and examines which occupation level yields assemblages most similar to those of the steppe. Results demonstrate that the lithic industry of this period underwent significant diachronic changes in terms of core reduction technology. Based on the chronological framework developed at Tell Ghanem al-Ali, the steppe assemblages in question can be assigned to different phases of the Early Bronze Age. This finding will help identify processes at the beginning of the extensive exploitation of the steppe, which is regarded as one of the most important socioeconomic changes that occurred among Early Bronze Age communities of the Middle Euphrates.

  4. Cancer Screening Practice among Iranian Middle-aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Enjezab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers are the leading causes of mortality among women, the incidence rate of which has an upward trend with advancing age. Although cost-effective, easy, and available screening programs can help control these types of cancer in their early stages, it seems that cancer screening programs have not been implemented effectively. In this study, we investigated the rate of cancer screening practice in middle-aged women and explained the influential factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study with a sequential mixed method approach was conducted on 483 middle-age women selected through cluster random sampling in Yazd, Iran. Data were obtained by a research made questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics and performing Pearson product-moment correlation, Student’s t-test, and One-way ANOVA tests, using SPSS version 16. In the second phase of the study, qualitative, semi-structured interviews were performed and data were analyzed through content analysis. Results: The majority of the subjects had never been screened for cancer through mammogram (87.7%, Pap test (64.2%, or fecal occult blood test (FOBT (89.8%. Educational level, employment status, perceived adequacy of income, perceived health status, and the number of children were significantly associated with breast and colon cancer screening practice. Qualitative data showed that lack of knowledge, the cost of screening exams, lack of financial independence, negligence of spouse, fear of cancer, embarrassment, and belief in destiny were the main reasons for non-adherence to cancer screening tests. In addition, knowledge and observing cancer in acquaintances and relatives were the main motivators of cancer screening. Conclusion: Middle-aged housewives, as well as women with low educational level and income were the most vulnerable groups, who did not adhere to cancer screening. Planning and management of cancer preventive programs and

  5. Reversal of glial and neurovascular markers of unhealthy brain aging by exercise in middle-aged female mice.

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    Caitlin S Latimer

    Full Text Available Healthy brain aging and cognitive function are promoted by exercise. The benefits of exercise are attributed to several mechanisms, many which highlight its neuroprotective role via actions that enhance neurogenesis, neuronal morphology and/or neurotrophin release. However, the brain is also composed of glial and vascular elements, and comparatively less is known regarding the effects of exercise on these components in the aging brain. Here, we show that aerobic exercise at mid-age decreased markers of unhealthy brain aging including astrocyte hypertrophy, a hallmark of brain aging. Middle-aged female mice were assigned to a sedentary group or provided a running wheel for six weeks. Exercise decreased hippocampal astrocyte and myelin markers of aging but increased VEGF, a marker of angiogenesis. Brain vascular casts revealed exercise-induced structural modifications associated with improved endothelial function in the periphery. Our results suggest that age-related astrocyte hypertrophy/reactivity and myelin dysregulation are aggravated by a sedentary lifestyle and accompanying reductions in vascular function. However, these effects appear reversible with exercise initiated at mid-age. As this period of the lifespan coincides with the appearance of multiple markers of brain aging, including initial signs of cognitive decline, it may represent a window of opportunity for intervention as the brain appears to still possess significant vascular plasticity. These results may also have particular implications for aging females who are more susceptible than males to certain risk factors which contribute to vascular aging.

  6. Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women

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    Naritsara Saenghong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800 mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women.

  7. Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenghong, Naritsara; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Banchonglikitkul, Chuleratana; Kajsongkram, Tanwarat

    2012-01-01

    The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800 mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women. PMID:22235230

  8. Inter-rater reliability of shoulder measurements in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groef, A; Van Kampen, M; Vervloesem, N; Clabau, E; Christiaens, M-R; Neven, P; Geraerts, I; Struyf, F; Devoogdt, N

    2017-06-01

    To investigate inter-rater reliability of a set of shoulder measurements including inclinometry [shoulder range of motion (ROM)], acromion-table distance and pectoralis minor muscle length (static scapular positioning), upward rotation with two inclinometers (scapular kinematics) and pain pressure thresholds (muscle tenderness) in middle-aged women. Observational study. Thirty symptom-free middle-aged women (first cohort) were measured by two raters. All measurements with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) below 0.75 were retested after an additional training period in a second cohort of 30 symptom-free middle-aged women. Inter-rater reliability of all variables was measured with the ICC (95% confidence interval) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Acromion-table distance (ICC=0.91, SEM 0.22 to 0.28% of body length), pectoralis minor muscle length (ICC=0.91, SEM 0.16% of body length), pain pressure thresholds (ICC=0.78 to 0.85, SEM 0.39 to 0.70kg) and abduction ROM (ICC=0.77, SEM 5°) showed good to excellent inter-rater reliability in the first cohort. After an additional training period, forward flexion ROM showed good inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.83, SEM 5°), scapular upward rotation in resting position showed moderate reliability (ICC=0.52, SEM 2°), and other scaption angles showed weak reliability (ICC=0.26 to 0.43, SEM 3 to 8°). In a battery of clinical tools to evaluate factors contributing to shoulder pain, static scapular positioning and pressure pain thresholds were found to have good to excellent inter-rater reliability in middle-aged women. Additional training is recommended for measurements with a gravity inclinometer. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Morbidity and mortality of middle-aged and elderly narcoleptics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Thorstensen, Eva Wiberg; Pickering, Line

    2017-01-01

    . In the NPR, all morbidities are grouped into major WHO classes. RESULTS: Middle-aged and elderly patients had more health contacts before and after their narcolepsy diagnosis with respect to several disease domains: infections, neoplasm, endocrine/metabolic diseases/diabetes, mental/psychiatric, neurological...... (including epilepsy), eye, cardiovascular (hypertension, ischemic heart disease), respiratory (upper-airway infections, sleep apnea), gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal (including discopathies) and skin diseases. Narcolepsy patients had lower reproductive rates. Furthermore, patients showed significantly more...... health contacts due to the evaluation and control contacts for disease and symptoms. Patients suffered from significantly more multiple diseases than did controls. The 17-year hazard ratio mortality rates were 1.35 (95% CI, 0.94-1.95, p = 0.106) among 20-59 year-olds, and 1.38 (1.12-1.69, p = 0...

  10. Memory Deficits Are Associated with Impaired Ability to Modulate Neuronal Excitability in Middle-Aged Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczorowski, Catherine C.; Disterhoft, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Normal aging disrupts hippocampal neuroplasticity and learning and memory. Aging deficits were exposed in a subset (30%) of middle-aged mice that performed below criterion on a hippocampal-dependent contextual fear conditioning task. Basal neuronal excitability was comparable in middle-aged and young mice, but learning-related modulation of the…

  11. Regional cerebellar volume and cognitive function from adolescence to late middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A; Leopold, Daniel R; Calhoun, Vince D; Mittal, Vijay A

    2015-03-01

    Cerebellar morphology and function have been implicated in a variety of developmental disorders, and in healthy aging. Although recent work has sought to characterize the relationships between volume and age in this structure during adolescence, young, and older adulthood, there have been no investigations of regional cerebellar volume from adolescence through late middle age. Middle age in particular has been largely understudied, and investigating this period of the lifespan may be especially important for our understanding of senescence. Understanding regional patterns of cerebellar volume with respect to age during this portion of the lifespan may provide important insight into healthy aging and cognitive function as well as pathology from adolescence into later life. We investigated regional cerebellar volume using a highly novel lobular segmentation approach in conjunction with a battery of cognitive tasks in a cross-sectional sample of 123 individuals from 12 to 65 years old. Our results indicated that regional cerebellar volumes show different patterns with respect to age. In particular, the more posterior aspect of the neocerebellum follows a quadratic "inverse-U" pattern while the vermis and anterior cerebellum follow logarithmic patterns. In addition, we quantified the relationships between age and a variety of cognitive assessments and found relationships between regional cerebellar volumes and performance. Finally, exploratory analyses of sex differences in the relationships between regional cerebellar volume, age, and cognition were investigated. Taken together, these results provide key insights into the development and aging of the human cerebellum, and its role in cognitive function across the lifespan. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Sensory Impairments and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Carla R; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Fischer, Mary E; Chen, Yanjun; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Pinto, A Alex

    2017-08-01

    Hearing, visual, and olfactory impairments have been associated with cognitive impairment in older adults but less is known about associations with cognitive function in middle-aged adults. Sensory and cognitive functions were measured on participants in the baseline examination (2005-2008) of the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Cognitive function was measured with the Trail Making tests A (TMTA) and B (TMTB) and the Grooved Peg Board test. Pure-tone audiometry, Pelli-Robson letter charts, and the San Diego Odor Identification test were used to measure hearing, contrast sensitivity, and olfaction, respectively. There were 2,836 participants aged 21-84 years with measures of hearing, visual, olfactory, and cognitive function at the baseline examination. Nineteen percent of the cohort had one sensory impairment and 3% had multiple sensory impairments. In multivariable adjusted linear regression models that included all three sensory impairments, hearing impairment, visual impairment, and olfactory impairment were each independently associated with poorer performance on the TMTA, TMTB, and Grooved Peg Board (p cognitive function tests independent of the other sensory impairments and factors associated with cognition. Sensory impairments in midlife are associated with subtle deficits in cognitive function which may be indicative of early brain aging. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Asexuality development among middle aged and older men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ping Huang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess erectile function in middle-aged and older men with asexuality status and further analyze their specific reasons for this condition. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Men who had regular sexual intercourse attempts (sex frequency ≥ 1 time per month were classified into mild erectile dysfunction (ED, moderate to severe ED and non-ED according to International Index of Erectile Function-5, and men having no sexual intercourse attempts for at least 6 months were defined as having an asexuality status. The risk factors associated with ED were collected in a sample of 1,531 Chinese men aged 40 to 80 years, and the self-report reasons for asexuality were recorded in asexual cohort individually. Comparative analyses and multivariate regression models were conducted among these groups. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of ED and asexuality status were 49.9% and 37.2%. The asexuality status group had higher risk factors than the moderate to severe ED group in terms of old age (age ≥ 65, adjusted odds ratio (OR 17.69 versus (Vs. 7.19, diabetes (crude OR: 2.40 Vs. 2.36 and hypertension (crude OR: 1.78 Vs. 1.72. The specific reasons for the asexuality status were "erectile difficulty" (52.9%, "do not care about sexuality" (53.5%", "no longer necessary to have sexuality at this age" (47.7%, "severe stress" (44.4%, "severe fatigue" (26.3% and "masturbation" (26.9%. CONCLUSIONS: Men with an asexual status suffer from higher risk factors for ED than men with moderate to severe ED. The majority of this asexual status could be attributed to a full ED, although the reasons for this transient asexuality also involved sexual attitudes and interests, sexual partners and masturbation.

  14. Asexuality development among middle aged and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Ping; Chen, Bin; Ping, Ping; Wang, Hong-Xiang; Hu, Kai; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Tao; Feng, Tan; Jin, Yan; Han, Yin-Fa; Wang, Yi-Xin; Huang, Yi-Ran

    2014-01-01

    To assess erectile function in middle-aged and older men with asexuality status and further analyze their specific reasons for this condition. Men who had regular sexual intercourse attempts (sex frequency ≥ 1 time per month) were classified into mild erectile dysfunction (ED), moderate to severe ED and non-ED according to International Index of Erectile Function-5, and men having no sexual intercourse attempts for at least 6 months were defined as having an asexuality status. The risk factors associated with ED were collected in a sample of 1,531 Chinese men aged 40 to 80 years, and the self-report reasons for asexuality were recorded in asexual cohort individually. Comparative analyses and multivariate regression models were conducted among these groups. The prevalence rates of ED and asexuality status were 49.9% and 37.2%. The asexuality status group had higher risk factors than the moderate to severe ED group in terms of old age (age ≥ 65, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 17.69 versus (Vs.) 7.19), diabetes (crude OR: 2.40 Vs. 2.36) and hypertension (crude OR: 1.78 Vs. 1.72). The specific reasons for the asexuality status were "erectile difficulty" (52.9%), "do not care about sexuality" (53.5%)", "no longer necessary to have sexuality at this age" (47.7%), "severe stress" (44.4%), "severe fatigue" (26.3%) and "masturbation" (26.9%). Men with an asexual status suffer from higher risk factors for ED than men with moderate to severe ED. The majority of this asexual status could be attributed to a full ED, although the reasons for this transient asexuality also involved sexual attitudes and interests, sexual partners and masturbation.

  15. Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort Model of Lung Cancer Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhikhari P. Tharu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The objective of this study was to analyze the time trend for lung cancer mortality in the population of the USA by 5 years based on most recent available data namely to 2010. The knowledge of the mortality rates in the temporal trends is necessary to understand cancer burden.Methods Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort model was fitted using Poisson regression with histogram smoothing prior to decompose mortality rates based on age at death, period at death, and birth-cohort.Results Mortality rates from lung cancer increased more rapidly from age 52 years. It ended up to 325 deaths annually for 82 years on average. The mortality of younger cohorts was lower than older cohorts. The risk of lung cancer was lowered from period 1993 to recent periods.Conclusions The fitted Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort model with histogram smoothing prior is capable of explaining mortality rate of lung cancer. The reduction in carcinogens in cigarettes and increase in smoking cessation from around 1960 might led to decreasing trend of lung cancer mortality after calendar period 1993.

  16. A probable case of rheumatoid arthritis from the middle Anglo-Saxon period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinnon, Katie; Van Twest, Melanie S; Hatton, Martin

    2013-06-01

    We present here a case of erosive polyarthropathy in an incomplete skeleton from a middle-Saxon period (c. AD 650-900) cemetery site in Sedgeford, Norfolk, England. After a differential diagnosis that includes erosive osteoarthritis and psoriatic arthritis, we believe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to be the most probable cause. This example may therefore add to the evidence for an early date for the appearance of RA in Europe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Socioeconomic Status, Race/Ethnicity, and Diurnal Cortisol Trajectories in Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Laura J; Roth, David L; Schwartz, Brian S; Thorpe, Roland J; Glass, Thomas A

    2018-03-02

    Slow afternoon cortisol decline may be a marker of aging. We hypothesize that lower socioeconomic status (SES) and African American race are associated with lower waking cortisol and slower afternoon decline. Six salivary cortisol samples, collected within a 24-hr period from 566 cohort participants aged 56-78 years, were examined in random-effects models. SES measures included socioeconomic vulnerability (household income and assets Accounting for African American race/ethnicity, socioeconomic vulnerability was associated with a 3% faster decline, and education was not associated with cortisol. African Americans had 26% lower average waking cortisol and 1% slower decline than others. African American race/ethnicity, but not lower SES, was associated with lower waking cortisol and slower afternoon decline in middle-aged and older adults. This pattern is likely a marker of earlier biological aging in vulnerable groups. Race/ethnicity may compete with SES as a measure of cumulative vulnerability.

  18. Strength training and body composition in middle-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrup, Rachelle; Tucker, Larry A; LE Cheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W

    2018-01-01

    Strength training is a sound method to improve body composition. However, the effect of age, diet, menopause, and physical activity on the relationship between strength training and body composition in women remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the intricacies of the relationship between strength training and body composition in 257 middle-age women and to quantify the effect of these factors on the association. The study was cross-sectional. Five variables were used to index strength training participation. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Diet was assessed by 7-day weighed food records, and physical activity was measured objectively using accelerometers. There were 109 strength trainers in the sample. For each day per week of strength training, body fat was 1.3 percentage points lower (F=14.8, Pdevote to strength training, the lower their body fat and the higher their fat-free mass tend to be. A significant portion of the differences in body composition seems to result from lifters participating in more physical activity than non-lifters. Menopause status also contributes significantly to the relationship.

  19. Daily life historyasmodern direction of urban history of Englandof High Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Okhrimenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Historiographical review of recent research is an important aspect of the scientific study of the problems of medieval urban history of England. In 2000s there was marked the beginning of years of studying the history of everyday of medieval towns. The most important works in this field are the studies of Professor C. Dyer. Studying the history of everyday life of the city the researcher has identified as «standards of living». One of the modern directions of the history of everyday life is a history of food. There is the significant research of Professor M. Carlin on the history of English feasting of urban residents of the Middle Ages. In the article Fast food and urban living standards in medieval England, she looked anew at the narrative sources XII-XIV centuries. Another area of daily life history is a history of clothes (fashion. L. A. Wilson in his work De novo modo: The birth of fashion in the Middle Ages analyzes comprehensively the written, visual, and archaeological evidence. Modern interpretations of medieval hygiene (including sanitation of medieval towns related to research in the area of a history body. Its appointed destination for British urban sources dealing D. Jorgensen, D. Keene, U. Ewert, G. Geltner, J. Lee etc. They revised the traditional view medievalists of the nineteenth century. At the present period the historiography of medieval towns of England are mostly social history. Towards the history of everyday life there is a tendency to positive characteristics of urban life in the English Middle Ages. Contemporary scholars refer to the current trends in the world. Active urbanization processes forced researchers to seek appeal of such a way of life in previous centuries, particularly in the Middle Ages. The key features of everyday modern city (commercialization, fast food, fashion, high standards of hygiene etc. historians find their roots in the past.

  20. The Middle Triassic insect radiation revealed by isotopic age and iconic fossils from NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Daran; Chang, Su-Chin; Wang, He; Fang, Yan; Wang, Jun; Feng, Chongqing; Xie, Guwei; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.; Zhang, Haichun; Wang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Following the end-Permian mass extinction, the Triassic represented an important period witnessing the recovery and radiation of marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Terrestrial plants and vertebrates have been widely investigated; however the insects, the most diverse organisms on earth, remain enigmatic due to the rarity of Early-Middle Triassic fossils. Here we report new fossils from a Ladinian deposit dated at 238-237 Ma and a Carnian deposit in northwestern China, including the earliest definite caddisfly cases (Trichoptera) and water boatmen (Hemiptera), diverse polyphagan beetles (Coleoptera) and scorpionflies (Mecoptera). Our findings suggest that the Holometabola, comprising the majority of modern-day insect species, experienced an extraordinary diversification in the Middle Triassic and was already been dominant in some Middle and Late Triassic insect faunas, after the extinction of several ecologically dominant, Paleozoic insect groups in the latest Permian and earliest Triassic. This turnover is perhaps related to notable episodes of extreme warming and drying, leading to the eventual demise of coal-swamp ecosystems, evidenced by floral turnover during this interval. The forest revival during the Middle Triassic probably stimulated the rapid radiation and evolution of insects including some key aquatic lineages which built new associations that persist to the present day. Our results provide not only new insights into the early evolution of insect diversity and ecology, but also robust evidence for the view that the Triassic is the "Dawn of the Modern World". Besides, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating initially gave a late Ladinian age for the Tongchuan entomnfauna after the results: 237.41 ± 0.91 Ma and 238 ± 0.97 Ma. The age is in agreement with that of the marine Ladinian-Carnian boundary, representing a novel age constraint for the terrestrial strata near this boundary. This age can provide a calibration for marine and terrestrial correlation near Ladinian

  1. Bayesian Age-Period-Cohort Modeling and Prediction - BAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker J. Schmid

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The software package BAMP provides a method of analyzing incidence or mortality data on the Lexis diagram, using a Bayesian version of an age-period-cohort model. A hierarchical model is assumed with a binomial model in the first-stage. As smoothing priors for the age, period and cohort parameters random walks of first and second order, with and without an additional unstructured component are available. Unstructured heterogeneity can also be included in the model. In order to evaluate the model fit, posterior deviance, DIC and predictive deviances are computed. By projecting the random walk prior into the future, future death rates can be predicted.

  2. Dependency of cardiovascular risk on reproductive stages and on age among middle-aged Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Ruan, X; Mueck, A O

    2017-10-01

    To assess the 10-year cardiovascular risk in middle-aged Chinese women living in the same community and the impact of reproductive aging and age. This was a cross-sectional study in the Yuetan Community of Beijing. Data on lifestyle habits, prevalence and treatment of chronic diseases with significance for cardiovascular disease (CVD) development were collected by interview. CVD risk factors were assessed by physical examination and laboratory tests. The 10-year cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham 10-year risk score. STRAW +10 criteria were used for the stages of reproductive aging. A total of 536 women, aged 40-60 years, were enrolled. The incidences of hypertension, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance and diabetes were 32.6%, 45.7%, 65.5%, 37.9% and 10.1%, respectively. After adjustment, the incidence of hypertension and diabetes increased with age and with reproductive aging. Dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance were only associated with age. Abdominal obesity was related neither to age nor to reproductive aging. The 10-year cardiovascular risk ranged from 1% to 24.8%; 11.6% of women had a moderate or high Framingham 10-year risk score. CVD risk factors were frequent and more than 10% of the women were at moderate or high risk of developing cardiovascular disease within the next 10 years. To our knowledge, this was demonstrated for the first time in middle-aged Chinese women. Thus, women should maintain a healthy lifestyle and physicians should monitor them to prevent CVD.

  3. Intrinsic brain connectivity related to age in young and middle aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Hampson

    Full Text Available Age-related variations in resting state connectivity of the human brain were examined from young adulthood through middle age. A voxel-based network measure, degree, was used to assess age-related differences in tissue connectivity throughout the brain. Increases in connectivity with age were found in paralimbic cortical and subcortical regions. Decreases in connectivity were found in cortical regions, including visual areas and the default mode network. These findings differ from those of recent developmental studies examining earlier growth trajectories, and are consistent with known changes in cognitive function and emotional processing during mature aging. The results support and extend previous findings that relied on a priori definitions of regions of interest for their analyses. This approach of applying a voxel-based measure to examine the functional connectivity of individual tissue elements over time, without the need for a priori region of interest definitions, provides an important new tool in brain science.

  4. Leisure Activity and Caregiver Involvement in Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaila, Iulia; Hartley, Sigan L.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Bulova, Peter D.; Tumuluru, Rameshwari V.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Lao, Patrick J.; Christian, Bradley, T.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined leisure activity and its association with caregiver involvement (i.e., residence and time spent with primary caregiver) in 62 middle-aged and older adults with Down syndrome (aged 30-53 years). Findings indicated that middle-aged and older adults with Down syndrome frequently participated in social and passive leisure…

  5. Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, George K; Koutsouflianiotis, Konstantinos N; Nitsa, Zoi; Demesticha, Theano; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of knowledge regarding the anatomy and physiology of the spleen throughout Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages is described, and general perceptions about this organ during different eras along this time line are presented. The original words of great physicians from the period of time stretching from Ancient Egypt to the Avicennan era are quoted and discussed to demonstrate how knowledge of the spleen has evolved and to present the theories that dominated each era. Furthermore, theories about illnesses relating to the spleen are reported, which show how this organ was perceived-in terms of its function and anatomy-during each era.

  6. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women.

  7. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  8. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1 psychological benefit, (2 physical benefit, and (3 social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women.

  9. POWER-TYPE STRENGTH TRAINING IN MIDDLE-AGED MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Surakka

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength declines with increasing age, and the power-type strength characteristics decline even more drastically than the maximal muscle strength. Therefore, it is important to design training programmes specifically for sedentary middle-aged people to effectively improve the power-type strength in leg and trunk muscles. To be suitable for the target group, the exercise programmes should be feasible, motivating and easy to practice. The aim of this study was to design and investigate the effects and feasibility of a power-type strength training programme in 226 middle-aged men and women, with 26 persons as non-training controls. The subjects trained three times a week during 22 weeks, in 12 groups with exercise classes of 10-20 subjects, and using no or very little external equipment. All training sessions were controlled and supervised by an professional instructor. Vertical squat jump, standing long jump, 20 metre running time, maximal anaerobic cycling power, maximal oxygen uptake, and angular trunk muscle flexion and extension velocities were measured before and after the training period to evaluate the training effects. Questionnaires concerning employment, physical activity, smoking, musculoskeletal symptoms and exercise motives were also filled in before and after the training period. The greatest improvements were achieved in vertical squat jump (18% and in angular trunk flexion (14% and extension (16% velocities. An external loading totalling 2.2 kg (attached in ankles increased the height in vertical squat jump by 23% and maximal anaerobic cycling power by 12%, these improvements were significant compared with subjects in no load training group (p = 0.03 in vertical squat jump and p = 0.05 in maximal anaerobic cycling power. Exercise induced injuries occurred in 19% of men and 6% of women. Low back symptoms decreased in exercisers by 12% and knee symptoms (increased by 4% during the intervention. Of all subjects, 24% dropped out

  10. The influence of age on the exploitation period in broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These investigations were intended to identify the influence of parental flock age at heavy hybrid Ross 308 (usage period) on more important reproductive capabilities (carrying eggs intensity of brood eggs, egg mass, one day old chick mass, relative chick mass share in complete egg mass) and consumption of food per ...

  11. The Effects of VR-based Wii Fit Yoga on Physical Function in Middle-aged Female LBP Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong-Sik; Min, Won-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a virtual reality-based yoga program on middle-aged female low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty middle-aged female patients who suffered from low back pain were assigned to either a physical therapy program or a virtual reality-based yoga program for a period of four weeks. Participants could check their posture and weight bearing on a monitor as they shifted their weight or changed their postures on a Wii...

  12. A middle age addicted man with caustic stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Nouri Broujerdi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The term caustic generally refers to alkaline and the term corrosive generally refers to acidic agents' injury; however, in medical literature caustic is frequently a term applied to both substances. Ingested alkali typically damage the esophagus more than stomach or duodenum, whereas acids usually cause more severe gastric injury. Since esophagus has a slightly alkaline pH, its epithelium is more resistant to acids, so that only 6 to 20% of those who ingest these substances present lesions in this organ. Case : A middle-aged addicted man who drunk hydrochloric acid accidentally had extensive necrosis of the stomach with remarkable sparing of the esophagus on second look exploration. A total gastrectomy with a Roux-en-Y esophago-jejunostomy with feeding jejunostomy was performed. Conclusion : In caustic GI injury, patients who are operated on and found to have no evidence of extensive esophago-gastric necrosis, a biopsy of the posterior gastric wall should be performed to exclude occult injury. If histologically there is a question of viability, a second look operation should be performed within 36 hours.

  13. The Pre-Raphaelite Journey into the Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujszászi Zsuzsanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Pre-Raphaelite artists and poets rejected contemporary conventional style in art, and did not concern themselves with the representation of contemporary life either. They viewed the surrounding social life as sordid, and reached back to the Middle Ages both for technique and subject matter. Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais, and later William Morris found inspiration in late medieval art and literature. They took their subjects from history, legend, religion or poetry, focusing on moral or psychological issues, and expressed fascination for beauty as a value of spiritual nature. This paper examines three of Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s medieval fantasy pictures (The Tune of Seven Towers, The Blue Closet and A Christmas Carol, which prompt a meditative and imaginative response through their enigmatic references, and thus attest the mysterious feature of Pre-Raphaelite medieval imagery. The paper discusses their enigmatic nature in the light of William Morris’s early dream poems The Tune of Seven Towers and The Blue Closet, written on the relevant Rossetti pictures. A parallel reading of poem and picture evidences how Pre-Raphaelite medievalism in painting can invite the onlooker for an inner journey through exploring an imagined referential background.

  14. Myths of the state in the West European Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Ejerfeldt

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first centuries of the barbarian kingdoms the most striking feature is the gens, the tribe, as the principle of unity, even if the ethnic homogeneity often was missing. The myth of the Germanic State of the early Middle Ages was in the first place a myth of the common origin of the gens.These histories of tribal origins have some times been influenced by powerful Ancient literary patterns, especially the Trojan myth of Virgil. But the concern of presenting the origin of the gens in mythical form is no doubt Germanic. And it seems probable that the tribal origins are more ancient than the genealogies of royal families with alleged divine ancestors. The kingship among the Germanic tribes was secondary in relation to the tribe. The king was rex Francorum; the king of a certain country or geographic territory is a later conception. The power comes from below; the king is an exponent of the tribe. All the Germanic words for "king" are derivations from terms for "kin, people, tribe." The limitation of the power of the king is also indicated by institutions like the right to resistence, the possibility to depose the king, the participation by all free men in the judicial and criminal procedure through self-help and blood feud.

  15. Orthostatic Hypotension in Middle-Age and Risk of Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraschek, Stephen P; Daya, Natalie; Appel, Lawrence J; Miller, Edgar R; Windham, Beverly Gwen; Pompeii, Lisa; Griswold, Michael E; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2017-02-01

    One-third of older adults fall each year. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) has been hypothesized as an important risk factor for falls, but findings from prior studies have been inconsistent. We conducted a prospective study of the association between baseline OH (1987-1989) and risk of falls in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Falls were ascertained during follow-up via ICD-9 hospital discharge codes or Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services claims data. OH was defined as a drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥20mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥10mm Hg within 2 minutes of moving from the supine to standing position. Changes in SBP or DBP during OH assessments were also examined as continuous variables. During a median follow-up of 23 years, there were 2,384 falls among 12,661 participants (mean age 54 years, 55% women, 26% black). OH was associated with risk of falls even after adjustment for demographic characteristics and other risk factors (hazard ratio (HR): 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10, 1.54; P = 0.002). Postural change in DBP was more significantly associated with risk of falls (HR 1.09 per -5mm Hg change in DBP; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.13; P postural change in SBP (HR 1.03 per -5mm Hg change in SBP; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.05; P = 0.002). In a community-based, middle-aged population, OH, and in particular, postural change in DBP, were independent risk factors for falls over 2 decades of follow-up. Future studies are needed to examine OH thresholds associated with increased risk of falls. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Eating disorder symptoms in middle-aged and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Kummer, Kai K; Pope, Harrison G

    2016-10-01

    Few studies have assessed symptoms of eating disorders in older men. We administered anonymous questionnaires to 470 men, aged 40-75 years, in and around Innsbruck, Austria, to assess eating behavior, body image, and exercise activities. We defined current eating disorder symptoms (EDS) as (1) BMI men, 32 (6.8%) reported one of the four eating disorder symptoms. The 32 men with eating disorder symptoms, compared to the 438 men with normal eating, showed significantly greater pathology on scales assessing eating behavior, exercise addiction, satisfaction with body shape, and weight. However, the EDE-Q cutoff score for eating disturbance identified only three (9%) of the EDS men. Symptoms of disordered eating, sometimes involving purging via excessive exercise, do occur in older men, and may be missed by conventional instruments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:953-957). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Functional ability at age 75: is there an impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Støvring, N; Schultz-Larsen, K

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of physical inactivity from middle age to early old age on functional ability at age 75. Physical activity is measured both as cumulated activity from age 50 to 60 to 70 and at three separate points in time. Three hundred eighty-seven men and women...... born in 1914 and living in seven municipalities in the western part of the County of Copenhagen were followed for 25 years with examinations in 1964, 1974, 1984 and 1989. Analyses were conducted with physical inactivity as an independent variable (accumulated and separately for each point in time......) and smoking, sex, school education, household composition, chronic disease at baseline and functional ability at age 70 as possible confounders. There was a strong association between physical inactivity at age 70 and disability at age 75. However, the analyses showed no effect of cumulated physical...

  18. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  19. Chronological age and its impact on associative learning proficiency and brain structure in middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Bellani, Marcella; Ahmed, Rizwan; Dusi, Nicola; Rambaldelli, Gianluca; Perlini, Cinzia; Marinelli, Veronica; Ramaseshan, Karthik; Ruggeri, Mirella; Bambilla, Paolo

    2016-01-15

    The rate of biological change in middle-adulthood is relatively under-studied. Here, we used behavioral testing in conjunction with structural magnetic resonance imaging to examine the effects of chronological age on associative learning proficiency and on brain regions that previous functional MRI studies have closely related to the domain of associative learning. Participants (n=66) completed a previously established associative learning paradigm, and consented to be scanned using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Age-related effects were investigated both across sub-groups in the sample (younger vs. older) and across the entire sample (using regression approaches). Chronological age had substantial effects on learning proficiency (independent of IQ and Education Level), with older adults showing a decrement compared to younger adults. In addition, decreases in estimated gray matter volume were observed in multiple brain regions including the hippocampus and the dorsal prefrontal cortex, both of which are strongly implicated in associative learning. The results suggest that middle adulthood may be a more dynamic period of life-span change than previously believed. The conjunctive application of narrowly focused tasks, with conjointly acquired structural MRI data may allow us to enrich the search for, and the interpretation of, age-related changes in cross-sectional samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fluoxetine induces input-specific hippocampal dendritic spine remodeling along the septotemporal axis in adulthood and middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Kathleen; Russo, Craig; Kim, Shannen; Rankin, Genelle; Sahay, Amar

    2015-11-01

    -level modifications in middle-age were associated with modest enhancement in contextual fear memory precision, anxiety-like behavior and antidepressant-like behavioral responses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Age-Graded Themes in White American Middle-Class Slang: A Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Thomas S.

    It is proposed that middle- and upper-middle-class slang used among white young people in modern America shows age-related themes. For youngsters between the ages of eight and early adolescence, the major theme in slang use is to establish in-group and out-group membership, with standards of judgment based on clothes, manners, and physical appeal.…

  2. Risk factors for coronary heart disease in middle-aged men in Crete in 1982.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aravanis, C.; Mensink, R.P.; Corcondilas, A.; Ioanidis, P.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Katan, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    Risk factors for coronary heart disease were studied in healthy middle- aged Cretan men in order to compare them with the middle-aged men of a previous generation studied in 1960 as the Cretan cohort of the Seven Countries Study (1960). In the present cohort mean values for total cholesterol were

  3. "Not in the Middle Ages"?: Alan Garner's "The Owl Service" and the Literature of Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Discusses connecting with the Middle Ages in adolescent fiction. Discusses how, in "The Owl Service," Garner addresses a relationship between adolescence in the late twentieth century and an aspect of the past--specifically the Middle Ages. Considers how "The Owl Service" is a story energized by myth, concerning the…

  4. A Feature Analysis of Risk Factors for Stroke in the Middle-Aged Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Haewon Byeon; Hyeung Woo Koh

    2015-01-01

    In order to maintain health during middle age and achieve successful aging, it is important to elucidate and prevent risk factors of middle-age stroke. This study investigated high risk groups of stroke in middle age population of Korea and provides basic material for establishment of stroke prevention policy by analyzing sudden perception of speech/language problems and clusters of multiple risk factors. This study analyzed 2,751 persons (1,191 males and 1,560 females) aged 40–59 who partici...

  5. Cardiovascular Response to Recreational Hockey in Middle-Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Zack A; Thomas, Scott G; Wald, Robert C; Goodman, Jack M

    2017-06-15

    The present study examined the hemodynamic response to recreational pick-up hockey relative to maximal exercise testing in middle-aged men. A total of 23 men with a mean age of 53 ± 7 years were studied. Graded exercise testing on a cycle ergometer determined maximal oxygen consumption, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR). Ambulatory BP and Holter electrocardiographic monitoring was performed during one of their weekly hockey games (mean duration = 45 ± 7.2 minutes): for "On-Ice" responses (PLAY; data recorded while standing immediately after a shift; 8.0 ± 1.4 shifts per game) and during seated recovery (BENCH), 15 minutes after the game. On-Ice HRs and BPs were significantly higher than values obtained during maximal cycle exercise, respectively (HR 174 ± 8.9 vs 163 ± 11.0 beats/min) (systolic blood pressure 202 ± 20 vs 173 ± 31 mm Hg; p game, whereas HR increased from 139 ± 20 to 155 ± 16 beats/min during the game. The myocardial oxygen demand (myocardial time tension index) increased significantly during PLAY concurrent with a decrease in estimated myocardial oxygen supply (diastolic pressure time index), with the endocardial viability ratio during PLAY demonstrating a significant decrease during the third quarter of the game (1.25 ± 0.24) versus the first quarter (1.56 ± 0.30), which remained depressed 15 minutes post-game (p men is an extremely vigorous interval exercise with increasing relative intensity as the game progresses. Hockey elicits peak BPs and HRs that can exceed values observed during maximal exercise testing and is characterized by progressive increases in myocardial oxygen demand and lowered supply during PLAY and BENCH time. Given the progressive and high cardiovascular demands, caution is warranted when estimating the cardiovascular demands of hockey from clinical stress testing, particularly in those whom coronary reserve may be compromised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Is the relative increase in income inequality related to tooth loss in middle-aged adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Mariél de Aquino; Vettore, Mario Vianna

    2016-01-01

    To assess whether Brazilian middle-aged adults living in cities that experienced a relative increase on income inequality were more likely to have severe tooth loss and lack a functional dentition. Data on Brazilian adults aged 35-44 years from state capitals and Federal District from the 2010 Brazilian Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil 2010) were analyzed. Clinically assessed tooth loss outcomes were severe tooth loss (Income inequality was assessed by Gini Index in 1991, 2000, and 2003 using tertiles of distribution. Variation in Gini Index was assessed by changes in the tertiles distribution between years. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (95 percent CI) between variation in income inequality and tooth loss outcomes adjusting for individual socio-demographic characteristics. Prevalence of severe tooth loss and lack of functional dentition was 4.8 percent and 21.2 percent, respectively. Individuals living in cities with moderate and high increase in income inequality between 1991 and 2003 were more likely to have severe tooth loss and lack a functional dentition in 2010 compared with those living in cities with stable income inequality in the same period. Relationships between low family income and both tooth loss outcomes were significantly attenuated by relative increases in income inequality. Relative increases in income inequality were significantly associated with severe tooth loss and lack of a functional dentition in Brazilian middle-aged adults. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  7. Sedentary lifestyle in middle-aged women is associated with severe menopausal symptoms and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümel, Juan E; Fica, Juan; Chedraui, Peter; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Zuñiga, María C; Witis, Silvina; Vallejo, María S; Tserotas, Konstantinos; Sánchez, Hugo; Onatra, William; Ojeda, Eliana; Mostajo, Desireé; Monterrosa, Alvaro; Lima, Selva; Martino, Mabel; Hernández-Bueno, José A; Gómez, Gustavo; Espinoza, María T; Flores, Daniel; Calle, Andrés; Bravo, Luz M; Benítez, Zully; Bencosme, Ascanio; Barón, Germán; Aedo, Sócrates

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between sedentary lifestyle and the severity of menopausal symptoms and obesity in middle-aged women. The Menopause Rating Scale, the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Athens Insomnia Scale were administered to 6,079 Latin American women aged 40 to 59 years. Sedentary lifestyle was defined as fewer than three weekly, 30-minute periods of physical activity. Sedentary women had more severe menopausal symptoms (total Menopause Rating Scale score: 9.57 ± 6.71 vs 8.01 ± 6.27 points, P sedentary lifestyle. Having a stable partner (OR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.96), using hormone therapy (OR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.64-0.87) and having a higher educational level (OR 0.66; 95% CI, 0.60-0.74) were negatively related to sedentary lifestyle. There was a high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle in this middle-aged Latin American female sample which was associated with more severe menopausal symptoms and obesity.

  8. Treponemal disease in the middle Archaic to early Woodland periods of the western Tennessee River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maria Ostendorf

    2006-10-01

    The high frequency of late prehistoric New World treponemal disease is attributable to the demographic changes concomitant with the adoption of agriculture. However, these demographic changes in group mobility and site density episodically preceded intensive plant domestication, suggesting possible staggered temporal change in observed treponemal disease case frequency. Thirteen convincing and an additional two probable (N = 581) cases of treponemal disease were identified in an eight-site skeletal sample spanning the Middle (6,000-3,000 BCE) to Late (2,500-ca. 1,000 to 500 BCE) Archaic and Early Woodland (500 BCE-0 CE) periods from the western Tennessee River Valley. Treponemal disease cases are infrequent in both the Middle (3/115, 2.6%) and Late (2 to 4 cases, subsistence economy across the Archaic-Woodland temporal boundary in the western Tennessee River Valley remained, as elsewhere, based on intensive hunting and collecting, the demographic corollaries of treponemal disease would apparently not be met. However, the traditional horizon marker of the Woodland period is the adoption of pottery, an activity associated with sedentism.

  9. Personality Trait Differences Between Young and Middle-Aged Adults: Measurement Artifacts or Actual Trends?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Christopher D; Allemand, Mathias; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff; Roberts, Brent W

    2016-08-01

    A growing body of research demonstrates that older individuals tend to score differently on personality measures than younger adults. However, recent research using item response theory (IRT) has questioned these findings, suggesting that apparent age differences in personality traits merely reflect artifacts of the response process rather than true differences in the latent constructs. Conversely, other studies have found the opposite-age differences appear to be true differences rather than response artifacts. Given these contradictory findings, the goal of the present study was to examine the measurement equivalence of personality ratings drawn from large groups of young and middle-aged adults (a) to examine whether age differences in personality traits could be completely explained by measurement nonequivalence and (b) to illustrate the comparability of IRT and confirmatory factor analysis approaches to testing equivalence in this context. Self-ratings of personality traits were analyzed in two groups of Internet respondents aged 20 and 50 (n = 15,726 in each age group). Measurement nonequivalence across these groups was negligible. The effect sizes of the mean differences due to nonequivalence ranged from -.16 to .15. Results indicate that personality trait differences across age groups reflect actual differences rather than merely response artifacts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Chronology of the Acheulean to Middle Stone Age transition in eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deino, Alan L.; Behrensmeyer, Anna K.; Brooks, Alison S.; Yellen, John E.; Sharp, Warren D.; Potts, Richard

    2018-04-01

    The origin of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) marks the transition from a highly persistent mode of stone toolmaking, the Acheulean, to a period of increasing technological innovation and cultural indicators associated with the evolution of Homo sapiens. We used argon-40/argon-39 and uranium-series dating to calibrate the chronology of Acheulean and early MSA artifact–rich sedimentary deposits in the Olorgesailie basin, southern Kenya rift. We determined the age of late Acheulean tool assemblages from 615,000 to 499,000 years ago, after which a large technological and faunal transition occurred, with a definitive MSA lacking Acheulean elements beginning most likely by ~320,000 years ago, but at least by 305,000 years ago. These results establish the oldest repository of MSA artifacts in eastern Africa.

  11. Chronology of the Acheulean to Middle Stone Age transition in eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deino, Alan L; Behrensmeyer, Anna K; Brooks, Alison S; Yellen, John E; Sharp, Warren D; Potts, Richard

    2018-04-06

    The origin of the Middle Stone Age (MSA) marks the transition from a highly persistent mode of stone toolmaking, the Acheulean, to a period of increasing technological innovation and cultural indicators associated with the evolution of Homo sapiens We used argon-40/argon-39 and uranium-series dating to calibrate the chronology of Acheulean and early MSA artifact-rich sedimentary deposits in the Olorgesailie basin, southern Kenya rift. We determined the age of late Acheulean tool assemblages from 615,000 to 499,000 years ago, after which a large technological and faunal transition occurred, with a definitive MSA lacking Acheulean elements beginning most likely by ~320,000 years ago, but at least by 305,000 years ago. These results establish the oldest repository of MSA artifacts in eastern Africa. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  12. Female reproductive factors are associated with objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Janne; Aukee, Pauliina; Hakonen, Harto; Kujala, Urho M.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity improves health and may delay the onset of several chronic diseases. For women in particular, the rate of these diseases accelerates at middle age; therefore it is important to identify the determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during midlife in this population. In this study, we focused on determinants that are unique to the female sex, such as childbearing and menopause. The main objective was to characterize the level of physical activity and differences between active and inactive middle-aged Finnish women. In addition, we examined the association of physical activity with female reproductive factors at midlife. The study population consisted of 647 women aged 48 to 55 years who participated in our Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study during the period from 2015 to 2016. Physical activity was measured objectively using hip-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. The outcome measures included the amounts of light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity accumulated in bouts of at least 10 minutes (MVPA10). MVPA10 was used to determine whether women were placed in the active (≥150 min/week) or inactive (physical activity measures as dependent variables and cumulative reproductive history index, menopausal symptoms, and pelvic floor dysfunction as independent variables. We found that a large portion (61%) of Finnish middle-aged women did not meet the physical activity recommendations of 150 minutes of MVPA10 per week. In the studied cohort, 78% of women experienced menopausal symptoms, and 54% exhibited pelvic floor dysfunction. Perceived menopausal symptoms were associated with greater light physical activity. Perceived pelvic floor dysfunction was associated with lower MVPA10. According to the fully adjusted multiple linear regression models, reproductive factors explained 6.0% of the variation of MVPA10 and 7.5% of the variation of light physical activity. The

  13. Relationships between Age, Daily Physical Activity, Antioxidant Capacity and Oxidative Stress among Middle-aged and Elderly People

    OpenAIRE

    Tanabe, Kai; Masuda, Kazumi; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Matsuda, Mitsuo; Hirayama, Aki; Nagase, Shoji; Kono, Ichiro; Kuno, Shinya

    2006-01-01

    The effects of age and daily physical activity (PA) on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress remains unclear, especially among advanced age population. Thus the present study evaluated antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress status, taking into account age and PA in healthy middle-aged and elderly people (45-92 years, n=436; 166 males and 270 females). The advanced age subjects were classified in groups according to their age. Data collected from young male subjects (18-26 years, n=36) ...

  14. Age, Period, and Cohort Differences in Work Centrality and Work Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hajdu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze whether work values differ between three dimensions of time (age, birth cohort, period. Using data of five waves of the World Values Survey and the European Values Study from more than forty countries and hierarchical age-period-cohort regression models, we did not find relevant gaps between birth cohorts with respect to the relative importance of work or with respect to work values. Thus, we claim that, in European and Euro-Atlantic countries, birth cohorts, on average, do not differ significantly with regard to their work values. Our results suggest, however, that the relative importance of work is significantly higher in the middle-age groups than among the younger or older groups. Regarding work values, we found that the importance of having an interesting job, good pay, and good hours decreases with age, and that job security is equally important at every age, whereas the importance of having a useful job increases with age.

  15. From the New Middle Ages to a New Dark Age: The Decline of the State and U.S. Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Phil

    2008-01-01

    .... Williams argues that we have passed the zenith of the Westphalian state, which is now in long-term decline, and are already in what several observers have termed the New Middle Ages, characterized...

  16. Mortality in Danish women: age, period and cohort analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    smokers throughout their adult life, suggesting that these smoking habits may be an important factor for their increased mortality. Study aim 3 The analysis of causes of death suggested an increased risk for deaths associated with the respiratory system and from causes traditionally associated....... Conclusion This study has shown that examination of total mortality trends in relation to age, period and cohort is a powerful exploratory tool for understanding changes in mortality and thus life expectancy. The analysis of differences in mortality trends among women in Denmark, Norway and Sweden...

  17. An R package for fitting age, period and cohort models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Decarli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the R implementation of a GLIM macro which fits age-period-cohort model following Osmond and Gardner. In addition to the estimates of the corresponding model, owing to the programming capability of R as an object oriented language, methods for printing, plotting and summarizing the results are provided. Furthermore, the researcher has fully access to the output of the main function (apc which returns all the models fitted within the function. It is so possible to critically evaluate the goodness of fit of the resulting model.

  18. Leisure Activity and Caregiver Involvement in Middle-Aged and Older Adults With Down Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaila, Iulia; Hartley, Sigan L.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Bulova, Peter D.; Tumuluru, Rameshwari V.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Lao, Patrick J.; Christian, Bradley T.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined leisure activity and its association with caregiver involvement (i.e., residence and time spent with primary caregiver) in 62 middle-aged and older adults with Down syndrome (aged 30–53 years). Findings indicated that middle-aged and older adults with Down syndrome frequently participated in social and passive leisure activities, with low participation in physical and mentally stimulating leisure activities. Residence and time spent with primary caregiver were assoc...

  19. Chronic treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 promotes memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation in middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G; Wang, Y; Li, J; Wang, J

    2015-04-30

    Ginseng serves as a potential candidate for the treatment of aging-related memory decline or memory loss. However, the related mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we applied an intraperitoneal injection of ginsenoside Rg1, an active compound from ginseng in middle-aged mice and detected memory improvement and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that a period of 30-day administration of ginsenoside Rg1 enhanced long-term memory in the middle-aged animals. Consistent with the memory improvement, ginsenoside Rg1 administration facilitated weak theta-burst stimulation (TBS)-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in acute hippocampal slices from middle-aged animals. Ginsenoside Rg1 administration increased the dendritic apical spine numbers and area in the CA1 region. In addition, ginsenoside Rg1 administration up-regulated the expression of hippocampal p-AKT, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), proBDNF and glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), but not p-ERK. Interestingly, the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) inhibitor (bpV) mimicked the ginsenoside Rg1 effects, including increasing p-AKT expression, promoting hippocampal basal synaptic transmission, LTP and memory. Taken together, our data suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 treatment improves memory in middle-aged mice possibly through regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway, altering apical spines and facilitating hippocampal LTP. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in support networks in late middle age: the extension of gender and educational differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Claude S; Beresford, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    This paper tests whether differences by gender and by educational attainment in contact with friends and family and in support expected from friends and family narrow or widen in late middle age. The data are drawn from about 4,800 members of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey who answered questions about their frequency of contact with social ties and expectations of 3 kinds of help in both 1993, when they were in their early 50s, and again in 2004. Using lagged dependent variable models, we find that between their 50s and 60s women's network advantages over men and college graduates' network advantages over high school graduates in frequency of social contact widened. The same was roughly true as well for expectations of social support, although here the divergences depended partly on the type of the support: Women gained relative to men in "talk" support and in help from nonkin if ill, but lost ground in financial support. The college-educated gained ground in all sorts of support from nonkin. These results reinforce concern that late middle age is a period when men and the less educated become yet more disadvantaged in social support, making attention to connectedness yet more critical. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Alcohol Advertising Exposure Among Middle School–Age Youth: An Assessment Across All Media and Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven C.; Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Becker, Kirsten M.; Shadel, William G.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to quantify middle school youth’s exposure to alcohol advertisements across media and venues, determine venues of greatest exposure, and identify characteristics of youth who are most exposed. Method: Over a 10-month period in 2013, 589 Los Angeles–area youth ages 11–14 from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds completed a short paper-and-pencil survey assessing background characteristics and then participated in a 14-day ecological momentary assessment, logging all exposures to alcohol advertisements on handheld computers as they occurred. Results: African American and Hispanic youth were exposed to an average of 4.1 and 3.4 advertisements per day, respectively, nearly two times as many as non-Hispanic White youth, who were exposed to 2.0 advertisements per day. Girls were exposed to 30% more advertisements than boys. Most exposures were to outdoor advertisements, with television advertisements a close second. Conclusions: Exposure to alcohol advertising is frequent among middle school–age youth and may put them at risk for earlier or more frequent underage drinking. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising outdoors and on television should be considered by regulators and by the alcohol industry and should focus particularly on reducing exposure among minority youth. PMID:27172570

  2. Alcohol Advertising Exposure Among Middle School-Age Youth: An Assessment Across All Media and Venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rebecca L; Martino, Steven C; Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Becker, Kirsten M; Shadel, William G; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify middle school youth's exposure to alcohol advertisements across media and venues, determine venues of greatest exposure, and identify characteristics of youth who are most exposed. Over a 10-month period in 2013, 589 Los Angeles-area youth ages 11-14 from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds completed a short paper-and-pencil survey assessing background characteristics and then participated in a 14-day ecological momentary assessment, logging all exposures to alcohol advertisements on handheld computers as they occurred. African American and Hispanic youth were exposed to an average of 4.1 and 3.4 advertisements per day, respectively, nearly two times as many as non-Hispanic White youth, who were exposed to 2.0 advertisements per day. Girls were exposed to 30% more advertisements than boys. Most exposures were to outdoor advertisements, with television advertisements a close second. Exposure to alcohol advertising is frequent among middle school-age youth and may put them at risk for earlier or more frequent underage drinking. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising outdoors and on television should be considered by regulators and by the alcohol industry and should focus particularly on reducing exposure among minority youth.

  3. Longitudinal examination of the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavsky, Steriani

    2010-12-01

    This 2-year prospective study examined the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women (N = 143) previously enrolled in a randomized controlled exercise trial. Across the 2-year period, increases in physical activity (PA) and self-efficacy and reductions in body mass index (BMI) were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition, and reductions in BMI were associated with improved subdomain self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The effects of PA, self-efficacy, and BMI on changes in physical self-worth and global self-esteem were mediated by changes in self-perceptions relative to physical condition and body attractiveness. The results of this longitudinal analysis support the hierarchical and multidimensional structure of self-esteem and indicate that middle-aged women can enhance how they perceive their condition and body attractiveness by continued participation in physical activity, increasing their self-efficacy, and maintaining healthy BMI levels.

  4. Working memory in middle-aged males: Age-related brain activation changes and cognitive fatigue effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Elissa; Evers, Elisabeth; De Groot, Renate; Backes, Walter; Veltman, Dick; Jolles, Jelle

    2017-01-01

    We examined the effects of aging and cognitive fatigue on working memory (WM) related brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Age-related differences were investigated in 13 young and 16 middle-aged male school teachers. Cognitive fatigue was induced by sustained performance on

  5. Constraint on radiocarbon age correction in Lake Biwa environment from the middle to late Holocene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Y., E-mail: miyata@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan); Minami, M. [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onbe, S. [National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan); Archaeological Heritage Management Office, Tokushima University, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Sakamoto, M. [National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan); Nakamura, T. [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Imamura, M. [National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Using data from previous studies and newly collected data, we compared the measured radiocarbon ages of molluscan shells, common reed (Phragmites australis) and pine needles (Pinus thunbergii) collected in 1966, 1970, 1990 and 2008 at Lake Biwa in Japan, and of archaeological samples, to examine radiocarbon reservoir effects at Lake Biwa. We also tested for differences in the radiocarbon reservoir effect between species and locations in the lake. The effects of nuclear bomb tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s are clear, the offset between atmospheric {sup 14}C and the Lake Biwa freshwater {sup 14}C is larger for this period because the atmospheric {sup 14}C is so high. The semiclosed Lake Biwa system is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere, resulting in the {sup 14}C content of the water following the changes in atmospheric {sup 14}C caused by nuclear testing. The shells collected after 1990 had radiocarbon ages that were 330-450 {sup 14}C years older than those of the coeval atmosphere. The apparent differences in radiocarbon age (about 300 {sup 14}C years) between shell fossils and wood samples excavated from the same layer of the submerged Awazu shell midden at Lake Biwa suggest that the radiocarbon reservoir effect also existed in the middle Holocene (the Middle Jomon period, about 5000 years ago). Because the present-day average residence time of Lake Biwa water is 3-6 years, its direct influence on the radiocarbon reservoir effect is small, which suggests that old carbon has been supplied into Lake Biwa.

  6. Masking Period Patterns & Forward Masking for Speech-Shaped Noise: Age-related effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H.; Menezes, Denise C.; Porter, Heather L.; Griz, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in temporal resolution in listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The hypothesis was that increased susceptibility to non-simultaneous masking contributes to the hearing difficulties experienced by older listeners in complex fluctuating backgrounds. Design Participants included younger (n = 11), middle-aged (n = 12), and older (n = 11) listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The first phase of the study measured masking period patterns for speech-shaped noise maskers and signals. From these data, temporal window shapes were derived. The second phase measured forward-masking functions, and assessed how well the temporal window fits accounted for these data. Results The masking period patterns demonstrated increased susceptibility to backward masking in the older listeners, compatible with a more symmetric temporal window in this group. The forward-masking functions exhibited an age-related decline in recovery to baseline thresholds, and there was also an increase in the variability of the temporal window fits to these data. Conclusions This study demonstrated an age-related increase in susceptibility to non-simultaneous masking, supporting the hypothesis that exacerbated non-simultaneous masking contributes to age-related difficulties understanding speech in fluctuating noise. Further support for this hypothesis comes from limited speech-in-noise data suggesting an association between susceptibility to forward masking and speech understanding in modulated noise. PMID:26230495

  7. Masking Period Patterns and Forward Masking for Speech-Shaped Noise: Age-Related Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, John H; Menezes, Denise C; Porter, Heather L; Griz, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess age-related changes in temporal resolution in listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The hypothesis was that increased susceptibility to nonsimultaneous masking contributes to the hearing difficulties experienced by older listeners in complex fluctuating backgrounds. Participants included younger (n = 11), middle-age (n = 12), and older (n = 11) listeners with relatively normal audiograms. The first phase of the study measured masking period patterns for speech-shaped noise maskers and signals. From these data, temporal window shapes were derived. The second phase measured forward-masking functions and assessed how well the temporal window fits accounted for these data. The masking period patterns demonstrated increased susceptibility to backward masking in the older listeners, compatible with a more symmetric temporal window in this group. The forward-masking functions exhibited an age-related decline in recovery to baseline thresholds, and there was also an increase in the variability of the temporal window fits to these data. This study demonstrated an age-related increase in susceptibility to nonsimultaneous masking, supporting the hypothesis that exacerbated nonsimultaneous masking contributes to age-related difficulties understanding speech in fluctuating noise. Further support for this hypothesis comes from limited speech-in-noise data, suggesting an association between susceptibility to forward masking and speech understanding in modulated noise.

  8. Osteoporosis influences the middle and late periods of fracture healing in a rat osteoporotic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-wei; LI Wei; XU Shao-wen; YANG Di-sheng; WANG Yun; LIN Min; ZHAO Guang-feng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of osteoporosis on the middle and late periods of fracture healing process through observing the histomorphological changes, bone mineral density and biomechanical properties in ovariectomized rats. Methods: Eighty-four female SD rats of 4 months old were randomly divided into osteoporosis group and sham operation group, 42 in each. Rats in osteoporosis group were performed ovariectomy operation while those in sham operation group were given sham operation. A midshaft tibia fracture model was established 10 weeks after ovariectomy. Tibias were harvested 2, 4, 6, 12, 18 weeks after fracture for bone mineral density, histomorphological and biomechanical evaluation. Results: Compared with the sham operation group, callus bone mineral density was 12.8%, 18.0%, 17.0% lower in osteoporosis group 6, 12, 18 weeks after fracture, respectively (P<0.05); callus failure load was 24.3%, 31.5%, 26.6%, 28.8% lower in osteoporosis group, and callus failure stress was 23.9%, 33.6%, 19.1%, 24.9% lower in osteoporosis group 4, 6, 12, 18 weeks after fracture, respectively (P<0.05). In osteoporosis group, endochondral bone formation was delayed, more osteoclast cells could be seen around the trabecula, and the new bone trabecula arranged loosely and irregularly. Conclusions: Osteoporosis influences the middle and late periods of fracture healing in the rat osteoporotic model. The impairment is considered to be the result of combined effects of prolonged endochondral calcification, high activated osteoclast cell and the deceleration of the increase in bone mineral density.

  9. Youth as Design Partners: Age-Appropriate Websites for Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Anthony S.; Smith, Kathelene McCarty; Sun, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the impact of using best practices identified in previous studies in designing age-appropriate websites for middle and high school youth. Utilizing a mixed-method approach, 31 middle and 22 high school youth took part in six focus groups across four states. Participants were introduced to a website specifically designed for…

  10. Aging evaluation methodology of periodic safety review in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heung-Bae; Jung, Sung-Gyu; Jin, Tae-Eun; Jeong, Ill-Seok

    2002-01-01

    In Korea plant lifetime management (PLIM) study for Kori Unit 1 has been performed since 1993. Meanwhile, periodic safety review (PSR) for all operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been started with Kori Unit 1 since 2000 per IAEA recommendation. The evaluation period is 10 years, and safety (evaluation) factors are 11 per IAEA guidelines as represented in table 1. The relationship between PSR factors and PLIM is also represented. Among these factors evaluation of 'management of aging' is one of the most important and difficult factor. This factor is related to 'actual condition of the NPP', 'use of experience from other nuclear NPPs and of research findings', and 'management of aging'. The object of 'management of aging' is to obtain plant safety through identifying actual condition of system, structure and components (SSCs) and evaluating aging phenomena and residual life of SSCs using operating experience and research findings. The paper describes the scope and procedure of valuation of 'management of aging', such as, screening criteria of SSCs, Code and Standards, evaluation of SSCs and safety issues as represented. Evaluating SSCs are determined using final safety analysis report (FSAR) and power unit maintenance system for Nuclear Ver. III (PUMAS/N-III). The screening criteria of SSCs are safety-related items (quality class Q), safety-impact items (quality class T), backfitting rule items (fire protection (10CFR50.48), environmental qualification (10CFR50.49), pressurized thermal shock (10CFR50.61), anticipated transient without scram (10CFR50.62), and station blackout (10CFR50.63)) and regulating authority requiring items[1∼3]. The purpose of review of Code and Standards is identifying actual condition of the NPP and evaluating aging management using effective Code and Standards corresponding to reactor facilities. Code and Standards is composed of regulating laws, FSAR items, administrative actions, regulating actions, agreement items, and other

  11. The relationship between stressors and mental health among Japanese middle-aged women in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Junko; Takeda, Fumi; Kishi, Kaori; Monma, Takafumi

    2017-04-27

    In middle age, some people may become mentally or emotionally unstable. Additionally, in Japan, mood disorders, such as depressive symptoms, occur mostly among middle-aged women (i.e., aged 40-49 years). However, few studies have examined stressors related to mental health. In the present study, we developed a stressor scale for middle-aged women and examined stressors correlated with middle-aged women's mental health. In January 2015, an anonymous, self-administered survey was mailed to 1,000 randomly selected women aged 45 through 64 years living in Tokyo, Japan. Completed questionnaires were obtained from 329 women (32.9 percent). Factor analysis identified the following stressor categories: "relationship with my husband," "uneasiness about old age," "health concerns," "work-life balance," and "relationship with my friends." "Uneasiness about old age" and "health concerns" were correlated negatively with participants' mental health. Improving middle-aged women's health requires interventions that relieve stressors resulting from age-related problems and promote a positive image of old age.

  12. Eicosanoid Production following One Bout of Exercise in Middle-Aged African American Pre- and Stage 1 Hypertensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheara Williamson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction and a sedentary lifestyle may be involved in the development of hypertension which is proliferative among middle-aged African Americans (AA. Signaling molecules derived from the oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acid molecules known as eicosanoids influence vascular tone. The relationship between aerobic fitness and eicosanoid formation following exercise in middle-aged African American hypertensives is unknown. Purpose. To determine the relationship between aerobic capacity and eicosanoid formation after a bout of moderate-intensity exercise in middle-aged AA hypertensives. Methods. Ten sedentary hypertensive AA underwent 50 min of aerobic exercise at 65% VO2max. Urine was collected for 24 hr on two occasions, prior to testing and immediately following the bout of exercise. Urinary metabolites of prostacyclin (6-keto PGF1α and thromboxane (11-dTXB2 were measured during the day and night periods by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results. 6-keto PGF1α levels significantly increased (=.04 following the bout of exercise compared to the control day. There was a significant relationship (=.49, <.05 between 6-keto PGF1α levels and VO2max during the exercise day. Conclusion. Based on this preliminary study, there appears to be a relationship between aerobic capacity and exercise-induced 6-keto PGF1α production in middle-aged hypertensive AAs. AAs with lower VO2max had lower 6-keto PGF1α formation.

  13. Turnover of whole body proteins and myofibrillar proteins in middle-aged active men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackin, M.; Meredith, C.; Frontera, W.; Evans, W.

    1986-01-01

    Endurance-trained older men have a higher proportion of lean tissue and greater muscle cell oxidative capacity, reversing age-related trends and suggesting major changes in protein metabolism. In this study, protein turnover was determined in 6 middle-aged (52+/-1 yr) men who were well trained (VO 2 max 55.2+/-5.0 ml O 2 /kg.min) and lean (body fat 18.9+/-2.8%, muscle mass 36.6+/-0.6%). The maintained habitual exercise while consuming 0.6, 0.9 or 1.2 g protein/kg.day for 10-day periods. N flux was measured from 15 N in urea after oral 15 N-glycine administration. Myofibrillar protein breakdown was estimated from urinary 3-methyl-histidine. Dietary protein had no effect on turnover rates, even when N balance was negative. Whole body protein synthesis was 3.60+/-0.12 g/kg.day and breakdown was 3.40+/-0.14 g/kg.day for all N intakes. Whole body protein flux, synthesis and breakdown were similar to values reported for sedentary young (SY) or sedentary old (SO) men on comparable diets. 3-me-his (3.67+/-0.14 μmol/kg.day) was similar to values reported for SY but higher (p<0.01) than for SO. Myofibrillar protein breakdown per unit muscle mass (185+/-7 μmol 3-me-his/g creatinine) was higher (p<0.01) than for SY or SO. In active middle-aged men, myofibrillar proteins may account for a greater proportion of whole body protein turnover, despite an age-related reduction in muscle mass

  14. High levels of cynical distrust partly predict premature mortality in middle-aged to ageing men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmigelskas, Kastytis; Joffė, Roza; Jonynienė, Jolita; Julkunen, Juhani; Kauhanen, Jussi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cynical distrust on mortality in middle-aged and aging men. The analysis is based on Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease study, follow-up from 1984 to 2011. Sample consisted of 2682 men, aged 42-61 years at baseline. Data on mortality was provided by the National Death Registry, causes of death were classified by the National Center of Statistics of Finland. Cynical distrust was measured at baseline using Cynical Distrust Scale. Survival analyses were conducted using Cox regression models. In crude estimates after 28 years of follow-up, high cynical distrust was associated with 1.5-1.7 higher hazards for earlier death compared to low cynical distrust. Adjusted for conventional risk factors, high cynical distrust was significantly associated regarding CVD-free men and CVD mortality, while non-CVD mortality in study sample was consistently but not significantly associated. The risk effects were more expressed after 12-20 years rather than in earlier or later follow-up. To conclude, high cynical distrust associates with increased risk of CVD mortality in CVD-free men. The associations with non-CVD mortality are weaker and not reach statistical significance.

  15. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...... was unaffected by age, but middle-aged women had a significantly slower colonic transit than young women. We therefore conclude that both age and gender have to be considered when reference values for gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times have to be established....

  16. Issues of affinity: exploring population structure in the Middle and Regional Developments Periods of San Pedro de Atacama, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rouff, Christina; Knudson, Kelly J; Hubbe, Mark

    2013-11-01

    The Middle Period (AD 400-1000) in northern Chile's Atacama oases is characterized by an increase in social complexity and regional interaction, much of which was organized around the power and impact of the Tiwanaku polity. Despite the strong cultural influence of Tiwanaku and numerous other groups evident in interactions with Atacameños, the role of immigration into the oases during this period is unclear. While archaeological and bioarchaeological research in the region has shown no evidence that clearly indicates large groups of foreign immigrants, the contemporary increase in interregional exchange networks connecting the oases to other parts of the Andes suggests residential mobility and the possibility that movement of people both into and out of the oases accompanied these foreign influences. Here, we analyze biodistance through cranial non-metric traits in a skeletal sample from prehistoric San Pedro de Atacama to elucidate the extent of foreign influence in the oases and discuss its implications. We analyzed 715 individuals from the Middle Period (AD 400-1000) and later Regional Developments Period (AD 1000-1450), and found greater phenotypic differences between Middle Period cemeteries than among cemeteries in the subsequent period. We argue that this greater diversity extends beyond the relationship between the oases and the renowned Tiwanaku polity and reflects the role of the oases and its different ayllus as a node and way station for the Middle Period's myriad interregional networks. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Factors Influencing Problem-Solving in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Mary S.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Groups of middle-aged and elderly men and women were compared on three problem solving tasks, including written problems, the 20-questions procedure, and problems administered on a Heuristic Evaluation Problem Programmer. (MS)

  18. A survey of European astronomical tables in the late middle ages

    CERN Document Server

    Chabás, José

    2012-01-01

    This is a survey of the numerous astronomical tables compiled in the late Middle Ages, which represent a major intellectual enterprise. Such tables were often the best way available at the time for transmitting precise information to the reader.

  19. Materialism across the life span: An age-period-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Esther D T; Pieters, Rik G M

    2016-09-01

    This research examined the development of materialism across the life span. Two initial studies revealed that (a) lay beliefs were that materialism declines with age and (b) previous research findings also implied a modest, negative relationship between age and materialism. Yet, previous research has considered age only as a linear control variable, thereby precluding the possibility of more intricate relationships between age and materialism. Moreover, prior studies have relied on cross-sectional data and thus confound age and cohort effects. To improve on this, the main study used longitudinal data from 8 waves spanning 9 years of over 4,200 individuals (16 to 90 years) to examine age effects on materialism while controlling for cohort and period effects. Using a multivariate multilevel latent growth model, it found that materialism followed a curvilinear trajectory across the life span, with the lowest levels at middle age and higher levels before and after that. Thus, in contrast to lay beliefs, materialism increased in older age. Moreover, age effects on materialism differed markedly between 3 core themes of materialism: acquisition centrality, possession-defined success, and acquisition as the pursuit of happiness. In particular, acquisition centrality and possession-defined success were higher at younger and older age. Independent of these age effects, older birth cohorts were oriented more toward possession-defined success, whereas younger birth cohorts were oriented more toward acquisition centrality. The economic downturn since 2008 led to a decrease in acquisition as the pursuit of happiness and in desires for personal growth, but to an increase in desires for achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Cognitive functions in middle aged individuals are related to metabolic disturbances and aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maria; Pedersen, Karin Kaereby; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic disturbances may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relation between cognitive impairment and metabolic deteriorations, low physical fitness, low-grade inflammation and abdominal obesity in middle aged individuals.......Metabolic disturbances may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relation between cognitive impairment and metabolic deteriorations, low physical fitness, low-grade inflammation and abdominal obesity in middle aged individuals....

  1. Low cognitive ability in early adulthood is associated with reduced lung function in middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Douglas; Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2011-01-01

    Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age.......Reduced lung function has been linked to poorer cognitive ability later in life. In the present study, the authors examined the converse: whether there was a prospective association between cognitive ability in early adulthood and lung function in middle age....

  2. Comparison of the clinical symptoms of myocardial infarction in the middle-aged and elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Taghipour; Hamid Sharif Nia; Mohammad Ali Soleimani; Mitra Hekmat Afshar; Samaneh Shahidi Far

    2014-01-01

    Background: Myocardial infarction is a fatal symbol of cardiovascular diseases, which usually occurs in people over 45 years. However, the incidence of factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes and metabolic syndrome has increased the risk of developing early cardiovascular diseases in the middle-aged people. This study was conducted to compare the clinical manifestation of myocardial infarction in the middle-aged and elderly people. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the...

  3. [Brain Perfusion, Cognitive Functions, and Vascular Age in Middle Aged Patients With Essential Arterial Hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, V A; Ostroumova, T M; Pеrepelova, E M; Perepelov, V A; Kochetkov, A I; Ostroumova, O D

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the cognitive functions and cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling (ASL) and their possible correlations with vascular age in untreated middle-aged patients with grade 1-2 essential arterial hypertension (EAH). We examined 73 subjects aged 40-59 years (33 with EAH and 40 healthy volunteers [controls]). Neuropsychological assessment included Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Trail Making test (part A and part B), Stroop Color and Word Test, verbal fluency test (phonemic verbal fluency and semantic verbal fluency), 10‑item word list learning task. All subjects underwent brain MRI. MRI protocol included ASL. Vascular age was calculated by two techniques - using Framingham Heart Study risk tables and SCORE project scales. Patients with EAH had lower performance on phonemic verbal fluency test and lower mean MoCA score (29.2±1.4 vs. 28.1±1.7 points) compared to controls (13.4±3.2, р=0.002; 29.2±1.4, p=0.001, respectively). White matter hyperintensities (WMH) were present in 7.5 % controls and in 51.5 % EAH patients (р=0.0002). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) in EAH patients was lower in both right (39.1±5.6 vs. 45.8±3.2 ml / 100 g / min) and left frontal lobes of the brain (39.2±6.2 и 45.2±3.6 ml / 100 g / min, respectively) compared to controls (р.

  4. Effects of aquatic balance training and detraining on neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle aged male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abbasi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Since disorders in neuromuscular performance and imbalance are the main cause of fallingamong the middle aged, their aspects including rehabilitation of balance are the main concern theresearchers attend to them. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of eight weeks aquaticbalance training (ABT and detraining on neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle agedmale.Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male subjects were randomized into two groups of ABT and control(n=15 per group. Berg balance scale, Timed Up and Go and 5-Chair stand tests, as they are indicators ofbalance and neuromuscular performance in older subjects, were taken as pretest and post-test and after four,six, and eight weeks of detraining as well. The ABT consisted of the sessions that lasted one hour, threetimes a week, for eight weeks.Results: Results showed that neuromuscular performance and balance improved significantly in ABTgroup (P 0.05.Conclusion: ABT can affect neuromuscular performance and balance in healthy middle aged male, andreduce the probability of falling among them. Moreover, the effects of these training are persistent afterdetraining periods. Hence, ABT can be recommended as an effective neuromuscular and balance training inhealthy middle aged male

  5. Variations in steroid hormone receptor content throughout age and menopausal periods, and menstrual cycle in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic-Vukosavljevic, D.; Vasiljevic, N.; Brankovic-Magic, M.; Polic, D.

    1996-01-01

    Variations in steroid hormone receptor contents throughout age and menopausal periods define three breast carcinoma groups: younger pre-menopausal carcinomas (aged up to 45), middle-aged carcinomas (aged up to 45), middle-aged carcinomas (pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal aged 45-59) and older postmenopausal carcinomas (aged over 59). Age-related steroid hormone receptor contents within pre-menopausal and postmenopausal carcinoma groups are characterized by the important increase of both receptor contents, while menopausal-related steroid hormone receptor contents within middle-aged carcinoma group (aged 45-59) are characterized by the important decrease of progesterone receptor content and estrogen receptor functionality. No variations in steroid hormone receptor contents throughout menstrual cycle within the follicular and the luteal phases were obtained. The important cycle within the follicular and the luteal phases were obtained. The important decrease of estrogen receptor content in the mid-cycle phase versus the peri-menstrual phase was found. Variations in steroid hormone receptor contents throughout age and menopausal periods, as well as throughout menstrual cycle could nod be associated with variations in the blood steroid hormone concentrations. However, important association between steroid hormone receptor contents and the blood steroid hormone concentrations was found within the luteal phase carcinoma group and within older postmenopausal carcinoma group. It is interesting that within carcinoma group with the highest concentration of progesterone, progesterone receptor content increases with an increase of the ration of estradiol and progesterone blood concentrations, while within carcinoma group with the lowest steroid hormone concentration and the highest content of estrogen receptor content, estrogen receptor content decreases with an increase of either the blood estradiol concentration or the ratio of the blood estradiol and progesterone blood

  6. Spotted phenotypes in horses lost attractiveness in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wutke, Saskia; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson

    2016-01-01

    were influenced by humans. Our results from genotype analyses show a significant increase in spotted coats in early domestic horses (Copper Age to Iron Age). In contrast, medieval horses carried significantly fewer alleles for these phenotypes, whereas solid phenotypes (i.e., chestnut) became dominant...

  7. Mortality increase in late-middle and early-old age: heterogeneity in death processes as a new explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Yang, Yang Claire; Anderson, James J

    2013-10-01

    Deviations from the Gompertz law of exponential mortality increases in late-middle and early-old age are commonly neglected in overall mortality analyses. In this study, we examined mortality increase patterns between ages 40 and 85 in 16 low-mortality countries and demonstrated sex differences in these patterns, which also changed across period and cohort. These results suggest that the interaction between aging and death is more complicated than what is usually assumed from the Gompertz law and also challenge existing biodemographic hypotheses about the origin and mechanisms of sex differences in mortality. We propose a two-mortality model that explains these patterns as the change in the composition of intrinsic and extrinsic death rates with age. We show that the age pattern of overall mortality and the population heterogeneity therein are possibly generated by multiple dynamics specified by a two-mortality model instead of a uniform process throughout most adult ages.

  8. Growth trajectories from conception through middle childhood and cognitive achievement at age 8 years: Evidence from four low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Andreas; Benny, Liza; Crookston, Benjamin T; Duc, Le Thuc; Hermida, Priscila; Mani, Subha; Woldehanna, Tassew; Stein, Aryeh D; Behrman, Jere R

    2016-12-01

    Child chronic malnutrition is endemic in low- and middle-income countries and deleterious for child development. Studies investigating the relationship between nutrition at different periods of childhood, as measured by growth in these periods (growth trajectories), and cognitive development have produced mixed evidence. Although an explanation of this has been that different studies use different approaches to model growth trajectories, the differences across approaches are not well understood. Furthermore, little is known about the pathways linking growth trajectories and cognitive achievement. In this paper, we develop and estimate a general path model of the relationship between growth trajectories and cognitive achievement using data on four cohorts from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. The model is used to: a) compare two of the most common approaches of modelling growth trajectories in the literature, namely the lifecourse plot and the conditional body size model, and b) investigate the potential channels via which the association between growth in each period and cognitive achievement manifests. We show that the two approaches are expected to produce systematically different results that have distinct interpretations. Results suggest that growth from conception through age 1 year, between age 1 and 5 years, and between 5 and 8 years are each positively and significantly associated with cognitive achievement at age 8 years and that this may be partly explained by the fact that faster-growing children start school earlier. We also find that a significant share of the association between early growth and later cognitive achievement is mediated through growth in interim periods.

  9. Fossil embryos from the Middle and Late Cambrian period of Hunan, south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xi-Ping; Donoghue, Philip C J; Cheng, Hong; Liu, Jian-Bo

    2004-01-15

    Comparative embryology is integral to uncovering the pattern and process of metazoan phylogeny, but it relies on the assumption that life histories of living taxa are representative of their antecedents. Fossil embryos provide a crucial test of this assumption and, potentially, insight into the evolution of development, but because discoveries so far lack phylogenetic constraint, their significance is moot. Here we describe a collection of embryos from the Middle and Late Cambrian period (500 million years ago) of Hunan, south China, that preserves stages of development from cleavage to the pre-hatching embryo of a direct-developing animal comparable to living Scalidophora (phyla Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera). The latest-stage embryos show affinity to the Lower Cambrian embryo Markuelia, whose life-history strategy contrasts both with the primitive condition inferred for metazoan phyla and with many proposed hypotheses of affinity, all of which prescribe indirect development. Phylogenetic tests based on these embryological data suggest a stem Scalidophora affinity. These discoveries corroborate, rather than contradict, the predictions of comparative embryology, providing direct historical support for the view that the life-history strategies of living taxa are representative of their stem lineages.

  10. The age of the hominin fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, and the origins of the Middle Stone Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Daniel; Grün, Rainer; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Steele, Teresa E; Amani, Fethi; Rué, Mathieu; Fernandes, Paul; Raynal, Jean-Paul; Geraads, Denis; Ben-Ncer, Abdelouahed; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; McPherron, Shannon P

    2017-06-07

    The timing and location of the emergence of our species and of associated behavioural changes are crucial for our understanding of human evolution. The earliest fossil attributed to a modern form of Homo sapiens comes from eastern Africa and is approximately 195 thousand years old, therefore the emergence of modern human biology is commonly placed at around 200 thousand years ago. The earliest Middle Stone Age assemblages come from eastern and southern Africa but date much earlier. Here we report the ages, determined by thermoluminescence dating, of fire-heated flint artefacts obtained from new excavations at the Middle Stone Age site of Jebel Irhoud, Morocco, which are directly associated with newly discovered remains of H. sapiens. A weighted average age places these Middle Stone Age artefacts and fossils at 315 ± 34 thousand years ago. Support is obtained through the recalculated uranium series with electron spin resonance date of 286 ± 32 thousand years ago for a tooth from the Irhoud 3 hominin mandible. These ages are also consistent with the faunal and microfaunal assemblages and almost double the previous age estimates for the lower part of the deposits. The north African site of Jebel Irhoud contains one of the earliest directly dated Middle Stone Age assemblages, and its associated human remains are the oldest reported for H. sapiens. The emergence of our species and of the Middle Stone Age appear to be close in time, and these data suggest a larger scale, potentially pan-African, origin for both.

  11. Caffeine and diphenyl diselenide improve long-term memory impaired in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Marlon R; Marcondes Sari, Marcel Henrique; de Freitas, Mayara L; Oliveira, Lia P; Dalmolin, Laíza; Brandão, Ricardo; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 supplemented diet (10ppm) associated to the administration of caffeine (15mg/kg; i.g.) for 30days on the novel object recognition memory in middle-aged rats. The present findings showed that (PhSe)2-supplemented diet enhanced short-term memory, but not long-term memory, of middle-aged rats in the novel object recognition task. The (PhSe)2 supplemented diet associated with caffeine administration improved long-term memory, but did not alter short-term memory, impaired in middle-aged rats. Daily caffeine administration to middle-aged rats had no effect on the memory tasks. Diet supplemented with (PhSe)2 plus caffeine administration increased the number of crossings and rearings reduced in middle-aged rats. Caffeine administration plus (PhSe)2 diets were effective in increasing the number of rearings and crossings, respectively, in middle-aged rats, [(3)H] glutamate uptake was reduced in hippocampal slices of rats from (PhSe)2 and caffeine plus (PhSe)2 groups. In addition, animals supplemented with (PhSe)2 showed an increase in the pCREB/CREB ratio whereas pAkt/Akt ratio was not modified. These results suggest that the effects of (PhSe)2 on the short-term memory may be related to its ability to decrease the uptake of glutamate, influencing the increase of CREB phosphorylation. (PhSe)2-supplemented diet associated to the administration of caffeine improved long-term memory impaired in middle-aged rats, an effect independent of CREB and Akt phosphorylation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reconstructing the Middle Ages. Dirck van Bleyswijck’s Beschryvinge der stadt Delft and its uneasy relationship with the past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Polkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dirck van Bleyswijck's Beschryvinge der stadt Delft presents an ambiguous and problematic attitude to the medieval history of Delft, which makes it interesting to scholars wishing to explore the perception of the Middle Ages as it crystallized during the early modern period. The aim of this contribution is to determine the intellectual origins of Van Bleyswijck's work as a historian in the context of his perception of the medieval past. The analysis of Van Bleyswijck's performance as a historian is based on a case study derived from the narrative: quotations from source texts and commentary about the life of the medieval Delft beguine Geertruyd van Oosten will be compared. Van Bleyswijck's representation of the Middle Ages was formed by a combination of humanist and proto-Enlightenment concepts, which entailed a critical reaction to forms of religious culture known to medieval society.

  13. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-08-01

    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing.

  14. Developmental trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia and preejection period in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Elmore-Staton, Lori; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity has been linked repeatedly to children's socioemotional and behavioral adaptive functioning and development, yet the literature on how various indexes of ANS activity develop in childhood is sparse. We utilized latent growth modeling to investigate the development of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an established index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), and preejection period (PEP), a marker of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) influence on the heart, in children aged 8-10 years. At age 8, 251 children (128 girls, 123 boys; 162 European American, 89 African American) participated. Longitudinal data were collected during two additional waves when children were 9 and 10 years of age, with a 1-year lag between each wave. Children's RSA and PEP exhibited significant stability over time. Marginally significant variability was found among children in how RSA changed over time (slope), but there was no significant interindividual variability in PEP changes over development. A conditional growth curve model (i.e., one with predictor variables) showed that initial levels of RSA and PEP and the slope of RSA over time were predicted by several demographic factors including the child's sex and race; RSA of European American children showed significant increases over time while African American children had higher initial RSA but no significant change over time. Findings extend basic knowledge in developmental biopsychology and have implications for research focusing on ANS measures as important predictors, moderators, and mediators of childhood adaptation. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Attenuated audiovisual integration in middle-aged adults in a discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiping; Ren, Yanna

    2018-02-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the diversity of audiovisual integration between younger and older adults. However, consecutive trends in audiovisual integration throughout life are still unclear. In the present study, to clarify audiovisual integration characteristics in middle-aged adults, we instructed younger and middle-aged adults to conduct an auditory/visual stimuli discrimination experiment. Randomized streams of unimodal auditory (A), unimodal visual (V) or audiovisual stimuli were presented on the left or right hemispace of the central fixation point, and subjects were instructed to respond to the target stimuli rapidly and accurately. Our results demonstrated that the responses of middle-aged adults to all unimodal and bimodal stimuli were significantly slower than those of younger adults (p Audiovisual integration was markedly delayed (onset time 360 ms) and weaker (peak 3.97%) in middle-aged adults than in younger adults (onset time 260 ms, peak 11.86%). The results suggested that audiovisual integration was attenuated in middle-aged adults and further confirmed age-related decline in information processing.

  16. Transient decoupling of cortical EEGs following arousals during NREM sleep in middle-aged and elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanand, Pravitha; Bruce, Margaret C; Bruce, Eugene N

    2010-08-01

    Spontaneous cortical arousals in non-REM sleep increase with age and contribute to sleep fragmentation in the elderly. EEG spectral power in the faster frequencies exhibits well-described shifts during arousals. On the other hand, EEG activities also exhibit correlations, which are interpreted as an index of interdependence between distant cortical neural activities. The possibility of changes to the interdependence between cortical regions due to an arousal has not been considered. In this work, using previously recorded C3A2 and C4A1 EEG signals from two groups of adults, middle-aged (42-50 years) and elderly (71-86 years) women, we examined the effects of spontaneous arousals in NREM sleep on cortical interdependence. We quantified the auto- and cross-correlations in these signals using mutual information and characterized these correlations in periods before the onset and following the end of arousals. The pre-arousal period exhibited significantly higher interdependence between central regions than that following the arousal in both age groups (middle-aged: p=0.004, elderly: ppower changes characteristic of an arousal are no longer visible. The findings suggest that the state following an arousal characterized by lower interdependence may resemble a more vigilant period during which the system may be vulnerable to more arousals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Factors Related to Presenteeism in Young and Middle-aged Nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mami; Miki, Akiko

    2018-04-03

    Presenteeism is considered to be not only a work-related stressor but also a factor involved in the development of workaholism and error proneness, which is often described as careless. Additionally, increasing health issues arising from aging suggest the possibility that presenteeism in middle-aged nurses is different than that in young ones. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify and tease apart factors involved in presenteeism among young and middle-aged nurses. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among 2,006 nurses working at 10 hospitals. In total, 761 nurses aged nurses aged ≥40 years were enrolled in this study. Work Impairment Scores (WIS) on the Japanese version of the Stanford Presenteeism Scale were measured for presenteeism. Job stressors, workaholism, and error proneness were measured for related factors. Multiple regression analysis was conducted after determining the WIS as the dependent variable and related factors as independent variables. Overall, 70.8% of the young nurses reported health problems compared to 82.5% of the middle-aged nurses. However, WIS in young nurses was significantly higher than that in middle-aged ones (p nurses showed a significant relationship with the degree of stressors, "difficulty of work" (β = 0.28, p nurses showed a significant relationship with "cognitive narrowing" (β = 0.29, p nurses does not necessarily lower their working capacity. Also, compared to young nurses, the degree of failing tendency, rather than the degree of job stressors, was more related to presenteeism for middle-aged nurses. It can be considered that middle-aged nurses simply realize that their working ability is hindered because of incidents resulting from attention narrowing. As fatigue and state of tension tend to cause narrowing of attention, it may be necessary to reduce such risks and adjust work environments so mistakes can be avoided.

  18. The Symbolism of Death in the Later Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeland, John

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the gruesome images of death occurring in medieval art and letters. Suggests that the images are a form of symbolism based on body metaphors. By means of decomposing bodies, artists and poets symbolized the disintegration of medieval institutions and the transition to the early modern period in Europe. (JAC)

  19. Risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in Danish middle-aged and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P S; Larsen, Lisbeth Aagaard; Fowler, V G

    2013-01-01

    on S. aureus carriage in Danish middle-aged and elderly twins, which indicated no significant heritability that could account for the observed S. aureus carriage. In the present study, we performed a questionnaire-based study of S. aureus colonization on the same cohort of 2,196 Danish middle......-aged and elderly twins to identify specific risk factors for S. aureus nasal colonization, including analyzing the paired twins (n = 478) that were discordant for S. aureus colonization. We found associations between risk factors and S. aureus nasal colonization among middle-aged and elderly twins, including age......, male gender, psoriasis, and atopic diseases. Also, present living on a farm is clearly associated with S. aureus colonization, while smoking had a borderline statistically significant protective effect....

  20. Neuroimmune and Neuropathic Responses of Spinal Cord and Dorsal Root Ganglia in Middle Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbavy, William; Kaczocha, Martin; Puopolo, Michelino; Liu, Lixin; Rebecchi, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies of aging and neuropathic injury have focused on senescent animals compared to young adults, while changes in middle age, particularly in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), have remained largely unexplored. 14 neuroimmune mRNA markers, previously associated with peripheral nerve injury, were measured in multiplex assays of lumbar spinal cord (LSC), and DRG from young and middle-aged (3, 17 month) naïve rats, or from rats subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve (after 7 days), or from aged-matched sham controls. Results showed that CD2, CD3e, CD68, CD45, TNF-α, IL6, CCL2, ATF3 and TGFβ1 mRNA levels were substantially elevated in LSC from naïve middle-aged animals compared to young adults. Similarly, LSC samples from older sham animals showed increased levels of T-cell and microglial/macrophage markers. CCI induced further increases in CCL2, and IL6, and elevated ATF3 mRNA levels in LSC of young and middle-aged adults. Immunofluorescence images of dorsal horn microglia from middle-aged naïve or sham rats were typically hypertrophic with mostly thickened, de-ramified processes, similar to microglia following CCI. Unlike the spinal cord, marker expression profiles in naïve DRG were unchanged across age (except increased ATF3); whereas, levels of GFAP protein, localized to satellite glia, were highly elevated in middle age, but independent of nerve injury. Most neuroimmune markers were elevated in DRG following CCI in young adults, yet middle-aged animals showed little response to injury. No age-related changes in nociception (heat, cold, mechanical) were observed in naïve adults, or at days 3 or 7 post-CCI. The patterns of marker expression and microglial morphologies in healthy middle age are consistent with development of a para-inflammatory state involving microglial activation and T-cell marker elevation in the dorsal horn, and neuronal stress and satellite cell activation in the DRG. These changes, however, did not

  1. Persistence of physical activity in middle age: a nonlinear dynamic panel approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kumagai, Narimasa; Ogura, Seiritsu

    2013-01-01

    No prior investigation has considered the effects of state dependence and unobserved heterogeneity on the relationship between regular physical activity (RPA) and latent health stock (LHS). Accounting for state dependence corrects the possible overestimation of the impact of socioeconomic factors. We estimated the degree of the state dependence of RPA and LHS among middle-aged Japanese workers. The 5 years’ longitudinal data used in this study were taken from the Longitudinal Survey of Middle...

  2. Middle-School-Age Outcomes in Children with Very Low Birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Minich, Nori M.; Hack, Maureen

    2000-01-01

    Compared outcomes of middle-school-age children born at very low (less than 750-g) or low birthweights (750 to 1,499-g) and full-term. Found that the very-low-weight group fared less well at school age than the low weight and term groups on cognitive functioning, achievement, behavior, and academic performance. Those without neurosensory disorders…

  3. Proactive and retroactive transfer of middle age adults in a sequential motor learning task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verneau, M.; Kamp, J. van der; Savelsbergh, G,J.; Looze, M.P. de

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effects of aging in the transfer of motor learning in a sequential manual assembly task that is representative for real working conditions. On two different days, young (18-30years) and middle-aged adults (50-65years) practiced to build two products that consisted of the same six

  4. Proactive and Retroactive transfer of middle age adults in a sequential motor learing task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verneau, M.M.N.; van der Kamp, G.J.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; de Looze, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effects of aging in the transfer of motor learning in a sequential manual assembly task that is representative for real working conditions. On two different days, young (18-30. years) and middle-aged adults (50-65. years) practiced to build two products that consisted of the same six

  5. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive performance in middle-aged and elderly men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.; Grobbee, D. E.; Aleman, A.; Bots, M.; van der Schouw, Y. T.

    Background: Decline of cognitive function with age may be due, in part, to atherosclerotic changes. The aim of the present study was to determine the relative contribution of cardiovascular disease (CVD) to cognitive functioning in middle-aged and elderly men. Methods: In a cross-sectional study,

  6. Polypharmacy and falls in the middle age and elderly population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ziere; J.P. Dieleman (Jeanne); A. Hofman (Albert); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAim: Falls in the elderly are common and often serious. We studied the association between multiple drug use (polypharmacy) and falls in the elderly. Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional study, part of the Rotterdam Study. The participants were 6928 individuals aged ≥55

  7. Physical activity and bone mineral density in Italian middle-aged women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidoli, Ettore; Schinella, Domenico; Franceschi, Silvia

    1998-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health issue in postmenopausal women on account of the association between low bone mineral density and fractures. A role of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of low bone mineral density is possible but still unclear. The relationship between low spine bone mineral density measured by means of dual photon absorptiometry at lumbar spines, and levels of past and recent physical activity has been assessed by means of a population-based screening study carried out on 1373 women (age 40-64 years) in the North-East of Italy. Physical activity at work and in leisure time was investigated for three specific periods of life: at age 12, between 15 and 19 years (during bone formative years), and in the recent years prior to the interview (30-39 or 50-59 years). Data were analysed comparing low versus high bone mineral density tertile (i.e., 458 and 461 women, respectively), after controlling for other known contributory factors in the development of osteoporosis. A positive association emerged with leisure time physical activity, with significant trends at age 15-19 (odds ratio (OR) for low versus high tertile of leisure time activity: 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8-2.4) and at most recent age (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Risk trends with occupational physical activity were less clear and non-statistically significant. The present Southern European cross-sectional study lends further support to the possibility that past and recent physical activity helps increasing bone mineral density in middle-aged women. Although the most beneficial type and intensity level of exercise has yet to be determined, the present results provide further evidence that participation in even moderate exercise programs should be encouraged

  8. Barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise among middle-aged and elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justine, Maria; Azizan, Azliyana; Hassan, Vaharli; Salleh, Zoolfaiz; Manaf, Haidzir

    2013-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Although the benefits of physical activity and exercise are widely acknowledged, many middle-aged and elderly individuals remain sedentary. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation among middle-aged and elderly individuals, as well as identify any differences in these barriers between the two groups. METHODS Recruited individuals were categorised into either the middle-aged (age 45-59 years, n = 60) or elderly (age ≥ 60 years, n = 60) group. Data on demographics, anthropometry, as well as external and internal barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise were collected. RESULTS Analysis showed no significant differences in the total scores of all internal barriers between the two groups (p > 0.05). The total scores for most external barriers between the two groups also showed no significant differences (p > 0.05); only 'cost' (p = 0.045) and 'exercise interferes with social/family activities' (p = 0.011) showed significant differences. The most common external barriers among the middle-aged and elderly respondents were 'not enough time' (46.7% vs. 48.4%), 'no one to exercise with' (40.0% vs. 28.3%) and 'lack of facilities' (33.4% vs. 35.0%). The most common internal barriers for middle-aged respondents were 'too tired' (48.3%), 'already active enough' (38.3%), 'do not know how to do it' (36.7%) and 'too lazy' (36.7%), while those for elderly respondents were 'too tired' (51.7%), 'lack of motivation' (38.4%) and 'already active enough' (38.4%). CONCLUSION Middle-aged and elderly respondents presented with similar external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation. These factors should be taken into account when healthcare policies are being designed and when interventions such as the provision of facilities to promote physical activity and exercise among older people are being considered.

  9. Residential Mobility and Cognitive Function Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hanzhang; Dupre, Matthew E; Østbye, Truls; Vorderstrasse, Allison A; Wu, Bei

    2018-01-01

    To assess the association between rural and urban residential mobility and cognitive function among middle-aged and older adults in China. We used data from the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health that included adults age 50+ from China ( N = 12,410). We used multivariate linear regressions to examine how residential mobility and age at migration were associated with cognitive function. Urban and urban-to-urban residents had the highest level of cognitive function, whereas rural and rural-to-rural residents had the poorest cognitive function. Persons who migrated to/within rural areas before age 20 had poorer cognitive function than those who migrated during later adulthood. Socioeconomic factors played a major role in accounting for the disparities in cognition; however, the association remained significant after inclusion of all covariates. Residential mobility and age at migration have significant implications for cognitive function among middle-aged and older adults in China.

  10. Age-period-cohort analysis of suicides among Japanese 1950-2003: a Bayesian cohort model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooe, Yosuke; Ohno, Yuko; Nakamura, Takashi

    2009-07-01

    The suicide rate in Japan is one of the highest in the world and presents us with a considerable challenge. Demographic statistics show that the number of suicides is on the rise, and at roughly 30,000 people per year have committed suicide since 1998. Suicide trends are not only related to economic boom and bust but also to certain generations and age groups. During the 1950s, there was a remarkably high suicide rate among people in their 20s, and this cohort was identical to that of the middle-age generation in the 1980s. It is important to separately understand both the trend of suicide rates and the numbers analyzed to determine the different factors that influence suicide. These include age, time period, cohort, interaction between age and time period, and changes in population composition. We performed an age-period-cohort analysis of annual trends of suicide rates by age group in Japan using a Bayesian cohort model. With the help of the Nakamura method, we have been able to break down the effects of age, time period, cohort, and the age-by-period interaction. The cohort comprised of people born in the 1930s demonstrated a relatively high suicide rate. Men currently in their 50s also belong to a high suicide rate cohort. Regarding the period effect, business cycles and by-period interaction effect, it became apparent that the high suicide rate among young adults in their early 20s around 1960 was slowing, especially among men. Instead, there was an obvious recent trend for men in their late 50s to have the highest suicide rate. This study confirmed that age-period-cohort analysis can describe these trends of suicide mortality of the Japanese.

  11. OPEC at middle age: facing an uncertain future in the world oil market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    International institutions, like individuals, groups, and even societies and cultures, pass through various stages in their development as they grow from youth through middle age into more experienced and mature members of the international community. OPEC, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, is no exception to this generally observable phenomenon on the world economic scene. It has clearly undergone a gradual process of growth over the past three decades or so since its establishment by five founding states in Baghdad in September 1960. OPEC's history since then could be characterized as being divided into three distinct developmental stages. The first decade, the 1960s, was a period of consolidation of OPEC's power over the oil companies and their control over the member countries'oil resources. The second decade - the 1970s - was a decade characterized by almost continuous and prolonged producer - consumer confrontation as well as revelation of some of the more basic cleavages within OPEC as an organization. This was followed by the decade of the 1980s -- a period of relative accommodation between producers and consumers in the interest of longer term market stability

  12. Chronic exercise reduces hypothalamic transforming growth factor-β1 in middle-aged obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vagner R R; Katashima, Carlos K; Lenhare, Luciene; Silva, Carla G B; Morari, Joseane; Camargo, Rafael L; Velloso, Licio A; Saad, Mario A; da Silva, Adelino S R; Pauli, Jose Rodrigo; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete

    2017-08-28

    Obesity and aging are associated with hypothalamic inflammation, hyperphagia and abnormalities in the thermogenesis control. It has been demonstrated that the association between aging and obesity induces hypothalamic inflammation and metabolic disorders, at least in part, through the atypical hypothalamic transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1). Physical exercise has been used to modulate several metabolic parameters. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic exercise on TGF-β1 expression in the hypothalamus of Middle-Aged mice submitted to a one year of high-fat diet (HFD) treatment. We observed that long-term of HFD-feeding induced hypothalamic TGF-β1 accumulation, potentiated the hypothalamic inflammation, body weight gain and defective thermogenesis of Middle-Aged mice when compared to Middle-Aged animals fed on chow diet. As expected, chronic exercise induced negative energy balance, reduced food consumption and increasing the energy expenditure, which promotes body weight loss. Interestingly, exercise training reduced the TGF-β1 expression and IkB-α ser32 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus of Middle-Aged obese mice. Taken together our study demonstrated that chronic exercise suppressed the TGF-β1/IkB-α axis in the hypothalamus and improved the energy homeostasis in an animal model of obesity-associated to aging.

  13. Assessing the Impact of Nationwide Smoking Cessation Interventions among Employed, Middle-Aged Japanese Men, 2005-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Wada

    Full Text Available A variety of tobacco control interventions have become available in Japan over the past decade, however, the magnitude to which they have impacted on smoking rates may have varied by socioeconomic status such as job content, particularly for middle-aged men who were formerly long-term smokers. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the differences between smoking cessation strategies among a national sample of middle-aged Japanese employed men between 2005 and 2010.Data was extracted from a previous longitudinal survey of middle-aged and elderly people that had been conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In 2005, 16,738 Japanese men aged 50-59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire in each year of the study. We analyzed data for individuals who reported being current smokers at baseline. Cox's discrete time proportional hazard regression analysis was used to examine potential associations between smoking cessation and socioeconomic factors.Of the 6187 employed, male smokers who participated in 2005, 31% subsequently quit smoking during the 5-year follow-up period. Those working in manufacturing, transportation, or security were less likely to have quit smoking than those working in management. Having no marital partner, never having been married, or those experiencing psychological distress were significantly less likely to have quit smoking during this time.Although almost one-third of middle-aged, male smokers quit their habit between 2005 and 2010; the uptake of this national strategy appears to have been far from uniform across Japanese society. Socioeconomic factors such as occupation, marital status and psychological distress were negatively correlated with quitting, suggesting that these groups should be more aggressively targeted in further interventions.

  14. Aging in Movement Representations for Sequential Finger Movements: A Comparison between Young-, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacola, Priscila; Roberson, Jerroed; Gabbard, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that as we enter older adulthood (greater than 64 years), our ability to mentally represent action in the form of using motor imagery declines. Using a chronometry paradigm to compare the movement duration of imagined and executed movements, we tested young-, middle-aged, and older adults on their ability to perform sequential finger…

  15. Viking and early Middle Ages northern Scandinavian textiles proven to be made with hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, G; Nockert, M; Holst, B

    2013-10-18

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  16. Viking and Early Middle Ages Northern Scandinavian Textiles Proven to be made with Hemp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, G.; Nockert, M.; Holst, B.

    2013-10-01

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  17. Increased Working Memory-Related Brain Activity in Middle-Aged Women with Cognitive Complaints

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Julie A.; Kutz, Amanda M.; McDonald, Brenna C.; R.Naylor, Magdalena; Pfaff, Ashley C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Newhouse, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who report subjective cognitive complaints but perform normally on neuropsychological tests may be at increased risk for pathological cognitive aging. The current study examined the effects of the presence of subjective cognitive complaints on functional brain activity during a working memory task in a sample of middle-aged postmenopausal women. Twenty-three postmenopausal women aged 50–60 completed a cognitive complaint battery of questionnaires. Using 20% of items endorsed as th...

  18. Comparison of the middle-aged and older users' adoption of mobile health services in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhaohua; Mo, Xiuting; Liu, Shan

    2014-03-01

    Given the increasing number of older people, China has become an aging society. A mobile health service is a type of health informatics that provides personalized healthcare advice to those who require it, especially the older people and the middle-aged. However, few studies consider the adoption of mobile health services with regard to older and middle-aged users. This paper explored a research model based on the value attitude behavior model, theory of planned behavior, and four aging characteristic constructs to investigate how older and middle-aged citizens adopted mobile health services. The hypothesized model was empirically tested using data collected from a survey of 424 residents older than 40 years in China. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the significance of the path coefficients. The findings revealed that (1) perceived value, attitude, perceived behavior control, and resistance to change can be used to predict intention to use mobile health services for the middle-aged group; (2) perceived value, attitude, perceived behavior control, technology anxiety, and self-actualization need positively affected the behavior intention of older users; and (3) subjective norm and perceived physical condition showed no significant effects on the behavior intention to use mobile health services for the two groups. The theoretical and practical implications and contributions of this study are then discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Peripheral venous distension elicits a blood pressure raising reflex in young and middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Coyle, Dana E; Edwards, David G; Stocker, Sean D; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2016-06-01

    Distension of peripheral veins in humans elicits a pressor and sympathoexcitatory response that is mediated through group III/IV skeletal muscle afferents. There is some evidence that autonomic reflexes mediated by these sensory fibers are blunted with increasing age, yet to date the venous distension reflex has only been studied in young adults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the venous distension reflex would be attenuated in middle-aged compared with young adults. Nineteen young (14 men/5 women, 25 ± 1 yr) and 13 middle-aged (9 men/4 women, 50 ± 2 yr) healthy normotensive participants underwent venous distension via saline infusion through a retrograde intravenous catheter in an antecubital vein during limb occlusion. Beat-by-beat blood pressure, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and model flow-derived cardiac output (Q), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout the trial. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased during the venous distension in both young (baseline 83 ± 2, peak 94 ± 3 mmHg; P blood pressure, MSNA, and TPR were similar between young and middle-aged adults. Additionally, no correlation was found between age and the response to venous distension (all P > 0.05). These findings suggest that peripheral venous distension elicits a pressor and sympathetic response in middle-aged adults similar to the response observed in young adults. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Anatomical brain difference of subthreshold depression in young and middle-aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Zengjian; Hwang, JiWon; Zhao, Bingcong; Yang, Xinjing; Xin, Suicheng; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Huili; Shi, Peng; Zhang, Ye; Wang, Xu; Lang, Courtney; Park, Joel; Bao, Tuya; Kong, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Subthreshold depression (StD) is associated with substantial functional impairments due to depressive symptoms that do not fully meet the diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Its high incidence in the general population and debilitating symptoms has recently put it at the forefront of mood disorder research. In this study we investigated common volumetric brain changes in both young and middle-aged StD patients. Two cohorts of StD patients, young and middle-aged, ( n  = 57) and matched controls ( n  = 76) underwent voxel-based morphometry (VBM). VBM analysis found that: 1) compared with healthy controls, StD patients showed decreased gray matter volume (GMV) in the bilateral globus pallidus and precentral gyrus, as well as increased GMV in the left thalamus and right rostral anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex; 2) there is a significant association between Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores and the bilateral globus pallidus (negative) and left thalamus (positive); 3) there is no interaction between age (young vs. middle-age) and group (StD vs. controls). Our findings indicate significant VBM brain changes in both young and middle-aged individuals with StD. Individuals with StD, regardless of age, may share common neural characteristics.

  1. Living with loss: middle-aged men face spousal bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggett, Luann M

    2002-05-01

    Spousal bereavement is one of the most profoundly disturbing events encountered in the human life span. Research has shown that conjugal bereavement has significant physical and psychological consequences for the surviving spouse. In American culture, men and women experience bereavement in different ways. The author used in-depth interviews in the tradition of phenomenology to collect data from 8 men aged 41 to 54 years who had experienced the death of their spouse within the previous 8 months to 6 years. The research revealed the lived experience of spousal bereavement to be a journey from the realization of irreconcilable loss through themes of responding to the loss and living through the loss toward reclamation and reconstruction of a life.

  2. Looking north-east. Southern Scandinavia in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    2018-01-01

    and The Netherlands, in particular, were much more important, also in the main Danish port to the west, Ribe. Two British-Danish royal marriages in the 15th century illustrate English and Scottish interest in the increasingly important Baltic trade, then controlled by Denmark from the castle of Elsinore. From......An investigation of British influences and imports in southern Scandinavia from the late 11th to the early 16th centuries from a mainly archaeological point-of-view. Danish links with England continued in various forms after the Viking Age, but decreasingly so; contacts with Germany...... then onwards many Scots settled in East Danish towns - the first evidence of extensive relations between Scotland and Denmark....

  3. The Effects of VR-based Wii Fit Yoga on Physical Function in Middle-aged Female LBP Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Sik; Min, Won-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Hee; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of a virtual reality-based yoga program on middle-aged female low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty middle-aged female patients who suffered from low back pain were assigned to either a physical therapy program or a virtual reality-based yoga program for a period of four weeks. Participants could check their posture and weight bearing on a monitor as they shifted their weight or changed their postures on a Wii balance board. There were a total of seven exercise programs. A 30-minute, three times per week, virtual reality-based Wii Fit yoga program or trunk stabilizing exercise was performed, respectively. [Results] Repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed significant differences in between pre- and post-training VAS, algometer, Oswestry low-back pain disability index (ODI), Roland Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ), and fear avoidance beliefs questionnaire (FBQ) scores. The VAS, algometer, ODI, RMDQ, and FBQ scores showed significant differences in groups. Regarding the effect of time-by-group interaction, there were significant differences in VAS, ODI, ODI, and FBQ scores. [Conclusion] In conclusion, for middle-aged female patients who have low back pain, a virtual reality-based yoga program was shown to have positive effects on physical improvements, and this program can be employed as a therapeutic medium for prevention and cure of low back pain.

  4. Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet intervention in middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Elizabeth A; Dengo, Ana Laura; Comber, Dana L; Flack, Kyle D; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-02-01

    Water consumption acutely reduces meal energy intake (EI) among middle-aged and older adults. Our objectives were to determine if premeal water consumption facilitates weight loss among overweight/obese middle-aged and older adults, and to determine if the ability of premeal water consumption to reduce meal EI is sustained after a 12-week period of increased water consumption. Adults (n = 48; 55-75 years, BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) were assigned to one of two groups: (i) hypocaloric diet + 500 ml water prior to each daily meal (water group), or (ii) hypocaloric diet alone (nonwater group). At baseline and week 12, each participant underwent two ad libitum test meals: (i) no preload (NP), and (ii) 500 ml water preload (WP). Meal EI was assessed at each test meal and body weight was assessed weekly for 12 weeks. Weight loss was ~2 kg greater in the water group than in the nonwater group, and the water group (beta = -0.87, P hypocaloric diet, consuming 500 ml water prior to each main meal leads to greater weight loss than a hypocaloric diet alone in middle-aged and older adults. This may be due in part to an acute reduction in meal EI following water ingestion.

  5. Materialism across the lifespan : An age-period-cohort analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Esther; Pieters, Rik

    This research examined the development of materialism across the lifespan. Two initial studies revealed that: 1) lay beliefs were that materialism declines with age; and 2) previous research findings also implied a modest, negative relationship between age and materialism. Yet, previous research has

  6. The Effect of 8 Weeks of Aerobic Training on Adiponectin Levels and Quality of Life in Inactive Middle-Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Sadegh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Middle aged is a sensitive period of life and paying attention to the issues and needs of this period is a social necessity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks aerobic training on levels of adiponectin and quality of life in middle aged women. Methods: 21 subjects with range of 50-60 year and BMI 22-25 kg/m2 were selected by convenience sampling method. Volunteers were randomly assigned into experimental (n=10 and control (n=11 groups. The eight weeks aerobic training included (3 times a week, 60 minutes per session, with intensity of 50-70 percent of reserve heart rate. Quality of life and adiponectin levels were taken at baseline and at the end of the study. Data were analyzed using paired and independent t-test for comparison of means within and between groups respectively. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Eight weeks aerobic exercise lead to the increase in adiponectin levels and subscales of quality of life such as: job, sensation, sexual scales and quality of life in inactive middle aged women (p<0.05. Significant difference was observed between active and inactive middle aged woman in weight, BMI, job, sensation and sexual scales(p<0.05. Conclusion: Eight weeks of aerobic training through improving the adiponectin levels among middle aged women can prevent the incidence of atherosclerosis diseases.

  7. Habitual physical activity and vascular aging in a young to middle-age population at low cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozakova, Michaela; Palombo, Carlo; Mhamdi, Leila

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Regular endurance exercise has been shown to reduce the age-related increase in arterial stiffness that is thought to contribute to cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age and habitual physical activity on carotid artery wall thickness...... physical activity was negatively related to indices of carotid stiffness (r from -0.20 to -0.25, Page...... and physical activity were independently related to carotid stiffness. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides cross-sectional evidence that habitual physical activity is inversely related to the age-dependent increase in carotid wall stiffness in a young to middle-age population at low risk...

  8. Early detection of health challenges among middle-aged men in a large Danish municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annette; Thomsen, Helle Haslund; Miller, Tanja

    Background A group of middle-aged men between 45-65 years from Aalborg Municipality in Denmark have been identified with health challenges due to their heavy alcohol use, tobacco smoking and physical inactivity. The men’s contact to the health- and social system is sparse affecting their overall...... literacy and patterns of social- and health care contacts. Data was constructed via multi-sited field work, participant observation, ethnographic interviews, and document analysis. Participants included middle-aged men between 45-65 years, who live in their own homes, attend public parks and social peer...

  9. Suicide in older adults: a comparison with middle-aged adults using the Queensland Suicide Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yu Wen; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2017-03-01

    Globally, suicide rates increase with age, being highest in older adults. This study analyzed differences in suicides in older adults (65 years and over) compared to middle-aged adults (35-64 years) in Queensland, Australia, during the years 2000-2012. The Queensland Suicide Register was utilized for the analysis. Annual suicide rates were calculated by gender and age group, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were examined. In Queensland, the average annual rate of suicides for older adults was 15.27 per 100,000 persons compared to 18.77 in middle-aged adults in 2000-2012. There were no significant changes in time trends for older adults in 2002-2012. Suicide methods differed between gender and age groups. Older adults who died by suicide were more likely to be male, widowed, living alone or in a nursing home, and out of the work force. The prevalence of untreated psychiatric conditions, diagnosed psychiatric disorders, and consultations with a mental health professional three months prior to death was lower in older adults than middle-aged adults. Somatic illness, bereavement, and attention to suicide in the media were more common among older adults than middle-age adults. Older females were particularly more likely to pay attention to suicide in the media. Our findings show older adults who died by suicide were more likely to experience somatic illnesses, bereavement, and pay attention to suicide in the media compared to middle aged. Preventing suicide in older adults would therefore require holistic and comprehensive approaches.

  10. Trajectories of Verbal Episodic Memory in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaya, Beatriz; Bobak, Martin; Haro, Josep Maria; Demakakos, Panayotes

    2017-06-01

    To identify distinct latent groups of baseline levels and age-related decline in verbal episodic memory in middle-aged and older adults, and to identify factors associated with these trajectories. Longitudinal study of six data collections over a period of 10 years. Population-based cohort in England. 9,515 community-dwelling adults aged 50-79 years. Six repeated measurements of immediate and delayed recall of 10 words over 10-year follow-up. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify patterns of baseline levels and subsequent decline in memory in two age categories (50-64 and 65-79 years), and to investigate associations between trajectories and baseline predictors of group membership (gender, education, household wealth, marital status, smoking and physical activity) and time-varying covariates (depressive symptoms and number of chronic conditions). Four trajectories were identified and labelled according to baseline status and decline in memory: very low/decline (9.8%), low/stable (40.2%), average/stable (39.5%) and good/stable (10.5%) in the younger group, and very low/rapid decline (15.7%), low/decline (32.0%), average/stable (38.8%), and good/stable (13.5%) in older participants. In people with stable or declining trajectories, a higher number of depressive symptoms and the presence of cardiovascular diseases were associated with worse memory. Female sex, younger age, and higher education, wealth and physical activity were consistently associated with more favourable trajectories. We identified four memory trajectories. Factors known to be associated with cognitive reserve (such as education, wealth and physical activity) were associated with better memory function while depressive symptoms and cardiovascular disease were associated with poorer memory. This suggests that interventions to reduce depressive symptoms and better manage cardiovascular risk factors and disease in midlife may help prevent or delay future memory decline. © 2017, Copyright

  11. Direction of single obstacle circumvention in middle-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Amy L; Van Ruymbeke, Nicole; Bryden, Pamela J; Cinelli, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    When required to walk around a stationary object, adults use the location of the goal to set up their locomotor axis and obstacles presented along the locomotor axis will repel the individual towards the side that affords more space [1]. Research has yet to examine whether children can identify the locomotor axis and choose their paths accordingly. Therefore, the current study examined the factors that influence the direction in which children choose to deviate around a single obstacle and whether the presence or absence of a goal influences path selection and trajectory. Ten children (age: 7.1 years±0.8) walked along a 9 m path and avoided a single obstacle that was located in one of three locations (midline, 15 cm to the right or 15 cm to the left). On half the trials, an end-goal was visible from the start of the path while the other half of the trials had no visible goal. The results demonstrate that: (1) children are able to perceive and move towards more open space but are more variable when the end-goal is not visible; (2) children are capable of maintaining an elliptical-shaped protective envelope when avoiding a single obstacle regardless of whether or not the locomotor axis is established; and (3) although children are capable of choosing paths that afford the most space, the manner in which they arrive at their goal is not driven by factors similar to adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Differences in grip force control between young and late middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lianrong; Li, Kunyang; Wang, Qian; Chen, Wenhui; Song, Rong; Liu, Guanzheng

    2017-09-01

    Grip force control is a crucial function for human to guarantee the quality of life. To examine the effects of age on grip force control, 10 young adults and 11 late middle-aged adults participated in visually guided tracking tasks using different target force levels (25, 50, and 75% of the subject's maximal grip force). Multiple measures were used to evaluate the tracking performance during force rising phase and force maintenance phase. The measurements include the rise time, fuzzy entropy, mean force percentage, coefficient of variation, and target deviation ratio. The results show that the maximal grip force was significantly lower in the late middle-aged adults than in the young adults. The time of rising phase was systematically longer among late middle-aged adults. The fuzzy entropy is a useful indicator for quantitating the force variability of the grip force signal at higher force levels. These results suggest that the late middle-aged adults applied a compensatory strategy that allow allows for sufficient time to reach the required grip force and reduce the impact of the early and subtle degenerative changes in hand motor function.

  13. Changes in soleus H-reflex during walking in middle-aged, healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffalt, Peter C; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: To assess the effect of aging on stretch reflex modulation during walking, soleus H-reflexes obtained in 15 middle-aged (mean age 56.4±6.9 years) and 15 young (mean age 23.7±3.9 years) subjects were compared. METHODS: The H-reflex amplitude, muscle activity (EMG) of the soleus...... and tibialis anterior muscles, and EMG/H-reflex gain were measured during 4-km/h treadmill walking. RESULTS: The normalized H-reflex amplitude was lower in the swing phase for the middle-aged group, and there was no difference in muscle activity. EMG/H-reflex gain did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: H......-reflex amplitude during walking was affected by aging, and changes during the swing phase could be seen in the middle-aged subjects. Subdividing the 2 age groups into groups of facilitated or suppressed swing-phase H-reflex revealed that the H-reflex amplitude modulation pattern in the group with facilitated swing...

  14. Why middle-aged listeners have trouble hearing in everyday settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Dorea; Bharadwaj, Hari; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G

    2012-08-07

    Anecdotally, middle-aged listeners report difficulty conversing in social settings, even when they have normal audiometric thresholds [1-3]. Moreover, young adult listeners with "normal" hearing vary in their ability to selectively attend to speech amid similar streams of speech. Ignoring age, these individual differences correlate with physiological differences in temporal coding precision present in the auditory brainstem, suggesting that the fidelity of encoding of suprathreshold sound helps explain individual differences [4]. Here, we revisit the conundrum of whether early aging influences an individual's ability to communicate in everyday settings. Although absolute selective attention ability is not predicted by age, reverberant energy interferes more with selective attention as age increases. Breaking the brainstem response down into components corresponding to coding of stimulus fine structure and envelope, we find that age alters which brainstem component predicts performance. Specifically, middle-aged listeners appear to rely heavily on temporal fine structure, which is more disrupted by reverberant energy than temporal envelope structure is. In contrast, the fidelity of envelope cues predicts performance in younger adults. These results hint that temporal envelope cues influence spatial hearing in reverberant settings more than is commonly appreciated and help explain why middle-aged listeners have particular difficulty communicating in daily life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cognitive ability in early adulthood is associated with systemic inflammation in middle age: the Vietnam experience study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Anna C; Batty, G David; van Zanten, Jet J C S Veldhuijzen

    2011-01-01

    , and place of service were extracted from enlistment files. Smoking behaviour, alcohol consumption, basic socio-demographics, and whether participants suffered from a physician diagnosed chronic disease were determined by telephone interview in middle-age in 1985. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, cholesterol...... erythrocyte sedimentation rate in middle age, ß=-.09. Thus, it would appear that not only does systemic inflammation influence cognition, but also that poor cognitive ability earlier in life is associated with inflammation in middle-age....

  16. Employment situation and risk of death among middle-aged Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Kaori; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ikeda, Ai; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have examined the health effects of employment situation among women, taking social and economic conditions into consideration. The objective of this research was to investigate the association of employment situation (full-time or part-time employee and self-employed) with mortality risk in women over a 20-year follow-up period. Additionally, we examined whether the association between employment situation and mortality in women differed by education level and marital status. We investigated the association of employment situation with mortality among 16,692 women aged 40-59 years enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. Multivariate HRs and 95% CIs for total deaths by employment situation were calculated after adjustment for age, disease history, residential area, education level, marital status and number of children. We also conducted subgroup analysis by education level and marital status. Multivariate HRs for mortality of part-time employees and self-employed workers were 1.48 (95% CI, 1.25 to 1.75) and 1.44 (95% CI, 1.21 to 1.72), respectively, with reference to women working full-time. Subgroup analysis by education level indicated that health effects in women according to employment situation were likely to be more evident in the low education-level group. Subgroup analysis by marital status indicated that this factor also affected the association between employment situation and risk of death. Among middle-aged Japanese women, employment situation was associated with mortality risk. Health effects were likely to differ by household structure and socioeconomic conditions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Quality of life of middle-aged adults in single households in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Jin; Park, Susan; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2018-04-18

    The number of single households has increased worldwide with middle-aged people in such households indicating the highest increase. However, there is a lack of studies on the topic. This study estimated the quality of life (QOL) by household type for middle-aged Korean adults. We used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2015. QOL was analyzed using EQ-5D 3-level, and demographic and health-related variables were included as confounders. The households were divided into single household, married couple without child, other one-generation, married couple with child, single parent with child, other two-generation, and three-generation. Logistic regression using level, strata, and sample weight of data was performed based on average QOL. This study included 18,147 responders aged 45-64 years, with single households constituting 5.7%. Single households having average or less QOL were 48.4%, with men and women constituting 40.1 and 53.3%, respectively. After adjusting socioeconomic factors and health-related factors, the odds ratio (OR) of single households was 1.375 (95% CI 1.122-1.684) compared to the three-generation group. According to the sex, the OR of single households with men was higher (OR 1.552, 95% CI 1.121-2.149). However, no significance was found in women. The study results revealed that middle-aged people in single households had low QOL than those in multi-person households. The trend was significantly observable in men than in women. Because middle-aged adults might transform into elderly with low QOL, program development and social support for middle-aged adults in single households should be provided.

  18. The association between negative attitudes toward aging and mental health among middle-aged and older gay and heterosexual men in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkman, Geva; Ifrah, Kfir; Shmotkin, Dov

    2018-04-01

    The association between negative attitudes toward aging and mental health (indicated by depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and happiness) was explored among Israeli middle-aged and older gay and heterosexual men. In a community-dwelling sample, 152 middle-aged and older gay men and 120 middle-aged and older heterosexual men at the age range of 50-87 (M = 59.3, SD = 7.5) completed measures of negative attitudes toward aging, depressive symptoms, neuroticism, and happiness. After controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, the association between negative attitudes toward aging and mental health was moderated by sexual orientation, demonstrating that negative attitudes toward aging were more strongly associated with adverse mental health concomitants among middle-aged and older gay men compared to middle-aged and older heterosexual men. The findings suggest vulnerability of middle-aged and older gay men to risks of aging, as their mental health is markedly linked with their negative attitudes toward aging. This vulnerability should be addressed by clinicians and counselors who work with middle-aged and older gay men.

  19. Dietary polyphenol supplementation prevents alterations of spatial navigation in middle-aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eBensalem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial learning and memory deficits associated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairments are commonly observed during aging. Besides, the beneficial role of dietary polyphenols has been suggested as potential functional food candidates to prevent this memory decline. Indeed, polyphenols could potentiate the signaling pathways of synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. In this study, spatial learning deficits of middle-aged mice were first highlighted and characterized according to navigation patterns in the Morris water maze task. An eight-week polyphenol-enriched diet, containing a polyphenol-rich extract from grape and blueberry (PEGB (from the Neurophenols Consortium with high contents of flavonoids, stilbenes and phenolic acids, was then successful in reversing these age-induced effects. The use of spatial strategies was indeed delayed with aging whereas a polyphenol supplementation could promote the occurrence of spatial strategies. These behavioral results were associated with neurobiological changes: while the expression of hippocampal CaMKII mRNA levels was reduced in middle-aged animals, the polyphenol-enriched diet could rescue them. Besides, an increased expression of NGF mRNA levels was also observed in supplemented adult and middle-aged mice. Thus these data suggest that supplementation with polyphenols could be an efficient nutritional way to prevent age-induced cognitive decline.

  20. Importance and performance of managerial skills in the Australian aged care sector - a middle managers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Ellen; Radford, Katrina

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the importance and performance of middle managers' skills to provide a starting point for a sector-wide leadership and management framework. There is an increasing consensus that the quality of management, leadership and performance of any organisation is directly linked to the capabilities of its middle managers and the preparation and on-going training they receive. A total of 199 middle managers from three aged care organisations in Australia participated in a questionnaire conducted during 2010-2011. This study found that middle managers perceived the need to develop their communication skills, self-awareness, change management, conflict resolution and leadership skills. Middle managers perceive a discrepancy between performance and importance of various managerial skills. This study demonstrated that provision of training needs to go beyond clinical skills development and further investigation into managers' needs is necessary, particularly considering the diversity of this critical group in organisations. Future training opportunities provided to middle managers need to address the 'softer' skills (e.g. communication) rather than 'technical' skills (e.g. clinical skills). The provision of training in these skills may improve their performance, which may also lead to increased job satisfaction, continuity in leadership and management and ultimately improvements in the quality of care provided. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The North African Middle Stone Age and its place in recent human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerri, Eleanor M L

    2017-05-01

    The North African Middle Stone Age (NAMSA, ∼300-24 thousand years ago, or ka) features what may be the oldest fossils of our species as well as extremely early examples of technological regionalization and 'symbolic' material culture (d'Errico, Vanhaeren, Barton, Bouzouggar, Mienis, Richter, Hublin, McPherron, Louzouet, & Klein, ; Scerri, ; Richter, Grün, Joannes-Boyau, Steele, Amani, Rué, Fernandes, Raynal, Geraads, Ben-Ncer Hublin, McPherron, ). The geographic situation of North Africa and an increased understanding of the wet-dry climatic pulses of the Sahara Desert also show that North Africa played a strategic role in continental-scale evolutionary processes by modulating human dispersal and demographic structure (Drake, Blench, Armitage, Bristow, & White, ; Blome, Cohen, Tryon, Brooks, & Russell, ). However, current understanding of the NAMSA remains patchy and subject to a bewildering array of industrial nomenclatures that mask underlying variability. These issues are compounded by a geographic research bias skewed toward non-desert regions. As a result, it has been difficult to test long-established narratives of behavioral and evolutionary change in North Africa and to resolve debates on their wider significance. In order to evaluate existing data and identify future research directions, this paper provides a critical overview of the component elements of the NAMSA and shows that the timing of many key behaviors has close parallels with others in sub-Saharan Africa and Southwest Asia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Health, wellness and the allure of spices in the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Paul

    2015-06-05

    During the European Middle Ages aromatic products imported from Asia and Africa were credited with both preventive and curative medical properties. In addition spices provided an image of wellness and as they were expensive and had many uses in cuisine and fragrance, they functioned as prestige consumer goods. This is an effort to look historically at a social and cultural phenomenon for the period roughly A.D. 1200-1500. Sources of information about the demand for and uses of spices include lists of materia medica, medical treatises, cookbooks, religious writings, descriptions of banquets and court ceremonial and literary works showing what might be called aspirational lifestyles. It is important to focus on the demand side of the spice trade rather than simply assuming a consistent demand and looking only at the supply (prices, routes, for example). The demand for spices must be understood in terms of their attributed medical and wellness powers, but these in turn are related to the mysterious Eastern origins of spices that enhanced their image as elite consumer products and their association with spiritual as well as medical healing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effects of Age at Cleft Palate Repair on Middle Ear Function and Hearing Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qun; Zhu, Hongping; Luo, Yi; Zhou, Zhibo; Ma, Lian; Ma, Xiaoran; Fu, Yuan

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the age effects of cleft palate repair on middle ear function and hearing level in patients who underwent cleft palate repair at different ages by audiologic examination. Medical histories were gathered in detail, and audiologic tests (ie, tympanometry and pure tone hearing threshold) were conducted in 126 patients after palatoplasty. The patients were divided into the following 4 groups according to their ages when they underwent cleft palate repair: group I (0-3 years, 73 patients), group II (4-7 years, 29 patients), group III (8-11 years, 16 patients), and group IV (12 years and older, 8 patients). The data regarding tympanograms, hearing levels, and the average hearing thresholds of each group were analyzed using chi-square tests. The prevalence of middle ear dysfunction and hearing loss in the patients who underwent palatoplasty before 3 years old (27.4% and 2.0% respectively) was significantly lower than that in patients who underwent palatopalsty at 12 years or older (75.0% and 43.7%, respectively). Linear-by-linear association revealed that the prevalences of middle ear dysfunction and hearing loss among the 4 groups were significantly different ( P cleft palate repair. From an audiologist's perspective, palatoplasty at an early age is very beneficial in helping children with cleft palates acquire better middle ear function and hearing level.

  4. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

  5. Social Roles in the Lives of Middle-Aged and Older Black Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lerita M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Explored participation in and impact of social roles on psychological and physical health of middle-aged and older Black women. Found that few such women participated in the three roles of parent, spouse, and employee simultaneously. Of these three roles, only employment showed a significant relationship to well-being, having a positive impact on…

  6. Epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in men and women of middle and older age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review We summarized recent literature on the epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in middle-aged and older women and men. Recent findings The prevalence of eating disorders according to DSM-5 criteria is around 3.5% in older (>40 years) women and around 1-2% in older men. The

  7. Intensive woodland management in the Middle Ages: spatial modelling based on archival data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, Péter; Müllerová, Jana; Suchánková, Silvie; Kotačka, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, April 2015 (2015), s. 1-10 ISSN 0305-7488 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : coppice * Moravia * Middle Ages Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.701, year: 2015

  8. Associations of Child Sexual and Physical Abuse with Obesity and Depression in Middle-Aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Ichikawa, Laura; Simon, Gregory E.; Ludman, Evette J.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Operskalski, Belinda H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether (1) childhood maltreatment is associated with subsequent obesity and depression in middle-age; (2) maltreatment explains the associations between obesity and depression; and (3) binge eating or body dissatisfaction mediate associations between childhood maltreatment and subsequent obesity. Methods: Data were obtained…

  9. Lap Shear and Impact Testing of Ochre and Beeswax in Experimental Middle Stone Age Compound Adhesives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozowyk, P.R.B.; Langejans, G.; Poulis, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    The production of compound adhesives using disparate ingredients is seen as some of the best evidence of advanced cognition outside of the use of symbolism. Previous field and laboratory testing of adhesives has shown the complexities involved in creating an effective Middle Stone Age glue using

  10. Malaria with Acute Renal Failure in a Middle Aged Man: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The case of a middle aged(39 years) man admitted with severe malaria in the male ward of the Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria is reported. The infecting species was Plasmodium falciparum and the patient was febrile, developed acute renal failure, severe thrombocytopenia and hepatic failure. Treatment ...

  11. The Landscape of the Czech Middle Ages in the Perspective of Modern Science

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimůnek, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2012), s. 35-62 ISSN 0323-0988 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP410/12/G113 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : historical landscape * Middle Ages * local names Subject RIV: AB - History

  12. Heritability of the Number of Teeth in Middle-Aged and Older Danish Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurushima, Y; Silventoinen, K; Dokkedal, U

    2017-01-01

    Tooth loss is a common health concern in older adults. We aimed to estimate the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the variation in the number of teeth in middle-aged and older populations using a population-based cohort of Danish twins. The study included 5,269 Danish...

  13. Of Monks and Men: Sacred and Secular Education in the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Susan

    The medieval school came into existence after the fifth century to satisfy ecclesiastical demands for a minimum amount of literacy and scientific knowledge whereby young priests could learn to carry out priestly functions in the Church. During the course of the Middle Ages, the medieval school gradually changed its structure and function until the…

  14. Diet and cognitive decline at middle age : The role of antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooyens, Astrid C J; Milder, Ivon E J; Van Gelder, Boukje M.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. Bas; Van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verschuren, W. M Monique

    2015-01-01

    To assess the relationship between dietary intake of antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene, lutein, flavonoids and lignans) and cognitive decline at middle age, analyses were performed on data from the population based Doetinchem Cohort Study. Habitual diet and cognitive function were

  15. Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program for Middle School-Aged Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of an intensive 1-week Inquiry-Based Science and Technology Enrichment Program (InSTEP) designed for middle school-aged female students. InSTEP uses a guided/open inquiry approach that is deepened and redefined as eight sciences and engineering practices in the Next Generation Science Standards, which aimed at…

  16. Perspective-Taking Judgments Among Young Adults, Middle-Aged, and Elderly People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligneau-Herve, Catherine; Mullet, Etienne

    2005-01-01

    Perspective-taking judgments among young adults, middle-aged, and elderly people were examined. In 1 condition, participants were instructed to judge the likelihood of acceptance of a painkiller as a function of 3 cues: severity of the condition, potential side effects, and level of trust in the health care provider. In the other condition,…

  17. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in middle-aged people with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal-Schuller, I. H.; Goorhuis, A. E. M.; Bock-Sinot, A.; Claassen, I. H. M.; Echteld, M. A.; Evenhuis, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a manifestation of atherosclerosis below the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta. PAD increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and associated mortality. Little is known about the prevalence of PAD in middle-aged persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). We

  18. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  19. Private Prayer and Optimism in Middle-Aged and Older Patients Awaiting Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L.; Peterson, Christopher; Bolling, Steven F.; Koenig, Harold

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the use of private prayer among middle-aged and older patients as a way of coping with cardiac surgery and prayer's relationship to optimism. Design and Methods: The measure of prayer included three aspects: (a) belief in the importance of private prayer, (b) faith in the efficacy of prayer on the basis of previous…

  20. Changes in waist circumference and the incidence of diabetes in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte

    2011-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is positively associated with diabetes, but the association with changes in WC (DWC) is less clear. We investigated the association between DWC and the subsequent risk of diabetes in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent changes in body mass...

  1. Changes in waist circumference and mortality in middle-aged men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Halkjaer, Jytte

    2010-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) adjusted for body mass index (BMI) is positively associated with mortality, but the association with changes in WC is less clear. We investigated the association between changes in WC and mortality in middle-aged men and women, and evaluated the influence from concurrent...

  2. Pathological eating and body dissatisfaction in middle-aged and older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the recent literature examining eating disorders, eating behavior, and body image in middle-aged and elderly women. Recent findings A small but evolving literature has begun to address the epidemiology, features, and potential treatment of eating disorders and related

  3. Revisiting the Structure of Subjective Well-Being in Middle-Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Magda; Brunner, Martin; Martin, Romain; Schalke, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Subjective well-being is a broad, multifaceted construct comprising general satisfaction with life, satisfaction with life domains (health, family, people, free time, self, housing, work, and finances), positive affect, and negative affect. Drawing on representative data from middle-aged adults (N = 738), the authors used three different…

  4. Smoking and drinking as risk indicators for tooth loss in middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morse, Douglas E; Avlund, Kirsten; Christensen, Lisa Bøge

    2014-01-01

    , drinking, and various covariates was obtained using self-administered, structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression (dependent variable: 6+ vs. ...: Our findings suggest that smoking is positively associated, while alcoholic beverage consumption is inversely related to tooth loss in middle-aged Danes....

  5. Research report: the Middle Stone Age of the Blue Nile Gorge, Ethiopia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Said, H.; Novák, Martin; Desse, A.; Sázelová, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2013), s. 431-436 ISSN 0323-1119 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0181 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : settlement archaeology * Middle Stone Age * Blue Nile * Oromia * Ethiopia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  6. Music through the ages: Trends in musical engagement and preferences from adolescence through middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle; Rentfrow, Peter J; Xu, Man K; Potter, Jeff

    2013-10-01

    Are there developmental trends in how individuals experience and engage with music? Data from 2 large cross-sectional studies involving more than a quarter of a million individuals were used to investigate age differences in musical attitudes and preferences from adolescence through middle age. Study 1 investigated age trends in musical engagement. Results indicated that (a) the degree of importance attributed to music declines with age but that adults still consider music important, (b) young people listen to music significantly more often than do middle-aged adults, and (c) young people listen to music in a wide variety of contexts, whereas adults listen to music primarily in private contexts. Study 2 examined age trends in musical preferences. Results indicated that (a) musical preferences can be conceptualized in terms of a 5-dimensional age-invariant model, (b) certain music-preference dimensions decrease with age (e.g., Intense, Contemporary), whereas preferences for other music dimensions increase with age (e.g., Unpretentious, Sophisticated), and (c) age trends in musical preferences are closely associated with personality. Normative age trends in musical preferences corresponded with developmental changes in psychosocial development, personality, and auditory perception. Overall, the findings suggest that musical preferences are subject to a variety of developmental influences throughout the life span.

  7. Gastrointestinal mean transit times in young and middle-aged healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Brinch, K; Madsen, Jan Lysgård

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of age and gender on gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times, a study was conducted in 32 healthy volunteers: eight young women (22-30 years), eight young men (20-28 years), eight middle-aged women (43-51 years) and eight middle-aged men (38-53 years......). After ingestion of a meal containing 111Indium-labelled water and 99mTechnetium-labelled omelette imaging of the abdomen was performed at intervals of 30 min until all radioactivity was located in the colon and henceforth at intervals of 24 h until all radioactivity had cleared from the colon. Gastric......, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were calculated. The gastric, small intestinal and colonic mean transit times were significantly longer in women. Ageing was shown to accelerate the gastric and small intestinal transit significantly. In the group of men the colonic mean transit time...

  8. Growth trajectories from conception through middle childhood and cognitive achievement at age 8 years: Evidence from four low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Georgiadis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Child chronic malnutrition is endemic in low- and middle-income countries and deleterious for child development. Studies investigating the relationship between nutrition at different periods of childhood, as measured by growth in these periods (growth trajectories, and cognitive development have produced mixed evidence. Although an explanation of this has been that different studies use different approaches to model growth trajectories, the differences across approaches are not well understood. Furthermore, little is known about the pathways linking growth trajectories and cognitive achievement. In this paper, we develop and estimate a general path model of the relationship between growth trajectories and cognitive achievement using data on four cohorts from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. The model is used to: (a compare two of the most common approaches to modelling growth trajectories in the literature, namely the lifecourse plot and the conditional body size model, and (b investigate the potential channels via which the association between growth in each period and cognitive achievement manifests. We show that the two approaches are expected to produce systematically different results that have distinct interpretations. Results suggest that growth from conception through age 1 year, between age 1 and 5 years, and between 5 and 8 years, are each positively and significantly associated with cognitive achievement at age 8 years and that this may be partly explained by the fact that faster-growing children start school earlier. We also find that a significant share of the association between early growth and later cognitive achievement is mediated through growth in interim periods. Keywords: Nutrition, Cognitive achievement, Path analysis, Cohort study, Ethiopia, India, Peru, Vietnam

  9. Conflict and collaboration in middle-aged and older couples: I. Age differences in agency and communion during marital interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Berg, Cynthia A; Florsheim, Paul; Uchino, Bert N; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J M; Beveridge, Ryan M; Skinner, Michelle A; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna

    2009-06-01

    Prior theory and research regarding age differences in marital interaction suggest that older couples display and experience more positivity and less negativity than middle-aged couples. However, studies of overt behavior in older couples are relatively rare and have emphasized disagreement, neglecting other important contexts for older couples such as collaboration during everyday problem solving. Further, the affiliation or communion dimension of social interaction (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) is commonly assessed but not the control or agency dimension (e.g., dominance vs. submissiveness). The present study examined affect, cognitive appraisals, and overt behavior during disagreement (i.e., discussing a current conflict) and collaboration (i.e., planning errands) in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Older couples reported less negative affect during disagreement and rated spouses as warmer than did middle-aged couples. However, these effects were eliminated when older couples' greater marital satisfaction was controlled. For observed behavior, older couples displayed little evidence of greater positivity and reduced negativity-especially women. During collaboration, older couples displayed a unique blend of warmth and control, suggesting a greater focus on emotional and social concerns during problem solving. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Conflict and Collaboration in Middle-Aged and Older Couples: I: Age Differences in Agency and Communion during Marital Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W.; Berg, Cynthia A.; Florsheim, Paul; Uchino, Bert N.; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J.M.; Beveridge, Ryan M.; Skinner, Michelle A.; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna

    2011-01-01

    Prior theory and research regarding age differences in marital interaction suggest that older couples display and experience more positivity and less negativity than middle-aged couples. However, studies of overt behavior in older couples are relatively rare and have emphasized disagreement, neglecting other important contexts for older couples such as collaboration during everyday problem solving. Further, the affiliation or communion dimension of social interaction (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) is commonly assessed, but not the control or agency dimension (e.g., dominance vs. submissiveness). The present study examined affect, cognitive appraisals, and overt behavior during disagreement (i.e., discussing a current conflict) and collaboration (i.e., planning errands) in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Older couples reported less negative affect during disagreement and rated spouses as warmer than did middle-aged couples. However, these effects were eliminated when older couples’ greater marital satisfaction was controlled. For observed behavior, older couples displayed little evidence of greater positivity and reduced negativity – especially women. During collaboration, older couples displayed a unique blend of warmth and control, suggesting a greater focus on emotional and social concerns during problem solving. PMID:19485646

  11. Age-Dependent Pre-Vaccination Immunity Affects the Immunogenicity of Varicella Zoster Vaccination in Middle-aged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke van der Heiden

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrevention of infectious diseases is of high priority in the rapidly aging population. Unfortunately, vaccine responses in the elderly are frequently diminished. Timely vaccination of middle-aged adults might improve the immune responses to vaccines, although knowledge on pathogen-specific immune responses and factors affecting these responses, in middle-aged adults is currently limited. We thus investigated the immune responses after vaccination with Zostavax consisting of live-attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV.MethodsBlood samples were taken pre-, 14 days, 28 days, and 1 year after a primary VZV vaccination (Zostavax at middle age (N = 53, 50–65 years of age. VZV-specific IFNγ-producing cells were measured by ELISpot, activated T-cells by flow cytometry, antibody levels and cytokine responses by fluorescent bead-based multiplex immunoassays, and whole blood cellular kinetics by TruCOUNT analysis.ResultsRobust short-term enhancement of the VZV-specific IFNγ-producing cell numbers was observed post-vaccination in the middle-aged adults. Remarkably, long-term enhancement of VZV-specific IFNγ-producing cell numbers was induced only in participants with low numbers of VZV-specific pre-vaccination IFNγ-producing cells, who were significantly older. These participants also showed enhancement of VZV-specific activated CD4 T-cells, contrary to “exhausted” VZV-specific CD8 T-cells in participants with high numbers of VZV-specific pre-vaccination IFNγ-producing cells. Finally, a high CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio was associated with low numbers of pre-vaccination VZV-specific IFNγ-producing cells.ConclusionThese results suggest that adults in their early sixties, who showed a high CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio and low numbers of VZV-specific IFNγ-producing cells, benefit from VZV vaccination. This provides important knowledge on factors affecting VZV-specific immune responses in middle-aged adults as well as for strategies to

  12. Latin middle ages and Greek middle ages: with regards to É. Patlagean, Un Moyen Âge grec. Byzance IXe-XVe siècle, Paris 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gallina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on Évelyne Patlagean’s volume centres on a comparison with the ideas forwarded by Marc Bloch. Particularly conscious of comparative perspectives, in his Société féodale the Alsatian historian proposed an interpretative model liable to be applied also to the Byzantine world, even though he removed the “Greek” and slavic middle ages from his research prospects. Patlagean adopts Bloch’s historiographic categories, whilst sustaining that the potential feudal development of the Byzantine world was blocked by the weight exercised by the ancient imperial tradition.

  13. Comprehensively Assessing Cognitive and Behavioral Risks for HIV Infection among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; O'Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of HIV/AIDS with middle-aged and older adults should include six domains (e.g., factual knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of HIV, traditionally-accepted behavioral risks for HIV infection). A sample of 23 women (54.8%) and 19 men (45.2%), ranging in age from 51 to 85 were surveyed across such domains.…

  14. The illness experience of middle-aged men with oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ching-Hui; Wang, Tsae-Jyy; Lin, Yu-Ping; Lin, Hung-Ru; Hu, Wen-Yu; Wung, Shin-Huey; Liang, Shu-Yuan

    2013-12-01

    To explore the essence of the illness experiences of middle-aged men with oral cancer. Having oral cancer creates great challenges in the lives of middle-aged men and their families. Understanding patients' experiences provides a sound basis for patient-centred and individualised care. Research is limited regarding the illness experience of middle-aged men with oral cancer with regard to facing both the invasion of disease and the responsibilities of middle age. A phenomenology approach was used. Nine men diagnosed with oral cancer within one year were recruited during 2009 and 2010. Data were collected through individual in-depth interviews and analysed using Colaizzi's phenomenological analysis procedures. The following five themes emerged from the patterns of categorised interview data: the psychological journey in facing oral cancer, the question of how patients can control their disease as well as the sequelae of cancer treatment, the continuous disturbance and turmoil resulting from the disease, the appreciation of the support from family and friends, and the ability to learn to actively face the future. Patients with oral cancer experienced tremendous physical, psychosocial and financial challenges. Although burdened with multiple stressors, these middle-aged men were able to learn from their experiences and exhibit positive growth in life. Patients with oral cancer have to constantly adjust to the impact of their disease. The study results may serve as a reference for improving clinical practice and the quality of care among patients with oral cancer. Cancer care is multidimensional and holistic. Healthcare professionals should develop a set of plans by which patients receive complete medical care and support, as well as assistance from professionals and family members, as their treatment progresses to help patients face the challenges of cancer. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. DXA study on bone health status among hospital based middle aged population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehan, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Osteoporosis is a crippling disease of the middle aged and elderly citizens, especially of low-income group where bone mass is reduced causing microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue. The need for early diagnosis of osteopenia and osteoporosis is vital as it may cause bone fracture and deformity. It is important to evaluate the patients at risk of osteopenia / osteoporosis which can be reverted by preventive therapy and nutritional supplement. Nutritional deficiency cause loss of bone mass which ultimately ends up in fracture, deformity and disability. To prevent them from fracture risk and improve their physical performance, it is necessary to rule out any osteoporotic change in the skeletal system and protect them from further damage. At this Centre over a period of 2 years from December 2001 to December 2003, BMD scans were performed on 312 patients for determination of bone mineral status of lumber spine and femoral neck. The patients were randomly scanned, irrespective of age and sex discrimination that were either admitted in the hospital or referred from the out patient department. Most of them complained of back pain, body ache and difficulty in walking. Method: BMD (Bone mineral density) scans were performed using DXA equipment from Norland, USA and the interpretation of the studies were carried out from the manufacturer's computer generated software data. Emphasis was laid on the T score value which was used for interpretation. The information included i) Scan image ii) Raw BMD result iii) Normal range plot in which the subject's BMD and age are plotted with respect to manufacturer's reference.T score gives young adult Z score and the Z score serves as age matched Z score. WHO criteria was chosen as standard for T-score value. Results: Among the 312 patients 266 were female and 46 male. The data obtained from the patients record were divided into three groups according to age range. Group I 20-40 years, Group II 40-70 years, Group

  16. Effect of diet intervention on long-term mortality in healthy middle-aged men with combined hyperlipidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerkinn, E M; Sandvik, L; Hjermann, I; Arnesen, H

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to study the effect of a 5-year diet intervention on 24-year mortality in middle aged men with combined hyperlipidaemia. We studied 104 initially healthy men (in 1972) aged 40-49 years with baseline values of total serum cholesterol >6.45 mmol L-1 and fasting triglycerides >2.55 mmol L-1, within the randomized diet and smoking cessation trial of the Oslo study (n = 1232). The participants were randomized to a 5-year diet intervention or a control group. The diet consisted of a traditional lipid-lowering diet with emphasis on reduction of saturated fat, total caloric intake and body weight. The groups were initially well balanced with regard to traditional risk factors for mortality. Thirty-three subjects died during the 24-year observation period [17 of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 12 of cancer]. In the diet intervention group, mortality was 51% lower (RR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.22-0.91, P = 0.022) as compared with the control group. This difference remained significant in a Cox regression analysis after adjusting for age and smoking status (RR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.23-0.96, P = 0.038). This study indicates that the investigated 5-year diet intervention significantly reduces late mortality in healthy middle-aged men with combined hyperlipidaemia.

  17. β-Cell dedifferentiation, reduced duct cell plasticity, and impaired β-cell mass regeneration in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez, Noèlia; Vilaseca, Marina; Martí, Yasmina; Pla, Arturo; Montanya, Eduard

    2016-09-01

    Limitations in β-cell regeneration potential in middle-aged animals could contribute to the increased risk to develop diabetes associated with aging. We investigated β-cell regeneration of middle-aged Wistar rats in response to two different regenerative stimuli: partial pancreatectomy (Px + V) and gastrin administration (Px + G). Pancreatic remnants were analyzed 3 and 14 days after surgery. β-Cell mass increased in young animals after Px and was further increased after gastrin treatment. In contrast, β-cell mass did not change after Px or after gastrin treatment in middle-aged rats. β-Cell replication and individual β-cell size were similarly increased after Px in young and middle-aged animals, and β-cell apoptosis was not modified. Nuclear immunolocalization of neurog3 or nkx6.1 in regenerative duct cells, markers of duct cell plasticity, was increased in young but not in middle-aged Px rats. The pancreatic progenitor-associated transcription factors neurog3 and sox9 were upregulated in islet β-cells of middle-aged rats and further increased after Px. The percentage of chromogranin A+/hormone islet cells was significantly increased in the pancreases of middle-aged Px rats. In summary, the potential for compensatory β-cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy was retained in middle-aged rats, but β-cell dedifferentiation and impaired duct cell plasticity limited β-cell regeneration. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Changing patterns of tobacco use in a middle-aged population – the role of snus, gender, age, and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Norberg

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : In Sweden, the smoking prevalence has declined. In 2007, it was among the lowest in the industrialized world. A steady increase in the use of Swedish oral moist snuff, snus, has occurred in parallel. This development is neither solicited by authorities nor the medical establishment, but rather has occurred along with increased awareness of the dangers of smoking, and has been promoted by product development and marketing of snus. Objective : To evaluate time trends in patterns of tobacco use in northern Sweden during 1990–2007. Design : Cross-sectional (99,381 subjects and longitudinal (26,867 subjects data from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP 1990–2007 were analyzed. All adults in Västerbotten County are invited to a VIP health examination at ages 40, 50, and 60 years, and until 1995 also 30 years. Smoking and use of snus were evaluated by gender, age and educational groups. Intermittent smoking was categorized as smoking. Results : From the period 1990–1995 to the period 2002–2007, smoking prevalence decreased from 26 to 16% among men and from 27 to 18% among women. The differences in prevalence increased between educational groups. The decline in smoking was less and the increase of snus use was greater among those with basic education. The use of snus among basic-educated 40-year-olds reached 35% among men and 14% among women during 2002–2007. Dual smoking and snus use increased among men and women with basic education. Smoking without snus use was more prevalent among women. Gender differences in total smoking prevalence (smoking only plus dual use were small in all age groups, but increased among those with basic education reaching 7.3% during 2002–2007, with women being more frequent smokers. Smoking prevalences were similar among never, former and current snus users. Among the 30,000 former smokers, 38% of men and 64% of women had never used snus. Longitudinal data showed a decline in total tobacco

  19. The image of the universe as a cultural choice between science and theology. Probabilism and Realism from the Middle Ages to Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Fiorentino

    2014-01-01

    The famous Galilean question was to become the paradigm of the conflict between Nature and Scripture, science and faith, free research of natural reason and authority of the ecclesiastical institution, obscurantism of the medieval period and scientific progress which would illuminate the modern age. It is well known that the stereotype of the pure conflict between scientific thought and religious dogma for long dominated the interpretation of the most profound essence of the Middle Ages, as a...

  20. Exercise therapy versus arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for degenerative meniscal tear in middle aged patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kise, Nina Jullum; Risberg, May Arna; Stensrud, Silje

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine if exercise therapy is superior to arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for knee function in middle aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears. Design Randomised controlled superiority trial. Setting Orthopaedic departments at two public hospitals and two physiotherapy...... clinics in Norway. Participants 140 adults, mean age 49.5 years (range 35.7-59.9), with degenerative medial meniscal tear verified by magnetic resonance imaging. 96% had no definitive radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis. Interventions 12 week supervised exercise therapy alone or arthroscopic partial....... Our results should encourage clinicians and middle aged patients with degenerative meniscal tear and no definitive radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis to consider supervised exercise therapy as a treatment option. Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01002794)....

  1. Exercise therapy versus arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for degenerative meniscal tear in middle aged patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kise, Nina Jullum; Risberg, May Arna; Stensrud, Silje

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if exercise therapy is superior to arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for knee function in middle aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears. DESIGN: Randomised controlled superiority trial. SETTING: Orthopaedic departments at two public hospitals and two physiotherapy...... clinics in Norway. PARTICIPANTS: 140 adults, mean age 49.5 years (range 35.7-59.9), with degenerative medial meniscal tear verified by magnetic resonance imaging. 96% had no definitive radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis. INTERVENTIONS: 12 week supervised exercise therapy alone or arthroscopic partial....... Our results should encourage clinicians and middle aged patients with degenerative meniscal tear and no definitive radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis to consider supervised exercise therapy as a treatment option.Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01002794)....

  2. Effects of soccer vs swim training on bone formation in sedentary middle-aged women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Helge, Eva Wulff; Petersen, Liljan F

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study examined the effects of 15 weeks of soccer training and two different swimming training protocols on bone turnover in sedentary middle-aged women. METHODS: Eighty-three premenopausal mildly hypertensive women [age: 45 ± 6 (±SD) years, height: 165 ± 6 cm, weight: 80.0 ± 14.......1 kg, body fat: 42.6 ± 5.7 %, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure: 138 ± 6/85 ± 3 mmHg] were randomized into soccer training (SOC, n = 21), high-intensity intermittent swimming (HS, n = 21), moderate-intensity swimming (MS, n = 21) intervention groups, and a control group (C, n = 20.......7 ± 1.9 and 2.4 ± 2.9 %, respectively, in SOC, with a greater (P soccer training with sedentary middle-aged women caused marked increases in bone...

  3. Heritability of resting heart rate and association with mortality in middle-aged and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus T; Wod, Mette; Galatius, Søren

    2018-01-01

    , heritability estimates were 0.23 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.30); 0.27 (0.15 to 0.38) for males and 0.17 (0.06 to 0.28) for females. In multivariable models adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, pulmonary function, smoking, physical activity and zygosity, RHR was significantly associated......OBJECTIVE: Resting heart rate (RHR) possibly has a hereditary component and is associated with longevity. We used the classical biometric twin study design to investigate the heritability of RHR in a population of middle-aged and elderly twins and, furthermore, studied the association between RHR...... in RHR. CONCLUSIONS: RHR is a trait with a genetic influence in middle-aged and elderly twins free of cardiovascular disease. RHR is independently associated with longevity even when familial factors are controlled for in a twin design....

  4. Postoperative delirium after partial laryngectomy in a middle-aged patient: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huiqian; Shen, Xia

    2018-02-01

    Postoperative delirium is a common occurrence in older patients. However, reports of postoperative delirium in middle-aged patients are limited, and the underlying mechanism of delirium in this patient population is not clear. A 45-year-old man who developed postoperative delirium on the second day after partial laryngectomy. Interviews of the surgical team, patient, and patient's spouse revealed that the patient was psychologically stressed, but had not been diagnosed or treated. The patient also suffered impairment in physiological functioning and sleep disturbance after surgery. Postoperative delirium. The postoperative delirium was treated with an antipsychotic drug. The patient recovered well. Preoperative psychological stress, which is often undiagnosed and untreated, can increase the risk of postoperative delirium in middle-aged patients undergoing laryngectomy. Therefore, screening for psychological stress and implementing strategies to prevent delirium should be considered for patients who undergo laryngectomy, even if they are not in high-risk older age groups.

  5. Relationship between volume of the seminal vesicles and sexual activity in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, H; Kawa, G; Yoshida, K; Takayasu, K; Kinoshita, H; Matsuda, T

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between volume of the seminal vesicles and the frequency of sex and sexual function in middle-aged men is not clear. This study included 81 patients who were diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Volume of the seminal vesicles was examined using a volume analyser from computed tomography. Sexual function was subjectively evaluated using the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite and Erection Hardness Score. The frequency of sex was surveyed using our original questionnaire. The mean ± SD age of the patients was 67.7 ± 5.3 years. There was no relationship between the volume of seminal vesicles and age of the patients. Volume of the seminal vesicles in patients who answered that they had sexual activity at least once a year was significantly larger than in those who answered no sexual activity for several years (P middle-aged men, volume of the seminal vesicles was significantly larger in those who had a sexual frequency once every 3 months than in those who had a sexual frequency once every 6 months or once a year (P middle-aged men is correlated with sexual activity. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Higher muscle content of perilipin 5 and endothelial lipase protein in trained than untrained middle-aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Prats, C; Ploug, T

    2016-01-01

    A high VO(2)max in middle-age is related to high metabolic flexibility and lowered risk of metabolic diseases. However, the influence of a high VO(2)max induced by years of regular training in middle-age on protein expression related to muscle metabolism is not well studied. This study measures k...

  7. Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) questionnaires for young-aged to middle-aged adults with hip and groin disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, K.; Tijssen, M.; Habets, B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: To recommend Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) questionnaires to measure hip and groin disability in young-aged to middle-aged adults. METHODS: A systematic review was performed in June 2014. The methodological quality of the studies included was determined using the COnsensus......-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments list (COSMIN) together with standardised evaluations of measurement properties of each PRO. RESULTS: Twenty studies were included. Nine different questionnaires for patients with hip disability, and one for hip and groin disability, were...

  8. Predictors of Prosocial Behavior: Differences in Middle Aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, Jennifer R; Randall, Brandy A

    2016-10-01

    Generativity, contributing to the next generation, is important for well-being throughout middle and late life. Therefore, it is crucial to understand what contributes to generativity during these life stages. Parenting and work are common, but not the only, ways people engage generatively; prosocial behavior is another. A community connection may encourage generative contributions in adults. However, older adults may face obstacles to being generative, and may need an additional drive to engage in these behaviors. Given this, it was expected that community cohesion would predict prosocial behavior despite age, and that grit would provide motivation for older adults, so the current study examined whether age moderated the relation between grit and prosocial behavior. Data were used from 188 upper-Midwest adults (aged 37-89). Multiple regression analyses showed that age moderated the relation between grit and prosocial behavior such that grit predicted prosocial behavior in older adults but not middle age adults. A sense of community cohesion was predictive of prosocial behavior despite age. While grit may promote generative acts in different ways depending on age, a sense of community cohesion may foster community contributions despite age. The discussion focuses on future directions and ways to promote generativity using this research.

  9. MRI of the brain in neurologically healthy middle-aged and elderly individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, O.; Autti, T.; Raininko, R.; Ylikoski, A.; Erkinjuntti, T.

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to document the MRI appearances of the brain in healthy middle-aged to elderly subjects. T2- and proton density-weighted axial slices were obtained in 61 volunteers, 30-86 years of age. After visual inspection, signal intensities of brain structures were measured on T2-weighted images. Age-related changes became increasingly apparent after age 50. The main findings were that signal intensity of the white matter increased concomitantly with widening of the cerebrospinal fluid spaces; that basal ganglia remained stable; that high-signal foci in white matter increased in number and size after the age of 50 years; that periventricular high-signal foci were constant after the age of 65 years. Our visual impression of a decrease in signal intensity of the central grey matter with age seems to be mistaken. Pathological processes should be suspected if periventricular foci are found in middle-aged or young subjects. (orig.). With 9 figs., 1 tab

  10. Tetanus Toxoid carrier protein induced T-helper cell responses upon vaccination of middle-aged adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heiden, Marieke; Duizendstra, Aafke; Berbers, Guy A M; Boots, Annemieke M H; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vaccines frequently induce suboptimal immune responses in the elderly, due to immunological ageing. Timely vaccination may be a strategy to overcome this problem, which classifies middle-aged adults asan interesting target group for future vaccine interventions. However, the

  11. Changing patterns of tobacco use in a middle-aged population: the role of snus, gender, age, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Margareta; Lundqvist, Gunnar; Nilsson, Maria; Gilljam, Hans; Weinehall, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden, the smoking prevalence has declined. In 2007, it was among the lowest in the industrialized world. A steady increase in the use of Swedish oral moist snuff, snus, has occurred in parallel. This development is neither solicited by authorities nor the medical establishment, but rather has occurred along with increased awareness of the dangers of smoking, and has been promoted by product development and marketing of snus. To evaluate time trends in patterns of tobacco use in northern Sweden during 1990-2007. Cross-sectional (99,381 subjects) and longitudinal (26,867 subjects) data from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) 1990-2007 were analyzed. All adults in Västerbotten County are invited to a VIP health examination at ages 40, 50, and 60 years, and until 1995 also 30 years. Smoking and use of snus were evaluated by gender, age and educational groups. Intermittent smoking was categorized as smoking. From the period 1990-1995 to the period 2002-2007, smoking prevalence decreased from 26 to 16% among men and from 27 to 18% among women. The differences in prevalence increased between educational groups. The decline in smoking was less and the increase of snus use was greater among those with basic education. The use of snus among basic-educated 40-year-olds reached 35% among men and 14% among women during 2002-2007. Dual smoking and snus use increased among men and women with basic education. Smoking without snus use was more prevalent among women. Gender differences in total smoking prevalence (smoking only plus dual use) were small in all age groups, but increased among those with basic education reaching 7.3% during 2002-2007, with women being more frequent smokers. Smoking prevalences were similar among never, former and current snus users. Among the 30,000 former smokers, 38% of men and 64% of women had never used snus. Longitudinal data showed a decline in total tobacco use from baseline until follow-up and this was mainly due to a smoking

  12. Leisure and depression in midlife: a Taiwanese national survey of middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo Lu

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to explore middle-aged people's leisure experiences and their associations with depression in a national representative sample of Taiwanese people (N = 1143, aged 45-65). We found that: (1) being female and low family income were demographic risk factors of depressive symptoms; (2) poor physical health and disability were positively related to depressive symptoms; (3) social support was negatively related to depressive symptoms; and (4) having controlled for effects of demographics, physical health and social support, positive leisure experiences were negatively related to depressive symptoms. The benefits of leisure pursuits for successful midlife transition and prospective ageing were discussed.

  13. Signaling pathway activation drift during aging: Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome fibroblasts are comparable to normal middle-age and old-age cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliper, Alexander M; Csoka, Antonei Benjamin; Buzdin, Anton; Jetka, Tomasz; Roumiantsev, Sergey; Moskalev, Alexy; Zhavoronkov, Alex

    2015-01-01

    For the past several decades, research in understanding the molecular basis of human aging has progressed significantly with the analysis of premature aging syndromes. Progerin, an altered form of lamin A, has been identified as the cause of premature aging in Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), and may be a contributing causative factor in normal aging. However, the question of whether HGPS actually recapitulates the normal aging process at the cellular and organismal level, or simply mimics the aging phenotype is widely debated. In the present study we analyzed publicly available microarray datasets for fibroblasts undergoing cellular aging in culture, as well as fibroblasts derived from young, middle-age, and old-age individuals, and patients with HGPS. Using GeroScope pathway analysis and drug discovery platform we analyzed the activation states of 65 major cellular signaling pathways. Our analysis reveals that signaling pathway activation states in cells derived from chronologically young patients with HGPS strongly resemble cells taken from normal middle-aged and old individuals. This clearly indicates that HGPS may truly represent accelerated aging, rather than being just a simulacrum. Our data also points to potential pathways that could be targeted to develop drugs and drug combinations for both HGPS and normal aging.

  14. The Technological Advent and Dynamics of the Network Society. The "Middle-Aged Approach"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mădălina Vătămănescu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, scholars have become interested in the ways new media influence young people, but its influence on middle-aged people have not been thoroughly examined. This age category is often ignored as most of the online activities are performed by young persons. New media gathers a wide range of phenomena which may become concepts of the network society through their diversity, knowledge and novelty. Interactivity is the most important characteristic, turning the user into a content creator, not just into a receiver. Moreover, what was once considered to be a personal state of mind tends to become a part of the public domain. Starting from these premises, the article advances the idea that the Internet can be beneficial not just for teenagers, but also for the middle-aged group oriented towards keeping in touch with relatives and friends and towards finding online useful information. At this level, the present paper aims to discover directions given by network society in the lives of middle-aged people. To this end, the research relies on an interview-based survey which addresses the way people may adapt to communication technology and to its particularities, exploring advantages or discovering potential drawbacks.

  15. Tephrostratigraphy and the Acheulian to middle stone age transition in the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Christian A; McBrearty, Sally

    2002-01-01

    Sites containing Acheulian, Sangoan, Fauresmith, and Middle Stone Age artefacts occur within and below the Bedded Tuff, a widespread volcaniclastic member of the Kapthurin Formation, Kenya. The Bedded Tuff eruptive complex consists of up to twelve tephra beds, intercalated sediments, and paleosols. Two pumiceous units, high in the Bedded Tuff sequence, have been dated by(40)Ar/(39)Ar, one to 235+/-2 ka (Deino & McBrearty, 2002, Journal of Human Evolution, 42, 185-210, cf. Tallon, 1978, Geological Background to Fossil Man, pp. 361-373, Scottish Academic Press), the other to 284+/-12 ka (Deino & McBrearty, 2001), the latter now providing a minimum age estimate for all underlying archaeological sites. Bedded Tuff outcrops are correlated through field stratigraphic and electron microprobe geochemical analyses of individual beds. Bedded Tuff units show increasingly evolved composition through the stratigraphic succession, indicating that the beds are the product of intermittent eruption of a single differentiating magma system, and the chemical signatures of these beds permit the chronological ordering of archaeological sites. Our results indicate that the transition to Middle Stone Age technology occurred prior to 285 ka in this region of East Africa. The interstratification of sites containing Acheulian, Sangoan, Fauresmith, and Middle Stone Age artefacts suggests that these technologies were contemporary in a single depositional basin over the duration of the transition. Copyright 2002 Academic Press.

  16. Active infection with Helicobacter pylori in an asymptomatic population of middle aged to elderly people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothenbacher, D; Bode, G; Peschke, F

    1998-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate prevalence and determinants of current Helicobacter pylori infection in an asymptomatic population of middle-aged to elderly people. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 337 participants of a general education programme of the University of Ulm aged 50......-85 years. Prevalence of infection as determined by means of the [13C]urea breath test was 34.8% (95% CI 29.6-40.3%); overall, 33.8% (95% CI 23.0-46.0) in the age group 50-59 years, 32.4% (95% CI 25.4-39.9) in the age group 60-69 years and 41.0% (95% CI 30.0-52.7) in the age group 70-85 years. Duration...... subjects may not be as high as seroprevalence studies have suggested. Socioeconomic characteristics of childhood living conditions appear to be important determinants of infection status even at older age....

  17. Epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in men and women of middle and older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W

    2017-11-01

    We summarized recent literature on the epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in middle-aged and older women and men. The prevalence of eating disorders according to DSM-5 criteria is around 3.5% in older (>40 years) women and around 1-2% in older men. The majority of those eating disordered persons are not in treatment. There are new terms like 'perimenopausal eating disorders' and 'muscularity-oriented eating disorders' indicating the impact of the aging process and sex-specific differences. Disordered eating and eating disorders occur in both women and men of all ages. Medical complications because of age, the stigma of eating disorders in a still 'untypical' age, and the glorification of sports activity often hinder the recognition of eating disorders in midlife and older persons. Treatment approaches should consider treatment strategies tailored for older women and men, addressing the context of midlife and aging.

  18. Poor Heart Rate Recovery Is Associated With the Development of New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbag, Avi; Berkovitch, Anat; Sidi, Yechezkel; Kivity, Shaye; Ben Zekry, Sagit; Beinart, Roy; Segev, Shlomo; Glikson, Michael; Goldenberg, Ilan; Maor, Elad

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the association between heart rate recovery (HRR) and new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in middle-aged adults. Heart rate recovery was calculated using the exercise stress test in 15,729 apparently healthy self-referred men and women who attended periodic health screening examinations between January 2000, and December 2015. All participants completed the maximal exercise stress test according to the Bruce protocol and were followed clinically on a yearly basis for a median of 6.4±4 years. The primary end point was new-onset AF. Participants were grouped according to HRR at 5 minutes, dichotomized at the median value (age, male sex, obesity resting heart rate, and ischemic heart disease were all associated with increased AF risk in a univariate Cox regression model (Pnew-onset AF during long-term follow-up in middle-aged adults. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-07-23

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012-2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132-1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673-0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094-1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China.

  20. Perceived Stress After Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Comparison Between Young and Middle-Aged Women Versus Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Bao, Haikun; Strait, Kelly M; Edmondson, Donald E; Davidson, Karina W; Beltrame, John F; Bueno, Héctor; Lin, Haiqun; Dreyer, Rachel P; Brush, John E; Spertus, John A; Lichtman, Judith H; DʼOnofrio, Gail; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how psychological stress changes over time in young and middle-aged patients after experiencing an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and whether these changes differ between men and women. We analyzed data obtained from 2358 women and 1151 men aged 18 to 55 years hospitalized for AMI. Psychological stress was measured using the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) at initial hospitalization and at 1 month and 12 months after AMI. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine changes in PSS-14 scores over time and sex differences in these changes, while adjusting for patient characteristics and accounting for correlation among repeated observations within patients. Overall, patients' perceived stress decreased over time, especially during the first month after AMI. Women had higher levels of perceived stress than men throughout the 12-month period (difference in PSS-14 score = 3.63, 95% confidence interval = 3.08 to 4.18, p men = 1.74, 95% confidence interval = 1.32 to 2.16, p middle-aged patients with AMI, women reported higher levels of perceived stress than men throughout the first 12 months of recovery. However, women and men had a similar pattern in how perceived stress changed over time.

  1. Health benefits of Tai Chi exercise: improved balance and blood pressure in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Everard W; Sykes, Kevin S; Tang, Wai K

    2004-03-01

    Tai Chi has been widely practiced as a Chinese martial art that focuses on slow sequential movements, providing a smooth, continuous and low intensity activity. It has been promoted to improve balance and strength and to reduce falls in the elderly, especially those 'at risk'. The potential benefits in healthy younger age cohorts and for wider aspects of health have received less attention. The present study documented prospective changes in balance and vascular responses for a community sample of middle-aged women. Seventeen relatively sedentary but healthy normotensive women aged 33-55 years were recruited into a three times per week, 12-week Tai Chi exercise programme. A further 17 sedentary subjects matched for age and body size were recruited as a control group. Dynamic balance measured by the Functional Reach Test was significantly improved following Tai Chi, with significant decreases in both mean systolic (9.71 mmHg) and diastolic (7.53 mmHg) blood pressure. The data confirm that Tai Chi exercise can be a good choice of exercise for middle-aged adults, with potential benefits for ageing as well as the aged.

  2. Alcohol Consumption, Beverage Preference, and Diet in Middle-Aged Men from the STANISLAS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Herbeth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The question about differences in dietary patterns associated with beer, wine, and spirits is still unresolved. We used diet data from 423 middle-aged males of the STANISLAS Study. Using adjusted values for covariates, we observed a negative significant association between increasing alcohol intakes and the consumption of milk, yogurt, and fresh/uncured cheese, sugar and confectionery, vegetables and fruits, and a significant positive relationship with cheese, meat and organs, pork-butcher's meat, and potatoes. In addition, the first dietary pattern identified by factor analysis (characterized a more prudent diet was inversely related to alcohol intakes. Conversely, when analyzing daily consumption of specific food groups and diet patterns according to beverage preference (wine, beer, and spirits, no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, in this sample of middle-aged French males, there was a linear trend between increasing alcohol intakes and worsening of quality of diet, while no difference was observed according to beverage preference.

  3. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment.

  4. Do childhood and adult socioeconomic circumstances influence health and physical function in middle-age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Madsen, Mia; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    -twin, while there seemed to be no twin pair difference in dental status. This suggests that the associations of adult social class with functional limitations, poor self-rated health and fatigue may partly be due to causal effects related to adult social class exposures, while social class differences......This study examines the joint and separate contribution of social class in early and adult life to differences in health and physical function in middle-aged men. We use data from the Metropolit project which includes men born in 1953 in Copenhagen and a study of middle-aged Danish twins (MADT...... and fatigue than men from the highest social classes. When childhood and adult social class were mutually adjusted, the estimates for both measures were attenuated. Adjustment for living without a partner, body mass index (BMI) and smoking in midlife, which were also related to the four outcomes, had marginal...

  5. Counseling middle-aged women about physical activity using the stages of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, Jennifer S; Sheahan, Sharon L

    2002-11-01

    To discuss application of the Stages of Change theoretical framework and provide clinical tips on exercise adherence among midlife women. Included is a checklist to assist the nurse practitioner (NP) in effectively delivering the message. Review of the current scientific literature on exercise adherence and the Stages of Change model. Middle-aged women comprise a unique population. Determining the woman's readiness for change using the Stages of Change model, NPs can routinely include appropriate exercise recommendations in their practices. Nurse practitioners are in a unique position to promote healthy behaviors by counseling women in midlife about adopting an active lifestyle. Exercise counseling is an essential component of healthcare, especially among middle-aged women who are experiencing physical, emotional, and social changes.

  6. Sarcopenia and its relationship with bone mineral density in middle-aged and elderly European men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschueren, S; Gielen, E; O'Neill, T W; Pye, S R; Adams, J E; Ward, K A; Wu, F C; Szulc, P; Laurent, M; Claessens, F; Vanderschueren, D; Boonen, S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between reduced muscle mass (sarcopenia) and areal bone mineral density (BMD(a)) in middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling European men. Men with sarcopenia had significantly lower BMD(a) and were more likely to have osteoporosis compared with men without sarcopenia. In men, the relationship between reduced muscle mass (sarcopenia) and BMD(a) is unclear. This study aimed to determine this relationship in middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling men. Men aged 40-79 years from the Manchester (UK) and Leuven (Belgium) cohorts of the European Male Ageing Study were invited to attend for assessment including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, from which appendicular lean mass (aLM), fat mass (FM) and whole-body, spine and hip BMD(a) were determined. Relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass (RASM) was calculated as aLM/height². Muscle strength was assessed in subjects from Leuven. Sarcopenia was defined by RASM at Sarcopenia in Older People (RASM at sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Six hundred seventy-nine men with a mean age of 59.6 (SD = 10.7), contributed data to the analysis; 11.9 % were sarcopenic by the conventional definition. After adjustment for age and centre, aLM, RASM and FM were positively associated with BMD(a). Men with RASM at sarcopenia were more likely to have osteoporosis compared with those with normal RASM (odds ratio = 3.0; 95 % CI = 1.6-5.8). Sarcopenia is associated with low BMD(a) and osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly men. Further studies are necessary to assess whether maintaining muscle mass contributes to prevent osteoporosis.

  7. Brain morphometry shows effects of long-term musical practice in middle-aged keyboard players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eGärtner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To what extent does musical practice change the structure of the brain? In order to understand how long-lasting musical training changes brain structure, 20 male right-handed, middle-aged professional musicians and 19 matched controls were investigated. Among the musicians, 13 were pianists or organists with intensive practice regimes. The others were either music teachers at schools or string instrumentalists, who had studied the piano at least as a subsidiary subject, and practiced less intensively. The study was based on T1-weighted MR images, which were analyzed using Deformation Field Morphometry. Cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of cortical areas and subcortical nuclei as well as myeloarchitectonic maps of fiber tracts were used as regions of interest to compare volume differences in the brains of musicians and controls. In addition, maps of voxel-wise volume differences were computed and analyzed.Musicians showed a significantly better symmetric motor performance as well as a greater capability of controlling hand independence than controls. Structural MRI-data revealed significant volumetric differences between the brains of keyboard players, who practiced intensively and controls in right sensorimotor areas and the corticospinal tract as well as in the entorhinal cortex and the left superior parietal lobule. Moreover, they showed also larger volumes in a comparable set of regions than the less intensively practicing musicians. The structural changes in the sensory and motor systems correspond well to the behavioral results, and can be interpreted in terms of plasticity as a result of intensive motor training. Areas of the superior parietal lobule and the entorhinal cortex might be enlarged in musicians due to their special skills in sight-playing and memorizing of scores. In conclusion, intensive and specific musical training seems to have an impact on brain structure, not only during the sensitive period of childhood but throughout

  8. Chronic disease self-management education courses: utilization by low-income, middle-aged participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrell, Lindsey N; Kneipp, Shawn M; Ahn, SangNam; Towne, Samuel D; Mingo, Chivon A; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-06-27

    Individuals living in lower-income areas face an increased prevalence of chronic disease and, oftentimes, greater barriers to optimal self-management. Disparities in disease management are seen across the lifespan, but are particularly notable among middle-aged adults. Although evidence-based Chronic Disease Self-management Education courses are available to enhance self-management among members of this at-risk population, little information is available to determine the extent to which these courses are reaching those at greatest risk. The purpose of this study is to compare the extent to which middle-aged adults from lower- and higher-income areas have engaged in CDSME courses, and to identify the sociodemographic characteristics of lower-income, middle aged participants. The results of this study were produced through analysis of secondary data collected during the Communities Putting Prevention to Work: Chronic Disease Self-Management Program initiative. During this initiative, data was collected from 100,000 CDSME participants across 45 states within the United States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Of the entire sample included in this analysis (19,365 participants), 55 people lived in the most impoverished counties. While these 55 participants represented just 0.3% of the total study sample, researchers found this group completed courses more frequently than participants from less impoverished counties once enrolled. These results signal a need to enhance participation of middle-aged adults from lower-income areas in CDSME courses. The results also provide evidence that can be used to inform future program delivery choices, including decisions regarding recruitment materials, program leaders, and program delivery sites, to better engage this population.

  9. Hypothalamic Gene Transfer of BDNF Inhibits Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis in Middle Age Obese Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xianglan; McMurphy, Travis; Xiao, Run; Slater, Andrew; Huang, Wei; Cao, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the hypothalamus-adipocyte axis is associated with an antiobesity and anticancer phenotype in animal models of melanoma and colon cancer. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key mediator in the hypothalamus leading to preferential sympathoneural activation of adipose tissue and the ensuing resistance to obesity and cancer. Here, we generated middle age obese mice by high fat diet feeding for a year and investigated the effects of hypothalamic gene transfer of BDNF on a...

  10. Diffusion tensor imaging, intracranial vascular resistance and cognition in middle-aged asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olóriz, Jorge; López-Cancio, Elena; Arenillas, Juan F; Hernández, María; Dorado, Laura; Dacosta-Aguayo, Rosalía; Barrios, Maite; Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Miralbell, Júlia; Bargalló, Núria; Cáceres, Cynthia; Torán, Pere; Alzamora, Maite; Dávalos, Antonio; Mataró, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of traditional vascular risk factors to cognitive impairment and dementia is well known. However, in order to obtain possible targets for prevention of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), it may be important to identify other early and noninvasive markers in asymptomatic middle-aged adults. The calculation of middle cerebral artery-pulsatility index (MCA-PI) is an ultrasonologic, noninvasive, validated and easily reproducible technique to assess increased distal resistance to blood flow. This study aims to assess the relationship between MCA-PI, microstructural white matter (WM) integrity and cognition in a middle-aged asymptomatic population. Ninety-five participants from the Barcelona-Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis (AsIA) neuropsychology study were included. Subjects were 50-65 years old, free from dementia and without history of vascular disease. Transcranial color-coded duplex ultrasound examination was performed to assess MCA-PI as a measure of vascular resistance. WM integrity was evaluated by fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements of diffusion tensor images (DTI) acquired on a 3T-MRI. The neuropsychological battery was specifically selected to be sensitive to VCI, and included tests that were grouped into six cognitive domains: executive functioning, attention, verbal fluency, memory, visuospatial skills and psychomotor speed. A multivariate linear regression model adjusted for age, gender, years of education, diabetes and hypertension was performed. MCA-PI was significantly associated with WM disintegration in different tracts (fornix, corticospinal and anterior thalamic), all p gender, years of education, and vascular risk factors (all p cognitive domains, except for visuospatial skills. Our data suggest that MCA-PI may be related to WM disintegration and early vascular cognitive impairment in middle-aged subjects. Although further prospective studies are needed to provide evidence for its validity in longitudinal studies, our

  11. Reading Contemporary Imaginaries inspired by the Middle Ages Narratives through Mass Media Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Torres Eça

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors will approach images from film and games industry to discuss trends in contemporary young people and young adults’ subcultures. The images will serve as a basis to debate digital natives fascination by metanarratives grounded on stories inspired by Middle Ages stories. A set of images will be discussed through methodologies of visual analysis that may give some insights about the fascination transmitted by medieval stories to young people and young adults’ subcultures.

  12. Neighborhood Conditions and Psychosocial Outcomes Among Middle-Aged African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, Maya; Sanders, Erin A; Schootman, Mario; Chang, Jen Jen; Wolinsky, Fredric D; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Miller, Douglas K

    2017-04-01

    We examined associations between observed neighborhood conditions (good/adverse) and psychosocial outcomes (stress, depressive symptoms, resilience, and sense of control) among middle-aged and older African Americans. The sample included 455 middle-aged and older African Americans examined in Wave 10 of the African American Health (AAH) study. Linear regression was adjusted for attrition, self-selection into neighborhoods, and potential confounders, and stratified by the duration at current address (stress (standardized β = -0.18; P = .002) and depressive symptoms (standardized β = -0.12; P = .048). Among those who lived at their current address for stress (standardized β = 0.18; P = .305) or depressive symptoms (standardized β = 0.36; P = .080). Neighborhood conditions appear to have significant, complex associations with psychosocial factors among middle-aged and older African Americans. This holds important policy implications, especially since adverse neighborhood conditions may still result in adverse physical health outcomes in individuals with >5 years at current residence despite being associated with better psychosocial outcomes.

  13. Sweet Preference Associated with the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia Among Middle-Aged Women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoonjin; Lee, Soojin; Kim, Yangha

    2018-04-05

    Sweet preference has been reported to be associated with various health problems. This study examined the influence of sweet taste preference on the risk of dyslipidemia in Korean middle-aged women. The study selected 3,609 middle-aged women from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) and classified them into two groups on the basis of whether or not they preferred sweet taste. Dietary intake was analyzed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Serum lipid profiles and anthropometric variables were measured. Subjects who preferred the sweet taste had significantly higher intakes of sugar products and sweet drink than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. Subjects who preferred the sweet taste showed higher carbohydrate and fat intake and less fiber intake than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. The serum concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in subjects who preferred the sweet taste than those who did not prefer. Furthermore, subjects who preferred the sweet taste showed a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) for hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.22; 95% CI (1.01-1.45)) and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia (OR 1.33; 95% CI (1.11-1.60)) than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. Our results suggested that preference for sweet taste may increase the consumption of sugar products and sweet drinks, which is partially linked to the risk of hypercholesterolemia and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia in Korean middle-aged women.

  14. ["Historia animalium" compared to "Gynaecia" in the literature of the Middle Ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasen, A L

    1980-12-01

    In her essay the author pictures the dominating role of Aristotle's doctrines as compared with the more progressive scientific achievements of the Alexandrian school of medicine during the Middle Ages. One of the consequences of this dominance was an almost total neglect of the special health problems of women who were-in contrast with men and according to the Aristotelian tradition of the Middle Ages-considered to be defective human beings: a nearly uneradicable opinion far into later centuries. In addition it was not only in accordance with Christian doctrines but with religious and social conceptions and habits of the Arabic tradition as well. The progressive efforts of some reasonable medieval physicians to improve the deplorable position of women were incapable to break through the bulwark of cooperating misjudgments and prejudices. It took a lot of time-from Hippocrates to Galen and the Arabs-and many errors were made till the teachings of Soranos of Ephesos, the first great gynaecologist, began to gain ground since the late Middle Ages, when his treatment of women's diseases and obstetrical instructions slowly prevailed the speculative perceptions of Aristotle and his epigones.

  15. Epigenome-Wide Association Study of Cognitive Functioning in Middle-Aged Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starnawska, Anna; Tan, Qihua; McGue, Matt

    2017-01-01

    As the world's population ages, the age-related cognitive decline presents a great challenge to world's healthcare systems. One of the molecular mechanisms implicated in cognitive ageing is DNA methylation, an epigenetic modification known to be a key player in memory formation, maintenance......, and synaptic plasticity. Using the twin design we performed an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) in a population of 486 middle-aged monozygotic twins (mean age at follow-up 65.9, SD = 6.1) and correlated their blood DNA methylation to their level (cross-sectional analysis) and change in cognitive...... abilities over 10 years (longitudinal analysis). We identified several CpG sites where cross-sectional cognitive functioning was associated with DNA methylation levels. The top identified loci were located in ZBTB46 (p = 5.84 × 10-7), and TAF12 (p = 4.91 × 10-7). KEGG's enrichment analyses of the most...

  16. Functional disability and suicidal behavior in middle-aged and older adults: A systematic critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Julie; Fiske, Amy

    2018-02-01

    Middle-aged and older adults have elevated rates of suicide around the globe, but there is a paucity of knowledge about risk factors for suicide in these age groups. One possible risk factor may be functional disability, which is more common at later ages. The current systematic critical review examined findings regarding the associations between functional disability and suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death by suicide) in middle-aged and older adults (i.e. age 50 and older). Forty-five studies were found that examined these associations. The majority of studies supported a significant association between functional disability and suicidal ideation. In addition, findings to date strongly suggest that depression serves as a mediator of the association between functional disability and suicidal ideation, though most studies did not directly test for mediation. Firm conclusions regarding suicide attempts and death by suicide, as well as mediation, cannot be drawn due to a relative lack of research in these areas. The association between functional disability and suicidal behavior suggests an important area for prevention and intervention among middle-aged and older adults, but additional research is necessary to clarify the specifics of these associations and examine appropriate intervention strategies. Important future directions for research in this area include the direct comparison of associations of risk factors with different types of suicidal behavior, greater use of longitudinal data with multiple time points, and further examination of potential mediators and moderators of the association between functional disability and suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical activity in middle-aged women and hip fracture risk: the UFO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, U; Nordström, P; Nilsson, J; Bucht, G; Björnstig, U; Hallmans, G; Svensson, O; Pettersson, U

    2011-02-01

    In a population-based case-control study, we demonstrate that middle-aged women who were active with walking or in different physical spare time activities were at lower risk of later sustaining a hip fracture compared to more sedentary women. In middle-aged women participating in the Umeå Fracture and Osteoporosis (UFO) study, we investigated whether physical activity is associated with a subsequent decreased risk of sustaining a hip fracture. The UFO study is a nested case-control study investigating associations between bone markers, lifestyle, and osteoporotic fractures. We identified 81 female hip fracture cases that had reported lifestyle data before they sustained their fracture. Each case was compared with two female controls who were identified from the same cohort and matched for age and week of reporting data, yielding a total cohort of 237 subjects. Mean age at baseline was 57.2 ± 5.0 years, and mean age at fracture was 65.4 ± 6.4 years. Conditional logistic regression analysis with adjustments for height, weight, smoking, and menopausal status showed that subjects who were regularly active with walking or had a moderate or high frequency of physical spare time activities (i.e. berry/mushroom picking and snow shovelling) were at reduced risk of sustaining a hip fracture (OR 0.14; 95% CI; 0.05-0.53 for walking and OR 0.19; 95% CI; 0.08-0.46, OR 0.17, 95% CI; 0.05-0.64 for moderate and high frequency of spare time activities, respectively) compared to more sedentary women. An active lifestyle in middle age seems to reduce the risk of future hip fracture. Possible mechanisms may include improved muscle strength, coordination, and balance resulting in a decreased risk of falling and perhaps also direct skeletal benefits.

  18. Low levels of serum testosterone in middle-aged men impact pathological features of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llukani, Elton; Katz, Benjamin F; Agalliu, Ilir; Lightfoot, Andrew; Yu, Sue-Jean S; Kathrins, Martin; Lee, Ziho; Su, Yu-Kai; Monahan Agnew, Kelly; McGill, Alice; Eun, Daniel D; Lee, David I

    2017-03-01

    Serum testosterone deficiency increases with aging. Age is also a major risk factor for prostate cancer (PrCa) and PCa tumors are more frequently diagnosed among men >65 years old. We evaluated the relationship between preoperative serum testosterone and clinical/ pathological features of PrCa in middle-aged and elderly patients. A total of 605 PrCa patients who underwent robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy between September 2010 and January 2013 at the University of Pennsylvania, and who had serum testosterone levels measured using Elecsys Testosterone II Immunoassay were included in this IRB-approved protocol. Androgen deficiency was determined as serum free testosterone (FT) men with low vs. normal TT or FT were compared using t-test or chi-square tests. Logistic regression was used to determine associations of clinical and pathological variables with FT or TT levels. Among middle-aged men (45-64 years; n = 367), those with low FT and low TT had, on average, a higher BMI (29.7 vs. 27.4, P men with normal FT and normal TT values. Patients with low FT had also higher number of positive cores on biopsy (3.9 vs. 3.1 P = 0.019) and greater tumor volume (7.9 ml vs. 6.1 ml, P = 0.045) compared to those with normal FT. Among men ≥65 years ( n = 135) there was no difference in prostatectomy specimens of PrCa between patients with low or normal FT or TT. Among men aged 45-64 years low serum pretreatment FT and TT predicted more aggressive features of PrCa in prostatectomy specimens. In middle-aged patients low testosterone levels measured pre-operatively may indicate more aggressive disease parameters.

  19. Trajectories of the healthy ageing phenotype among middle-aged and older Britons, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, Gindo

    2016-06-01

    Since the ageing population demands a response to ensure older people remain healthy and active, we studied the dynamics of a recently proposed healthy ageing phenotype. We drew the phenotype's trajectories and tested whether their levels and rates of change are influenced by health behaviours, comorbidities and socioeconomic positions earlier in the life course. The English Longitudinal Ageing Study, a prospective, nationally representative sample of people aged ≥50 years, measured a set of eight biomarkers which make up the outcome of the healthy ageing phenotype three times over nearly a decade (N2004=5009, N2008=5301, N2013=4455). A cluster of health behaviours, comorbidities and socioeconomic positions were also measured repeatedly. We assessed the phenotype's distribution non-parametrically, then fitted linear mixed models to phenotypic change and further examined time interactions with gender and socioeconomic position. We ran additional analyses to test robustness. Women had a wider distribution of the healthy ageing phenotype than men had. The phenotype declined annually by -0.242 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.352, -0.131). However, there was considerable heterogeneity in the levels and rates of phenotypic change. Women started at higher levels, then declined more steeply by -0.293 (CI: -0.403, -0.183) annually, leading to crossover in the trajectories. Smoking and physical activity assessed on the Allied Dunbar scale were strongly associated with the trajectories. Though marked by secular decline, the trajectories of the healthy ageing phenotype showed distinct socioeconomic gradients. The trajectories were also susceptible to variations in health behaviours, strengthening the case for serial interventions to attain healthy and active ageing. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. The image of the universe as a cultural choice between science and theology. Probabilism and Realism from the Middle Ages to Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fiorentino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The famous Galilean question was to become the paradigm of the conflict between Nature and Scripture, science and faith, free research of natural reason and authority of the ecclesiastical institution, obscurantism of the medieval period and scientific progress which would illuminate the modern age. It is well known that the stereotype of the pure conflict between scientific thought and religious dogma for long dominated the interpretation of the most profound essence of the Middle Ages, as an obscurantist age in the grip of the universalist political and religious authorities. This image of the Middle Ages was greatly corroborated by the Humanist writers of the Renaissance and enlightenment historiography. This contribution purports to analyse late–medieval science from an olistic methodology based on history of science and philosophy of science, to obtain a big picture in front to Scientific Revolution and to show the cultural roots of the different images of the universe.

  1. The First 90 Days of the New Middle School Principal in a Turnaround School: In-Depth Case Study of the Transition Period (First 90 Days)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed skills, strategies, and theories that new middle school principals used to be successful during their transition period (the first 90 days) in turnaround schools. Based on research on transitions, three research questions guided the study: 1. Do middle school principals in a turnaround school situation find the transition…

  2. The gray divorce revolution: rising divorce among middle-aged and older adults, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan L; Lin, I-Fen

    2012-11-01

    Our study documents how the divorce rate among persons aged 50 and older has changed between 1990 and 2010 and identifies the sociodemographic correlates of divorce among today's middle-aged and older adults. We used data from the 1990 U.S. Vital Statistics Report and the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS) to examine the change in the divorce rate over time. ACS data were analyzed to determine the sociodemographic correlates of divorce. The divorce rate among adults aged 50 and older doubled between 1990 and 2010. Roughly 1 in 4 divorces in 2010 occurred to persons aged 50 and older. Demographic characteristics, economic resources, and the marital biography were associated with the risk of divorce in 2010. The rate of divorce was 2.5 times higher for those in remarriages versus first marriages, whereas the divorce rate declined as marital duration rose. The traditional focus of gerontological research on widowhood must be expanded to include divorce as another form of marital dissolution. Over 600,000 people aged 50 and older got divorced in 2010 but little is known about the predictors and consequences of divorces that occur during middle and later life.

  3. The Gray Divorce Revolution: Rising Divorce Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults, 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Our study documents how the divorce rate among persons aged 50 and older has changed between 1990 and 2010 and identifies the sociodemographic correlates of divorce among today’s middle-aged and older adults. Design and Method. We used data from the 1990 U.S. Vital Statistics Report and the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS) to examine the change in the divorce rate over time. ACS data were analyzed to determine the sociodemographic correlates of divorce. Results. The divorce rate among adults aged 50 and older doubled between 1990 and 2010. Roughly 1 in 4 divorces in 2010 occurred to persons aged 50 and older. Demographic characteristics, economic resources, and the marital biography were associated with the risk of divorce in 2010. The rate of divorce was 2.5 times higher for those in remarriages versus first marriages, whereas the divorce rate declined as marital duration rose. Implications. The traditional focus of gerontological research on widowhood must be expanded to include divorce as another form of marital dissolution. Over 600,000 people aged 50 and older got divorced in 2010 but little is known about the predictors and consequences of divorces that occur during middle and later life. PMID:23052366

  4. Loneliness and objectively measured physical capability in middle-aged adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Laban, J; Petersen, GL

    2018-01-01

    and women compared with the ‘not lonely’ were 1.2 kg (95% CI − 0.5;2.9)/1.0 kg (−0.7;2.6). Low occupational social class was associated with poorer physical capability, and living alone was associated with poorer handgrip strength in men [−2.4 kg (95% CI − 3.2;−1.5)] and poorer chair rise test in women [−0......Background: Loneliness is associated with poor functional ability in older people. Little is known about this association in the middle-aged. The aim is to investigate if perceived loneliness is associated with lower physical capability among middle-aged men and women and if the associations...... of loneliness with physical capability interact with socioeconomic position and cohabitation status. Methods: 5224 participants from Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) aged 49–62 years (mean age 54) were included. Handgrip strength (measured by a dynamometer) and maximal number of chair rises in 30 s...

  5. Cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults participating in synchronized swimming-exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Etsuko; Okumura, Yuka; Tatsumi, Juri; Tomokane, Sayaka; Ikeshima, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults regularly engaging in synchronized swimming-exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three female synchronized swimmers ranging in age from 49 to 85 years were recruited for the present study. The duration of synchronized swimming experience ranged from 1 to 39 years. The control group consisted of 36 age- and gender-matched community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults (age range: 49 to 77 years). Cognitive function was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J) and compared between the synchronized swimmers and control participants. [Results] No significant differences in mean total MoCA-J scores were observed between the synchronized swimmers and control participants (23.2 ± 3.1 and 22.2 ± 3.6, respectively). Twenty-nine subjects in the control group and 17 in the synchronized swimming group scored below 26 on the MoCA-J, indicative of mild cognitive impairment. Significant differences in delayed recall-but not in visuospatial/executive function, naming, attention, language, abstraction, or orientation-were also observed between the two groups. [Conclusion] The results of the present study suggest that synchronized swimming has beneficial effects on cognitive function, particularly with regard to recent memory.

  6. Ageism and sexism at work: the middle-aged women of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, K L

    2000-01-01

    Employment discrimination against middle-aged women has recently captured public attention in Hong Kong. One reason is the economic slowdown and increasing unemployment since the 1993-94 and the 1997-to date economic downturns. This paper looks at sex and age discrimination against middle-aged women in colonial Hong Kong where they faced such problems as low labor force participation, occupational and industrial segregation and wage differentials, which in turn left them vulnerable to unemployment and poverty. Rampant age and sex discrimination in the workplace is due to a number of factors: traditional values and cultural devaluation of women's work and need for education, economic restructuring and labor importation, a legal vacuum, inefficient retraining policy, and the weak position of women in the labor movement. The postcolonial government under Tung Chee Hwa is heavily influenced by business interests. Women in the age group of 30-39 and above are hardest hit. They are not targeted as special groups of trainees who require special assistance. Given the limited concern for gender development on the part of the new government, the prospect for women workers does not look good.

  7. Joint dysfunction and functional decline in middle age myostatin null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wen; Miller, Andrew D; Pencina, Karol; Wong, Siu; Lee, Amanda; Yee, Michael; Toraldo, Gianluca; Jasuja, Ravi; Bhasin, Shalender

    2016-02-01

    Since its discovery as a potent inhibitor for muscle development, myostatin has been actively pursued as a drug target for age- and disease-related muscle loss. However, potential adverse effects of long-term myostatin deficiency have not been thoroughly investigated. We report herein that male myostatin null mice (mstn(-/-)), in spite of their greater muscle mass compared to wild-type (wt) mice, displayed more significant functional decline from young (3-6months) to middle age (12-15months) than age-matched wt mice, measured as gripping strength and treadmill endurance. Mstn(-/-) mice displayed markedly restricted ankle mobility and degenerative changes of the ankle joints, including disorganization of bone, tendon and peri-articular connective tissue, as well as synovial thickening with inflammatory cell infiltration. Messenger RNA expression of several pro-osteogenic genes was higher in the Achilles tendon-bone insertion in mstn(-/-) mice than wt mice, even at the neonatal age. At middle age, higher plasma concentrations of growth factors characteristic of excessive bone remodeling were found in mstn(-/-) mice than wt controls. These data collectively indicate that myostatin may play an important role in maintaining ankle and wrist joint health, possibly through negative regulation of the pro-osteogenic WNT/BMP pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Menopause-related symptoms in middle-aged women residing in the Zaragoza Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Roncero, Gonzalo Ramón; Martínez-Dearth, Rebeca; López-Baena, María Teresa; Ornat-Clemente, Lía

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess menopausal symptoms and related sociodemographic conditions in middle-aged women from the Spanish province of Zaragoza. This was a cross-sectional study in which 241 women (40-59 years old) from the Zaragoza province completed the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and a sociodemographic questionnaire containing personal and partner data to assess symptoms associated with the menopause. The most prevalent symptoms were musculoskeletal, followed by hot flushes and perspiration. Somatic, psychological and urogenital symptoms were more severe in post-menopausal women. Somatic and urogenital symptoms worsen with age, body mass index, age at menopause, and partner age. Multiple linear regression analysis (MA) for somatic symptoms was related with the menopausal status, psychiatric treatment, problems with sexual relationships, and history of gender violence. The MA for psychological symptoms was associated with menopausal status, psychiatric treatment and a history of gender violence. The MA for urogenital symptoms was associated with menopausal status, problems with sexual relationships, urinary incontinence and partner alcohol abuse. A history of gender violence was reported by 11.6% of the women. In this sample of middle-aged women, menopausal symptoms were related to menopausal status, and other factors associated with their partner factors, including gender violence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Regional models of metal production in Western Asia in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilova, Liudmila

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is the reconstruction and comparative analysis of regional models of metal production in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages. The work is based on the statistical analysis of unique computer database on archaeological metal finds from four regions of the Near East: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Iran. The materials are analysed by four indicators: distribution by the chronological periods, artefacts’ function, proportion of used metals and copper- based alloys. The author presents a series of conclusions concerning the preconditions for the beginnings of metal production in Western Asia and the pioneering role of Iran in its emergence, the important role the piedmont territories played in the development of metal production, the leap-like pattern of production dynamics shown by the periods, and its relation to the spread of a producing economy, long-distance exchange, and the emergence of the early civilizations.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es la reconstrucción y análisis comparativo de modelos regionales de producción metalúrgica del Calcolítico y la Edad del Bronce Inicial y Media. Se basa en el análisis estadístico de una base de datos única sobre hallazgos metálicos de cuatro regiones del Próximo Oriente: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, el Levante e Irán. Los materiales se analizan atendiendo a cuatro variables: períodos cronológicos, función de los artefactos, proporción de los metales usados y las distintas aleaciones del cobre. La autora aporta una serie de conclusiones respecto a las precondiciones para los inicios de la producción metalúrgica en el Oeste Asiático; sobre el papel pionero de Irán en su aparición; la importancia de los piedemontes en su desarrollo; el patrón no continuo que se observa en las dinámicas de producción por periodos; y su relación con la expansión de la economía de producción, el intercambio a larga distancia y la aparición de las

  10. Strategies for continuing professional development among younger, middle-aged, and older nurses: a biographical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Inge A; Poell, Rob F; Berings, Marjolein G M C; ten Cate, Olle

    2015-05-01

    A nursing career can last for more than 40 years, during which continuing professional development is essential. Nurses participate in a variety of learning activities that correspond with their developmental motives. Lifespan psychology shows that work-related motives change with age, leading to the expectation that motives for continuing professional development also change. Nevertheless, little is known about nurses' continuing professional development strategies in different age groups. To explore continuing professional development strategies among younger, middle-aged, and older nurses. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, from a biographical perspective. Data were analysed using a vertical process aimed at creating individual learning biographies, and a horizontal process directed at discovering differences and similarities between age groups. Twenty-one nurses in three age groups from general and academic hospitals in the Netherlands. In all age groups, daily work was an important trigger for professional development on the ward. Performing extra or new tasks appeared to be an additional trigger for undertaking learning activities external to the ward. Learning experiences in nurses' private lives also contributed to their continuing professional development. Besides these similarities, the data revealed differences in career stages and private lives, which appeared to be related to differences in continuing professional development strategy; 'gaining experience and building a career' held particularly true among younger nurses, 'work-life balance' and 'keeping work interesting and varied' to middle-aged nurses, and 'consistency at work' to older nurses. Professional development strategies can aim at performing daily patient care, extra tasks and other roles. Age differences in these strategies appear to relate to tenure, perspectives on the future, and situations at home. These insights could help hospitals to orientate continuing

  11. Observed temporal evolution of global mean age of stratospheric air for the 2002 to 2010 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Stiller

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An extensive observational data set, consisting of more than 106 SF6 vertical profiles from MIPAS measurements distributed over the whole globe has been condensed into monthly zonal means of mean age of air for the period September 2002 to January 2010, binned at 10° latitude and 1–2 km altitude. The data were analysed with respect to their temporal variation by fitting a regression model consisting of a constant and a linear increase term, 2 proxies for the QBO variation, sinusoidal terms for the seasonal and semi-annual variation and overtones for the correction of the shapes to the observed data set. The impact of subsidence of mesospheric SF6-depleted air and in-mixing into non-polar latitudes on mid-latitudinal absolute age of air and its linear increase was assessed and found to be small.

    The linear increase of mean age of stratospheric air was found to be positive and partly larger than the trend derived by Engel et al. (2009 for most of the Northern mid-latitudes, the middle stratosphere in the tropics, and parts of the Southern mid-latitudes, as well as for the Southern polar upper stratosphere. Multi-year decrease of age of air was found for the lowermost and the upper stratospheric tropics, for parts of Southern mid-latitudes, and for the Northern polar regions. Analysis of the amplitudes and phases of the seasonal variation shed light on the coupling of stratospheric regions to each other. In particular, the Northern mid-latitude stratosphere is well coupled to the tropics, while the Northern lowermost mid-latitudinal stratosphere is decoupled, confirming the separation of the shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation from the deep branch. We suggest an overall increased tropical upwelling, together with weakening of mixing barriers, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, as a hypothetical model to explain the observed pattern of linear multi-year increase/decrease, and amplitudes

  12. Heritability of the Number of Teeth in Middle-Aged and Older Danish Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Y; Silventoinen, K; Dokkedal, U; Skytthe, A; Mucci, L A; Christensen, K; Hjelmborg, J V B

    2017-12-01

    Tooth loss is a common health concern in older adults. We aimed to estimate the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to the variation in the number of teeth in middle-aged and older populations using a population-based cohort of Danish twins. The study included 5,269 Danish middle-aged or older twins who provided data on the number of teeth at baseline by structured interviews. The data were analyzed using univariate liability threshold modeling, stratified by sex and age, to estimate familial risk of tooth loss as well as estimates of heritability. In the whole cohorts, 23% of participants were edentate and 53% had retained 20 or more teeth. A statistical model including additive genetic factors and environmental factors partly shared by co-twins and partly unique to each individual twin gave the best statistical fit for the number of teeth in both age categories as well as in men and women. Overall, additive genetic factors explained 36% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 23% to 49%), common environmental factors 20% (95% CI: 9% to 31%), and unique environmental factors 44% (95% CI: 40% to 48%) of the total variation of the number of teeth. This study indicates that a substantial part of the variation in tooth loss is explained by genetic as well as environmental factors shared by co-twins. Our results implied that family background importantly affects tooth loss in both the middle-aged and the older populations. Family history is thus an important factor to take into account in dental health care.

  13. Body Mass Index Trajectories and Healthcare Utilization in Young and Middle-aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrashidi, Muhamad Y; Jacobson, Debra J; St Sauver, Jennifer; Fan, Chun; Lynch, Brian A; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Ebbert, Jon O

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a significant public health issue with adverse impact on health and costs. Applying a life-course perspective to obesity may advance our understanding of the influence of obesity over time on patterns of healthcare utilization in young and middle-aged United States (US) adults.We identified baseline body mass index (BMI) and BMI trajectories, and assessed their association with outpatient visits, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations in a well-defined population of young and middle-aged US adults.Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project resources, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults (N = 23,254) aged 18 to 44 years, with at least 3 BMI measurements, residing in Olmsted County, MN from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2012.We observed that 27.5% of the population was obese. Four BMI trajectories were identified. Compared to under/normal weight, obese class III adults had higher risk of outpatient visits (adjusted rate ratio [RR], 1.86; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 1.67-2,08), ED visits (adjusted RR, 3.02; 95% CI, 2.74-3.34), and hospitalizations (adjusted RR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.59-1.75). BMI trajectory was positively associated with ED visits after adjustment for age, sex, race, and Charlson Comorbidity Index (P young and middle-aged US adults, baseline BMI is positively associated with outpatient visits, ED visits, and hospitalizations, while BMI trajectory is positively associated with ED visits. These findings extend our understanding of the longitudinal influence of obesity on healthcare utilization in early to mid-adulthood.

  14. Characteristic of Extracellular Zn2+ Influx in the Middle-Aged Dentate Gyrus and Its Involvement in Attenuation of LTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Koike, Yuta; Osaw, Misa; Tamano, Haruna

    2018-03-01

    An increased influx of extracellular Zn 2+ into neurons is a cause of cognitive decline. The influx of extracellular Zn 2+ into dentate granule cells was compared between young and middle-aged rats because of vulnerability of the dentate gyrus to aging. The influx of extracellular Zn 2+ into dentate granule cells was increased in middle-aged rats after injection of AMPA and high K + into the dentate gyrus, but not in young rats. Simultaneously, high K + -induced attenuation of LTP was observed in middle-aged rats, but not in young rats. The attenuation was rescued by co-injection of CaEDTA, an extracellular Zn 2+ chelator. Intracellular Zn 2+ in dentate granule cells was also increased in middle-aged slices with high K + , in which the increase in extracellular Zn 2+ was the same as young slices with high K + , suggesting that ability of extracellular Zn 2+ influx into dentate granule cells is greater in middle-aged rats. Furthermore, extracellular zinc concentration in the hippocampus was increased age-dependently. The present study suggests that the influx of extracellular Zn 2+ into dentate granule cells is more readily increased in middle-aged rats and that its increase is a cause of age-related attenuation of LTP in the dentate gyrus.

  15. A Reanalysis for the Seasonal and Longer-Period Cycles and the Trends in Middle Atmosphere Temperature from the HALOE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsberg, Ellis E.

    2007-01-01

    Previously published analyses for the seasonal and longer-period cycles in middle atmosphere temperature versus pressure (or T(p)) from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) are extended to just over 14 years and updated to properly account for the effects of autocorrelation in its time series of zonally-averaged data. The updated seasonal terms and annual averages are provided, and they can be used to generate temperature distributions that are representative of the period 1991-2005. QBO-like terms have also been resolved and are provided, and they exhibit good consistency across the range of latitudes and pressure-altitudes. Further, exploratory analyses of the residuals from each of the 221 time series have yielded significant 11-yr solar cycle (or SC-like) and linear trend terms at a number of latitudes and levels. The amplitudes of the SC-like terms for the upper mesosphere agree reasonably with calculations of the direct solar radiative effects for T(p). Those SC amplitudes increase by about a factor of 2 from the lower to the upper mesosphere and are also larger at the middle than at the low latitudes. The diagnosed cooling trends for the subtropical latitudes are in the range, -0.5 to -1.0 K/decade, which is in good agreement with the findings from models of the radiative effects on pressure surfaces due to known increases in atmospheric CO2. The diagnosed trends are somewhat larger than predicted with models for the upper mesosphere of the northern hemisphere middle latitudes.

  16. Free and protein-bound cobalamin absorption in healthy middle-aged and older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, D Z; van den Broek, W J; Lamers, C B; Corstens, F H; Hoefnagels, W H

    1996-08-01

    To study free- and protein-bound cobalamin absorption and the correlation with atrophic gastritis in healthy middle-aged and older subjects. A cross-sectional study. Fifty-two healthy subjects, aged 26 to 87 years, apparently free from conditions known to influence the cobalamin status. Middle-aged subjects were defined as those younger than 65 years of age (median age 57 years) and older subjects as those 65 years and older (median age 75 years). Protein-bound cobalamin absorption was assessed by 48-hour urinary excretion method following oral administration of scrambled egg yolk, labeled in vivo with 57 Co-cobalamin by injecting a hen with 57 Co-cyanocobalamin. The percentage of 57 Co-cobalamin bound to protein was 65%. Free cobalamin absorption was assessed by 48-hour urinary excretion method following oral administration of crystalline 57 Co-cyanocobalamin. Plasma cobalamin, folate and fasting plasma gastrin, and pepsinogen A and C concentrations were determined. The median urinary excretion of egg yolk 57 Co-cobalamin in middle-aged subjects was 12.3% (25th and 75th percentiles 10.5%-14.5%) compared with 11.7% (25th and 75th percentiles 9.8%-13.6%) in older subjects (P = .283). The median urinary excretion after administration of free 57 Co-cobalamin in middle-aged subjects was 25.7% (25th and 75th percentiles 20.6%-30.7%) compared with 27.9% (25th and 75th percentiles 21.4%-34.5%) in older subjects (P = .694). Neither egg yolk nor free 57 Co-cobalamin excretion correlated with age. A ratio of pepsinogen A to pepsinogen C less than 1.6, indicating atrophic gastritis, was found in 13 subjects. Within the atrophic gastritis group, 11 subjects had a pepsinogen A concentration greater than or equal to 17 micrograms/L, indicating mild to moderate atrophic gastritis, and two subjects had a pepsinogen A concentration less than 17 micrograms/L, indicating severe atrophic gastritis or gastric atrophy. All subjects had normal fasting plasma gastrin concentrations. Free

  17. Assessment of health status by molecular measures in adults ranging from middle-aged to old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaijer, M. E. C.; Westendorp, R. G. J.; Goldeck, D.

    2017-01-01

    In addition to measures already used in clinical practice, molecular measures have been proposed to assess health status, but these have not yet been introduced into clinical practice. We aimed to test the association of functional capacity measures used in current practice and molecular measures...... with age and health status. The cohort consisted of 178 middle-aged to old participants of the Leiden Longevity Study (range 42-82years). We tested associations between functional capacity measures (physical tests: grip strength, 4-meter walk, chair stand test; cognitive tests: Stroop test, digit symbol...... substitution test and 15-picture learning test) with age and with cardiovascular or metabolic disease as a measure of the health status. These associations with age and health status were also tested for molecular measures (C reactive protein (CRP), numbers of senescent p16INK4a positive cells in the epidermis...

  18. On and Off the Mat: Yoga Experiences of Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertman, Annette; Wister, Andrew V; Mitchell, Barbara A

    2016-06-01

    This article explores potential differences in yoga practice between middle-and older-aged adults. A health belief - life course model frames this research, and a mixed-methods analytic strategy is employed to examine life course pathways into yoga and motivations to practice, as well as perceived barriers and health benefits. For the quantitative analyses, a convenience sample of 452 participants was collected using an online questionnaire. For the qualitative analyses, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a sub-set of 20 participants. Unique differences between the age groups (both current age and age when started yoga) as well as by gender were found for selected pathways, reasons/motivations, and barriers to engage in yoga as well as for perceived health benefits. In addition, results underscore the importance of informational cues and social linkages that affect how individuals adopt and experience yoga. Implications for health promotion programs that target older adults are discussed.

  19. Comment: Distinguishing Cohort Effects from Age*Period Effects on Non-Marital Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In the article "Cohort Effects on Non-marital Fertility," in this issue of "Social Forces," Jean Stockard employs a novel strategy for disentangling cohort, period, and age effects on the non-marital fertility ratio. In a model with fixed-effect controls for age and for time period, the author documents evidence for three cohort-specific factors…

  20. Effects of music on assertive behavior during exercise by middle-school-age students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, B D

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of a particular style of music and assertive behavior in middle-school-aged students during exercise. Participants were students enrolled in a public middle school (Grades 6, 7, and 8, N = 502). A statistically significant relationship was found between the number of assertive behaviors occurring while listening to fast tempo music and grades and between difference scores and grades. Difference scores were obtained by subtracting the number of assertive behaviors occurring while listening to fast tempo music from those while listening to slow tempo music. Discriminant function analysis showed the number of assertive behaviors when listening to fast tempo music and difference scores were predictive of membership by grade. The higher the more assertive behaviors were emitted when listening to fast tempo music.

  1. Geopolitical aspects of Jewish presence in the Romanian principalities during the middle ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Costachie

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available „Geopolitical aspects of Jewish presence in the Romanian Principalities, during the Middle Ages” is probably one of the very few scientific articles about the geopolitical role of Jewish existence in Romanian territory during the last centuries. Few historians dared to deal with this topic, as it was regarded a very delicate issue. The author is the only geographer that managed to show us some geopolitical aspects regarding the immense role of this ethnic group in the political, economical and social life of the Romanian people during the Middle Ages. Based on various sources of information, and expressing all the facts from a geographical point of view, the author offers us an analytic study of the geopolitical role of Jews who had settled in Romanian territory between XIVth and XVIIIth centuries. Interesting facts are revealed regarding the way Romanian ‘voivodes’ came to the throne and the help they received from the Jews.

  2. A Hard Day’s Knights: Movie Time Travel, the Middle Ages, and a New Millenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Engle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the cinematic treatment of the Middle Ages through an analysis of two recent mass-audience American films, Black Knight and Timeline, both of which feature time travel as a leading plot element. Providing context for this discussion is a brief analysis of other similar films, as well as remarks regarding Twain's Connecticut Yankee, Ruskin's The Stones of Venice, and The Idylls of the King by Tennyson. As in these other works, the films in question use certain popular stereotypes of the Middle Ages—endemic violence, rigid class distinctions, religious fanaticism, spiritual cohesion, etc.—as lens through which to view the contemporary world. In addition to their roles as comic or action entertainment vehicles, Black Knight indirectly addresses American individualism and a cutthroat modern corporate culture, whereas Timeline touches upon millennial anxiety, '90's ethnic cleansing, and the American misadventure in Iraq.

  3. Age related differences in the strategies used by middle aged adults to solve a block design task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozencwajg, P; Cherfi, M; Ferrandez, A M; Lautrey, J; Lemoine, C; Loarer, E

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, it was proposed to investigate the effects of aging on the strategies used to solve a block design task and to establish whether these strategies may be associated with differential patterns of ability. Two groups of subjects, 30 young adults (aged 20-35 years) and 30 middle-aged adults (aged 45-60 years) were set a computer version of the Kohs task and a battery of tests. An age-related decrease in fluid intelligence (Gf) and visual-spatial ability (Gv) was observed, along with the fact that most of the older subjects used a global strategy rather than a synthetic one. On the other hand, while continuing to use strategies of the analytic type, the older subjects looked more frequently at the model and scored high on crystallized intelligence (Gc). These findings are discussed from two different points of view: the theory of hierarchical stimuli and the hypothesis that metacognitive ability, which is thought to rely on Gc, may increase with age, and thus compensate for the loss of Gf and Gv.

  4. Concerns about aging and caregiving among middle-aged and older lesbian and gay adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Sara J; Sabbag, Samir; Lee, Chin Chin; Schulz, Richard; Lang, Samantha; Vlahovic, Tatiana; Jaret, Adrienne; Thurston, Catherine

    2016-11-01

    Despite the increasing number of lesbian and gay older adults, research geared towards health and well-being of this population is limited. Many lesbian and gay seniors experience health disparities and are at risk for poor health outcomes. The aims of this study were to gather in-depth information on the concerns of lesbian and gay elders with respect to aging and care needs. The sample included 124 gay men and lesbian women aged 50+ years. Data were gathered via focus groups and questionnaires. The focus groups addressed: (1) concerns about aging in the LGBT community, (2) barriers to needed support and services, (3) concerns about caregiving and (4) needed programs for lesbian and gay seniors. Concerns expressed about aging included: lack of financial security, lack of family or social support, fears about the lack of someone to provide needed care, and discrimination in healthcare or service communities. Participants also indicated concerns about being alone and vulnerable and a need for resources and support programs, specifically for lesbian and gay older adults and for lesbian and gay caregivers. These findings suggest needed areas of support and programs for older gay men and lesbian women. They also suggest that healthcare professionals might need more training regarding the particular needs and concerns of this community.

  5. A randomized controlled trial to establish effects of short-term rapamycin treatment in 24 middle-aged companion dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urfer, Silvan R; Kaeberlein, Tammi L; Mailheau, Susan; Bergman, Philip J; Creevy, Kate E; Promislow, Daniel E L; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2017-04-01

    Age is the single greatest risk factor for most causes of morbidity and mortality in humans and their companion animals. As opposed to other model organisms used to study aging, dogs share the human environment, are subject to similar risk factors, receive comparable medical care, and develop many of the same age-related diseases humans do. In this study, 24 middle-aged healthy dogs received either placebo or a non-immunosuppressive dose of rapamycin for 10 weeks. All dogs received clinical and hematological exams before, during, and after the trial and echocardiography before and after the trial. Our results showed no clinical side effects in the rapamycin-treated group compared to dogs receiving the placebo. Echocardiography suggested improvement in both diastolic and systolic age-related measures of heart function (E/A ratio, fractional shortening, and ejection fraction) in the rapamycin-treated dogs. Hematological values remained within the normal range for all parameters studied; however, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was decreased in rapamycin-treated dogs. Based on these results, we will test rapamycin on a larger dog cohort for a longer period of time in order to validate its effects on cardiac function and to determine whether it can significantly improve healthspan and reduce mortality in companion dogs.

  6. Cosmologic principles of Moche-highland interactions during the Middle Horizon period in Jequetepeque

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, I argue that developments characterizing the Late Moche Period in the Jequetepeque Valley, including both the adoption of highland artistic styles at San José de Moro and Huaca Colorada, as well as the proliferation of Moche religious architecture throughout the hinterland, were significantly influenced by interactions with highland societies, including Wari and Cajamarca. I support this thesis by examining the reconfiguration of the chicha-based political economy and the int...

  7. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-09-29

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking.

  8. C Reactive protein levels as a marker of coronary heart disease in middle aged individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haleem, N.; Marwat, Z.I.; Abbasi, S.; Tauqeer, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: coronary heart disease is multifactorial inflammatory process which involves the accumulation of lipid macrophages and intimal plaques in smooth muscle cell in large and medium sized arteries. C reactive protein (CRP) which is an inflammatory marker is considered as global risk assessment for coronary heart disease. The objective of study is to determine the CRP level as risk marker in coronary heart disease in middle aged individuals. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Hayatabad medical complex Peshawar and Rehman Medical Institute Peshawar. On the basis of predesigned questionnaire, 100 middle aged individuals of age 40-60 years and 50 normal subjects of same age were questioned by taking consent. Data was collected and analysed by SPSS-15. Results: It was founded that 74 percentage of patients have higher values of CRP and 4 percentage have high values of CRP in controls. The t-test applied at 95 percentage confidence interval with mean difference of 22.096+2.36 of CHD individuals and 1.288±1.70 of control group. P-value was 0.001 which is found to be significant. Conclusion: It was observed that CRP has higher association with CHD. (author)

  9. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douris Peter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking.

  10. Developing a scale to measure "attachment to the local community" in late middle aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Taichi; Omori, Junko; Takahashi, Kazuko; Mitsumori, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Maasa; Ono, Wakanako; Miyazaki, Toshie; Anzai, Hitomi; Saito, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to develop a scale for measuring "attachment to the local community" for its use in health services. The scale is also intended to nurture new social relationships in late middle-aged individuals.Methods Thirty items were initially planned to be included in the scale to measure "attachment to the local community", according to a previous study that identified the concept. The study subjects were late middle-aged residents of City B in Prefecture A, located in Tokyo suburbs. From the basic resident register data, 1,000 individuals (local residents in the 50-69 year age group) were selected by a multi-stage random sampling technique, on the basis of their residential area, age, and sex (while maintaining the male to female ratio). An unsigned self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the subjects, and the responses were collected by postal mail. The collected data was analyzed using psychometric study of scale.Results Valid responses were obtained from 583 subjects, and the response rate was 58.3%. In an item analysis, none of the items were rejected. In a subsequent factor analysis, 7 items were eliminated. These items included 2 items with a factor loading of attachment to the local community" was 0.95, demonstrating internal consistency. We then examined the correlation with an existing scale to measure social support; the results revealed a statistically significant correlation and confirmed criterion-related validity (Pattachment to the local community."

  11. Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Lung Health from Young Adulthood to Middle Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benck, Lillian R; Cuttica, Michael J; Colangelo, Laura A; Sidney, Stephen; Dransfield, Mark T; Mannino, David M; Jacobs, David R; Lewis, Cora E; Zhu, Na; Washko, George R; Liu, Kiang; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Kalhan, Ravi

    2017-05-01

    Beyond the risks of smoking, there are limited data on factors associated with change in lung function over time. To determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness was longitudinally associated with preservation of lung health. Prospective data were collected from 3,332 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study aged 18-30 in 1985 who underwent treadmill exercise testing at baseline visit, and 2,735 participants with a second treadmill test 20 years later. The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and covariate adjusted decline in lung function was evaluated. Higher baseline fitness was associated with less decline in lung function. When adjusted for age, height, race-sex group, peak lung function, and years from peak lung function, each additional minute of treadmill duration was associated with 1.00 ml/yr less decline in FEV 1 (P fitness was associated with greater annual decline in lung function. Each 1-minute decline in treadmill duration between baseline and Year 20 was associated with 2.54 ml/yr greater decline in FEV 1 (P fitness over 20 years were associated with preservation of lung health. Greater cardiopulmonary fitness in young adulthood, less decline in fitness from young adulthood to middle age, and achieving increased fitness from young adulthood to middle age are associated with less decline in lung health over time. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00005130).

  12. Effects of insulin resistance on white matter microstructure in middle-aged and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutu, Jean-Philippe; Rosas, H. Diana; Salat, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and white matter (WM) microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging in cognitively healthy middle-aged and older adults. Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging was acquired from 127 individuals (age range 41–86 years). IR was evaluated by the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR). Participants were divided into 2 groups based on HOMA-IR values: “high HOMA-IR” (≥2.5, n = 27) and “low HOMA-IR” (HOMA-IR group demonstrated decreased axial diffusivity broadly throughout the cerebral WM in areas such as the corpus callosum, corona radiata, cerebral peduncle, posterior thalamic radiation, and right superior longitudinal fasciculus, and WM underlying the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes, as well as decreased fractional anisotropy in the body and genu of corpus callosum and parts of the superior and anterior corona radiata, compared with the low HOMA-IR group, independent of age, WM signal abnormality volume, and antihypertensive medication status. These regions additionally demonstrated linear associations between diffusion measures and HOMA-IR across all subjects, with higher HOMA-IR values being correlated with lower axial diffusivity. Conclusions: In generally healthy adults, greater IR is associated with alterations in WM tissue integrity. These cross-sectional findings suggest that IR contributes to WM microstructural alterations in middle-aged and older adults. PMID:24771537

  13. Changes of coagulation and fibrinolysis in middle-old aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xi; Xie Ying; Zhang Weijun; Zhao Ruixiang; Peng Xinjie; Zhang Wen; Zhang Yan; Cheng Xiuqin; Wang Longhua; Guo Yonghe; Zhou Yujie; Wen Shaojun; Liu Jielin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the changes of coagulation and fibrinolysis function in the middle-old aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Methods: The levels of D-Dimer and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were detected in 92 middle-aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF group) and 60 patients with sinus rhythm (control group) by immune turbidimetry and enzyme linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA). Univariate analysis was used to determine the differences between two groups, and covariance analysis was used to determine the factors which might affect coagulation and fibrinolysis indexes. Results: 1)The plasma levels of D-Dimer [(0.16±0.10) mg·L -1 ] and t-PA [(42.58± 30.28) μg·L -1 ] and PAI-1 [(86.03 ± 21.43) μg·L -1 ] in AF group were significantly higher than those in the control group [(0.10 ± 0.08) mg·L -1 , (26.02±13.84) μg·L -1 , (64.94±24.35) μg·L -1 ] (P<0.05 or P <0.001). The ratio of PAI-1/t-PA in AF group was higher than that in control group slightly. 2) After adjustment of the factors which included sex, age and plasma creatinine, uric acid, blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol, the levels of D-Dimer (P=0.047), t-PA (P=0.264) and PAI-1 (P=0.001) in AF group were higher than those in the control group. Conclusion: The middle-old aged patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation lose their balance of coagulation and fibrinolysis in the state of hypercoagulated and hypofibrinolysis. (authors)

  14. Medial abrasion syndrome: a neglected cause of knee pain in middle and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Shaw-Ruey; Lee, Ching-Chih; Hsu, Chia-Chen

    2015-04-01

    Knee pain is a prevailing health problem of middle and old age. Medial plica-related medial abrasion syndrome (MAS), although a well-known cause of knee pain in younger individuals, has rarely been investigated in older individuals. This prospective study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and clinical manifestations of this syndrome as a cause of knee pain in middle and old age. The outcomes of arthroscopic treatment for this syndrome were also evaluated.A total of 232 knees of 169 patients >40 years of age (41-82, median: 63 years old) suffering from chronic knee pain were analyzed. The clinical diagnosis, predisposing factors, presenting symptoms, and physical signs were investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of each parameter of the clinical presentation for the diagnosis of MAS were evaluated after confirmation by arthroscopy. For patients with MAS, the roentgenographic and arthroscopic manifestations were investigated, and arthroscopic medial release (AMR) was performed. The outcomes were evaluated by the changes in the pain domain of the Knee Society scoring system and by patient satisfaction. The prevalence of medial plica was 95%, and osteoarthritis (OA) was the most common clinical diagnosis. Symptoms of pain and crepitus in motion and local tenderness during physical examination were the most sensitive parameters for the diagnosis. A history of a single knee injury combined with local tenderness and a palpable band found during physical examination were the most specific parameters for the diagnosis. The majority of patients suffering from this syndrome were successfully treated using AMR, yielding a satisfaction rate of 85.5% after a minimum of 3 years.MAS is a common cause of knee pain in middle and old age and can be effectively treated by AMR. Its concomitance with OA warrants further investigation.

  15. Increased working memory-related brain activity in middle-aged women with cognitive complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Julie A; Kutz, Amanda M; McDonald, Brenna C; Naylor, Magdalena R; Pfaff, Ashley C; Saykin, Andrew J; Newhouse, Paul A

    2013-04-01

    Individuals who report subjective cognitive complaints but perform normally on neuropsychological tests might be at increased risk for pathological cognitive aging. The current study examined the effects of the presence of subjective cognitive complaints on functional brain activity during a working memory task in a sample of middle-aged postmenopausal women. Twenty-three postmenopausal women aged 50-60 completed a cognitive complaint battery of questionnaires. Using 20% of items endorsed as the threshold, 12 women were categorized as cognitive complainers (CC) and 11 were noncomplainers (NC). All subjects then took part in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning session during which they completed a visual-verbal N-back test of working memory. Results showed no difference in working memory performance between CC and NC groups. However, the CC group showed greater activation relative to the NC group in a broad network involved in working memory including the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area [BA] 9 and 10), the precuneus (BA 7), and the cingulate gyrus (BA 24 and 32). The CC group recruited additional regions of the working memory network compared with the NC group as the working memory load and difficulty of the task increased. This study showed brain activation differences during working memory performance in a middle-aged group of postmenopausal women with subjective cognitive complaints but without objective cognitive deficit. These findings suggest that subjective cognitive complaints in postmenopausal women might be associated with increased cortical activity during effort-demanding cognitive tasks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Active Workstations Do Not Impair Executive Function in Young and Middle-Age Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmann, Peter J; Brush, Christopher J; Olson, Ryan L; Bhatt, Shivang N; Banu, Andrea H; Alderman, Brandon L

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of self-selected low-intensity walking on an active workstation on executive functions (EF) in young and middle-age adults. Using a within-subjects design, 32 young (20.6 ± 2.0 yr) and 26 middle-age (45.6 ± 11.8 yr) adults performed low-intensity treadmill walking and seated control conditions in randomized order on separate days, while completing an EF test battery. EF was assessed using modified versions of the Stroop (inhibition), Sternberg (working memory), Wisconsin Card Sorting (cognitive flexibility), and Tower of London (global EF) cognitive tasks. Behavioral performance outcomes were assessed using composite task z-scores and traditional measures of reaction time and accuracy. Average HR and step count were also measured throughout. The expected task difficulty effects were found for reaction time and accuracy. No significant main effects or interactions as a function of treadmill walking were found for tasks assessing global EF and the three individual EF domains. Accuracy on the Tower of London task was slightly impaired during slow treadmill walking for both age-groups. Middle-age adults displayed longer planning times for more difficult conditions of the Tower of London during walking compared with sitting. A 50-min session of low-intensity treadmill walking on an active workstation resulted in accruing approximately 4500 steps. These findings suggest that executive function performance remains relatively unaffected while walking on an active workstation, further supporting the use of treadmill workstations as an effective approach to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time in the workplace.

  17. A new age model for the early-middle Miocene in the North Alpine Foreland Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbacher, Bettina; Krijgsman, Wout; Pippèrr, Martina; Sant, Karin; Kirscher, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The establishment of high-resolution age models for sedimentary successions is crucial for numerous research questions in the geosciences and related disciplines. Such models provide an absolute chronology that permits precise dating of depositional episodes and related processes such as mountain uplift or climate change. Recently, our work in the Miocene sediments of the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB) has revealed a significantly younger age (16.6 Myr) for sediments that were thought to have been deposited 18 Myr ago. This implies that a fundamentally revised new age model is needed for the entire suite of lower-middle Miocene sedimentary rocks in the NAFB (20 to 15-Myr). Our new data also indicate that previously published reconstructions of early-middle Miocene palaeogeography, sedimentation dynamics, mountain uplift and climate change in the NAFB all require a critical review and revision. Further, the time-span addressed is of special interest, since it encompasses the onset of a global warming phase. However, it appears that a fundamentally revised new age model for the entire suite of lower-middle Miocene sedimentary rocks in the NAFB can only be achieved based on a 500 m deep drilling in the NAFB for which we currently seek collaboration partners to develop a grant application to the International Continental Deep Drilling Program (ICDP). Reference: Reichenbacher, B., W. Krijgsman, Y. Lataster, M. Pippèrr, C. G. C. Van Baak, L. Chang, D. Kälin, J. Jost, G. Doppler, D. Jung, J. Prieto, H. Abdul Aziz, M. Böhme, J. Garnish, U. Kirscher, and V. Bachtadse. 2013. A new magnetostratigraphic framework for the Lower Miocene (Burdigalian/Ottnangian, Karpatian) in the North Alpine Foreland Basin. Swiss Journal of Geosciences 106:309-334.

  18. Working memory in bisphenol-A treated middle-aged ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neese, Steven L; Bandara, Suren B; Schantz, Susan L

    2013-01-01

    Over 90% of the U.S. population has detectable bisphenol-A (BPA) in their urine according to recent biomonitoring data. BPA is best known for its estrogenic properties, and most rodent research on the nervous system effects of BPA has focused on determining if chronic exposures during pre- and perinatal development have organizational effects on brain development and behavior. Estrogens also have important impacts on brain and behavior during adulthood, particularly in females during aging, but the impact of BPA on the adult brain is less studied. We have published a series of studies documenting that chronic exposure to various estrogens including 17β-estradiol, ERβ selective SERMs and soy phytoestrogens impairs performance of middle-aged female rats on an operant working memory task. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic oral exposure to BPA would alter working memory on this same task. Ovariectomized (OVX) middle-aged Long Evans rats were tested on an operant delayed spatial alternation (DSA) task. Rats were treated for 8-10 weeks with either a 0 (vehicle control), 5 or 50 μg/kg bw/day oral bolus of BPA. A subset of the vehicle control rats was implanted with a Silastic implant containing 17β-estradiol (low physiological range) to serve as a positive control. All rats were tested for 25 sessions on the DSA task. BPA treatment did not influence performance accuracy on the DSA task, whereas 17β-estradiol significantly impaired performance, as previously reported. The results of this study suggest that chronic oral exposure to BPA does not alter working memory processes of middle-aged OVX rats assessed by this operant DSA task. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Can high psychological job demands, low decision latitude, and high job strain predict disability pensions? A 12-year follow-up of middle-aged Swedish workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Canivet, Catarina; Choi, Bongkyoo; Karasek, Robert; Moghaddassi, Mahnaz; Staland-Nyman, Carin; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether job strain, psychological demands, and decision latitude are independent determinants of disability pension rates over a 12-year follow-up period. METHODS: We studied 3,181 men and 3,359 women, all middle-aged and working at least 30 h per week, recruited from the general population of Malmö, Sweden, in 1992. The participation rate was 41 %. Baseline data include sociodemographics, the Job Content Questionnaire, lifestyle, a...

  20. Parental Identity and Its Relation to Parenting and Psychological Functioning in Middle Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective. This article focuses on identity as a parent in relation to parenting and psychological functioning in middle age. Design. Drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, 162 participants (53% females) with children (age 36), represented the Finnish age-cohort born in 1959. Parental identity was assessed at ages 36, 42, and 50. Results. In both women and men, parental identity achievement increased from age 36 to 42 and remained stable to 50. The level of parental identity achievement was higher in women than in men. Achievement was typical for women and foreclosure for men. Participants’ education, occupational status, and number of offspring were not related to parental identity status. As expected, parental identity achievement was associated with authoritative (indicated by higher nurturance and parental knowledge about the child’s activities) parenting style. No significant associations emerged between parental identity foreclosure and restrictiveness as an indicator of authoritarian parenting style. The diffused men outscored others in parental stress. Achieved parental identity was related to generativity in both genders and to higher psychological and social well-being in men. Conclusions. At present, many parenting programs are targeted to young parents. This study highlighted the importance of a later parenting phase at around age 40, when for many, the children are approaching puberty. Therefore, parenting programs and support should also be designed for middle-aged parents. Specifically men may need additional support for their active consideration and engagement in the fathering role. © Päivi Fadjukoff, Lea Pulkkinen, Anna-Liisa Lyyra, and Katja Kokko This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and

  1. Parental Identity and Its Relation to Parenting and Psychological Functioning in Middle Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja

    2016-04-02

    Objective. This article focuses on identity as a parent in relation to parenting and psychological functioning in middle age. Design. Drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, 162 participants (53% females) with children (age 36), represented the Finnish age-cohort born in 1959. Parental identity was assessed at ages 36, 42, and 50. Results. In both women and men, parental identity achievement increased from age 36 to 42 and remained stable to 50. The level of parental identity achievement was higher in women than in men. Achievement was typical for women and foreclosure for men. Participants' education, occupational status, and number of offspring were not related to parental identity status. As expected, parental identity achievement was associated with authoritative (indicated by higher nurturance and parental knowledge about the child's activities) parenting style. No significant associations emerged between parental identity foreclosure and restrictiveness as an indicator of authoritarian parenting style. The diffused men outscored others in parental stress. Achieved parental identity was related to generativity in both genders and to higher psychological and social well-being in men. Conclusions. At present, many parenting programs are targeted to young parents. This study highlighted the importance of a later parenting phase at around age 40, when for many, the children are approaching puberty. Therefore, parenting programs and support should also be designed for middle-aged parents. Specifically men may need additional support for their active consideration and engagement in the fathering role. © Päivi Fadjukoff, Lea Pulkkinen, Anna-Liisa Lyyra, and Katja Kokko This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in

  2. The composition and physicochemical characteristics of MSW generated from a city of the Middle East at Ramadan Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Yong Woo; Park, In Chul; Kim, Nam Yeol; Kim, Sung Soo; Cho, Yeun Haeng; Yoon, Kyoon Duk

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the worlds first composition and physicochemical characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) which was generated from a city of the Middle East at Ramadan period (one month in a year). 17 places in a city of the Middle East were selected for sampling MSW which were roughly classified into three categories - residential area, hotel and public facilities, and commercial area. Investigation and analysis about specific weight, physical characteristics, 3-components (moisture/ combustible/ ash), chemical characteristics, and calorific value were carried out for this research. Specific weight of waste samples depends on the physical characteristics of them, the higher moisture and non-combustible component content, the higher specific weight value. Office building, shopping mall, and school were relatively lower than other places. The average specific weight of waste in this city was equal to 0.129 ton/ m 3 which was lower than in Korea (0.2 ton/ m 3 ). Moisture and combustible component content showed a big difference between residential area and other areas. Residential area, hotel and public facilities, and commercial area showed 37.58 %, 21.80 %, and 18.81 % of moisture content, 54.79 %, 70.28 %, and 70.74 % of combustible component content, 7.63 %, 7.92 %, and 10.46 % of ash content on a wet basis, respectively. Residential area showed relatively high value of moisture content because of high content of food waste. To eat food is prohibited during the day at Ramadan period of the Middle East. But much more food than usual is made for eating after dark, and also is put into the garbage can. The results of chemical characteristics, meanwhile, are similar to Koreas. The low calorific value (LCV) of waste in residential area, hotel and public facilities, and commercial area was 2,875 kcal/ kg, 4,142 kcal/ kg, and 4,279 kcal/ kg on a wet basis, respectively. It could provide the economical and optimum design for MSW treatment system in the Middle East

  3. Association of Insulin Resistance With Cerebral Glucose Uptake in Late Middle-Aged Adults at Risk for Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willette, Auriel A; Bendlin, Barbara B; Starks, Erika J; Birdsill, Alex C; Johnson, Sterling C; Christian, Bradley T; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; La Rue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce P; Koscik, Rebecca L; Jonaitis, Erin M; Sager, Mark A; Asthana, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    Converging evidence suggests that Alzheimer disease (AD) involves insulin signaling impairment. Patients with AD and individuals at risk for AD show reduced glucose metabolism, as indexed by fludeoxyglucose F 18-labeled positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). To determine whether insulin resistance predicts AD-like global and regional glucose metabolism deficits in late middle-aged participants at risk for AD and to examine whether insulin resistance-predicted variation in regional glucose metabolism is associated with worse cognitive performance. This population-based, cross-sectional study included 150 cognitively normal, late middle-aged (mean [SD] age, 60.7 [5.8] years) adults from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) study, a general community sample enriched for AD parental history. Participants underwent cognitive testing, fasting blood draw, and FDG-PET at baseline. We used the homeostatic model assessment of peripheral insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Regression analysis tested the statistical effect of HOMA-IR on global glucose metabolism. We used a voxelwise analysis to determine whether HOMA-IR predicted regional glucose metabolism. Finally, predicted variation in regional glucose metabolism was regressed against cognitive factors. Covariates included age, sex, body mass index, apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype, AD parental history status, and a reference region used to normalize regional uptake. Regional glucose uptake determined using FDG-PET and neuropsychological factors. Higher HOMA-IR was associated with lower global glucose metabolism (β = -0.29; P factor scores. Our results show that insulin resistance, a prevalent and increasingly common condition in developed countries, is associated with significantly lower regional cerebral glucose metabolism, which in turn may predict worse memory performance. Midlife may be a critical period for initiating treatments to lower peripheral insulin resistance to maintain neural metabolism

  4. Le aree rurali dell’Appennino Ligure tra età romana e tardomedioevo. Ricerche storiche e archeologiche in alta Valle Scrivia / The rural areas of the Ligurian Appennines between Roman period and the Late Middle Ages. Historical and archaeological research in Valle Scrivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Battista Parodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La ricerca è incentrata sull’analisi delle forme e delle dinamiche del popolamento, delle strutture e dell’organizzazione del territorio dell’alta Valle Scrivia (area appenninica ubicata tra Genova e la pianura che mai è stata oggetto di ricerche sistematiche tra la tarda antichità e il XV secolo, alla luce delle fonti storiche, cartografiche e archeologiche. In particolare, la realizzazione di indagini di superficie e shovel tests ha consentito di ampliare e approfondire la conoscenza del comprensorio nel periodo in esame, fornendo interessanti spunti per lo studio delle aree rurali appenniniche. Gli elementi raccolti sono confl uiti all’interno di un database e di una piattaforma GIS appositamente creata. The research focuses on the analysis of settlement forms and dynamics, structures and organisation of upper Valle Scrivia (an area in the Apennines located between Genoa and the Po Valley that has never been the object of systematic studies between Late Antiquity and the 15th century in light of historical, cartographic and archaeological sources. In particular, carrying out surface surveys and shovel tests allowed to widen and increase the knowledge of the area in the period examined and provided interesting ideas for the study of rural areas in the Apennines. The elements that were gathered were inserted into a database and a GIS platform created on purpose.

  5. Quasi-16-day period oscillations observed in middle atmospheric ozone and temperature in Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demissie, T.D.; Hibbins, R.E.; Espy, P.J. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Birkeland Centre for Space Science, Bergen (Norway); Kleinknecht, N.H.; Straub, C. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway)

    2013-09-01

    Nightly averaged mesospheric temperature derived from the hydroxyl nightglow at Rothera station (67 34' S, 68 08' W) and nightly midnight measurements of ozone mixing ratio obtained from Troll station (72 01' S, 2 32' E) in Antarctica have been used to investigate the presence and vertical profile of the quasi-16-day planetary wave in the stratosphere and mesosphere during the Antarctic winter of 2009. The variations caused by planetary waves on the ozone mixing ratio and temperature are discussed, and spectral and cross-correlation analyses are performed to extract the wave amplitudes and to examine the vertical structure of the wave from 34 to 80 km. The results show that while planetary-wave signatures with periods 3-12 days are strong below the stratopause, the oscillations associated with the 16-day wave are the strongest and present in both the mesosphere and stratosphere. The period of the wave is found to increase below 42 km due to the Doppler shifting by the strong eastward zonal wind. The 16-day oscillation in the temperature is found to be correlated and phase coherent with the corresponding oscillation observed in O{sub 3} volume mixing ratio at all levels, and the wave is found to have vertical phase fronts consistent with a normal mode structure. (orig.)

  6. Life satisfaction and age : Dealing with underidentification in age-period-cohort models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ree, Joppe; Alessie, Rob

    Recent literature typically finds a U shaped relationship between life satisfaction and age. Age profiles, however, are not identified without forcing arbitrary restrictions on the cohort and/or time profiles. In this paper we report what can be identified about the relationship between life

  7. Alcohol Intake and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Tolstrup, Janne S; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2010-01-01

    prospective studies from North America and Europe including 192 067 women and 74 919 men free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancers at baseline, average daily alcohol intake was assessed at baseline with a food frequency or diet history questionnaire. An inverse association between alcohol......BACKGROUND: -Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. This protective effect of alcohol, however, may be confined to middle-aged or older individuals. Coronary heart disease incidence is low in men ... of age; for this reason, study cohorts rarely have the power to investigate the effects of alcohol on coronary heart disease risk in younger adults. This study examined whether the beneficial effect of alcohol on coronary heart disease depends on age. Methods and Results-In this pooled analysis of 8...

  8. Self-perception of aging and acute medical events in chronically institutionalized middle-aged and older persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheung-Tak; Yip, Leona C Y; Jim, Olivia T T; Hui, Anna N N

    2012-09-01

    To examine the relationship between self-perceptions of aging and acute medical events in chronically institutionalized middle-aged and older persons with schizophrenia. Participants were 83 persons with schizophrenia (30% women; mean age = 58.48, SD = 8.14) residing in a long-stay care home, who were without organic mental disorders, mental retardation, serious audiovisual impairment, and serious cognitive and physical impairment. They received assessments in body mass index, functional health, and global mental status, and responded to measures of self-perception of aging at baseline. Acute events that required medical attention were recorded for the next 3 months. 8% of the participants had acute medical events. Bivariate analysis suggested that number of comorbid medical conditions, mobility, Mini-Mental State Examination, and negative self-perception of aging were predictive of acute medical events. However, multivariate analysis (logistic regression) showed that only mobility (OR = 0.78, p = 0.04) and negative self-perception of aging (OR = 3.38, p = 0.02) had independent effects on acute medical events, with the latter being the stronger predictor. Positive aging self-perception, body mass index, and smoking were unrelated to medical events. Physical vulnerabilities may not be sufficient to explain the development of acute medical events in late-life schizophrenia. How individuals perceive their aging process, which is expected to regulate health behavior and help-seeking, may be an even more important factor. Further research should investigate whether such self-perceptions, which are probably rooted in stereotypes about aging socialized early in life, are modifiable in this population. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. [Assessment of comprehensive nutritional status and eating behavior among 311 middle aged and aged women with osteoporosis in Chengdu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R P; Wang, W Z; Cheng, G P; Zhang, H J; Zhou, F M; Li, Y Y; Wu, C; Yang, L Q; Zeng, G

    2017-06-06

    Objective: To investigate the comprehensive nutritional status and diet behavior of middle aged and elderly women with osteoporosis, and thereby to explore the relationship between diet behavior and comprehensive nutritional status. Methods: 311 middle-aged and elderly women with osteoporosis in Chengdu were included in this study. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was applied to assess their comprehensive nutritional status. Information of social-demographic characteristics and diet behavior (about meals, snacks and water drinking, etc.) of the subjects was collected by questionnaire. Chi square test was used to assess the differences in nutritional status among patients who have different eating behaviors. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between diet behaviors and comprehensive nutritional status. Results: The mean MNA score of subjects was 25.8±2.5. 20.3% (63/311) of the subjets were at risk of potential malnutrition, but there was no malnourished subjects found. 46.9% (46/311) of the subjects were in good appetite. 95.2% (296/311) of them had a fixed food intake each meal. 65.8% (198/311) of them had snacks every day, and the most common choice was fruit (86.4% (248/287)). 54.8% (165/311) of them had initiative drinking water habits, and the most common choice was plain boiled water (79.9%, 246/308). 76.5% (238/311) of them had daily portable water less than 1 500 ml. After adjusting the effects of age, occupation and education level, bad appetite ( OR= 3.50, 95% CI: 1.18-10.62), unfixed food intake ( OR= 7.27, 95% CI: 1.40-35.83), and seldom or never intake of snack ( OR= 3.71, 95% CI: 1.42-9.72) were risk factors for malnutrition risk, while tea drinking was protective factor( OR= 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11-0.93). Conclusion: Risk of potential malnutrition and unhealthy diet behavior among the middle aged and elderly women with osteoporosis should be paid more attention. Unhealtghy diet behavior has a negative effect on their

  10. Variations of insulin resistance and associated hormone levels in elderly and middle-aged male persons and their clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Liankun; Yan Daochun; Chen Xiumei; Liu Peng; Zhang Aihua

    2005-01-01

    To study the relationship between age and insulin resistance and the variation of associated hormones in elderly and middle-aged males, blood levels of LH, FSH, T, SHBG, TSH, INS were determined by RIA, FBG by GPO, IR by HOMA in 268 healthy male persons aged 41 to 60 years and in 80 normal control male persions of 35 to 40 years old. The results showed that levels of IR, LH, FSH, SHBG were increasing and T, TSH were decreasing along with the increase of age except for TSH. Therefore, analyzing these changes could evaluate the conditions of elderly and middle-aged males. (authors)

  11. The Effects of Intensive Nutrition Education on Late Middle-Aged Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Xu, Meihong; Fan, Rui; Ma, Xiaotao; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Liu, Rui; Chen, Qihe; Ren, Jinwei; Mao, Ruixue; Bao, Lei; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yong

    2016-09-08

    Many patients with type 2 diabetes find it difficult to maintain good glycemic control. Undesirable glycemic control occurs greatly due to deficiencies of nutritional knowledge and difficulty in obtaining dietary prescriptions. The late middle-aged and elder individuals are the main populations that are affected by type 2 diabetes. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether intensive nutrition education would make benefits for late middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes. 196 patients between 50 to 65 years old meeting type 2 diabetes criteria and eligible for the program were included in a single-blinded, 30-day centralized management of an education program in China. Participants in the program were randomly divided into a usual nutrition education group or an intensive nutrition education group. The usual nutrition education group was used as a control group and received only basic health advice and principles of diabetic diets at the beginning and the end of the study. Participants in the intensive nutrition education group were arranged to receive intensive nutritional lectures about diabetes for 30 days. The primary outcomes were the changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (PG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total glycerin (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c). After 30 days of intervention, FPG, PG, and HbA1c in the treatment group decreased significantly than the control group (p nutrition education group. However, there was no statistical significance between groups. Intensive nutrition education has significant effects on blood glucose control in late middle-aged adults with type 2 diabetes. Intensive education can cultivate good diet habits and increase physical activity, which are important for diabetes patients in the short and long terms. These findings may contribute to improving

  12. Validation of a Dietary Screening Tool in a Middle-Aged Appalachian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ventura Marra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Proactive nutrition screening is an effective public health strategy for identifying and targeting individuals who could benefit from making dietary improvements for primary and secondary prevention of disease. The Dietary Screening Tool (DST was developed and validated to assess nutritional risk among rural older adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility and validity of the DST to identify nutritional risk in middle-aged adults. This cross-sectional study in middle-aged adults (45–64 year olds, n = 87 who reside in Appalachia, examined nutritional status using an online health survey, biochemical measures, anthropometry, and three representative 24-h dietary recalls. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI was calculated to describe overall diet quality. Adults identified by the DST with a nutrition risk had lower HEI scores (50 vs. 64, p < 0.001 and were much more likely to also be considered at dietary risk by the HEI (OR 11.6; 3.2–42.6 when compared to those not at risk. Those at risk had higher energy-adjusted total fat, saturated fat, and added sugar intakes and lower intakes of dietary fiber, and several micronutrients than those classified as not at risk by the DST. Similarly, the at-risk group had significantly lower serum levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin but did not differ in retinol or methylmalonic acid compared with those not at risk. The DST is a valid tool to identify middle-aged adults with nutritional risk.

  13. Musculoskeletal profile of middle-aged Ving Tsun Chinese martial art practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Shirley S.M.; Chan, Jessie S.M.; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Yam, Timothy T.T.; Chung, Louisa M.Y.; Ma, Ada W.W.; Kuisma, Raija

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional exploratory study aimed to quantify and compare the axial and appendicular bone mineral density (BMD), muscle mass, and muscle strength of middle-aged practitioners of Ving Tsun (VT; a hard-style Chinese martial art) with those of nonpractitioners. Eighteen VT practitioners (mean age ± standard deviation = 51.8 ± 17.7 years; 12 men and six women) and 36 active controls (mean age ± standard deviation = 58.7 ± 11.0 years; 18 men and 18 women) participated in the study. All participants underwent a 1-day battery of musculoskeletal examinations. The BMD of the total radius, total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, as was the lean mass of the arm, leg, and trunk. Muscle strength of the upper and lower limbs was assessed using a Jamar dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/second, respectively. VT-trained participants had a 11.5% higher total radius BMD (P = 0.023), a 17.8% higher leg lean mass (P = 0.014), a 56.4% higher isokinetic body weight-adjusted peak torque of the knee extensors (P  0.05). Middle-aged VT practitioners displayed a higher total radius BMD and leg lean mass and better knee extensor and flexor muscular performances than their healthy active counterparts. Healthcare professionals may consider using this alternative method of training to improve the musculoskeletal health of middle-aged adults. PMID:28121945

  14. White matter hyperintensities in middle-aged adults with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunley, Karen A.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Orchard, Trevor J.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Jennings, J. Richard; Ryan, John; Zgibor, Janice C.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Costacou, Tina; Maynard, John D.; Miller, Rachel G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although microvascular complications are common in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), few studies have quantified the severity, risk factors, and implications of cerebral microvascular damage in these patients. As life expectancy in patients with T1DM increases, patients are exposed to age- and disease-related factors that may contribute to cerebral microvascular disease. Methods: Severity and volume of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and infarcts were quantified in 97 middle-aged patients with childhood-onset T1DM (mean age and duration: 50 and 41 years, respectively) and 81 non-T1DM adults (mean age: 48 years), concurrent with cognitive and health-related measures. Results: Compared with non-T1DM participants, patients had more severe WMH (Fazekas scores 2 and 3 compared with Fazekas score 1, p the group differences in processing speed (13% for digit symbol, 11% for pegboard, both p ≤ 0.05). Among patients, prevalent neuropathies and smoking tripled the odds of high WMH burden, independent of age or disease duration. Associations between measures of blood pressure or hyperglycemia and WMH were not significant. Conclusions: Clinically relevant WMH are evident earlier among middle-aged patients with childhood-onset T1DM and are related to the slower information processing frequently observed in T1DM. Brain imaging in patients with T1DM who have cognitive difficulties, especially those with neuropathies, may help uncover cerebral microvascular damage. Longitudinal studies are warranted to fully characterize WMH development, risk factors, and long-term effects on cognition. PMID:25904692

  15. Brain activation by visual erotic stimuli in healthy middle aged males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S W; Sohn, D W; Cho, Y-H; Yang, W S; Lee, K-U; Juh, R; Ahn, K-J; Chung, Y-A; Han, S-I; Lee, K H; Lee, C U; Chae, J-H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify brain centers, whose activity changes are related to erotic visual stimuli in healthy, heterosexual, middle aged males. Ten heterosexual, right-handed males with normal sexual function were entered into the present study (mean age 52 years, range 46-55). All potential subjects were screened over 1 h interview, and were encouraged to fill out questionnaires including the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory. All subjects with a history of sexual arousal disorder or erectile dysfunction were excluded. We performed functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in male volunteers when an alternatively combined erotic and nonerotic film was played for 14 min and 9 s. The major areas of activation associated with sexual arousal to visual stimuli were occipitotemporal area, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus. However, hypothalamus and thalamus were not activated. We suggest that the nonactivation of hypothalamus and thalamus in middle aged males may be responsible for the lesser physiological arousal in response to the erotic visual stimuli.

  16. Exercise blood pressure and the risk for future hypertension among normotensive middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Assaf; Grossman, Ehud; Katz, Moshe; Kivity, Shaye; Klempfner, Robert; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Sidi, Yehezkel; Maor, Elad

    2015-04-22

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether exercise blood pressure can be used to predict the development of hypertension in normotensive middle-aged adults. We investigated 7082 normotensive subjects who were annually screened in a tertiary medical center and completed maximal treadmill exercise tests at each visit. After the initial 3 years, subjects were divided into approximate quartiles according to their average exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses (≤158; 158 to 170; 170 to 183; ≥183 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure and ≤73; 73 to 77; 77 to 82; ≥82 mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure). Mean age of the study population was 48 ± 9 years and 73% were men. Average baseline resting blood pressure was 120/77 ± 12/7 mm Hg. During a follow-up of 5 ± 3 years, 1036 (14.6%) subjects developed hypertension. The cumulative probability of new-onset hypertension at 5 years was significantly increased with increasing quartiles of exercise systolic blood pressure (5%, 9%, 17%, and 35%, respectively; Pexercise either systolic or diastolic blood pressures were independently associated with respective 11% (Phypertension. In normotensive middle-aged individuals, blood pressure response to exercise is associated with future development of hypertension. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  17. The Effect of Gender on Sprint Performance of 10-13 Aged Middle School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Turan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of gender on the 30 m sprint performance of middle school students (10-13 ages. The study included 25 male and 25 female total 50 middle school students. The mean age of female students was found as 12,36 ± 0,48 (year, the mean body weight as 42,03 ± 3,63 (kg, and the mean height as 151,11 ±5,61 (cm, and the mean age of male students was found as 12,28 ± 0,45 (year, the mean height as 152,28 ± 5,04 (cm, and the mean body weight as 43,35 ± 1,88 (kg. The mean sprint performance of female students was calculated as 6,33 ± 0,53 seconds, and the mean sprint performance of the male students was 6,17 ± 0,47 seconds. As a result the effect of gender on sprint performance was found to be insignificant between the groups (p>0,05.

  18. Middle-aged women's preferred theory-based features in mobile physical activity applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Diane K; Huberty, Jennifer L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe which theory-based behavioral and technological features middle-aged women prefer to be included in a mobile application designed to help them adopt and maintain regular physical activity (PA). Women aged 30 to 64 years (N = 120) completed an online survey measuring their demographics and mobile PA application preferences. The survey was developed upon behavioral principles of Social Cognitive Theory, recent mobile app research, and technology adoption principles of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. Frequencies were calculated and content analyses conducted to identify which features women most preferred. Behavioral features that help women self-regulate their PA (PA tracking, goal-setting, progress monitoring) were most preferred. Technological features that enhance perceived effort expectancy and playfulness were most preferred. Many women reported the desire to interact and compete with others through the application. Theory-based PA self-regulation features and theory-based design features that improve perceived effort expectancy and playfulness may be most beneficial in a mobile PA application for middle-aged women. Opportunities to interact with other people and the employment of social, game-like activities may also be attractive. Interdisciplinary engagement of experts in PA behavior change, technology adoption, and software development is needed.

  19. A Novel Inexpensive Use of Smartphone Technology for Ecological Momentary Assessment in Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Diane K; Huberty, Jennifer; Buman, Matthew; Hooker, Steven; Todd, Michael; de Vreede, Gert-Jan

    2016-03-01

    Commercially available mobile and Internet technologies present a promising opportunity to feasibly conduct ecological momentary assessment (EMA). The purpose of this study was to describe a novel EMA protocol administered on middle-aged women's smartphones via text messaging and mobile Internet. Women (N = 9; mean age = 46.2 ± 8.2 y) received 35 text message prompts to a mobile survey assessing activity, self-worth, and self-efficacy over 14 days. Prompts were scheduled and surveys were administered using commercial, Internet-based programs. Prompting was tailored to each woman's daily wake/sleep schedule. Women concurrently wore a wrist-worn accelerometer. Feasibility was assessed via survey completion, accelerometer wear, participant feedback, and researcher notes. Of 315 prompted surveys, 287 responses were valid (91.1%). Average completion time was 1.52 ± 1.03 minutes. One participant's activity data were excluded due to accelerometer malfunction, resulting in complete data from 8 participants (n = 252 [80.0%] valid observations). Women reported the survey was easily and quickly read/completed. However, most thought the accelerometer was inconvenient. High completion rates and perceived usability suggest capitalizing on widely available technology and tailoring prompting schedules may optimize EMA in middle-aged women. However, researchers may need to carefully select objective monitors to maintain data validity while limiting participant burden.

  20. Eicosanoid Production following One Bout of Exercise in Middle-Aged African American Pre- and Stage 1 Hypertensives

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Sheara; Varma, Deepti; Brown, Michael; Jansen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and a sedentary lifestyle may be involved in the development of hypertension which is proliferative among middle-aged African Americans (AA). Signaling molecules derived from the oxidation of 20-carbon fatty acid molecules known as eicosanoids influence vascular tone. The relationship between aerobic fitness and eicosanoid formation following exercise in middle-aged African American hypertensives is unknown. Purpose. To determine the relationship between aerobic capaci...

  1. Syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers in China: a three-site cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. Design A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Setting A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014....

  2. Four weeks of running sprint interval training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in young and middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Taura N; Thomas, Matthew P L; Schmale, Matthew S; Copeland, Jennifer L; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 4-week running sprint interval training protocol to improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness in middle-aged adults (40-50 years) as well as compare the adaptations to younger adults (20-30 years). Twenty-eight inactive participants - 14 young 20-30-year-olds (n = 7 males) and 14 middle-aged 40-50-year-olds (n = 5 males) - completed 4 weeks of running sprint interval training (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a curved, self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min active recovery performed 3 times per week). Before and after training, all participants were assessed for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 2000 m time trial performance, and anaerobic performance on a single 30-s sprint. There were no interactions between group and time for any tested variable, although training improved relative VO2max (young = 3.9, middle-aged = 5.2%; P < 0.04), time trial performance (young = 5.9, middle-aged = 8.2%; P < 0.001), peak sprint speed (young = 9.3, middle-aged = 2.2%; P < 0.001), and average sprint speed (young = 6.8, middle-aged = 11.6%; P < 0.001) in both young and middle-aged groups from pre- to post-training on the 30-s sprint test. The current study demonstrates that a 4-week running sprint interval training programme is equally effective at improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness in younger and middle-aged adults.

  3. Underemployment. An Ordinary Way of Life in Fields of Andalusia in the Late Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes BORRERO FERNÁNDEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the underemployment affecting the majority of the rural population of southern Castile in the final centuries of the Middle Ages. Firstly, we study the formation of the group demanding work in the fields: their characteristics and numerical significance in different economic regions. We analyze also the mechanisms and rates of the offer of temporary employment generated in large properties. The consequences of this system: a weak balance between supply and demand caused the impoverishment of the peasantry.

  4. Comparisons in the Recovery Response From Resistance Exercise Between Young and Middle-Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joseph A; Hoffman, Jay R; Arroyo, Eliott; Varanoske, Alyssa N; Coker, Nicholas A; Gepner, Yftach; Wells, Adam J; Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H

    2017-12-01

    Gordon, JA III, Hoffman, JR, Arroyo, E, Varanoske, AN, Coker, NA, Gepner, Y, Wells, AJ, Stout, JR, and Fukuda, DH. Comparisons in the recovery response from resistance exercise between young and middle-aged men. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3454-3462, 2017-The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a bout of high-volume isokinetic resistance exercise protocol (HVP) on lower-body strength and markers of inflammation and muscle damage during recovery between young and middle-aged adult men. Nineteen recreationally trained men were classified as either a young adult (YA: 21.8 ± 2.0 years; 90.7 ± 11.6 kg) or a middle-aged adult (MA: 47.0 ± 4.4 years; 96.0 ± 21.5 kg) group. The HVP consisted of 8 sets of 10 repetitions, with 1 minute of rest between each set, performed on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°·s. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions and isokinetic peak torque (PKT) and average torque (AVGT) (measured at 240° and 60°·s, respectively) were assessed at baseline (BL), immediately post (IP), 120 minutes, 24, and 48 hours after HVP. Blood was obtained at BL, IP, 30, 60, 120 minute, 24, and 48 hours after HVP to assess muscle damage and inflammation. All performance data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of covariance, whereas all inflammatory and muscle damage markers were analyzed using a 2-way (time × group) repeated measures analysis of variance. Results revealed no between-group differences for PKT, AVGT, or rate of torque development at 200 ms (RTD200). No between-group differences in myoglobin, creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, or interleukin-6 were observed. Although BL differences in muscle performance were observed between YA and MA, no between-group differences were noted in performance recovery measures from high-volume isokinetic exercise in recreationally trained men. These results also indicate that the inflammatory and muscle damage response from high-volume isokinetic exercise is similar between

  5. Oral health as a risk factor for mortality in middle-aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabbah, Wael; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence of an association between poor oral health and mortality. This association is usually attributed to inflammatory and nutrition pathways. However, the role of health behaviours and socioeconomic position has not been adequately examined. The aims of this study were...... to examine the association between oral health and premature death among middle-aged men and to test whether it was explained by socioeconomic position and behaviours. METHODS: Data were from the Vietnam Experience Study, a prospective cohort study of Vietnam War-era (1965-1971), American male army personnel...

  6. Effects of Forest Bathing on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Parameters in Middle-Aged Males

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qing; Kobayashi, Maiko; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Ochiai, Toshiya; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Imai, Michiko; Wang, Zhiyu; Otsuka, Toshiaki; Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip...

  7. Plenty of action left in northern Europe's middle-aged offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Northern Europe's offshore oil industry this year has begun to reveal several symptoms generally associated with middle age. Though in its prime in terms of oil production, North Sea industry has begun a dramatic slimming program. It has started a search for fresh experiences, and it has begun to revisit the big successes of its youth. The paper cites examples demonstrating these trends. The paper then discusses production, outlook for exploration, trends in the United Kingdom, development advances in the natural gas industry, exploration activities, and redevelopment projects

  8. Prophylaxis of asymmetric carriage of schoolboys of middle age by facilities of physical rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulbani R.Sh.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The questions of violation of carriage are considered in a frontal plane for schoolboys of middle age. In research took part 20 schoolboys (girls and boys of 12-14 years old. The estimation of the state of carriage is executed. Violations of carriage are exposed with predominance of right-side asymmetry of trunk. The complexes of facilities of physical rehabilitation, the basic component of which are correctings exercises, are offered. Positive influence of complexes, directed on the prophylaxis of asymmetric carriage of schoolboys is certain.

  9. Age, period and cohort effects on first-child fertility in Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Keiding, Niels; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    Demographic studies of fertility are most often based solely on information about women, leaving out characteristics of men. Thereby valuable information may be lost. The present note intends to explore the potential of the classical age-period-cohort model for describing male first-child fertility...... patterns. The model was fitted to fertility data on Danish men aged 15 to 49 years in the calendar period from 1960 to 1994. We found the classical age-period-cohodt model to be an appropriate model for describing male first-child fertility patterns in Denmark. Fluctuations in age-specific male first-child...... fertility rates over period were found,  with a nadir in the mid-1980s. Furthermore, age-specific first-child fertility rates were found to be lower in men from younger cirth cohorts than in men from older birth cohorts....

  10. The effect of background babble on working memory in young and middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidleman, Michelle T; Wambacq, Ilse; Besing, Joan; Spitzer, Jaclyn B; Koehnke, Janet

    2015-03-01

    Background noise has been found to negatively affect working memory. Numerous studies have also found that older adults perform more poorly on working memory tasks than young adults (YA). Hearing status has often been a confounding factor in older individuals. Therefore, it would be beneficial to investigate working memory functions in adverse listening conditions early in the aging process (i.e., middle-age), when hearing function is relatively unaffected. The focus of this study was to determine the influence of background babble on working memory in YA and middle-aged adults (MA) with normal hearing. Before testing was begun, we established that all participants could correctly identify words in a degraded experimental testing environment with 100% accuracy. Then, the participants listened to lists composed of five pairs of words in quiet and in 20-talker babble. After the final word pair, the participants were cued with the first word of one of the previous five word pairs. The participants were required to write down the second word of the pair. The percent correct scores for each of the five serial positions were analyzed comparing the two listening conditions for YA and MA. Ten YA and ten MA with normal hearing between 250-8000 Hz and a score of at least 26/30 on the Mini-Mental State Examination participated in the study. As different cognitive processes are used for initial, middle, and final serial positions, averaged scores were obtained for Positions 2 and 3 and for Positions 4 and 5. Subsequently, repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted on mean scores of correctly recalled word pairs with serial positions (initial, middle, and final) and listening condition (quiet, babble) as the within-participant variables and age group (YA, MA) as the between-participant independent variable. This OMNIBUS repeated-measures ANOVA was then followed up with separate repeated-measures ANOVAS for the initial, middle, and final positions. Correct

  11. Novel Intervention in the Aging Population : A Primary Meningococcal Vaccine Inducing Protective IgM Responses in Middle-Aged Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heiden, Marieke; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Marinovic, Axe A. Bonacic; de Rond, Lia G. H.; van Maurik, Marian; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Berbers, Guy A. M.; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Vaccine responses are often reduced in the elderly, leaving part of the elderly population vulnerable to infectious diseases. Timely vaccination may offer a solution for strengthening memory immunity before reaching old age, which classifies middle-aged persons as a target age group

  12. Relation between trends in late middle age mortality and trends in old age mortality--is there evidence for mortality selection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, F.; Peeters, A.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Kunst, A. E.

    2005-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To test whether mortality selection was a dominant factor in determining trends in old age mortality, by empirically studying the existence of a negative correlation between trends in late middle age mortality and trends in old age mortality among the same cohorts. DESIGN AND

  13. Novel Intervention in the Aging Population: A Primary Meningococcal Vaccine Inducing Protective IgM Responses in Middle-Aged Adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heiden, Marieke; Boots, Annemieke M H; Bonacic Marinovic, Axel A; de Rond, Lia G H; van Maurik, Marjan; Tcherniaeva, Irina; Berbers, Guy A M; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Vaccine responses are often reduced in the elderly, leaving part of the elderly population vulnerable to infectious diseases. Timely vaccination may offer a solution for strengthening memory immunity before reaching old age, which classifies middle-aged persons as a target age group for vaccine

  14. Lower antibody functionality in middle-aged adults compared to adolescents after primary meningococcal vaccination : Role of IgM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heiden, Marieke; van Ravenhorst, Mariette B; Bogaard, Marjan; Boots, Annemieke M H; Berbers, Guy A M; Buisman, Anne-Marie

    Introduction: Successful vaccination of elderly persons is often hampered by immunological ageing, leaving part of the elderly population vulnerable for infectious diseases. As an alternative, timely vaccinations might be administered at middle-age, before reaching old age. Studies evaluating the

  15. Understanding aging in a Middle Eastern context: the SHARE-Israel survey of persons aged 50 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Howard

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the development of SHARE-Israel, the survey of persons aged 50 and older in Israel, and preliminary results from an early data release. The introduction of an HRS-inspired computer-based survey into a Middle East country required linguistic and cultural adaptations of the survey mechanisms that had not been previously experienced in other countries. Preliminary findings showed that the majority group of veteran Jewish-Israelis aged 50 and over is in a favorable position in terms of health, employment status and household income compared to Arab-Israelis and to new immigrants to Israel from the Former Soviet Union. Arab-Israelis aged 50 and over are at greater risk due to greater disability and lower incomes. Recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union are at greatest risk. They report having the highest degree of depression, long term problems and activity limitation, the fewest children, low rates of home ownership and low incomes. Comparing the older Israeli population with their European counterparts revealed that Israelis are more depressed; more Israeli women are employed, and fewer Israeli men are retired; and household income in Israel is lower, but rises relatively when correcting for purchasing power parity. These trends point to several areas that will require attention in the formulation of public policy on behalf of the aging population in Israel.

  16. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  17. An Image-Based Modeling Experience about Social Facilities, Built during the Fascist Period in Middle Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, D.

    2011-09-01

    The main focus of this article is to explain a teaching activity. This experience follows a research aimed to testing innovative systems for formal and digital analysis of architectural building. In particular, the field of investigation is the analytical drawing. An analytical draw allows to develope an interpretative and similar models of reality; these models are built using photomodeling techniques and are designed to re-write modern and contemporary architecture. The typology of the buildings surveyed belong to a cultural period, called Modern Movement, historically placed between the two world wars. The Modern Movement aimed to renew existing architectural principle and to a functional redefinition of the same one. In Italy these principles arrived during the Fascist period. Heritage made up of public social buildings (case del Balilla, G.I.L., recreation center...) built during the fascist period in middle Italy is remarkable for quantity and in many cases for architectural quality. This kind of buildings are composed using pure shapes: large cube (gyms) alternate with long rectangular block containing offices creates compositions made of big volumes and high towers. These features are perfectly suited to the needs of a surveying process by photomodeling where the role of photography is central and where there is the need to identify certain and easily distinguishable points on all picture, leaning on the edges of the volume or lininig on the texture discontinuity. The goal is the documentation to preserve and to develop buildings and urban complexes of modern architecture, directed to encourage an artistic preservation.

  18. Recombinant growth differentiation factor 11 influences short-term memory and enhances Sox2 expression in middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Jadavji, Nafisa M; Yoo, Hyung-Suk; Smith, Patrice D

    2018-04-02

    Previous evidence suggests that a significant decline in cognitive ability begins during middle-age and continues to deteriorate with increase in age. Recent work has demonstrated the potential rejuvenation impact of growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF-11) in aged mice. We carried out experiments to evaluate the impact of a single dose of recombinant (rGDF-11) on short-term visual and spatial memory in middle-aged male mice. On the novel object recognition task, we observed middle-aged mice treated rGDF-11 showed improved performance on the novel object recognition task. However, middle-aged mice did not show increased expression of phosphorylated-Smad2/3, a downstream effector of GDF-11. We noted however that the expression of the transcription factor, Sox2 was increased within the dentate gyrus. Our data suggest that a single injection of rGDF-11 contributes to improvements in cognitive function of middle-aged animals, which may be critical in the preservation of short-term memory capacity in old age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Case Study: Body Composition Periodization in an Olympic-Level Female Middle-Distance Runner Over a 9-Year Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellingwerff, Trent

    2018-05-25

    This case study features an Olympic-level female middle-distance runner implementing a science-based approach to body composition periodization. Data are emerging to suggest that it is not sustainable from a health and/or performance perspective to be at peak body composition year-round, so body composition needs to be strategically periodized. Anthropometric (n = 44), hematological, other health measures, and 1,500-m race performances (n = 83) were periodically assessed throughout a 9-year career. General preparation phase (September to April) featured the athlete at ∼2-4% over ideal competition phase body weight (BW) and body fat (%), with optimal energy availability being prioritized. The competition body composition optimization phase (May to August) included creating an individualized time frame and caloric deficit with various feedback metrics (BW, performance, and hunger) to guide the process. There were significant seasonal fluctuations in anthropometric outcomes between phases (47.3 ± 0.8 vs. 48.3 ± 0.9 kg BW; 53.6 ± 7.8 vs. 61.6 ± 9.7 mm International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry sum of 8 [So8] skinfolds; p career (r = -.838; p = .018). The range of body composition during the competition period was 46.0-48.0 kg BW and a So8 range was 42.0-55.9 mm. There were also significant positive correlations between slower 1,500-m race times and increasing So8 (r = .437; p career injuries. This case study demonstrates a body composition periodization approach that allowed for targeted peak yearly performances, which improved throughout her career, while maximizing training adaptation and long-term athlete health through optimal energy availability.

  20. The Role of Retinal Carotenoids and Age on Neuroelectric Indices of Attentional Control among Early to Middle-Aged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Walk

    2017-06-01

    indices underlying cognitive control. The protective role of carotenoids within the CNS may be evident during early and middle adulthood, decades prior to the onset of older age.

  1. Monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens correlate with male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Houng-Wei; Shui, Hao-Ai; Liu, Hang-Shen; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2006-02-01

    The correlation between monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and male sexual behavior was studied in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19months) were assigned to three groups: (1) Group MIE consisted of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (2) Group MI was composed of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (3) Group NC were non-copulators showing no sexual behavior. Young adult rats (4-5months), displaying complete copulatory behavior, were used as the control group. Levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin, and norepinephrine and their metabolites in the NAcc were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. No difference was seen in DA levels between MIE rats and young controls, whereas DA levels in NC rats were significantly lower than those in both MIE and MI rats. Serotonin levels in NC rats were significantly higher than those in MIE and MI rats. Conversely, norepinephrine levels in NC rats were lower than those in MIE rats. These results suggest that monoamine levels in the NAcc correlate with sexual performance in male rats and that changes in NAcc monoamine levels might affect male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

  2. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Hiroko; Ikei, Harumi; Song, Chorong; Kobayashi, Maiko; Miura, Takashi; Kagawa, Takahide; Li, Qing; Kumeda, Shigeyoshi; Imai, Michiko; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-12-01

    The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and "Forest Therapy" has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation) participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more "comfortable," "relaxed," and "natural" according to the semantic differential (SD) method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) negative mood subscale score for "tension-anxiety" was significantly lower, while that for "vigor" was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1) decrease in pulse rate, (2) decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3) increase in positive feelings, and (4) decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females.

  3. Horizontal Inequity in Health Care Utilization among the Middle-Aged and Elderly in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaofan; Dou, Lei; Wang, Haipeng; Jing, Shanshan; Yin, Aitian

    2017-07-26

    Equitable utilization of health care is a primary goal of the Chinese health system. This study aimed to examine horizontal inequity in health care utilization and identify the factors resulting in inequity among the middle-aged and elderly in China. The data were obtained from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). We employed the concentration index (CI) and horizontal inequity (HI) to measure inequity in health care utilization. Non-linear regression models were used to decompose the CI into the contribution of each factor. The CIs for the probability of and total number of outpatient visits were 0.0642 and 0.0780, respectively, and those for inpatient visits were 0.1418 and 0.1471, respectively. The HIs were also significantly positive. Living standard was the most important contributor. The contribution of health insurance varied between plans. This study supported the presence of pro-rich inequity in health care utilization for both probability and frequency among the middle-aged and elderly in China. Narrowing the living standard gap and improving the health insurance benefit package for the elderly should help to resolve these inequities.

  4. Can Training Enhance Face Cognition Abilities in Middle-Aged Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzycka, Dominika; Herzmann, Grit; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Face cognition is a crucial skill for social interaction and shows large individual differences in healthy adults, suggesting a possibility for improvement in some. We developed and tested specific training procedures for the accuracy of face memory and the speed of face cognition. Two groups each of 20 healthy middle-aged trainees practiced for 29 daily sessions of 15 minutes duration with different computerized home-based training procedures. In addition, 20 matched and 59 non-matched controls were included. Face cognition speed training enhanced performance during the training and transferred to the latent factor level as measured in a pre-post comparison. Persistence of the training effect was evidenced at the manifest level after three months. However, the training procedure influenced the speed of processing object stimuli to the same extent as face stimuli and therefore seems to have affected a more general ability of processing complex visual stimuli and not only faces. No effects of training on the accuracy of face memory were found. This study demonstrates that face-specific abilities may be hard to improve but also shows the plasticity of the speed of processing complex visual stimuli – for the first time in middle-aged, normal adults. PMID:24632743

  5. A 12-Week Exercise Therapy Program in Middle-Aged Patients With Degenerative Meniscus Tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensrud, Silje; Roos, Ewa M.; Risberg, May Arna

    2012-01-01

    Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 STUDY DESIGN: Case Series. BACKGROUND: Exercise is a viable treatment alternative to arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in patients with degenerative meniscus tears. No study has reported in detail type of exercises, progres......Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 STUDY DESIGN: Case Series. BACKGROUND: Exercise is a viable treatment alternative to arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in patients with degenerative meniscus tears. No study has reported in detail type of exercises......, progression, tolerance, and potential benefit from an exercise therapy program in these patients who have not had surgery. This study describes a progressive exercise therapy program aiming at improving neuromuscular function and muscle strength in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscus tears...... had undergone surgery. DISCUSSION: The described neuromuscular- and strength-training program should be considered for rehabilitation of middle-aged individuals with degenerative meniscus tears. Head-to-head comparison of programs in a randomized design is however needed to be able to answer...

  6. Comparison of the clinical symptoms of myocardial infarction in the middle-aged and elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Taghipour

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Myocardial infarction is a fatal symbol of cardiovascular diseases, which usually occurs in people over 45 years. However, the incidence of factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes and metabolic syndrome has increased the risk of developing early cardiovascular diseases in the middle-aged people. This study was conducted to compare the clinical manifestation of myocardial infarction in the middle-aged and elderly people. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the participants were 366 patients less and more than 55 years old with acute myocardial infarction admitted to the CCU of Imam Reza Hospital in Amol. Data were collected using demographic form and a checklist of clinical symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS (version 20 using descriptive statistics, chi-square, odds ratio and the Mantel-Haenszel (α= 0.05 and d=0.3. Results: The results showed that patients over 55 years manifested the symptoms of shortness of breath (1.66, weakness (2.62, vomiting (1.98 and hiccups (2.19 more than the patients under55 years. Also, by controlling the confounding effect of gender, these symptoms had emerged in >55 year-old patients than in <55 year-old ones. Conclusion: According to the results, the elderly patients have more chance of manifesting nonspecific symptoms. Therefore, the healthcare providers, especially nurses should be more careful in this regard during the initial assessment.

  7. Hippocampal Neuron Number Is Unchanged 1 Year After Fractionated Whole-Brain Irradiation at Middle Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lei; Molina, Doris P.; Robbins, Michael E.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether hippocampal neurons are lost 12 months after middle-aged rats received a fractionated course of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) that is expected to be biologically equivalent to the regimens used clinically in the treatment of brain tumors. Methods and Materials: Twelve-month-old Fischer 344 X Brown Norway male rats were divided into WBI and control (CON) groups (n = 6 per group). Anesthetized WBI rats received 45 Gy of 137 Cs γ rays delivered as 9 5-Gy fractions twice per week for 4.5 weeks. Control rats were anesthetized but not irradiated. Twelve months after WBI completion, all rats were anesthetized and perfused with paraformaldehyde, and hippocampal sections were immunostained with the neuron-specific antibody NeuN. Using unbiased stereology, total neuron number and the volume of the neuronal and neuropil layers were determined in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1 subregions of hippocampus. Results: No differences in tissue integrity or neuron distribution were observed between the WBI and CON groups. Moreover, quantitative analysis demonstrated that neither total neuron number nor the volume of neuronal or neuropil layers differed between the two groups for any subregion. Conclusions: Impairment on a hippocampal-dependent learning and memory test occurs 1 year after fractionated WBI at middle age. The same WBI regimen, however, does not lead to a loss of neurons or a reduction in the volume of hippocampus

  8. Selective impairment of attention networks during propofol anesthesia after gynecological surgery in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Xu, Guang-hong; Li, Yuan-hai; Tang, Wei-xiang; Wang, Kai

    2016-04-15

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is a common complication of anesthesia and surgery. Attention networks are essential components of cognitive function and are subject to impairment after anesthesia and surgery. It is not known whether such impairment represents a global attention deficit or relates to a specific attention network. We used an Attention Network Task (ANT) to examine the efficiency of the alerting, orienting, and executive control attention networks in middle-aged women (40-60 years) undergoing gynecologic surgery. A matched group of medical inpatients were recruited as a control. Fifty female patients undergoing gynecologic surgery (observation group) and 50 female medical inpatients (control group) participated in this study. Preoperatively patients were administered a mini-mental state examination as a screening method. The preoperative efficiencies of three attention networks in an attention network test were compared to the 1st and 5th post-operative days. The control group did not have any significant attention network impairments. On the 1st postoperative day, significant impairment was shown in the alerting (p=0.003 vs. control group, p=0.015 vs. baseline), orienting (pAttention networks of middle-aged women show a varying degree of significant impairment and differing levels of recovery after surgery and propofol anesthetic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduced employment and financial hardship among middle-aged individuals with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Louisa G; Beesley, Vanessa L; Mihala, Gabor; Koczwara, Bogda; Lynch, Brigid M

    2017-09-01

    Financial hardship may affect up to 30% of cancer survivors, however, little research has addressed the effect of employment change on financial hardship. This study compared the self-reported financial hardship of middle-aged (45-64 years) colorectal cancer survivors (n = 187) at 6 and 12 months following diagnosis with that of a matched general population group (n = 355). Colorectal cancer survivors were recruited through the Queensland Cancer Registry, Australia; data from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey were used for the general population group. Pearson chi-square tests were used to assess the differences in proportions between the two groups and McNemar tests to assess differences across time among the same group. Generalised linear modelling was performed to produce prevalence ratios. A higher proportion of workers with colorectal cancer reported financial strain (money shortage for living essentials) at 6 months (15%) but eased and was comparable to the comparison group at 12 months (7%). Middle-aged working cancer survivors who ceased or reduced work were more likely to report not being financially comfortable, compared with those who had continued work (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.66, 95%CI: 1.12, 2.44) at 12 months. Health professionals, employers and government services should address the impact of impaired employment on financial hardship among cancer survivors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Diverse effects of a low dose supplement of lipidated curcumin in healthy middle aged people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiSilvestro Robert A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Curcumin extracts of turmeric are proposed to produce health benefits. To date, human intervention studies have focused mainly on people with existing health problems given high doses of poorly absorbed curcumin. The purpose of the current study was to check whether in healthy people, a low dose of a lipidated curcumin extract could alter wellness-related measures. Methods The present study was conducted in healthy middle aged people (40–60 years old with a low dose of curcumin (80 mg/day in a lipidated form expected to have good absorption. Subjects were given either curcumin (N = 19 or placebo (N = 19 for 4 wk. Blood and saliva samples were taken before and after the 4 weeks and analyzed for a variety of blood and saliva measures relevant to health promotion. Results Curcumin, but not placebo, produced the following statistically significant changes: lowering of plasma triglyceride values, lowering of salivary amylase levels, raising of salivary radical scavenging capacities, raising of plasma catalase activities, lowering of plasma beta amyloid protein concentrations, lowering of plasma sICAM readings, increased plasma myeloperoxidase without increased c-reactive protein levels, increased plasma nitric oxide, and decreased plasma alanine amino transferase activities. Conclusion Collectively, these results demonstrate that a low dose of a curcumin-lipid preparation can produce a variety of potentially health promoting effects in healthy middle aged people.

  11. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a Forest Therapy Program on Middle-Aged Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Ochiai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment is increasingly recognized as an effective counter to urban stress, and “Forest Therapy” has recently attracted attention as a relaxation and stress management activity with demonstrated clinical efficacy. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of a forest therapy program on middle-aged females. Seventeen Japanese females (62.2 ± 9.4 years; mean ± standard deviation participated in this experiment. Pulse rate, salivary cortisol level, and psychological indices were measured on the day before forest therapy and on the forest therapy day. Pulse rate and salivary cortisol were significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy, indicating that subjects were in a physiologically relaxed state. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “comfortable,” “relaxed,” and “natural” according to the semantic differential (SD method. The Profile of Mood State (POMS negative mood subscale score for “tension–anxiety” was significantly lower, while that for “vigor” was significantly higher following forest therapy. Our study revealed that forest therapy elicited a significant (1 decrease in pulse rate, (2 decrease in salivary cortisol levels, (3 increase in positive feelings, and (4 decrease in negative feelings. In conclusion, there are substantial physiological and psychological benefits of forest therapy on middle-aged females.

  12. Pulp Revascularization on Permanent Teeth with Open Apices in a Middle-aged Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Chengfei

    2015-09-01

    Pulp revascularization is a promising procedure for the treatment of adolescents' immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulp and/or apical periodontitis. However, the ability to successfully perform pulp revascularization in a middle-aged patient remains unclear. A 39-year-old woman was referred for treatment of teeth #20 and #29 with necrotic pulp, extensive periapical radiolucencies, and incomplete apices. Pulp revascularization procedures were attempted, including root canal debridement, triple antibiotic paste medication, and platelet-rich plasma transplantation to act as a scaffold. Periapical radiographic and cone-beam computed tomographic examinations were used to review the changes in the apical lesions and root apex configuration. The patient remained asymptomatic throughout the 30-month follow-up. Periapical radiographic examination revealed no change in the apical lesions of either tooth at 8 months. The periapical radiolucency disappeared on tooth #20 and significantly decreased on tooth #29 by the 30-month follow-up, findings that were also confirmed by cone-beam computed tomographic imaging. No evidence of root lengthening or thickening was observed. Successful revascularization was achieved in a middle-aged patient's teeth. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acupuncture therapy improves vascular hemodynamics and stiffness in middle-age hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenteva, Nina; Chernykh, Oksana; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Wong, Alexei

    2018-02-01

    Acupuncture (ACU) is becoming a more common practice among hypertensive individuals. However, the reported therapeutic effects of ACU in lowering brachial blood pressure (BP) are ambiguous. Therefore, evaluating more sensitive markers of arterial functioning might unveil the protective effects of ACU on hypertension. We examined the effects of an 8-week ACU therapy intervention on vascular hemodynamics and stiffness in middle-age hypertensive individuals. Participants were randomly assigned to either ACU (n = 23) or a control group (n = 22). Brachial and aortic BP, wave reflection (AIx) and arterial stiffness (SI) were measured before and after 8 weeks. There was a significant group x time interaction (P < 0.05) for brachial and aortic BP, AIx and SI which significantly decreased (P < 0.05) following ACU but not after control. ACU led to reductions in brachial and aortic BP, wave reflection and arterial stiffness in middle-age hypertensive individuals. ACU might be effective in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cognitive Functioning after Surgery in Middle-aged and Elderly Danish Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokkedal, Unni; Hansen, Tom G; Rasmussen, Lars S

    2016-01-01

    ,503 middle-aged and elderly twins. METHODS: Results from five cognitive tests were compared in twins exposed to surgery, classified as major, minor, hip and knee replacement, or other, with those of a reference group without surgery using linear regression adjusted for sex and age. Genetic and shared......BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is common, but it remains unclear whether there are long-term adverse cognitive effects of surgery combined with anesthesia. The authors examined the association between exposure to surgery and level of cognitive functioning in a sample of 8...... environmental confounding was addressed in intrapair analyses of 87 monozygotic and 124 dizygotic same-sexed twin pairs in whom one had a history of major surgery and the other did not. RESULTS: Statistically significantly lower composite cognitive score was found in twins with at least one major surgery...

  15. Physiological responding to stress in middle-aged males enriched for longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Steffy W M; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity...... might be a more adaptive response to stress. To investigate this, male middle-aged offspring from long-lived families (n = 31) and male non-offspring (with no familial history of longevity) (n = 26) were randomly allocated to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition in an experimental design......-offspring and showed a trend towards lower heart rate. Offspring from long-lived families might thus be less stressed prior to potentially stressful events and consequently show overall lower levels in physiological responses. Although attenuated physiological responding cannot be ruled out, lower starting points...

  16. Changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guohong; Xu Ruiji; Zhang Zhongshu

    2011-01-01

    To determine changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men.the healthy men (n=126) were divided 20-29 yr, 30-39 yr and 40-49 yr three groups,their serum levels of total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were detected. The results were statically analyzed. The results showed that the levels of serum T and FT was found significantly decreased in 30-39 yr group than in 20-29 yr group (15.06±13 nmol/L vs 20.41±86 nmol/L, P<0.01; 9.36±95 pg/L vs 11.48±88 pg/L, P<0.05; respectively). There were young trends that age-related decline in androgen levels. (authors)

  17. Uncommon Asymptomatic Unilateral Complete Duplicated Collecting System and Giant Ectopic Ureterocele in Middle-Age Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Serin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ureterocele is a common pediatric urologic problem, but has been reported seldom in adults. Most duplex system ureteroceles existent as urinary tract infections at an early age, with adult presentation being uncommon. Urinary stasis in the dilated distal ureter often lends to urinary infection and stone formation; precluding the most common offering symptoms of dysuria, urgency, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Ižn duplex system ureteroceles to poorly or non-functioning moieties, heminephroureterectomy is an definite solution. We present a case of rarely middle-age asymptomatic obstructive giant ureterocele. We intended to emphasize that patient with obstructive, giant, ectopic ureterocele and duplicated collecting system may have asymptomatic course.

  18. Age-period-cohort modelling of breast cancer incidence in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, K; Vaeth, M; Holst, H

    2001-01-01

    into account. Assuming the age dependency of the incidence pattern in old age to be common for the Nordic countries, an internal comparison could be made among the four countries of the cohort effects and the period effects. The study indicated that the period effects have been of importance for the increase...... in breast cancer incidence seen in the Nordic countries. The widespread practice of neglecting the period effects in age-period-cohort analysis of time trends in breast cancer incidence therefore probably needs reconsideration. A key finding was that Danish women born in the 20th century seem to have been...... exposed to an increasing load of cohort borne breast cancer risk factors not experienced to the same extent by Norwegian women, whereas they were seemingly subjected to the same period effects....

  19. Optimal Vitamin D Status in a Middle-Aged and Elderly Population Residing in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleteng, Qiqige; Zhao, Lin; Lin, Huandong; Xia, Mingfeng; Ma, Hui; Gao, Jian; Pan, Baishen; Gao, Xin

    2017-12-19

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal vitamin D status in the middle-aged and elderly population residing in Shanghai, China. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 1,829 males and postmenopausal females older than 45 years of age in the Changfeng community of Shanghai were included in this study. The optimal vitamin D level was determined according to the suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the highest bone mineral density (BMD). Locally weighted scatter plot smoothing (LOWESS) was performed to study the correlations of 25(OH)D with PTH and BMD in the lumbar spine and total hip, adjusting for gender, age, weight, use of calcium and vitamin D supplements, eGFR, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. RESULTS The mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 48.0±19.2 nmol/L for the whole study population. The circulating PTH was maximally suppressed by the serum 25(OH)D of 55 nmol/L in the total population (60 nmol/L for males and 50 nmol/L for females). The 25(OH)D concentrations corresponding to the highest BMD at lumbar spine (L1-L4) and total hip were 53 nmol/L and 75 nmol/L, respectively, for the whole population. These values were also higher in males than females. CONCLUSIONS The optimal 25(OH)D concentration of 55 nmol/L is sufficient to maintain the bone health and metabolic status in middle-aged and elderly individuals living in Shanghai. Males probably need higher vitamin D concentration than females. There are differences between vitamin D status based on lumbar spine BMD and total hip BMD.

  20. Relationship between dental caries and metabolic syndrome among 13 998 middle-aged urban Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xia; Wang, Dongliang; Zhou, Jiansong; Yuan, Hong; Chen, Zhiheng

    2017-04-01

    The association between dental caries and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between dental caries and MetS and its components in a middle-aged Chinese population. A cross-sectional analysis was performed of 13 998 participants aged 45-65 years undergoing a health check during 2013-14. An index variable of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) was calculated. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for sex, age, education level, dietary habits, alcohol use, smoking, physical activity, and periodontitis. Of the 13 998 participants, 6164 had dental caries and 7834 did not; 3571 had MetS, whereas 10 427 did not. Participants with severe caries showed a higher prevalence of MetS, abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia than those with mild or no caries (all P dental caries and those with two or more DMFT were 1.12 (95 % CI 1.14-1.74) and 1.09 (95 % CI, 0.89-1.21), respectively (P trend  caries were associated with MetS among subjects with hyperglycemia (OR 1.14 [95%CI, 0.98-1.34]; P caries and abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and elevated blood pressure (adjusted ORs [95 % CIs] 0.98 [0.82-1.16], 1.01 [0.85-1.19], 0.84 [0.70-1.00], and 0.96 [0.86-1.13], respectively; all P > 0.05). Dental caries were associated with MetS among middle-aged Chinese in the present study. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Daily Marital Interaction Quality and Carotid Artery Intima Medial Thickness in Healthy Middle Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nataria T.; Kamarck, Thomas W.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between marital interaction quality during daily life and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies have shown that marital status and quality of marriage are associated with cardiovascular health. However, little is known about the role of marital interaction quality during daily life in contributing to these effects. Methods The sample consisted of 281 healthy, employed middle-aged adults who were married or living with a partner in a marital-like relationship (mean age = 42.0 years, 88% white, 52% men). Marital interaction quality was assessed using hourly real-time Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMAs) for 4 days, with participants rating their current or recent partner interactions on positive and negative characteristics (e.g., agreeableness and conflict). Carotid artery intima medial thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Results Adjusting for demographics, positive marital interaction was inversely associated with IMT, [b = −.02 F(1, 275) = 9.18, p = .002], and negative marital interaction was positively associated with IMT, [b = .02 F(1, 275) = 10.29, p = .001]. These associations were not accounted for by behavioral and biological cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and were consistent across age, sex, race, and education. The associations were also independent of marital interaction frequency, nonmarital social interaction quality, and personality factors. Global reports of marital quality, in contrast, were not associated with IMT. Conclusions Marital quality as measured during real-time interactions between partners was associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease in healthy middle-aged adults. This study supports the utility of real-time social interaction assessment for characterizing links between social relationships and cardiovascular health. PMID:24915293

  2. Evaluation of physical activity measures used in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettee Gabriel, Kelley; McClain, James J; Lee, Chong D; Swan, Pamela D; Alvar, Brent A; Mitros, Melanie R; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of five commonly used physical activity questionnaires (PAQ) in women aged 45-65 yr with varying physical activity (PA) levels. Data were obtained from the Evaluation of Physical Activity Measures in Middle-aged Women (PAW) Study and included 66 women (aged 52.6 +/- 5.4 yr). PAQ evaluated include Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (past week and past month version), Nurses' Health Study PAQ, Active Australia Survey, and Women's Health Initiative PAQ. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between administrations of the PAQ were used to assess test-retest reliability. Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients were used to examine the associations of PA and physical fitness data with PAQ summary estimates. Accelerometer-determined median (25th, 75th percentiles) times (min.d) spent in moderate-lifestyle [760-1951 counts (ct)], moderate-walk (1952-5724 ct), vigorous (> or =5725 ct), and combined moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA > or = 1952 ct) during the 35 d of observation were 66.0 (51.2, 81.3), 23.1 (14.1, 34.6), 0.4 (0.0, 2.3), and 24.3 (15.9, 41.6) min, respectively. The PAQ were shown to be reproducible and relatively stable over time (ICC = 0.32 to 0.91) and were associated with total counts per day (ct.d, 0.46 to 0.60, all P PAQ evaluated in this study were shown to be reliable and associated with PA and physical fitness measures. Current findings support the utility of these PAQ for PA assessment in research studies of middle-aged women.

  3. Binge drinking and insomnia in middle-aged and older adults: the Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Sarah L; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Mauro, Pia M; Mojtabai, Ramin; Spira, Adam P

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol use in later life has been linked to poor sleep. However, the association between binge drinking, which is common among middle-aged and older adults, and insomnia has not been previously assessed. We studied participants aged 50 years and older (n = 6027) from the 2004 Health and Retirement Study who reported the number of days they had ≥4 drinks on one occasion in the prior 3 months. Participants also reported the frequency of four insomnia symptoms. Logistic regression analyses assessed the association between binge drinking frequency and insomnia. Overall, 32.5% of participants had >0 to ≤2 binge drinking days/week; and 3.6% had >2 binge drinking days/week. After adjusting for demographic variables, medical conditions, body mass index, and elevated depressive symptoms, participants who binged >2 days/week had a 64% greater odds of insomnia than non-binge drinkers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-2.47, p = 0.017). Participants reporting >0 to ≤2 binge days/week also had a 35% greater odds of insomnia than non-binge drinkers (aOR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.15-1.59, p = 0.001). When smoking was added to the regression model, these associations fell just below the level of significance. Results suggest that binge drinking is associated with a greater risk of insomnia among adults aged 50 years and older, although this relationship may be driven in part by current smoking behavior. The relatively high prevalence of both binge drinking and sleep complaints among middle-aged and older populations warrants further investigation into binge drinking as a potential cause of late-life insomnia. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Sedentary lifestyle and emergence of hopelessness in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Maarit; Laaksonen, David E; Laukkanen, Jari; Tolmunen, Tommi; Rauramaa, Rainer; Viinamäki, Heimo; Mursu, Jaakko; Savonen, Kai; Lakka, Timo A; Niskanen, Leo; Kauhanen, Jussi

    2010-10-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and psychosocial factors such as hopelessness and depression increase cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional evidence suggests positive effects of physical exercise on psychological well being, but the time order of the relationship between physical activity and hopelessness has not been addressed. Population-based prospective cohort study with 630 middle-aged men participating in the 4-year follow-up and 509 men in the 11-year follow-up. We investigated the association of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with the development of hopelessness during the follow-up. LTPA and hopelessness were quantified with questionnaires. In cross-sectional analyses, LTPA was inversely associated with hopelessness, independently of depression. Among men who did not have feelings of hopelessness at baseline, those who reported engaging in at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity had a lower risk (odds ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval: 0.39-1.09, P for the trend=0.047) to feel hopeless than sedentary men 4 years later after adjustment for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic status. Furthermore, this relationship was not explained by body mass index or maximal oxygen uptake. Adjustment for depressive symptoms slightly weakened the association (odds ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.39-1.11, P for the trend=0.060). After 11 years, men who reported being physically active at baseline were still less likely to feel hopeless, after adjusting for age. However, after further adjustment for other confounding factors the association was no longer significant. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity seems to prevent development of hopelessness in middle-aged men. This protective effect may diminish over time.

  5. Chronic administration of ellagic acid improved the cognition in middle-aged overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Yu, Shuyi; Wang, Fen; Yu, Haitao; Li, Xueli; Dong, Wanru; Lin, Ruichao; Liu, Qingshan

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate if ellagic acid has beneficial effects on cognitive deficits in middle-aged overweight individuals and to propose a possible mechanism. A total of 150 middle-aged male participants, including 76 normal-weight and 74 overweight men, aged between 45 to 55 years, were recruited for this study. Both normal-weight and overweight participants were administered either 50 mg ellagic acid or placebo cellulose daily for 12 weeks. Blood lipids, peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and saliva cortisol were assessed on the last day of the procedure to investigate the effects induced by ellagic acid. The results revealed that ellagic acid treatment improved the levels of blood lipid metabolism with a 4.7% decline in total cholesterol, 7.3% decline in triglycerides, 26.5% increase in high-density lipoprotein, and 6.5% decline in low-density lipoprotein. Additionally, ellagic acid increased plasma BDNF by 21.2% in the overweight group and showed no effects on normal-weight participants. Moreover, the increased saliva cortisol level in overweight individuals was inhibited by 22.7% in a 12-week ellagic acid treatment. Also, compared with placebo, overweight individuals who consumed ellagic acid showed enhanced cognitive function as measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that ellagic acid prevents cognitive deficits through normalization of lipid metabolism, increase in plasma BDNF level, and reduction of saliva cortisol concentration. These results indicate that ellagic acid has a potential to restore cognitive performance related to mild age-related declines.

  6. Complex exercise rehabilitation program for women of the II period of age with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Ok; Olga, Kozyreva

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a complex exercise program integrating Eastern and Western complex exercise rehabilitation programs in order to examine the effects of it on the human body with the subjects for women of the II period of mature age with metabolic syndrome. The subjects of this study are 60 II period of mature aged women with metabolic syndrome living in G City, and the experimental group conducted Taekwon-aerobic exercise, European rehabilitation gymnastics, gym ball e...

  7. Convergence in Sleep Time Accomplished? Gender Gap in Sleep Time for Middle-Aged Adults in Korea.

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    Cha, Seung-Eun; Eun, Ki-Soo

    2018-04-19

    Although the gender gap in sleep time has narrowed significantly in the last decade, middle-aged women between ages 35 and 60 still sleep less than their male counterparts in Korea. This study examines and provides evidence for factors contributing to the gender gap in this age group. Using Korean Time Use Survey (KTUS) data from 2004, 2009 and 2014, we find that middle-aged women’s difficulty in managing work-life balance and traditional role expectations placed upon women are the main causes of the gender gap in sleep time. The decomposition analysis reveals that the improved socioeconomic status and recent changes in familial expectations for women may have helped them sleep more than in the past. However, there remain fundamental differences in attitude and time use patterns between men and women that prevent middle-aged women from getting the same amount of sleep.

  8. Analysis on High Temperature Aging Property of Self-brazing Aluminum Honeycomb Core at Middle Temperature

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    ZHAO Huan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tension-shear test was carried out on middle temperature self-brazing aluminum honeycomb cores after high temperature aging by micro mechanical test system, and the microstructure and component of the joints were observed and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy to study the relationship between brazing seam microstructure, component and high temperature aging properties. Results show that the tensile-shear strength of aluminum honeycomb core joints brazed by 1060 aluminum foil and aluminum composite brazing plate after high temperature aging(200℃/12h, 200℃/24h, 200℃/36h is similar to that of as-welded joints, and the weak part of the joint is the base metal which is near the brazing joint. The observation and analysis of the aluminum honeycomb core microstructure and component show that the component of Zn, Sn at brazing seam is not much affected and no compound phase formed after high temperature aging; therefore, the main reason for good high temperature aging performance of self-brazing aluminum honeycomb core is that no obvious change of brazing seam microstructure and component occurs.

  9. Mixed models, linear dependency, and identification in age-period-cohort models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Robert M

    2017-07-20

    This paper examines the identification problem in age-period-cohort models that use either linear or categorically coded ages, periods, and cohorts or combinations of these parameterizations. These models are not identified using the traditional fixed effect regression model approach because of a linear dependency between the ages, periods, and cohorts. However, these models can be identified if the researcher introduces a single just identifying constraint on the model coefficients. The problem with such constraints is that the results can differ substantially depending on the constraint chosen. Somewhat surprisingly, age-period-cohort models that specify one or more of ages and/or periods and/or cohorts as random effects are identified. This is the case without introducing an additional constraint. I label this identification as statistical model identification and show how statistical model identification comes about in mixed models and why which effects are treated as fixed and which are treated as random can substantially change the estimates of the age, period, and cohort effects. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Early vascular aging in young and middle-aged ischemic stroke patients: the Norwegian Stroke in the Young Study.

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    Sahrai Saeed

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke survivors have high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality even at young age, suggesting that early arterial aging is common among such patients.We measured aortic stiffness by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV in 205 patients (69% men aged 15-60 years with acute ischemic stroke in the prospective Norwegian Stroke in the Young Study. High for age carotid-femoral PWV was identified in the reference normogram.Patients were on average 49 ± 10 years old, 34% had a history of hypertension and 37% had metabolic syndrome (MetS. In the total study population, higher PWV was associated with history of hypertension (β = 0.18, higher age (β = 0.34, systolic blood pressure (BP (β = 0.28 and serum creatinine (β = 0.18 and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol (β = -0.10, all p < 0.01 in multivariate linear regression analysis (multiple R2 = 0.42, p < 0.001. High for age PWV was found in 18% of patients. In univariate analyses, known hypertension was associated with a 6-fold, MetS with a 4-fold and presence of carotid plaque with a 3.7-fold higher risk for high for age PWV (all p < 0.01. In multiple logistic regression analysis higher systolic BP (odds ratio [OR] 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.06; p < 0.01, history of hypertension (OR 3.59; 95% CI 1.52-8.51; p < 0.01, low HDL cholesterol (OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.00-9.09; p = 0.05 and higher serum creatinine (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.06; p < 0.01 were associated with high for age PWV.Higher PWV is common in younger and middle-aged ischemic stroke patients and associated with a clustering of classical cardiovascular risk factors. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01597453.

  11. Life in the fast lane: Settled pastoralism in the Central Eurasian Steppe during the Middle Bronze Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Margaret A; Walker, Jessica L; Ventresca Miller, Alicia; Razhev, Dmitry; Epimakhov, Andrey V; Hanks, Bryan K

    2018-04-19

    We tested the hypothesis that the purported unstable climate in the South Urals region during the Middle Bronze Age (MBA) resulted in health instability and social stress as evidenced by skeletal response. The skeletal sample (n = 99) derived from Kamennyi Ambar 5 (KA-5), a MBA kurgan cemetery (2040-1730 cal. BCE, 2 sigma) associated with the Sintashta culture. Skeletal stress indicators assessed included cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, dental enamel hypoplasia, and tibia periosteal new bone growth. Dental disease (caries, abscess, calculus, and periodontitis) and trauma were scored. Results were compared to regional data from the nearby Samara Valley, spanning the Early to Late Bronze Age (EBA, LBA). Lesions were minimal for the KA-5 and MBA-LBA groups except for periodontitis and dental calculus. No unambiguous weapon injuries or injuries associated with violence were observed for the KA-5 group; few injuries occurred at other sites. Subadults (age. Skeletal stress markers and injuries were uncommon among the KA-5 and regional groups, but a MBA-LBA high subadult mortality indicates elevated frailty levels and inability to survive acute illnesses. Following an optimal weaning program, subadults were at risk for physiological insult and many succumbed. Only a small number of individuals attained biological maturity during the MBA, suggesting that a fast life history was an adaptive regional response to a less hospitable and perhaps unstable environment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Life style and longevity among initially healthy middle-aged men: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heir, Trond; Erikssen, Jan; Sandvik, Leiv

    2013-09-11

    Few studies have examined how various lifestyle factors in midlife predict longevity, and none of these studies have examined the impact of physical fitness. The present study aimed to examine longevity in relation to smoking, overweight and physical fitness. We prospectively studied longevity (defined as reaching at least 85 years of age) in relation to smoking status, body mass index and physical fitness in 821 healthy men between 51 and 59 years of age. Of these, 369 were smokers, 320 were overweight, and 31 were obese. The associations were adjusted for age, systolic blood pressure and cholesterol level, using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Deaths were registered until the 31st of December, 2006. Physical fitness was measured as the total work performed in a maximal exercise tolerance bicycle test. 252 men survived to the age of 85 years (30.7%). Smoking status was significantly and independently related to longevity; 37.2% of the non-smokers survived to the age of 85, and 22.8% of the smokers. Among non-smokers, overweight and physical fitness were significantly and independently related to longevity after adjustment for age, blood pressure and cholesterol level, but not among smokers. Among non-smokers with high physical fitness, 48.8% reached the age of 85 years, compared to 27.9% among non-smokers with low physical fitness. Lifestyle variables appear to be strong and independent predictors of longevity in initially healthy middle-aged men. The probability of longevity may be a useful concept when informing the general public about the benefits of a healthy lifestyle.

  13. Hormonal determinants of the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabijewski, Michał; Papierska, Lucyna; Kuczerowski, Roman; Piątkiewicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Andropausal and depressive symptoms are common in aging males and may be associated with hormone deficiency. We investigated the severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms, as well as their hormonal determinants, in 196 middle-aged and elderly men (age range: 40-80 years) with prediabetes (PD) and in 184 healthy peers. PD was diagnosed according to the definition of the American Diabetes Association. The severity of andropausal and depressive symptoms was assessed using the Aging Males' Symptoms Rating Scale and the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. The prevalence of andropausal syndrome in men with PD was significantly higher than that in healthy men (35% vs 11%, respectively). In men with PD aged 40-59 years, the severity of sexual, psychological, and all andropausal symptoms was greater than in healthy peers, while in elderly men (60-80 years), only the severity of psychological symptoms was greater than in healthy peers. The severity of depressive symptoms in the middle-aged men with PD was greater than in healthy peers, while the severity of depressive symptoms in elderly men with PD and healthy peers was similar. The higher prevalence of andropausal symptoms was independently associated with cFT and IGF-1 in middle-aged men and with TT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. The more severe depression symptoms were associated with low TT and DHEAS in middle-aged men and with low cFT and DHEAS in elderly men with PD. In conclusion, the prevalence of andropausal symptoms, especially psychological, was higher in prediabetic patients as compared to healthy men, while the severity of depressive symptoms was higher only in middle-aged men with PD. Hormonal determinants of andropausal and depressive symptoms are different in middle-aged and elderly patients, but endocrine tests are necessary in all men with PD.

  14. Interactions of hearing loss and diabetes mellitus in the middle age CBA/CaJ mouse model of presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Olga N; Frisina, Susan T; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P; Frisina, Robert D

    2009-03-01

    Recently, we characterized the more severe nature of hearing loss in aged Type 2 diabetic human subjects [Frisina, S.T., Mapes, F., Kim, S., Frisina, D.R., Frisina, R.D., 2006. Characterization of hearing loss in aged type II diabetics. Hear. Res. 211, 103-113]. The current study prospectively assessed hearing abilities in middle age CBA/CaJ mice with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) (STZ injection) or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (high fat diet), for a period of 6 months. Blood glucose, body weight and auditory tests (Auditory Brainstem Response-ABR, Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions-DPOAE) were evaluated at baseline and every 2 months. Tone and broad-band noise-burst responses in the inferior colliculus were obtained at 6 months. Body weights of controls did not change over 6 months (approximately 32 g), but there was a significant (approximately 5 g) decline in the T1DM, while T2DM exhibited approximately 10 g weight gain. Blood glucose levels significantly increased: 3-fold for T1DM, 1.3-fold for T2DM; with no significant changes in controls. ABR threshold elevations were found for both types of diabetes, but were most pronounced in the T2DM, starting as early as 2 months after induction of diabetes. A decline of mean DPOAE amplitudes was observed in both diabetic groups at high frequencies, and for the T2DM at low frequencies. In contrast to ABR thresholds, tone and noise thresholds in the inferior colliculus were lower for both diabetic groups. Induction of diabetes in middle-aged CBA/CaJ mice promotes amplification of age-related peripheral hearing loss which makes it a suitable model for studying the interaction of age-related hearing loss and diabetes. On the other hand, initial results of effects from very high blood glucose level (T1DM) on the auditory midbrain showed disruption of central inhibition, increased response synchrony or enhanced excitation in the inferior colliculus.

  15. " I take the good with the bad, and I moisturize": defying middle age in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Yewoubdar; Gilliss, Catherine; Lee, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    To examine how women in their 40s understand "middle age" in the context of sociocultural ideas about the life course. In-depth interviews were conducted with a subset of 53 volunteers (19 European American, 17 African American, and 17 Latina) from a community-based longitudinal study of premenopausal women between 40 and 48 years of age living in the San Francisco Bay area. Qualitative analysis of the interview showed that women in their 40s are less concerned about menopause and more concerned about their health, well-being, and appearance. This trend was seen across ethnic groups. Menopause was not a prominent feature in the narratives that these women told about middle age. Whereas menopause was understood as a natural event that was out of women's control, health and appearance were deemed as something that women can and should control. By taking care of themselves, the women felt that they were able to act and look younger, thereby challenging what middle age means. These women articulated a perspective about middle age as less about a chronological number and more about individual responsibility and control of one's well-being. Scholarly attention has continued to focus on menopause itself as a phenomenon and thereby fails to engage in how the meaning of middle age may be in a process of reconceptualization.

  16. Predictive Risk Factors for Impaired Quality of Life in Middle-Aged Women with Urinary Incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn-Jung Son

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Urinary incontinence (UI has substantial and important impacts on quality of life (QoL. The purpose of this study was to identify the associated risk factors of QoL in middle-aged women with UI. Methods The participants were 127 women aged 40-64 years who experienced UI. Data were collected from October to November, 2008 using a self-reported questionnaires. The data were analyzed through t-test, one-way ANOVA, Scheffe test, and multiple linear regression with SPSS ver. 16.0 program. Results The distribution of UI severity was mild 18.1%, moderate 40.2% and severe 41.7%. In univariate analysis, differences in the score for QoL according to participants' characteristics were statistically significant on the type of delivery, number of births and severity of UI. In multiple linear regression analysis after adjustment of other variables, the most powerful predictor of QoL is severity of UI. Number of births was also significant predictor. These two variables explained 25% of variance in QoL of women with UI. Conclusions UI is highly prevalent and causes suffering and impaired QoL among middle-aged women, but it stands beyond our attention. The results of this study suggest that women with moderate to severe UI should be screened for QoL by health care providers regularly. Further research is needed to determine comprehensive factors including psychosocial factors predicting the QoL for incontinent women.

  17. EFFECT OF METOPROLOL ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS OF YOUNG TO MIDDLE AGE

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    S. A. Smakotina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effect of metoprolol tartrate on blood pressure (BP and cognitive function in young to middle aged patients with essential hypertension (HT.Material and methods. 40 men (age of 49,0±1,9 y.o. with HT of I-II stage not taking antihypertensive medication regularly were enrolled into the study. All patients were given metoprolol tartrate (start dose 50-100 mg/d. Variables of 24-h BP monitoring and clinic BP, left ventricular mass index (measured by echocardiography and characteristics of cognitive function (memory, attention, thinking and neurodynamic were assessed at the start, after 1 and 6 months of therapy.Results. Good and satisfactory antihypertensive effect was achieved in 75% of hypertensive patients with metoprolol (186,6±13,4mg/d monotherapy. Metoprolol significantly decreased maximum day-time systolic and diastolic BP, maximum night-time diastolic BP, mean day-time systolic and night-time diastolic BP, time-index, load-index and variability-index for night-time diastolic BP, day-time and night-time pulse BP. Left ventricular mass index reduced significantly (p<0,0001. After 6 months of therapy significant improvement of memory, attention, thinking and neurodynamic was observedConclusion. Metoprolol had beneficial effect on cognitive function in hypertensive patients, which demonstrate its cerebroprotective properties in addition to antihypertensive action. Metoprolol can reduce the risk of dementia in young to middle aged patients with HT.

  18. Lifestyle, glucose regulation and the cognitive effects of glucose load in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Leigh M; McLaughlin, Jennifer; Riby, Deborah M; Graham, Cheryl

    2008-11-01

    Interventions aimed at improving glucose regulatory mechanisms have been suggested as a possible source of cognitive enhancement in the elderly. In particular, previous research has identified episodic memory as a target for facilitation after either moderate increases in glycaemia (after a glucose drink) or after improvements in glucose regulation. The present study aimed to extend this research by examining the joint effects of glucose ingestion and glucose regulation on cognition. In addition, risk factors associated with the development of poor glucose regulation in middle-aged adults were considered. In a repeated measures design, thirty-three middle-aged adults (aged 35-55 years) performed a battery of memory and non-memory tasks after either 25 g or 50 g glucose or a sweetness matched placebo drink. To assess the impact of individual differences in glucose regulation, blood glucose measurements were taken on four occasions during testing. A lifestyle and diet questionnaire was also administered. Consistent with previous research, episodic memory ability benefited from glucose ingestion when task demands were high. Blood glucose concentration was also found to predict performance across a number of cognitive domains. Interestingly, the risk factors associated with poor glucose regulation were linked to dietary impacts traditionally associated with poor health, e.g. the consumption of high-sugar sweets and drinks. The research replicates earlier work suggesting that task demands are critical to the glucose facilitation effect. Importantly, the data demonstrate clear associations between elevated glycaemia and relatively poor cognitive performance, which may be partly due to the effect of dietary and lifestyle factors.

  19. Haematinic deficiency and macrocytosis in middle-aged and older adults.

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    Therese McNamee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and determinants of haematinic deficiency (lack of B12 folate or iron and macrocytosis in blood from a national population-based study of middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 1,207 adults aged ≥45 years, recruited from a sub-study of the Irish National Survey of Lifestyle Attitudes and Nutrition (SLÁN 2007. Participants completed a health and lifestyle questionnaire and a standard food frequency questionnaire. Non-fasting blood samples were obtained for measurement of full blood count and expert morphological assessment, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor assay (sTfR, B12, folate and coeliac antibodies. Blood samples were also assayed for thyroid function (T4, TSH, liver function, aminotransferase (AST and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT. RESULTS: The overall prevalence (95% C.I. of anaemia (Hb 21 nmol/ml only 2.3% were iron-deficient. 3.0% and 2.7% were found to have low levels of serum folate (99fl was detected in 8.4% of subjects. Strong, significant and independent associations with macrocytosis were observed for lower social status, current smoking status, moderate to heavy alcohol intake, elevated GGT levels, deficiency of folate and vitamin B12, hypothyroidism and coeliac disease. The population attributable fraction (PAF for macrocytosis associated with elevated GGT (25.0% and smoking (24.6% was higher than for excess alcohol intake (6.3%, folate deficiency (10.5% or vitamin B12 (3.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Haematinic deficiency and macrocytosis are common in middle-aged/older adults in Ireland. Macrocytosis is more likely to be attributable to an elevated GGT and smoking than vitamin B12 or folate deficiency.

  20. Gray Matter Hypertrophy and Thickening with Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Middle-aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Andrée-Ann; Gagnon, Katia; Brayet, Pauline; Montplaisir, Jacques; De Beaumont, Louis; Carrier, Julie; Lafond, Chantal; L'Heureux, Francis; Gagnon, Jean-François; Gosselin, Nadia

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxemia, hemodynamic fluctuations, and sleep fragmentation, all of which could damage cerebral gray matter that can be indirectly assessed by neuroimaging. To investigate whether markers of obstructive sleep apnea severity are associated with gray matter changes among middle-aged and older individuals. Seventy-one subjects (ages, 55-76 yr; apnea-hypopnea index, 0.2-96.6 events/h) were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. Two techniques were used: (1) voxel-based morphometry, which measures gray matter volume and concentration; and (2) FreeSurfer (an open source software suite) automated segmentation, which estimates the volume of predefined cortical/subcortical regions and cortical thickness. Regression analyses were performed between gray matter characteristics and markers of obstructive sleep apnea severity (hypoxemia, respiratory disturbances, and sleep fragmentation). Subjects had few symptoms, that is, sleepiness, depression, anxiety, and cognitive deficits. Although no association was found with voxel-based morphometry, FreeSurfer revealed increased gray matter with obstructive sleep apnea. Higher levels of hypoxemia correlated with increased volume and thickness of the left lateral prefrontal cortex as well as increased thickness of the right frontal pole, the right lateral parietal lobules, and the left posterior cingulate cortex. Respiratory disturbances positively correlated with right amygdala volume, and more severe sleep fragmentation was associated with increased thickness of the right inferior frontal gyrus. Gray matter hypertrophy and thickening were associated with hypoxemia, respiratory disturbances, and sleep fragmentation. These structural changes in a group of middle-aged and older individuals may represent adaptive/reactive brain mechanisms attributed to a presymptomatic stage of obstructive sleep apnea.

  1. Preparticipation evaluation of novice, middle-age, long-distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Philip; Sahlén, Anders; Bergfeldt, Lennart; Braunschweig, Frieder

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cardiovascular health and risk profile in middle-age men making an entry to participate for their first time in a long-distance race. Male first-time participants, 45 yr and older, in the world's largest cross-country running race, the Lidingöloppet, were evaluated with a medical history and physical examination, European systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE), 12-lead ECG, echocardiography, and blood tests. Further diagnostic workup was performed when clinically indicated. Of 265 eligible runners, 153 (58%, age 51 ± 5 yr) completed the study. Although the 10-yr fatal cardiovascular event risk was low (SCORE, 1%; interquartile range, 0%-1%), mild abnormalities were common, for example, elevated blood pressure (19%), left ventricular hypertrophy (6%), and elevated LDL cholesterol (5%). ECG changes compatible with the "athlete's heart" were present in 82%, for example, sinus bradycardia (61%) and/or early repolarization (32%). ECG changes considered training unrelated were found in 24%, for example, prolonged QTc-interval (13%), left axis deviation (5.3%), and left atrial enlargement (4%). In 14 runners (9%), additional diagnostic workup was clinically motivated, and 4 runners (2%) were ultimately discouraged from vigorous exercise because of QTc intervals >500 ms (n = 2), symptomatic atrioventricular block (n = 1), and cardiac tumor (n = 1). The physician examination and the ECG identified 12 of the 14 participants requiring further evaluation. Cardiovascular evaluation of middle-age men, including a physician examination and a 12-lead ECG, appears useful to identify individuals requiring further testing before vigorous exercise. The additional yield of routine echocardiography was small.

  2. Training for improved neuro-muscular control of balance in middle aged females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gregory S; Deluigi, Fabio; Belli, Guido; Tentoni, Claudio; Gaetz, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    This study examined improvements in static balance and muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity following a four week progressive training program in 16 middle aged females (mean age = 46.9 ± 8.7 yrs; height 161.1 ± 6.0 cm; weight 65.4 ± 11.2 kg). Participants trained 3 times per week for 4 weeks, for 50 min per session, progressing base of support, stability, vision, resistance and torque in each of six basic exercises. Pre and post training measures of balance included feet together standing, a tandem stance and a one-leg stand (unsupported leg in the saggital plane) performed with the eyes closed, and a Stork Stand (unsupported leg in the frontal plane) with both eyes open and closed. In each position postural deviations were tallied for each individual while muscle recruitment was determined using root mean squared (RMS) EMG activity for the soleus, biceps femoris, erector spinae, rectus abdominis and internal oblique muscles of the dominant foot side. Balance scores were significantly improved post training in both the Balance Error Score System (p training in all muscles in each condition except the soleus in the tandem position, although not all significantly. Reduced biceps femoris activity suggest that improved core stability allowed participants to move from a hip to an ankle postural control strategy through improved coordination of muscles involved in balance and reduced body sway. The core muscles were able to control body position with less activity post training suggesting improved muscle coordination and efficiency. These results suggest that short term progressive floor to BOSU™ balance training can improve standing balance in middle aged women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Employment, work hours and weight gain among middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, N; Hauck, K; Hollingsworth, B

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the influence of employment and work hours on weight gain and weight loss among middle-aged women. Quantile regression techniques were used to estimate the influence of employment and hours worked on percentage weight change over 2 years across the entire distribution of weight change in a cohort of middle-aged women. A range of controls was included in the models to isolate the effect of work status. A total of 9276 women aged 45-50 years at baseline who were present in both the 1996 and 1998 surveys of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health. The women were a representative sample of the Australian population. Being out of the labour force or unemployed was associated with lower weight gain and higher weight loss than being employed. The association was stronger at low to moderate levels of weight gain. Among employed women, working regular (35-40), long (41-48) or very long (49+) hours was associated with increasingly higher levels of weight gain compared with working part-time hours. The association was stronger for women with greater weight gain overall. The association between unemployment and weight change became insignificant when health status was controlled for. Employment was associated with more weight gain and less weight loss. Among the employed, working longer hours was associated with more weight gain, especially at the higher levels of weight gain where the health consequences are more serious. These findings suggest that as women work longer hours they are more likely to make lifestyle choices that are associated with weight gain.

  4. Subjective insomnia is associated with low sleep efficiency and fatigue in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, A; Terauchi, M; Akiyoshi, M; Owa, Y; Kato, K; Kubota, T

    2016-08-01

    Many middle-aged women are affected by sleep disturbance. We investigated how subjective insomnia is associated with objective sleep parameters and other background characteristics. This cross-sectional study used baseline data obtained from 95 women aged 40-59 years who participated in another study assessing the effects of a dietary supplement. Participants wore an actigraph unit for 3 days to collect information concerning physical activities and objective sleep parameters and were then evaluated for body composition, cardiovascular parameters, and menopausal symptoms including insomnia and fatigue, and lifestyle factors. Stratifying Athens Insomnia Scale scores as low (0-5 points, control group) and high (≥ 6 points, subjective insomnia group), we sought to identify the parameters that are independently associated with subjective insomnia. Women with subjective insomnia (n = 30) had lower sleep efficiency than did the controls. They were also older; had more live births, lower height, higher body mass index, lower ankle brachial index, and more severe menopausal symptoms including fatigue; took more naps; smoked more cigarettes; and more of them were full-time workers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that low sleep efficiency (adjusted odds ratio, 1.44 per 1% decrease in sleep efficiency; 95% confidence interval 1.06-2.05) and fatigue assessed with Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) (adjusted odds ratio, 1.57 per 1-point increase in BFI score; 95% confidence interval 1.19-2.13) were independent contributors to subjective insomnia. Low sleep efficiency and feeling of fatigue were found to be independently associated with subjective insomnia in middle-aged women.

  5. Obesity and its relation to depressive symptoms and sedentary lifestyle in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümel, Juan E; Chedraui, Peter; Aedo, Sócrates; Fica, Juan; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Barón, Germán; Bencosme, Ascanio; Benítez, Zully; Bravo, Luz M; Calle, Andrés; Flores, Daniel; Espinoza, María T; Gómez, Gustavo; Hernández-Bueno, José A; Laribezcoa, Fiorella; Martino, Mabel; Lima, Selva; Monterrosa, Alvaro; Mostajo, Desiree; Ojeda, Eliana; Onatra, William; Sánchez, Hugo; Tserotas, Konstatinos; Vallejo, María S; Witis, Silvina; Zúñiga, María C

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity increases during female mid-life and although many factors have been identified, data from Latin America is lacking. To assess factors related to obesity among middle-aged women and determine the association with depressive symptoms, sedentary lifestyle and other factors. A total of 6079 women aged 40-59 years of 11 Latin American countries were asked to fill out the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Menopause Rating Scale, the Athens Insomnia Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and a general questionnaire containing personal socio-demographic data, anthropometric measures and lifestyle information. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2). Obesity was observed in 18.5% and sedentary lifestyle in 63.9%. A 55.5% presented vasomotor symptoms, 12.2% had severe menopausal symptoms and 13.2% used hormone therapy for the menopause. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 46.5% and anxiety 59.7%. Our logistic regression model found that significant factors associated to obesity included: arterial hypertension (OR: 1.87), depressive symptoms (OR: 1.57), sedentary lifestyle (OR: 1.50) diabetes mellitus (OR: 1.34), higher number of individuals living at home (OR: 1.31), sleep problems (OR:1.22), anxiety (OR: 1.21), having a stable partner (OR: 1.20), parity (OR: 1.16) and vasomotor symptoms (OR:1.14). A lower risk for obesity was found among women using hormonal contraceptives (OR: 0.69). Obesity in middle-aged women is the consequence of the interaction of multiple factors. It was associated to hypertension, depressive symptoms, sedentary lifestyle, climacteric symptoms and other factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Achieving the Middle Ground in an Age of Concentrated Extremes: Mixed Middle-Income Neighborhoods and Emerging Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    SAMPSON, ROBERT J.; MARE, ROBERT D.; PERKINS, KRISTIN L.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on stability and change in “mixed middle-income” neighborhoods. We first analyze variation across nearly two decades for all neighborhoods in the United States and in the Chicago area, particularly. We then analyze a new longitudinal study of almost 700 Chicago adolescents over an 18-year span, including the extent to which they are exposed to different neighborhood income dynamics during the transition to young adulthood. The concentration of income extremes is persisten...

  7. Familial longevity is marked by better cognitive performance at middle age: the Leiden Longevity Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjon Stijntjes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decline in cognitive performance is a highly prevalent health condition in elderly. We studied whether offspring of nonagenarian siblings with a familial history of longevity, perform better on cognitive tests compared to their partners as controls. This is relevant since it could provide insights into determinants underlying decline in cognitive performance. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis within the longitudinal cohort of the Leiden Longevity Study consisting of middle-aged offspring of nonagenarian siblings together with their partners (n = 500, mean age (SD 66.3 (6.1 and 65.7 (7.2 years, respectively as controls. Memory function, attention and processing speed were tested using the 15-Picture Learning Test, Stroop test and Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Data were analyzed with regression adjusted for age, gender, years of education and additionally for diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, alcohol use, smoking, inflammatory markers and apolipoprotein E genotype. Robust standard errors were used to account for familial relationships among the offspring. RESULTS: Cognitive performance was worse at higher calendar age (p<0.001, all except Stroop test part 1. The offspring performed better compared to their partners on trial 3 (p = 0.005, the immediate (p = 0.016 and delayed (p = 0.004 recall of the 15-Picture Learning Test as well as on the interference and combined interference score of the Stroop test (p = 0.014 and p = 0.036, respectively in the fully adjusted model. The difference between offspring and partners was estimated to be more than three years according to the observed difference in calendar age. CONCLUSIONS: Offspring of nonagenarian siblings with a familial history of longevity have better cognitive performance compared to the group of their partners of comparable age. This effect is independent of age-related diseases and known possible confounders. Possible explanations might be differences in subclinical

  8. Effects of age, gender, and stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimi, Mitsunobu

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on age-related changes in visual short-term memory using visual stimuli that did not allow verbal encoding. Experiment 1 examined the effects of age and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. Experiment 2 examined the effects of age, gender, and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. The worst memory performance and the largest performance difference between the age groups were observed in the shortest stimulus presentation period conditions. The performance difference between the age groups became smaller as the stimulus presentation period became longer; however, it did not completely disappear. Although gender did not have a significant effect on d' regardless of the presentation period in the young group, a significant gender-based difference was observed for stimulus presentation periods of 500 ms and 1,000 ms in the older group. This study indicates that the decline in visual short-term memory observed in the older group is due to the interaction of several factors.

  9. Support for Marijuana (Cannabis Legalization: Untangling Age, Period, and Cohort Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Campbell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In three large, nationally representative surveys of U.S. 12th graders, college students, and adults ('N' = 9 million conducted 1968–2015, Americans became significantly more supportive of legal marijuana (cannabis starting in the mid-1980’s. Hierarchical models using age-period-cohort analysis on the adult (General Social Survey sample showed that the increased support for legalization is primarily a time period effect rather than generational or age effect; thus, Americans of all ages became more supportive of legal marijuana. Among 12th graders, support for marijuana legalization was closely linked to perceptions of marijuana safety.

  10. A higher score on the Aging Males' Symptoms scale is associated with insulin resistance in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanoue, Nobuya; Tanabe, Makito; Tanaka, Tomoko; Akehi, Yuko; Murakami, Junji; Nomiyama, Takashi; Yanase, Toshihiko

    2017-05-30

    An age-associated androgen decrease and its pathological conditions are defined as late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Among the various symptoms associated with LOH, a visceral fat increase is strongly associated with relatively low levels of testosterone. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scores and metabolic abnormalities. Thus, we aimed to clarify this relationship by investigating the relationship between AMS scores and various markers in blood. During routine health examinations in 241 middle-aged males (52.7±7.5 years of age, mean±SD), 150 males (62.2%) displayed higher AMS values than normal. No statistical association was observed between total AMS scores and any testosterone value. All mental, physical and sexual AMS subscales were significantly positively correlated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR. Only sexual subscale scores were significantly inversely associated with free or bioavailable testosterone level. Males with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR≥2.5) demonstrated significantly higher AMS scores than those with normal insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IRinsulin and HOMA-IR values. Interestingly, univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that HOMA-IR≥2.5 was a significant predictor for detection of moderately severe AMS values (AMS≥37), whereas AMS≥37 was not a predictor of metabolic syndrome by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criterion. In conclusion, almost 60% of healthy male subjects displayed abnormal AMS scores. AMS values were not associated with testosterone values but rather were related to insulin resistance, particularly in subjects with moderately severe AMS values. Insulin resistance-related general unwellness might be reflected by AMS values.

  11. Possible world-wide middle miocene iridium anomaly and its relationship to periodicity of impacts and extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaro, F.; Alvarez, W.; Michel, H. V.; Alvarez, L. W.; Anders, Mark H.; Montanari, A.; Kennett, James P.

    1988-01-01

    In a study of one million years of Middle Miocene sediment deposition in ODP Hole 689B in the Weddell Sea near Antarctica, a single iridium (Ir) anomaly of 44 (+ or - 10) x 10 to the 12th gram Ir per gram rock (ppt) was observed in core 6H, section 3, 50 to 60 cm, after background contributions associated with manganese precipitates and clay are subtracted. The ODP Hole 689B is 10,000 km away from another site, DSDP Hole 588B in the Tasman Sea north of New Zealand, where a single Ir anomaly of 144 + or - 7 ppt over a background of 11 ppt was found in an earlier study of 3 million years of deposition. From chemical measurements the latter deposition was thought to be impact-related. Ir measurements were made, following neutron activation, with the Iridium Coincidence Spectrometer. The age vs depth calibration curves given in the DSDP and ODP preliminary reports indicate the ages of the Iranomalies are identical, 11.7 million years, but the absolute and relative uncertainties in the curves are not known. Based on the newest age data the age estimate is 10 million years. As the Ir was deposited at the two sites at about the same time and they are one quarter of the way around the world from each other it seems likely that the deposition was world-wide. The impact of a large asteroid or comet could produce the wide distribution, and this data is supportive of the impact relationship deduced for Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) 588B from the chemical evidence. If the surface densities of Ir at the two sites are representative of the world-wide average, the diameter of a Cl type asteroid containing the necessary Ir would be 3 + or - 1 km, which is large enough to cause world-wide darkness and hence extinctions although the latter point is disputed.

  12. Serum folate, vitamin B-12 and cognitive function in middle and older age: The HAPIEE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Pia; Gardiner, Julian; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Schöttker, Ben; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Jansen, Eugene; Bobak, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Nutrient status of B vitamins, particularly folate and vitamin B-12, may be related to cognitive ageing but epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive. The aim of this study was to estimate the association of serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations with cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults from three Central and Eastern European populations. Men and women aged 45-69 at baseline participating in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study were recruited in Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six urban centres in the Czech Republic. Tests of immediate and delayed recall, verbal fluency and letter search were administered at baseline and repeated in 2006-2008. Serum concentrations of biomarkers at baseline were measured in a sub-sample of participants. Associations of vitamin quartiles with baseline (n=4166) and follow-up (n=2739) cognitive domain-specific z-scores were estimated using multiple linear regression. After adjusting for confounders, folate was positively associated with letter search and vitamin B-12 with word recall in cross-sectional analyses. In prospective analyses, participants in the highest quartile of folate had higher verbal fluency (pcognitive domains in older Central and Eastern Europeans. These findings do not lend unequivocal support to potential importance of folate and vitamin B-12 status for cognitive function in older age. Long-term longitudinal studies and randomised trials are required before drawing conclusions on the role of these vitamins in cognitive decline. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Cardiorespiratory fitness and vision loss among young and middle-age U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Zebardast, Nazlee; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between vision loss and cardiorespiratory fitness among young and middle-age U.S. adults. The study had a cross-sectional design. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 served as the study setting. Study subjects included 3135 adults ages 20 to 49 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed from cardiorespiratory extrapolation using heart rate response during submaximal treadmill testing, with inadequate cardiorespiratory fitness defined as below the 60th percentile for age and gender. Visual acuity was objectively assessed for each eye. Multivariable regression (linear and logistic) models were computed to examine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and vision. Poorer cardiorespiratory fitness (β = -3.7 mL O2/kg per minute; 95% confidence interval: -5.3 to -2.2) was observed in subjects with visual impairment after adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and comorbid illness. Participants with vision impairment, as compared with those with normal sight, had 4.4-fold higher odds of having inadequate cardiorespiratory fitness (95% confidence interval: 1.04-18.97), whereas participants with uncorrected refractive error were not more likely to demonstrate poorer cardiorespiratory fitness. Adults with visual impairment, but not adults with uncorrected refractive error, demonstrate a significant reduction in cardiorespiratory fitness and are much more likely to have inadequate fitness compared with those with normal vision. Evaluation and implementation of strategies to increase cardiorespiratory fitness among those with vision impairment, in particular, are needed.

  14. Intraindividual Variability in Basic Reaction Time Predicts Middle-Aged and Older Pilots’ Flight Simulator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Method. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40–69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Results. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%–12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. Discussion. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance. PMID:23052365

  15. Intraindividual variability in basic reaction time predicts middle-aged and older pilots' flight simulator performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Heraldez, Daniel; Noda, Art; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Yesavage, Jerome

    2013-07-01

    Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40-69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%-12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance.

  16. The Effects of Intensive Nutrition Education on Late Middle-Aged Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many patients with type 2 diabetes find it difficult to maintain good glycemic control. Undesirable glycemic control occurs greatly due to deficiencies of nutritional knowledge and difficulty in obtaining dietary prescriptions. The late middle-aged and elder individuals are the main populations that are affected by type 2 diabetes. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether intensive nutrition education would make benefits for late middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes. Method: 196 patients between 50 to 65 years old meeting type 2 diabetes criteria and eligible for the program were included in a single-blinded, 30-day centralized management of an education program in China. Participants in the program were randomly divided into a usual nutrition education group or an intensive nutrition education group. The usual nutrition education group was used as a control group and received only basic health advice and principles of diabetic diets at the beginning and the end of the study. Participants in the intensive nutrition education group were arranged to receive intensive nutritional lectures about diabetes for 30 days. The primary outcomes were the changes in weight, body mass index (BMI, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (PG, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, total glycerin (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c. Results: After 30 days of intervention, FPG, PG, and HbA1c in the treatment group decreased significantly than the control group (p < 0.05. HbA1c reduced significantly by 0.6% in the intervention group. No significant differences in the change of blood lipids were observed between groups. However, TG, TC, and HDL-c made improvements compared with the baseline in the experimental group. Both groups had a reduction in weight and BMI within groups, especially in intensive nutrition education group. However

  17. Profound vision loss impairs psychological well-being in young and middle-aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Giancarlo A; Khoshnevis, Matin; Gale, Jesse; Frousiakis, Starleen E; Hwang, Tiffany J; Poincenot, Lissa; Karanjia, Rustum; Baron, David; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of profound vision loss on psychological well-being in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals. In addition, we assessed the significance of the resources that may be used to enhance psychological well-being in cases of profound vision loss, and in particular, examined the utility of low vision aids and the role of the ophthalmologist as a provider of emotional support. A questionnaire was issued to individuals aged 13-65 years with profound vision loss resulting from Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Depression prevalence was evaluated with questions regarding major depressive disorder symptomatology. Participants appraised the effects of vision loss on their interpersonal interactions and career goals by providing an impact rating (IR) on a 21-point psychometric scale from -10 to +10. Social well-being index was defined as the average of interpersonal IR and career IR. Subjects were additionally asked about the use of low vision aids and sources of emotional support. A total of 103 participants (mean age =26.4±11.2 years at LHON diagnosis; mean ± standard deviation) completed the questionnaire. Nearly half (49.5%) met the depression criteria after vision loss. Negative impacts on interpersonal interactions (median IR = -5) and career goals (median IR = -6) were observed; both ratings were worse ( P negative interpersonal IR and career IR. Sixty-eight percent of subjects used electronic vision aids; controlling for age, social well-being index was higher among these individuals than for those who did not use electronic aids ( P =0.03). Over half of the participants (52.4%) asserted that they derived emotional support from their ophthalmologist. Profound vision loss in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults is associated with significant negative psychological and psychosocial effects, which are influenced by

  18. [Clinical psychophysiological markers of maladaptive neuropsychic conditions in polyclinic doctors of old and middle age with professional burnout syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, Iu A

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the actual in modern medicine problem of professional burnout of polyclinic doctors of middle and elderly age. It is shown that the specificity of the polyclinic doctors' activity provokes the formation of professional burnout syndrome, paired with maladaptive neuro-psychic conditions. We studied the prevalence of this syndrome in polyclinic doctors of middle age and older; its specific versions among the middle-aged doctors were defined, where the level of burnout is associated with aggressive tendencies, and the elderly doctors, where professional burnout is associated with the instability of affective response. Pathogenic markers of compensatory redistribution of information saturation of indicators of electroencephalography to the occipital cortex at professional burnout in polyclinic doctors of the elderly age, reflecting the involution processes in prefrontal areas of the cerebral cortex of the brain were identified.

  19. Knee extensor strength and body weight in adolescent men and the risk of knee osteoarthritis by middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Timpka, Simon; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2017-01-01

    be attributed to knee injury and adult occupation. CONCLUSION: Higher knee extensor strength in adolescent men was associated with increased risk of knee OA by middle age, challenging the current tenet of low muscle strength being a risk factor for OA. We confirmed higher weight to be a strong risk factor......OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which knee extensor strength and weight in adolescence are associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) by middle age. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 40 121 men who at age 18 years in 1969/1970 underwent mandatory conscription in Sweden. We retrieved data...

  20. "But Oh! What Tales": Portraying the Middle East in U.S. Homophile Periodicals of the 1950s and 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milo, Marva

    2017-01-01

    This essay examines Middle East representations in U.S. homophile periodicals from 1953 to 1964. The essay uses more than 120 Middle East-related items that were published in ONE, Mattachine Review, and The Ladder to address the periodicals' engagement with the region (particularly ancient history and biblical themes) and discuss the types of sexual "knowledge" that the homophile periodicals created about the region. It then assesses the role of periodicals as a genre in the creation of a transnational homophile community, showing both their potential for democratizing participation in this community and their limits. The essay argues that the periodicals made visible the process of assembling a homosexual identity and the fragmentary nature of the parts it strove to unify. Though the views of key U.S. homophile organizations became hegemonic in the international gay rights movement, the periodicals show a more complex, ambivalent, and contested process.

  1. Persistence of physical activity in middle age: a nonlinear dynamic panel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Narimasa; Ogura, Seiritsu

    2014-09-01

    No prior investigation has considered the effects of state dependence and unobserved heterogeneity on the relationship between regular physical activity (RPA) and latent health stock (LHS). Accounting for state dependence corrects the possible overestimation of the impact of socioeconomic factors. We estimated the degree of the state dependence of RPA and LHS among middle-aged Japanese workers. The 5 years' longitudinal data used in this study were taken from the Longitudinal Survey of Middle and Elderly Persons. Individual heterogeneity was found for both RPA and LHS, and the dynamic random-effects probit model provided the best specification. A smoking habit, low educational attainment, longer work hours, and longer commuting time had negative effects on RPA participation. RPA had positive effects on LHS, taking into consideration the possibility of confounding with other lifestyle variables. The degree of state dependence of LHS was positive and significant. Increasing the intensity of RPA had positive effects on LHS and caused individuals with RPA to exhibit greater persistence of LHS compared to individuals without RPA. This result implies that policy interventions that promote RPA, such as smoking cessation, have lasting consequences. We concluded that smoking cessation is an important health policy to increase both the participation in RPA and LHS.

  2. AN IMAGE-BASED MODELING EXPERIENCE ABOUT SOCIAL FACILITIES, BUILT DURING THE FASCIST PERIOD IN MIDDLE ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rossi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this article is to explain a teaching activity. This experience follows a research aimed to testing innovative systems for formal and digital analysis of architectural building. In particular, the field of investigation is the analytical drawing. An analytical draw allows to develope an interpretative and similar models of reality; these models are built using photomodeling techniques and are designed to re-write modern and contemporary architecture. The typology of the buildings surveyed belong to a cultural period, called Modern Movement, historically placed between the two world wars. The Modern Movement aimed to renew existing architectural principle and to a functional redefinition of the same one. In Italy these principles arrived during the Fascist period. Heritage made up of public social buildings (case del Balilla, G.I.L., recreation center... built during the fascist period in middle Italy is remarkable for quantity and in many cases for architectural quality. This kind of buildings are composed using pure shapes: large cube (gyms alternate with long rectangular block containing offices creates compositions made of big volumes and high towers. These features are perfectly suited to the needs of a surveying process by photomodeling where the role of photography is central and where there is the need to identify certain and easily distinguishable points on all picture, leaning on the edges of the volume or lininig on the texture discontinuity. The goal is the documentation to preserve and to develop buildings and urban complexes of modern architecture, directed to encourage an artistic preservation.

  3. ‘Why have STI rates increased in the middle age population?’ -A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Monsell, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Background- Recent reports have shown that individuals aged 45-64 are at an increased risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection, with rates rising steadily over the last several years. Sexual health research has historically focused on the needs and behaviours of the young, with more recent interest into the needs of the older population. This has led to an interest into the literature available regarding the population in the middle of these two groups; the ‘middle age’ population...

  4. Catalysts for Stone Age innovations: What might have triggered two short-lived bursts of technological and behavioral innovation in southern Africa during the Middle Stone Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Zenobia; Roberts, Richard G

    2009-01-01

    Fossil and genetic evidence suggests the emergence of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) in sub-Saharan Africa some time between 200 and 100 thousand years (ka) ago. But the first traces of symbolic behavior-a trait unique to our species-are not found until many tens of millennia later, and include items such as engraved ochres and eggshells, tools made from bone, and personal ornaments made of shell beads. These behavioral indicators appear in concert with two innovative phases of Middle Stone Age technology, known as the Still Bay (SB) and Howieson's Poort (HP) industries, across a range of climatic and ecological zones in southern Africa. The SB and HP have recently been dated to about 72-71 ka and 65-60 ka, respectively, at sufficiently high resolution to investigate the possible causes and effects. A remarkable feature of these two industries is the spatial synchroneity of their start and end dates at archaeological sites spread across a region of two million square kilometers. What were the catalysts for the SB and HP, and what were the consequences? Both industries flourished at a time when tropical Africa had just entered a period of wetter and more stable conditions, and populations of hunter-gatherers were expanding rapidly throughout sub-Saharan Africa before contracting into geographically and genetically isolated communities. The SB and HP also immediately preceded the likely exit time of modern humans from Africa into southern Asia and across to Australia, which marked the beginning of the worldwide dispersal of our species. In this paper, we argue that environmental factors alone are insufficient to explain these two bursts of technological and behavioral innovation. Instead, we propose that the formation of social networks across southern Africa during periods of population expansion, and the disintegration of these networks during periods of population contraction, can explain the abrupt appearance and disappearance of the SB and HP, as well

  5. Exploring causal effects of combining work and intergenerational support on depressive symptoms among middle-aged women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opree, S.J.; Kalmijn, M.

    2012-01-01

    In debates about ageing western societies it is often assumed that many middle-aged women struggle to combine paid employment and intergenerational support, and that the subsequent stress leads them to experience an increase in depressive symptoms. Cross-sectional studies have supported this notion,

  6. The impact of physical activity on endothelial function in middle-aged and elderly subjects: the Ikaria study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siasos, Gerasimos; Chrysohoou, Christina; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Zaromitidou, Marina; Zisimos, Konstantinos; Marinos, Georgios; Mazaris, Savvas; Kampaksis, Manolis; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training and physical activity (PA) have substantial vascular and cardiac health benefits. Ikaria Island has been recognised as having one of the highest longevity rates worldwide and a high percentage of healthy ageing. We examined the relationship between endothelial function and levels of habitual PA to evaluate the factors related to healthy ageing in this population. The study was conducted on a subgroup population of the IKARIA study consisting of 185 middle-aged (40-65 years) and 142 elderly subjects (66-91 years). Endothelial function was evaluated by ultrasound measurement of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). PA was evaluated using the shortened version of the self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Subjects in the low PA group (physically inactive and the rest as active. In the overall study population FMD was inversely associated with age (r=-0.24, pphysically active had higher FMD compared with the physically inactive. Physically active subjects in the middle-aged group showed higher FMD compared with the physically active elderly (p=0.008). However, there was no difference in FMD values between middle-aged inactive subjects and the elderly physically active (p=NS). The present study revealed that increased PA was associated with improved endothelial function in middle-aged subjects and that PA in elderly subjects can ameliorate the devastating effects of ageing on arterial wall properties.

  7. A Study on Body Image, Sexual Quality of Life, Depression, and Quality of Life in Middle-aged Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Sun Kim, PhD, RN

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: To improve quality of life in middle-aged adults ahead of old age, an assessment of their body image, depression, SQOL should be made and a variety of nursing interventions should be followed to improve their positive body image, depression, and SQOL.

  8. Body mass index in early and middle adult life: prospective associations with myocardial infarction, stroke and diabetes over a 30-year period: the British Regional Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Christopher G; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Wathern, Andrea K; Lennon, Lucy; Papacosta, Olia; Cook, Derek G; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H

    2015-09-15

    Adiposity in middle age is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes; less is known about the impact of adiposity from early adult life. We examined the effects of high body mass index (BMI) in early and middle adulthood on myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and diabetes risks. A prospective cohort study. 7735 men with BMI measured in middle age (40-59 years) and BMI ascertained at 21 years from military records or participant recall. 30-year follow-up data for type 2 diabetes, MI and stroke incidence; Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the effect of BMI at both ages on these outcomes, adjusted for age and smoking status. Among 4846 (63%) men (with complete data), a 1 kg/m(2) higher BMI at 21 years was associated with a 6% (95% CI 4% to 9%) higher type 2 diabetes risk, compared with a 21% (95% CI 18% to 24%) higher diabetes risk for a 1 kg/m(2) higher BMI in middle age (hazard ratio (HR) 1.21, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.24). Higher BMI in middle age was associated with a 6% (95% CI 4% to 8%) increase in MI and a 4% (95% CI 1% to 7%) increase in stroke; BMI at 21 years showed no associations with MI or stroke risk. Higher BMI at 21 years of age is associated with later diabetes incidence but not MI or stroke, while higher BMI in middle age is strongly associated with all outcomes. Early obesity prevention may reduce later type 2 diabetes risk, more than MI and stroke. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Fluoxetine induces input-specific hippocampal dendritic spine remodeling along the septo-temporal axis in adulthood and middle age

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Kathleen; Russo, Craig; Kim, Shannen; Rankin, Genelle; Sahay, Amar

    2015-01-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is known to induce structural rearrangements and changes in synaptic transmission in hippocampal circuitry. In the adult hippocampus, structural changes include neurogenesis, dendritic and axonal plasticity of pyramidal and dentate granule neurons, and dedifferentiation of dentate granule neurons. However, much less is known about how chronic fluoxetine affects these processes along the septo-temporal axis and during the aging process. Importantly, studies documenting the effects of fluoxetine on density and distribution of spines along different dendritic segments of dentate granule neurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons along the septo-temporal axis of hippocampus in adulthood and during aging are conspicuously absent. Here, we use a transgenic mouse line in which mature dentate granule neurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons are genetically labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) to investigate the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment (18mg/kg/day) on input-specific spine remodeling and mossy fiber structural plasticity in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus in adulthood and middle age. In addition, we examine levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, maturation state of dentate granule neurons, neuronal activity and glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 expression in response to chronic fluoxetine in adulthood and middle age. Our studies reveal that while chronic fluoxetine fails to augment adult hippocampal neurogenesis in middle age, the middle-aged hippocampus retains high sensitivity to changes in the dentate gyrus (DG) such as dematuration, hypoactivation, and increased glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) expression. Interestingly, the middle-aged hippocampus shows greater sensitivity to fluoxetine-induced input-specific synaptic remodeling than the hippocampus in adulthood with the stratum-oriens of CA1 exhibiting heightened structural plasticity. The input-specific changes and circuit

  10. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naya, Masanao; Goto, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Morita, Koichi; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Tamaki, Nagara; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Katoh, Chietsugu

    2011-01-01

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 ± 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 ± 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using 15 O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBF CPT/rest ), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 ± 0.20 and 1.10 ± 0.39 vs 1.53 ± 0.18, p CPT/rest at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBF CPT/rest after smoking cessation (β = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  11. Hormonal determinants of erectile dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabijewski, Michał; Papierska, Lucyna; Kuczerowski, Roman; Piątkiewicz, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common in diabetic men. The aim of this study was to investigate hormonal determinants, the prevalence and severity of ED and LUTS in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes (PD). We investigated 176 men with PD and 184 healthy peers. PD was defined according American Diabetes Association. ED according IIEF scale and LUTS according IPSS scale were assessed. Total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were measured. The prevalence of ED in patients with PD was higher than in control group (30 versus 24%) as well as the prevalence and severity of ED and LUTS in elderly (60-80 years) and middle-aged (40-59 years) men with PD was higher than in healthy peers. In middle-aged pre-diabetic men, the more severe LUTS symptoms were associated with low TT and DHEAS, while in elderly men with low cFT and DHEAS. The higher prevalence of ED in middle-aged men with PD was associated with cFT and DHEAS, while in elderly pre-diabetic men with TT and IGF-1. The prevalence and severity of LUTS and ED symptoms were higher in pre-diabetic men than in healthy peers. Hormonal determinants of these symptoms are different in middle-aged and elderly patients with PD.

  12. Social networks and alcohol use among older adults: a comparison with middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungyoun; Spilman, Samantha L; Liao, Diana H; Sacco, Paul; Moore, Alison A

    2018-04-01

    This study compared the association between social networks and alcohol consumption among middle-aged (MA) and older adults (OA) to better understand the nature of the relationship between those two factors among OA and MA. We examined Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Current drinkers aged over 50 were subdivided into two age groups: MA (50-64, n = 5214) and OA (65 and older, n = 3070). Each age group was stratified into drinking levels (low-risk vs. at-risk) based on alcohol consumption. The size and diversity of social networks were measured. Logistic regression models were used to examine age differences in the association between the social networks (size and diversity) and the probability of at-risk drinking among two age groups. A significant association between the social networks diversity and lower odds of at-risk drinking was found among MA and OA. However, the relationship between the diversity of social networks and the likelihood of at-risk drinking was weaker for OA than for MA. The association between social networks size and at-risk drinking was not significant among MA and OA. The current study suggests that the association between social networks diversity and alcohol use among OA differs from the association among MA, and few social networks were associated with alcohol use among OA. In the future, research should consider an in-depth exploration of the nature of social networks and alcohol consumption by using longitudinal designs and advanced methods of exploring drinking networks.

  13. CHANGES IN SOMATOTYPE CHARACTERISTICS IN THE MIDDLE-AGED BULGARIAN MEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreenko, Emiliya; Mladenova, Silviya

    2015-12-01

    the objective of this cross-sectional research was to outline the different somatotypes and the trends in the changes of the three basic components (endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy) among the middle-aged Bulgarian men. the Heath-Carter method was used to identify the anthropometric somatotypes of 860 adult men, aged 30-50 years old, from the city of Plovdiv, located in Central Bulgaria. The men were divided into 4 age groups, in five-year intervals. In each case body height, weight and a series of skinfolds, circumferences and diameters were measured to calculate the somatotype. The SPSS package was used for the statistical analysis. the results show a prominent endo-mesomorphic model in the study sample of male population. We found age-related increase of the values of the musclebone component, retention of the level of the fatty component and a decline in the ectomorphy. Regardless the quantitative changes of the three components, the correlation between them remains constant and the mean somatotype is preserved. A greater variety of morphotypes is found in the group of men aged 30-35. The most homogeneous group is that of the 45-50 year old men. This group is entirely dominated by the mesomorphic component (strength), and the endomorphic component (obesity) is greater than the ectomorphic one (linearity). the study finds that in the years between 30 and 50 the men tend to build muscle rather than fat. The 50 year-old men are more mesomorphic than the men at the age of 30, but they are shorter and with less elongated body segments. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Dyslipidemia and its risk factors among urban middle-aged Iranians: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Hashemi, Hassan; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is a leading cause of mortality in developed and developing countries. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its risk factors in an urban group of Iranian adult population. In this study, based on the criteria set by the National Cholesterol Education Program, the prevalence of dyslipidemia was evaluated in a population of 4737 people aged 45-69 years who participated in the second phase of an ophthalmology cohort study in Shahroud. Dyslipidemia prevalence was determined by age, sex, and risk factors of the disease; the findings were tested by using simple and multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 66.5% (CI 95%: 64.4-68.6) in males, 61.3% (CI 95%: 59.5-63.2) in females, and 63.4% (CI 95%: 62.0-64.9%) in both sexes. The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, low HDL-C, and high LDL-C, respectively, was 28.8%, 13.4%, 42.3%, and 13.4%, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression model, increase of age (for females), abdominal obesity, overweight and obesity, hypertension, and diabetes were associated with an increased odd of dyslipidemia. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in middle-aged urban population in Iran is high, and with increasing age there is an increased risk of dyslipidemia. Hence, considering the growing trend of aging in Iran, there is need for taking special measures to deal with dyslipidemia as a health priority. Furthermore, the need for planning in order to reduce the risk of dyslipidemia and prevent its complications is greater than ever. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Young adult and middle age mortality in Butajira demographic surveillance site, Ethiopia: lifestyle, gender and household economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Högberg Ulf

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health research characterising the course of life through the middle age in developing societies is scarce. The aim of this study is to explore patterns of adult (15–64 years mortality in an Ethiopian population over time, by gender, urban or rural lifestyle, causes of death and in relation to household economic status and decision-making. Methods The study was conducted in Butajira Demographic Surveillance Site (DSS in south-central Ethiopia among adults 15–64 years old. Cohort analysis of surveillance data was conducted for the years 1987–2004 complemented by a prospective case-referent (case control study over two years. Rate ratios were computed to assess the relationships between mortality and background variables using a Poisson regression model. In the case-referent component, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effect of certain risk factors that were not included in the surveillance system. Results A total of 367 940 person years were observed in a period of 18 years, in which 2 860 deaths occurred. One hundred sixty two cases and 486 matched for age, sex and place of residence controls were included in the case referent (case control study. Only a modest downward trend in adult mortality was seen over the 18 year period. Rural lifestyle carried a significant survival disadvantage [mortality rate ratio 1.62 (95% CI 1.44 to 1.82, adjusted for gender, period and age group], while the overall effects of gender were negligible. Communicable disease mortality was appreciably higher in rural areas [rate ratio 2.05 (95% CI 1.73 to 2.44, adjusted for gender, age group and period]. Higher mortality was associated with a lack of literacy in a household, poor economic status and lack of women's decision making. Conclusion A complex pattern of adult mortality prevails, still influenced by war, famine and communicable diseases. Individual factors such as a lack of education, low economic

  16. Italy Seen Through the Eyes of Anselmo Adorno. A Testimony of the Middle Ages

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    Beatrice Borghi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anselmo Adorno was one of the most prominent and influential men of Western Europe in the late Middle Ages in the area between Flanders, the Duchy of Burgundy and Scotland. Negotiator, wise, magistrate, Anselmo left us the journey report Itinerarium Terrae Sanctae Anselmi Adorni, written by his son Giovanni, a source of extraordinary wealth for the details and descriptions of places, customs and customs of the peoples of the eastern Mediterranean. Of particular interest is also the description of the cities, the urban and rural landscape, the routes that Adorno travelled in his journey between 1470 and 1471. The article will therefore take the moves from this precious testimony to describe the Italy visited by the pilgrim of Bruges, including Genoa, a family town of Rome, Brindisi and the Apulian cities of Naples, and the route that from the eternal city led to Venice, Cologne and finally to the West Flanders.

  17. Suicidal and homicidal behaviors related to dextromethorphan abuse in a middle-aged woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Dhruv; Bhalavat, Ravikumar; Patterson, James C

    2013-01-01

    Over-the-counter medications available without prescriptions are generally viewed safe for public consumption. However, when used in excess, these medications can lead to adverse consequences. There are multiple over-the-counter medications that have potential for abuse, and dextromethorphan is one such drug. We describe a case of a middle-aged woman who presented to the psychiatric emergency service after recent use of excessive amounts of dextromethorphan. The patient had developed severe psychotic symptoms and had attempted to kill both herself and her relative. This case highlights the importance of careful reviewing of both prescribed and nonprescribed medications that are being used by patients, especially in the emergency care setting.

  18. Signs vs. Causes? An Epistemological Approach to Prognosis in the Latin Middle Ages

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    Alexander Fidora

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From the 12th century onwards, prognostic disciplines were part and parcel of the Latin ordo scientiarum. This is true for astrology and divination as well as for medicine and weather forecasting. While scholarly research has focused very much on the moral discussions of knowledge of the future in the Middle Ages, the epistemological challenge of integrating this form of knowledge into a coherent theoretical framework has been neglected so far. This article shows how the traditional account of prognostic disciplines as sign-based forms of knowledge was revised and refined during the 13 th century in the light of new philosophical (Aristotelian and also theological paradigms. As a result of this, Latin philosophers and theologians established important criteria which allowed for a clear-cut epistemological distinction between different forms of prognostic signs and thus radicalized the discussion about the legitimacy of some prognostic disciplines.

  19. Custom: The Development and Use of a Legal Concept in the Middle Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume, the fifth in the series, contains the proceedings from the conference Custom. The Development and Use of a Legal Concept in the Middle Ages held at the Law School at the University of Aarhus in May 2008. The volume covers topics from local case studies and studies of learned law...... to broader reflections on the development and use of the legal concept consuetudo and its connection with other sources of law, with the balance between local and regional power structures, and secular and ecclesiastical societies in medieval Europe. Combining the approaches of several historical disciplines...... - political, social, intellectual, and legal -international eminent scholars offer their views on central aspects of the function of legal customs and of the development of one of the most debated concepts in legal historiography of the last century. Students and scholars of European legal history and legal...

  20. Visceral predictors of cardiovascular deconditioning in late middle-aged men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, D. J.; De Roshia, C.; Natelson, B. H.; Levin, B. E.

    1985-01-01

    A number of visceral and behavioral factors connected with cardiovascular deconditioning were investigated, in order to identify a method for predicting the degree of orthostatic intolerance to spaceflight in several late-middle-aged men (55-65 years). Preliminary measurements were made of: mean arterial blood pressure plasma cortisol levels; and norepinephrine levels. Measurements of core temperature; plasma epinephrine level and subjective arousal from sleep were also obtained. Pairwise correlations were found for each of the variables and the time-to-blackout due centrifugal acceleration of up to +3 Gz. It is shown that the men with relatively low resting blood pressure were at greater risk of developing the clinical signs of cardiovascular deconditioning than were the men with higher basal blood pressure. Some applications of the experimental results to the development of selection criteria for Shuttle crews are discussed.

  1. Middle Stone Age bedding construction and settlement patterns at Sibudu, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadley, Lyn; Sievers, Christine; Bamford, Marion; Goldberg, Paul; Berna, Francesco; Miller, Christopher

    2011-12-09

    The Middle Stone Age (MSA) is associated with early behavioral innovations, expansions of modern humans within and out of Africa, and occasional population bottlenecks. Several innovations in the MSA are seen in an archaeological sequence in the rock shelter Sibudu (South Africa). At ~77,000 years ago, people constructed plant bedding from sedges and other monocotyledons topped with aromatic leaves containing insecticidal and larvicidal chemicals. Beginning at ~73,000 years ago, bedding was burned, presumably for site maintenance. By ~58,000 years ago, bedding construction, burning, and other forms of site use and maintenance intensified, suggesting that settlement strategies changed. Behavioral differences between ~77,000 and 58,000 years ago may coincide with population fluctuations in Africa.

  2. Management of Chronic Hyperplastic Pulpitis in Mandibular Molars of Middle Aged Adults- A Multidisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingeswaran, Somiya; Ari, Geetha; Thyagarajan, Ramakrishnan; Logaranjani, Anitha

    2016-01-01

    The molar tooth of children and young adults is a common site for chronic hyperplastic pulpitis (pulp polyp). It rarely occurs in middle aged adults. This condition is usually characterized by extensive involvement of the pulp, dictating the extraction of involved tooth. Extraction of permanent molars can lead to transient or permanent malocclusion, aesthetic, phonetic and functional problems. Here we report a case of pulp polyp in mandibular first molar of a 33-year-old woman that grew into the carious cavity. The aim of this case report is to describe the diagnosis of a chronic hyperplastic pulpitis involving the permanent molar as well as to describe its management in order to preserve them as a functional unit of the dentition. PMID:26894192

  3. Lithofacies palaeogeography of the Late Permian Wujiaping Age in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region, China

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    Jin-Xiong Luo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The lithofacies palaeogeography of the Late Permian Wujiaping Age in Middle and Upper Yangtze Region was studied based on petrography and the “single factor analysis and multifactor comprehensive mapping” method. The Upper Permian Wujiaping Stage in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region is mainly composed of carbonate rocks and clastic rocks, with lesser amounts of siliceous rocks, pyroclastic rocks, volcanic rocks and coal. The rocks can be divided into three types, including clastic rock, clastic rock–limestone and limestone–siliceous rock, and four fundamental ecological types and four fossil assemblages are recognized in the Wujiaping Stage. Based on a petrological and palaeoecological study, six single factors were selected, namely, thickness (m, content (% of marine rocks, content (% of shallow water carbonate rocks, content (% of biograins with limemud, content (% of thin-bedded siliceous rocks and content (% of deep water sedimentary rocks. Six single factors maps of the Wujiaping Stage and one lithofacies palaeogeography map of the Wujiaping Age were composed. Palaeogeographic units from west to east include an eroded area, an alluvial plain, a clastic rock platform, a carbonate rock platform where biocrowds developed, a slope and a basin. In addition, a clastic rock platform exists in the southeast of the study area. Hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir conditions were preliminarily analyzed based on lithofacies palaeogeography. Sedimentary environments have obvious controls over the development of the resource rocks. With regard to the abundance of organic matter, the hydrocarbon potential of the coastal swamp environment is the best, followed by the basin environment and the carbonate rock platform. The gas reservoir types of the Wujiaping Stage can be classified as conventional and unconventional gas reservoirs, like coal bed gas and shale gas; all of them have well exploration prospects.

  4. Functional network endophenotypes unravel the effects of apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 in middle-aged adults.

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    Joseph S Goveas

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E-ε4 (APOE-ε4 accentuates memory decline, structural volume loss and cerebral amyloid deposition in cognitively healthy adults. We investigated whether APOE-ε4 carriers will show disruptions in the intrinsic cognitive networks, including the default mode (DMN, executive control (ECN and salience (SN networks, relative to noncarriers in middle-aged healthy adults; and the extent to which episodic-memory performance is related to the altered functional connectivity (Fc in these networks. Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (R-fMRI was used to measure the differences in the DMN, ECN and SN Fc between 20 APOE-ε4 carriers and 26 noncarriers. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between episodic-memory performance and Fc differences in the three resting-state networks across all subjects. There were no significant differences in the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics and the gray-matter volumes in the carriers and noncarriers. While mostly diminished DMN and ECN functional connectivities were seen, enhanced connections to the DMN structures were found in the SN in ε4 carriers. Altered DMN and ECN were associated with episodic memory performance. Significant Fc differences in the brain networks implicated in cognition were seen in middle-aged individuals with a genetic risk for AD, in the absence of cognitive decline and gray-matter atrophy. Prospective studies are essential to elucidate the potential of R-fMRI technique as a biomarker for predicting conversion from normal to early AD in healthy APOE-ε4 carriers.

  5. Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on inflammatory markers in middle-aged overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Moslehi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to investigate whether magnesium supplementation might affect serum magnesium, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, plasma fibrinogen, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 levels in healthy middle-aged overweight women. The relationships, if any, between serum magnesium and the inflammatory markers were also examined cross-sectionally in the entire participants at the beginning of the study. Materials and Methods: This double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial included 74 middle-aged overweight women. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 250 mg magnesium as magnesium oxide or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Serum magnesium, hs-CRP, fibrinogen and IL-6 concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Serum magnesium was found to be inversely correlated with hs-CRP (r s =−0.22, P=0.05 in the entire participants at baseline. Serum hs-CRP declined significantly in both groups as compared with baseline values (median change=0.8 mg/L; P Magnesium= 0.03, P Placebo 0.001. Plasma fibrinogen decreased significantly, by 9%, in the magnesium group at the end of week 8 compared to baseline (P=0.001. Mean concentration of IL-6 was significantly increased in the magnesium group comparing the baseline value(P=0.001. However hs-CRP, fibrinogen and IL-6 levels at week 8 or any changes during the study were not statistically different between the two groups. Serum magnesium showed no significant changes in any groups. Conclusions: Serum magnesium had a significant inverse correlation with hs-CRP. In the present study, magnesium as magnesium oxide, 250 mg/day, for 8 weeks did not significantly attenuate inflammatory markers in the magnesium group as compared to the placebo.

  6. Clinically remitted childhood asthma is associated with airflow obstruction in middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Keitaro; Iwamoto, Hiroshi; Yamane, Takashi; Nakashima, Taku; Haruta, Yoshinori; Hattori, Noboru; Yokoyama, Akihito; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2017-01-01

    While adult asthma has been shown to be a risk factor for COPD, the effect of remitted childhood asthma on adult lung function has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to examine whether remitted childhood asthma is a risk factor for airflow obstruction in a middle-aged general population. A total of 9896 participants (range: 35-60 years) from five healthcare centres were included in the study. The participants were classified into four categories based on the presence or absence of physician-diagnosed childhood/adulthood asthma and asthma symptoms as follows: healthy controls (n = 9154), remitted childhood asthma (n = 287), adulthood-onset asthma (n = 354) and childhood-adulthood asthma (n = 101). The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was similar in both the participants with remitted childhood asthma and healthy controls. The prevalence of airflow obstruction (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) childhood asthma, those with adult-onset asthma and those with childhood-adulthood asthma (5.2%, 14.4% and 16.8%, respectively) compared with healthy controls (2.2%). Multivariate logistic regression showed that remitted childhood asthma was independently associated with airflow obstruction. Among the participants with remitted childhood asthma, ever-smokers had significantly lower FEV 1 /FVC than never-smokers. Clinically remitted childhood asthma is associated with airflow obstruction in middle-aged adults. Smoking and remitted childhood asthma may be additive factors for the development of airflow obstruction. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  7. Infectious disease burden and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Berrett, Andrew; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2016-02-01

    Prior research has suggested an association between exposure to infectious disease and neurocognitive function in humans. While most of these studies have explored individual viral, bacterial, and even parasitic sources of infection, few have considered the potential neurocognitive burden associated with multiple infections. In this study, we utilized publically available data from a large dataset produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that included measures of neurocognitive function, sociodemographic variables, and serum antibody data for several infectious diseases. Specifically, immunoglobulin G antibodies for toxocariasis, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus, and herpes 1 and 2 were available in 5662 subjects. We calculated an overall index of infectious-disease burden to determine if an aggregate measure of exposure to infectious disease would be associated with neurocognitive function in adults aged 20-59 years. The index predicted processing speed and learning and memory but not reaction time after controlling for age, sex, race-ethnicity, immigration status, education, and the poverty-to-income ratio. Interactions between the infectious-disease index and some sociodemographic variables were also associated with neurocognitive function. In summary, an index aggregating exposure to several infectious diseases was associated with neurocognitive function in young- to middle-aged adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Physical Activity and Obesity on Type 2 Diabetes in a Middle-Aged Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    Background. The physical activity has been associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of physical activities such as occupational, household and daily lifestyle activities and obesity on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged population. Methods. All people (n = 2053), aged 45-64 years were selected for this study from the large sample of population-based cross-sectional data collected in the 1990-1994 by National Health Survey of Pakistan. The participants completed in-person interviews at baseline; the overall response rate was 92.6%. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk of developing the type 2 diabetes. Results. Stair climbing was found to be inversely associated with the risk of diabetes and cycling was also associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (RR=0.82; 95% CI 0.68 1.00, P=.048). The relationship between physical activity and reduced risk of diabetes adjusted for age and body mass index was statistically significant only in women (P<.01). Conclusions. This study provides an incentive that physical activity in leisure-time exercise or daily activity reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes in a high-risk population.

  9. Vitamin K Status Is not Associated with Cognitive Decline in Middle Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, E G H M; van Schoor, N M; Vermeer, C; Zwijsen, R M L; den Heijer, M; Comijs, H C

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between dephospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP), an indicator of vitamin K status, and cognitive decline, and the modifying role of 25(OH)D. Longitudinal study with six years follow-up. Community based. 599 participants of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (aged 55-65 years). Information processing speed and a composite Z-score by combining three domains of cognition reflecting general cognitive functioning. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) showed no significant associations between dp-ucMGP and decline in general cognitive functioning. Vitamin D modified the association between dp-ucMGP and speed of information processing (p 50 nmol/l, the highest tertile of dp-ucMGP (>406 pmol/l), which corresponds to lower vitamin K levels, was associated with 1.5 higher score on information processing speed (p=0.023) as compared to the lowest tertile of dp-ucMGP. In contrast to our hypothesis, a suboptimal vitamin K was not associated with cognitive decline in middle-aged adults.

  10. Concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among a middle-aged and elderly population in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prakash C; Maulik, Pallab K; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Saxena, Shekhar

    2005-01-01

    The concurrent use of alcohol and tobacco and its deleterious effects have been reported in the western literature. However, studies on the relationship between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use in India are limited. This study outlines the association between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among a middle-aged and elderly population in a western Indian cohort after controlling for various sociodemographic factors. A total of 35 102 men, 45 years of age and above were interviewed for concurrent alcohol and tobacco use. The sample was part of an earlier cohort drawn from the general population. The data were analysed after controlling for age, education, religion and mother-tongue. Among alcohol users, 51.1% smoked tobacco and 35.6% used smokeless tobacco. The relative risk of alcohol use was highest among those smoking cigarettes or beedis and among those using mishri with betel quid and tobacco. The risk of alcohol use increased with the frequency of tobacco use. The risk also increased with higher amounts of alcohol consumption, but peaked at around 100-150 ml of absolute alcohol use. The study highlights the association between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among the Indian population. This has important public health implications since concurrent use of these is synergistic for increased risk of oropharyngeal cancers.

  11. Incidence of new-onset wheeze: a prospective study in a large middle-aged general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Mathias; Torén, Kjell; Andersson, Eva

    2015-12-16

    Wheeze is a very common respiratory symptom, which is associated with several factors and diseases. Studies on incidence of new-onset wheeze in general adult populations are rare. The present prospective study aimed to investigate the incidence rate of new-onset wheeze, and predictors for wheeze, in a general, middle-aged population. Individuals, born 1943-1973, who had participated in a previous Swedish study in 1993 (n = 15,813), were mailed a new respiratory questionnaire in 2003. The questionnaire, which included items about respiratory symptoms, atopy, and smoking was answered by 11,463 (72%). Incidence rates of new-onset wheeze were calculated. Cox regression analyses were performed with incident wheeze as an event and person-years under observation as dependent variable. Among those free of wheeze at baseline (n = 8885), there were 378 new cases of wheeze during the study period (1993-2003). The incidence rate was 4.3/1000 person-years. The adjusted risk was increased in relation to smoking (HR 2.1;95% CI 1.7-2.7), ex-smoking (HR 1.4;95% CI 1.1-1.9), young age (HR 1.7;95% CI 1.3-2.2), chronic bronchitis (HR 2.3;95% CI 0.96-5.7), and rhinitis (HR 1.8;95% CI 1.4-2.2) at baseline, and body mass index ≥30 (HR 1.9;95% CI 1.5-2.6) at follow-up. This is a unique study that presents an incidence rate for new-onset wheeze in a middle-aged, general population sample previously free of adult wheeze. The results indicate that new-onset wheeze is quite common in this age group. Health care staff should bear this in mind since new-onset wheeze could be one of the earliest symptoms of severe respiratory disease. Special attention should be paid to patients with a smoking history, chronic bronchitis, rhinitis or obesity.

  12. The natural history of prevalent ischaemic heart disease in middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, F C; Whincup, P H; Wannamethee, S G; Shaper, A G; Walker, M; Ebrahim, S

    2000-07-01

    To describe the long-term outcome of different forms of symptomatic and asymptomatic ischaemic heart disease in middle-aged men. 7735 men aged 40-59, randomly selected from 24 general practices in Britain were classified into one of seven ischaemic heart disease groups according to a questionnaire and electrocardiogram (ECG): I=diagnosed myocardial infarction; II=unrecognized myocardial infarction; III= diagnosed angina; IV=angina symptoms; V=possible myocardial infarction symptoms; VI=ECG ischaemia or possible myocardial infarction; VII=no evidence of ischaemic heart disease. The association of disease group with a range of fatal and non-fatal outcomes during 15 years of follow-up was assessed. At baseline 25% of men had evidence of ischaemic heart disease (groups I-VI). Risks of major ischaemic heart disease events, total and cardiovascular mortality, stroke, and major cardiovascular events tended to increase strongly from group VII to I. Diagnosed myocardial infarction was associated with a much poorer prognosis than all other groups (including unrecognized infarction) for all cardiovascular outcomes other than stroke. The relative risk associated with ischaemic heart disease at baseline declined dramatically over time. However, men with myocardial infarction who survived event-free for 10 years continued to experience a high excess risk in the subsequent 5 years, in contrast to event-free survivors of angina and other ischaemic heart disease. Adjusted to an average age of 50, the percentage of men surviving for 15 years free of a new major cardiovascular event was 44 for diagnosed myocardial infarction, 52 for unrecognized myocardial infarction, 66 for diagnosed angina, 68 for angina symptoms, 73 for possible myocardial infarction symptoms, 73 for ECG ischaemia, and 79 for no ischaemic heart disease. Comparison of outcome between prevalent and incident myocardial infarction illustrated the improved prognosis of men surviving the initial years after their event

  13. Relationship between rectus abdominis muscle thickness and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Sil Choi

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle has been suggested as an important factor in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. During the aging process, muscle mass is lost in specific body parts. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between site-specific muscle loss assessed using computed tomography (CT and metabolic syndrome. This study was conducted to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome and rectus abdominis muscle thickness at the umbilicus level (RAM, which reflects site-specific muscle loss of the abdomen using CT image.This cross-sectional study was conducted on 725 middle-aged Korean men. Anthropometric evaluation and biochemical tests were performed. The RAMs of the subjects were measured from CT images taken at the umbilicus level.The mean RAM (mean ±SD of subjects with metabolic syndrome was 2.46 ±0.01, which was thinner than that of subjects without metabolic syndrome (2.52 ±0.01, p<0.01. Moreover, RAM decreased as the number of metabolic syndrome components increased (p-value for trend<0.01. RAM was positively correlated with body mass index (r = 0.21, p<0.01, skeletal muscle index (r = 0.26, p<0.01, and creatinine (r = 0.12, p<0.01, while RAM was negatively correlated with age(r = -0.11, p<0.01, abdominal circumference(r = -0.22, p<0.01, fasting glucose (r = -0.10, p<0.01, and triglycerides(r = -0.15, p<0.01. Using a stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis, we found that RAM was an independent factor associated with metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.861, 95%CI, 0.779-0.951, p<0.01. The result was not different in the statistical analysis including the components of MS (OR: 0.860, 95% CI, 0.767-0.965, p = 0.01.RAM was associated with metabolic syndrome in middle-aged men. Moreover, site-specific muscle loss at the abdomen, as evaluated by RAM, also may be a predictor of metabolic syndrome like SMI.

  14. Reference equations for handgrip strength: Normative values in young adult and middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Jordão; Grams, Samantha Torres; da Silva, Edy Floriano; de Medeiros, Luana Adriano; de Brito, Christina May Moran; Yamaguti, Wellington Pereira

    2018-06-01

    Handgrip strength (HS) has been widely used as a functionality parameter of the upper limbs (UL) and general health. The measurement of HS by dynamometry is a low cost, non-invasive method of simple applicability, widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation and in critical care units. However, there are no reports in the literature of reference equations for the Brazilian population involving young and middle-aged adults. The aim of this study was to establish reference equations to predict normal HS for young and middle-aged adults through demographic and anthropometric data. This is a cross-sectional study with a sample of 80 healthy subjects (40 men and 40 women), aged 20-60 years. Inclusion criteria were: 1) BMI between 18.5 and 30 kg/m 2 ; 2) presence of dominant hand; 3) no cardiac, pulmonary, metabolic, or neurologic diseases; 4) lack of musculoskeletal disorders; 5) no history of fractures or trauma of the UL. Anthropometric measurements of the UL were obtained by a tape (hand length and width, forearm circumference and length). The dominance of hands was defined by the Dutch Handedness Questionnaire. HS measures were obtained by a manual hydraulic dynamometer, according to the recommendations of the American Association of Hand Therapists. Data were analyzed with SPSS for Windows, version 17.0, and treated with descriptive and inferential analysis. Normality was evaluated by Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Pearson or Spearman coefficients and multiple regression analysis were also used. HS was significantly higher for men compared to women, and also higher for the dominant hand (HSD) compared to the non-dominant hand (HSND) (p  0.05). No correlation was found between HS and age. A weak correlation was found between HS and BMI. A moderate correlation of HS was observed with weight and height. Finally, moderate and high correlations were found between HS and anthropometric variables of UL. The best reference equations with R 2 , adjusted to 0.71 and 0.70, were

  15. Rise and fall: two sides of a coin of middle aged women's perceptions of reproductive: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhani, Mitra; Kazemi, Ashraf; Keshvari, Mahrokh

    2018-02-02

    The present study was conducted to determine the perceptions of middle-aged women of reproductive changes. The present study was a qualitative research with a content analysis approach. The participants were 30 middle-aged women whose perceptions of reproductive changes had been collected on in-depth semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed using the Graneheim and Lundman's inductive content analysis method. The main themes extracted from the data were a sense of "fall" and "the beginning of a new life cycle." A feeling of fall was formed from the subthemes "deterioration of youth," "the dusk of femininity," and "fade-out of the gender roles." The theme "beginning of a new life cycle" was formed from the subthemes of "acceptance," "sophistication," and "maturity." Middle-aged women had a wide range of emotions experienced from the reproductive changes ranging from a feeling of decline to that of excellence and rise.

  16. [Effects of self-foot reflexology on stress, fatigue and blood circulation in premenopausal middle-aged women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Soo Hyun; Kim, Kye Ha

    2009-10-01

    This study was to examine the effects of self-foot reflexology on stress, fatigue and blood circulation in premenopausal middle-aged women. A quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group, pretest-posttest design was used. Participants were 59 premenopausal, middle-aged women in their 40s and 60s living in G city: 30 in the experiment group and 29 in the control group. Data were collected from May to August 2008. Self-foot reflexology was performed three times a week for 6 weeks for 40 min at each session. The results showed that self-foot reflexology was effective in reducing perceived stress and fatigue and helped blood circulation in premenopausal middle-aged women. Self-foot reflexology may be an effective nursing intervention in reducing perceived stress and fatigue and in improving blood circulation.

  17. Age, period, or birth cohort: What determines demographic differences in seafood consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Trondsen, Torbjørn

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...

  18. Separating the effects of age, period and birth cohort on seafood consumption in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Lund, Eiliv

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires...... fish increased between 1996 and 2001, while consumption of lean fish decreased. All three period effects were stable across birth cohorts. Estimation of polynomial contrasts indicated that birth cohort itself had linear effects on consumption, with older generations consuming significantly more fat...... and lean fish, but less processed fish than younger generations. Finally, the effects of cohort and period on consumption of lean and processed fish remained stable when biological age was controlled for, whilst the effect of period on fat fish consumption vanished. Regarding total consumption of fat fish...

  19. Patterns of lung cancer mortality in 23 countries: Application of the Age-Period-Cohort model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yi-Chia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking habits do not seem to be the main explanation of the epidemiological characteristics of female lung cancer mortality in Asian countries. However, Asian countries are often excluded from studies of geographical differences in trends for lung cancer mortality. We thus examined lung cancer trends from 1971 to 1995 among men and women for 23 countries, including four in Asia. Methods International and national data were used to analyze lung cancer mortality from 1971 to 1995 in both sexes. Age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR were analyzed in five consecutive five-year periods and for each five-year age group in the age range 30 to 79. The age-period-cohort (APC model was used to estimate the period effect (adjusted for age and cohort effects for mortality from lung cancer. Results The sex ratio of the ASMR for lung cancer was lower in Asian countries, while the sex ratio of smoking prevalence was higher in Asian countries. The mean values of the sex ratio of the ASMR from lung cancer in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Japan for the five 5-year period were 2.10, 2.39, 3.07, and 3.55, respectively. These values not only remained quite constant over each five-year period, but were also lower than seen in the western countries. The period effect, for lung cancer mortality as derived for the 23 countries from the APC model, could be classified into seven patterns. Conclusion Period effects for both men and women in 23 countries, as derived using the APC model, could be classified into seven patterns. Four Asian countries have a relatively low sex ratio in lung cancer mortality and a relatively high sex ratio in smoking prevalence. Factors other than smoking might be important, especially for women in Asian countries.

  20. Syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers in China: a three-site cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-05-10

    This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014. 1245 middle-aged female sex workers who were over 35 years old (about 400 per study site). Unprotected commercial sex, and syphilis and HIV infection were biologically tested and measured. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of active syphilis was 17.3% in Hefei, 9.9% in Qingdao, and 5.4% in Nanning. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of prevalent syphilis was between 6.8% and 33.6% in the three cities. The proportion of unprotected sex in the past 48 h verified by the prostate-specific antigen test (PSA) was between 27.8% and 42.4%. Multiple log-binomial regression analyses indicate that middle-aged FSWs who had 5 or more clients in the past week prior to interviews and engaged in unprotected sex were more likely to be active syphilitic cases. Middle-aged FSWs who had rural residency were less likely to be active syphilitic cases. In contrast with previous studies that reported low prevalence of syphilis and high prevalence of protected sex among FSWs in China, both the prevalence of syphilis and unprotected sex were high among middle-aged FSWs. Evidence-based intervention programmes should be developed and evaluated among this vulnerable population in China and other countries with similar settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Endocrine determinants of incident sarcopenia in middle-aged and elderly European men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Evelien; O'Neill, Terence W; Pye, Stephen R; Adams, Judith E; Wu, Frederick C; Laurent, Michaël R; Claessens, Frank; Ward, Kate A; Boonen, Steven; Bouillon, Roger; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Verschueren, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    sarcopenia by any definition. Conclusions Low levels of T and 25OHD do not predict loss of muscle mass, gait speed, or grip strength in middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling European men. Low IGF-1 predicts change in gait speed in men aged ≥70 years. PMID:26401471

  2. Psychiatric Co-Occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lever, Anne G.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2016-01-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (N[subscript max] = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80).…

  3. Toluene effects on the motor activity of adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent male Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, R C; Farmer, J D; Jarema, K A

    2012-01-01

    Life stage is an important risk factor for toxicity. Children and aging adults, for example, are more susceptible to certain chemicals than are young adults. In comparison to children, relatively little is known about susceptibility in older adults. Additionally, few studies have compared toxicant susceptibility across a broad range of life stages. Results are presented for behavioral evaluations of male Brown Norway rats obtained as adolescents (1 month), or young (4 months), middle-age (12 months) and senescent (24 months) adults. Motor activity was evaluated in photocell devices during 30-min sessions. Age-related baseline characteristics and sensitivity to toluene (0, 300, 650, or 1000mg/kg, p.o.) were determined. In Experiment 1, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats were treated with corn-oil vehicle before five weekly test sessions. Baselines of horizontal and vertical activity decreased with age, but each age-group's averages remained stable across weeks of testing. Baseline activity of older rats was more variable than that of the young adults; older rats were also more variable individually from week to week. Toluene (1000mg/kg) increased horizontal activity proportionately more in senescent rats (ca. 300% of control) than in middle-age or young-adult rats (ca.145-175% of control). Experiment 2 established toluene dose-effect functions in individual adolescent, young-adult, middle-age and senescent rats; each rat received all treatments, counterbalanced across four weekly sessions. Toluene produced dose-related increases in horizontal activity that increased proportionately with age. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of toluene (1000mg/kg) in Experiment 1, showing that toluene-induced increases in horizontal activity were greatest in the oldest rats. Collectively, the results show that aging increased susceptibility to toluene and also increased variability in toluene response. Given the rapid growth of the aged population, further research is

  4. Endogenous sex hormones and memory performance in middle-aged Greek women with subjective memory complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeni, Eleni; Apostolakis, Michail; Christidi, Foteini; Rizos, Demetrios; Kaparos, George; Panoulis, Konstantinos; Augoulea, Areti; Alexandrou, Andreas; Karopoulou, Evangelia; Zalonis, Ioannis; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Lambrinoudaki, Irene

    2018-02-01

    The changing hormonal milieu during the menopausal transition may contribute to the development of memory disorders. We aimed to assess the association of sex hormones with memory function in a sample of Greek middle-aged women. This pilot study included 44 women with subjective memory complaints. Memory performance was evaluated using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT), the Brief Visuospatial Memory test (BVMT), and the verbal digits backwards test (VSPAN), to assess verbal, visuospatial, and working memory performance, respectively. Menopausal symptoms were assessed using the Green Climacteric Scale. VSPAN backwards scores were positively associated with log-transformed free androgen index (logFAI), in models adjusted for age, education, log-transformed free estrogen index (logFEI), hypertension, and the intensity of menopausal symptoms. BVMT total scores were predicted by logFAI (b-coefficient = 0.424, p value = 0.002), education, and combined climacteric symptomatology, in a model adjusted for age, logFEI, and hypertension. Women with circulating estradiol above the median value of 10 pg/mL had better total HTLV total scores compared to women with estradiol values below the median (HTLV total scores, estradiol ≤ 10 pg/mL vs. > 10 pg/mL: 24.2 ± 3.6 vs. 30.0 ± 7.9, p value = 0.007 unadjusted). This association was affected by education and remained independent of menopausal symptoms and testosterone levels, education, and hypertension (model R 2 = 22.3%; b-coefficient = 0.318, p value = 0.024). Endogenous total estradiol is associated with verbal episodic memory, while logFAI is associated with working memory performance and visuospatial episodic memory in this sample of postmenopausal women. These associations were not influenced by age, education, or menopausal symptoms. Larger studies are necessary to evaluate the significance of our findings.

  5. Determinants of Health-Related Quality of Life in Taiwanese Middle-Aged Women Stroke Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Wu, Ming-Hsiu; Chang, Mei-Yueh

    Female stroke victims have a higher survival rate and experience a greater loss of quality of life than do male stroke victims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the determinants of health-related quality of life in middle-aged women stroke survivors. This study is a cross-sectional design. This cross-sectional research uses a descriptive, prospective, and correlational study design to investigate the associations between latent variables. Participants included women stroke survivors, aged 45-65 years, who were patients at a medical center in Taiwan. Participants completed an interview and a six-part questionnaire comprising the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Modified Rankin Scale, Burden Scale, Chinese Health Questionnaire, and five items that pertain to the survivor's cognitive appraisal of coping. Structural equation modeling (SEM), with the use of the partial least squares (PLS) method, was used to examine the proposed conceptual model. A total of 48 dyad samples (48 female stroke survivors, mean age = 55.29; 48 caregivers, mean age = 42.71) participated in the study. Overall, women's physical functioning (PF; stroke severity), cognitive appraisal of coping, and caregiver's psychosocial functioning were the predictors, explaining 43.3% of the variance in women's health-related quality of life. We found that female stroke survivors' level of stroke severity and negative appraisal-impact of stroke are significant predictors of the stroke survivor's quality of life. In addition to assisting women in their PF rehabilitation, rehabilitation nurses also should help to develop survivors' self-care confidence as a means to avoid the recurrence of stroke.

  6. Prior parity positively regulates learning and memory in young and middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimberknopf, Erica; Xavier, Gilberto F; Kinsley, Craig H; Felicio, Luciano F

    2011-08-01

    Reproductive experience in female rats modifies acquired behaviors, induces long-lasting functional neuroadaptations and can also modify spatial learning and memory. The present study supports and expands this knowledge base by employing the Morris water maze, which measures spatial memory. Age-matched young adult (YNG) nulliparous (NULL; nonmated) and primiparous (PRIM; one pregnancy and lactation) female rats were tested 15 d after the litter's weaning. In addition, corresponding middle-aged (AGD) PRIM (mated in young adulthood so that pregnancy, parturition, and lactation occurred at the same age as in YNG PRIM) and NULL female rats were tested at 18 mo of age. Behavioral evaluation included: 1) acquisition of reference memory (platform location was fixed for 14 to 19 d of testing); 2) retrieval of this information associated with extinction of the acquired response (probe test involving removal of the platform 24 h after the last training session); and 3) performance in a working memory version of the task (platform presented in a novel location every day for 13 d, and maintained in a fixed location within each day). YNG PRIM outperformed NULL rats and showed different behavioral strategies. These results may be related to changes in locomotor, mnemonic, and cognitive processes. In addition, YNG PRIM exhibited less anxiety-like behavior. Compared with YNG rats, AGD rats showed less behavioral flexibility but stronger memory consolidation. These data, which were obtained by using a well-documented spatial task, demonstrate long lasting modifications of behavioral strategies in both YNG and AGD rats associated with a single reproductive experience.

  7. Cannabis use patterns and motives: A comparison of younger, middle-aged, and older medical cannabis dispensary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Nancy A; Padula, Claudia B; Sottile, James E; Vandrey, Ryan; Heinz, Adrienne J; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2017-09-01

    Medical cannabis is increasingly being used for a variety of health conditions as more states implement legislation permitting medical use of cannabis. Little is known about medical cannabis use patterns and motives among adults across the lifespan. The present study examined data collected at a medical cannabis dispensary in San Francisco, California. Participants included 217 medical cannabis patients who were grouped into age-defined cohorts (younger: 18-30, middle-aged: 31-50, and older: 51-72). The age groups were compared on several measures of cannabis use, motives and medical conditions using one-way ANOVAs, chi-square tests and linear regression analyses. All three age groups had similar frequency of cannabis use over the past month; however, the quantity of cannabis used and rates of problematic cannabis use were higher among younger users relative to middle-aged and older adults. The association between age and problematic cannabis use was moderated by age of regular use initiation such that earlier age of regular cannabis use onset was associated with more problematic use in the younger users, but not among older users. Middle-aged adults were more likely to report using medical cannabis for insomnia, while older adults were more likely to use medical cannabis for chronic medical problems such as cancer, glaucoma and HIV/AIDS. Younger participants reported cannabis use when bored at a greater rate than middle-aged and older adults. Findings suggest that there is an age-related risk for problematic cannabis use among medical cannabis users, such that younger users should be monitored for cannabis use patterns that may lead to deleterious consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cannabis Use Patterns and Motives: A Comparison of Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Medical Cannabis Dispensary Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Nancy A.; Padula, Claudia B.; Sottile, James E.; Vandrey, Ryan; Heinz, Adrienne J.; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Medical cannabis is increasingly being used for a variety of health conditions as more states implement legislation permitting medical use of cannabis. Little is known about medical cannabis use patterns and motives among adults across the lifespan. Methods The present study examined data collected at a medical cannabis dispensary in San Francisco, California. Participants included 217 medical cannabis patients who were grouped into age-defined cohorts (younger: 18–30, middle-aged: 31–50, and older: 51–72). The age groups were compared on several measures of cannabis use, motives and medical conditions using one-way ANOVAs, chi-square tests and linear regression analyses. Results All three age groups had similar frequency of cannabis use over the past month; however, the quantity of cannabis used and rates of problematic cannabis use were higher among younger users relative to middle-aged and older adults. The association between age and problematic cannabis use was moderated by age of regular use initiation such that earlier age of regular cannabis use onset was associated with more problematic use in the younger users, but not among older users. Middle-aged adults were more likely to report using medical cannabis for insomnia, while older adults were more likely to use medical cannabis for chronic medical problems such as cancer, glaucoma and HIV/AIDS. Younger participants reported cannabis use when bored at a greater rate than middle-aged and older adults. Conclusions Findings suggest that there is an age-related risk for problematic cannabis use among medical cannabis users, such that younger users should be monitored for cannabis use patterns that may lead to deleterious consequences. PMID:28340421

  9. Sexual activity and perceived health among Finnish middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenius Hans

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing awareness of the need to address sexual and orgasm experiences as part of life quality and an understanding of the great individual differences between women play roles in women's health and medical care across the specialities. Information is lacking as to how negative attitude toward self (NATS and performance impairment (PI are associated with sexual activity of middle-aged women. We examined the associations of sexual experience, orgasm experience, and lack of sexual desire with perceived health and potential explanatory variables of NATS and PI. Methods Questionnaire was mailed to 2 population-based random samples of menopausal or soon-to-be menopausal women (n = 5510, 70% response stratified according to age (42–46 and 52–56 years. In multivariate analyses of the associations with the outcome variables, perceived health, NATS, and PI were used as covariates in 6 models in which exercise, menstrual symptoms, and illness indicators were taken into account as well. Results Sexual activity variables were associated with perceived health. When present, NATS formed associations with sexual and orgasm experiences, whereas strenuous exercise formed associations with orgasm among 42–46-year-old women alone. Strenuous exercise was not associated with orgasm experience among older women. Conclusion NATS and PI are closely tied to orgasm experiences and the meaning of the roles needs to be exposed. Sexual activity deserves to be addressed more actively in patient contact at least with perimenopausal women.

  10. Body Mass Index Trajectories among Middle-Aged and Elderly Canadians and Associated Health Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Whether there is heterogeneity in the development of BMI from middle-age onward is still unknown. The primary aim of this study is to analyze long-term obesity and how BMI trajectories are associated with health outcomes in midlife. Methods. Latent Class Growth Modelling was used to capture the changes in BMI over time. In this study, 3070 individuals from the National Population Health Survey (NPHS, aged 40–55 years at baseline, were included. Results. Four BMI trajectory groups, “Normal-Stable” (N-S, “Overweight-Stable” (OV-S, “Obese I-Stable” (OB I-S, and “Obese II-Stable” (OB II-S, were identified. Men, persons of White ancestry, and individuals who had no postsecondary education had higher odds of being in the latter three groups. Moreover, members of the OV-S, OB I-S, and OB II-S groups experienced more asthma, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, cognitive impairment, and reduced self-rated overall health. Individuals in the OB II-S group were at greater risk for back problems, chronic bronchitis or emphysema, and emotional issues when compared to the N-S group. Conclusion. Understanding different BMI trajectories is important in order to identify people who are at the highest risk of developing comorbidities due to obesity and to establish programs to intervene appropriately.

  11. Depressive symptomatology in middle-aged and older married couples: a dyadic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, A L; Miller, B; Guo, S

    2001-11-01

    Depressive symptomatology has been frequently conceptualized as an individual matter, but social contextual models argue that symptom levels are likely to covary in close relationships. The present study investigated correlation between spouses' depressive symptomatology in middle-aged and older married couples, the influence of gender and race/ethnicity in predicting variability in symptom level, and the importance of individual-level covariates (education, health, and age) and couple-level covariates (household income and net worth). Results were based on secondary analysis of Wave 1 interviews with White, Black, and Mexican American married couples (N = 5,423) from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and the Study of Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD). Dyadic data from husbands and wives were analyzed with multilevel modeling. Husbands' and wives' depressive symptoms were moderately correlated, gender and race/ethnicity (and their interaction) predicted depressive symptoms, and both individual-level and couple-level characteristics were significant covariates. Similarities as well as differences are noted between the HRS and AHEAD results. Results highlight the importance of dyadic data and multilevel models for understanding depressive symptomatology in married couples. The influence of race/ethnicity merits greater attention in future research. Differences in findings between HRS and AHEAD suggest life-course, cohort, or methodological influences.

  12. Gender moderates the associations between attachment and discrete emotions in late middle age and later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S; Fiori, Katherine L

    2009-11-01

    Although patterns of attachment have been linked to patterns of emotional experience, studies in developmentally diverse samples are few and have not yet examined possible gender differences in attachment or their implications for emotional wellbeing. This article describes patterns of attachment in a diverse sample of 616 men and women from middle age and later life, examines the relations between attachment and nine discrete emotions, and tests the thesis that gender moderates these associations. Convenience sampling was used to derive a sample of 616 ethnically diverse men and women from seven ethnic groups. Multiple regressions controlling for demographics found no gender differences in attachment categorizations although men reported greater dimensional fearful avoidance. Security predicted greater joy and interest whereas dismissingness was associated with lower shame and fear and with greater interest. Both preoccupation and fearful avoidance predicted most negative emotions but were not associated with positive emotions. Finally, gender moderated these associations such that (a) attachment security was more closely related to interest and, marginally, joy, among men; (b) fearful avoidance was more closely related to fear and contempt among men; and (c) preoccupation was associated with greater interest among men, whereas fear and contempt were associated with preoccupation among women only. Interpreted in the context of theories of emotions, the social origins of emotional experience, and the different roles that social relationships have for aging men and women, our data imply that attachment styles may differentially predict male emotions because of their less diverse networks.

  13. Organisational justice and cognitive function in middle-aged employees: the Whitehall II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Ferrie, Jane E; Shipley, Martin; Gimeno, David; De Vogli, Roberto; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Marmot, Michael G; Kivimäki, Mika

    2012-06-01

    Little is known about the role that work-related factors play in the decline of cognitive function. This study examined the association between perceived organisational justice and cognitive function among middle-aged men and women. Perceived organisational justice was measured at phases 1 (1985-8) and 2 (1989-90) of the Whitehall II study when the participants were 35-55 years old. Assessment of cognitive function at the screening clinic at phases 5 (1997-9) and 7 (2003-4) included the following tests in the screening clinic: memory, inductive reasoning (Alice Heim 4), vocabulary (Mill Hill), and verbal fluency (phonemic and semantic). Mean exposure to lower organisational justice at phases 1 and 2 in relation to cognitive function at phases 5 and 7 were analysed using linear regression analyses. The final sample included 4531 men and women. Lower mean levels of justice at phases 1 and 2 were associated with worse cognitive function in terms of memory, inductive reasoning, vocabulary and verbal fluency at both phases 5 and 7. These associations were independent of covariates, such as age, occupational grade, behavioural risks, depression, hypertension and job strain. This study suggests an association between perceived organisational justice and cognitive function. Further studies are needed to examine whether interventions designed to improve organisational justice would affect employees' cognition function favourably.

  14. Modeling practice effects in healthy middle-aged participants of the Alzheimer and Families parent cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Gispert, Juan D; Fauria, Karine; Molinuevo, José Luis; Gramunt, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive administration of neuropsychological tests can lead to performance improvement merely due to previous exposure. The magnitude of such practice effects (PEs) may be used as a marker of subtle cognitive impairment because they are diminished in healthy individuals subsequently developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). To explore the relationship between sociodemographic factors, AD family history (FH), and APOE ε4 status, and the magnitude of PE, four subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV were administered twice to 400 middle-aged healthy individuals, most of them first-degree descendants of AD patients. PEs were observed in all measures. Sociodemographic variables did not show a uniform effect on PE. Baseline score was the strongest predictor of change, being inversely related to PE magnitude. Significant effects of the interaction term APOE ε4 ∗ Age in processing speed and working memory were observed. PEs exert a relevant effect in cognitive outcomes at retest and, accordingly, they must be taken into consideration in clinical trials. The magnitude of PE in processing speed and working memory could be of special interest for the development of cognitive markers of preclinical AD.

  15. The Nubian Complex of Dhofar, Oman: an African middle stone age industry in Southern Arabia.

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    Jeffrey I Rose

    Full Text Available Despite the numerous studies proposing early human population expansions from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene, no archaeological sites have yet been discovered in Arabia that resemble a specific African industry, which would indicate demographic exchange across the Red Sea. Here we report the discovery of a buried site and more than 100 new surface scatters in the Dhofar region of Oman belonging to a regionally-specific African lithic industry--the late Nubian Complex--known previously only from the northeast and Horn of Africa during Marine Isotope Stage 5, ∼128,000 to 74,000 years ago. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates from the open-air site of Aybut Al Auwal in Oman place the Arabian Nubian Complex at ∼106,000 years ago, providing archaeological evidence for the presence of a distinct northeast African Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia sometime in the first half of Marine Isotope Stage 5.

  16. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670. More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p Conclusion Attitudes play an important role in cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias.

  17. Association of Renal Function and Menopausal Status with Bone Mineral Density in Middle-aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Yueh-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Lee, Yue-Yuan; Tsao, Chwen-Keng; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-10-13

    The association between mild renal dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) has not been fully explored. It is also unclear how menopausal status and the use of Chinese herb affect this association. This is a cross-sectional study that included a total of 1,419 women aged 40 to 55 years old who were recruited from the MJ Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2009 and 2010. Spinal BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine clearance rate (CCr). The multivariable logistic regression and general linear models were employed to assess the association between renal function and BMD. Stratification analyses were performed by menopausal status and use of Chinese herbs. Low CCr levels were significantly associated with low BMD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.90]. This association was observed in premenopausal women (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.07-1.92) and in women not taking Chinese herbs (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.14-1.94). CCr is a better predictor for low BMD in middle-aged women. Menopausal status and the use of Chinese herbs also affected this association.

  18. Daily physical activity enhances resilient resources for symptom management in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Moé; Elavsky, Steriani

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the direct and indirect associations between physical activity and menopausal symptoms. Community-dwelling middle-aged women (N = 103; age range 40-60 years) completed daily Internet surveys at the end of the day and wore an accelerometer for the objective assessment of physical activity for 21-days. 1-1-1 multilevel mediation models were estimated to test whether resilient resources (i.e., positive affect and coping efficacy) mediated the association between physical activity and symptom burden at the between- and within-person level. Analyses demonstrated physical activity had an indirect effect (-0.16) on symptom burden through the enhancement of positive affect at the within-person level (p physical activity on symptom burden at the within-person level was -0.08 (p physical activity may help a woman to cope with her symptoms is through the enhancement of positive affect and coping efficacy on a day-to-day basis. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Gender differences in the association between morbidity and mortality among middle-aged men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Manoux, Archana; Guéguen, Alice; Ferrie, Jane; Shipley, Martin; Martikainen, Pekka; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Goldberg, Marcel; Marmot, Michael

    2008-12-01

    We examined gender differences in mortality, morbidity, and the association between the 2. We used health data from 2 studies of middle-aged men and women: the British Whitehall II cohort of employees from 20 civil service departments in London and the 1989 French GAZEL (this acronym refers to the French gas and electric companies) of employees of France's national gas and electricity company. Participants were aged 35 to 55 years when assessed for morbidity and followed up for mortality over 17 years. Male mortality was higher than female mortality in Whitehall II (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28, 1.91) and the GAZEL cohort (HR = 1.99; CI = 1.66, 2.40). Female excess morbidity was observed for some measures in the Whitehall II data and for 1 measure in the GAZEL data. Only self-reported sickness absence in the Whitehall II data was more strongly associated with mortality among men (P = .01). Mortality was lower among women than among men, but morbidity was not consistently higher. The lack of gender differences in the association between morbidity and mortality suggests that this is not a likely explanation for the gender paradox, which refers to higher morbidity but lower mortality among women than among men.

  20. Personality traits and abnormal glucose regulation in middle-aged Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Anna-Karin; Gustavsson, J Petter; Hilding, Agneta; Granath, Fredrik; Ekbom, Anders; Ostenson, Claes-Göran

    2012-01-01

    To examine associations between personality and abnormal glucose regulation. This cross-sectional study comprised 2152 men and 3143 women (43-66 years). Oral glucose tolerance test identified 316 men and 213 women with previously unknown impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), IFG+IGT, or type 2 diabetes. Personality traits antagonism (low agreeableness), impulsivity (low conscientiousness), hedonic capacity (high extraversion), negative affectivity (high neuroticism) and alexithymia (low openness) were measured by a self-report inventory. Based on distribution of scores, responses were divided into "low" (1 SD). Middle groups were considered reference groups. Prevalence odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. In men, OR for low antagonism was 0.3 (CI 0.2-0.6) (age- and multi-adjusted models) while in women, neither high nor low antagonism was associated to abnormal glucose regulation. Men and women with high hedonic capacity had ORs 0.5 (0.3-0.9) and 0.6 (0.4-1.0), respectively (age- and multi-adjusted models). The other scales illustrated no significant associations. No elevated risk of abnormal glucose regulation was observed for deviating scores on personality scales. Instead, reduced risks were indicated in men with low antagonism, and in men and women with high hedonic capacity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanisms for decreased exercise capacity after bed rest in normal middle-aged men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, J.; Goldwater, D.; Convertino, V.A.; McKillop, J.H.; Goris, M.L.; DeBusk, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the decrease in exercise capacity after bed rest were assessed in 12 apparently healthy men aged 50 +/- 4 years who underwent equilibrium gated blood pool scintigraphy during supine and upright multistage bicycle ergometry before and after 10 days of bed rest. After bed rest, echocardiographically measured supine resting left ventricular end-diastolic volume decreased by 16% (p less than 0.05). Peak oxygen uptake during supine effort after bed rest was diminished by 6% (p . not significant [NS]), whereas peak oxygen uptake during upright effort declined by 15% (p less than 0.05). After bed rest, increases in heart rate were also greater during exercise in the upright than in the supine position (p less than 0.05). Values of left ventricular ejection fraction increased normally during both supine and upright effort after bed rest and were higher than corresponding values before bed rest (p less than 0.05). After bed rest, increased left ventricular ejection fraction and heart rate largely compensated for the reduced cardiac volume during supine effort, but these mechanisms were insufficient to maintain oxygen transport capacity at levels during upright effort before bed rest. These results indicate that orthostatically induced cardiac underfilling, not physical deconditioning or left ventricular dysfunction, is the major cause of reduced effort tolerance after 10 days of bed rest in normal middle-aged men

  2. Intima-media thickness of carotid artery in middle-aged and old-aged people with different age and sex at nanchang city by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qian; Chen Tian; Fan Ping; Yang Zhijie; Zhang Guoqiang; Liu Wei

    2010-01-01

    normal group were taken as the reference value of the middle-aged people at different age and with different sex in Nanchang city. The value of IMT in this study is little lower than the values reported by literatures in China. Age is the major dangerous factor causing the carotid atherosclerosis. Other many dangerous factors are closely related with carotid atherosclerosis, but sex is not statistically significant to cause carotid atherosclerosis. (authors)

  3. Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation Does Not Reduce Visceral Adipose Tissue in Middle-Aged Men Engaged in a Resistance-Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Clay

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation has shown convincing effects at reducing body fat in animals; yet human study results have been somewhat inconclusive. The purpose of this study is to determine whether four weeks of CLA supplementation, the approximate length of a commercial package, can result in a positive change in visceral adipose tissue in resistance-trained middle-aged men. Thirty overweight and moderately obese, but otherwise healthy male subjects (aged 35 to 55 years currently involved in resistance training, were randomly assigned into CLA and placebo groups in a double-blind, placebo controlled approach. The study lasted for 12 weeks and consisted of three four-week periods. During the first four weeks (run-in period each subject received placebo (4 g safflower oil. Throughout the next four weeks (supplementation period, the placebo group continued receiving placebo, while the CLA group received 3.2 g/d of CLA. During the final four weeks (run-out period all subjects received the placebo. Computed tomography (CT scans were used to measure visceral adipose tissue (VAT at weeks 4, 8 and 12. No significant reduction in VAT cross-sectional area was determined in the CLA group during the study. On the contrary, a significant reduction in cross-sectional area of VAT of 23.12 cm2 during the supplementation period was measured in the placebo group, which was abated during the run-out period. Our results suggest that CLA supplementation of 3.2 g/d for four weeks does not promote decreases in VAT in middle-aged men currently participating in a resistance-training program.

  4. Profound vision loss impairs psychological well-being in young and middle-aged individuals

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    Garcia GA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Giancarlo A Garcia,1,2 Matin Khoshnevis,1,3 Jesse Gale,1,4 Starleen E Frousiakis,1,5 Tiffany J Hwang,1,6 Lissa Poincenot,1 Rustum Karanjia,1,7–9 David Baron,6 Alfredo A Sadun1,7 1Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, Wellington, NZ; 5Department of Ophthalmology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 6Department of Psychiatry & The Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 7Doheny Eye Centers, Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles California, CA, USA; 8Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 9Ottawa Hospital Health Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of profound vision loss on psychological well-being in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals. In addition, we assessed the significance of the resources that may be used to enhance psychological well-being in cases of profound vision loss, and in particular, examined the utility of low vision aids and the role of the ophthalmologist as a provider of emotional support.Methods: A questionnaire was issued to individuals aged 13–65 years with profound vision loss resulting from Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON. Depression prevalence was evaluated with questions regarding major depressive disorder symptomatology. Participants appraised the effects of vision loss on their interpersonal interactions and career goals by providing an impact rating (IR on a 21-point psychometric scale from −10 to +10. Social well-being index was defined as the average of interpersonal IR and career IR

  5. The obesity epidemic slows among the middle-aged population in Sweden while the socioeconomic gap widens

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    Bernt Lindahl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity prevalence has continuously increased in Northern Sweden as elsewhere. A cohort effect has been shown and an increasing proportion of the middle-aged population is maintaining body weight. Objective: To test the hypothesis that the obesity epidemic continues but at different speeds that are dependent on socioeconomic status. Design: Cross-sectional (103,940 adults and longitudinal (26,872 adults data from the Västerbotten Intervention Program 1990–2007 were included. All adults in Västerbotten County are invited to a health examination at the ages of 40, 50, and 60 years. Body mass index (BMI and socioeconomic status, assessed by residence location, marital status, and education were evaluated. Results: BMI increased in all groups but was greater among men. During 1990–1995 and 2002–2007, mean BMIs were 25.9 and 26.8 among men and 25.2 and 25.9 among women. The trend of increasing BMI slowed around the year 2000 (p<0.001, but this was only observed among the highly educated adults in the most urbanized area. The difference between educational groups increased throughout the study period (men p=0.014, women p=0.002. Longitudinal data for both sexes showed a twofold higher baseline prevalence of obesity among individuals with basic compared to high education and it nearly doubled in all groups during the 10-year follow-up. Low education, living in a rural environment, and living alone were independent predictors of obesity development. The overall cumulative 10-year incidence was 9.4% in men, 9.1% in women, and twofold higher among those with basic and mid-level education who live in rural areas compared to those with high education who live in cities. Conclusion: The trend of increasing obesity has slowed in this middle-aged Northern Sweden population, but this trend shift occurred primarily among those with high education who live in an urban environment. Greater efforts to combat obesogenic environments are needed

  6. Evaluation of dental care and the prevalence of tooth decay among middle-aged and elderly population of Kaunas city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiene, Jurate; Milciuviene, Simona; Klumbiene, Jurate

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and the intensity of tooth decay among the middle-aged and elderly population of Kaunas, city, and to assess the need for prostheses as well as the possibilities for oral care. During 2006-2008, we studied 1,141 inhabitants of Kaunas city; the subjects' age was 45-72 years. Oral evaluation technique proposed by the WHO was used in the investigation. We evaluated the prevalence of tooth decay, and its intensity was evaluated using the DMF-T index. We also evaluated dental prostheses, the need for prosthetics, and asked the subjects how they took care of their oral health. The prevalence of tooth decay among middle-aged and elderly population of Kaunas city was 99.9%. The DMF-T index was 21.01+/-0.3 in the age group of 45-54 years, 23.52+/-0.4 - in the age group of 55-64 years, and 25.63+/-0.3 - in the elderly subjects. Full removable dentures were found in 14.0% of the elderly subjects, while 1.0% of the middle-aged subjects and 1.2% of the elderly subjects required full dentures. 57.7% of the subjects aged 45-54 years, 53.1% of the subjects aged 55-64 years, and 43.4% of the elderly subjects brushed their teeth twice daily. The intensity of tooth decay in middle-aged and elderly population of Kaunas city significantly increased with age (21.01-25.63). A relationship was found between oral hygiene status and the DMF-T index. In the middle-aged and elderly population of Kaunas city, the intensity of tooth decay was significantly lower (DMF-T 23.04%) among those who brushed their teeth twice daily than among those who brushed their teeth once daily or less frequently (DMF-T 24.01%). Reduction of the prevalence of tooth decay among middle-aged and elderly population of Kaunas city necessitates alterations in people's attitudes towards dental care, implementation of suitable hygiene habits, and creation and implementation of the dental disease prevention program for adults and the elderly, based on the strategy

  7. Impaired insulin signaling and spatial learning in middle-aged rats: The role of PTP1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuga, Gabriel Keine; Muñoz, Vitor Rosetto; Gaspar, Rafael Calais; Nakandakari, Susana Castelo Branco Ramos; da Silva, Adelino Sanchez Ramos; Botezelli, José Diego; Leme, José Alexandre Curiacos de Almeida; Gomes, Ricardo José; de Moura, Leandro Pereira; Cintra, Dennys Esper; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2018-04-01

    The insulin and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signaling in the hippocampus promotes synaptic plasticity and memory formation. On the other hand, aging is related to the cognitive decline and is the main risk factor for Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is related to several deleterious processes in neurons and emerges as a promising target for new therapies. In this context, our study aims to investigate the age-related changes in PTP1B content, insulin signaling, β-amyloid content, and Tau phosphorylation in the hippocampus of middle-aged rats. Young (3 months) and middle-aged (17 months) Wistar rats were submitted to Morris-water maze (MWM) test, insulin tolerance test, and molecular analysis in the hippocampus. Aging resulted in increased body weight, and insulin resistance and decreases learning process in MWM. Interestingly, the middle-aged rats have higher levels of PTP-1B, lower phosphorylation of IRS-1, Akt, GSK3β, mTOR, and TrkB. Also, the aging process increased Tau phosphorylation and β-amyloid content in the hippocampus region. In summary, this study provides new evidence that aging-related PTP1B increasing, contributing to insulin resistance and the onset of the AD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationships among the Y balance test, Berg Balance Scale, and lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kyu Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Older females have less dynamic postural control and muscle strength than do middle-aged females. Aging-related strength losses may limit balancing performance. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of the Y Balance Test (YBT and lower limb strength to discriminate between females in 2 age groups, the relationship between YBT distance and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and the degree to which performance on YBT distance is related to lower limb strength in middle-aged and older females. Method: The 40 healthy, independently active females were divided into 2 groups: older and middle-aged. The participants underwent measurements of YBT distance using the YBT, maximal muscular strength of the lower limbs using a handheld dynamometer, and the BBS. Results: The YBT distance in 3 directions and lower limb muscle strength for both lower limbs were significantly lower in the older adults than in the middle-aged group. A moderate correlation but insignificant correlation was found between the YBT composite distance and the BBS score. In the older females, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip abductor. In the middle-aged group, YBT distance was significantly positively correlated with strength of the knee flexor and hip extensor. Conclusions: Performance on the YBT was influenced by the strength of lower limb. We suggested that YBT can be used to alternative as a measurement of dynamic balance. Proper training programs for older people could include not only strengthening exercises but also YBT performance to improve balance.

  9. Long-term smoking causes more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naya, Masanao; Goto, Daisuke; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Morita, Koichi; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Yoshinaga, Keiichiro [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Imaging, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Health Science, Sapporo (Japan)

    2011-03-15

    Smoking cessation has been shown to normalize the coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers. However, its effect has not been explored in middle-aged smokers with a longer history of smoking. Therefore, we compared the effects of smoking cessation on coronary vasomotor response between both young and middle-aged smokers and identified the predictor for its improvement. This study investigated 14 young healthy smokers (age 25.2 {+-} 2.3 years), 13 middle-aged smokers (age 42.0 {+-} 6.5 years) and 10 non-smokers. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using {sup 15}O-water positron emission tomography (PET). At baseline, the ratio of MBF during the cold pressor test (CPT) to that at rest (MBF{sub CPT/rest}), the index of coronary endothelial function, was significantly decreased in both young and middle-aged smokers compared to non-smokers (1.24 {+-} 0.20 and 1.10 {+-} 0.39 vs 1.53 {+-} 0.18, p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). The ratio of MBF during adenosine triphosphate infusion to that at rest was significantly decreased in middle-aged smokers compared to young smokers and non-smokers (3.34 {+-} 1.52 vs 4.43 {+-} 0.92 and 4.69 {+-} 1.25, p < 0.05, respectively). MBF{sub CPT/rest} at 1 month after smoking cessation significantly increased in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers. By multivariate analysis, baseline serum malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) was an independent predictor for the changes in MBF{sub CPT/rest} after smoking cessation ({beta} = -0.45, p < 0.05). Coronary endothelial dysfunction was reversible by short-term smoking cessation in young smokers, but not in middle-aged smokers, which was associated with serum MDA-LDL levels. Long-term smoking exposure could lead to more advanced coronary endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis possibly via oxidative stress. (orig.)

  10. A New Chronology for Rhafas, Northeast Morocco, Spanning the North African Middle Stone Age through to the Neolithic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerschner, Nina; Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E; Ditchfield, Peter; McLaren, Sue J; Steele, Teresa E; Zielhofer, Christoph; McPherron, Shannon P; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    Archaeological sites in northern Africa provide a rich record of increasing importance for the origins of modern human behaviour and for understanding human dispersal out of Africa. However, the timing and nature of Palaeolithic human behaviour and dispersal across north-western Africa (the Maghreb), and their relationship to local environmental conditions, remain poorly understood. The cave of Rhafas (northeast Morocco) provides valuable chronological information about cultural changes in the Maghreb during the Palaeolithic due to its long stratified archaeological sequence comprising Middle Stone Age (MSA), Later Stone Age (LSA) and Neolithic occupation layers. In this study, we apply optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating on sand-sized quartz grains to the cave deposits of Rhafas, as well as to a recently excavated section on the terrace in front of the cave entrance. We hereby provide a revised chronostratigraphy for the archaeological sequence at the site. We combine these results with geological and sedimentological multi-proxy investigations to gain insights into site formation processes and the palaeoenvironmental record of the region. The older sedimentological units at Rhafas were deposited between 135 ka and 57 ka (MIS 6 -MIS 3) and are associated with the MSA technocomplex. Tanged pieces start to occur in the archaeological layers around 109 ka, which is consistent with previously published chronological data from the Maghreb. A well indurated duricrust indicates favourable climatic conditions for the pedogenic cementation by carbonates of sediment layers at the site after 57 ka. Overlying deposits attributed to the LSA technocomplex yield ages of ~21 ka and ~15 ka, corresponding to the last glacial period, and fall well within the previously established occupation phase in the Maghreb. The last occupation phase at Rhafas took place during the Neolithic and is dated to ~7.8 ka.

  11. A New Chronology for Rhafas, Northeast Morocco, Spanning the North African Middle Stone Age through to the Neolithic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Doerschner

    Full Text Available Archaeological sites in northern Africa provide a rich record of increasing importance for the origins of modern human behaviour and for understanding human dispersal out of Africa. However, the timing and nature of Palaeolithic human behaviour and dispersal across north-western Africa (the Maghreb, and their relationship to local environmental conditions, remain poorly understood. The cave of Rhafas (northeast Morocco provides valuable chronological information about cultural changes in the Maghreb during the Palaeolithic due to its long stratified archaeological sequence comprising Middle Stone Age (MSA, Later Stone Age (LSA and Neolithic occupation layers. In this study, we apply optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating on sand-sized quartz grains to the cave deposits of Rhafas, as well as to a recently excavated section on the terrace in front of the cave entrance. We hereby provide a revised chronostratigraphy for the archaeological sequence at the site. We combine these results with geological and sedimentological multi-proxy investigations to gain insights into site formation processes and the palaeoenvironmental record of the region. The older sedimentological units at Rhafas were deposited between 135 ka and 57 ka (MIS 6 -MIS 3 and are associated with the MSA technocomplex. Tanged pieces start to occur in the archaeological layers around 109 ka, which is consistent with previously published chronological data from the Maghreb. A well indurated duricrust indicates favourable climatic conditions for the pedogenic cementation by carbonates of sediment layers at the site after 57 ka. Overlying deposits attributed to the LSA technocomplex yield ages of ~21 ka and ~15 ka, corresponding to the last glacial period, and fall well within the previously established occupation phase in the Maghreb. The last occupation phase at Rhafas took place during the Neolithic and is dated to ~7.8 ka.

  12. Dynapenic Obesity and Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Japanese Men

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    Ryoko Kawakami

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The independent and combined associations of muscle strength and obesity on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men remain unclear. Methods: Hand grip strength was cross-sectionally evaluated between 2011 and 2013 to assess muscle strength in 5039 male workers aged 40 to 64 years. Weight and height were measured, and overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL and/or hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% and/or self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, was evaluated. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the prevalence of type 2 diabetes were obtained using a logistic regression model. Results: In total, 611 participants had type 2 diabetes, and 1763 participants were overweight/obese. After adjustment for covariates, we found an inverse association between muscle strength and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (P for trend <0.01. In addition, when the analyses were stratified by obesity status, the multivariable-adjusted OR per 2-standard-deviation increase in muscle strength was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.49–0.83 in the overweight/obese group, compared to a weaker relationship in the normal-weight group (OR 0.79 per 2-standard-deviation increase; 95% CI, 0.60–1.06. Conclusions: Dynapenia, an age-related decrease in muscle strength, is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and this relationship is stronger in overweight/obese middle-aged Japanese men than in normal-weight men.

  13. Disability Among Middle-Aged and Older Persons With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johs, Nikolas A; Wu, Kunling; Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Koletar, Susan L; Kalayjian, Robert C; Ellis, Ronald J; Taiwo, Babafemi; Palella, Frank J; Erlandson, Kristine M

    2017-07-01

    Older human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults may experience higher rates of frailty and disability than the general population. Improved understanding of the prevalence, risk factors, and types of impairment can better inform providers and the healthcare system. HIV-infected participants within the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5322 HAILO study self-reported disability by the Lawton-Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Questionnaire. Frailty was measured by 4-m walk time, grip strength, self-reported weight loss, exhaustion, and low activity. Logistic regression models identified characteristics associated with any IADL impairment. Agreement between IADL impairment and frailty was assessed using the weighted kappa statistic. Of 1015 participants, the median age was 51 years, 15% were aged ≥60 years, 19% were female, 29% black, and 20% Hispanic. At least 1 IADL impairment was reported in 18% of participants, most commonly with housekeeping (48%) and transportation (36%) and least commonly with medication management (5%). In multivariable models, greater disability was significantly associated with neurocognitive impairment, lower education, Medicare/Medicaid insurance (vs private/other coverage), smoking, and low physical activity. Although a greater proportion of frail participants had IADL impairment (52%) compared to non-frail (11%) persons, agreement was poor (weighted kappa disability occurs frequently among middle-aged and older HIV-infected adults on effective antiretroviral therapy. Potentially modifiable risk factors (smoking, physical activity) provide targets for interventions to maintain independent living. Systematic recognition of persons at greater risk for disability can facilitate connection to resources that may help preserve independence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Distribution of coronary calcium score in healthy middle-aged Korean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Min Jung; Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Noh, Ki Suh; Kim, Si Yon; Ko, Heung Kyu; Suh, Il

    1999-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and degree of CAC (coronary artery calcification) in appearently healthy middle-aged Koreans, and the relation of CAC to risk factors for atherosclerosis. A total of 289 apparently healthy personnel at Yonsei University (male: 170, female:119, age: mean(SD=54.9±7.1 years) underwent EBT (electron bean tomography). The risk factors for athero-sclerosis, which included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, a family history of precocious onset, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and high intraperitoneal fat, were scrutinized. One hundred and sixty-eight subjects (58%) had at least one risk factor. The CAC score was calculated for all subjects and for each coronary artery separately and was then analyzed by age and sex and in relation to the risk factors. The prevalence of CAC was 40% in men and 18.5% in women (mean score:29.7 vs. 9.9). The number of individuals who had one, two, or more than two risk factors was 141,41, and 19, respectively. The number of risk factors and the prevalence and score of CAC were significantly correlated (p=0.01, 0.02 respectively). The number of individuals with no risk factor, with without CAC, was 58(20.1%) and 103(35.6%), respectively, while the number with some risk factor, with or without CAC, was 38(13.1%) and 90(31.1%), respectively. The CAC score was significantly higher in the presence of hypertension, low HDL, or obesity(p=0.001, 0.049, and 0.068, respectively). Smoking appeared to have a borderline effect on the calcium score(p=0.118). This study should provide useful information for interpreting CAC scores and establishing a treatment strategy for Koreans. The comparison of our results with other studies will enable a better understanding of the process and risk factors of atherosclerosis in Koreans

  15. Distribution of coronary calcium score in healthy middle-aged Korean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Kim, Min Jung; Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Noh, Ki Suh; Kim, Si Yon; Ko, Heung Kyu; Suh, Il [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-11-01

    To determine the prevalence and degree of CAC (coronary artery calcification) in appearently healthy middle-aged Koreans, and the relation of CAC to risk factors for atherosclerosis. A total of 289 apparently healthy personnel at Yonsei University (male: 170, female:119, age: mean(SD=54.9{+-}7.1 years)) underwent EBT (electron bean tomography). The risk factors for athero-sclerosis, which included diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, a family history of precocious onset, obesity, hyperlipidemia, and high intraperitoneal fat, were scrutinized. One hundred and sixty-eight subjects (58%) had at least one risk factor. The CAC score was calculated for all subjects and for each coronary artery separately and was then analyzed by age and sex and in relation to the risk factors. The prevalence of CAC was 40% in men and 18.5% in women (mean score:29.7 vs. 9.9). The number of individuals who had one, two, or more than two risk factors was 141,41, and 19, respectively. The number of risk factors and the prevalence and score of CAC were significantly correlated (p=0.01, 0.02 respectively). The number of individuals with no risk factor, with without CAC, was 58(20.1%) and 103(35.6%), respectively, while the number with some risk factor, with or without CAC, was 38(13.1%) and 90(31.1%), respectively. The CAC score was significantly higher in the presence of hypertension, low HDL, or obesity(p=0.001, 0.049, and 0.068, respectively). Smoking appeared to have a borderline effect on the calcium score(p=0.118). This study should provide useful information for interpreting CAC scores and establishing a treatment strategy for Koreans. The comparison of our results with other studies will enable a better understanding of the process and risk factors of atherosclerosis in Koreans.

  16. Correlation of Menopausal Symptoms and Quality of Life with Physical Performance in Middle-Aged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rívea Trindade da; Câmara, Saionara Maria Aires da; Moreira, Mayle Andrade; Nascimento, Rafaela Andrade do; Vieira, Mariana Carmem Apolinário; Morais, Maria Socorro Medeiros de; Maciel, Álvaro Campos Cavalcanti

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Some studies have investigated the influence of hormonal deficits and menopausal status in muscle disorders of women. However, it has not been investigated the relationship of both climacteric symptoms and the perception of quality of life with physical performance. Objective To evaluate the correlation of menopausal symptoms and quality of life with physical performance in middle-aged women. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed from April to November 2013 in the municipality of Parnamirim, in the Brazilian state, Rio Grande do Norte. The sample was composed of 497 women aged 40-65 years. The Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and the Utian Quality of Life (UQOL) questionnaire were used to evaluate menopausal symptoms and quality of life respectively. Measures of physical performance included handgrip strength, knee extensor and flexor strengths (using an isometric dynamometer), gait speed, and chair stand test. The correlation between menopausal symptoms and quality of life with physical performance was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient with significance set at p correlation between handgrip strength and somatic MRS score (p = 0.002) and total MRS score (p = 0.03). There was a significant correlation between knee flexor strength and sit-to-stand time and all menopausal symptom areas (p correlation between physical performance of the knee flexors and quality of life items including occupational (p = 0.001), emotional (p = 0.005), and total UQOL (p = 0.01), but a negative correlation with sit-to-stand time and all quality of life domains (p < 0.05). Conclusion A greater intensity of menopausal symptoms and worse quality of life were related with worse physical performance. Thus, preventive measures should be implemented to avoid adverse effects on physical performance at more advanced ages. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  17. Application of small intestine decompression combined with oral feeding in middle and late period of malignant small bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dechun; Du, Hongtao; Shao, Guoqing; Guo, Yongtuan; Lu, Wan; Li, Ruihong

    2017-07-01

    The application value of small intestine decompression combined with oral feeding in the middle and late period of malignant small bowel obstruction was examined. A total of 22 patients with advanced malignant small bowel obstruction were included in the present study. An ileus tube was inserted via the nose under fluoroscopy into the obstructed small intestine of each patient. At the same time, the insertion depth the of the catheter was adjusted. When the catheter was blocked, small bowel selective angiography was performed to determine the location and cause of the obstruction and the extent of the obstruction, and to determine the length of the small intestine in the site of obstruction, and to select the variety and tolerance of enteral nutrition. We observed the decompression tube flow and ease of intestinal obstruction. In total, 20 patients were treated with oral enteral nutrition after abdominal distension, and 22 cases were treated by the nose to observe the drainage and the relief of intestinal obstruction. The distal end of the catheter was placed in a predetermined position. The symptoms of intestinal obstruction were relieved 1-4 days after decompression. The 22 patients with selective angiography of the small intestine showed positive X-ray signs: 18 patients with oral enteral nutrition therapy had improved the nutritional situation 2 weeks later. In 12 cases, where there was anal defecation exhaust, 2 had transient removal of intestinal obstruction catheter. In conclusion, this comprehensive treatment based on small intestine decompression combined with enteral nutrition is expected to become a new therapeutic approach and method for the treatment of patients with advanced tumor small bowel obstruction.

  18. Age, period and cohort effects on adult physical activity levels from 1991 to 2011 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jiajie; Ng, Shu Wen

    2016-04-20

    To date no work has differentiated the effects of age, period, and cohort on physical activity (PA) among Chinese adults, while also considering biological, behavioral, economic, and environmental factors over time. We used data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) between 1991 and 2011 (20 years). The outcomes of interest are metabolic equivalent of task (MET) hours per week from work and domestic activities. Age, individual characteristics, household size, asset ownership, urbanization were included as covariates. Analyses for adult (≥20y) males (n = 29,343) and females (n = 31,094) was conducted to explicitly assess differences in PA due to age vs period effects, and implicitly assess differences by cohorts due to the period-specific experiences across individuals of varying ages. The mean age of the sample rose from 41.31 to 50.8 years and PA decreased from 427.75 ± 264.35 MET hours per week (MET-hr/wk) in 1991 to 245.99 ± 206.65 MET-hr/wk in 2011, with much steeper declines for women compared to men. For both genders, we found non-linear decreases in PA with age over time. Controlling for age effects, negative period effects on PA were observed in each survey year, and were substantial from 1993 to 2000 for males and from 1993 to 2011 for females. The interaction between survey year and age (P < 0.05) were observed from 2004 to 2011. Higher community urbanicity, vehicle ownership, TV and computer ownership, overweight and obese, higher education served as negative predictors. Bicycle ownership, bigger household size, non-professional jobs, being married and having more children (for women) were positive predictors of PA (P < 0.05). Furthermore, at any given age, individuals who were younger at baseline had higher mean PA compared with individuals older at baseline. This study followed a large cohort of adults over a significant portion of their lives. Strong age and secular trends were observed, resulting in an

  19. The wood charcoal production in the kingdom of Córdoba at the end of the Middle Ages: an example of exploitation of the Mediterranean mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier López Rider

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate and explain, the practice of wood charcoal production in the kingdom of Córdoba during the Middle Ages Period. In the absence of anthracological studies; the documentary sources reveal the typology of existing charcoals, how this raw material was obtained, which its uses were, how it was transported to the city and in wich ways it was commercialized. Thanks to all this information we come to understand the importance of wood charcoal production for our ancestors, who have left us a carboniferous legacy we still use.

  20. Obstructive sleep apnoea and atopy among middle aged chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Nagar, Devender; Mallick, Adeeb; Kumar, Manoj; Tarke, Chandrakant R; Goel, Nitin

    2013-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome is associated with significant morbidity. A high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) symptoms has been reported in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There are limited studies regarding relationship between atopy and OSA. To study the risk of obstructive sleep apnoea among middle aged chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma patients by a home based sleep study and its association with atopy. Patients with asthma and COPD were evaluated for OSA symptoms by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) and Berlin questionnaire (BQ). ESS score > or = 9 was considered as high risk for OSA. Patients having high risk for OSA by ESS and BQ were further evaluated for OSA by home based sleep study. Skin prick test against common allergens was done to diagnose atopy in these patients. Among 400 patients (229, 57.25% male and 171, 42.75% female) 328 were asthmatics and 72 were COPD patients. ESS and BQ was positive in 11.25% (45/400) and 18.25% (73/400) patients respectively. ESS was positive in 10.67% (35/328) of asthma and 13.88% (10/72) of COPD patients. BQ was positive in 18.29% (60/328) of asthmatic and 18.05% (13/72) of COPD patients. Skin prick test was positive in 74.16% patients. The maximum positivity was found in asthmatics (139/155, 89.68%) compared to COPD patients (16/155, 10.32%). Skin prick test was done for 40 patients out of 73 of Asthma and COPD patients who were found positive by ESS and BQ. 72.5% patients were found to be atopic. Out of 19 patients in whom home polysomnography was done, 13 patients consented for skin prick test with common aeroallergens and 9 (69.23%) patients were found to be atopic. There is an increased risk of obstructive sleep apnoea among middle aged chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma patients. Atopy could be associated with OSA. The association needs to be proved in a larger study.