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  1. Re-lanzamiento del Toyota Corolla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Saavedra Torres

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El caso refleja la dinámica de la toma de decisiones corporativas de Toyota Venezuela en el lanzamiento de la novena generación de su modelo Corolla, frente a una situación de expansión del mercado, con caídas en su participación, luego de un largo período como líder. El objetivo es desarrollar una estrategia de posicionamiento acorde con la situación del mercado y la percepción de los consumidores. El estudiante debe someter a discusión las bases de una arquitectura de marca y desarrollar un brief de comunicaciones para el desarrollo de la estrategia de posicionamiento. Se recomienda el retorno a la comunicación más localista, con fuerte énfasis en los valores y el posicionamiento de la marca Toyota.

  2. RE-LANZAMIENTO DEL TOYOTA COROLLA

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    JOSÉ LUIS SAAVEDRA TORRES

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El caso refleja la dinámica de la toma de decisiones corporativas de Toyota Venezuela en el lanzamiento de la novena generación de su modelo Corolla, frente a una situación de expansión del mercado, con caídas en su participación, luego de un largo período como líder. El objetivo es desarrollar una estrategia de posicionamiento acorde con la situación del mercado y la percepción de los consumidores. El estudiante debe someter a discusión las bases de una arquitectura de marca y desarrollar un brief de comunicaciones para el desarrollo de la estrategia de posicionamiento. Se recomienda el retorno a la comunicación más localista, con fuerte énfasis en los valores y el posicionamiento de la marca Toyota.

  3. Ecological and energy non-consuming technology for extending the freshness period of fish at positive temperatures and method for freshness control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Maria; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Popescu, G. M.; Dobrin, D. N.; Cristescu, T. M.; Stefanescu, Ioan; Steflea, Dumitru; Titescu, Ghe.

    2001-01-01

    As medium of preservation, unsalted water i.e. distillated water, deuterium depleted water, de-ionized water or mixtures of these were used. The following performance are reported: - Freshness period is of 18-24 hours at 30 deg. C, 5-18 days at 5-15 deg. C and 20-30 days at 0-5 deg. C. The method of freshness control was the measurement of unconventional tissue energies. The technology is advantageous because it is ecological, uses natural materials (unsalted water), can by applied in case of energetic crisis and contributes to the preservation of ozone layer. The technology implies very low costs and also extends by 2-6 times the shelf time the fish is kept at positive temperatures comparing with classical refrigeration method. (authors)

  4. Ornithocenosis Structure in Fresh and Wet Sudubravas of Kyiv Polissya during the Breeding Period

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    Plyha A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out in Kyiv Polissya geobotanical province, in one of most common woods type - fresh and wet sudubravas. Its purpose is to determine ornithocenosis structure in different age groups of this type of forest. To achieve that, forest bird species lists were composed, their population density and that of ecological groups of birds were calculated. In the course of the research in the breeding periods of 2013-2014, two-time surveys were carried out on 12 survey routes of total length 33 km. For further analysis, forests were divided into age groups: 0-20 years, 20-40 years, 40-60 years, 60-80 years, 80-100 years and forests over 100 years. Altogether 53 bird species were found. Species lists were poorest in the forests of 0-20 years (18 species, and richest in the forests over 100 years (39 species. Minimal population density was 473 individuals per square kilometer in the youngest forest age group of 0-20 years, maximal - 2155 individuals per square kilometer in pine forests aged over 100 years. Analysis of different population densities of ecological groups reveals steadily growing numbers of hollow-nesting birds and tree-nesting birds in accordance with aging of the forests. In older forests hollow-nesting birds constitute an absolute majority. Population density of another ecological group shows no such direct tendency.

  5. Phosphorus starvation induces post-transcriptional CHS gene silencing in Petunia corolla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Munetaka; Yamauchi, Takayoshi; Takahama, Masayoshi; Goto, Mariko; Mikano, Sachiko; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Sho; Koeda, Sota; Doi, Motoaki; Yazawa, Susumu

    2013-05-01

    The corolla of Petunia 'Magic Samba' exhibits unstable anthocyanin expression depending on its phosphorus content. Phosphorus deficiency enhanced post-transcriptional gene silencing of chalcone synthase - A in the corolla. Petunia (Petunia hybrida) 'Magic Samba' has unstable red-white bicolored corollas that respond to nutrient deficiency. We grew this cultivar hydroponically using solutions that lacked one or several nutrients to identify the specific nutrient related to anthocyanin expression in corolla. The white area of the corolla widened under phosphorus (P)-deficient conditions. When the P content of the corolla grown under P-deficient conditions dropped to 40 corollas until the plants died. Other elemental deficiencies had no clear effects on anthocyanin suppression in the corolla. After phosphate was resupplied to the P-deficient plants, anthocyanin was restored in the corollas. The expression of chalcone synthase-A (CHS-A) was suppressed in the white area that widened under P-suppressed conditions, whereas the expression of several other genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis was enhanced more in the white area than in the red area. Reddish leaves and sepals developed under the P-deficient condition, which is a typical P-deficiency symptom. Two genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis were enhanced in the reddish organs. Small interfering RNA analysis of CHS-A showed that the suppression resulted from post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Thus, it was hypothesized that the enhancement of anthocyanin biosynthetic gene expression due to P-deficiency triggered PTGS of CHS-A, which resulted in white corolla development.

  6. Pollination-Induced Corolla Wilting in Petunia hybrida Rapid Transfer through the Style of a Wilting-Inducing Substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilissen, L J; Hoekstra, F A

    1984-06-01

    Pollination or wounding of the stigma of Petunia hybrida flowers led to the generation of a wilting factor and its transfer to the corolla within 4 hours. This was concluded from the effects of time course removal of whole styles. In this 4-hour period, pollen tubes traversed only a fraction of the total distance to the ovaries. Both pollination and wounding of the stigma immediately resulted in an increase of ethylene evolution. Accelerated wilting, however, occured only when treated styles remained connected with the ovaries, and not when they were detached and left in the flower. A wilting factor was found in eluates collected from the ovarian end of the styles, only in the case of previous pollination or wounding. In such eluates, the level of the ethylene precursor 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid was below detection.These observations suggest a material nature of the wilting factor in Petunia flowers, which rapidly passes through the style to the corolla, but which is different from 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid.

  7. Ethylene regulates phosphorus remobilization and expression of a phosphate transporter (PhPT1) during petunia corolla senescence

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    Chapin, Laura J.; Jones, Michelle L.

    2009-01-01

    The programmed degradation of macromolecules during petal senescence allows the plant to remobilize nutrients from dying to developing tissues. Ethylene is involved in regulating the timing of nucleic acid degradation in petunia, but it is not clear if ethylene has a role in the remobilization of phosphorus during petal senescence. To investigate ethylene's role in nutrient remobilization, the P content of petals (collectively called the corolla) during early development and senescence was compared in ethylene-sensitive wild type Petunia×hybrida ‘Mitchell Diploid’ (MD) and transgenic petunias with reduced sensitivity to ethylene (35S::etr1-1). When compared to the total P content of corollas on the day of flower opening (the early non-senescing stage), P in MD corollas had decreased 74% by the late stage of senescence (advanced wilting). By contrast, P levels were only reduced by an average of 32% during etr1-1 corolla (lines 44568 and Z00-35-10) senescence. A high-affinity phosphate transporter, PhPT1 (PhPht1;1), was cloned from senescing petunia corollas by RT-PCR. PhPT1 expression was up-regulated during MD corolla senescence and a much smaller increase was detected during the senescence of etr1-1 petunia corollas. PhPT1 mRNA levels showed a rapid increase in detached corollas (treated at 1 d after flower opening) following treatment with low levels of ethylene (0.1 μl l-1). Transcripts accumulated in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, indicating that PhPT1 is a primary ethylene response gene. PhPT1 is a putative phosphate transporter that may function in Pi translocation during senescence. PMID:19380421

  8. Phenotypic and genotypic variability of disc flower corolla length and nectar content in sunflower

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    Joksimović Jovan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The nectar content and disc flower corolla length are the two most important parameters of attractiveness to pollinators in sunflower. The phenotypic and genotypic variability of these two traits was studied in four commercially important hybrids and their parental components in a trial with three fertilizer doses over two years. The results showed that, looking at individual genotypes, the variability of disc flower corolla length was affected the most by year (85.38-97.46%. As the study years were extremely different, the phenotypic variance of the hybrids and parental components was calculated for each year separately. In such conditions, looking at all of the crossing combinations, the largest contribution to phenotypic variance of the corolla length was that of genotype: 57.27-61.11% (NS-H-45 64.51-84.84% (Velja; 96.74-97.20% (NS-H-702 and 13.92-73.17% (NS-H-111. A similar situation was observed for the phenotypic variability of nectar content, where genotype also had the largest influence, namely 39.77-48.25% in NS-H-45; 39.06-42.51% in Velja; 31.97-72.36% in NS-H-702; and 62.13-94.96% in NS-H-111.

  9. Chemical Compositions and Antibacterial Activities of the Essential Oils from Aerial Parts and Corollas of Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz.) Ietswaart, an Endemic Species to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Cosge, Belgin; Turker, Arzu; Ipek, Arif; Gurbuz, Bilal

    2009-01-01

    Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts and corollas of Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz.) Ietswaart, an endemic Turkish flora species, were analyzed by GC-MS. The amounts of essential oil obtained from the aerial parts and the corollas were 0.73% and 0.93%, respectively. Twenty-five components in both the aerial parts oil and the corolla oil, representing 95.11% and 93.88%, respectively, were identified. The aerial parts and corolla oils were characterized by the pr...

  10. A sexually dimorphic corolla appendage affects pollen removal and floral longevity in gynodioecious Cyananthus delavayi (Campanulaceae.

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    Yang Niu

    Full Text Available The floral traits of bisexual flowers may evolve in response to selection on both male and female functions, but the relative importance of selection associated with each of these two aspects is poorly resolved. Sexually dimorphic traits in plants with unisexual flowers may reflect gender-specific selection, providing opportunities for gaining an increased understanding of the evolution of specific floral traits. We examined sexually dimorphic patterns of floral traits in perfect and female flowers of the gynodioecious species Cyananthus delavayi. A special corolla appendage, the throat hair, was investigated experimentally to examine its influences on male and female function. We found that perfect flowers have larger corollas and much longer throat hairs than female flowers, while female ones have much exerted stigmas. The presence of throat hairs prolonged the duration of pollen presentation by restricting the amount of pollen removed by pollen-collecting bees during each visit. Floral longevity was negatively related to the rate of pollen removal. When pollen removal rate was limited in perfect flowers, the duration of the female phases diminished with the increased male phase duration. There was a weak negative correlation between throat hair length and seed number per fruit in female flowers, but this correlation was not significant in perfect flowers. These results suggest that throat hairs may enhance male function in terms of prolonged pollen presentation. However, throat hairs have no obvious effect on female function in terms of seed number per fruit. The marked sexual dimorphism of this corolla appendage in C. delavayi is likely to have evolved and been maintained by gender-specific selection.

  11. Corolla morphology influences diversification rates in bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores)

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    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Blanco-Pastor, José Luis; Gómez, José M.; Vargas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The role of flower specialization in plant speciation and evolution remains controversial. In this study the evolution of flower traits restricting access to pollinators was analysed in the bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores), a monophyletic group of ∼30 species and subspecies with highly specialized corollas. Methods A time-calibrated phylogeny based on both nuclear and plastid DNA sequences was obtained using a coalescent-based method, and flower morphology was characterized by means of morphometric analyses. Directional trends in flower shape evolution and trait-dependent diversification rates were jointly analysed using recently developed methods, and morphological shifts were reconstructed along the phylogeny. Pollinator surveys were conducted for a representative sample of species. Key Results A restrictive character state (narrow corolla tube) was reconstructed in the most recent common ancestor of Linaria sect. Versicolores. After its early loss in the most species-rich clade, this character state has been convergently reacquired in multiple lineages of this clade in recent times, yet it seems to have exerted a negative influence on diversification rates. Comparative analyses and pollinator surveys suggest that the narrow- and broad-tubed flowers are evolutionary optima representing divergent strategies of pollen placement on nectar-feeding insects. Conclusions The results confirm that different forms of floral specialization can lead to dissimilar evolutionary success in terms of diversification. It is additionally suggested that opposing individual-level and species-level selection pressures may have driven the evolution of pollinator-restrictive traits in bifid toadflaxes. PMID:24142920

  12. Corolla chirality does not contribute to directed pollen movement in Hypericum perforatum (Hypericaceae): mirror image pinwheel flowers function as radially symmetric flowers in pollination.

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    Diller, Carolina; Fenster, Charles B

    2016-07-01

    Corolla chirality, the pinwheel arrangement of petals within a flower, is found throughout the core eudicots. In 15 families, different chiral type flowers (i.e., right or left rotated corolla) exist on the same plant, and this condition is referred to as unfixed/enantiomorphic corolla chirality. There are no investigations on the significance of unfixed floral chirality on directed pollen movement even though analogous mirror image floral designs, for example, enantiostyly, has evolved in response to selection to direct pollinator and pollen movement. Here, we examine the role of corolla chirality on directing pollen transfer, pollinator behavior, and its potential influence on disassortative mating. We quantified pollen transfer and pollinator behavior and movement for both right and left rotated flowers in two populations of Hypericum perforatum. In addition, we quantified the number of right and left rotated flowers at the individual level. Pollinators were indifferent to corolla chirality resulting in no difference in pollen deposition between right and left flowers. Corolla chirality had no effect on pollinator and pollen movement between and within chiral morphs. Unlike other mirror image floral designs, corolla chirality appears to play no role in promoting disassortative mating in this species.

  13. Feeling Fresh

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    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Feeling Fresh KidsHealth / For Teens / Feeling Fresh Print en español La higiene femenina As ... the other products that claim to make women feel cleaner and fresher. But do these work? And ...

  14. Corolla herbivory, pollination success and fruit predation in complex flowers: an experimental study with Linaria lilacina (Scrophulariaceae).

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    Sánchez-Lafuente, Alfonso M

    2007-02-01

    Herbivory on floral structures has been postulated to influence the evolution of floral traits in some plant species, and may also be an important factor influencing the occurrence and outcome of subsequent biotic interactions related to floral display. In particular, corolla herbivory may affect structures differentially involved in flower selection by pollinators and fruit predators (specifically, those ovopositing in ovaries prior to fruit development); hence floral herbivores may influence the relationships between these mutualistic and antagonistic agents. The effects of corolla herbivory in Linaria lilacina (Scrophulariaceae), a plant species with complex flowers, were considered in relation to plant interactions with pollinators and fruit predators. Tests were made as to whether experimentally created differences in flower structure (resembling those occurring naturally) may translate into differences in reproductive output in terms of fruit or seed production. Flowers with modified corollas, particularly those with lower lips removed, were less likely to be selected by pollinators than control flowers, and were less likely to be successfully visited and pollinated. As a consequence, fruit production was also less likely in these modified flowers. However, none of the experimental treatments affected the likelihood of visitation by fruit predators. Since floral herbivory may affect pollinator visitation rates and reduce seed production, differences among plants in the proportion of flowers affected by herbivory and in the intensity of the damage inflicted on affected flowers may result in different opportunities for reproduction for plants in different seasons.

  15. Chemical Compositions and Antibacterial Activities of the Essential Oils from Aerial Parts and Corollas of Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz. Ietswaart, an Endemic Species to Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Cosge

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts and corollas of Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz. Ietswaart, an endemic Turkish flora species, were analyzed by GC-MS. The amounts of essential oil obtained from the aerial parts and the corollas were 0.73% and 0.93%, respectively. Twenty-five components in both the aerial parts oil and the corolla oil, representing 95.11% and 93.88%, respectively, were identified. The aerial parts and corolla oils were characterized by the predominance of two components: p-cymene (9.43% and 17.51% and carvacrol (67.51% and 52.33%, respectively. The essential oils were also evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against ten bacteria by the disc diffusion assay. Our findings showed the following order in the sensitivity to the essential oils, as indicated by the corresponding inhibition zones: Proteus vulgaris > Salmonella typhimurium > Enterobacter cloacae > Klebsiella pneumonia > Escherichia coli > Serratia marcescens > Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the aerial parts essential oil, and Salmonella typhimurium > Proteus vulgaris > Enterobacter cloacae > Escherichia coli > Klebsiella pneumoniae > Serratia marcescens > Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the corolla essential oil. The studied essential oils thus exhibited a broad-spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the tested Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the essential oil samples.

  16. Chemical compositions and antibacterial activities of the essential oils from aerial parts and corollas of Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz.) Ietswaart, an endemic species to Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosge, Belgin; Turker, Arzu; Ipek, Arif; Gurbuz, Bilal

    2009-04-30

    Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts and corollas of Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz.) Ietswaart, an endemic Turkish flora species, were analyzed by GC-MS. The amounts of essential oil obtained from the aerial parts and the corollas were 0.73% and 0.93%, respectively. Twenty-five components in both the aerial parts oil and the corolla oil, representing 95.11% and 93.88%, respectively, were identified. The aerial parts and corolla oils were characterized by the predominance of two components: p-cymene (9.43% and 17.51%) and carvacrol (67.51% and 52.33%), respectively. The essential oils were also evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against ten bacteria by the disc diffusion assay. Our findings showed the following order in the sensitivity to the essential oils, as indicated by the corresponding inhibition zones: Proteus vulgaris > Salmonella typhimurium > Enterobacter cloacae > Klebsiella pneumonia > Escherichia coli > Serratia marcescens > Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the aerial parts essential oil, and Salmonella typhimurium > Proteus vulgaris > Enterobacter cloacae > Escherichia coli > Klebsiella pneumoniae > Serratia marcescens > Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the corolla essential oil. The studied essential oils thus exhibited a broad-spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the tested Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to the essential oil samples.

  17. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

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    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  18. Proteomics of red and white corolla limbs in petunia reveals a novel function of the anthocyanin regulator ANTHOCYANIN1 in determining flower longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsi, B.; Negri, A.S.; Quattrocchio, F.; Koes, R.E.; Espen, L.

    2016-01-01

    The Petunia hybrida ANTHOCYANIN1 (AN1) gene encodes a transcription factor that regulates both the expression of genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis and the acidification of the vacuolar lumen in corolla epidermal cells. In this work, the comparison between the red flowers of the R27 line with

  19. Large and abundant flowers increase indirect costs of corollas: a study of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean species of contrasting flower size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixido, Alberto L; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Large floral displays receive more pollinator visits but involve higher production and maintenance costs. This can result in indirect costs which may negatively affect functions like reproductive output. In this study, we explored the relationship between floral display and indirect costs in two pairs of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean Cistus of contrasting flower size. We hypothesized that: (1) corolla production entails direct costs in dry mass, N and P, (2) corollas entail significant indirect costs in terms of fruit set and seed production, (3) indirect costs increase with floral display, (4) indirect costs are greater in larger-flowered sympatric species, and (5) local climatic conditions influence indirect costs. We compared fruit set and seed production of petal-removed flowers and unmanipulated control flowers and evaluated the influence of mean flower number and mean flower size on relative fruit and seed gain of petal-removed and control flowers. Fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in petal-removed flowers in all the studied species. A positive relationship was found between relative fruit gain and mean individual flower size within species. In one pair of species, fruit gain was higher in the large-flowered species, as was the correlation between fruit gain and mean number of open flowers. In the other pair, the correlation between fruit gain and mean flower size was also higher in the large-flowered species. These results reveal that Mediterranean environments impose significant constraints on floral display, counteracting advantages of large flowers from the pollination point of view with increased indirect costs of such flowers.

  20. Reconstruction of pH and partial pressure of carbon dioxide during the Mesozoic era period using boron and oxygen isotopic compositions of fresh ammonoids & nautiloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, Hodaka; Fukushima, Ayaka; Moriya, Kazuyori; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Tanabe, Kazushige

    2013-04-01

    The increase of partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in the atmosphere induces global warming and ocean acidification at the modern condition. The reconstruction of pCO2 during the geological time is required together with proxy calibration by laboratory experiments to predict the future environments. Boron isotopic ratio is an excellent proxy for pH and the relevant partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the seawater (PCO2). This study is the first to quantify pH dependence of delta 11B of the ammonoids and nautiloids mainly in the Cretaceous and in Jurassic (70-162 Ma), which are expected to be much warmer due to higher PCO2. However, no reliable reconstruction data using foraminiferal delta 11B before Cenozoic era has been reported. We used the very fresh aragonite shells of ammonoids and nautiloids by big advantages. Since aragonite changes into secondary calcite by diagenesis, it is easy and effective to identify the degree of alteration at each sample by measuring calcite/aragonite ratio. Also we carefully conducted the assessment of secondary alteration from three perspectives: 1) Determination of calcite/aragonite ratio by X-ray diffraction (XRD), 2) Observation of microstructures of the nacreous layers by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and 3) Measurement of trace element contents and stable isotope ratios. We conducted high precision boron isotope analysis of biogenic carbonates with +/- 0.1 per mil reproducibility by adopting positive thermal ionization mass spectrometry (P-TIMS) methods. Also we analyzed delta 18O to estimate paleo-temperature, at which biogenic aragonite was formed. Combination of delta 11B and delta 18O of biogenic aragonite in 80 Ma and 86 Ma revealed that deeper dwellers showed lower delta 11B values, which corresponded to lower pH. This feature is consistent with those observed in the modern vertical water column. The respective shallow water temperature was 19.7 and 19.1 centigrade. Based on these results, the

  1. Flower specialisation: the occluded corolla of snapdragons (Antirrhinum) exhibits two pollinator niches of large long-tongued bees.

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    Vargas, P; Liberal, I; Ornosa, C; Gómez, J M

    2017-09-01

    Flower specialisation of angiosperms includes the occluded corollas of snapdragons (Antirrhinum and some relatives), which have been postulated to be one of the most efficient structures to physical limit access to pollinators. The Iberian Peninsula harbours the highest number of species (18 Iberian of the 20 species of Antirrhinum) that potentially share similar pollinator fauna. Crossing experiments with 18 Iberian species from this study and literature revealed a general pattern of self-incompatibility (SI) - failure in this SI system has been also observed in a few plants - which indicates the need for pollinator agents in Antirrhinum pollination. Field surveys in natural conditions (304 h) found flower visitation (>85%) almost exclusively by 11 species of bee (Anthophora fulvitarsis, Anthophora plumipes, Anthidium sticticum, Apis mellifera, Bombus hortorum, Bombus pascuorum, Bombus ruderatus, Bombus terrestris, Chalicodoma lefebvrei, Chalicodoma pyrenaica and Xylocopa violacea). This result covering the majority of Antirrhinum species suggests that large bees of the two long-tongued bee families (Megachilidae, Apidae) are the major pollinators of Antirrhinum. A bipartite modularity analysis revealed two pollinator systems of long-tongued bees: (i) the long-studied system of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) associated with nine primarily northern species of Antirrhinum; and (ii) a newly proposed pollinator system involving other large bees associated with seven species primarily distributed in southern Mediterranean areas. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Fresh-keeping of mushroom by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chao; Xu Hongqing; Wang Hong; Cai Jian

    2003-01-01

    The effect of 60 Co γ irradiation on the preservation of Agaricus bisporus were studied. The results showed that after irradiation the mushroom had lower rates of membrane split, opening of pilei, browning, decomposition and lose of fresh weight. The fresh keeping period of mushroom irradiated with 1.2 kGy and stored at 4 degree C was prolonged to 30 days

  3. Toyota Corolla sedan difficulty steering failure analysis%丰田卡罗拉轿车转向困难故障分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗锡亮

    2014-01-01

    本文主要介绍一部2012款卡罗拉电动转向系统(EPS)的构造,工作原理,分析该车出现转向困难,组合仪表上P/S警告灯亮起故障的原因,并提出解决故障的方法。%This paper describes a 2012 Corolla electric power steering system (EPS) of the structure, working principle, analyze the car steering difficulties arise, the combination meter P/S warning light on the reasons for failure and propose solutions to the fault.

  4. Potentials for export of fresh raspberries from Serbia to EU fresh markets

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    Nikolić Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present potentials of the most significant EU national markets for imports of fresh raspberries from Serbia. We carried out analysis of three markets with highest trade deficit of fresh raspberries expressed in quantities: Germany, Netherlands and Austria. The paper further analyses production and foreign trade trends in selected countries. According to results of this analysis, we identified monthly periods with highest potential for exports of fresh raspberries from Serbia to target markets. The paper also analyses wholesale prices of fresh raspberries and EU policy of direct support to raspberry producers.

  5. Fresh Water Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Yang Mun; Kim, O Sik; Kim, Jin Nam; Kim, Cheol Su

    1985-02-01

    This book tells US summary of fresh water with evaporation system like basic principle and outline, multistage flash evaporation, multiple-effect evaporation, other evaporation, evaporation plant by development merger, design of evaporation plant, reverse osmosis on summary, type and production of membrane, reverse osmosis device, reverse osmosis process, electrodialysis with outline of electrodialysis and polarization and energy, freezing preservation and corrosion and scale.

  6. Proteomics of red and white corolla limbs in petunia reveals a novel function of the anthocyanin regulator ANTHOCYANIN1 in determining flower longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo S; Quattrocchio, Francesca M; Koes, Ronald E; Espen, Luca

    2016-01-10

    The Petunia hybrida ANTHOCYANIN1 (AN1) gene encodes a transcription factor that regulates both the expression of genes involved in anthocyanin synthesis and the acidification of the vacuolar lumen in corolla epidermal cells. In this work, the comparison between the red flowers of the R27 line with the white flowers of the isogenic an1 mutant line W225 showed that the AN1 gene has further pleiotropic effects on flavonoid biosynthesis as well as on distant physiological traits. The proteomic profiling showed that the an1 mutation was associated to changes in accumulation of several proteins, affecting both anthocyanin synthesis and primary metabolism. The flavonoid composition study confirmed that the an1 mutation provoked a broad attenuation of the entire flavonoid pathway, probably by indirect biochemical events. Moreover, proteomic changes and variation of biochemical parameters revealed that the an1 mutation induced a delay in the onset of flower senescence in W225, as supported by the enhanced longevity of the W225 flowers in planta and the loss of sensitivity of cut flowers to sugar. This study suggests that AN1 is possibly involved in the perception and/or transduction of ethylene signal during flower senescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. New form of China aster (Callistephus chinensis (L. Nees. Structure and biology of ray florets with open tubular corollas (type RO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Wosińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A radiomutant of China aster with a new type of head and new type of ray florets was described. All florets in the head were bisexual and tubular although dimorphic - they varied in size and colour. The place of ray florets in the head was taken by bisexual open tubular florets which were often crowned with irregular teeth. Disc florets were short and parchment-like. In both types of florets the following were compared: number and size of stamens, vitality of pollen and floret fertility. A number of teeth (lobes in the corolIas of disc florets was also determined. Attention was also paid to the frequently observed anomalies and in particular to stamen displation. The problem is discussed of whether the obtained form resulted from mutation of disc florets with the simultaneous mutation of factors determining the so far unknown in China aster the head type without the whorl ofray florets or whether it was a mutation of ray flowers (corolla type and androecium formation. The author presents the opinion that the form resulted from the mutation ligulate of ray florets to the type of florets described above.

  8. Irradiation of fresh fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueh-jen, Y.; Jin-lai, Z.; Shao-chun, L.

    1983-01-01

    Occasionally, in China, marine products can not be provided for the markets in good quality, for during the time when they are being transported from the sea port to inland towns or even at the time when they are unloaded from the ship, they are beginning to spoil. Obviously, it is very important that appropriate measures should be taken to prevent them from decay. Our study has proved that the shelf life of fresh Flatfish (Cynoglossue robustus) and Silvery pomfret (stromateoides argenteus), which, packed in sealed containers, are irradiated by 1.5 kGy, 2.2 kGy and 3.0 kGy, can be stored for about 13 to 26 days at 3 deg to 5 deg C. (author)

  9. Pasteurization and radiation of fresh milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjarief, Sri Hariani

    1976-01-01

    In this investigation, treatments with pasteurization and irradiation with gamma rays on fresh milk were used. Pasteurization was done at temperatures of 62 deg C and 70 deg C. The irradiation doses used were 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 krad. The results of the investigation showed that the number of bacteria decreased after either pasteurization or irradiation. The higher the dose of irradiation the lower the total bacterial counts in milk became, but the latter increased during storage at 10 deg C. The number of bacteria in pasteurized milk did not show any significant difference from milk irradiated with the dose of 300-600 krad after 15 days of storage in the refrigerator. No enzymatic activity was detected in pasteurized milk, but after storage the coli bacteria acivity tested to become positive in the MPN test. On the countrary irradiation of fresh milk could stimulate the enzymatic activity, although the protein content was constant. Finally, heating as a pretreatment is better to be used before pasteurizing or sterilizing milk with ionizing radiation in order to preserve fresh milk for a longer period without any changes in the nutritional quality and taste. (author)

  10. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... freezing will not preclude use of the term “fresh frozen” to describe the food. “Quickly frozen” means... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen fresh.â 101.95 Section 101.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  11. Fresh vegetables from the desert

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    In the Middle East, food security and food safety are high on the agenda since
    the food crisis of 2007-2008. Food is mainly imported from nearby countries.
    Especially during the summer the prices of fresh produce are high, because
    there is not much production in the region itself.

  12. 75 FR 38778 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic from the People... (the Department) issued the preliminary results of the new shipper review of fresh garlic from the... the period of review of November 1, 2008 through April 30, 2009. See Fresh Garlic from the People's...

  13. 75 FR 29314 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China covering the period November 1, 2007 through... the preliminary results of this antidumping duty administrative review. See Fresh Garlic From the...

  14. ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS OF FRESH AND PRESERVED ROYAL JELLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinka Maksimović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial effects of the fresh royal jelly, royal jelly stored at 4 °C and -40 °C for a period of 12 months against reference and isolated bacterial strains from the different clinical samples, were tested and compared by the diffusion test. Royal jelly shows antibacterial effects against both tested gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Fresh royal jelly has the most effective antibacterial activity. Storage temperature at -40 oC slightly affects antibacterial activity of royal jelly, while storage temperature at 4 oC decreases its antibacterial activity.Key words: royal jelly, antibacterial effects, storage temperature, storage duration

  15. Antimicrobial packaging for fresh-cut fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-cut fruits are minimally processed produce which are consumed directly at their fresh stage without any further kill step. Microbiological quality and safety are major challenges to fresh-cut fruits. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the innovative food packaging systems that is able to kill o...

  16. 77 FR 73980 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), covering the period of review (POR... merchandise at less than normal value (NV). The Department is also preliminarily determining that five...

  17. Effect of irradiation on fresh-keeping of strawberry stored at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongfu; Xie Zongchuan; Lu Zhaoxin

    1999-01-01

    The fresh keeping period of strawberry irradiated with 4.0 kGy dose and stored at room temperature was prolonged to 6 days. Further experiment showed that the irradiation treatment decreased the number of mold in strawberry by two orders of magnitude, inhibited the strawberry fruit respiration and water loss, therefore, improved the effect of strawberry fresh-keeping

  18. The market value of freshness: observations from the swordfish and blue shark longline fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishimura, G.; Bailey, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    One important component in determining the market value of fish is freshness, essentially the time period from capture to consumer. By shortening the time from harvest to landing, freshness can be improved and thus the market value may increase. The opportunistic nature of the marine capture

  19. Systematic Study of the Content of Phytochemicals in Fresh and Fresh-Cut Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Alarcón-Flores

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables and fruits have beneficial properties for human health, because of the presence of phytochemicals, but their concentration can fluctuate throughout the year. A systematic study of the phytochemical content in tomato, eggplant, carrot, broccoli and grape (fresh and fresh-cut has been performed at different seasons, using liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. It was observed that phenolic acids (the predominant group in carrot, eggplant and tomato were found at higher concentrations in fresh carrot than in fresh-cut carrot. However, in the case of eggplant, they were detected at a higher content in fresh-cut than in fresh samples. Regarding tomato, the differences in the content of phenolic acids between fresh and fresh-cut were lower than in other matrices, except in winter sampling, where this family was detected at the highest concentration in fresh tomato. In grape, the flavonols content (predominant group was higher in fresh grape than in fresh-cut during all samplings. The content of glucosinolates was lower in fresh-cut broccoli than in fresh samples in winter and spring sampling, although this trend changes in summer and autumn. In summary, phytochemical concentration did show significant differences during one-year monitoring, and the families of phytochemicals presented different behaviors depending on the matrix studied.

  20. The Inhibitor Pathogen Bacteria’s of Sea Grape Caulerpa lentillifera Applies on Fresh Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsina M.Tapotubun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of pathogen bacteries at the fresh fish may occur during the post harvesting to the consuming period, and endanger human health. One of simple and safe way to protect secureness of fresh fish food is the use of Caulerpa lentillifera to push down pathogen bacteries activity. The aims of this research to investigate lability of sea grape (Caulerpa lentillifera against the activity of pathogen bacteries Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella sp., in fresh fish, during storage phase, at ambient and ice temperatures. Method used in this research is experimental laboratories method, that is, 10%, 20% and 30% blended sea grapes applied on fresh fishes, Selar crumenopthalmus during storage of 1, 2 and 3 days at ambient and ice temperatures. All the applied of blended of Caulerpa lentillifera, shows the ability to obstruct the activity of bactery group coliform and Escherichia coli on fresh fish Selar crumenopthalmus up to 2x 24 hours, at ambient temperature, and 3x24 hours at ice temperature. During storage period, the occurance and grows of Salmonella sp. and Vibrio cholerae bacteries is undetected. Fresh sea grapes concentration of 10% is sufficient to be applied on fresh fish to obstruct the activity of pathogen bacteries Escherichia coli during storage time of 2 x 24 hours at room temperature, and 3 x 24 hours at ice temperature, and to block the occurance of Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella sp. during storage period. .

  1. Fresh fruit: microstructure, texture and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-cut produce has a huge following in today’s supermarkets. The trend follows the need to decrease preparation time as well as the desire to follow the current health guidelines for consumption of more whole “heart-healthy” foods. Additionally, consumers are able to enjoy a variety of fresh prod...

  2. What determines fresh fish consumption in Croatia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Marina; Matulić, Daniel; Jelić, Margareta

    2016-11-01

    Although fresh fish is widely available, consumption still remains below the recommended intake levels among the majority of European consumers. The economic crisis affects consumer food behaviour, therefore fresh fish is perceived as healthy but expensive food product. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing fresh fish consumption using an expanded Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) as a theoretical framework. The survey was conducted on a heterogeneous sample of 1151 Croatian fresh fish consumers. The study investigated the relationship between attitudes, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, moral obligation, involvement in health, availability, intention and consumption of fresh fish. Structural Equation Modeling by Partial Least Squares was used to analyse the collected data. The results indicated that attitudes are the strongest positive predictor of the intention to consume fresh fish. Other significant predictors of the intention to consume fresh fish were perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, health involvement and moral obligation. The intention to consume fresh fish showed a strong positive correlation with behaviour. This survey provides valuable information for food marketing professionals and for the food industry in general. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Consumers' store choice behavior for fresh food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Consumers' preference for fresh food stores is analyzed. In particular the choice between supermarkets and specialized shops for purchasing fresh food is analyzed. Attention is given to the factors influencing this choice. For this purpose a number of research questions with respect to store choice

  4. Freshness indices of roasted coffee: monitoring the loss of freshness for single serve capsules and roasted whole beans in different packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glöss, Alexia N; Schönbächler, Barbara; Rast, Markus; Deuber, Louis; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2014-01-01

    With the growing demand for high-quality coffee, it is becoming increasingly important to establish quantitative measures of the freshness of coffee, or the loss thereof, over time. Indeed, freshness has become a critical quality criterion in the specialty coffee scene, where the aim is to deliver the most pleasant flavor in the cup, from highest quality beans. A series of intensity ratios of selected volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the headspace of coffee (by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) were revisited, with the aim to establish robust indicators of freshness of coffee - called freshness indices. Roasted whole beans in four different packaging materials and four commercial capsule systems from the Swiss market were investigated over a period of up to one year of storage time. These measurements revealed three types of insight. First, a clear link between barrier properties of the packaging material and the evolution of selected freshness indices was observed. Packaging materials that contain an aluminum layer offer better protection. Second, processing steps prior to packaging are reflected in the absolute values of freshness indices. Third, differences in the standard deviations of freshness-indices for single serve coffee capsule systems are indicative of differences in the consistency among systems, consistency being an important quality attribute of capsules.

  5. Citrus fruits freshness assessment using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekvapil, Fran; Brezestean, Ioana; Barchewitz, Daniel; Glamuzina, Branko; Chiş, Vasile; Cintă Pinzaru, Simona

    2018-03-01

    The freshness of citrus fruits commonly available in the market was non-destructively assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Intact clementine, mandarin and tangerine species were characterised concerning their carotenoids skin Raman signalling in a time course from the moment they were acquired as fresh stock, supplying the market, to the physical degradation, when they were no longer attractive to consumers. The freshness was found to strongly correlate to the peel Raman signal collected from the same area of the intact fruits in a time course of a maximum of 20days. We have shown that the intensity of the carotenoid Raman signal is indeed a good indicator of fruit freshness and introduced a Raman coefficient of freshness (C Fresh ), whose time course is linearly decreasing, with different slope for different citrus groups. Additionally, we demonstrated that the freshness assessment could be achieved using a portable Raman instrument. The results could have a strong impact for consumer satisfaction and the food industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The relaxation phenomena of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Morishita, Norio; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2009-01-01

    Using the γ-irradiated fresh mangoes followed by freeze-drying and powderization, electron spin resonance spectrometry of specimens was performed. As a result, a strong single peak in the flesh, the pericarp and the seed was observed at g=2.004 and attributed to organic free radicals. When relaxation times of the peak was calculated using the method of Lund et al., T 2 showed dose responses according to increasing doses while T 1 was almost constant. Dose responsibility of the relaxation time T 2 obtained from flesh specimens of the mangoes could be measured regardless of the preservation period of 1 to 9 days following γ-irradiation. Therefore, there might be possible to detect the irradiation treatment of fresh mangoes using relaxation time T 2 . (author)

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF MICROWAVE OVENS ON THE DEMAND FOR FRESH AND FROZEN POTATOES

    OpenAIRE

    Guenthner, Joseph F.; Lin, Biing-Hwan; Levi, Annette E.

    1991-01-01

    Growth in the number of homes with microwave ovens has changed food preferences and preparation methods. The objective of this study was to determine the impact that microwave oven ownership has had on the demand for fresh and frozen potatoes. Using data from the 1970-88 period, demand equations were estimated for fresh potatoes, frozen potatoes in the retail market and frozen potatoes in the food service market. Results indicate that increases in the percentage of homes that own microwave ov...

  8. 78 FR 67112 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Review of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period of review (POR) of..., through October 31, 2012. Scope of the Order The products covered by the order are all grades of garlic...

  9. 76 FR 24857 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent To Rescind New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... conducting three new shipper reviews (NSRs) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People... Yifa Garlic Produce Co., Ltd. (Jining Yifa) for the period of review (POR) November 1, 2009, through...

  10. Waste Reduction in Fresh Food Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Loikkanen, Lauri; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies a well-known phenomenon, information sharing in supply chains, in a new context, fresh foods, with a specific goal, supporting sustainable performance in the supply chain. Fresh foods are important for retail stores, representing around half of retail sales, but form a challengi...... and heterogeneous group of products to manage. The value of the paper lies in its pointing out detailed solutions to how in real-life supply chains data can be used efficiently to improve the performance of the supply chain.......The paper studies a well-known phenomenon, information sharing in supply chains, in a new context, fresh foods, with a specific goal, supporting sustainable performance in the supply chain. Fresh foods are important for retail stores, representing around half of retail sales, but form a challenging...

  11. Modelling global fresh surface water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, L.P.H. van; Eikelboom, T.; Vliet, M.T.H. van; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Temperature directly determines a range of water physical properties including vapour pressure, surface tension, density and viscosity, and the solubility of oxygen and other gases. Indirectly water temperature acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing sediment

  12. Capabilities of diffusion-weighted and fresh blood imaging in depicting fresh thrombus. Presidential award proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Ritsuko; Manabe, Tsutomu; Tazawa, Satoru

    2007-01-01

    We examined the capabilities of diffusion-weighted (DWI) and fresh-blood imaging (FBI) in depicting thrombus. A paper-clay phantom holding test syringes of various sizes filled with either contrast medium or fresh human blood were scanned using a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging unit, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and signal intensities on DWI and FBI of the specimens were obtained. FBI depicted all the specimens regardless of syringe diameter, but DWI failed to image the syringe measuring 0.5 cm in diameter. B-factors and/or number of acquisitions (NAQ) seemed responsible for DWI's depiction capability. ADC values and signal intensities on DWI and FBI correlated with the viscosity of the contrast medium samples. Clotted blood, the most viscous of the samples, had the smallest ADC value and no relationship with signal intensities on DWI and FBI. Larger b-factors reduced signal intensity in contrast medium on DWI, but signals decreased only minimally in clotted blood. The result suggested that although viscosity was the influential factor for signal intensities on DWI in contrast medium, other factors, such as particle sizes of fibrin and hemoglobin, accounted for the low ADC values in clotting blood. T 2 relaxation time seemed to play a significant role in making signal intensities on DWI irrelevant to b-factors. Despite lapsed time, the clots were persistently hyperintense on FBI with a tendency to decrease only gradually. On DWI, there was a certain period when signal intensities were high and ADC values were low. The signal intensities on DWI and ADC values were considered to be influenced by the process of clot formation, and disappearance of signal seemed likely attributable to degeneration of protein and organization of the clot. (author)

  13. Biochemical Basis of Fresh Ham Color Development

    OpenAIRE

    Stufft, Kristen Marie

    2015-01-01

    Commercial hams display variation in color uniformity across the cut surface, especially the semimembranosus (SM) muscle. This variation in fresh ham color, or two-toning, persists through further processing and contributes to production of a less desirable end product. In an attempt to understand the underlying source of this color variation, we evaluated the differences in muscle fiber-type composition and glycolytic metabolism in the SM muscle of fresh hams differing in color uniformity. F...

  14. The use of electron accelerators for fresh fruit irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Minea, R.

    2000-01-01

    There are presented the results of tests concerning the effects of accelerated electron-beam to some early fresh fruits like strawberries, cherries, sour-cherries and apples. The irradiation were performed on common varieties, in normal conditions, to the NILPRP-Electron Accelerator Laboratory facility consisting in electron-beam accelerators which have the following parameters: - mean beam current, 5 μA; - electron mean energy approximately, 7 MeV; - pulse period, 3.5 μs. The doses varied between 0.5-3.0 kGy and the dose rate was about 1500 Gy/min. It was determined the fruit shelf life and there were analysed the main organoleptic and nutritional properties, as: size, shape, colour, dry weight, acidity, total and reducing sugars, ascorbic acid content and other. For the electron-beam treated fruits it was pointed out an increase in freshness and shelf life extension by 5-7 days for strawberries and more than two weeks for cherries. Otherwise, for the applied doses, the electron-beam irradiation did not produce any significant changes in the fruit characteristic values. These results lead to the conclusion that the electron accelerators could be successfully used as a technological solution for the fresh fruits processing, in view of shelf life extension. There are presented also some technical and economical considerations on the feasibility of this technology and on the use of electron-beam machines for food irradiation. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of Food Freshness and Locality by Odor Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Takayuki; Shimada, Koji; Kamimura, Hironobu; Kaneki, Noriaki

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food freshness and locality can be classified using a food evaluation system consisting four SnO2-semiconductor gas sensors and a solid phase column, into which collecting aroma materials. The temperature of sensors was periodically changed to be in unsteady state and thus, the sensor information was increased. The parameters (in quefrency band) were extracted from sensor information using cepstrum analysis that enable to separate superimposed information on sinusoidal wave. The quefrency was used as parameters for principal component and discriminant analyses (PCA and DCA) to detect food freshness and food localities. We used three kinds of strawberries, people can perceive its odors, passed from one to three days after harvest, and kelps and Ceylon tea, people are hardly to perceive its odor, corrected from five areas as sample. Then, the deterioration of strawberries and localities of kelps and Ceylon teas were visually evaluated using the numerical analyses. While the deteriorations were classified using PCA or DCA, the localities were classified only by DCA. The findings indicate that, although odorant intensity influenced the method detecting food quality, the quefrency obtained from odorant information using cepstrum analysis were available to detect the difference in the freshness and the localities of foods.

  16. A breath of fresh air!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    During LS1 the teams in charge of the cooling and ventilation systems of the CERN accelerators will perform maintenance work on all the equipment for which they are responsible. What with replacing complete systems, making improvements or bringing equipment back up to scratch, their workload looks like being a heavy one over the coming months.   Installing a fan in a cooling tower at Point 6 of the LHC in 2009. A similar exercise will be carried out in a few weeks. CERN's Cooling and Ventilation (CV) Group is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the cooling systems, pumping stations, air-conditioning facilities and fluid distribution systems for CERN's Computer Centre, the PS, the SPS, the LHC and their respective experiment areas. All these systems are equally indispensable and their maintenance is far from being a straightforward operation. During operating periods, the technical stops are too short for any major maintenance work. Although the work take...

  17. Establishing the Global Fresh Water Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to measuring the major components of the water cycle from space using the concept of a sensor-web of satellites that are linked to a data assimilation system. This topic is of increasing importance, due to the need for fresh water to support the growing human population, coupled with climate variability and change. The net effect is that water is an increasingly valuable commodity. The distribution of fresh water is highly uneven over the Earth, with both strong latitudinal distributions due to the atmospheric general circulation, and even larger variability due to landforms and the interaction of land with global weather systems. The annual global fresh water budget is largely a balance between evaporation, atmospheric transport, precipitation and runoff. Although the available volume of fresh water on land is small, the short residence time of water in these fresh water reservoirs causes the flux of fresh water - through evaporation, atmospheric transport, precipitation and runoff - to be large. With a total atmospheric water store of approx. 13 x 10(exp 12)cu m, and an annual flux of approx. 460 x 10(exp 12)cu m/y, the mean atmospheric residence time of water is approx. 10 days. River residence times are similar, biological are approx. 1 week, soil moisture is approx. 2 months, and lakes and aquifers are highly variable, extending from weeks to years. The hypothesized potential for redistribution and acceleration of the global hydrological cycle is therefore of concern. This hypothesized speed-up - thought to be associated with global warming - adds to the pressure placed upon water resources by the burgeoning human population, the variability of weather and climate, and concerns about anthropogenic impacts on global fresh water availability.

  18. Diet enriched with fresh coconut decreases blood glucose levels and body weight in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Venugopal; Shankar, Nagashree R; Mavathur, Ramesh; Mooventhan, A; Anju, Sood; Manjunath, N K

    2018-02-20

    Background There exist controversies about the health effects of coconut. Fresh coconut consumption on human health has not been studied substantially. Fresh coconut consumption is a regular part of the diet for many people in tropical countries like India, and thus there is an increasing need to understand the effects of fresh coconut on various aspects of health. Aim To compare the effects of increased saturated fatty acid (SFA) and fiber intake, provided by fresh coconut, versus monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and fiber intake, provided by a combination of groundnut oil and groundnuts, on anthropometry, serum insulin, glucose levels and blood pressure in healthy adults. Materials Eighty healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups, were provided with a standardized diet along with either 100 g fresh coconut or an equivalent amount of groundnuts and groundnut oil for a period of 90 days. Assessments such as anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood sugar and insulin levels were performed before and after the supplementation period. Results Results of this study showed a significant reduction in fasting blood sugar (FBS) in both the groups. However, a significant reduction in body weight was observed in the coconut group, while a significant increase in diastolic pressure was observed in the groundnut group. Conclusions Results of this study suggest that fresh coconut-added diet helps reduce blood glucose levels and body weight in normal healthy individuals.

  19. Preservation technologies for fresh meat - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G H; Xu, X L; Liu, Y

    2010-09-01

    Fresh meat is a highly perishable product due to its biological composition. Many interrelated factors influence the shelf life and freshness of meat such as holding temperature, atmospheric oxygen (O(2)), endogenous enzymes, moisture, light and most importantly, micro-organisms. With the increased demand for high quality, convenience, safety, fresh appearance and an extended shelf life in fresh meat products, alternative non-thermal preservation technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, superchilling, natural biopreservatives and active packaging have been proposed and investigated. Whilst some of these technologies are efficient at inactivating the micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases, they are not effective against spores. To increase their efficacy against vegetative cells, a combination of several preservation technologies under the so-called hurdle concept has also been investigated. The objective of this review is to describe current methods and developing technologies for preserving fresh meat. The benefits of some new technologies and their industrial limitations is presented and discussed.

  20. Consumer's Fresh Produce Food Safety Practices: Outcomes of a Fresh Produce Safety Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Amanda R.; Pope, Paul E.; Thompson, Britta M.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that there are 76 million cases of foodborne disease annually. Foodborne disease is usually associated with beef, poultry, and seafood. However, there is an increasing number of foodborne disease cases related to fresh produce. Consumers may not associate fresh produce with foodborne disease…

  1. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices ( n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli . Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower ( p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  2. Fresh water generators onboard a floating platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari, P.K.; Verma, R.K.; Misra, B.M.; Sadhulkan, H.K.

    1997-01-01

    A dependable supply of fresh water is essential for any ocean going vessel. The operating and maintenance personnel on offshore platforms and marine structures also require a constant and regular supply of fresh water to meet their essential daily needs. A seawater thermal desalination unit onboard delivers good quality fresh water from seawater. The desalination units developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) suitable for ocean going vessels and offshore platforms have been discussed. Design considerations of such units with reference to floating platforms and corrosive environments have been presented. The feasibility of coupling a low temperature vacuum evaporation (LTVE) desalination plant suitable for an onboard floating platform to a PHWR nuclear power plant has also been discussed. (author). 1 ref., 3 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Inheritance of fresh-cut fruit quality attributes in Capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fresh-cut fruit and vegetable industry has expanded rapidly during the past decade, due to freshness, convenience and the high nutrition that fresh-cut produce offers to consumers. The current report evaluates the inheritance of postharvest attributes that contribute to pepper fresh-cut product...

  4. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1990-01-01

    In the ''hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO 2 ) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO 2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ''Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally

  5. Ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    The main purposes of the ionising energy treatment of fresh fruit are: the extension of shelf life of the commodity due to a direct physiological effect on the particular product; the extension of shelf life of the commodity due to a reduction in the development of moulds and rots which would normally render the product worthless; and the killing of insect pests of quarantine significance, to allow for normal marketing of fresh fruit without the risk of introducing insect pests to previously pest-free areas

  6. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1990-11-01

    In the ``hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ``Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally.

  7. Problem Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovary syndrome. Read our information on PCOS for teens , and see your doctor if you think you may have PCOS. Major weight loss. Girls who have anorexia will often stop having periods. When to see ...

  8. Process control system for fresh concrete preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachvarov, N.; Pavlov, P.; Shukov, H.

    1983-01-01

    The paper discusses the principles, structure and organization of a modular microprocessor based control system, designed to be used in fresh concrete fabrication plants. The system is based on the measurement of the aggregate moisture by means of a neutron moisture meter. (author)

  9. Improving fresh groundwater supply - problems and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2001-01-01

    Many coastal regions in the world experience an intensive salt water intrusion in aquifers due to natural and anthropogenic causes. The salinisation of these groundwater systems can lead to a severe deterioration of the quality of existing fresh groundwater resources. In this paper, the

  10. Inhalational anaesthesia with low fresh gas flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hönemann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the inhalation of anaesthesia use of low fresh gas flow (0.35-1 L/min has some important advantages. There are three areas of benefit: pulmonary - anaesthesia with low fresh gas flow improves the dynamics of inhaled anaesthesia gas, increases mucociliary clearance, maintains body temperature and reduces water loss. Economic - reduction of anaesthesia gas consumption resulting in significant savings of > 75% and Ecological - reduction in nitrous oxide consumption, which is an important ozone-depleting and heat-trapping greenhouse gas that is emitted. Nevertheless, anaesthesia with high fresh gas flows of 2-6 L/min is still performed, a technique in which rebreathing is practically negligible. This special article describes the clinical use of conventional plenum vaporizers, connected to the fresh gas supply to easily perform low (1 L/min, minimal (0.5 L/min or metabolic flow anaesthesia (0.35 L/min with conventional Primus Draeger® anaesthesia machines in routine clinical practice.

  11. Simple air collectors for preheating fresh air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.; Wit, de M.H.; Ouden, den C.

    1984-01-01

    In dwellings with mechanical ventilation systems the fresh air can easily be preheated by means of simple solar air systems. These can be an integral part of the building facade or roof and the costs are expected to be low. By means of computer experiments a large number of systems were evaluated.

  12. The 'Fresh-Bunch' technique in FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Yang, K.M.; Yu, L.H.

    1991-01-01

    The 'Fresh Bunch' technique is being proposed as a method of increasing the gain and power of FEL amplifiers in which the length of the optical radiation pulse is shorter than the length of the electron bunch. In multi-stage FEL, electron beam energy spread is increased by the FEL interaction in the early stages. In the 'Fresh Bunch' technique, the low energy spread of the electron beam is recovered by shifting the radiation pulse to an undisturbed part of the electron bunch, thus improving the gain and trapping fraction in later stages. A test case for the application of the Fresh Bunch method is demonstrated by numerical simulation. In this particular example we examine a subharmonically seeded VUV Free-Electron Laser. We begin with the generation of harmonic radiation, which takes place over one part of the electron bunch. Then the radiation is shifted by means of a strong dispersive section to a fresh part of the bunch for exponential amplification and tapered wiggler amplification. By starting over with a new ensemble of electrons, the energy spread introduced by the bunching in the fundamental is removed, leading to an increased gain. Furthermore, it is possible to use a much stronger seed in the fundamental without incurring the penalty of a large energy spread later on. We note that more than a single application of the 'Fresh Bunch' method may be done in a single FEL multiplier-amplifier. Thus x-ray wavelengths may be reached by successive multiplication in a chain of FEL amplifiers starting from a tunable seed laser. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  13. DNA barcoding of selected UAE medicinal plant species: a comparative assessment of herbarium and fresh samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enan, Mohamed Rizk; Palakkott, Abdul Rasheed; Ksiksi, Taoufik Saleh

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly difficult to extract and amplify DNA from herbarium samples as they are old and preserved using different compounds. In addition, such samples are subjected to the accumulation of intrinsically produced plant substances over long periods (up to hundreds of years). DNA extraction from desert flora may pause added difficulties as many contain high levels of secondary metabolites. Herbarium samples from the Biology Department (UAE University) plant collection and fresh plant samples, collected from around Al-Ain (UAE), were used in this study. The three barcode loci for the coding genes matK, rbcL and rpoC1-were amplified. Our results showed that T. terresteris , H. robustum , T. pentandrus and Z. qatarense were amplified using all three primers for both fresh and herbaium samples. Both fresh and herbarium samples of C. comosum , however, were not amplified at all, using the three primers. Herbarium samples from A. javanica , C. imbricatum , T. aucherana and Z. simplex were not amplified with any of the three primers. For fresh samples 90, 90 and 80% of the samples were amplified using matK, rbcL and rpoC1, respectively. In short, fresh samples were significantly better amplified than those from herbarium sources, using the three primers. Both fresh and herbarium samples from one species ( C. comosum ), however, were not successfully amplified. It is also concluded that the rbcL regions showed real potentials to distinguish the UAE species under investigation into the appropriate family and genus.

  14. TECHNOLOGY OF FRESH HERBS STORAGE USING HYDROGEL AND ANTIOXIDANT COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia PRISS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a stable consumer demand for fresh culinary herbs. Also, the greenery contains a large number of valuable phytonutrients. Despite high efficiency and increasing annual production of fresh herbs, the problem of preserving their quality in the post-harvest period remains unresolved. Because of the high specific surface area of evaporation, in the green crops droop quickly, they lose their marketable quality, and, as a result, the level of profitability of greenery production in general is being reduced. It is necessary to use new effective approaches to leafy greens storage in order to reduce product losses during transportation and storage. For example, agrarian hydrogel can be used for storage of greenery. Hydrogel is an acrylic potassium polymer that is non-toxic and has a high environmental standard. The hydrogel granules can absorb up to 250 times more moisture than their weight. We propose the following procedure as the method of greenery preservation: the greens are packed in bundles and put in sticks in polyethylene bags with a fastener, pre-filled with hydrogel solutions. The storage temperature is maintained optimally for each species of fresh herbs, the relative humidity is 95 ± 3%. Usage of the proposed method allows obtaining environment-friendly products, preserving their high biological value and increasing the shelf life. The accumulation of peroxide products, which cause physiological disorders, is inhibited as the result of such storage. The use of hydrogel reduces the natural loss of mass by 10% as compared with the control. Duration of greenery storage increases by 30 days.

  15. Metabolic control of feed intake: implications for metabolic disease of fresh cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael S; Piantoni, Paola

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss metabolic control of feed intake in the peripartum period and its implications for metabolic disease of fresh cows. Understanding how feed intake is controlled during the transition from gestation to lactation is critical to both reduce risk and successfully treat many metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Biotechnological Approach To Preserve Fresh Pasta Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, L; Conte, A; Del Nobile, M A

    2017-12-01

    Fresh pasta is highly susceptible to microbial contamination because of its high water activity and nutrient content. In this study, a new biopreservation system was examined that consists of an active sodium alginate solution containing Lactobacillus reuteri and glycerol, which was added during the production process of pasta. Our aim was to extend the fresh pasta shelf life by the in situ production of reuterin, thereby avoiding the use of thermal treatments that generally compromise food sensory characteristics. Two experimental studies were carried out with the product packaged under either ordinary or modified atmospheric conditions. Microbiological and sensory quality indices were monitored to determine the effectiveness of biopreservation on product quality during storage. The use of the active solution with L. reuteri and glycerol during the production process of pasta improved both microbial and sensory quality, particularly when combined with modified atmosphere.

  17. Changes in the business model for Spanish fresh tomato trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pablo-Valenciano, J. de; Giacinti-Battistuzzi, M.A.; Tassile, T.; García-Azcárate, T.

    2017-01-01

    The business model applied to the fresh tomato trade from Almería is well known in Spain and abroad. The changes in demand are forcing export companies to change their trade strategies to become or remain competitive. The purpose of this paper is to know the business structure and its export dynamics in addition to the changes in trade strategies made by companies in Almería during the 2009-2013 period. The methodology is based on the Herfindahl-Hirshman index and the foreign trade competitiveness index, whereas the congruence analysis is based on Pearson’s correlation coefficients and the RV coefficient. We have also applied the dual multiple factor analysis to verify changes made to the trade policy in leading businesses between two periods or scenarios. The research shows that export-driven companies behave as a moderately concentrated structure and there is an increase in the number of exporters. The competitiveness map for Almería reveals the sector’s trend with regard to the most important markets. We have verified the changes made to their trade strategy to adjust to changes in foreign trade between the 2008/09 and 2012/13 campaigns. Finally, it can be pointed out that, in the analyzed period, changes in the business model for fresh tomato trade of Almería have not been significant, being its structure of moderate concentration. In addition, the great majority of variations in strategies of companies to adapt to the competitive environment have been made by leading companies.

  18. Changes in the business model for Spanish fresh tomato trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablo-Valenciano, J. de; Giacinti-Battistuzzi, M.A.; Tassile, T.; García-Azcárate, T.

    2017-09-01

    The business model applied to the fresh tomato trade from Almería is well known in Spain and abroad. The changes in demand are forcing export companies to change their trade strategies to become or remain competitive. The purpose of this paper is to know the business structure and its export dynamics in addition to the changes in trade strategies made by companies in Almería during the 2009-2013 period. The methodology is based on the Herfindahl-Hirshman index and the foreign trade competitiveness index, whereas the congruence analysis is based on Pearson’s correlation coefficients and the RV coefficient. We have also applied the dual multiple factor analysis to verify changes made to the trade policy in leading businesses between two periods or scenarios. The research shows that export-driven companies behave as a moderately concentrated structure and there is an increase in the number of exporters. The competitiveness map for Almería reveals the sector’s trend with regard to the most important markets. We have verified the changes made to their trade strategy to adjust to changes in foreign trade between the 2008/09 and 2012/13 campaigns. Finally, it can be pointed out that, in the analyzed period, changes in the business model for fresh tomato trade of Almería have not been significant, being its structure of moderate concentration. In addition, the great majority of variations in strategies of companies to adapt to the competitive environment have been made by leading companies.

  19. New ways of keeping fish fresh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    Take a fillet of cod and expose it to a controlled quantity of nuclear radiation. What happens? Its appearance is unchanged, but the fish - kept in a cool store - will still be edible and practically indistinguishable from fresh fish days, sometimes weeks, after ordinarily treated fish has had to be thrown away. Advantages seem from this addition to preservation methods are reported following experimental trials on cod, lobsters and shrimps. (author)

  20. Preservation of fresh noodles by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jianming

    1998-01-01

    At the present paper, it is studied to preserve fresh noodles by irradiation. The noodles which were irradiated by 10 kGy of 60 Co-γ rays and stored at room temperature (18-24 deg. C). The appearance of the noodles was observed, the bacteria in the noodles were examined, and the acidity of the noodles was measured during 10 days after irradiation. The results showed that the number of bacteria and the extent of acidification of the noodles were in inverse proportion to radiation dose. When the absorbed dose was less than 8 kGy, the residual bacteria in the noodles could proliferate massively in several days and acidified the noodles. The pH of these noodles decreased from 6.2 to 5.0 or less and the noodles turned into sticky during storage. When the absorbed dose reached 8-10 kGy, most of bacteria were killed and the acidity of the noodles kept about pH 6.0. The appearance of the noodles looks fresh within 10 days after irradiation. They smelled as good as fresh ones

  1. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Hernández-Anguiano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162 made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  2. Preservation of fresh avocados by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmelic, J.

    1985-01-01

    Avocado is the fifth most important fruit in Chile, which exports fruits to Europe. The production of avocado has increased from 14,000 metric tons in 1978 to a projected 70,000 metric tons in 1985. The main problem of shipping fresh Chilean avocado to Europe has been its short shelf life, being around 24 days with a maximum of 30 days. To market fresh Chilean avocados in Europe, adequate keeping quality must be assured for 40 or more days. A project on the preservation of fresh Chilean avocados supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) takes the approach of combining mild heat and low-dose gamma-radiation. Two varieties of avocados were studied (Hass and Fuerte) and two batches of each were treated: one at the beginning and the other at the end of the picking season. In each case a combination of heat treatment (46 0 C for 10 minutes) and irradiation was applied. Fruits were individually wrapped with flexible PVC and placed in cardboard boxes containing 20 each. Fruits treated with 25,50, and 100 Gy were compared with two controls: one with and another without individual wrapping

  3. Limnological study of fresh water of rawal dam, islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leghari, M.K.; Ghafar, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The limnological study of Fresh water of Rawal Dam was carried out for the first time from June 2000 to May 2001 during Research Project. C-PMNHIBio(311). Data was collected on physico-chemical properties of the Fresh water and the Algal Flora. The fluctuations of temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen, salinity, T.D.S., Total hardness etc., were studied. From algal flora, a total. 291 algal species were found to belong to 108 genera 10 Phylum. From Cyanophyta, 68 species belongs to 21 genera with 23.37%, Volvocophyta 107 species belongs to 40 genera with 36.77%, Chlorophyta 18 species belongs to 13 genera with 6.19%, Bacillariophyta 66 species 19 genera with 22.67%, Chrysophyta 3 species belongs to 2 genera with 1.03%, Xanthophyta 5 species belongs to 5 genera with 1.72%, Vaucheriophyta 1 species belongs to 1 genus with 0.34%, Euglenophyta 16 species belongs to 4 genera with 1.72%, Dinophyta 5 species belongs to 2 genera with 1.72%, Charophyta 2 species belong to 1 genus with 0.7%, were recorded and classified by latest classification according to Shameel (2001). The present work shows the changes in physico-chemical factor along with algal flora in Rawal Dam during collection period and co-relation of different factors. (author)

  4. Factors influencing Consumer Preference for Fresh Beef in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    selected and interviewed to identify factors that affect preference for fresh beef and to determine the nature of the ... preference are appreciated by the food ... composition and household income .... habit and flavor, made them to prefer fresh.

  5. Effects of mulch practices on fresh ear yield and yield components of sweet corn

    OpenAIRE

    KARA, Burhan; ATAR, Bekir

    2013-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in the vegetation seasons of 2010 and 2011. The main purpose of the study was to determine the effects of mulch practices (a control-unmulched treatment, a plastic mulch treatment, and a straw mulch treatment) on fresh ear yield and some yield-related traits of sweet corn according to 3 sowing dates: 1 April, 15 April, and 1 May, respectively. The main effects of sowing dates were significant for the harvest period, the emerging rate from soil, the fresh ear yie...

  6. Bundle Pricing Decisions for Fresh Products with Quality Deterioration

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Yan; Jiang, Yiping; Han, Xingxing

    2018-01-01

    How to sell fresh products quickly to decrease the storage cost and to meet customer quality requirement is of vital importance in the food supply chain. Bundling fresh products is an efficient strategy to promote sales and reduce storage pressure of retailers. In this paper, we consider the bundle pricing decisions for homogeneous fresh products with quality deterioration. The value of fresh products with quality deterioration is approximated as an exponential function based on which custome...

  7. 77 FR 26579 - Fresh Garlic From China; Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-683 (Third Review)] Fresh Garlic From... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic... contained in USITC Publication 4316 (April 2012), entitled Fresh Garlic from China: Investigation No. 731-TA...

  8. Microbial and preservative safety of fresh and processed fruit salads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The producers and traders of fresh fruit and the processers should implement quality management practices and safety standards in farming, fresh fruit, processing and storage. This is to ensure safety, enhance consumption of fruits and fruit products for health of consumers and eliminate wastage. Key words: Fresh fruit, ...

  9. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will allow interested persons... importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation of fresh apricots from continental Spain into...

  10. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extract of fresh leaf castor beans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rukevwe S. Abraka

    2016-12-07

    Dec 7, 2016 ... In this study, the allelopathic effect of aqueous extract from fresh leaves of castor .... triturated with electric blender and sieved for the extract preparation. .... (A), Leaf fresh mass; (B), root fresh mass; (C), stem diameter; (D), aerial part length. .... Naphthoquinones as allelochemical triggers of programmed cell.

  11. What is a Fresh Scent in Perfumery? Perceptual Freshness is Correlated with Substantivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Zarzo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Perfumes are manufactured by mixing odorous materials with different volatilities. The parameter that measures the lasting property of a material when applied on the skin is called substantivity or tenacity. It is well known by perfumers that citrus and green notes are perceived as fresh and they tend to evaporate quickly, while odors most dissimilar to ‘fresh’ (e.g., oriental, powdery, erogenic and animalic scents are tenacious. However, studies aimed at quantifying the relationship between fresh odor quality and substantivity have not received much attention. In this work, perceptual olfactory ratings on a fresh scale, estimated in a previous study, were compared with substantivity parameters and antierogenic ratings from the literature. It was found that the correlation between fresh odor character and odorant substantivity is quite strong (r = −0.85. ‘Fresh’ is sometimes interpreted in perfumery as ‘cool’ and the opposite of ‘warm’. This association suggests that odor freshness might be somehow related to temperature. Assuming that odor perception space was shaped throughout evolution in temperate climates, results reported here are consistent with the hypothesis that ‘fresh’ evokes scents typically encountered in the cool season, while ‘warm’ would be evoked by odors found in nature during summer. This hypothesis is rather simplistic but it may provide a new insight to better understand the perceptual space of scents.

  12. Microparticles variability in fresh frozen plasma: preparation protocol and storage time effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriebardis, Anastasios G; Antonelou, Marianna H; Georgatzakou, Hara T; Tzounakas, Vassilis L; Stamoulis, Konstantinos E; Papassideri, Issidora S

    2016-05-01

    Extracellular vesicles or microparticles exhibiting procoagulant and thrombogenic activity may contribute to the haemostatic potential of fresh frozen plasma. Fresh frozen plasma was prepared from platelet-rich plasma at 20 °C (Group-1 donors) or directly from whole blood at 4 °C (Group-2 donors). Each unit was aseptically divided into three parts, stored frozen for specific periods of time, and analysed by flow cytometry for procoagulant activity immediately after thaw or following post-thaw storage for 24 h at 4 °C. Donors' haematologic, biochemical and life-style profiles as well as circulating microparticles were analysed in parallel. Circulating microparticles exhibited a considerable interdonor but not intergroup variation. Fresh frozen plasma units were enriched in microparticles compared to plasma in vivo. Duration of storage significantly affected platelet- and red cell-derived microparticles. Fresh frozen plasma prepared directly from whole blood contained more residual platelets and more platelet-derived microparticles compared to fresh frozen plasma prepared from platelet-rich plasma. Consequently, there was a statistically significant difference in total, platelet- and red cell-derived microparticles between the two preparation protocols over storage time in the freezer. Preservation of the thawed units for 24 h at 4 °C did not significantly alter microparticle accumulation. Microparticle accumulation and anti-oxidant capacity of fresh frozen plasma was positively or negatively correlated, respectively, with the level of circulating microparticles in individual donors. The preparation protocol and the duration of storage in the freezer, independently and in combination, influenced the accumulation of microparticles in fresh frozen plasma units. In contrast, storage of thawed units for 24 h at 4 °C had no significant effect on the concentration of microparticles.

  13. Fresh Slice Self-Seeding and Fresh Slice Harmonic Lasing at LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, J.W. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2018-04-01

    We present results from the successful demonstration of fresh slice self-seeding at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS).* The performance is compared with SASE and regular self-seeding at photon energy of 5.5 keV, resulting in a relative average brightness increase of a factor of 12 and a factor of 2 respectively. Following this proof-of-principle we discuss the forthcoming plans to use the same technique** for fresh slice harmonic lasing in an upcoming experiment. The demonstration of fresh slice harmonic lasing provides an attractive solution for future XFELs aiming to achieve high efficiency, high brightness X-ray pulses at high photon energies (>12 keV).***

  14. Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated fresh oysters during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Sek; Pak, Jae Nam; Park, Jin Gyu; Han, In Jun; Jung, Pil Mun; Song, Beaom Seok; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Jae Hun; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Han, Sang Bae

    2008-01-01

    The microbiological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of gamma irradiated fresh oysters were evaluated regarding its shelf-life during refrigeration. Non-irradiated fresh oysters began to be putrefied after 14 days, while fresh oysters irradiated with 2 kGy showed 5.54 log CFU∙g-1 even after 28 days. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value increased more rapidly in the non-irradiated sample than the irradiated samples during storage. Especially the VBN value of the non-irradiated sample was eight fold higher then that of the the sample irradiated with 2 kGy. The pH of the non-irradiated fresh oysters significantly decreased during storage while the samples irradiated with doses higher than 2 kGy showed no significant change. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value increased in all samples during a storage period, and gamma irradiation accelerated the increase of lipid oxidation. Sensory characteristics of fresh oysters were deteriorated as irradiation doses increased, and sensory scores of the samples irradiated with doses higher than 2 kGy were significantly decreased

  15. Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of gamma-irradiated fresh oysters during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Sek; Pak, Jae Nam; Park, Jin Gyu; Han, In Jun; Jung, Pil Mun; Song, Beaom Seok; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Jae Hun; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang Bae [Food and Risk Standardization Team, KFDA, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The microbiological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of gamma irradiated fresh oysters were evaluated regarding its shelf-life during refrigeration. Non-irradiated fresh oysters began to be putrefied after 14 days, while fresh oysters irradiated with 2 kGy showed 5.54 log CFU∙g-1 even after 28 days. Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value increased more rapidly in the non-irradiated sample than the irradiated samples during storage. Especially the VBN value of the non-irradiated sample was eight fold higher then that of the the sample irradiated with 2 kGy. The pH of the non-irradiated fresh oysters significantly decreased during storage while the samples irradiated with doses higher than 2 kGy showed no significant change. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value increased in all samples during a storage period, and gamma irradiation accelerated the increase of lipid oxidation. Sensory characteristics of fresh oysters were deteriorated as irradiation doses increased, and sensory scores of the samples irradiated with doses higher than 2 kGy were significantly decreased.

  16. To transfer fresh or thawed embryos?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide freezing and thawing of embryos has been increasingly used since the first infant was born as a result of this technique in 1984. The use of frozen embryo replacement (FER) currently even exceeds the number of fresh cycles performed in some countries. This article discusses the pros...... and multiple pregnancies, thereby increasing the safety for mother and child. Finally the article describes the accumulating literature on perinatal and long-term child outcome after transfer of frozen/thawed embryos, including a discussion on the concerns regarding cryo techniques and their possible roles...

  17. Disposal of radioactive wastes into fresh water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1963-03-01

    The fate of radionuclides introduced into fresh water will be influenced not only by the volume of the water available for dilution, but also by a number of other physical, chemical and biological factors like replacement of the water mass, turbulence and location of the currents, chemical composition of effluent and receiving water, suspended materials, thermal characteristics and density differences, precipitation and sedimentation, ion-exchange and adsorption, incorporation by living organisms, and special features characteristics of the type of water body involved, i.e. whether stream, lake, estuary or sub-surface. 50 refs, 8 figs, 24 tabs.

  18. This is “Fresh Cream”

    OpenAIRE

    Troncy, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Fresh Cream, which is conceived as “an exhibition in a book”, and presented as playing “the role of a contemporary art Biennale”, is a sequel to Cream, which was also published by Phaidon in 1998. Based on the same principle, the book brings together 100 artists chosen by nobody in particular, but more exactly by 10 curators in general. The whole, per force, produces an impersonal result, and makes it possible, once again, to confirm the old adage that “a dromedary is a horse designed by a te...

  19. Quality of fresh-cut strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Franciscleudo B; Duarte,Priscila S; Puschmann,Rolf; Finger,Fernando L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the physical, chemical, physiological and microbiological changes during the flow chart of fresh-cut strawberry. Strawberry cvs. Camarosa, Dover and Tudla, derived from experimental area of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, were selected by color (red ¾) and absence of wound. Afterwards, the minimal processing was evaluated, as follows: fast cooling, water and ice, removal of the calyx followed by conservation at 5±0.5°C and 90-95% RH for 13 days, sanitatio...

  20. Methods to evaluate fish freshness in research and industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, G.; Martinsdóttir, E.; Oehlenschläger, J.

    1997-01-01

    Current work in a European concerted action project 'Evaluation of Fish Freshness' (AIR3 CT94-2283) focuses on harmonizing research activities in the area of fish freshness evaluation in leading fish laboratories in Europe (see Box 1). The overall aim of the concerted action project is to validat...... measurements with respect to fish freshness evaluation. In this article, the different subgroups have summarized changes that occur in fish and methods to evaluate fish freshness as a first step towards the definition of criteria for fish freshness...

  1. Effect of substituting fresh-cut perennial ryegrass with fresh-cut white clover on bovine milk fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiadis, Sokratis; Hynes, Deborah N; Thomson, Anna L; Kliem, Kirsty E; Berlitz, Carolina Gb; Günal, Mevlüt; Yan, Tianhai

    2018-03-06

    Including forage legumes in dairy systems can help address increasing environmental/economic concerns about perennial ryegrass monoculture pastures. This work investigated the effect of substituting fresh-cut grass with increasing quantities of fresh-cut white clover (WC) on milk fatty acid (FA) profile and transfer efficiency of dietary linoleic (LA) and α-linolenic (ALNA) acids to milk fat. Three groups of three crossbred dairy cows were used in a 3 × 3 crossover design. Dietary treatments were 0 g kg -1 WC + 600 g kg -1 grass, 200 g kg -1 WC + 400 g kg -1 grass, and 400 g kg -1 WC + 200 g kg -1 grass. All treatments were supplemented with 400 g kg -1 concentrates on a dry matter basis. Cows had a 19-day adaptation period to the experimental diet before a 6-day measurement period in individual tie stalls. Increasing dietary WC did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield or milk concentrations of fat, protein or lactose. Milk polyunsaturated FA concentrations (total n-3, total n-6, LA and ALNA) and transfer efficiency of LA and ALNA were increased with increasing dietary WC supply. Inclusion of WC in pastures may increase concentrations of nutritionally beneficial FA, without influencing milk yield and basic composition, but any implications on human health cannot be drawn. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. A fresh look at space solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankins, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of systems to provide solar power from space for terrestrial use defined very large, geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellite concepts that--given massive initial government investments and extremely low cost space launch--might have led to power production at costs only somewhat higher than expected commercial prices. These studies of space solar power (SSP) succeeded in establishing technical feasibility. Shortly after the completion of the 1970s study, however, US funding came to an abrupt and seemingly permanent halt--in part because projected costs for the reference system were staggering: well in excess of $100B to achieve the first commercial kilowatt-hour of power. SSP has seen sporadic study and limited experimentation during the past decade (e.g., in Japan). Still, no existing SSP concept has engendered private development. New technologies now make possible concepts and approaches that suggest that SSP economic feasibility may be achievable early in the next century. In 1995, NASA's Advanced Concepts Office initiated a study taking a fresh look at innovative concepts for SSP that differ markedly from previously examined concepts, addressing innovative system architectures, markets and technologies that could radically reduce initial and operational costs. This paper will explore the issues associated with SSP and will summarize the results to date of NASA's recent fresh look at this important and increasingly timely field of space applications

  3. Comparative biomechanical study between fresh frozen bone and fresh frozen pasteurized bone process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdiansyah Abdurrahman

    1999-01-01

    To observe the biomechanical properties difference between fresh frozen bone and fresh frozen pasteurized bone process Thirty eight femurs bones taken from 6 years old primate.(macaca fascicularis) from Primate Nursery Center LIPI Bogor, 20 bones were 6 cm cut for bending test and 18 remains were 3 cm cut for compression test. All bones were frozen and then divided into two groups for each biomechanical study. First group (I 0 bones for bending test and 9 bones for compression test) were undergone fresh frozen procession only. The second group with the same amount was undergone fresh frozen and pasteurized on 60 degree C for three hours. Bending test was done until the bones were broken on control group and pasteurized group and the result was compared, the same procedure was done for compression test. The study was done in room temperature. The biomechanical test result was analyzed by two independent T tests. The bending test control group has ( mean 0.097 N / mm sup 2 (SD = 0.007) and the pasteurized group ( mean 0. I 0 1 N / mm sup 2 (SD = 0.0 1 3), there was no significant difference (p 0.399). The compression test control group has ( = mean 0.71 N / mm sup 2 (SD=0.128)where as the pasteurized group has(mean 0.50N/mm sup 2 (SD=0.111),there was significant difference (p =0.004) From the result biomechanical study on bending test, there was no significant difference of bone strength, whereas on compression test the fresh frozen with pasteurized bone group is 125% stronger than control group. The result of this study will be very useful for reconstruction bone allograft

  4. The History of Variable Stars: A Fresh Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, R. A.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) For historians of astronomy, variable stars are important for a simple reason - stars change. But good evidence suggests this is a very modern idea. Over the millennia, our species has viewed stars as eternal and unchanging, forever fixed in time and space - indeed, the Celestial Dance was a celebration of order, reason, and stability. But everything changed in the period between Copernicus and Newton. According to tradition, two New Stars announced the birth of the New Science. Blazing across the celestial stage, Tycho's Star (1572) and Kepler's Star (1604) appeared dramatically - and just as unexpectedly - disappeared forever. But variable stars were different. Mira Ceti, the oldest, brightest, and most controversial variable star, was important because it appeared and disappeared again and again. Mira was important because it did not go away. The purpose of this essay is to take a fresh look at the history of variable stars. In re-thinking the traditional narrative, I begin with the first sightings of David Fabricius (1596) and his contemporaries - particularly Hevelius (1662) and Boulliau (1667) - to new traditions that unfolded from Newton and Maupertuis to Herschel (1780) and Pigott (1805). The essay concludes with important 19th-century developments, particularly by Argelander (1838), Pickering (1888), and Lockyer (1890). Across three centuries, variable stars prompted astronomers to re-think all the ways that stars were no longer "fixed." New strategies were needed. Astronomers needed to organize, to make continuous observations, to track changing magnitudes, and to explain stellar phases. Importantly - as Mira suggested from the outset - these challenges called for an army of observers with the discipline of Spartans. But recruiting that army required a strategy, a set of theories with shared expectations. Observation and theory worked hand-in-hand. In presenting new historical evidence from neglected printed sources and unpublished

  5. Distribution of water in fresh cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Rinnan, A.

    2002-01-01

    Low-field (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation was used to measure water mobility and distribution of water in fresh cod fillets. The NMR relaxations were analysed with the so-called SLICING method giving uni-exponential profiles from which the transverse relaxation time (T(2......)-values) and the relative sizes of the water populations were calculated. Two water populations with the T(2)-values of 50 and 94 ms were obtained. The shortest relaxation time was primarily found near the head, and water with the longest relaxation time was primarily found near the tail. This variation...... can he explained by the smaller muscle cells and muscle fibers in the tail, which may influence the distributions of water into the different pools. The amount of one of the water populations was correlated to the overall water content with a correlation coefficient of -0.94. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science...

  6. Fresh perspectives for a better world

    CERN Multimedia

    Danielle Amy Venton

    While it’s no surprise that technology has the ability to change the world, it sometimes changes it in surprising ways. The Citizen Cyberscience Centre project is promoting change for humanitarian causes through distributed volunteer initiatives, such as volunteer computing and ‘volunteer thinking’. The inaugural lecture of a planned series was held at CERN in late October. The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR), the University of Geneva (UNIGE), and CERN have recently set up a new partnership and launched a lecture series, which will invite experts in the humanities and technologies to share fresh perspectives on ways to work for a better world. The inaugural lecture at CERN was given by two speakers, Mo Ibrahim and Alpheus Bingham, each of them behind initiatives using technology to address difficult problems. Mo Ibrahim founded Celtel International, one of Africa’s most successful mobile network operators. Ibrahim’s company has ...

  7. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Influence of High Temperatures on the Workability of Fresh Ready-Mixed Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Sampebulu'

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Properties of fresh concrete made in tropical countries, which is mixed, transported (with agitation, placed and initially cured in places where the temperature ranges from about 20oC to 40oC and relative humidity above 60%, are not completely understood. Applicable requirements also differ from country to country and government agencies and private enterprises have their own specifications. Assuming such temperature and relative humidity conditions, the present study is an attempt at evaluating the properties of hot weather concrete in fresh state with using a method of ready–mixed concrete. The fresh concrete was mixed and agitated at varying concrete and ambient temperatures. Three groups of the component materials, each material having such temperature as to bring resulting temperature of the fresh concrete to about 20oC, 30oC, 35oC, were chosen. The temperature of cement was conditioned to about20o, 40oC and 60oC for each of groups respectively. The aggregate was made warm enough to simulate the condition of outdoor pile in ready-mixed concrete plant. The temperature of tap water was always 20oC as it was easily controlled and unlikely affected by outdoor temperature. With the fresh concrete prevented from evaporation, slump loss is caused solely by increased temperature of concrete. During agitation, the slump loss increases rapidly during the first 30 minutes but moderately during the remaining period. Concrete-placing temperature (upon arrival at the work site could be estimated by a proposed formula derived from this study. Besides the freshly mixed concrete temperature, this formula also takes into consideration the ambient temperature, agitating time in transit and hydration heat. The achievement as described in this study may be useful to control concrete quality in terms of strength, shrinkage and other properties of concrete to be placed in hot-humid environment.

  9. Microbiological Quality and Safety of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables at Retail Levels in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Charles Nkufi; Wei, Shuai; Khan, Imran; Hussain, Mohammad Shakhawat; Kounkeu, Paul-François Ngnitcho; Park, Joong-Hyun; Kim, Se-Hun; Oh, Deog Hwan

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and safety of fresh produce at retail level in Korea in order to periodically update information and establish available risks associated with consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. The samples from different markets located in 3 provinces of South Korea were collected. The protocol in the Korean Food Standards Codex was applied and generic Escherichia coli, coliforms, aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB), and yeast and mold (YM) in 360 packaged and unpackaged fresh fruits and vegetables were analyzed. Presence of pathogens was examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) after enrichment of samples. For all, the microbial counts ranged from 1.7 to 10.6 log cfu/g for AMB, 2.2 to 7.9 log cfu/g for coliforms, and 5.5 to 7.9 log cfu/g for YM. Three lettuce samples were contaminated by E. coli with a bacterial load ranging from 2 to 4 log cfu/g. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any fresh produce. Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus aureus were found in 1 (0.6%), 3 (0.8%), and 5 (1.4%) fresh produce samples, respectively. Bacillus cereus (50.3%) and Clostridium perfringens (13.3%) had the highest prevalence. These results indicate the need for employing strict control measures and developing preventive strategies to improve the quality and safety of fresh produce in Korea. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Electron beam processing of fresh produce - A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Suresh D.; Shayanfar, Shima

    2018-02-01

    To meet the increasing global demand for fresh produce, robust processing methods that ensures both the safety and quality of fresh produce are needed. Since fresh produce cannot withstand thermal processing conditions, most of common safety interventions used in other foods are ineffective. Electron beam (eBeam) is a non-thermal technology that can be used to extend the shelf life and ensure the microbiological safety of fresh produce. There have been studies documenting the application of eBeam to ensure both safety and quality in fresh produce, however, there are still unexplored areas that still need further research. This is a critical review on the current literature on the application of eBeam technology for fresh produce.

  11. Evaluation of Fresh Food Internet Shopping in Korean Beef

    OpenAIRE

    金, 鍾和; 森高, 正博; 福田, 晋; Kim, Jong-hwa; Moritaka, Masahiro; Fukuda, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on consumer reactions to the fresh food internet shopping on Korea beef. In the paper, we have analyzed an effective relation in consumer's perceived qualities, the evaluation of commodities and the evaluation of fresh food internet shopping. As a result, two effective relations were found. Firstly, consumer's perceived qualities affect the evaluation of commodities. Secondly, the evaluation of commodities affects t-he evaluation of fresh food internet shopping. This result...

  12. The Why and How of a Good Alumni Periodical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcham, John

    1980-01-01

    An alumni periodical is seen as a house organ that should represent its school to the public. The most important priority should be in finding a first-rate editor. Six key aspects of a periodical are good writing and illustration, honesty, clear organization and design, content, freshness, and style. (MLW)

  13. Design of fresh food sensory perceptual system for cold chain logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Ying; Cheng Ruqi; Chen Shaohui

    2018-01-01

    According to the present stage low-level information of China's cold chain preservation, designed a kind of fresh food sensory perceptual system for cold chain logistics based on Internet of things. This system highly integrated applied many technologies such as the Internet of things technology, forecasting technology for fruits and vegetables preservation period, RFID and Planar bar code technology, big data and cloud computing technology and so on.Designed as a four-layer structure includi...

  14. Identification of Microorganisms in Fresh and Dried Fruits Cultivated, Imported and Consumed in Tirana City

    OpenAIRE

    OLTIANA PETRI; ARBEN LUZATI; ANJEZA ÇOKU; TOMI PETRI; SILVANA MARDHA; ERJONA ABAZAJ

    2014-01-01

    Fruits products contamination present a particular concern for human health, since many of these products are raw consumed without any prior treatment, which would eliminate or reduce biological, microbiological or physical risks. The aim of this study is to gather basic information on microbiological quality in fresh and dried fruits, which are traded currently in Tirana, as this city presents almost one third of Albania. This study was conducted during the period November 2010-March 2013 in...

  15. The onshore influence of offshore fresh groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew C.; Werner, Adrian D.; Morgan, Leanne K.

    2018-06-01

    Freshwater contained within the submarine extensions of coastal aquifers is increasingly proposed as a freshwater source for coastal communities. However, the extent to which offshore freshwater supports onshore pumping is currently unknown on a global scale. This study provides the first attempt to examine the likely prevalence of situations where offshore freshwater influences onshore salinities, considering various sites from around the world. The groundwater conditions in twenty-seven confined and semi-confined coastal aquifers with plausible connections to inferred or observed offshore freshwater are explored. The investigation uses available onshore salinities and groundwater levels, and offshore salinity knowledge, in combination with analytical modelling, to develop simplified conceptual models of the study sites. Seven different conceptual models are proposed based on the freshwater-saltwater extent and insights gained from analytical modelling. We consider both present-day and pre-development conditions in assessing potential modern contributions to offshore fresh groundwater. Conceptual models also include interpretations of whether offshore freshwater is a significant factor influencing onshore salinities and well pumping sustainability. The results indicate that onshore water levels have declined between pre-development and present-day conditions in fourteen of the fifteen regions for which pre-development data are available. Estimates of the associated steady-state freshwater extents show the potential for considerable offshore fresh groundwater losses accompanying these declines. Both present-day and pre-development heads are insufficient to account for the observed offshore freshwater in all cases where adequate data exist. This suggests that paleo-freshwater and/or aquifer heterogeneities contribute significantly to offshore freshwater extent. Present-day heads indicate that active seawater intrusion (SWI) will eventually impact onshore pumping

  16. Pork loin quality is not indicative of fresh belly or fresh and cured ham quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkfeld, E K; Wilson, K B; Overholt, M F; Harsh, B N; Lowell, J E; Hogan, E K; Klehm, B J; Bohrer, B M; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to characterize the relationship between fresh loin quality with fresh belly or fresh and cured ham quality. Pigs raised in 8 barns representing 2 seasons [cold ( = 4,290) and hot ( = 3,394)] and 2 production focuses [lean ( = 3,627) and quality ( = 4,057)] were used. Carcass characteristics and other meat quality data were collected on 7,684 carcasses. All of the carcasses were evaluated for HCW, LM depth, tenth rib fat depth, leg (ham primal) weight, instrumental color on the gluteus medius and gluteus profundus of the ham face, and subjective loin quality. Instrumental loin color and ultimate pH (≥ 22 h postmortem) were collected on the ventral side of loins along with dimensions and firmness scores of fresh bellies from 50% of the carcasses. Ten percent of the boneless loins and fresh hams were evaluated for slice shear force (SSF) or cured ham characteristics. Correlation coefficients between traits were computed using the CORR procedure of SAS and considered significantly different from 0 at ≤ 0.05. Temperature decline, beginning at 31 min postmortem and concluding at 22 h postmortem, for the longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles were evaluated on 10% of the carcasses. Ultimate loin pH was correlated with dimensional belly characteristics ( ≥ |0.07|; ham instrumental color ( ≥ |0.03|; ≤ 0.05), and semimembranosus ultimate pH ( = 0.33; hams. Instrumental L*on the ventral surface of the loin was related to L* on both muscles of the ham face ( ≤ 0.0001). Even though significant relationships between the loin, belly, and ham were detected, the variability in belly and ham quality explained by variability in loin quality was poor (≤ 22.09%). Compositional differences between the loin and belly may have contributed to those poor relationships. Additionally, differences in temperature declines during chilling between the loin and ham likely contributed to the weak nature of relationships. Equilibration of longissimus dorsi

  17. Fresh fruit intake and asthma symptoms in young British adults: confounding or effect modification by smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butland, B K; Strachan, D P; Anderson, H R

    1999-04-01

    Antioxidant vitamins have been postulated as a protective factor in asthma. The associations between the frequency of fresh fruit consumption in summer, and the prevalence of self-reported asthma symptoms were investigated. The analysis was based on 5,582 males and 5,770 females, born in England, Wales and Scotland between March 3-9, 1958 and aged 33 yrs at the time of survey. The 12-month period prevalence of wheeze and frequent wheeze were inversely associated with frequent intakes of fresh fruit and salad/raw vegetables and positively associated with smoking and lower social class. After adjustment for mutual confounding and sex, associations with smoking persisted, but those with social class and salad/raw vegetable consumption lost significance. The frequency of fresh fruit intake was no longer associated with wheeze after adjustment, but was inversely associated with frequent wheeze and speech-limiting attacks. The association with frequent wheeze differed significantly between smoking groups (never, former, current) and appeared to be confined to exsmokers and current smokers. These findings support postulated associations between infrequent fresh fruit consumption and the prevalence of frequent or severe asthma symptoms in adults. Associations appeared to be restricted to smokers, with effect modification as a more likely explanation of this pattern than residual confounding by smoking.

  18. Trends of fresh green food for lactating roe deer females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Annette; Stahl, Benjamin; Laube, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Increasing temperatures, changed precipitation patterns as well as more intense and frequent extreme events will alter the phenology of both flora and fauna and shift species distributions. Moreover, farmers respond to climate change by adapting land use and management, and thus the cultural landscape is changing. Therefore, the health and fitness of wild animals will be largely affected by factors directly and indirectly linked to climate change. Familiar examples of mismatch due to loss of temporal synchrony in food webs are known from birds (timing of migration or egg laying in relation to food resources) and insect pollination (timing of first flights in relation to plant flowering). However, also large herbivory mammals may suffer from climate change induced phenological mismatch if they are not able to "surf on the green wave" any more. Taking roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) as key example, we studied changes in the spring phenology of potential food plants during the last four decades in southern Germany. Our analysis is based on the phenological observations of the German Meteorological Service as well as on the comprehensive multi-species dataset of a dedicated citizen scientist. Roe deer is sensitive to slight phenological changes of food plants, since only the first fresh green contains maximal protein contents which are needed by the females to suckle their fawns born mid of May till mid of June. We find indications for an increasing number of food plant species available in the lactation period, however probably with a decreasing food quality over the decades. Since females have delayed implantation it may be difficult to well synchronise the postnatal period to the vegetation development. A unique dataset of marked fawns suggests that also the timing of birth has slightly advanced in recent decades. We discuss these changes in the match-mismatch of lactation period of roe deer and spring leaf phenology and their driving factors in detail.

  19. Np Analysis of Freshly Separated Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    Np analysis has historically relied upon the Pa/Np secular equilibrium for quantitative results. The Savannah River Site has recently undertaken a mission concerning Np. In this application, Np is separated from Pa, packaged, possibly mixed with other batches, and assayed. The fresh separation and mixing of batches prevents the use of the Pa133 prodigy peaks for assay. This effort was a developmental project novel in the DOE complex. This paper discusses the challenges encountered in the design of instrumentation to assay Np directly. The most abundant Np peak that is unfettered by Pa prodigy, Am, or other SNM materials is the 29.6keV. Quantitative measurement of such a low energy peak presents significant problems with attenuation, Compton effects, and other such issues that arise while trying to maximize the effects of low energy peaks. The solutions rely on exploiting the ''tried and true'' methods with regard to shielding, detector technology, and calibration techniques, but wit h a very low energy perspective. The results are intriguing and, with some assumptions regarding sample homogeneity, quantitative within normal MC and A statistics

  20. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Fresh and Dried Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The preliminary phytochemical screening of the crude aqueous extract of fresh and dried Moringa oleifera leaves, of the organic solvent and residual fractions of the extract was carried out according to the standard methods. Chemical constituents of the crude aqueous extract of the fresh leaves were found to be tannins, ...

  1. Phytosanitary irradiation and fresh fruit quality: Cultivar and maturity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation is an effective quarantine treatment for global trade of fresh produce. Variation in cultivars and maturity stages can impact the tolerance of fresh fruits to irradiation for the purposes of quarantine security. Tolerance thresholds for irradiated fruit are lacking for a large number of ...

  2. Rumen dry matter degradability of fresh and ensiled sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and in situ ruminal degradability of fresh (FSC) and ensiled (ESC) sugarcane. In situ dry matter degradability (DMD) was determined using the nylon bag technique with four cows equipped ruminal fistulas. Cows were fed with fresh or ensiled sugarcane and ...

  3. Robust model of fresh jujube soluble solids content with near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A robust partial least square (PLS) calibration model with high accuracy and stability was established for the measurement of soluble solids content (SSC) of fresh jujube using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique. Fresh jujube samples were collected in different areas of Taigu and Taiyuan cities, central China in ...

  4. 9 CFR 319.141 - Fresh pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh pork sausage. 319.141 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh...

  5. Cultivation, isolation and characterization of bacteriocin from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focus on cultivation, isolation and characterization of Bacteriocin from fresh cow milk (FCM) and fresh cow meat (FMS) samples obtained from Lapai Market in Niger State, Nigeria. Potential bacteriocinogenic bacteria were screened with agar diffusion method on culture plates seeded with Staphylococcus and ...

  6. Improving the safety of fresh fruit and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, W.M.F.

    2005-01-01

    Fresh fruit and vegetables have been identified as a significant source of pathogens and chemical contaminants. As a result, there has been a wealth of research on identifying and controlling hazards at all stages in the supply chain. Improving the safety of fresh fruit and vegetables reviews this

  7. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... continental Spain. As a condition of entry, fresh apricots from continental Spain would have to be produced in... organization of Spain certifying that the fruit is free from all quarantine pests and has been produced in...

  8. Incidence of staphylococcus aureus in locally produced fresh milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the incidence of the bacterial organism Staphylococcus, aureus in locally produced fresh milk (nono). The fresh milk was obtained from the Damaturu main market, Yobe state of Nigeria. Petri dishes were washed and allowed to dry. They were then sterilized in hot air oven at 130°C for two hours and ...

  9. Creating Sustainable Fresh Food Supply Chains through Waste Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaipia, Riikka; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Loikkanen, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    . Design/methodology/approach – This work has been designed as an exploratory case study in three fresh food supply chains, milk, fresh fish, and fresh poultry, in the Nordic countries. The cases are based on interviews and data from the databases of the companies involved. Each case focuses on analyzing...... uses of shared information to create a sustainable fresh food supply chain. Findings –The performance of the perishable food chain can be improved by more efficient information sharing. The key to improved operations is how and for which purposes the shared data should be used. In addition, changes......Purpose – The aim of this empirical paper is to study information sharing in fresh food supply chains, with a specific goal of reducing waste and facilitating sustainable performance. The study focuses on material and information flow issues, specifically on sharing demand and shelf-life data...

  10. Smart storage technologies applied to fresh foods: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyu; Zhang, Min; Gao, Zhongxue; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-06-30

    Fresh foods are perishable, seasonal and regional in nature and their storage, transportation, and preservation of freshness are quite challenging. Smart storage technologies can online detection and monitor the changes of quality parameters and storage environment of fresh foods during storage, so that operators can make timely adjustments to reduce the loss. This article reviews the smart storage technologies from two aspects: online detection technologies and smartly monitoring technologies for fresh foods. Online detection technologies include electronic nose, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), hyperspectral imaging and computer vision. Smartly monitoring technologies mainly include some intelligent indicators for monitoring the change of storage environment. Smart storage technologies applied to fresh foods need to be highly efficient and nondestructive and need to be competitively priced. In this work, we have critically reviewed the principles, applications, and development trends of smart storage technologies.

  11. Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Produce: Outbreaks, Prevalence and Contamination Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous system infections, as well as abortion in pregnant women. Generally, processed ready-to-eat and cold-stored meat and dairy products are considered high-risk foods for L. monocytogenes infections that cause human illness (listeriosis. However, recently, several listeriosis outbreaks have been linked to fresh produce contamination around the world. Additionally, many studies have detected L. monocytogenes in fresh produce samples and even in some minimally processed vegetables. Thus L. monocytogenes may contaminate fresh produce if present in the growing environment (soil and water. Prevention of biofilm formation is an important control measure to reduce the prevalence and survival of L. monocytogenes in growing environments and on fresh produce. This article specifically focuses on fresh produce–associated listeriosis outbreaks, prevalence in growing environments, contamination levels of fresh produce, and associated fresh produce safety challenges.

  12. Design of fresh food sensory perceptual system for cold chain logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ying

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the present stage low-level information of China's cold chain preservation, designed a kind of fresh food sensory perceptual system for cold chain logistics based on Internet of things. This system highly integrated applied many technologies such as the Internet of things technology, forecasting technology for fruits and vegetables preservation period, RFID and Planar bar code technology, big data and cloud computing technology and so on.Designed as a four-layer structure including sensing layer, network layer, control layer and user layer. The system can implement the real-time temperature and humidity environment parameters monitoring and early warning of the whole cold chain logistics for fresh agricultural products from picking, storage, transportation and processing link. It greatly improved the information level of cold chain circulation in our country and has a strong marketing value.

  13. An ESR study of radicals induced in irradiated fresh mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Hussain, Mohammed S.; Morishita, Norio; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Ukai, Mitsuko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2009-01-01

    An electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopic study was performed on the radicals induced irradiated fresh mangoes. Fresh Philippine mangoes were irradiated by the γ-rays, lyophilized and powdered. The ESR spectrum of the dry specimen showed a strong main peak at g=2.004 and a pair of peaks at both magnetic fields of the main peak. The main peak detected from flesh and skin specimens faded away in a few days after the irradiation. On the other hand, the side peaks showed a well-defined dose response even 9 days after the irradiation. The side-peak is a useful mean to define the irradiation on fresh mangoes. (author)

  14. Fresh water distribution problematic in Nouakchott

    OpenAIRE

    BABAH, Isselmou A.; DEIDA, Mohamed F.; BLAKE, Gérard; FROELICH, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Because of its geographical location, Mauritania is characterized by an arid climate. The water resources are thus limited. The annual average rainfall calculated by M.Yeslem [1] over a 60-years period (1931-1991) is 112 mm. Nouakchott, the Mauritanian capital, knew an exceptional growth of the population, carrying it to more than 700 000 inhabitants in the year 2005 [2]. These brisk demographic trends generated a fast expansion of occupied space and a strong pressure on the social equipments...

  15. sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal. 22 .... Trained and consumer pan- els from the local black ... selected as the best formulations or recipes, as judged by the ... loosening of the sausage from the pan with a.

  16. Effect of fresh air ventilation on indoor radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hao; Wu Jianhua; Fu Shi

    2012-01-01

    The radon concentration of laboratory for radon simulation (LRS) was measured by the RAD7 radon monitor, and the effect of the different fresh air ventilations on indoor radon concentration was studied and analyzed. The indoor radon concentration of LRS can be accumulated up to 2000 Bq/m 3 and the average radon exhalation rate of the LRS is 14.5 Bq · m -2 . h -1 . Furthermore, when the fresh air enters into the LRS continuously, the indoor radon concentration decreases exponentially with the increase of time. The equilibrium radon concentration and equilibrium time of LRS decrease exponentially with the increase of the rate of fresh air ventilation. In addition, the indoor radon concentration increases by accumulation with the decrease of the rate of fresh air ventilation. (authors)

  17. In Vivo Digestibility of Molasses-Treated Fresh Banana Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated fresh banana leaves in West African Dwarf sheep was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm and Animal Nutrition Laboratory of the University of Dschang between August and September 2009. For this, six sheep were used and ...

  18. Green and technical efficient growth in Danish fresh water aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    growth can be achieved by introducing new environmentally friendly water purification systems in Danish fresh water aquaculture. Data Envelopment Analysis is used to investigate whether different water purification systems and farm size influence technical efficiency. The empirical results indicate...

  19. Application of Ultrasonic Waves on Maintaining Freshness of Tilapia Fillet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruddy Suwandi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ish fillet is one of fisheries products that easily deteriorated; hence handling techniques are needed to maintain the freshness. Ultrasonic wave have been widely applied to some of food products for maintaining freshness through microbial inactivation, however the ultrasonic application to fisheries products has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of ultrasonic wave on fish freshness. The stages of the study were sample preparation, sonication, freshness parameters examination and histology observation. Ultrasonic wave did not affectthe organoleptic value and the TVB, but affected the pH value and the TPC. The sample in which the TPC value was found significantly different, were further observed after 48 and 96 hours storage. The result showed that the TPC value of sonicated sample for 9 minutes was lower to that of without sonication. Histology analysis showed, however, sonication made the structure of muscle fiber less compact and deformation of myomer was found.

  20. Chemical qualities of oils from some fresh and market vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    production was examined by evaluating the oil yield and chemical qualities of oil extracted from fresh ... oil may be considered as Nigeria potential asset for biofuel and oleochemical production. Keywords: ..... standards for edible Arachis oil.

  1. Socioeconomic Determinants of Income From Fresh and Processed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total sample size of 84 crayfish marketers were in all randomly selected across three major Cray ... determine the income derived from fresh crayfish marketing while household size and purchasing ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  2. Physicochemical changes in minimal ozone-treated fresh shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated fresh shrimp were evaluated tandem with microbiological efficacy of treatment during iced storage of up to 10 days. Safely discharged from commercially available domestic-type ozone facility, a previously defined minimal ozone treatment ...

  3. Antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from fresh cow milk in settled ... produced alpha haemolysin, 45.5% (n=25) produced beta haemolysin and ... resistant strains of S. aureus of animal and human biotypes and can serve as ...

  4. Analysis of fresh maize marketing in Anambra state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of fresh maize marketing in Anambra state, Nigeria. ... on marketing income in Anambra State, this study utilized descriptive statistic, Sherpherd-futrel model of determining marketing efficiency ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  5. Wrinkle Ridges and Young Fresh Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 May 2002) The Science Wrinkle ridges are a very common landform on Mars, Mercury, Venus, and the Moon. These ridges are linear to arcuate asymmetric topographic highs commonly found on smooth plains. The origin of wrinkle ridges is not certain and two leading hypotheses have been put forth by scientists over the past 40 years. The volcanic model calls for the extrusion of high viscosity lavas along linear conduits. This thick lava accumulated over these conduits and formed the ridges. The other model is tectonic and advocates that the ridges are formed by compressional faulting and folding. Today's THEMIS image is of the ridged plains of Lunae Planum located between Kasei Valles and Valles Marineris in the northern hemisphere of the planet. Wrinkle ridges are found mostly along the eastern side of the image. The broadest wrinkle ridges in this image are up to 2 km wide. A 3 km diameter young fresh crater is located near the bottom of the image. The crater's ejecta blanket is also clearly seen surrounding the sharp well-defined crater rim. These features are indicative of a very young crater that has not been subjected to erosional processes. The Story The great thing about the solar system is that planets are both alike and different. They're all foreign enough to be mysterious and intriguing, and yet familiar enough to be seen as planetary 'cousins.' By comparing them, we can learn a lot about how planets form and then evolve geologically over time. Crinkled over smooth plains, the long, wavy raised landforms seen here are called 'wrinkle ridges,' and they've been found on Mars, Mercury, Venus, and the Moon - that is, on rocky bodies that are a part of our inner solar system. We know from this observation that planets (and large-enough moons) follow similar processes. What we don't know for sure is HOW these processes work. Scientists have been trying to understand how wrinkle ridges form for 40 years, and they still haven't reached a conclusion. That

  6. Sheep numbers required for dry matter digestibility evaluations when fed fresh perennial ryegrass or forage rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuezhao; Krijgsman, Linda; Waghorn, Garry C; Kjestrup, Holly; Koolaard, John; Pacheco, David

    2017-03-01

    Research trials with fresh forages often require accurate and precise measurement of digestibility and variation in digestion between individuals, and the duration of measurement periods needs to be established to ensure reliable data are obtained. The variation is likely to be greater when freshly harvested feeds are given, such as perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and forage rape ( Brassica napus L.), because the nutrient composition changes over time and in response to weather conditions. Daily feed intake and faeces output data from a digestibility trial with these forages were used to calculate the effects of differing lengths of the measurement period and differing numbers of sheep, on the precision of digestibility, with a view towards development of a protocol. Sixteen lambs aged 8 months and weighing 33 kg at the commencement of the trial were fed either perennial ryegrass or forage rape (8/treatment group) over 2 periods with 35 d between measurements. They had been acclimatised to the diets, having grazed them for 42 d prior to 11 days of indoor measurements. The sheep numbers required for a digestibility trial with different combinations of acclimatisation and measurement period lengths were subsequently calculated for 3 levels of imposed precision upon the estimate of mean dry matter (DM) digestibility. It is recommended that if the standard error of the mean for digestibility is equal to or higher than 5 g/kg DM, and if sheep are already used to a fresh perennial ryegrass or forage rape diet, then a minimum of 6 animals are needed and 4 acclimatisation days being fed individually in metabolic crates followed by 7 days of measurement.

  7. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective...

  8. Warm fresh whole blood and thoracic traumain iraq and afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keneally, Ryan J; Parsons, Andrew M; Willett, Peter B

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic trauma occurred in 10% of the patients seen at US military treatment facilities in Iraq and Afghanistan and 52% of those patients were transfused. Among those transfused, 281 patients received warm fresh whole blood. A previous report documented improved survival with warm fresh whole blood in patients injured in combat without stratification by injury pattern. A later report described an increase in acute lung injuries after its administration. Survivorship and warm fresh whole blood have never been analyzed in a subpopulation at highest risk for lung injuries, such as patients with thoracic trauma. There may be a heterogeneous relationship between whole blood and survival based on likelihood of a concomitant pulmonary injury. In this report, the relationship between warm fresh whole blood and survivorship was analyzed among patients at highest risk for concomitant pulmonary injuries. Patients with thoracic trauma who received a transfusion were identified in the Joint Theater Trauma Registry. Gross mortality rates were compared between whole blood recipients and patients transfused with component therapy only. The association between each blood component and mortality was determined in a regression model. The overall mortality risk was compared between warm fresh whole blood recipients and non-recipients. Patients transfused with warm fresh whole blood in addition to component therapy had a higher mortality rate than patients transfused only separated blood components (21.3% vs. 12.8%, P warm fresh whole blood in addition to component therapy was not associated with increased mortality risk compared with the transfusion of component therapy only (OR 1.247 [95% CI 0.760-2.048], P = 0.382). Patients with combat related thoracic trauma transfused with warm fresh whole blood were not at increased risk for mortality compared to those who received component therapy alone when controlling for covariates.

  9. Determination of Properties of Selected Fresh and Processed Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley G. Cabrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the chemical properties, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and toxicity level of fresh and processed medicinal plants such as corn (Zea mays silk, pancitpancitan (Peperomiapellucida leaves, pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves, and commercially available tea. The toxicity level of the samples was measured using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results showed that in terms of chemical properties there is significant difference between fresh and processed corn silk except in crude fiber content was noted. Based on proximate analyses of fresh and processed medicinal plants specifically in terms of % moisture, %crude protein and % total carbohydrates were also observed. In addition, there is also significant difference on bioactive compound contents such as total flavonoids and total phenolics between fresh and processed corn silk except in total vitamin E (TVE content. Pandan and pancit-pancitan showed significant difference in all bioactive compounds except in total antioxidant content (TAC. Fresh pancit-pancitan has the highest total phenolics content (TPC and TAC, while the fresh and processed corn silk has the lowest TAC and TVE content, respectively. Furthermore, results of BSLA for the three medicinal plants and commercially available tea extract showed after 24 hours exposure significant difference in toxicity level was observed. The percentage mortality increased with an increase in exposure time of the three medicinal plants and tea extract. The results of the study can served as baseline data for further processing and commercialization of these medicinal plants.

  10. Identifying risk event in Indonesian fresh meat supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, H. C.; Vanany, I.; Ciptomulyono, U.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify risk issues in Indonesian fresh meat supply chain from the farm until to the “plate”. The critical points for food safety in physical fresh meat product flow are also identified. The paper employed one case study in the Indonesian fresh meat company by conducting observations and in-depth three stages of interviews. At the first interview, the players, process, and activities in the fresh meat industry were identified. In the second interview, critical points for food safety were recognized. The risk events in each player and process were identified in the last interview. The research will be conducted in three stages, but this article focuses on risk identification process (first stage) only. The second stage is measuring risk and the third stage focuses on determining the value of risk priority. The results showed that there were four players in the fresh meat supply chain: livestock (source), slaughter (make), distributor and retail (deliver). Each player has different activities and identified 16 risk events in the fresh meat supply chain. Some of the strategies that can be used to reduce the occurrence of such risks include improving the ability of laborers on food safety systems, improving cutting equipment and distribution processes

  11. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  12. Mobilities of radionuclides in fresh and fractured crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torstenfelt, B.; Ittner, T.; Allard, B.; Andersson, K.; Olofsson, U.

    1982-12-01

    Sorption and migration of technetium, cesium and americium on fracture surfaces and fresh surfaces of granites taken from drilling cores from the Finnsjoen and Studsvik areas and the Stripa mine are reported. The three elements were used as reference elements with different chemistry and behaviour in water; under the conditions used in the experiments technetium exists as the heptavalent TcO -4 -ion, cesium as the non-complexed monovalent cation Cs + and americium as the strongly hydrolysed Am(OH)super (3-x) (x-1-4). The waters used were synthetic groundwaters representative of waters from the drilling holes. After the exposure of the fracture samples to spiked groundwater solutions for a period of three up to six months the penetration depths and concentration profiles were analysed and autoradiographs of cesium and americium distribution vs depth were taken. The sorption of technetium was found to be negligible. The transport of TcO -4 depends on accessibility to fractures and micro-fissures in the rock. Cesium is sorbed through an ion-exchange process. Migration of cesium depends not only on the transport in water into fractures and micro-fissures, but also on migration through mineral veins with a high CEC. Americium is strongly sorbed on most solid surfaces and did not migrate significantly during the contact time of three months. The diffusivity in granite was found to be around 10 - 13 m 2 /s for cesium; preliminary values for technetium and americium were 10 - 12 m 2 /s and less than 10 - 16 m 2 /s, respectively. (Authors)

  13. Advances in edible coatings for fresh fruits and vegetables: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, R K

    2013-01-01

    Edible coatings are an environmentally friendly technology that is applied on many products to control moisture transfer, gas exchange or oxidation processes. Edible coatings can provide an additional protective coating to produce and can also give the same effect as modified atmosphere storage in modifying internal gas composition. One major advantage of using edible films and coatings is that several active ingredients can be incorporated into the polymer matrix and consumed with the food, thus enhancing safety or even nutritional and sensory attributes. But, in some cases, edible coatings were not successful. The success of edible coatings for fresh products totally depends on the control of internal gas composition. Quality criteria for fruits and vegetables coated with edible films must be determined carefully and the quality parameters must be monitored throughout the storage period. Color change, firmness loss, ethanol fermentation, decay ratio and weight loss of edible film coated fruits need to be monitored. This review discusses the use of different edible coatings (polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and composite) as carriers of functional ingredients on fresh fruits and vegetables to maximize their quality and shelf life. This also includes the recent advances in the incorporation of antimicrobials, texture enhancers and nutraceuticals to improve quality and functionality of fresh-cut fruits. Sensory implications, regulatory status and future trends are also reviewed.

  14. FRUIT JUICES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TECHNIQUE FOR CONSERVATION OF FRESH-CUT BANANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDERSON ADRIANO MARTINS MELO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Browning discoloration after cutting is detrimental for the quality of a number of fruits and vegetables, such as banana, apple, pear, potato, and some roots such as cassava, yam, and others. Browning and softening compromise banana after cut shelf-life in a few hours under cold storage. Therefore, anti-browning compounds have been applied to slices before packing. Some commonly used substances are calcium chloride, ascorbic acid, cysteine and citric acid, in immersed inchemical mixtures. Recent studies have demonstrated the possibility of preserving fresh-cut banana immersed in sweetened fruit juice for relatively longer periods, favoring commercialization. This type of conservation, although widely used in Brazil for fruit salads, consists of a more complex system in a physiological basis, requiring adjustment of the solution parameters, such as sugar concentration, pH and acidity, considering the viability and freshness of the plant tissue. In this short review, we discuss some experimental data and present a new method for preserving fresh-cut banana. Reduction of enzymatic activity, either in temporary dipping treatment or permanent immersion of banana slices is regarded as a key factor for maintaining its quality during cold storage.

  15. Shelf Life Determination of Fresh Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum Stored under Controlled Atmosphere and Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Concha-Meyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh blueberries are commonly stored and transported by refrigeration in controlled atmospheres to protect shelf life for long periods of storage. Ozone is an antimicrobial gas that can extend shelf life and protect fruit from microbial contamination. Shelf life of fresh highbush blueberries was determined over 10-day storage in isolated cabinets at 4°C or 12°C under different atmosphere conditions, including air (control; 5% O2 : 15% CO2 : 80% N2 (controlled atmosphere storage (CAS; and ozone gas (O3 4 ppm at 4°C or 2.5 ppm at 12°C, at high relative humidity (90–95%. Samples were evaluated for yeast and molds growth, weight loss, and firmness. CAS and O3 did not delay or inhibit yeast and molds growth in blueberries after 10 days at both temperatures. Fruit stored at 4°C showed lower weight loss values compared with 12°C. Blueberries stored under O3 atmosphere showed reduced weight loss at 12°C by day 10 and loss of firmness when compared to the other treatments. Low concentrations of ozone gas together with proper refrigeration temperature can help protect fresh blueberries quality during storage.

  16. Shelf Life Determination of Fresh Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) Stored under Controlled Atmosphere and Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Meyer, Anibal; Eifert, Joseph D; Williams, Robert C; Marcy, Joseph E; Welbaum, Gregory E

    2015-01-01

    Fresh blueberries are commonly stored and transported by refrigeration in controlled atmospheres to protect shelf life for long periods of storage. Ozone is an antimicrobial gas that can extend shelf life and protect fruit from microbial contamination. Shelf life of fresh highbush blueberries was determined over 10-day storage in isolated cabinets at 4°C or 12°C under different atmosphere conditions, including air (control); 5% O2 : 15% CO2 : 80% N2 (controlled atmosphere storage (CAS)); and ozone gas (O3) 4 ppm at 4°C or 2.5 ppm at 12°C, at high relative humidity (90-95%). Samples were evaluated for yeast and molds growth, weight loss, and firmness. CAS and O3 did not delay or inhibit yeast and molds growth in blueberries after 10 days at both temperatures. Fruit stored at 4°C showed lower weight loss values compared with 12°C. Blueberries stored under O3 atmosphere showed reduced weight loss at 12°C by day 10 and loss of firmness when compared to the other treatments. Low concentrations of ozone gas together with proper refrigeration temperature can help protect fresh blueberries quality during storage.

  17. FRESH-WATER GREEN ALGAE (CHLOROPHYTA AS A NATURAL PIGMENT FOR MOJOSARI DUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment in a completely randomize design was undertaken to study the use of fresh-watergreen algae as a yolk coloring agent in Mojosari ducks during a laying period on productiveperformance and egg quality from 36 to 44 wk of age. A total of 80 thirty-six wk–old laying ducks weredivided into four dietary treatments and each of four replicates with 5 birds. Diets were formulated witha commercial concentrate, rice bran and yellow corn (2:4:4 according to a commercial standard diet asa control, and three other dietary treatments with 2, 4 or 8% of green algae were included. Fresh watergreen algae had a significant effect on the feed uptake, egg production, and feed conversion ratio (FCR(p<0.05. Egg production and FCR improved at added 2 and 4% green algae. No differences wereobserved in egg yolk index, albumen index, Haugh Unit, and egg shell thickness (P>0.05 except eggyolk color. The yolk color increased within 7 days after feeding with the test diets. The present studyindicated that fresh-water green algae could be used as a natural coloring agent in laying ducks and at8% of green algae showed the highest score of (Roche Yellow Color-15.

  18. Cryogenic freezing of fresh date fruits for quality preservation during frozen storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alhamdan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh date fruits, especially Barhi cultivar, are favored and widely consumed at the Khalal maturity stage (first color edible stage. These fruits are seasonal and perishable and there is a need for extending their shelf life. This study evaluates two different freezing methods, namely cryogenic freezing using liquid nitrogen and conventional deep freezing on preserving the quality and stability of date fruits (cv. Barhi at Khalal maturity stage. Fresh date fruits (cv. Barhi at Khalal stage were frozen utilizing the two methods. The produced frozen dates were stored under frozen storage conditions for nine months (at −20 °C and −40 °C for the conventional and cryogenic freezing, respectively. Color values, textural properties (hardness, elasticity, chewiness and resilience, and nutrition attributes (enzymes and sugars for fresh dates before freezing and for the frozen dates were measured every three months during the frozen storage. Color values of the frozen dates were affected by the freezing method and the frozen storage period. There are substantial differences in the quality of the frozen fruits in favor of cryogenic freezing compared to the conventional slow freezing. The results revealed a large disparity between the times of freezing of the two methods. The freezing time accounted to 10 min in the cryogenic freezing method, whereas it was 1800 min for the conventional slow freezing system.

  19. Effect of carrot puree edible films on quality preservation of fresh-cut carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang X.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of edible films based on carrot puree, chitosan, corn starch, gelatin, glycerol and cinnamaldehyde on fresh-cut carrots was studied during storage. Several parameters, such as firmness, colour, weight loss, total carotenoids, total phenols, polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity and peroxidase (POD activity in coated carrots were determined at regular intervals and then compared with the uncoated carrots throughout the storage period. Significant and expected changes were observed in all carrot samples that were compared. The coating treatment significantly (P < 0.05 delayed the senescence, reduced the deterioration of exterior quality and retained total carotenoids well compared with control (P < 0.05. In addition, significant inhibition of PPO activity (P < 0.05 and POD activity (P < 0.05 as well as reduced accumulation of polyphenols (P < 0.05 were observed for all coated samples. All of these favourable responses induced by coating treatment on minimally processed fresh-cut carrots showed beneficial physiological effects, which would give some useful references to the fresh-cut fruit and vegetable processing industry and satisfy people’s requirements allowing for extending product shelf life without negatively affecting the sensory quality or acceptability.

  20. A rapid and efficient DNA extraction protocol from fresh and frozen human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Pokhraj; Das, Avishek; Dutta, Somit; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Different methods available for extraction of human genomic DNA suffer from one or more drawbacks including low yield, compromised quality, cost, time consumption, use of toxic organic solvents, and many more. Herein, we aimed to develop a method to extract DNA from 500 μL of fresh or frozen human blood. Five hundred microliters of fresh and frozen human blood samples were used for standardization of the extraction procedure. Absorbance at 260 and 280 nm, respectively, (A 260 /A 280 ) were estimated to check the quality and quantity of the extracted DNA sample. Qualitative assessment of the extracted DNA was checked by Polymerase Chain reaction and double digestion of the DNA sample. Our protocol resulted in average yield of 22±2.97 μg and 20.5±3.97 μg from 500 μL of fresh and frozen blood, respectively, which were comparable to many reference protocols and kits. Besides yielding bulk amount of DNA, our protocol is rapid, economical, and avoids toxic organic solvents such as Phenol. Due to unaffected quality, the DNA is suitable for downstream applications. The protocol may also be useful for pursuing basic molecular researches in laboratories having limited funds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on fresh blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) stored under controlled atmosphere and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Meyer, Anibal; Eifert, Joseph; Williams, Robert; Marcy, Joseph; Welbaum, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that represents a high risk for consumers because it can grow under refrigeration conditions and can also develop acid tolerance. Fresh blueberries are hand-picked, packed, and transported under refrigeration without receiving a microbial inactivation treatment. The aim of this work was to study the survival of L. monocytogenes in fresh highbush blueberries stored at 4 or 12 °C under different controlled atmosphere conditions, including air (control); 5% O2, 15% CO2, 80% N2 (controlled atmosphere storage [CAS]); or ozone gas (O3), 4 ppm at 4 °C or 2.5 ppm at 12 °C, at high relative humidity (90 to 95%) for a total of 10 days. Fresh blueberries inside a plastic clamshell were spot inoculated with the bacteria and were stored at 4 or 12 °C in isolated cabinets under air, CAS, and O3 atmospheric conditions. Samples were evaluated on days 0, 1, 4, 7, and 10 for microbial growth using modified Oxford agar. CAS did not delay or inhibit L. monocytogenes growth in fresh blueberries after 10 days. O3 achieved 3- and 2-log reductions when compared with air treatment at 4 and 12 °C, respectively. Low concentrations of O3 together with proper refrigeration temperature can ensure product safety throughout transportation. O3 is a strong antimicrobial that safely decomposes to oxygen and water without leaving residues and can be used as an alternative method to prevent bacterial growth during a long transport period.

  2. Climatic impacts of fresh water hosing under Last Glacial Maximum conditions: a multi-model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kageyama

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water hosing simulations, in which a fresh water flux is imposed in the North Atlantic to force fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, have been routinely performed, first to study the climatic signature of different states of this circulation, then, under present or future conditions, to investigate the potential impact of a partial melting of the Greenland ice sheet. The most compelling examples of climatic changes potentially related to AMOC abrupt variations, however, are found in high resolution palaeo-records from around the globe for the last glacial period. To study those more specifically, more and more fresh water hosing experiments have been performed under glacial conditions in the recent years. Here we compare an ensemble constituted by 11 such simulations run with 6 different climate models. All simulations follow a slightly different design, but are sufficiently close in their design to be compared. They all study the impact of a fresh water hosing imposed in the extra-tropical North Atlantic. Common features in the model responses to hosing are the cooling over the North Atlantic, extending along the sub-tropical gyre in the tropical North Atlantic, the southward shift of the Atlantic ITCZ and the weakening of the African and Indian monsoons. On the other hand, the expression of the bipolar see-saw, i.e., warming in the Southern Hemisphere, differs from model to model, with some restricting it to the South Atlantic and specific regions of the southern ocean while others simulate a widespread southern ocean warming. The relationships between the features common to most models, i.e., climate changes over the north and tropical Atlantic, African and Asian monsoon regions, are further quantified. These suggest a tight correlation between the temperature and precipitation changes over the extra-tropical North Atlantic, but different pathways for the teleconnections between the AMOC/North Atlantic region

  3. A direct healthcare cost analysis of the cryopreserved versus fresh transfer policy at the blastocyst stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Enrico; Pagliardini, Luca; Vanni, Valeria Stella; Delprato, Diana; Rubino, Patrizia; Candiani, Massimo; Viganò, Paola

    2017-01-01

    A cost analysis covering direct healthcare costs relating to IVF freeze-all policy was conducted. Normal- and high- responder patients treated with a freeze-all policy (n = 63) compared with fresh transfer IVF (n = 189) matched by age, body mass index, duration and cause of infertility, predictive factors for IVF (number of oocytes used for fertilization) and study period, according to a 1:3 ratio were included. Total costs per patient (€6952 versus €6863) and mean costs per live birth were similar between the freeze-all strategy (€13,101, 95% CI 10,686 to 17,041) and fresh transfer IVF (€15,279, 95% CI 13,212 to 18,030). A mean per live birth cost-saving of €2178 (95% CI -1810 to 6165) resulted in a freeze-all strategy owing to fewer embryo transfer procedures (1.29 ± 0.5 versus 1.41 ± 0.7); differences were not significant. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the freeze-all strategy remained cost-effective until the live birth rate is either higher or only slightly lower (≥-0.59%) in the freeze-all group compared with fresh cycles. A freeze-all policy does not increase costs compared with fresh transfer, owing to negligible additional expenses, i.e. vitrification, endometrial priming and monitoring, against fewer embryo transfer procedures required to achieve pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Toward an Improved Understanding of the Global Fresh Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    The major components of the global fresh water cycle include the evaporation from the land and ocean surfaces, precipitation onto the Ocean and land surfaces, the net atmospheric transport of water from oceanic areas over land, and the return flow of water from the land back into the ocean. The additional components of oceanic water transport are few, principally, the mixing of fresh water through the oceanic boundary layer, transport by ocean currents, and sea ice processes. On land the situation is considerably more complex, and includes the deposition of rain and snow on land; water flow in runoff; infiltration of water into the soil and groundwater; storage of water in soil, lakes and streams, and groundwater; polar and glacial ice; and use of water in vegetation and human activities. Knowledge of the key terms in the fresh water flux budget is poor. Some components of the budget, e.g. precipitation, runoff, storage, are measured with variable accuracy across the globe. We are just now obtaining precise measurements of the major components of global fresh water storage in global ice and ground water. The easily accessible fresh water sources in rivers, lakes and snow runoff are only adequately measured in the more affluent portions of the world. presents proposals are suggesting methods of making global measurements of these quantities from space. At the same time, knowledge of the global fresh water resources under the effects of climate change is of increasing importance and the human population grows. This paper provides an overview of the state of knowledge of the global fresh water budget, evaluating the accuracy of various global water budget measuring and modeling techniques. We review the measurement capabilities of satellite instruments as compared with field validation studies and modeling approaches. Based on these analyses, and on the goal of improved knowledge of the global fresh water budget under the effects of climate change, we suggest

  5. Option contracts in fresh produce supply chain with circulation loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate management decisions via option contracts in a two-stage supply chain in which a fresh produce supplier sells to a retailer, considering the circulation loss of the fresh produce. Design/methodology/approach: Authors propose a Stackelberg model to analyze the supply chain members’ decisions in the decentralized supply chain compared with the integrated one under the newsvendor framework. Findings: The results illustrate that there exists a unique optimal option order quantity for the retailer and a unique optimal option order price for the supplier giving certain conditions; furthermore, option contracts cannot coordinate the fresh produce supply chain when the retailer only orders options. Originality/value: Agricultural products especially fresh produce’s characteristics such as circulation loss and high risk are considered. Option contracts and game theory are combined to manage the fresh produce supply chain’s risk. The proposed tool and models are hoped to shed light to the future works in the field of supply chain risk management.

  6. Planning and control in fresh food supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Cecilie Maria; Chabada, Lukas; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2013-01-01

    directions. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on a structured literature review of articles with the main focus on P&C of fresh food products. The review is based on a range of published works from main journals on supply chain management over the last 10 years. The gaps and challenges...... directions in this area. Practical implications The paper enhances the focus on P&C in FFSC in practice, and defines important implications for why and how P&C should be practiced from a supply chain perspective. Original/value The paper presents an overview of the literature on P&C issues of fresh food......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine the current state of research in the planning and control (P&C) literature in regards to fresh food supply chains (FFSC). Based on the literature review, important research areas are identified and serve as guidelines for defining future research...

  7. Effect of dim light irradiation on preservation of fresh lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, F.; Uchino, T.; Akimoto, K.; Hu, W.

    2001-01-01

    In order to preserve fresh lettuce, the dim light irradiation storage was investigated. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) stored for about 120 hours at 5 or 20 deg C under continuous illumination at 0 (darkness), 1.6, 3.4, 6.5, 13 or 19.7 micro mol/m**-2/s**-1 photosynthetic photon flux. The light compensation point was about 3.4 micro mol/m**-2/s**-1 at 5 deg C, about 19.7 micro mol/m**-2/s**-1 at 20 deg C. Fresh weight of lettuce decreased by promotion of transpiration caused by the dim light. Accordingly the root of lettuce should not be removed, so as to up-take water. The optimum dim light irradiation preserved the chlorophyll content in lettuce leaf or increased it. Therefore it appeared that the dim light irradiation was effective for the fresh lettuce preservation

  8. Uptake of {sup 137}Cs by fresh water fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, C.K.; Kwok, Y.H

    2000-02-01

    The uptake and discharge rates of {sup 137}Cs by fresh water fish at different radionuclide concentrations have been studied. A dual compartment model was used to fit the experimental data. The discharge rates have been found to be negligible for the duration of the experiment of 10 days. The uptake rates were independent of radionuclide concentrations for a particular type of fresh water fish and were different for different types of fish. The uptake rates of carp, tilapia and snakehead were 1.58, 1.66 and 2.23, in unit of 10{sup -6} h{sup -1}, respectively. It was also estimated that the consumption of fresh water fish, even if the water were contaminated as much as that in the Chernobyl accident, leads to negligible latent cancer fatality to the Hong Kong population.

  9. Revascularisation of fresh compared with demineralised bone grafts in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Talsnes, O

    2001-01-01

    Revascularisation of bone grafts is influenced by both the anatomical origin and the pre-implantation processing of the graft. We investigated the revascularisation by entrapment of 141Ce (cerium)-labelled microspheres in large, fresh and demineralised syngeneic grafts of predominantly cancellous...... (iliac bone) or cortical (tibial diaphysis) bone three weeks after heterotopic implantation in rats. The mean (SD) 141Ce deposition index (counts per minute (cpm) of mg recovered implant/cpm of mg host iliac bone) was higher in fresh iliac bone grafts, 0.98 (0.46) compared to that of demineralised iliac...... bone, 0.32 (0.20), p bone grafts, 0.51 (0.27), p = 0.007. We found no significant difference in the mean 141Ce deposition index between fresh tibial bone grafts and demineralised tibial bone grafts, 0.35 (0.42), p = 0.4, or between demineralised tibial grafts and demineralised...

  10. Fertilization and Embryo Development of Fresh and Cryopreserved Sibling Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Casper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oocyte cryopreservation is potentially the best way to preserve female fertility forunmarried women or young girls at risk of losing ovarian function. The aim of this study was tocompare fertilization and embryo development in frozen-thawed oocytes to their fresh siblings inwomen undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF and embryo transfer (ET.Materials and Methods: Eleven infertile women undergoing infertility treatment, between theages of 24 to 37 years (mean ± SD = 31.6 ± 3.5, were included in this study. Mature oocytesfrom each patient were randomized into cryopreserved and fresh groups prior to intracytoplasmicsperm injection (ICSI. One hundred and thirty nine oocytes were retrieved, of which 105 were atmetaphase II (MII. Forty- five fresh MII oocytes were kept in culture whereas their sibling 60 MIIoocytes were cryopreserved using a slow cooling protocol. The frozen oocytes remained in LN2for 2 hours before thawing. ICSI was performed 1-2 hours after thawing for frozen oocytes and 4-5hours after retrieval for fresh oocytes. Fertilization and embryo development were compared.Results: Following thawing, 31 oocytes (51.6 % survived and 22 fertilized (79% while 32 freshoocytes fertilized upon ICSI (71%. The mean ± SE scores for embryos developing from frozenthawedoocytes were significantly lower at 48 and 72 hours post-ICSI than for embryos resultingfrom fresh oocytes (p<0.05.Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that oocyte freezing resulted in acceptable survival ratesfollowing cryopreservation, and similar fertilization rates following ICSI as compared to the freshsibling oocytes. However the number of blastomeres and the embryo quality on day three wassuperior in embryos from fresh oocytes when compared to the frozen oocytes.

  11. Does generic advertising work? A systematic evaluation of the Danish campaign for fresh fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to their attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish...

  12. Does generic advertising work? A systematic evaluation of the Danish campaign for fresh fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to their attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish...

  13. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoroki, Setsuko

    1998-01-01

    To establish irradiation technologies as one of alternative technology of methyl bromide fumigation, radiation sensitivities for each kind of fresh agricultural products and reduction of radiation injury were investigated. Fresh vegetables and flowers such as cabbage, sprouts, asparagus, lettuce, chrysanthemum, carnation, rose, etc. were used and irradiated with 750 Gy γ-ray. Flowers received radiation injury were soaked into various kinds of solutions for one night, then they were irradiated with 500 Gy γ-ray. They showed different radiation sensitivities. Cruciferae plant showed radioresistance and Compositae plant radiosensitivity. A keeping quality agent for cut flowers indicated protection effect on radiation injury. (S.Y.)

  14. Fresh chicken as main risk factor for campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Anne; Neimann, Jakob; Engberg, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were...... exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1-15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously frozen chicken, was only indicated from borderline significant 2-factor interactions. The marked increase...

  15. Bionic Duplication of Fresh Navodon septentrionalis Fish Surface Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Qu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic superhydrophobic surface was fabricated by replicating topography of the fresh fish skin surface of Navodon septentrionalis with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS elastomer. A two-step replicating method was developed to make the surface structure of the fresh fish skin be replicated with high fidelity. After duplication, it was found that the static contact angle of the replica was as large as 173°. Theoretic analysis based on Young's and Cassie-Baxter (C-B model was performed to explain the relationship between structure and hydrophobicity.

  16. Synergies between renewable energy and fresh water production. Scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geurts, F.; Noothout, P.; Schaap, A. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    The IEA Implementing Agreement for Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD) investigated the opportunities for coupling renewable energy systems with fresh water supply systems. The four main conclusions of the scoping study, carried out by Ecofys, are: (1) Fresh water production based on desalination technologies provide most options for synergies with renewable energy production; (2) Linking desalination to renewable sources is currently not economically viable; (3) There is a large potential for small scale (decentralised) desalination plants; (4) Current commercially-sized desalination technologies are in need of a constant operation point. Reverse osmosis and thermal membrane technologies might give future synergies as deferrable load.

  17. Fresh Chicken as Main Risk Factor for Campylobacteriosis, Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Wingstrand, Anne; Neimann, Jakob; Engberg, Jørgen; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Wegener, Henrik C.; Mølbak, Kåre

    2006-01-01

    We report the findings of a case-control study of risk factors for sporadic cases of human campylobacteriosis in Denmark. In 3 different analytical models, the main domestic risk factor identified was eating fresh, unfrozen chicken. Specifically, 28 of 74 domestically acquired case-patients were exposed to fresh chicken compared with 21 of 114 controls (multivariate matched odds ratio 5.8; 95% confidence interval 2.1–15.9). In contrast, a risk from eating other poultry, including previously f...

  18. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoroki, Setsuko [National Food Research Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    To establish irradiation technologies as one of alternative technology of methyl bromide fumigation, radiation sensitivities for each kind of fresh agricultural products and reduction of radiation injury were investigated. Fresh vegetables and flowers such as cabbage, sprouts, asparagus, lettuce, chrysanthemum, carnation, rose, etc. were used and irradiated with 750 Gy {gamma}-ray. Flowers received radiation injury were soaked into various kinds of solutions for one night, then they were irradiated with 500 Gy {gamma}-ray. They showed different radiation sensitivities. Cruciferae plant showed radioresistance and Compositae plant radiosensitivity. A keeping quality agent for cut flowers indicated protection effect on radiation injury. (S.Y.)

  19. The ideal oxygen/nitrous oxide fresh gas flow sequence with the Anesthesia Delivery Unit machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Jan F A; Cardinael, Sara; Carette, Rik; Lemmens, Hendrikus J M; De Wolf, Andre M

    2007-06-01

    To determine whether early reduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide fresh gas flow from 6 L/min to 0.7 L/min could be accomplished while maintaining end-expired nitrous oxide concentration > or =50% with an Anesthesia Delivery Unit anesthesia machine. Prospective, randomized clinical study. Large teaching hospital in Belgium. 53 ASA physical status I and II patients requiring general endotracheal anesthesia and controlled mechanical ventilation. Patients were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups depending on the duration of high oxygen/nitrous oxide fresh gas flow (two and 4 L/min, respectively) before lowering total fresh gas flow to 0.7 L/min (0.3 and 0.4 L/min oxygen and nitrous oxide, respectively): one, two, three, or 5 minutes (1-minute group, 2-minute group, 3-minute group, and 5-minute group), with n = 10, 12, 13, and 8, respectively. The course of the end-expired nitrous oxide concentration and bellows volume deficit at end-expiration was compared among the 4 groups during the first 30 minutes. At the end of the high-flow period the end-expired nitrous oxide concentration was 35.6 +/- 6.2%, 48.4 +/- 4.8%, 53.7 +/- 8.7%, and 57.3 +/- 1.6% in the 4 groups, respectively. Thereafter, the end-expired nitrous oxide concentration decreased to a nadir of 36.1 +/- 4.5%, 45.4 +/- 3.8%, 50.9 +/- 6.1%, and 55.4 +/- 2.8% after three, 4, 6, and 8 minutes after flows were lowered in the 1- to 5-minute groups, respectively. A decrease in bellows volume was observed in most patients, but was most pronounced in the 2-minute group. The bellows volume deficit gradually faded within 15 to 20 minutes in all 4 groups. A 3-minute high-flow period (oxygen and nitrous oxide fresh gas flow of 2 and 4 L/min, respectively) suffices to attain and maintain end-expired nitrous oxide concentration > or =50% and ensures an adequate bellows volume during the ensuing low-flow period.

  20. Fresh weight and doses of IAA on rooting of goldenrod cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Alves Muniz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of indole acetic acid (IAA on fresh weight of cuttings and in the rooting of goldenrod. The first experiment was arranged in randomized blocks in factorial scheme 5 x 3, and 5 doses of IAA at 0, 500, 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/L and three evaluation periods (7, 14 and 21 days after staking-DAS with six replications. The second experiment was also established in randomized blocks in factorial scheme 4 x 2, with 4 class of fresh weight (0.5-0.7, 0.71-0.9, 0.91-1.10 and greater than 1.10 g in the presence or absence of indol butyric acid (IBA and two evaluation periods (14, 21 days after staking, with six replications. In both experiments, the stakes were standardized to 5 cm. In the first experiment the stakes were 1 cm from its base immersed for 30 seconds in different water-alcohol solutions of IAA, while the second base of the cuttings were immersed in water, and then the powder containing 2000 mg/kg of IBA, and subsequently placed for rooting in trays with 256 cells (45 mL. Number of roots/cutting, rooting and survival of seedlings were determined. The presence or absence of IAA or IBA does not affect the rooting of cuttings and even the survival of seedlings. There was no effect on rooting cycle suggesting that the dosage is 2000 mg/L of IAA, because it provided higher number of roots/cutting, while the increase in fresh weight of cuttings provided to increase the number of roots/cuttings.

  1. Fish freshness estimation using eye image processing under white and UV lightings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Katsuhiro; Shirataki, Yuri; Liao, Qiuhong; Ogawa, Yuichi; Suzuki, Tetsuhito; Kondo, Naoshi

    2017-05-01

    A non-destructive method of estimating the freshness of fish is required for appropriate price setting and food safety. In particular, for determining the possibility of eating raw fish (sashimi), freshness estimation is critical. We studied such an estimation method by capturing images of fish eyes and performing image processing using the temporal changes of the luminance of pupil and iris. To detect subtle non-visible changes of these features, we used UV (375 nm) light illumination in addition to visible white light illumination. Polarization and two-channel LED techniques were used to remove strong specular reflection from the cornea of the eye and from clear-plastic wrap used to cover the fish to maintain humidity. Pupil and iris regions were automatically detected separately by image processing after the specular reflection removal process, and two types of eye contrast were defined as the ratio of mean and median pixel values of each region. Experiments using 16 Japanese dace (Tribolodon hakonensis) at 23° and 85% humidity for 24 hours were performed. The eye contrast of raw fish increase non-linearly in the initial period and then decreased; however, that of frozen-thawed fish decreased linearly throughout 24 hours, regardless of the lighting. Interestingly, the eye contrast using UV light showed a higher correlation with time than that using white light only in the case of raw fish within the early 6- hour period postmortem. These results show the possibility of estimating fish freshness in the initial stage when fish are eaten raw using white and UV lightings.

  2. Fresh Versus Marine Submarine Groundwater Discharge: How 222Rn Might Help Distinguish These Two Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. G.; Cable, J. E.; Martin, J. B.; Roy, M.

    2008-05-01

    that the 25% increase in specific discharge between May-2005 and May- 2006 reflects higher recharge via precipitation to the Surficial aquifer during the highly active 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. Irrigation rates generally decrease offshore for both sampling periods; irrigation rates range between 4.9 and 85.7 cm d-1. Physical and biological mechanisms reasonable for the observed irrigation likely include density-driven convection, wave pumping, and bio-irrigation. The inclusion of both advective and nonlocal exchange processes in the model permits the separation of submarine groundwater discharge into fresh submarine groundwater discharge (seepage velocities) and (re)circulated lagoon water (as irrigation).

  3. Development of a potential probiotic fresh cheese using two Lactobacillus salivarius strains isolated from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Nivia; Calzada, Javier; Peirotén, Angela; Jiménez, Esther; Escudero, Rosa; Rodríguez, Juan M; Medina, Margarita; Fernández, Leónides

    2014-01-01

    Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2) isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study.

  4. Development of a Potential Probiotic Fresh Cheese Using Two Lactobacillus salivarius Strains Isolated from Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cheeses have been proposed as a good alternative to other fermented milk products for the delivery of probiotic bacteria to the consumer. The objective of this study was to assess the survival of two Lactobacillus salivarius strains (CECT5713 and PS2 isolated from human milk during production and storage of fresh cheese for 28 days at 4°C. The effect of such strains on the volatile compounds profile, texture, and other sensorial properties, including an overall consumer acceptance, was also investigated. Both L. salivarius strains remained viable in the cheeses throughout the storage period and a significant reduction in their viable counts was only observed after 21 days. Globally, the addition of the L. salivarius strains did not change significantly neither the chemical composition of the cheese nor texture parameters after the storage period, although cheeses manufactured with L. salivarius CECT5713 presented significantly higher values of hardness. A total of 59 volatile compounds were identified in the headspace of experimental cheeses, and some L. salivarius-associated differences could be identified. All cheeses presented good results of acceptance after the sensory evaluation. Consequently, our results indicated that fresh cheese can be a good vehicle for the two L. salivarius strains analyzed in this study.

  5. Emerging Perspectives on the Natural Microbiome of Fresh Produce Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin R. Jackson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants harbor a diverse microbiome existing as bacterial populations on the leaf surface (the phyllosphere and within plant tissues (endophytes. The composition of this microbiome has been largely unexplored in fresh produce vegetables, where studies have tended to focus on pathogen detection and survival. However, the application of next-generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches is beginning to reveal the diversity of this produce-associated bacterial community. In this article we review what is known about the composition of the microbiome of fresh produce vegetables, placing it in the context of general phyllosphere research. We also demonstrate how next-generation sequencing can be used to assess the bacterial assemblages present on fresh produce, using fresh herbs as an example. That data shows how the use of such culture-independent approaches can detect groups of taxa (anaerobes, psychrophiles that may be missed by traditional culture-based techniques. Other issues discussed include questions as to whether to determine the microbiome during plant growth or at point of purchase or consumption, and the potential role of the natural bacterial community in mitigating pathogen survival.

  6. Effect of solarization with fresh chicken manure on verticillium wilt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of reducing wilt disease through the medium of fresh chicken manure (FCM) mixed with soil before solarized and then artificial Verticillium dahliae (V.d) inoculation on yield of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under field conditions. According to the splitplot design, ...

  7. Relating the Electrical Resistance of Fresh Concrete to Mixture Proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obla, K; Hong, R; Sherman, S; Bentz, D P; Jones, S Z

    2018-01-01

    Characterization of fresh concrete is critical for assuring the quality of our nation's constructed infrastructure. While fresh concrete arriving at a job site in a ready-mixed concrete truck is typically characterized by measuring temperature, slump, unit weight, and air content, here the measurement of the electrical resistance of a freshly cast cylinder of concrete is investigated as a means of assessing mixture proportions, specifically cement and water contents. Both cement and water contents influence the measured electrical resistance of a sample of fresh concrete: the cement by producing ions (chiefly K + , Na + , and OH - ) that are the main source of electrical conduction; and the water by providing the main conductive pathways through which the current travels. Relating the measured electrical resistance to attributes of the mixture proportions, such as water-cement ratio by mass ( w/c ), is explored for a set of eleven different concrete mixtures prepared in the laboratory. In these mixtures, w/c , paste content, air content, fly ash content, high range water reducer dosage, and cement alkali content are all varied. Additionally, concrete electrical resistance data is supplemented by measuring the resistivity of its component pore solution obtained from 5 laboratory-prepared cement pastes with the same proportions as their corresponding concrete mixtures. Only measuring the concrete electrical resistance can provide a prediction of the mixture's paste content or the product w*c ; conversely, when pore solution resistivity is also available, w/c and water content of the concrete mixture can be reasonably assessed.

  8. Fresh or dehydrated spineless cactus in diets for lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solano Felipe Just de Andrade

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of partial or total replacement of Tifton 85 hay with fresh or dehydrated spineless cactus on performance and body weight components of sheep. Thirty hair lambs, with 19 kg ± 0.35 kg initial weight, were randomly divided into five treatments, namely: Tifton 85 Hay (HA; Tifton 85 Hay + fresh spineless cactus (HAFC; Tifton 85 Hay + dehydrated spineless cactus (HADC; fresh spineless cactus (FC; dehydrated spineless cactus (DC. In addition to the spineless cactus and hay, the complete mixture contained soybean meal, mineral salt and limestone in all treatments. Animals were confined for 75 days and then slaughtered. The weight of body components was recorded. Dry matter intake, total digestible nutrients intake and voluntary water intake were higher (p 0.05 by treatments. The cold carcass weight, rib eye area, weight and yield of the skin, liver, kidney and large intestine were higher (p < 0.05 for the DC and HADC treatments. Partial or total replacement of Tifton 85 hay with fresh or dehydrated spineless cactus, in complete diets for sheep, increases the weight of the cold carcass and non-carcass components.

  9. Challenges with mechanical harvesting of blueberries for the fresh market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern highbush blueberries (SHB) (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) are mostly hand harvested for the fresh market. Hand harvesting of blueberry is labor intensive and costly. Efforts are under way to develop blueberry genotypes that will develop less bruising after impact with hard surfaces on the harv...

  10. Microbial and Sensory Quality of Freshly Processed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were also evaluated for difference and preference. The study showed that the reconstituted beverage had better microbiological quality with detectable difference between the two samples with the fresh sample being preferred. Key words: Millet grains, Kununzaki, microbial quality, sensory quality. J Food Tech ...

  11. Effect of accessions on the chemical quality of fresh pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty (20) fresh pumpkin fruits were assessed for dry matter, total soluble solid, total sugar, reducing sugar, titratable acidity, pH, ascorbic acid and sugar-to-acid ratio. Statistically significant (P < 0.01) differences were found for dry matter, total soluble solid, total sugar, reducing sugar, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, pH ...

  12. Biodegradability of unused lubricating brake fluids in fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodegradability of four unused lubricating brake fluids (Total brake fluid, Allied brake fluid, Oando brake fluid and Ate brake fluid) was carried out in fresh and marine water obtained from Isiokpo stream and Bonny river of the Niger Delta, South South Nigeria. Biodegradability, of the brake fluids were obtained after a 56 ...

  13. Shipment of VINCA Institute's HEU fresh fuel to Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, Milan; Sotic, Obrad

    2002-01-01

    This paper shows, for the first time, the basic data related to the recent shipment of the fresh HEU fuel elements from Yugoslavia back to Russia for uranium down blending. In this way, Yugoslavia gives its contribution to the RERTR program and to the world's joint efforts to prevent possible terrorist action against nuclear material potentially usable for production of nuclear weapons. (author)

  14. Steroidal saponins from fresh stems of Dracaena angustifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six new steroidal saponins (1-6), angudracanosides A-F, were isolated from fresh stems of Dracaena angustifolia, together with eight known compounds. The structures of compounds 1-6 were determined by detailed spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. Antifungal testing of all compounds showed th...

  15. Assessment of the contamination of fresh water ecosystems by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed reports and records of the contamination of fresh water ecosystem by pesticides and herbicides in irrigated rice fields and their effects on fish production. It highlights pesticides and herbicides application in agriculture in view of the transfer and degradation processes. The pesticides often remain ...

  16. Determination of long-term effects of consecutive effective fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the weed density and the most economical way of weed control in eggplant (Solanum melongena) fields contaminated with Verticillium dahliae (Kleb) after the application of fresh chicken manure and solarization in the second year as the same crop was grown. The effect of solarization ...

  17. Post-harvest decay in fresh-cut lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelf-life of fresh-cut lettuce was assessed in two mapping population (Salinas 88 x La Brillante, and Pavane x Parade. The most significant QTL was detected in both populations on linkage group 4. This QTL was detected in seven experiments grown in different environments. Molecular markers are bein...

  18. HACCP implementation in the production of fresh-cut produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    The number of foodborne illness outbreaks linked to fresh produce has increased in the last few years. Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella have been implicated as major bacterial pathogens of concern to produce safety. Microbial contamination of produce may occur anytime during the prod...

  19. Fresh heat is in demand; Frische Waerme ist beliebt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsten, Eva

    2012-10-22

    Increasingly, solar heat customers are getting their hot water fresh from the flow-through station, even in single-family dwellings. Stations are getting more compact, more intelligent, and also more efficient. So-called legionella filters should be used with caution.

  20. Shear rheological properties of fresh human faeces with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-11

    Mar 11, 2014 ... Short communication. Shear rheological properties of fresh human faeces with different moisture content. SM Woolley1, RS Cottingham1, J Pocock1 and CA Buckley1*. 1Pollution Research Group, School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, King George V Avenue, Berea 4041, South Africa.

  1. Uptake of tritiated lysine by fresh water alga, Scenedesmus obliquus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogate, S.S.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium uptake by fresh water alga. S.obliquus was studied using tritium labelled lysine, and a sequential solvent extraction procedure was used to study the distribution of tritium in different organic constituents of the algal cells. The accumulation of tritium in the algal cells was found to be 3-4 orders of magnitude more than that obtained for tritiated water. (author)

  2. Incidence of chilling injury in fresh-cut 'Kent' mangoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The preferred storage temperature for fresh-cut fruits in terms of visual quality retention is around 5 °C, which is considered to be a chilling temperature for chilling sensitive tropical fruits like mango (Mangifera indica L.). Changes in visual and compositional quality factors, aroma volatile pr...

  3. Fresh fish ( Clarias gariepinus ) marketing system in major towns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate marketing system, market channel, nature of costs, market margins and the factors determining the marketing profit of fresh fish (Clarias gariepinus) in major towns in Ibarapa Zone, Oyo state. Data were collected through the use of questionnaire administered to the fish traders.

  4. Internet Usage In The Fresh Produce Supply Chainin China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; Duan, Yanqing; Fu, Zetian; Liu, Xue

    Although effective implementation of the Internet technologies has a great potential for improving efficiency and reducing wastage within the fresh produce supply chain. the situation of the Internet usage by SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises) in the fresh produce supply chain is still unclear in China. As the main players, SMEs haven't been given enough attention from both academics and governments. Therefore, this research attempts to address this issue by, first, investigating the current usage of the Internet and related software by Chinese SMEs in the fresh produce supply chain, and then, by identifying enablers and barriers faced by SMEs to call government's attention. As a part of an EU-Asia IT&C funded project, a survey was carried out with SMEs in this industry from five major cities in China. The results reveal that in the relatively developed areas of China, SMEs in the fresh produce supply chain are rapidly adopting the Internet and software packages, but the level of adoption varies greatly and there is a significant lack of integration among the supply chain partners. Chinese SMEs are keen to embrace emerging technologies and have acted to adopt new software and tools. Given that cost of implementation is not a barrier, their concern over legal protection and online security must be addressed for further development.

  5. Laboratory evaluation of freshly prepared juice from garlic ( Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistically significant (P<0.05) reduced grain loss was also observed in all the treatments when compared with the control. The juice prepared from an indigenous Nigerian garlic cultivar (GUN) was more lethal (causing 93% adult mortality), when applied topically on the freshly emerged S. zeamais adults, compared to the ...

  6. Availability of Fresh Produce in Nutrition Assistance Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Alexandria, VA. Office of Analysis and Evaluation.

    Noting that fruit and vegetable consumption is an important component of a balanced diet consistent with the "Dietary Guidelines for Americans" and the Food Guide Pyramid, this report fulfills a request from the Appropriations Committee Directives to analyze current levels of fresh produce in Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutritional…

  7. Osmotic Power: A Fresh Look at an Old Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, Pam

    2014-01-01

    Electricity from osmotic pressure might seem a far-fetched idea but this article describes a prototype in Norway where the osmotic pressure generated between salt and fresh water drives a turbine. This idea was applied in a student investigation, where they were tasked with researching which alternative materials could be used for the…

  8. Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: toxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    www.bioline.org.br/ja. Simulation of heavy metal contamination of fresh water bodies: toxic effects in the ... 96 hours (though sampling was done at the 48th hour). Biochemical markers of ... silver, while enhancing the bioavailability of mercury in Ceriodaphnia ..... Biochemical and molecular disorders of bilirubin metabolism.

  9. Fresh frozen cadaver workshops for advanced vascular surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Shirley; Cowie, Margaret; Linehan, John; Hamdorf, Jeffery M

    2014-11-01

    Reduction in working hours, streamlined training schemes and increasing use of endovascular techniques has meant a reduction in operative experience for newer vascular surgical trainees, especially those exposures which are not routinely performed such as thoracoabdominal, thoracotomy and retroperitoneal aortic, for example. This paper describes an Advanced Anatomy of Exposure course which was designed and convened at the Clinical Training & Evaluation Centre in Western Australia and uses fresh frozen cadavers. Feedback was obtained from the participants who attended over three courses by questionnaire. Feedback was strongly positive for the course meeting both its learning outcomes and personal learning objectives, and in addition, making a significant contribution to specialty skills. Most participants thought the fresh frozen cadaveric model significantly improved the learning objectives for training. The fresh frozen cadaver is an excellent teaching model highly representative of the living open surgical scenario where advanced trainees and newly qualified consultants can improve their operative confidence and consequently patient safety in vascular surgery. An efficient fresh frozen cadaver teaching programme can benefit many health professionals simultaneously maximizing the use of donated human tissue. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  10. Effect of salinity stress on plant fresh weight and nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of salinity stress on plant fresh weight and nutrient composition of some Canola ( Brassica napus L.) cultivars. ... K+, Ca2+ and K+/Na+ contents in plants decreased by salt stress, but Na+ and Cl- content in the roots, ... from 32 Countries:.

  11. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analysed the strontium-90 and Cesium-137 contents in fresh water from 7 prefectures in Japan by the commission of Science and Technology Agency of Japanese Government. The method described in ''Radioactivity Survey Data in Japan No. 43 (NIRS-RSD-43, 1977) was applied to the analysis of these two radionuclides in samples. (author)

  12. Comparative Study of Antibacterial Activities of the Fresh and Dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fresh and dried fruit extracts of Capsicum species were screened for antibacterial activities against Staph. aureus, S. typhi and B. subtilis using two assay methods. The filter disk and agar plate diffusion were the assay methods employed in the study. The results of the study revealed that the extracts obtained from the ...

  13. Decomposition of fresh and anaerobically digested plant biomass in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, K.K.; Graetz, D.A.; Reddy, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Using water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] for waste water renovation produces biomass that must be disposed of. This biomass may be anaerobically digested to produce CH 4 or added to soil directly as an amendment. In this study, fresh and anaerobically digested water hyacinth biomass, with either low or high N tissue content, were added to soil to evaluate C and N mineralization characteristics. The plant biomass was labeled with 15 N before digestion. The fresh plant biomass and digested biomass sludge were freeze-dried and ground to pass a 0.84-mm sieve. The materials were thoroughly mixed with a Kindrick fine sand at a rate of 5 g kg -1 soil and incubated for 90 d at 27 0 C at a moisture content adjusted to 0.01 MPa. Decomposition was evaluated by CO 2 evolution and 15 N mineralization. After 90 d, approximately 20% of the added C of the digested sludges had evolved as CO 2 compared to 39 and 50% of the added C of the fresh plant biomass with a low and high N content, respectively. First-order kinetics were used to describe decomposition stages. Mineralization of organic 15 N to 15 NO 3 - -N accounted for 8% of applied N for both digested sludges at 90 d. Nitrogen mineralization accounted for 3 and 33% of the applied organic N for fresh plant biomass with a low and high N content, respectively

  14. Semi-continuous anaerobic treatment of fresh leachate from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A semi-continuous leachate treatment process was developed in the present study. The fresh leachate was obtained from a municipal solid waste transfer station and palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge was used as sources of anaerobic microbial complex. The semi-continuous treatment of leachate was operated in two ...

  15. Microbiota analysis to reveal temperature abuse of fresh pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buschhardt, Tasja; Bahl, Martin Iain; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2017-01-01

    whether temperature induced changes in the community composition on fresh meat surfaces can reflect the temperature-history (combination of time and temperature). Sterile pieces of pork were inoculated with a carcass swab homogenate, to which Salmonella was added. Changes in the meat microbiota were...

  16. Huge increases in bacterivores on freshly killed barley roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S.; Griffiths, B.; Ekelund, Flemming

    1992-01-01

    Adding fresh roots to intact soil cores resulted in marked increases in microbial and microfaunal activity at the resource islands. Microbial activity increased in two phases following root addition. Respiratory activity and concentration of respiratory enzyme (dehydrogenase) in soil adhering to ...

  17. Color image segmentation to detect defects on fresh ham

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty-Mahe, Pascale; Loisel, Philippe; Brossard, Didier

    2003-04-01

    We present in this paper the color segmentation methods that were used to detect appearance defects on 3 dimensional shape of fresh ham. The use of color histograms turned out to be an efficient solution to characterize the healthy skin, but a special care must be taken to choose the color components because of the 3 dimensional shape of ham.

  18. Supply chain risks and smallholder fresh produce farmers in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of 52 smallholder fresh produce farmers was conducted in the Gauteng province of South Africa to grasp how risk and its management affect the mainstreaming of smallholder farmers into formal, high-value markets. The study employed a supply chain analysis approach, which focused on the functions and risks ...

  19. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would not... and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway: Investigation Nos. 701-TA-302 and 731-TA-454 (Third Review...

  20. Genetic by environment interaction on fresh root yield, dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen yellow-fleshed cassava genotypes and two released white-fleshed clones (check) were evaluated in five locations representing the major cassava growing agroecological zones of Nigeria to access their performance for fresh root yield, dry matter content, total carotene content and genotypes by environment ...

  1. Bacterial spoilage of fresh meat in some selected Lagos markets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the bacteria associated with spoilage of fresh meat was carried out. The flora causing spoilage of meat include Alcaligenes liquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Lactobacillus sp., Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sarcina sp. Serratia ...

  2. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organs of fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio (Common carp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinodhini, R.; Narayanan, M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in various organs of the fresh water fish exposed to heavy metal contaminated water system. The experimental fish was exposed to Cr. Ni, Cd and Pb at sublethal concentrations for periods of 32 days. The elements Cd, Pb, Ni and Cr were assayed using Shimadzu AA 6200 atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results were given as μg/g dry wt. The accumulation of heavy metal gradually increases in liver during the heavy metal exposure period. All the results were statistically significant at p Pb > Ni > Cr and Pb > Cd > Ni > Cr. Similarly, in case of kidney and flesh tissues, the order was Pb > Cd > Cr > Ni and Pb > Cr > Cd > Ni. In all heavy metals, the bioaccumulation of lead and cadmium proportion was significantly increased in the tissues of Cyprinus carpio (Common carp)

  3. Effect of brief heat-curing on microstructure and mechanical properties in fresh cement based mortars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballester, P.; Hidalgo, A.; Marmol, I.; Morales, J.; Sanchez, L.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of temperature on fresh mortar and cement paste was evaluated by simulating the curing conditions of external buildings plastering applied under extremely hot weather. The specimens were heated at controlled temperatures in the 40-80 o C range by exposure to IR radiation over short periods. The effect of soaking for a short time was also examined. The results of compressive strength tests, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and mercury porosimetry helped to characterize the mechanical and physico-chemical properties of the studied sample. Early age behaviour (28 days) in neat cement was barely affected by the temperature. By contrast, exposure to high temperatures caused significant microstructural changes in the mortar. However, successive soaking over short periods was found to reactivate the mechanism of curing and restore the expected mechanical properties. Based on the results, application of cement based mortar at high temperatures is effective when followed by a short, specific soaking process.

  4. [Study on freshness evaluation of ice-stored large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) using near infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Chen, Wei-Hua; Hou, Qiao-Juan; Wang, Xi-Chang; Dong, Ruo-Yan; Wu, Hao

    2014-04-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was used in this experiment to evaluate the freshness of ice-stored large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) during different storage periods. And the TVB-N was used as an index to evaluate the freshness. Through comparing the correlation coefficent and standard deviations of calibration set and validation set of models established by singly and combined using of different pretreatment methods, different modeling methods and different wavelength region, the best TVB-N models of ice-stored large yellow croaker sold in the market were established to predict the freshness quickly. According to the research, the model shows that the best performance could be established by using the normalization by closure (Ncl) with 1st derivative (Dbl) and normalization to unit length (Nle) with 1st derivative as the pretreated method and partial least square (PLS) as the modeling method combined with choosing the wavelength region of 5 000-7 144, and 7 404-10 000 cm(-1). The calibration model gave the correlation coefficient of 0.992, with a standard error of calibration of 1.045 and the validation model gave the correlation coefficient of 0.999, with a standard error of prediction of 0.990. This experiment attempted to combine several pretreatment methods and choose the best wavelength region, which has got a good result. It could have a good prospective application of freshness detection and quality evaluation of large yellow croaker in the market.

  5. Ecological and energy-saving technology for fish food preservation at positive temperatures and a method of checking the freshness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, Maria; Popescu, G.M.; Dobrin, D.N.; Cristescu, T.M.; Stefanescu, I.; Steflea, D.; Titescu, Gh.; Tamaian, R.

    2002-01-01

    The procedure of maintaining eviscerated fish and fish fillet freshness is based on dilutions osmotic shock produced by deuterium depleted water with D/(D+H) concentration ratio of about 30 ppm. The studies evidenced the blocking of alteration enzymatic activities in tissues at positive temperatures within 0 - 30 deg. C. The procedure is completed with the method for evaluating the fish freshness. Its advantages are as follows; - the technology is ecologic and energy - saving as it uses natural ingredients and contributes to the ozone layer protection; - the flesh of fish can be preserved, in its natural state, immersed in deuterium depleted water with no salt addition or other metabolic blocking agents as smoke, polyphosphates or nitrides, known as carcinogenic; - the costs of technological applications are lower as compared with those of classical refrigeration; - the technology increases by 2 - 6 times the freshness period and preservation duration, respectively; - deuterium depleted water used as fish flesh preservative is a product with excellent therapeutical qualities. The procedure can be tested by a freshness checking method. Indeed by measuring the non-conventional tissue energies evidenced by the molecular electronic spectra of sample of tissue immersed in salty solution as compared with specific spectra of control samples one can establish the alteration degree from the relative maximal absorption spectra

  6. Acrosin release and acrosin activity during incubation in capacitating media using fresh and frozen-thawed dog sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica de los Reyes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of time and temperature on acrosin release from the acrosomal cap and the activity of this enzyme during in vitro capacitation in fresh and frozen/thawed dog sperm. Sperm-rich fractions of six ejaculates from three dogs were processed as fresh and frozen samples. Each sperm sample was incubated in canine capacitation medium (CCM for 0, 1, 2 and 3 h at 20°C and at 37°C. After incubation, the samples were assessed by the indirect immunofluorescent staining technique. The probability of having unlabeled sperm (PUS, indicating acrosin loss, was modelled by a binomial distribution using logistic regression. There was a linear relationship between PUS and time at both temperatures (p<0.001; however, a major percentage of unlabeled sperm was observed in frozen/thawed samples soon after incubation, indicating that the release of acrosin was affected by capacitation time, mainly in frozen samples. Temperature influenced acrosin release only in cryopreserved sperm (p<0.05. Acrosin activity was measured by digestion halos on slides coated with gelatin-substrate film during each time period; a significant increase in the number of large halos was observed in fresh samples throughout the experiment, whereas frozen/thawed sperm showed a decreased rate of halo diameters during culture. Thus, there appears to differences between fresh and frozen dog sperm in terms of acrosin release and the level of acrosin activity in the course of in vitro capacitation.

  7. The Periodic Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  8. Book Reviews in Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt, Harold J.

    All recent issues of periodicals found which contain indexed book reviews are listed in this compilation from Drake Memorial Library at the New York State University at Brockport. The periodicals are listed by 29 subject headings in this informal guide designed to be used at Drake Library. The number of reviews in the periodical in a recent year…

  9. Ethnobotanical survey of usage of fresh medicinal plants in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Yin-Yin; Zareisedehizadeh, Sogand; Seetoh, Wei-Guang; Neo, Soek-Ying; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-09-29

    The use of medicinal plants in human health has been documented since ancient times and they provide a useful source of new therapeutics. In Singapore, despite the accessibility to modern healthcare, there still exist pockets of the population who choose to use locally grown fresh medicinal plants for health promotion and even therapeutic purposes. However to date, there is no published report of first-hand account of their usage in Singapore. As land is scarce and rapidly used for re-development, such important knowledge may be lost if not properly documented in time. This work safeguards the local folk knowledge, and provides information on common and scarcely reported fresh medicinal plants. The objective of this study is to gather information regarding the usage of fresh medicinal plants in Singapore through face-to-face interviews. Information on demographic data and plant-use methods were collated via face-to-face interviews of 200 fresh medicinal plant users who have used fresh medicinal plants in the last five years. The survey protocol was approved by the National University of Singapore Institutional Review Board and informed consent was obtained from every participant. A total of 414 plants represented by 104 plant species from 44 families were reportedly used by the 200 participants. The five most commonly used plants were Clinacanthus nutans (34 users), Strobilanthes crispus (31 users), Pereskia bleo (25 users), Aloe vera (18 users) and Zingiber officinale (16 users). Leaves were the most commonly used plant part while preparing a decoction was the most common method of preparation. The majority of interviewees used plants for general health purposes and to treat diseases related to the respiratory system and cancer. Our survey has successfully documented the rich wealth of traditional usage and knowledge on 414 fresh medicinal plants grown in Singapore through face-to-face interviews with 200 users. This study will serve as a useful resource for

  10. Preparation and applicability of fresh fruit samples for the identification of radiation treatment by EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, Nicola D. [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: ndyepr@bas.bg; Aleksieva, Katerina [Laboratory EPR, Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-03-15

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on fresh fruits (whole pulp of pears, apples, peaches, apricots, avocado, kiwi and mango) before and after gamma-irradiation are reported using two drying procedures before EPR investigation. In order to remove water from non-irradiated and irradiated samples of the first batch, the pulp of fresh fruits is pressed, and the solid residue is washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. The fruits of the second batch are pressed and dried in a standard laboratory oven at 40 deg. C. The results obtained with both drying procedures are compared. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0048{+-}0.0005 before irradiation. Irradiation gives rise to typical 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum featuring one intensive line with g=2.0048{+-}0.0005 and two very weak satellite lines situated 3 mT at left and right of the central line. Only mango samples show a singlet line after irradiation. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signal is studied for a period of 50 days after irradiation. When the irradiated fruit samples are stored in their natural state and dried just before each EPR measurement, the satellite lines are measurable for less than 17 days of storage. Irradiated fruit samples, when stored dried, lose for 50 days ca. 40% of their radiation-induced radicals if treated with alcohol or ca. 70% if dried in an oven. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of the satellite lines in the EPR spectra could be used for identification of radiation processing of fresh fruits, thus extending the validity of European Protocol EN 1787 (2000). Foodstuffs-Detection of Irradiated Food Containing Cellulose by EPR Spectroscopy. European Committee for Standardisation. Brussels for dry herbs.

  11. Preparation and applicability of fresh fruit samples for the identification of radiation treatment by EPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Aleksieva, Katerina

    2009-01-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on fresh fruits (whole pulp of pears, apples, peaches, apricots, avocado, kiwi and mango) before and after gamma-irradiation are reported using two drying procedures before EPR investigation. In order to remove water from non-irradiated and irradiated samples of the first batch, the pulp of fresh fruits is pressed, and the solid residue is washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. The fruits of the second batch are pressed and dried in a standard laboratory oven at 40 deg. C. The results obtained with both drying procedures are compared. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0048±0.0005 before irradiation. Irradiation gives rise to typical 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum featuring one intensive line with g=2.0048±0.0005 and two very weak satellite lines situated 3 mT at left and right of the central line. Only mango samples show a singlet line after irradiation. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signal is studied for a period of 50 days after irradiation. When the irradiated fruit samples are stored in their natural state and dried just before each EPR measurement, the satellite lines are measurable for less than 17 days of storage. Irradiated fruit samples, when stored dried, lose for 50 days ca. 40% of their radiation-induced radicals if treated with alcohol or ca. 70% if dried in an oven. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of the satellite lines in the EPR spectra could be used for identification of radiation processing of fresh fruits, thus extending the validity of European Protocol EN 1787 (2000). Foodstuffs-Detection of Irradiated Food Containing Cellulose by EPR Spectroscopy. European Committee for Standardisation. Brussels for dry herbs

  12. Preparation and applicability of fresh fruit samples for the identification of radiation treatment by EPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordanov, Nicola D.; Aleksieva, Katerina

    2009-03-01

    The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study on fresh fruits (whole pulp of pears, apples, peaches, apricots, avocado, kiwi and mango) before and after gamma-irradiation are reported using two drying procedures before EPR investigation. In order to remove water from non-irradiated and irradiated samples of the first batch, the pulp of fresh fruits is pressed, and the solid residue is washed with alcohol and dried at room temperature. The fruits of the second batch are pressed and dried in a standard laboratory oven at 40 °C. The results obtained with both drying procedures are compared. All samples under study show a singlet EPR line with g=2.0048±0.0005 before irradiation. Irradiation gives rise to typical "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum featuring one intensive line with g=2.0048±0.0005 and two very weak satellite lines situated 3 mT at left and right of the central line. Only mango samples show a singlet line after irradiation. The fading kinetics of radiation-induced EPR signal is studied for a period of 50 days after irradiation. When the irradiated fruit samples are stored in their natural state and dried just before each EPR measurement, the satellite lines are measurable for less than 17 days of storage. Irradiated fruit samples, when stored dried, lose for 50 days ca. 40% of their radiation-induced radicals if treated with alcohol or ca. 70% if dried in an oven. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of the satellite lines in the EPR spectra could be used for identification of radiation processing of fresh fruits, thus extending the validity of European Protocol EN 1787 (2000). Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Containing Cellulose by EPR Spectroscopy. European Committee for Standardisation. Brussels for dry herbs.

  13. Elimination of heparin interference during microarray processing of fresh and biobank-archived blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebels, Dennie G A J; van Herwijnen, Marcel H M; Brauers, Karen J J; de Kok, Theo M C M; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2014-07-01

    In the context of environmental health research, biobank blood samples have recently been identified as suitable for high-throughput omics analyses enabling the identification of new biomarkers of exposure and disease. However, blood samples containing the anti-coagulant heparin could complicate transcriptomic analysis because heparin may inhibit RNA polymerase causing inefficient cRNA synthesis and fluorophore labelling. We investigated the inhibitory effect of heparin and the influence of storage conditions (0 or 3 hr bench times, storage at room temperature or -80°C) on fluorophore labelling in heparinized fresh human buffy coat and whole blood biobank samples during the mRNA work-up protocol for microarray analysis. Subsequently, we removed heparin by lithium chloride (LiCl) treatment and performed a quality control analysis of LiCl-treated biobank sample microarrays to prove their suitability for downstream data analysis. Both fresh and biobank samples experienced varying degrees of heparin-induced inhibition of fluorophore labelling, making most samples unusable for microarray analysis. RNA derived from EDTA and citrate blood was not inhibited. No effect of bench time was observed but room temperature storage gave slightly better results. Strong correlations were observed between original blood sample RNA yield and the amount of synthesized cRNA. LiCl treatment restored sample quality to normal standards in both fresh and biobank samples and the previously identified correlations disappeared. Microarrays hybridized with LiCl-treated biobank samples were of excellent quality with no identifiable influence of heparin. We conclude that, to obtain high quality results, in most cases heparin removal is essential in blood-derived RNA samples intended for microarray analysis. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Transcriptome profiling reveals regulatory mechanisms underlying Corolla Senescence in Petunia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic regulatory mechanisms that govern petal natural senescence in petunia is complicated and unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that regulate the process, we initiated a transcriptome analysis in petunia petals at four developmental time points, including petal opening without anthesis ...

  15. Microbiology of organic and conventionally grown fresh produce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele F. Maffei

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fresh produce is a generalized term for a group of farm-produced crops, including fruits and vegetables. Organic agriculture has been on the rise and attracting the attention of the food production sector, since it uses eco-agricultural principles that are ostensibly environmentally-friendly and provides products potentially free from the residues of agrochemicals. Organic farming practices such as the use of animal manure can however increase the risk of contamination by enteric pathogenic microorganisms and may consequently pose health risks. A number of scientific studies conducted in different countries have compared the microbiological quality of produce samples from organic and conventional production and results are contradictory. While some have reported greater microbial counts in fresh produce from organic production, other studies do not. This manuscript provides a brief review of the current knowledge and summarizes data on the occurrence of pathogenic microorganisms in vegetables from organic production.

  16. Effectiveness of Gamma Irradiated Chitosan for Fresh Meat Preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan is a food preservative of natural origin that has drawn the attention of scientists working in the field of radiation processing and natural polymer products development. The effectiveness of 1% chitosan (CS) and chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) (chitosan subjected to γ irradiation, 50 or 100 kGy) dipping to preserve fresh beef slices during refrigerated storage was investigated. The microbiological quality, lipid and color stability were evaluated. The results revealed that dipping in 1% CS, COS 50 and COS 100 significantly (Ρ< 0.05) improved the microbiological quality and reduced lipid oxidation in beef samples compared to the control samples. On day 7, control samples were considered rejected from the microbiological and lipid oxidation point of view. Dipping in 1% COS 100 significantly (p< 0.05) influenced color properties compared with the other groups. It could be concluded that dipping in 1% COS improved quality parameters of fresh beef and could be used in preservation.

  17. Meat and fish freshness inspection system based on odor sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najam ul Hasan; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-11-09

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy.

  18. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Seok Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor, and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy.

  19. Fresh pasta production enriched with Spirulina platensis biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Cesar Lemes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the enrichment of Spirulina platensis in wheat flour to prepare fresh pasta to evaluate the green color and nutritional enrichment in addition to functional properties due to the presence of the bioactive compounds in the cyanobacterium. The pastas were evaluated for the centesimal composition, microbiological contamination, sensorial acceptance and technological characteristics such as cooking time, water absorption, volume displacement and loss of solids. The superior protein contents and the satisfactory technological and sensorial attributes compared with the control with no cyanobacterium showed the usefulness of incorporating S. platensis biomass in the fresh pastas. The microbiological quality was in compliance with the legislation in force. The sensorial quality was considered satisfactory (“liked very much” and purchase intention high (“probably would buy”.

  20. Drop testing of the Westinghouse fresh nuclear fuel package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Sanders, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the Westinghouse Columbia Fuel Fabrication Facility has been faced with increasing pressure from utilities that wished to take the fuel in their nuclear power plants to higher burnups. To help accommodate this trend, Westinghouse has determined that it needs the ability to increase the enrichment of the fresh fuel it delivers to its customers. One critical step in this process is to certify a new (Type A, fissile) fresh fuel package design that has the capability to transport fuel with a higher enrichment than was previously available. A prototype package was tested in support of the Safety Analysis Report of the Packaging. This paper provides detailed information on those tests and their results

  1. Chemical interaction of fresh and saline waters with compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Lehikoinen, J.; Melamed, A.; Pitkaenen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of compacted sodium bentonite with fresh and saline ground-water simulant was studied. The parameters varied in the experiments were the compositions of the solutions and oxygen and carbon dioxide content in the surroundings. The main interests of the study were the chemical changes in the experimental solution, bentonite porewater and bentonite together with the microstructural properties of bentonite. The major processes with fresh water were the diffusion of sodium, potassium, sulphate, bicarbonate and chloride from bentonite to the solution, and the diffusion of calcium and magnesium from the solution into bentonite. The major processes in the experiments with saline water were the diffusion of the sodium, magnesium, sulphate and bicarbonate from bentonite into the solution, and the diffusion of calcium from the solution into bentonite

  2. Reduction of radiation injury of fresh agricultural products by saccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoroki, Setsuko; Hayashi, Toru

    1999-01-01

    Radiation exposure has been paid attention as an alternative technique of methylbromide to protect agricultural products against insects. However, it has been pointed out that radiation at a dose lower than 300-400 Gy necessary for insecticidal effects might produce damages in fresh agricultural products. To reduce such radiation damages, radiation sensitivities of various fresh products were determined to clarify whether sugar treatment is effective for reduction of damages. Further, the timing of the treatment and its influence on the metabolism of agricultural product were investigated. When sucrose was added to a cut flower of chrysanthemum via water before and during irradiation, the withering time of its leaves and flowers was earlier than that of the untreated product, whereas continuous administration of sucrose after radiation exposure caused to lengthen the flower's life and delay the leave's yellowing. Thus, it was indicated that continuous sugar supply after irradiation was effective for prevention of radiation damages. (M.N.)

  3. Fog as a fresh-water resource: overview and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Otto; Schemenauer, Robert S; Lummerich, Anne; Cereceda, Pilar; Marzol, Victoria; Corell, David; van Heerden, Johan; Reinhard, Dirk; Gherezghiher, Tseggai; Olivier, Jana; Osses, Pablo; Sarsour, Jamal; Frost, Ernst; Estrela, María J; Valiente, José A; Fessehaye, Gebregiorgis Mussie

    2012-05-01

    The collection of fog water is a simple and sustainable technology to obtain fresh water for afforestation, gardening, and as a drinking water source for human and animal consumption. In regions where fresh water is sparse and fog frequently occurs, it is feasible to set up a passive mesh system for fog water collection. The mesh is directly exposed to the atmosphere, and the foggy air is pushed through the mesh by the wind. Fog droplets are deposited on the mesh, combine to form larger droplets, and run down passing into a storage tank. Fog water collection rates vary dramatically from site to site but yearly averages from 3 to 10 l m(-2) of mesh per day are typical of operational projects. The scope of this article is to review fog collection projects worldwide, to analyze factors of success, and to evaluate the prospects of this technology.

  4. Importance of Seed Quality for the Fresh-cut Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Shetty, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Seed is the most fundamental input in vegetable production on, which the effectiveness of other inputs and outputs depends. If the seed is of poor quality, the use of other inputs is less successful and will occasionally be irrelevant. A definition of seed quality will depend upon the use for......, which the seed is intended. Viability, vigor, uniformity, purity and health of the seeds are quality parameters important for all production systems. The ideal situation for both fresh produce and fresh cut would be seeds, which germinate uniform at a high percentage and subsequently grow relatively...... fast to the desired size, thus, resulting in leaves of improved quality. It is likely that such leaves will be more able to withstand the rigorous processing that includes harvest, transportation, washing, sanitization, de-watering and packaging. This ideal situation would both be determined...

  5. Determinants of Fresh Fish Purchasing Behavior Among Malaysian Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi Farah Ahmed; Zainalabidin Mohamed and Mohd Mansor Ismail

    2011-01-01

    The study investigates demographic and attitudinal characteristics that can affect the purchase decisions of marine fish among Malaysian consumers. A survey was conducted on Kuala Lumpur households using structured questionnaires. Seven hundred respondents were randomly interviewed with regard to their buying behaviour pattern, attitude and perception on fresh marine fish consumption. The data were analyzed using a logit binary model. It was found that the size and income of the households, g...

  6. Sorption of cobalt and zinc from fresh water and seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnoldus, R.; Weijden, C.H. van der; Das, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    The adsorption of Cosup(II) and Znsup(II) from artificial fresh and sea water on to clay minerals is studied. The adsorption isotherms are measured at pH-values of 7 and 8. The specific adsorption of zinc is higher than that of cobalt. This is compatible with the higher average residence time of cobalt than that of zinc in the oceans

  7. Microbiology of organic and conventionally grown fresh produce

    OpenAIRE

    Maffei, Daniele F.; Batalha, Erika Y.; Landgraf, Mariza; Schaffner, Donald W.; Franco, Bernadette D.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fresh produce is a generalized term for a group of farm-produced crops, including fruits and vegetables. Organic agriculture has been on the rise and attracting the attention of the food production sector, since it uses eco-agricultural principles that are ostensibly environmentally-friendly and provides products potentially free from the residues of agrochemicals. Organic farming practices such as the use of animal manure can however increase the risk of contamination by enteric pat...

  8. [The personalised donation of fresh breastmilk in neonatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Gwénaëlle

    2016-01-01

    Donation of fresh breastmilk in neonatology is subject to guidelines set out in a 1997 memorandum and recommendations issued in 2005. The results of a survey carried out in 2013 show that practices in this area vary greatly from one neonatology unit to another. There is a clear need to adopt a national consensus regarding the conditions of this donation in neonatology, in order to adapt and standardise practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Survival and growth of fresh and stored planting stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Ruth

    1953-01-01

    Does planting stock that has been kept in storage survive and grow as well as freshly dug stock? This question is important because the ground at a forest nursery may still be frozen when spring planting time arrives in the warmer parts of the region. This means that seedlings for spring planting need to be dug in the fall, kept in cold storage over winter, and shipped...

  10. Nutrients, phytochemicals, fungal flora and aflatoxin in fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the effect of salting on the pH, phytochemicals, fungal flora and nutrient composition of Vernonia amygdalina leaves was investigated. There was a decrease in pH from 5.88 for the fresh, to 5.80, 5.73, 5.24, and 5.02 for the light brined, light salted, heavy salted and light brine + vinegar treated leaves, ...

  11. Muscle characteristics only partially explain color variations in fresh hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stufft, K; Elgin, J; Patterson, B; Matarneh, S K; Preisser, R; Shi, H; England, E M; Scheffler, T L; Mills, E W; Gerrard, D E

    2017-06-01

    Fresh hams display significant lean color variation that persists through further processing and contributes to a less desirable cured product. In an attempt to understand the underlying cause of this color disparity, we evaluated the differences in muscle characteristics and energy metabolites across semimembranosus (SM) muscles differing in color variation. The L* (lightness) and a* (redness) values were highest and lowest (Pham color variation but suggest other factors may mitigate or exacerbate these variances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Environmental Kuznets Curve: Exploring a Fresh Specification

    OpenAIRE

    David Bradford; Rebecca Schlieckert; Stephen H. Shore

    2000-01-01

    Using a new specification, we reanalyze the data on worldwide environmental quality investigated by Gene Grossman and Alan Krueger in a well-known paper on the environmental Kuznets curve (which postulates an inverse U shaped relationship between income level and pollution). The new specification enables us to draw conclusions from fixed effects estimation. In general, we find support for the environmental Kuznets curve for some pollutants and for its rejection in other cases. The fresh speci...

  13. Fresh Air Practices in English and Scottish Homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    This article presents anthropological research results on how and why English and Scottish families use the fresh air from outside into the home (FAFOH). The introducing exchange was often heard in the English and Scottish families visited. Throughout the entire study the opposite only occurred...... in a few cases: The man opening the window, the woman closing it, in her own words: ”so that I stay snug”....

  14. Thermodynamics of saline and fresh water mixing in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhilin; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2018-03-01

    The mixing of saline and fresh water is a process of energy dissipation. The freshwater flow that enters an estuary from the river contains potential energy with respect to the saline ocean water. This potential energy is able to perform work. Looking from the ocean to the river, there is a gradual transition from saline to fresh water and an associated rise in the water level in accordance with the increase in potential energy. Alluvial estuaries are systems that are free to adjust dissipation processes to the energy sources that drive them, primarily the kinetic energy of the tide and the potential energy of the river flow and to a minor extent the energy in wind and waves. Mixing is the process that dissipates the potential energy of the fresh water. The maximum power (MP) concept assumes that this dissipation takes place at maximum power, whereby the different mixing mechanisms of the estuary jointly perform the work. In this paper, the power is maximized with respect to the dispersion coefficient that reflects the combined mixing processes. The resulting equation is an additional differential equation that can be solved in combination with the advection-dispersion equation, requiring only two boundary conditions for the salinity and the dispersion. The new equation has been confronted with 52 salinity distributions observed in 23 estuaries in different parts of the world and performs very well.

  15. Evaluation of fuel performance for fresh and aged CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jong Yeob; Bae, Jun Ho; Park, Joo Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Like all other industrial plants, nuclear power plants also undergo degradations, so called ageing, with their operation time. Accordingly, in the recent safety analysis for a refurbished Wolsong 1 NPP, various ageing effects were incorporated into the hydraulic models of a number of the components in the primary heat transport system for conservatism. The ageing data of thermal-hydraulic components for 11 EFPY of Wolsong 1 were derived by using NUCIRC code based on the site operation data and they were modified to the appropriate input data for CATHENA code which is a thermal hydraulic code for a postulated accident analysis. This paper deals with the ageing effect of the PHTS (primary heat transport system) of CANDU reactor on the fuel performance during the normal operation. Initial conditions for fuel performance analysis were derived from the thermal-hydraulic analysis for both fresh and aged core models. Here, fresh core means a core state just right after the refurbishment and the aged core is 11 EFPY state after the refurbishment of Wolsong 1. The fuel performance was analyzed by using ELESTRES code for both fresh and aged core state and the results were compared in order to verify the ageing effect of CANDU HTS on the fuel performance.

  16. Migration of fresh and cryopreserved human spermatozoa in polyacrylamide gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M C; Wix, L S; Foote, R H; Feldschuh, R; Feldschuh, J

    1982-05-01

    The ability of freshly collected and frozen human spermatozoa to migrate in round capillary tubes containing specially formulated polyacrylamide gel was investigated, using 33 ejaculates from 27 donors. Each semen sample was divided; one portion was left undiluted, and the other portion was diluted to 50 x 10(6) sperm/ml. Glycerol was used as the cryoprotectant. The percentage of motile sperm cells was determined before and after freezing. Fresh semen contained a higher percentage of motile cells, which migrated farther than those of cryopreserved-thawed semen. Various correlations between the percentage of motile sperm and migration distance ranged from 0.57 to 0.62. There was a low positive correlation of migration distance with sperm cell concentration per milliliter, r = 0.25 to 0.34; and thus adjusting semen samples to a standard sperm concentration improved the accuracy of the test only slightly. The regression coefficient of migration distance on the percentage of motile sperm in fresh semen was 0.65, indicating that for each 10% increase in sperm motility, migration distance is predicted to increase 6.5 mm. Five batches of polyacrylamide gel gave uniform results, and the application of this stable gel to fertility investigations is discussed.

  17. Is Shape of a Fresh and Dried Leaf the Same?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Tomaszewski

    Full Text Available Plants kept as dried herbarium specimens share many characteristics with their living counterparts, but there are some substantial differences between them. Due to dehydration, leaves of herbarium specimens change not only their mass and colour, but in many cases change their dimensions, too. The present study aimed to determine whether leaf shape changes during the drying process. A total of 794 pairs of fresh and dried leaves or leaflets of 22 plant taxa were studied. The shape of the blades was quantified using elliptic Fourier analysis combined with principal component analysis. In addition, area and mass of the leaves were measured. Statistical tests were applied for comparing fresh and dried leaves. The results indicate that the preservation process of pressing and drying plants for herbarium purposes causes changes in leaf shape. In general, the shape changes were directional. As the shape of fresh and dried plants is different, it is strongly recommended that shape analyses should be performed on datasets containing either of the leaf types.

  18. Efficacy of fresh packed red blood transfusion in organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hang-Xing; Tong, Pei-Jian; Li, Cai-Xia; Du, Jing; Chen, Bing-Yu; Huang, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    The mortality rate caused by organophosphate (OP) poisoning is still high, even the standard treatment such as atropine and oxime improves a lot. To search for alternative therapies, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of packed red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in acute OP poisoning, and compare the therapeutic effects of RBCs at different storage times.Patients diagnosed with OP poisoning were included in this prospective study. Fresh RBCs (packed RBCs stored less than 10 days) and longer-storage RBCs (stored more than 10 days but less than 35 days) were randomly transfused or not into OP poisoning patients. Cholinesterase (ChE) levels in blood, atropine usage and durations, pralidoxime durations were measured.We found that both fresh and longer-storage RBCs (200-400 mL) significantly increased blood ChE levels 6 hours after transfusion, shortened the duration for ChE recovery and length of hospital stay, and reduced the usage of atropine and pralidoxime. In addition, fresh RBCs demonstrated stronger therapeutic effects than longer-storage RBCs.Packed RBCs might be an alternative approach in patients with OP poisoning, especially during early stages.

  19. Behaviour of some fresh fruits under electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.; Stroia, A.L.; Potcoava, A.; Cojocaru, M.; Mihnea, R.; Oproiu, C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in preservation of fruits and vegetables is widely recognized. In this paper it is presented a study of the effect of electron-beam irradiation of some fresh, early and perishable fruits, like strawberries, cherries, and sour cherries concerning their shelf-life time extension. The irradiations were performed on common varieties in normal conditions to the IPTRD's electron-beam accelerator (Bucharest-Magurele) having the following parameters: flow current 10 μA, power 60 W and electron mean energy 6.23 MeV. The irradiation doses varied between 0.5-3.0 kGy and the dose rates between 100-1500 Gy/min. It was observed the fruit preservation capability of the treatment and it was analysed the main characteristics as organoleptic properties, weight of dry component, acidity, total and reducing sugars, ascorbic acid content and others. It was evidenced an increase in freshness and shelf-life extension by 5-7 days for strawberries and up to two weeks for cherries without any significant changes in the values of the considered parameters. Otherwise, for the applied doses, the electron-beam irradiation did not produce any significant changes in the values of fruit characteristic parameters. The results lead to the conclusion that the electron-beam irradiation is a good technological solution for fresh fruit processing. (Author) 1 Tab., 7 Refs

  20. Physicochemical and microbiological changes in irradiated fresh pork loins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogbevi, M.K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of γ-irradiation on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of fresh pork was studied. Radiation treatments were carried out under air on fresh pork loins at doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy and the loins were evaluated for deamidation, solubility, sulphydryl content and surface hydrophobicity. Deamidation was significantly (p⩽0.05) affected by the treatment with 98% deamidation at a dose of 8 kGy. No significant changes (p>0.05) were noted in sulphydryl content under the same conditions. The increase in deamidation resulted in a decrease in hydrophobicity and an increase in protein solubility. γ-irradiation also reduced the number of microorganisms in the meat. Mesophiles were more resistant to the irradiation treatment than psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas. All irradiated pork samples (1 or 3 kGy) had a bacterial count lower that 10(7) CFU/g after 15 days of storage. A minimal dose of 1 kGy was sufficient to increase the shelf life of fresh pork loins although variations in initial pork contamination was found to be the determining factor accounting for the effectiveness of the treatment

  1. Factors influencing the microbial safety of fresh produce: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2012-10-01

    Increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of fresh produce over the past two decades have contributed to an increase in the number of illness outbreaks caused by this commodity. Pathogen contamination of fresh produce may originate before or after harvest, but once contaminated produce is difficult to sanitize. The prospect that some pathogens invade the vascular system of plants and establish "sub-clinical" infection needs to be better understood to enable estimation of its influence upon risk of human illness. Conventional surface sanitation methods can reduce the microbial load, but cannot eliminate pathogens if present. Chlorine dioxide, electrolyzed water, UV light, cold atmospheric plasma, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite show promise, but irradiation at 1 kGy in high oxygen atmospheres may prove to be the most effective means to assure elimination of both surface and internal contamination of produce by pathogens. Pathogens of greatest current concern are Salmonella (tomatoes, seed sprouts and spices) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on leafy greens (spinach and lettuce). This review considers new information on illness outbreaks caused by produce, identifies factors which influence their frequency and size and examines intervention effectiveness. Research needed to increase our understanding of the factors influencing microbial safety of fresh produce is addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Effectiveness of FRESH Technique to Teach Descriptive Paragraph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Faisal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at knowing the effectiveness of FRESH technique in teaching descriptive paragraph. The method of this study was quasi experimental method. This study was conducted at one of the state madrasah aliyah in academic year 2012/2013. The total sample of this study was 78 respondents divided into two groups: the control class with no treatment and the experimental class with FRESH technique. The data collection technique used essay tests for pre-test and post-test. The evaluation covered content, organization, vocabulary, style, and mechanic. After data analyses, the students in the experimental class had better achievement than those in the control class. The result of t-test computation was 1.968, with t-table value = 1.664 at the significant level α = 0.05. The t-test result was higher than the value of t-table (1.968 > 1.664. It meant that the hypothesis was accepted or FRESH technique was effective in teaching descriptive paragraph to the students of that school in academic year 2012/2013.

  3. Thermal conductivity of fresh and irradiated U-Mo fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Tanja K.; Breitkreutz, Harald; Burkes, Douglas E.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Elgeti, Stefan; Reiter, Christian; Robinson, Adam. B.; Smith, Frances. N.; Wachs, Daniel. M.; Petry, Winfried

    2018-05-01

    The thermal conductivity of fresh and irradiated U-Mo dispersion and monolithic fuel has been investigated experimentally and compared to theoretical models. During in-pile irradiation, thermal conductivity of fresh dispersion fuel at a temperature of 150 °C decreased from 59 W/m·K to 18 W/m·K at a burn-up of 4.9·1021 f/cc and further to 9 W/m·K at a burn-up of 6.1·1021 f/cc. Fresh monolithic fuel has a considerably lower thermal conductivity of 15 W/m·K at a temperature of 150 °C and consequently its decrease during in-pile irradiation is less steep than for dispersion fuel. For a burn-up of 3.5·1021 f/cc of monolithic fuel, a thermal conductivity of 11 W/m·K at a temperature of 150 °C has been measured by Burkes et al. (2015). The difference of decrease for both fuels originates from effects in the matrix that occur during irradiation, like for dispersion fuel the gradual disappearance of the Al matrix with increased burn-up and the subsequent growth of an interaction layer (IDL) between the U-Mo fuel particle and Al matrix and subsequent matrix hardening. The growth of fission gas bubbles and the decomposition of the U-Mo crystal lattice also affect both dispersion and monolithic fuel.

  4. Fresh fuel pre-heating device in reactor facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samejima, Asakuni.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To simplify the structure of a fresh nuclear fuel pre-heating device and improve the reliability to gas supply. Constitution: Fresh fuels taken out from a fresh fuel stredge rack and contained in a fuel strage pipe of a fuel transportation cask are pre-heated at the pre-stage of transfer by sending heating gases from the outside. Gas outlet pipes of the device are led out from the lower portion of the strage pipe, disposed side by side at the top of the strage pipe and opened upwardly. Further, gas supply pipes are connected to the inside of a movable guiding cylinder on the side of the floor surface and the opening end of return pipes are opposed to the exit opening end of the strage pipe. In such a constitution, a gas recycling loop can be formed between the strage pipe and the gas heating device by way of the movable guiding cylinder only by the operation of combining the fuel strage pipe of the transportation cask and the movable guiding pipe disposed on the side of the floor surface. Thus, the coupling structure is facilitated, the connection operation can surely be conducted to improve the reliability as compared with the conventional case. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Evaluation of freshly irradiated wheat for dominant lethal mutations in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawan, S.C.; Aravindakshan, M.; Kumar, N.S.; Subba Rao, V.; Aiyar, A.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1977-01-01

    Three independent, serially performed experiments involving acute and chronic feeding of freshly irradiated wheat (75 krad, gamma-irradiation) were carried out in Wistar rats. In the first experiment groups of 10 males were given wheat for 1 week; irradiated wheat was consumed by the animals within 24 h of irradiation. In the other two experiments feeding of males was continued for 6 (10 males per group) and 12 (13 males per group) weeks, respectively, and the irradiated wheat was fed within 7 days of irradiation. At the end of each treatment period each male was paired with 3 females for 7 days and sequentially at weekly intervals for 5 or 8 weeks. Females were killed and examined for live and dead implantations and corpora lutea. There were no differences between groups with regard to fertility nor was there any inter-group difference as regards pre- and post-implantation losses whether the rats were fed irradiated or non-irradiated wheat. This suggested that even feeding of freshly irradiated wheat does not induce any dominant lethal mutations in rats

  6. Gamma radiation enhances the bioactivity of fresh parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss Var. Neapolitanum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cătunescu, Giorgiana M.; Rotar, Ioan; Vidican, Roxana; Bunghez, Florina; Rotar, Ancuța M.

    2017-03-01

    Research showed the effects of drying, freezing, and irradiation on the bioactivity of parsley, but overlooked comparing them. In the present study, the effect of minimal processing paired with gamma irradiation (0.7-2.7 kGy) was evaluated in respect to the content of ascorbic acid, polyphenols, antiradical capacity and antibacterial activity of parsley methanolic extracts. The results were compared with natural drying (20-22 °C) and rapid freezing (-20 °C). Absorbed doses of 0.7-1.4 kGy can be recommended to no treatment from a nutritional point of view because the content of vitamin C was better preserved and a significant increase of polyphenols content was observed when compared with control samples. Drying can be recommended only in terms of vitamin C and polyphenols content per consumed serving, as it doubles the content of vitamin C and triples polyphenols compared to the same mass of fresh product. Plant extracts with optimal antioxidant and antimicrobial can be obtained from fresh herbs stored at refrigeration temperature as little as possible. Extracts from dried or frozen herbs preserved for long periods of time are not recommended. An absorbed dose of 2.7 kGy may be applied to parsley in order to increase its antibacterial against Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli and S. Typhimurium.

  7. Evaluation of freshly irradiated wheat for dominant lethal mutations in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawan, S C; Aravindakshan, M; Kumar, N S; Subba Rao, V; Aiyar, A S; Sundaram, K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Bio-medical Group

    1977-01-01

    Three independent, serially performed experiments involving acute and chronic feeding of freshly irradiated wheat (75 krad, gamma-irradiation) were carried out in Wistar rats. In the first experiment groups of 10 males were given wheat for 1 week; irradiated wheat was consumed by the animals within 24 h of irradiation. In the other two experiments feeding of males was continued for 6 (10 males per group) and 12 (13 males per group) weeks, respectively, and the irradiated wheat was fed within 7 days of irradiation. At the end of each treatment period each male was paired with 3 females for 7 days and sequentially at weekly intervals for 5 or 8 weeks. Females were killed and examined for live and dead implantations and corpora lutea. There were no differences between groups with regard to fertility nor was there any inter-group difference as regards pre- and post-implantation losses whether the rats were fed irradiated or non-irradiated wheat. This suggested that even feeding of freshly irradiated wheat does not induce any dominant lethal mutations in rats.

  8. Effect of saffron petal extract on retention quality of fresh-cut watermelon cubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamed kaveh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is considered as a valuable produce by producers and traders. Unfortunately, the use of its floral by products like petal which have proven to be antioxidant, antimicrobial and nutritional value is limited. In order to investigate the application of saffron petal extracts as an ameliorative on postharvest and processing quality of fresh-cut ‘Crimson Sweet’ watermelon, a completely randomized designed investigation was done on watermelon cubes with 1cm diameter (1±0.5 gram mean weight. Prepared watermelon cubes were divided into four groups and treated with saffron petal extract (10 % V/V for 10 minutes, UV irradiation (maximum wavelength 253.4 nm and 15W for 5 minutes, 10 minutes of saffron petal extract then UV irradiation for 5 minutes and control. After the application of treatments, fresh-cut watermelon cubes were stored at 5±0.5 ºC for 14 days. Sampling and observation of the studied characteristics (physiological loss in weight, soluble solid content, lycopene, microbial load and color quality (Chroma Hue was done every two days to find the trend of changes during the retention period. The results of experiment showed that petal extract of saffron could not decrease weight loss but it was significantly effective in lowering microbial load and increasing color quality, and prevention of lycopene degradation (P≤5%. Although treatment of UV+SPE had better efficiency to suppress microbial load significantly (P≤5%.

  9. Application of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) in freshness keeping of tilapia fillets as sashimi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rong; Liu, Qi; Chen, Shengjun; Yang, Xianqing; Li, Laihao

    2015-08-01

    Aquatic products are extremely perishable food commodities. Developing methods to keep the freshness of fish represents a major task of the fishery processing industry. Application of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as food preservative is a novel approach. In the present study, the possibility of using lactic acid bacteria in freshness keeping of tilapia fillets as sashimi was examined. Fish fillets were dipped in Lactobacillus plantarum 1.19 (obtained from China General Microbiological Culture Collection Center) suspension as LAB-treated group. Changes in K-value, APC, sensory properties and microbial flora were analyzed. Results showed that LAB treatment slowed the increase of K-value and APC in the earlier storage, and caused a smooth decrease in sensory score. Gram-negative bacteria dominated during refrigerated storage, with Pseudomonas and Aeromonas being relatively abundant. Lactobacillus plantarum 1.19 had no obvious inhibitory effect against these Gram-negatives. However, Lactobacillus plantarum 1.19 changed the composition of Gram-positive bacteria. No Micrococcus were detected and the proportion of Staphylococcus decreased in the spoiled LAB-treated samples. The period that tilapia fillets could be used as sashimi material extended from 24 h to 48 h after LAB treatment. The potential of using LAB in sashimi processing was confirmed.

  10. Painful menstrual periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... into two groups, depending on the cause: Primary dysmenorrhea Secondary dysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that ...

  11. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    and their quality was improved considerably toward the end of this period. The profound cultural innovations of the Middle Helladic period were initially interpreted as a result of violent population movement and troubles provoked by the coming of the first Indo-European races. However, this matter does no more...... Helladic period is considered as a period of economic and social decline it was the time during which the mainland features merged with the insular influence, that is all the Aegean elements which led to the creation of the Mycenaean civilization were mixed in a creative way....

  12. Evaluation of guided bone generation around implants placed into fresh extraction sockets: an experimental study in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Nimb, L; Buser, D

    1993-01-01

    Immediate placement of implants into fresh extraction sockets would have the principal advantage of decreasing the recommended period of healing. It also would result in a guided placement of the implant, and it could reduce the resorption of the alveolar bone in the extraction area. However, when...... an implant is placed immediately into an extraction socket, it may not engage the walls of the socket near the crest of the alveolar ridge. With the presence of a bone defect around an implant, ingrowth of soft tissue could compromise the achievement of osseointegration in the crestal bone area....... The objective of this study was to evaluate the crestal bone healing response adjacent to implants placed immediately into fresh extraction sockets with and without covering membranes. Eight adult mongrel dogs had the third and fourth mandibular premolars extracted bilaterally. Thirty-two submerged titanium...

  13. Eat fresh vegetables, fruit, and whole grain products | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diverticulitis "Eat fresh vegetables, fruit, and whole grain products." Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... or the diverticulitis. I once again eat fresh vegetables and fruit and whole grain products. My two episodes of ...

  14. Promoting seafood consumption: An evaluation of the Danish campaign for fresh fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2003-01-01

    was that preparing a tasty meal from fresh fish was actually not difficult. In supplementary materials consumers were provided with recipes for fresh fish. At the same time, major retail chains made MAP-packaged fresh fish filets available in Danish supermarkets. The influence of family expectations was harnessed......Before and after the 3-year generic advertising campaign for fresh fish in Denmark, representative consumer samples were surveyed with regard to their attitudes towards fresh fish, perceived family norms, availability of fresh fish in shops, meal preparation skills, intentions to buy fresh fish......, and actual consumption frequencies. In the pre-campaign survey (effective N = 641), significant determinants of consumption were availability in shops, meal preparation skills, and intentions to buy fresh fish. The campaign was especially designed to conquer these barriers. The key proposition...

  15. On some periodicity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim o...

  16. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  17. Periods and Nori motives

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  18. 75 FR 38986 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), meet the statutory and regulatory... garlic from the PRC was published on November 16, 1994. See Antidumping Duty Order: Fresh Garlic from the...

  19. 76 FR 78694 - Fresh Garlic From China; Scheduling of an expedited five-year review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-683 (Third Review)] Fresh Garlic From... whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from China would be likely to lead to... submitted by the Fresh Garlic Producers Association and its individual members Christopher Ranch L.L.C., The...

  20. 77 FR 266 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... determined that two requests for a new shipper review (NSR) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Department published the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from...

  1. 77 FR 22467 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...-0006] RIN 0563-AC32 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop... Insurance Corporation (FCIC) finalizes the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar... Common Crop Insurance Regulations (7 CFR part 457), Fresh Market Tomato (Dollar Plan) Crop Provisions...

  2. 7 CFR 457.148 - Fresh market pepper crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh market pepper crop insurance provisions. 457.148... pepper crop insurance provisions. The fresh market pepper crop insurance provisions for the 1999 and... Fresh Market Pepper Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of...

  3. On-line fresh-cut lettuce quality measurement system using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce, which is a main type of fresh-cut vegetable, has been used in various fresh-cut products. In this study, an online quality measurement system for detecting foreign substances on the fresh-cut lettuce was developed using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The online detection system with a s...

  4. 7 CFR 457.129 - Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457... sweet corn crop insurance provisions. The fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions for the 2008... Reinsured Policies Fresh Market Sweet Corn Crop Provisions 1. Definitions Allowable cost.—The dollar amount...

  5. Novel technologies for decontamination of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complex challenges facing producers and processors of fresh produce require creative applications of conventional treatments and innovative approaches to develop entirely novel treatments. The varied nature of fresh and fresh-cut produce demands solutions that are adapted and optimized for each ...

  6. 75 FR 32370 - Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway AGENCY: Import... Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway SUMMARY: On August 5... antidumping order on fresh and chilled Atlantic Salmon from Norway and preliminarily determined that Nordic...

  7. 78 FR 25692 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Barhi Dates From Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...] Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Barhi Dates From Israel AGENCY: Animal and Plant... authorize the importation into the United States of fresh dates of the cultivar Barhi from Israel. Based on... weeds via the importation of fresh dates of the cultivar Barhi from Israel. In addition, based on the...

  8. Listmania. How lists can open up fresh possibilities for research in the history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbourgo, James; Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2012-12-01

    Anthropologists, linguists, cultural historians, and literary scholars have long emphasized the value of examining writing as a material practice and have often invoked the list as a paradigmatic example thereof. This Focus section explores how lists can open up fresh possibilities for research in the history of science. Drawing on examples from the early modern period, the contributors argue that attention to practices of list making reveals important relations between mercantile, administrative, and scientific attempts to organize the contents of the world. Early modern lists projected both spatial and temporal visions of nature: they inventoried objects in the process of exchange and collection; they projected possible trajectories for future endeavor; they publicized the social identities of scientific practitioners; and they became research tools that transformed understandings of the natural order.

  9. Physicochemical Characteristics of Pennar River, A Fresh Water Wetland in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some physicochemical characteristics of a fresh water wetland were investigated. The analysis was carried out for a period of two years. Physical parameters such as colour, odour, temperature, electrical conductivity (EC total suspended solids (TSS total dissolved substances (TDS, total solids (TS, turbidity and chemical parameters such as pH, alkalinity, hardness, dissolved oxygen (DO, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, chloride, salinity, flouride, phosphate & nitrate were examined. Results of the study indicated that water in Pennar river is highly contaminated and not safe for drinking. Uncontrolled use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, unscrupulous dumping of domestic wastes are the major causes of deterioration of water. Poor quality of drinking water was recorded as the major risk factor for the large-scale water-borne diseases in the area.

  10. Technical evaluation of gamma-irradiation pretreatment on quality preservation for fresh fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, P.J.; Linke, B.A.; Lemon, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    A comprehensive review and evaluation on the use of gamma-irradiation for preserving fresh fish quality has been made. The advantages and limitations of using gamma-irradiation of less than 1 M rad have been re-evaluated and compared with previous tests at the Halifax laboratory in terms of physical, organoleptic and some post process quality assessments. Cod, mackerel, and scallop were chosen as the models for lean, fatty and shell fish respectively. The irradiation process can prevent bacterial spoilage in fish, particularly when chilling and/or handling practices are inadequate, but the potential catalytic influences on enzymatic and chemical deterioration during the post-mortem period should also be considered. Some considerations and reservations concerning the changes in overall quality for irradiated fish are discussed. Before more research is completed, the gamma-irradiation process should not be used for shellfish, fatty fish and various prepared and frozen fish products made from Canadian Atlantic species

  11. Enhancing safety and aroma appealing of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables using the antimicrobial and aromatic power of essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; del-Toro-Sánchez, L

    2009-09-01

    Microbial and aroma attributes are within the most decisive factors limiting safety and sensory appealing of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Alternatively, several plant essential oils (EOs) are constituted of several volatile active compounds and most of them present antimicrobial potential and had different aroma profile. Considering these premises, this hypothesis article states that safety and aroma appealing of fresh-cut produce could be improved with EO treatment. EOs could prevent fresh-cut fruit decay; however, their volatile constituents could be sorbed by the produce, and according to the aroma notes of the antimicrobial oil, sensorial appealing of odor, and flavor of the treated produce might be affected positively or negatively. Specifically, garlic oil is a natural antimicrobial constituted by sulfur compounds, which are responsible for its odor and antimicrobial properties. Besides, fresh-cut tomato is a highly perishable product that needs antimicrobial agents to preserve its quality and safety for a longer period of time. From the sensorial point of view, aroma combination of garlic and tomato is a common seasoning practice in Europe and America and well accepted by consumers. Once the right combination of flavors between the EOs and the fresh-cut produce has been selected, safety and quality of the treated fruit could be improved by adding antimicrobial protection and extra aroma. Therefore, other combinations between EOs and fresh-cut produce are discussed. This approximation could reinforce the trends of natural food preservation, accomplishing the demands of the increasing sector of consumers demanding tasty and convenient fresh-cut produce, containing only natural ingredients.

  12. Mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Berenstein

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  13. Conceptual Assessment of a Fresh Fuel Transport Package for KJRR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju-Chan; Choi, W. S.; Bang, K. S.; Yu, S. H.; Park, J. S.; Yang, Y. Y. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The IAEA and domestic regulations stipulate that the fissile material transport package be subjected to the cumulative effects of a 9 m drop, 1 m puncture, 800 ℃ thermal and water leakage tests. A fissile material transport package should be maintained the subcriticality during the normal and accident conditions for contingency of leakage of water into or out of package, rearrangement of the contents, reduction of spaces and temperature changes. KAERI has been developing a fresh fuel transport package for Kijang research reactor (KJRR). This paper describes a conceptual design and preliminary safety analysis of the transport package for KJRR. The transport package was designed for shipment of a fresh fuel and a FM (Fission Molybdenum) target. Low-enriched uranium (LEU) of U-Mo fuel with U-235 enrichment of 19.75 w/o is used as a research reactor fuel. And LEU of UAlx-Al with U-235 enrichment of 19.75 w/o is used as a FM target material. The transport package was designed for shipment of a fresh fuel and a FM target. Safety analyses were conducted on all areas, including criticality, structural, and thermal fields. In the criticality analysis, effective neutron multiplication factors were below the criticality safety limit. In the structural analysis, the maximum stress satisfied the stress requirement stipulated in the ASME code. After 9 m free drop and 1 m puncture test, there was no significant deformation of fuel basket to cause a criticality. In the thermal analysis, the maximum temperatures at each part were lower than the allowable values.

  14. Consumer attitudes and preferences for fresh market tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2014-10-01

    This study established attractive attributes and consumer desires for fresh tomatoes. Three focus groups (n = 28 participants) were conducted to explore how consumers perceived tomatoes, including how they purchased and consumed them. Subsequently, an Adaptive Choice Based Conjoint (ACBC) survey was conducted to understand consumer preferences toward traditional tomatoes. The ACBC survey with Kano questions (n = 1037 consumers in Raleigh, NC) explored the importance of color, firmness, size, skin, texture, interior, seed presence, flavor, and health benefits. The most important tomato attribute was color, then juice when sliced, followed by size, followed by seed presence, which was at parity with firmness. An attractive tomato was red, firm, medium/small sized, crisp, meaty, juicy, flavorful, and with few seeds. Deviations from these features resulted in a tomato that was rejected by consumers. Segmentations of consumers were determined by patterns in utility scores. External attributes were the main drivers of tomato liking, but different groups of tomato consumers exist with distinct preferences for juiciness, firmness, flavor, and health benefits. Conjoint analysis is a research technique that collects a large amount of data from consumers in a format designed to be reflective of a real life market setting and can be combined with qualitative insight from focus groups to gain information on consumer consumption and purchase behaviors. This study established that the most important fresh tomato attributes were color, amount of juice when sliced, and size. Distinct consumer clusters were differentiated by preference for color/appearance, juiciness and firm texture. Tomato growers can utilize the results to target attributes that drive consumer choice for fresh tomatoes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  16. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  17. Super periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  18. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  19. The Periodic Table CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  20. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  1. The traveller: a new look for PWR fresh fuel packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayley, B.; Stilwell, W.E.; Kent, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Traveller PWR fresh fuel shipping package represents a radical departure from conventional PWR fuel package designs. This paper follows the development effort from the establishment of goals and objectives, to intermediate testing and analysis, to final testing and licensing. The discussion starts with concept origination and covers the myriad iterations that followed until arriving at a design that would meet the demanding licensing requirements, last for 30 years, and would be easy to load and unload fuel, easy to handle, inexpensive to manufacture and transport, and simple and inexpensive to maintain

  2. BATCH ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF FRESH LEACHATE FROM TRANSFER STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED MOHAMMAD DARA GHASIMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Leachate from transfer station requires treatment before being discharged into the environment to avoid surface and underground water contamination. Various factors such as waste composition, availability of oxygen and moisture, designing and controlling of transfer station operations have been shown to affect the composition of the leachate. The high COD, BOD, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and heavy metals contents of fresh leachate are the main problems faced by leachate treatment operators. The result of the present study indicated that this process reduced the COD content by 43%.The average removal efficiencies of BOD5, TS, TSS, and VSS were 80, 49, 37 and 39 %, respectively.

  3. Ground Zero/Fresh Kills: Cataloguing Ruins, Garbage, and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Cinzia Scarpino

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the rise and fall of the Twin Towers can be read in relation to the rise and fall of the Staten Island Fresh Kills landfill, how their destinies were entwined from the start, and how the immediate cultural response to the collapse of the former and the closing of the latter recurred to the form of catalogues of objects, words, and images. From this angle it will be possible to posit the events within a larger, if somewhat unusual, cultural frame encompassi...

  4. Shelf-life extension of fresh chicken through radurisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemand, J.G.; Van der Linde, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    The article discusses the shelf-life extension of fresh chicken through radurization. In order to assess the potential of this process on the South African market, a detailed investigation was carried out to determine the shelf-life extension under local conditions. The following aspects were investigated; 1) reduction of bacterial numbers at different radurisation doses; 2) influence of storage temperature on shelf-life and 3) the elimination of Salmonella. Organoleptic testing was carried out on poultry radurised to doses of 3, 5, 7,5 and 10 kGy as well as on non-radurised controls

  5. Consumer Willingness to Pay for Quality Attributes of Fresh Seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Haider, Wolfgang; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2015-01-01

    We applied a labeled choice experiment (LCE) to investigate consumer demand and choice behavior for fresh seafood in a retail market. The LCE was conducted for a large number of seafood alternatives (i.e., seafood species) labeled by the respective seafood name (e.g., cod, salmon, mussels......). Consumer heterogeneity in preference was expressed by estimating a labeled latent class model with alternative-specific effects, which varies choice probability and model parameters over seafood alternatives and across classes. The willingness to pay (WTP) for extrinsic attributes (e.g., product form...

  6. Nanomaterials for fresh-keeping and sterilization in food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongfang; Gu, Ning

    2009-06-01

    Food sterilizing and antistaling technologies are very important to the public's health and safety and have been attracting more and more attentions. In the past several years, new development chance was created by the introduction of nanomaterials to this critical field. Nanomaterials possess lots of outstanding properties, such as unique quantum size effect, large surface area and catalytic properties, which jointly facilitate high effective fresh-keeping, and thus were considered as promising materials in food sterilization and antistale. This review article focuses on the patented applications of nanomaterials as food biocidal agents, bacteriostatic agents, catalysts and carriers for antistaling agents.

  7. Effect of irradiation on quality of fresh fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbayraktar, V.; Gueclue, H.

    2009-01-01

    There is an increasing trend for the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables in developing and developed countries. However, they carry the potential risk of contamination from soil, irrigation water and/or manure and result in food borne outbreaks. Since they are consumed without any treatments, they are the potential sources of contamination. Irradiation is a physical food preservation method; foods are exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation for sterilization or preservation purposes. Irradiation treatment has been shown to effectively enhance the microbial quality and increase the shelf-life by 3-5 times. Also, this treatment reduces the post harvest losses and controls the insects.

  8. Supersymmetrically transformed periodic potentials

    OpenAIRE

    C, David J. Fernandez

    2003-01-01

    The higher order supersymmetric partners of a stationary periodic potential are studied. The transformation functions associated to the band edges do not change the spectral structure. However, when the transformation is implemented for factorization energies inside of the forbidden bands, the final potential will have again the initial band structure but it can have bound states encrusted into the gaps, giving place to localized periodicity defects.

  9. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan; Suresh Rama Chandran; Geetha Thirumalnesan; Nedumaran Doraisamy

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recove...

  10. Manufacturing and Construction of Fresh Fuel Storage Rack for a Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jinho; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Jongmin; Ryu, Jeong-Soo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study is to provide the manufacturing and construction information regarding the Fresh Fuel Storage Rack (FFSR). The main function of a FFSR is to store and protect the 2 core new fuel assemblies for the operation of the research reactor. The fresh fuel assemblies are stored in a rack made of stainless steel and the storage rack is installed in the fresh fuel storage room. The fresh fuel facility provides fresh fuel assemblies with dry storage space. General design requirements of the fresh fuel storage facilities are given in the ANSI-57.3. Design, manufacturing, and construction of the fresh fuel storage rack are introduced. The analysis is performed to confirm the structural intensity of the fresh fuel storage rack under the seismic loads. The fresh fuel storage rack designed for storage of fresh fuel assemblies should be manufactured and installed with consideration of predicted number of fresh fuel assemblies, structural integrity, resistivity to corrosion and radiation, cleaning, and workability.

  11. Manufacturing and Construction of Fresh Fuel Storage Rack for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jinho; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Jongmin; Ryu, Jeong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide the manufacturing and construction information regarding the Fresh Fuel Storage Rack (FFSR). The main function of a FFSR is to store and protect the 2 core new fuel assemblies for the operation of the research reactor. The fresh fuel assemblies are stored in a rack made of stainless steel and the storage rack is installed in the fresh fuel storage room. The fresh fuel facility provides fresh fuel assemblies with dry storage space. General design requirements of the fresh fuel storage facilities are given in the ANSI-57.3. Design, manufacturing, and construction of the fresh fuel storage rack are introduced. The analysis is performed to confirm the structural intensity of the fresh fuel storage rack under the seismic loads. The fresh fuel storage rack designed for storage of fresh fuel assemblies should be manufactured and installed with consideration of predicted number of fresh fuel assemblies, structural integrity, resistivity to corrosion and radiation, cleaning, and workability

  12. Study on storage efficiency of the fresh food e-commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Sun, Jie; Li, Huihui

    2017-06-01

    As the last cake in the area of e-commerce industry, the temperature of fresh food e-commerce is always rising starting from about 2014. This paper is based on the imperfection that the existing study about fresh food e-commerce is lack of studies on storage efficiency. And we took some variables in this paper such as consumers’ satisfaction and length for preservation and storage time. On this basis we built the model of storage efficiency of fresh food e-commerce. We find that as the development of fresh food e-commerce, the fresh food e-commerce enterprise will pay more attention to the consumers’ satisfaction. They can take some effective ways like reducing the wastage of fresh food and lengthening the refreshing time of fresh food and so on.

  13. Strategies for safe exploitation of fresh water through multi-strainer skimming wells in saline groundwater areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.M.; Jaffery, H.M.; Hanif, M.

    2005-01-01

    Indus Basin of Pakistan to develop strategies for the safe exploitation of fresh upper groundwater layer through multi-strainer skimming wells in the areas having deeper saline groundwater. Results of detailed investigations are given in this paper. A methodology was designed for investigations and to study the movement of saline-fresh water interface. For this purpose deep observation wells were installed and water samples from various depths over a period of wells operational hours have been collected. Water quality of these samples was tested to evaluate the movement of saline-fresh water interface. Results indicated that there exists a relatively fresh water aquifer above the depth of 20m. Relatively impervious layer and clay lenses of variable thickness exists at various locations in the area. There is relatively less contribution from the lower aquifer as compared to the lateral movement of water to the well above the impervious layers. The skimming wells were operated for a different number of hours and water quality evaluated. The results show that the quality and quantity of the pumped groundwater can be improved with intermittent pumping for 4-6 hours per day under drought conditions and recovery of the water-table is quick. Moreover, the intermittent pumping maintained a minimum suction lift that helped get a relatively good discharge. Continuous long term pumping proved to be dangerous which can cause saline water intrusion. It is recommended to avoid long term pumping of skimming wells. Intermittent short hours operation can be helpful for safe exploitation of fresh water and make skimming well operation more cost effective. It is further added that 4-6 strainers make these skimming wells cost effective as compared to having a large number of strainers in a skimming well. (author)

  14. EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONCENTRATION ON FRESH PROPERTIES AND COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SELF-COMPACTING GEOPOLYMER CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAREED AHMED MEMON

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of the laboratory tests conducted to investigate the effect of sodium hydroxide concentration on the fresh properties and compressive strength of self-compacting geopolymer concrete (SCGC. The experiments were conducted by varying the concentration of sodium hydroxide from 8 M to 14 M. Test methods such as Slump flow, V-Funnel, L-box and J-Ring were used to assess the workability characteristics of SCGC. The test specimens were cured at 70°C for a period of 48 hours and then kept in room temperature until the day of testing. Compressive strength test was carried out at the ages of 1, 3, 7 and 28 days. Test results indicate that concentration variation of sodium hydroxide had least effect on the fresh properties of SCGC. With the increase in sodium hydroxide concentration, the workability of fresh concrete was slightly reduced; however, the corresponding compressive strength was increased. Concrete samples with sodium hydroxide concentration of 12 M produced maximum compressive strength.

  15. Effect of Age and Bulls on Fresh Semen Quality and Frozen Semen Production of Holstein Bulls in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiris, A.; Ondho, Y. S.; Santoso, S. I.; Kurnianto, E.

    2018-02-01

    Artificial Insemination is a compatible method of reproduction in an effort to increase dairy productivity. Artificial Insemination Center as a producer of frozen semen was required to maximize bulls in producing high quality frozen semen optimally. The purpose of this research was to determine effect of age and bulls on fresh semen quality and frozen semen production of Holstein bulls in Indonesia. The research was conducted at Lembang and Singosari AI Centers. The material used were 24.634 data of qualified fresh semen and frozen semen production from 81 Holstein Bulls aged 1-9 years that used as frozen semen producer in period of 2008 to 2016. The variables observed in this research were data of age of bulls, fresh semen volume (mL); sperm motility (%); mass movement; concentrations (million/mL) and frozen semen doses at each production at age of bulls. Nested design was applied to obtain and analyze data. Results showed that Age and bulls have significant effect (PAI Centre might adapt management of AI bulls to improve semen production.

  16. Reported foodborne outbreaks due to fresh produce in the United States and European Union: trends and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, Raquel M; Rodríguez-Naranjo, M Isabel; Ubeda, Cristina; Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen; Troncoso, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of fruit and vegetables continues to rise in the United States and European Union due to healthy lifestyle recommendations. Meanwhile, the rate of foodborne illness caused by the consumption of these products remains high in both regions, representing a significant public health and financial issue. This study addresses the occurrence of reported foodborne outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables consumption in the United States and European Union during the period 2004-2012, where data are available. Special attention is paid to those pathogens responsible for these outbreaks, the mechanisms of contamination, and the fresh produce vehicles involved. Norovirus is shown to be responsible for most of the produce-related outbreaks, followed by Salmonella. Norovirus is mainly linked with the consumption of salad in the United States and of berries in the European Union, as demonstrated by the Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). Salmonella was the leading cause of multistate produce outbreaks in the United States and was the pathogen involved in the majority of sprouts-associated outbreaks. As is reflected in the MCA, the pattern of fresh produce outbreaks differed in the United States and European Union by the type of microorganism and the food vehicle involved.

  17. Modified atmosphere packaging of fresh meats : sudden partial adaption caused an increase in sustainability of Dutch supply chains of fresh meats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden Van Velzen, E.U.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, a major transition evolved in the Dutch fresh meat industry with ramifications for the entire meat business. In 1995, more than 95% of all fresh meat products for consumers were either sold loose or packed in the traditional way, i.e. on a white styrofoam tray with stretch wrap.

  18. Analysing PKCS#11 Key Management APIs with Unbounded Fresh Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröschle, Sibylle; Steel, Graham

    We extend Delaune, Kremer and Steel’s framework for analysis of PKCS#11-based APIs from bounded to unbounded fresh data. We achieve this by: formally defining the notion of an attribute policy; showing that a well-designed API should have a certain class of policy we call complete; showing that APIs with complete policies may be safely abstracted to APIs where the attributes are fixed; and proving that these static APIs can be analysed in a small bounded model such that security properties will hold for the unbounded case. We automate analysis in our framework using the SAT-based security protocol model checker SATMC. We show that a symmetric key management subset of the Eracom PKCS#11 API, used in their ProtectServer product, preserves the secrecy of sensitive keys for unbounded numbers of fresh keys and handles, i.e. pointers to keys. We also show that this API is not robust: if an encryption key is lost to the intruder, SATMC finds an attack whereby all the keys may be compromised.

  19. Recent developments in smart freezing technology applied to fresh foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji-Cheng; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-09-02

    Due to the increased awareness of consumers in sensorial and nutritional quality of frozen foods, the freezing technology has to seek new and innovative technologies for better retaining the fresh like quality of foods. In this article, we review the recent developments in smart freezing technology applied to fresh foods. The application of these intelligent technologies and the associated underpinning concepts have greatly improved the quality of frozen foods and the freezing efficiency. These technologies are able to automatically collect the information in-line during freezing and help control the freezing process better. Smart freezing technology includes new and intelligent technologies and concepts applied to the pretreatment of the frozen product, freezing processes, cold chain logistics as well as warehouse management. These technologies enable real-time monitoring of quality during the freezing process and help improve product quality and freezing efficiency. We also provide a brief overview of several sensing technologies used to achieve automatic control of individual steps of freezing process. These sensing technologies include computer vision, electronic nose, electronic tongue, digital simulation, confocal laser, near infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance technology and ultrasound. Understanding of the mechanism of these new technologies will be helpful for applying them to improve the quality of frozen foods.

  20. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ON NATURAL NUTRITION OF FRESH-WATER FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Piria

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers the entire review on the research methodology in natural nutrition of fresh-water fish. The data on fresh-water fish nutrition, particularly on fish of lower economic value, is inadequate. Reviewing the literature on assesment of nutritional parameters, the authors obviously use differenet approaches and methods. This paper is about most frequently used parameteres in qualitative and quantitative analysis. The qualitative analysis of food structure is the overall list of determinable taxa (mostlyu species and genera. The quantitative analysis comprises the assessment of particular nutritional categories by nutritional indices and coefficients. Bio-identification and numeric data processing can have numerous drawbacsk such as effect of regurgitation or the degree of digestion of the prey. The analyses of those effects proceed through statistical data processing in order to include spatial distribution of certain prey categories as well. The importance of this data is to determine the nutritional needs of potential species for culture as well as to come up with new insights on a particular aquatic ecosystem.

  1. Bacterial communities of fresh goat meat packaged in modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizosa, Elia; Benito, María José; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Hernández, Alejandro; Villalobos, Maria Del Carmen; Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the growth and development of fortuitous flora and food pathogens in fresh goat meat packaged under modified atmospheres containing two different concentrations of CO 2 . Meat samples were stored at 10 °C under two different modified-atmosphere packing (MAP) conditions: treatment A had 45% CO 2  + 20% O 2  + 35% N 2 and treatment B had 20% CO 2  + 55% O 2  + 25% N 2 . During 14 days of storage, counts of each bacterial group and dominant species identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were performed to determine the microbial diversity present. The MAP condition used for treatment A was a more effective gas mixture for increasing the shelf life of fresh goat meat, significantly reducing the total number of viable bacteria and enterobacteria counts. Members of the Enterobacteriaceae family were the most common contaminants, although Hafnia alvei was dominant in treatment A and Serratia proteamaculans in treatment B. Identification studies at the species level showed that different microorganisms develop under different storage conditions, reflecting the importance of gas composition in the modified atmosphere on the bacterial community. This work provides new insights into the microbial changes of goat meat storage under different MAP conditions, which will be beneficial for the meat industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rajkumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05 decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values.

  3. Ground Zero/Fresh Kills: Cataloguing Ruins, Garbage, and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Scarpino

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show how the rise and fall of the Twin Towers can be read in relation to the rise and fall of the Staten Island Fresh Kills landfill, how their destinies were entwined from the start, and how the immediate cultural response to the collapse of the former and the closing of the latter recurred to the form of catalogues of objects, words, and images. From this angle it will be possible to posit the events within a larger, if somewhat unusual, cultural frame encompassing the history of two different yet complementary symbols of New York up to 2001 (the WTC and Fresh Kills. From Don DeLillo’s Underworld (1997 and Falling Man (2007 through Holman, Steve Zeitlin e Joe Dobkin’s Crisis (2001-2002; from Art Spiegelman’s In the Shadows of No Tower (2004 to Artists Respond’s 9-11 (2002; from the New York Times to Bearing Witness to History, the 2003-2006 retrospective of the Smithsonian Museum, relevant collective or individual responses to the 2001 attacks took the form of a catalogue, a list, a vertical or horizontal juxtaposition of data, objects, and memories, evoking a suggestive parallel to the organizing principle of past relics collected in museums and garbage stratified in sanitary landfills.

  4. Detection of Fumonisins in Fresh and Dehydrated Commercial Garlic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonti, Stefano; Mandrioli, Mara; Nipoti, Paola; Pisi, Annamaria; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Prodi, Antonio

    2017-08-16

    An epidemic fungal disease caused by Fusarium proliferatum, responsible for fumonisin production (FB1, FB2, and FB3), has been reported in the main garlic-producing countries in recent years. Fumonisins are a group of structurally related toxic metabolites produced by this pathogen. The aim of this work was to establish an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure, mostly applied to cereals, that is suitable for fumonisin detection in garlic and compare these results to those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and screening of fresh and dehydrated garlic for toxicological risk. The results show good correlation between the two analytical methods. In fresh symptomatic garlic, fumonisin levels were higher in the basal plates than those in the portions with necrotic spots. Among the 56 commercially dehydrated garlic samples screened, three were positive by ELISA test and only one was above the limit of quantitation. The same samples analyzed by HPLC showed the presence of FB1 in trace amounts that was below the limit of quantitation; FB2 and FB3 were absent. The results are reassuring, because no substantial contamination by fumonisins was found in commercial garlic.

  5. Microbiology of organic and conventionally grown fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Daniele F; Batalha, Erika Y; Landgraf, Mariza; Schaffner, Donald W; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2016-12-01

    Fresh produce is a generalized term for a group of farm-produced crops, including fruits and vegetables. Organic agriculture has been on the rise and attracting the attention of the food production sector, since it uses eco-agricultural principles that are ostensibly environmentally-friendly and provides products potentially free from the residues of agrochemicals. Organic farming practices such as the use of animal manure can however increase the risk of contamination by enteric pathogenic microorganisms and may consequently pose health risks. A number of scientific studies conducted in different countries have compared the microbiological quality of produce samples from organic and conventional production and results are contradictory. While some have reported greater microbial counts in fresh produce from organic production, other studies do not. This manuscript provides a brief review of the current knowledge and summarizes data on the occurrence of pathogenic microorganisms in vegetables from organic production. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Ensuring Microbiological Safety of Fresh Eggs by Using Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A. A.; Swailam, H.M.; Aly, W. F.

    2008-01-01

    Egg shell sanitizing practices are necessary to improve microbiological safety of fresh eggs. In this work, fifteen fresh eggs samples of each (Balady, White and Brown eggs) were collected from different local supermarkets to evaluate their microbiological quality. The results indicated that Balady eggs were higher in microbial population in comparison with the two other varieties. Salmonella spp. was detected in 9 (60%) samples of Balady eggs. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy on microbiological quality of Balady eggs during storage at 4±1 degree C for 35 days was studied. The effects of irradiation and storage on total cholesterol, and total carotenoids contents in Balady eggs were also investigated. The results showed that irradiation at 3 kGy reduced total aerobic bacterial counts. Coliform bacteria, E. coli and Salmonella spp. were completely eliminated. Total cholesterol and total carotenoids were decreased in yolk egg as a result of irradiation. Treated Balady eggs with irradiation dose of 3 kGy were efficient and sufficient for ensuring safety, maintain quality and extend shelf-life.

  7. Effects of Eating Fresh Lean Pork on Cardiometabolic Health Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. C. Howe

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High protein meat-based diets are commonly promoted for weight loss, supposedly by increasing satiety and energy expenditure. Pork is a good source of protein however little information on the metabolic effects of pork consumption exists. This pilot study aimed to examine whether regular consumption of fresh lean pork could improve body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in a 6 month parallel intervention trial. 164 overweight adults (mean BMI 32 were randomly assigned to incorporate up to 1 kg pork/week by substituting for other foods or maintain their habitual diet (control. Plasma levels of lipids, glucose and insulin, BMI, waist/hip circumference, blood pressure, heart rate and arterial compliance were measured at baseline and 3 and 6 months. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. A total of 144 volunteers completed and volunteers in the pork group increased their intake 10 fold by substituting pork for mainly beef and chicken. After 3 months, there were significant (p ≤ 0.01 reductions in weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fat mass and abdominal fat in the pork group relative to controls, which persisted for 6 months. There was no change in lean mass, indicating that the reduction in weight was due to loss of fat mass. There were no significant effects on other metabolic parameters. Regular consumption of lean fresh pork may improve body composition.

  8. Greenhouse heating with a fresh water floating collector solar pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbel, A.; Sokolov, M.

    1991-01-01

    The fresh water floating collector solar pond was investigated both experimentally and theoretically in a previous work, and it is now matched, by simulation, with the heat load requirements of a greenhouse. Results of the simulation indicate that such a pond is a potential energy source for greenhouse heating. This is especially true when the material properties are such that solar absorption and storage are enhanced. This paper reports that to demonstrate this point, three sets of collectors constructed with materials of different physical (radiation) properties were tested. One set is constructed of common materials which are readily available and are normally used as covers for greenhouses. The second set made of improved materials which are also available but have a smaller long-wave transmittance. The last set made of ideal material which additionally possesses selective radiation absorption properties. Collectors made of ideal materials make a superior solar pond; thus, manufacturing films with improved properties should become a worthwhile challenge for the agricultural polyethylene-films industry. Preliminary economic studies indicate that even with the low oil (<$20/Bbl) prices which exist between 1986-1989, the fresh water floating collectors solar pond provides an economically attractive alternative to the conventional oil-burning heating system. This is especially true in mild climate areas and when the large initial investment is justified by long-term greenhouse utilization planning

  9. Dimensional measurement of fresh fuel bundle for CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Chang Keun; Cho, Moon Sung; Suk, Ho Chun; Koo, Dae Seo; Jun, Ji Su; Jung, Jong Yeob

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the results of the dimensional measurement of fresh fuel bundles for the CANDU reactor in order to estimate the integrity of fuel bundle in two-phase flow in the CANDU-6 fuel channel. The dimensional measurements of fuel bundles are performed by using the 'CANDU Fuel In-Bay Inspection and Dimensional Measurement System', which was developed by this project. The dimensional measurements are done from February 2004 to March 2004 in the CANDU fuel storage of KNFC for the 36 fresh fuel bundles, which are produced by KNFC and are waiting for the delivery to the Wolsong-3 plant. The detail items of dimensional measurements are included fuel rod and bearing pad profiles of the outer ring in fuel bundle, diameter of fuel bundle, bowing of fuel bundle, fuel rod length, and surface profile of end plate profile. The measurement data will be compared with those of the post-irradiated bundles cooled in Wolsong-3 NPP spent fuel pool by using the same bundles and In-Bay Measurement System. So, this analysis of data will be applied for the evaluation of fuel bundle integrity in two-phase flow of the CANDU-6 fuel channel

  10. Determination of Phytoestrogen Content in Fresh-Cut Legume Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Hloucalová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine phytoestrogen content in fresh-cut legume forage. This issue has been much discussed in recent years in connection with the health and safety of feedstuffs and thus livestock health. The experiments were carried out on two experimental plots at Troubsko and Vatín, Czech Republic during June and July in 2015. Samples were collected of the four forage legume species perennial red clover (variety “Amos”, alfalfa (variety “Holyně”, and annuals Persian clover and Alexandrian clover. Forage was sampled twice at regular three to four day intervals leading up to harvest and a third time on the day of harvest. Fresh and wilted material was analyzed using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Higher levels ( p < 0.05 of isoflavones biochanin A (3.697 mg·g −1 of dry weight and formononetin (4.315 mg·g −1 of dry weight were found in red clover than in other species. The highest isoflavone content was detected in red clover, reaching 1.001% of dry matter ( p < 0.05, representing a risk for occurrence of reproduction problems and inhibited secretion of animal estrogen. The phytoestrogen content was particularly increased in wilted forage. Significant isoflavone reduction was observed over three to four day intervals leading up to harvest.

  11. The bioconcentration of 131I in fresh water fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Cheung, T.; Young, E.C.M.; Luo, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of the radionuclide concentration process in fresh water fish have been studied. The experimental data for the tilapias were fitted using a simple compartment model to get characteristics parameters such as concentration factors, elimination rate constants, and initial concentration rates, which are 3.08 Bq kg -1 /Bq L -1 , 0.00573 h -1 , and 12.42 Bq kg -1 h -1 , respectively. The relative concentrations of 131 I in different parts, i.e., head, gills, flesh, bone and internal organs, of the tilapias are also determined, which are found to be 10.8, 15.4, 26.1, 11.0, and 37.0%, respectively. The effects of different factors on the transfer of radionuclides in fresh water fishes are also discussed. Experiments on the tilapias and the common carp show that the variation of concentration factors for different species may be significant even for the same radionuclide and the same ecological system. On the other hand, the variation in the concentration factors for the flesh of the tilapias is not significant for a certain range of 131 I concentrations in the water. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Gamma ray-irradiation in fresh allo-joint transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi

    1995-01-01

    In the first of a series of experiments in rat designed to assess the efficacy of gamma ray irradiation in fresh allo-joint transplantation, it was found that the optimal gamma ray dosage was 4 Gy. At this dosage level, the irradiation rays suppressed the viability of marrow cells which had the highest antigenicity, with no injury to the bone or articular cartilage. In a second experiment, a fresh homologous knee joint was irradiated at 4 Gy and then transplanted while administering the donor's splenic cell suspension (for specific immunosuppression) and the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine (5 mg/kg) to the recipient rat. All the rats that received a pre-irradiated knee joint graft survived until sacrificed for evaluation without showing any sign of host rejection. In these rats, bone fusion had occurred between the host bone and the graft by the 8th postoperative week. Degeneration of the articular cartilage was similar between the rats that had received a pre-irradiated graft and those that had not. These findings indicated that 4 Gy gamma ray irradiation to a graft before transplantation provided an effective means of immunosuppression. (author)

  13. Keeping education fresh-not just in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnert, Beatrix

    2017-11-15

    Innovative practice from around the globe, addressing a range of recent educational themes and trends, was published in the FEMS Microbiology Letters virtual Thematic Issue 'Keeping Education Fresh' in October 2017. Its thought-provoking content is reviewed here to more directly facilitate reflections and discussions in the professional community. The focus is on best practice approaches when enhancing student engagement, how to adjust those to the diversity of learners, learning situations and infrastructures, and to a broad range of subjects. The need for authentic learning and to move away from didactic teaching is emphasized. The 'students as researchers' theme is featured e.g. in context of service learning. Creative approaches are presented such as using performing arts, popular culture and gamification. The development of interdisciplinary and intercultural competences, and the exploration of socioscientific themes and philosophical issues are considered. Revisions of curricula and programmes, reflective of educational advancements and sector drivers, are discussed from undergraduate to postgraduate and professional specialist level also in light of problem-based learning, interactive distance and on-campus learning, and even the legacy of Massive Open Online Courses. Such changes always require resources and skills, and carry risks. Yet, innovation is a risk worth taking to keep education fresh. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Shallow and deep fresh impact craters in Hesperia Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.; Hayashi, Joan N.

    1993-01-01

    The depths of 109 impact craters about 2-16 km in diameter, located on the ridged plains materials of Hesperia Planum, Mars, have been measured from their shadow lengths using digital Viking Orbiter images (orbit numbers 417S-419S) and the PICS computer software. On the basis of their pristine morphology (very fresh lobate ejecta blankets, well preserved rim crests, and lack of superposed impact craters), 57 of these craters have been selected for detailed analysis of their spatial distribution and geometry. We find that south of 30 deg S, craters less than 6.0 km in diameter are markedly shallower than similar-sized craters equatorward of this latitude. No comparable relationship is observed for morphologically fresh craters greater than 6.0 km diameter. We also find that two populations exist for older craters less than 6.0 km diameter. When craters that lack ejecta blankets are grouped on the basis of depth/diameter ratio, the deeper craters also typically lie equatorward of 30 S. We interpret the spatial variation in crater depth/diameter ratios as most likely due to a poleward increase in volatiles within the top 400 m of the surface at the times these craters were formed.

  15. Periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluck, E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF) [de

  16. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly.

  17. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  18. Hereditary periodic fever syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, MF; Frenkel, J

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are defined by recurrent attacks of generalised inflammation for which no infectious or auto-immune cause can be identified. For most of these disorders, the molecular basis has recently been elucidated. This has opened the prospect of novel therapeutic

  19. Almost periodic Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, J.; Lima, R.

    1984-01-01

    These lectures are devoted to recent developments in the theory of almost-periodic Schroedinger Operators. We specially describe the algebraic point of view, with applications to gap-labelling theorems. Particular models are also presented which exhibit various spectral properties. (orig.)

  20. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed

  1. Periodic Table of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  2. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  3. Prediction of egg freshness during storage using electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimenu, Samuel M; Kim, J Y; Kim, B S

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of a fast gas chromatography (GC) e-nose for freshness discrimination and for prediction of storage time as well as sensory and internal quality changes during storage of hen eggs. All samples were obtained from the same egg production farm and stored at 20 °C for 20 d. Egg sampling was conducted every 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 d. During each sampling time, 4 egg cartons (each containing 10 eggs) were randomly selected: one carton for Haugh units, one carton for sensory evaluation and 2 cartons for the e-nose experiment. The e-nose study included 2 independent test sets; calibration (35 samples) and validation (28 samples). Every sampling time, 5 replicates were prepared from one egg carton for calibration samples and 4 replicates were prepared from the remaining egg carton for validation samples. Sensors (peaks) were selected prior to multivariate chemometric analysis; qualitative sensors for principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant factor analysis (DFA) and quantitative sensors for partial least square (PLS) modeling. PCA and DFA confirmed the difference in volatile profiles of egg samples from 7 different storage times accounting for a total variance of 95.7% and 93.71%, respectively. Models for predicting storage time, Haugh units, odor score, and overall acceptability score from e-nose data were developed using calibration samples by PLS regression. The results showed that these quality indices were well predicted from the e- nose signals, with correlation coefficients of R2 = 0.9441, R2 = 0.9511, R2 = 0.9725, and R2 = 0.9530 and with training errors of 0.887, 1.24, 0.626, and 0.629, respectively. As a result of ANOVA, most of the PLS model results were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the corresponding reference values. These results proved that the fast GC electronic nose has the potential to assess egg freshness and feasibility to predict multiple egg freshness indices

  4. Assessing climate change impacts on fresh water resources of the Athabasca River Basin, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Narayan Kumar; Du, Xinzhong; Wang, Junye

    2017-12-01

    Proper management of blue and green water resources is important for the sustainability of ecosystems and for the socio-economic development of river basins such as the Athabasca River Basin (ARB) in Canada. For this reason, quantifying climate change impacts on these water resources at a finer temporal and spatial scale is often necessary. In this study, we used a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to assess climate change impacts on fresh water resources, focusing explicitly on the impacts to both blue and green water. We used future climate data generated by the Canadian Center for Climate Modelling and Analysis Regional Climate Model (CanRCM4) with a spatial resolution of 0.22°×0.22° (~25km) for two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). Results projected the climate of the ARB to be wetter by 21-34% and warmer by 2-5.4°C on an annual time scale. Consequently, the annual average blue and green water flow was projected to increase by 16-54% and 11-34%, respectively, depending on the region, future period, and emission scenario. Furthermore, the annual average green water storage at the boreal region was expected to increase by 30%, while the storage was projected to remain fairly stable or decrease in other regions, especially during the summer season. On average, the fresh water resources in the ARB are likely to increase in the future. However, evidence of temporal and spatial heterogeneity could pose many future challenges to water resource planners and managers. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stability of implants placed in fresh sockets versus healed alveolar sites: Early findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Sergio Alexandre; da Silva Neto, Ulisses Tavares; Rossetti, Paulo Henrique Orlato; Watinaga, Sidney Eiji; Giro, Gabriela; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2016-05-01

    The present study measured implant stability quotient (ISQ) values at three different time points after surgical procedures to compare whether the stability values differed between implants placed in fresh extraction sockets versus healed alveolar sites. To measure implant stability, resonance frequency analysis (RFA) was performed in 77 patients (53 women, 24 men) with a total of 120 dental implants. These implants were divided into two groups: Group 1 included 60 implants in healed alveolar sites (22 in the maxilla, 38 in the mandible), and Group 2 included 60 implants in fresh sockets (41 in the maxilla, 19 in the mandible). Implant stability was measured immediately at implant placement (baseline), 90, and 150 days later. Statistical analysis was made using a multivariate regression linear model at implant level (α = 0.05). Overall, the means and standard deviations of the ISQ values were 62.7 ± 7.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 39-88) at baseline, 70.0 ± 6.22 (95% CI, 46-88) at 90 days, and 73.4 ± 5.84 (95% CI, 58-88) at 150 days. In Group 1, the ISQs ranged between 64.3 ± 6.20 and 75.0 ± 5.69, while in Group 2, presented lower values that ranged between 61.2 ± 8.09 and 71.9 ± 5.99 (P = 0.002). Anatomic location and times periods were the only identified variables with an influence on ISQ values at implant level (P sockets and in healed sites exhibited similar evolutions in ISQ values and thus osseointegration; however, the implants in the healed alveolar sites exhibited superior values at all time points. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Gamma radiation enhances the bioactivity of fresh parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss Var. Neapolitanum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cătunescu, Giorgiana M.; Rotar, Ioan; Vidican, Roxana; Bunghez, Florina; Rotar, Ancuța M.

    2017-01-01

    Research showed the effects of drying, freezing, and irradiation on the bioactivity of parsley, but overlooked comparing them. In the present study, the effect of minimal processing paired with gamma irradiation (0.7–2.7 kGy) was evaluated in respect to the content of ascorbic acid, polyphenols, antiradical capacity and antibacterial activity of parsley methanolic extracts. The results were compared with natural drying (20–22 °C) and rapid freezing (−20 °C). Absorbed doses of 0.7–1.4 kGy can be recommended to no treatment from a nutritional point of view because the content of vitamin C was better preserved and a significant increase of polyphenols content was observed when compared with control samples. Drying can be recommended only in terms of vitamin C and polyphenols content per consumed serving, as it doubles the content of vitamin C and triples polyphenols compared to the same mass of fresh product. Plant extracts with optimal antioxidant and antimicrobial can be obtained from fresh herbs stored at refrigeration temperature as little as possible. Extracts from dried or frozen herbs preserved for long periods of time are not recommended. An absorbed dose of 2.7 kGy may be applied to parsley in order to increase its antibacterial against Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli and S. Typhimurium. - Highlights: • An absorbed dose of 2.7 kGy decreased the content of vitamin C by 30%. • Doses below 2.0 kGy increased the content of total polyphenols. • Freezing and drying affected more harshly the bioactivity of parsley than ionizing. • Resistance to parsley extracts was: E. coli > S. aureus > B. cereus > S. Typhimurium. • Irradiation increased the susceptibility of Gram-negatives to parsley.

  7. Drop testing of the Westinghouse fresh nuclear fuel package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Sanders, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    The Westinghouse Columbia Fuel Fabrication Facility has decided to develop and certify a new fresh fuel package design (type A, fissile) that has the capability to transport more highly enriched fuel than was previously possible. A prototype package was tested in support of the Safety Analysis Report of the Packaging (SARP). This paper provides detailed information on the tests and test results. A first prototype test was carried out at the STF, and the design did not give the safety margin that Westinghouse wanted for their containers. The data from the test were used to redesign the connection between the clamping frame and the pressure pad, and the tests were reinitiated. Three packages were then tested at the STF. All packages met the acceptance criteria and acceleration information was obtained that provided an indication of the behavior of the cradle and strongback which holds the fuel assemblies and nuclear poison in place. (J.P.N.)

  8. Low hygroscopicity of ambient fresh carbonaceous aerosols from pyrotechnics smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, Christian M.; Gomez, Samantha L.; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Aiken, Allison C.

    2018-04-01

    Pyrotechnics (fireworks) displays are common for many cultures worldwide, with Independence Day celebrations occurring annually on July 4th as the most notable in the U.S. Given an episodic nature, fireworks aerosol properties are poorly characterized. Here we report observations of optical properties of fresh smoke emissions from Independence Day fireworks smoke sampled at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico U.S.A. on 4-5 July 2016. Aerosol optical properties were measured with a photoacoustic extinctiometer (PAX, DMT, Inc., Model 870 nm) at low RH laboratory testing with ground-level sparklers showed that pyrotechnics smoke can generate a strong hygroscopic response, however. As confirmed with chemical analysis, the chemistry of the fireworks was key to defining the hygroscopic response. Sparkler smoke was dominated by salt species such as hygroscopic potassium chloride while it lacked the black powder explosives in aerial fireworks that contribute organic and elemental carbon to its non-hygroscopic smoke.

  9. Relating Fresh Concrete Viscosity Measurements from Different Rheometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Chiara F; Martys, Nicos S

    2003-01-01

    Concrete rheological properties need to be properly measured and predicted in order to characterize the workability of fresh concrete, including special concretes such as self-consolidating concrete (SCC). It was shown by a round-robin test held in 2000 [1,2] that different rheometer designs gave different values of viscosity for the same concrete. While empirical correlation between different rheometers was possible, for a procedure that is supposed to "scientifically" improve on the empirical slump tests, this situation is unsatisfactory. To remedy this situation, a new interpretation of the data was developed. In this paper, it is shown that all instruments tested could be directly and quantitatively compared in terms of relative plastic viscosity instead of the plastic viscosity alone. This should eventually allow the measurements from various rheometer designs to be directly calibrated against known standards of plastic viscosity, putting concrete rheometry and concrete workability on a sounder materials science basis.

  10. Chemical dispersibility testing of fresh and weathered oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandvik, P.J.; Daling, P.S.; Aareskjold, K.

    1991-05-01

    This activity in the DIspersants on Weathered Oils-project (DIWO) is a continuation and an extended study of the dispersibility study described in DIWO report No. 3. The main objective has been to study the chemical dispersibility of fresh and weathered oils produced or transported in Norwegian waters. Other important aims of this study have been: To correlate the effectiveness results obtained by three different laboratory methods; to determine the relationship between the dispersant effectiveness and the change in the oils' physico-chemical properties due to weathering (topping, photo-oxidation and w/o-emulsification). This study has been performed with 8 different oil types and 12 different weathering degrees of each oil type. The work performed clearly demonstrates that the oil type and especially the weathering properties are essential for the performance of dispersants at sea. 41 figs., 5 tabs., 16 refs

  11. Research of radiation technology in keeping pet feed fresh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Qin; Zhang Tongcheng; Liu Qingfang; Wang Chunlei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To find a effective, simple, quick method of radiation keeping fresh technology. Method: To detect the number of bacterium colony and pathogen and D 10 in Raschide dog chews firstly, then calculate them with the formulate of S D = D 10 log N 0 /SAL. Result: The total number of bacterium colony and pathogen in Raschide dog chews, a kind of pet feed, were detected. The mean total number of colony forming units was 3980 every gram and G + bacilli predominant, cocci less. The D 10 value of G + bacilli was 1.51 KGy. Conclusion: According to the certain formula method, the product SAL can be kept at 10 -6 level with 14.50 KGy radiation dose

  12. Technology Optimization of Lysozyme's Fresh Maintaining Effect on Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun-Hong, Liu; Kun-Yu, Wang

    2016-10-03

    Lysozyme is a kind of alkaline globin, which functions well in the degradation of the cell wall of microbe. Currently, lysozyme is widely used in various fields, such as medicine, fruit, and vegetable industry, dairy industry, and so on. Therefore, the exploitation and utilization of lysozyme is of significant economic benefit. Taking apple as material, weight loss ratio and reducing sugar content as objectives, this paper studied the fresh-keeping effect of lysozyme. Influential factors, lysozyme concentration, soaking time, modified temperature, and reaction time were discussed in detail. The results showed that reducing sugar content was 2.043% and the weight loss ratio was the minimum in the presence of soaking time of 2 min, modified temperature of 65 °C, reaction time of 4 d, and lysozyme concentration of 0.5 g/L. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. A new megastigmane from fresh roots of Rehmannia glutinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisheng Feng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new megastigmane, rehmamegastigmane (1, together with eighteen known compounds lariciresinol (2, lariciresinol-4′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (3, hierochin D (4, yemuoside YM1 (5, darendoside B (6, decaffeoylacteoside (7, jionoside B1 (8, catalpol (9, ajugol (10, 6-O-vanilloylajugol (11, 6-O-E-feruloylajugol (12, rehmapicroside (13, rehmapicrogenin (14, 3-methoxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexane-1-enecarboxylic acid (15, vanillic acid (16, hydroferulic acid (17, threo-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1,2,3-propanetriol (18, p-hydroxyphenylethyl alcohol (19 was isolated from the fresh roots of Rehmannia glutinosa. Compounds 2–6 and 16–18 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  14. Freshly squeezed: anaphylaxis caused by drone larvae juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoevesandt, J; Trautmann, A

    2017-11-30

    Drone larvae are mostly considered a by-product of beekeeping, but have recently been advo-cated as a high-protein source of food. There are as yet no data concerning their allergenic po-tential. We report on a 29-year old bee keeper who experienced an anaphylactic reaction following the consumption of a freshly prepared beverage from raw drone larvae. Larvae-specific sensitization was confirmed by prick-to-prick and basophil activation testing. Bee stings and classical bee products including honey and royal jelly were tolerated. This is the hitherto first report on IgE-mediated allergy to drone larvae. We suggest that a certain awareness towards the allergenicity of bee larvae is required.

  15. Successful selling of packed fresh fruit and vegetable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Presová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the marketability of packaged fruit and vegetables, as a new trend of satisfying consumer needs, in connection with selling-culture of stall selling and self-stores sales. It emphasize fact that food have to be wrapped into the quality, health packages, under the conditions of the Act. 477/2001 Coll.Specific data for the analytical part of this paper was provided by Hortim International Ltd. This company has operate on the Czech market since 1995. Analysis of the economic results confirmes the legitimacy of the sale of packaged fresh fruits and vegetables, but there will be neccesary longer lasting promotion. This fact also confirmed the research of consumer demand, that was made by authors. Determinant for the success sales are these factors: consumer confidence that the packaged products of fruit and vegetables are high quality.

  16. Development of process control for the irradiation of fresh mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, E G; Lanuza, L G; Maningas, A L; Solomon, H M; Madera, G G; Pares, F A [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2001-03-01

    Dose distribution studies in mangoes contained in boxes used in commercial trade for export, were done using the multipurpose irradiation facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The mangoes were irradiated at a target dose of 100 Gy, the dose required for quarantine treatment of fresh mangoes against fruitflies. Positions of minimum dose and maximum dose were identified and dose uniformity ratio was determined. Fricke and Gammachrome YR dosimeters were used for the dose distribution studies. The performance of STERIN threshold indicators was evaluated by irradiating them at different doses. STERIN 125 indicators were also attached to the surface of the mango boxes during the dose distribution studies. STERIN indicators can be useful to differentiate between irradiated and unirradiated products. (author)

  17. Development of process control for the irradiation of fresh mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalfin, E.G.; Lanuza, L.G.; Maningas, A.L.; Solomon, H.M.; Madera, G.G.; Pares, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    Dose distribution studies in mangoes contained in boxes used in commercial trade for export, were done using the multipurpose irradiation facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. The mangoes were irradiated at a target dose of 100 Gy, the dose required for quarantine treatment of fresh mangoes against fruitflies. Positions of minimum dose and maximum dose were identified and dose uniformity ratio was determined. Fricke and Gammachrome YR dosimeters were used for the dose distribution studies. The performance of STERIN threshold indicators was evaluated by irradiating them at different doses. STERIN 125 indicators were also attached to the surface of the mango boxes during the dose distribution studies. STERIN indicators can be useful to differentiate between irradiated and unirradiated products. (author)

  18. Update on Fresh Fuel Characterization of U-Mo Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkes, D.E.; Wachs, D.M.; Keiser, D.D.; Okuniewski, M.A.; Jue, J.F.; Rice, F.J.; Prabhakaran, R.

    2009-01-01

    The need to provide more accurate property information on U-Mo fuel alloys to operators, modellers, researchers, fabricators, and government increases as success of the GTRI Reactor Convert program continues. This presentation provides an update on fresh fuel characterization activities that have occurred at the INL since the RERTR 2008 conference in Washington, D.C. The update is particularly focused on properties recently obtained and on the development progress of new measurement techniques. Furthermore, areas where useful and necessary information is still lacking is discussed. The update deals with mechanical, physical, and microstructural properties for both integrated and separate effects. Appropriate discussion of fabrication characteristics, impurities, thermodynamic response, and effects on the topic areas are provided, along with a background on the characterization techniques used and developed to obtain the information. Efforts to measure similar characteristics on irradiated fuel plates are discussed.

  19. Dispersant effectiveness in the field on fresh oils and emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunel, T.; Davies, L.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed data set on the effectiveness of dispersants on fresh oils and emulsions, was presented. The data set could be used to calibrate laboratory dispersant tests and dispersion models so that oil spill response teams would have accurate information to make decisions regarding remediation processes. AEA Technology developed steady state continuous release experiments to provide a data set with quantitative measures of dispersant effectiveness in the field. The Sea Empress incident was closely monitored in order to compare the quantification obtained through field trials. It was noted that the prediction of the percentage of oil dispersed chemically is not the only indication of whether or not to use a dispersant. The important determinant to consider should be the extent to which the natural dispersion process would be enhanced by dispersant application. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 18 figs

  20. Development of fresh fuel packaging for ATR demonstration reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurakami, J.; Kurita, I.

    1993-01-01

    Related to development of the demonstration advanced thermal reactor, it is necessary and important to develop transport packaging which is used for transporting fresh fuel assemblies. Therefore, the packaging is now being developed in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Currently, PNC is fabricating two prototype packagings based on the final design, and land cruising and vibration tests, handling performance tests and prototype packaging tests will be executed with prototype packagings in order to experimentally confirm the soundness of packaging and its contents and the propriety of design technique. This paper describes the summary of general specifications and structures of this packaging and the summary of preliminary safety analysis of package. (J.P.N.)

  1. On-site detection of packaged squid freshness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Noor Azizah; Heng, Lee Yook; Salam, Faridah; Hanifah, Sharina Abu

    2018-04-01

    The development of indicator label for detection of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) is described. Dye extract from edible plants containing anthocyanins was immobilized onto iota-carrageenan as polymer matrix. TVB-N detection worked based on pH increase as the basic deterioration volatile amines generated in the package headspace. Results showed that the indicator label has changed color from blue to green after 12 hours of storage at ambient conditions. The TVB-N value was 38.9648 mg /100 g which is exceeded of acceptability level for seafood products. The pH value of squid flesh has also increased during storage. The colour values of L * and a * negative increases while b* negative decrease with increasing storage time. The indicator label is potentially used as freshness indicator for squid at ambient conditions.

  2. Viability Tests for Fresh and Stored Haemopoietic Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fliedner, T. M. [Abteilung fuer klinische Physiologie, Zentrum fuer Klinische Grundlagenforschung, Universitaet Ulm, Ulm, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1969-07-15

    This paper reviews current methods of measurement of the viability of fresh and stored haemopoietic cells. The life expectancy of granulocytes and monocytes after transfusion can be studied by in-vitro labelling with {sup 3}H-DFP and subsequent autoradiography. The evaluation of data in about 30 patients with various haemopoietic conditions indicates a wide variation of the disappearance half-time of granulocytes. {sup 3}H-cytidine labels essentially all lymphocytes in vitro, predominantly in their RNA. Transfusion of {sup 3}H-cytidine-labelled lymphocytes enables one to measure the lower limit of their life-expectancy as well as their rate of RNA metabolism. If bone-marrow cells are labelled in vitro with {sup 3}H-thymidine and subsequently transfused, their capability to circulate, to reach the haemopoietic tissue of the host, to proliferate and to mature can be demonstrated. However, the repopulating capacity of frozen and thawed marrow is independent of the ability of {sup 3}H-TDR-labelled marrow cells to circulate, proliferate and mature. It is assumed that bone-marrow cells capable of repopulating depleted haemopoietic tissue are resting under steady-state conditions and can be labelled by means of {sup 3}H-TDR only using special conditions. Thus the only viability tests for fresh and stored bone-marrow cells at present appear to be bioassay methods at the animal experimental level. The results indicate the need for the development of reliable viability tests for stem cells applicable in both experimental and clinical conditions. (author)

  3. Development of analytical methods for iodine speciation in fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaku, Yuichi; Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2007-01-01

    Analytical methods for physicochemical speciation of iodine in fresh water samples were developed to elucidate its behavior in the environment. The methods combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SEC) or capillary electrophoresis (CE). Freshwater samples were collected from Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake. After filtration through a 0.45 μm pore size membrane filter, iodine in the water samples was pre-concentrated with an ultra-filtration filter which had a cut-off size of 10 kDa. The fraction with molecular size over 10 kDa was concentrated to 100 times in the original water, and then introduced into the SEC-ICP-MS. Molecular size chromatograms of all river and lake water samples showed two peaks for iodine concentrations: 40 kDa and 20 kDa. The method for separately determining two valence states of inorganic iodine, I - and IO 3 - , was also developed using the CE-ICP-MS system and it was successfully applied to the fresh water samples. Analysis results of surface water samples in Lake Towada and rivers surrounding the lake indicated that the chemical form of inorganic iodine in all samples was IO 3 - . Additional lake water samples were collected from Lake O-ike-higashi in the Juni-ko area at Shirakami-Sanchi, which is a UNESCO natural world heritage. The lake has a strong thermocline during all seasons; its bottom layer is in a highly reductive state. Depth profiles of I - and IO 3 - clearly showed that I - was not detected in the surface layer, but it was predominant in the bottom layer, and vice versa for IO 3 - . As this separation method is rapid and sensitive, it will be widely used in the future. (author)

  4. Pathogen detection, testing, and control in fresh broccoli sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahey Jed W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent increased interest in consuming green vegetable sprouts has been tempered by the fact that fresh sprouts can in some cases be vehicles for food-borne illnesses. They must be grown according to proper conditions of sanitation and handled as a food product rather than as an agricultural commodity. When sprouts are grown in accordance with the criteria proposed from within the sprout industry, developed by regulatory agencies, and adhered to by many sprouters, green sprouts can be produced with very low risk. Contamination may occur when these guidelines are not followed. Methods A one year program of microbial hold-and-release testing, conducted in concert with strict seed and facility cleaning procedures by 13 U.S. broccoli sprout growers was evaluated. Microbial contamination tests were performed on 6839 drums of sprouts, equivalent to about 5 million consumer packages of fresh green sprouts. Results Only 24 (0.75% of the 3191 sprout samples gave an initial positive test for Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella spp., and when re-tested, 3 drums again tested positive. Composite testing (e.g., pooling up to 7 drums for pathogen testing was equally sensitive to single drum testing. Conclusion By using a "test-and-re-test" protocol, growers were able to minimize crop destruction. By pooling drums for testing, they were also able to reduce testing costs which now represent a substantial portion of the costs associated with sprout growing. The test-and-hold scheme described herein allowed those few batches of contaminated sprouts to be found prior to packaging and shipping. These events were isolated, and only safe sprouts entered the food supply.

  5. Traceability and Demand Sensitiveness: Evidences from Italian Fresh Potatoes Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Caracciolo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available When a traceability system takes place, either when mandatory or voluntary, many questions arise that need to be addressed and answered. One of the firsts concerns whether it introduces new costs with no gain in efficiency or, on the contrary, the system efficiency increases lowering costs and, as a consequence, market price of the good in hand. Among others, another issue that only rarely is addressed regards the effect of a price change on the final market. The objective of this paper was to simulate the effect on fresh Italian vegetables market of prices change due to a newer traceability procedure, focusing on early potato. Reasons why early potato was the main object of our study will be explained in detail later in the paper. Moreover, this study concerns a demand system estimation that has, as main goal, the measurement of own and cross price elasticities as well as expenditure elasticities. Such estimations are not strictly related with traceability because they measure any change in quantity demanded due to price changes due to any market perturbation. However, since early potato is experiencing a peculiar market and chain change in Italy, our simulation is meant to reason in terms of a “what if” approach, formally simulating the effect of any change in price due to an hypothesis of traceability system involved. In order to estimate a demand system, real household consumption data (3,000 observations of a statistically representative sample of the Italian population of households was taken into account. Relevant measures of market variables were estimated by means of a Linear Almost Ideal Demand System implementing a large set of fresh vegetables: potato split in early and late, cabbage, salad, mushrooms, fruits vegetables, roots, asparagus, onion, tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, beans, zucchinis and others.

  6. Wettability contrasts between fresh and weathered diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Stephanie S; O'Carroll, Denis M; Gerhard, Jason I

    2013-01-01

    The remediation of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contaminated sites is impeded due to subsurface complexities, including wettability. Wettability quantifies which of two immiscible fluids preferentially coats a solid. At most contaminated sites water-wetting conditions are typically assumed despite mounting evidence that this is not always the case. In this study, wettability was examined for two NAPL samples of contrasting origin: a fresh and a field sample. Wettability was assessed through (i) cyclical, 'cumulative elapsed contact time' intrinsic contact angle measurements, (ii) interface jar tests, and (iii) cyclical, pseudo-static capillary pressure-saturation curves. The work as a whole demonstrated that while the fresh diesel sample was consistently water-wet, the field diesel sample exhibited repeatable cycles of wettability reversal between water drainage and imbibition. And while wettability hysteresis increased with contact time for the field diesel, the occurrence of wettability reversal at each change of saturation direction was independent of contact time. Such behavior is not easily assessed by standard wettability indices. Moreover, it contrasts with the permanent wettability alteration observed for complex organics (e.g., coal tar) observed in most studies. It is hypothesized that the cyclical wettability reversal is related to cyclical changes in intermediate pore wettability due to sorption of surface active compounds (causing NAPL-wetting imbibition) and rupturing of the soil grain water film (causing water-wet drainage). The wettability differences between the two NAPLs may be due to additives (i.e., a surfactant) in the original formulation and/or byproducts from subsurface weathering. These results support better characterization of site-specific wettability, improved model development and more realistic site conceptual models for improved remediation efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself

  8. Prevention of ligneous conjunctivitis by topical and subconjunctival fresh frozen plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2004-08-01

    To present a case of ligneous conjunctivitis where the recurrence of membranous conjunctivitis was prevented by subconjunctival and topical instillation of fresh frozen plasma. Interventional case report. A case of ligneous conjunctivitis with multiple recurrences since the age of 3 years developed recurrent membranous conjunctivitis after transconjunctival levator recession. Blood plasminogen activity was determined. The membrane was excised, and the membrane reappeared 4 days later. The patient was treated with excision of the membrane and subconjunctival injection of fresh frozen plasma and topical fresh frozen plasma. Plasminogen activity of the fresh frozen plasma was normal. Plasminogen blood functional activity was 52% (normal is 80%-120%). The patient had complete remission with no recurrences of membranous conjunctivitis after topical and subconjunctival fresh frozen plasma. Prophylactic use of topical and subconjunctival fresh frozen plasma may help in the prevention of membranes in susceptible patients with plasminogen deficiency.

  9. Application of Cold Chain Logistics Safety Reliability in Fresh Food Distribution Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Zou Yifeng; Xie Ruhe

    2013-01-01

    In view of the nature of fresh food’s continuous decrease of safety during distribution process, this study applied safety reliability of food cold chain logistics to establish fresh food distribution routing optimization model with time windows, and solved the model using MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) with case analysis. Studies have shown that the mentioned model and algorithm can better solve the problem of fresh food distribution routing optimization with time windows.

  10. Hiding in Fresh Fruits and Vegetables: Opportunistic Pathogens May Cross Geographical Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kharousi, Zahra S.; Guizani, Nejib; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M.; Al-Bulushi, Ismail M.; Shaharoona, Baby

    2016-01-01

    Different microbial groups of the microbiome of fresh produce can have diverse effects on human health. This study was aimed at identifying some microbial communities of fresh produce by analyzing 105 samples of imported fresh fruits and vegetables originated from different countries in the world including local samples (Oman) for aerobic plate count and the counts of Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus. The isolated bacteria were identified by molecular (PCR) and bioc...

  11. Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Mona Ali; Siddig, Emmanuel Edwar; Elaagip, Arwa Hassan; Edris, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed; Nasr, Awad Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background Fresh vegetables are considered as vital nutrients of a healthy diet as they supply the body with essential supplements. The consumption of raw vegetables is the main way for transmission of intestinal parasitic organisms. This study was aimed at detecting the parasitic contamination in fresh vegetables sold in two central open-aired markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 260 fresh vegetable samples and 50 water samples used ...

  12. Consumer’s attitude and perception of fresh seafood products: cognitive effects on behaviour buying

    OpenAIRE

    Gouin, Stéphane; Mesnildrey, Lucile; Lesueur, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Since 2004, the French fishery field has had to cope with a levelling off of consumption of fresh seafood products whereas the consumption of processed seafood products is increasing. Nowadays, consumers prefer easier products: fresh deli products, easy to cook or ready to consume. Therefore, fresh seafood products do not seem to fulfil current consumer demand intrinsically (aspect, taste) and extrinsically (cooking methods, use, origin, brand and price). In order to understand the evolution ...

  13. Effect of minimal processing on physiology and quality of fresh-cut potatoes, a review

    OpenAIRE

    Rocculi, Pietro; Romani, Santina; Gomez, Federico; Dalla Rosa, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Fresh-cut fruit and vegetable are minimally processed products that have to maintain their quality (appearance, texture, flavour and nutritive value) similar to those of the fresh product. The fundamental principle underlying the quality of these commodities is that they are metabolic active tissues and, as a consequence, show physiological response to preparation procedures as well as to the environment created in the package in which they are enclosed. Minimal processing for fresh-cut potat...

  14. Potential use of ionizing radiation as quarantine treatment for fresh fruits, vegetables and flowers in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Ricardo

    1990-01-01

    It is presented a brief description of the investigations Technology. Considering the potentiality of the country, to export non traditional and exotic fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, and ornamental fresh cut flowers, studies ares initiated to use ionizing radiation as quarantine treatments. This paper reports the initial data obtained with two species of fruit fly of high incidence in the fruit producer zones of Ecuador, whose stable and permanent microclimates allow to produce a sort of fruits along all year

  15. Fresh Kids: the efficacy of a Health Promoting Schools approach to increasing consumption of fruit and water in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, S; Peterken, R; Burns, C

    2007-09-01

    The Fresh Kids programme utilized the Health Promoting Schools (HPSs) framework to design a whole-of-school, multifaceted intervention targeting specific behaviours to promote healthy eating and reduce the risk factors associated with childhood obesity. The aim of the programme was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HPS framework to increase fruit and water consumption among primary school-aged children over a 2-year period. The study design was an interrupted time series. Four primary schools in the inner west of Melbourne, Australia, participated in the programme intervention. Baseline data were collected using a lunch box audit to assess the frequency of children with fresh fruit, water and sweet drinks, either brought from home or selected from canteen lunch orders. The lunch box audit was repeated periodically for up to 2 years following programme implementation to assess the sustainability of dietary changes. Across all participating schools, significant increases between 25 and 50% were observed in the proportion of children bringing fresh fruit. Similarly, all schools recorded increases between 15 and 60% in the proportion of students bringing filled water bottles to school and reductions between 8 and 38% in the proportion of children bringing sweet drinks. These significant changes in dietary patterns were sustained for up to 2 years following programme implementation. Targeting key nutrition behaviours and using the HPS framework is an effective and simple approach which could be readily implemented in similar childhood settings. Effective strategies include facilitating organizational change within the school; integrating curriculum activities; formalizing school policy and establishing project partnerships with local community nutrition and dietetic services.

  16. Effect of calcium chloride and calcium lactate on quality and shelf-life of fresh-cut guava slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raheem, M.I.U.; Huma, N.; Anjum, F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Present study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of chemical treatments at low temperature on the quality of fresh-cut guava slices during 2011-12. Uniform sized guava slices were made free from seeds and treated with calcium chloride and calcium lactate with concentration 0.9%, 1.8%, 2.7% or 3.6%. After packing in plastic boxes, all treated samples were stored at 5 degree C + 2 degree C in a refrigerator for 24 days with 6 day interval between different removals. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis showed decrease in firmness (111.67-12.67gf) and increase in browning (1.19-1.93nm) of guava slices compared to control with the passage of storage interval. Moreover, scores in taste (7.33-1.00), flavour (7.33-1.00), colour (7.50-1.00) and texture (7.67-1.00) of guava slices was also decreased with respect to interaction of treatments and storage period. Calcium chloride at the rate 2.7% showed significantly higher stability than other concentrations of calcium chloride and calcium lactate in delaying firmness and browning of fresh-cut guava slices along with maintaining their organoleptic properties for longer storage period. However, calcium chloride imparted undesirable bitterness to fresh-cut guava slices at the concentration of 3.6%. Based on the overall quality performance, 2.7% calcium chloride and 3.6% calcium lactate exhibited better results than other concentrations and control with storage life of 8 days at 5 degree C + 2 degree C. (author)

  17. Comparison of the nutrient content of fresh fruit juices vs commercial fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu; Phosuya, Panarat; Tritiprat, Amornrat; Patraarat, Siriphan; Pidatcha, Pannee; Suwannthol, Lerson

    2002-08-01

    To compare the types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolytes, pH and osmolarity of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices. Forty kinds of fresh fruits available in Thai markets were analyzed for types and quantities of carbohydrate, electrolyte, pH and osmolarity and compared with previously obtained data for commercial fruit juices. Most fresh fruit juices did not contain sucrose, whereas, commercial fruit juices mostly have sucrose in the range of 3-112 g/L. Although both fruit juices were acidic (pH varied from 3.6-6.7 and 3.2-5.8 of fresh juice and commercial juice), fresh fruit juices had a more neutral pH than commercial fruit juices. Apple, guava, orange, pear, and pineapple juices from commercial fruit juices had a high osmolarity compared with fresh fruit juices. All types of fresh fruit juices contained less sodium than commercial ones, whereas, most fresh fruit juices contained more potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium than commercial fluids. The nutrient content of fresh fruit juices and commercial fruit juices from the same kinds of fruits are not the same, possibly due to the manufacturing process. Therefore, physicians should know the composition of fruit juices in order to advise patients properly.

  18. The impact of hydration changes in fresh bio-tissue on THz spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Png, G M; Ng, B W-H; Mickan, S P; Abbott, D; Choi, J W; Zhang, X-C

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of how residual hydration in fresh rat tissue samples can vastly alter their extracted terahertz (THz) optical properties and influence their health assessment. Fresh (as opposed to preserved) tissue most closely mimics in vivo conditions, but high water content creates many challenges for tissue handling and THz measurement. Our THz measurements of fresh tissue over time highlight the effect of tissue hydration on tissue texture and dimension, the latter directly influencing the accuracy of calculated optical properties. We then introduce lyophilization (freeze drying) as a viable solution for overcoming hydration and freshness problems. Lyophilization removes large amounts of water while retaining sample freshness. In addition, lyophilized tissue samples are easy to handle and their textures and dimensions do not vary over time, allowing for consistent and stable THz measurements. A comparison of lyophilized and fresh tissue shows for the first time that freeze drying may be one way of overcoming tissue hydration issues while preserving tissue cellular structure. Finally, we compare THz measurements from fresh tissue against necrotic tissue to verify freshness over time. Indeed, THz measurements from fresh and necrotic tissues show marked differences

  19. Recent Developments in Film and Gas Research in Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Fresh Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Meng, Xiangyong; Bhandari, Bhesh; Fang, Zhongxiang

    2016-10-02

    Due to the rise of consumer's awareness of fresh foods to health, in the past few years, the consumption of fresh and fresh-cut produces has increased sturdily. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) possesses a potential to become one of the most appropriate technologies for packaging fresh and fresh-cut produces. The MAP has advantages of extending the shelf-life, preserving or stabilizing the desired properties of fresh produces, and convenience in handing and distribution. The success of MAP-fresh foods depends on many factors including types of fresh foods, storage temperature and humidity, gas composition, and the characteristics of package materials. This paper reviews the recent developments highlighting the most critical factors of film and gas on the quality of MAP fresh foods. Although the innovations and development of food packaging technology will continue to promote the development of novel MAP, concentrated research and endeavors from scientists and engineers are still important to the development of MAP that focuses on consumers' requirements, enhancing product quality, environmental friendly design, and cost-effective application.

  20. Inactivation of Escherichia coli inoculated onto fresh-cut chopped cabbage using electron-beam processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Uribe-Rendon, Roberto M; Lee, Ken

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade there were more than 50 reported outbreaks involving leafy green vegetables contaminated with foodborne pathogens. Leafy greens, including cabbage, are fresh foods rarely heated before consumption, which enables foodborne illness. The need for improved safety of fresh food drives the demand for nonthermal food processes to decrease the risk of pathogens while maintaining fresh quality. This study examines the efficacy of electron-beam (e-beam) irradiation in decreasing indigenous microflora on fresh-cut cabbage and determines the optimal dosage to pasteurize fresh-cut cabbage inoculated with Escherichia coli K-12. Fresh-cut cabbage (100 g) was inoculated with ∼8 log E. coli K-12 and e-beam irradiated at doses of 0, 1.0, 2.3, or 4.0 kGy. At 2.3 kGy there was 7-log reduction of E. coli K-12 in the fresh-cut cabbage. The D(10)-value for E. coli K-12 in fresh-cut cabbage was 0.564 kGy. E-beam irradiation is thus a viable nonthermal treatment that extends the shelf life and increases the safety of fresh cabbage by reducing or eliminating indigenous microflora and unwanted pathogens.

  1. Polysheroidal periodic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truskova, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    Separation of variables in the Helmholtz N-dimensional (N≥4) equation in polyspheroidal coordinate systems leads to the necessity of solving equations going over into equations for polyspheroidal periodic functions used for solving the two-centre problem in quantum mechanics, the three-body problem with Coulomb interaction, etc. For these functions the expansions are derived in terms of the Jacobi polynomials and Bessel functions. Their basic properties, asymptotics are considered. The algorithm of their computer calculations is developed. The results of numerical calculations are given

  2. Deciphering Periodic Methanol Masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, Bringfried; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus; Hopp, Ulrich; Kraus, Alex; Linz, Hendrik; Sanna, Alberto; Sobolev, Andrej; Wolf, Verena

    2018-05-01

    Impressive progress has been made in recent years on massive star formation, yet the involved high optical depths even at submm/mm wavelengths make it difficult to reveal its details. Recently, accretion bursts of massive YSOs have been identified to cause flares of Class II methanol masers (methanol masers for short) due to enhanced mid-IR pumping. This opens a new window to protostellar accretion variability, and implies that periodic methanol masers hint at cyclic accretion. Pinning down the cause of the periodicity requires joint IR and radio monitoring. We derived the first IR light curve of a periodic maser host from NEOWISE data. The source, G107.298+5.639, is an intermediate-mass YSO hosting methanol and water masers which flare every 34.5 days. Our recent joint K-band and radio observations yielded first but marginal evidence for a phase lag between the rise of IR and maser emission, respectively, and revealed that both NEOWISE and K-band light curves are strongly affected by the light echo from the ambient dust. Both the superior resolution of IRAC over NEOWISE and the longer wavelengths compared to our ground-based imaging are required to inhibit the distractive contamination by the light echo. Thus, we ask for IRAC monitoring of G107 to cover one flare cycle, in tandem with 100-m Effelsberg and 2-m Wendelstein radio and NIR observations to obtain the first high-quality synoptic measurements of this kind of sources. The IR-maser phase lag, the intrinsic shape of the IR light curves and their possible color variation during the cycle allow us to constrain models for the periodic maser excitation. Since methanol masers are signposts of intermediate-mass and massive YSOs, deciphering their variability offers a clue to the dynamics of the accretion-mediated growth of massive stars and their feedback onto the immediate natal environment. The Spitzer light curve of such a maser-hosting YSO would be a legacy science product of the mission.

  3. Antibacterial effect of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) on Makgeolli-brewing microorganisms and its application in the preservation of fresh Makgeolli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Lee, Yu-Ri; Ha, Yu-Mi; Seo, Hyo Ju; Kim, Young Hun; Park, Sun-Mee; Sohn, Jae Hak

    2014-06-01

    To develop a new preservation method, the antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed extract (GSE) against Makgeolli-brewing microorganisms and food-borne pathogens was assessed, and a general analysis and sensory evaluation of fresh Makgeolli with added GSE was made. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of GSE against 10 strains of Makgeolli-brewing microorganism were 0.0122 to 1.5625 μL/mL. The MIC values against 6 strains of food-borne pathogens were 0.0061 to 0.7813 μL/mL. On addition of 0.1% (v/v) and 0.2% GSE in bottled fresh Makgeolli, no significant difference in the pH, or the contents of total acids, ethanol, or methanol in the Makgeolli, were observed compared with control Makgeolli (with no GSE), during the preservation period (8 weeks) at 10 °C. In the Makgeolli with 0.1% and 0.2% GSE, the total bacterial counts decreased significantly by 4.9% (P grapefruit seed extract (GSE) was developed. As fresh Makgeolli contains live microorganisms, the preservation period is 1 wk, which is relatively short. GSE controls the growth of Makgeolli-brewing and Makgeolli-spoiling microorganisms. 0.1% to 0.2% GSE is optimum for prolonging the shelf life (2 wk) of bottled fresh Makgeolli, and has no adverse effect on overall acceptability. We demonstrated that GSE is an effective natural additive that prolongs the shelf life of fresh Makgeolli with no significant loss in quality. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Experimental investigation on a semi-circular trough-absorber solar still with baffles for fresh water production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar; Nagarajan, P.K.; El-Agouz, S.A.; Jaiganesh, V.; Sathish Khanna, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments are carried out to analyze the performance. • Baffles are placed in the absorber to increase the residence time of water with solar intensity. • Yield of fresh water from present solar still is 16.66% more than a conventional solar still. • Payback period of the present model is quicker. - Abstract: The main objective of this research is to increase the contact time of water in the basin to enhance yield of fresh water by using a semicircular absorber solar still with baffles. An experimental as well as theoretical investigation is carried out. The productivity and efficiency of present still are analyzed with the influence of the number baffles and the water flow rate. A good agreement between the experimental and theoretical results is observed. The results indicate that, the daily yield of present solar still is higher than that for conventional still approximately by 16.66%. The outlet water temperature present solar still is high subsequently, it can be coupled with multi-state of solar stills to increase productivity. Therefore, the present solar still can be sufficiently extended for other continuous solar desalination systems. Economic analysis concluded that, the payback period of the present model solar still is quicker while comparing it with other solar still

  5. Understanding Freshness Perception from the Cognitive Mechanisms of Flavor: The Case of Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Jérémy; Auvray, Malika; Lafraire, Jérémie

    2018-01-01

    Freshness perception has received recent consideration in the field of consumer science mainly because of its hedonic dimension, which is assumed to influence consumers’ preference and behavior. However, most studies have considered freshness as a multisensory attribute of food and beverage products without investigating the cognitive mechanisms at hand. In the present review, we endorse a slightly different perspective on freshness. We focus on (i) the multisensory integration processes that underpin freshness perception, and (ii) the top–down factors that influence the explicit attribution of freshness to a product by consumers. To do so, we exploit the recent literature on the cognitive underpinnings of flavor perception as a heuristic to better characterize the mechanisms of freshness perception in the particular case of beverages. We argue that the lack of consideration of particular instances of flavor, such as freshness, has resulted in a lack of consensus about the content and structure of different types of flavor representations. We then enrich these theoretical analyses, with a review of the cognitive mechanisms of flavor perception: from multisensory integration processes to the influence of top–down factors (e.g., attentional and semantic). We conclude that similarly to flavor, freshness perception is characterized by hybrid content, both perceptual and semantic, but that freshness has a higher-degree of specificity than flavor. In particular, contrary to flavor, freshness is characterized by specific functions (e.g., alleviation of oropharyngeal symptoms) and likely differs from flavor with respect to the weighting of each sensory contributor, as well as to its subjective location. Finally, we provide a comprehensive model of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie freshness perception. This model paves the way for further empirical research on particular instances of flavor, and will enable advances in the field of food and beverage cognition

  6. Understanding Freshness Perception from the Cognitive Mechanisms of Flavor: The Case of Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Roque

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshness perception has received recent consideration in the field of consumer science mainly because of its hedonic dimension, which is assumed to influence consumers’ preference and behavior. However, most studies have considered freshness as a multisensory attribute of food and beverage products without investigating the cognitive mechanisms at hand. In the present review, we endorse a slightly different perspective on freshness. We focus on (i the multisensory integration processes that underpin freshness perception, and (ii the top–down factors that influence the explicit attribution of freshness to a product by consumers. To do so, we exploit the recent literature on the cognitive underpinnings of flavor perception as a heuristic to better characterize the mechanisms of freshness perception in the particular case of beverages. We argue that the lack of consideration of particular instances of flavor, such as freshness, has resulted in a lack of consensus about the content and structure of different types of flavor representations. We then enrich these theoretical analyses, with a review of the cognitive mechanisms of flavor perception: from multisensory integration processes to the influence of top–down factors (e.g., attentional and semantic. We conclude that similarly to flavor, freshness perception is characterized by hybrid content, both perceptual and semantic, but that freshness has a higher-degree of specificity than flavor. In particular, contrary to flavor, freshness is characterized by specific functions (e.g., alleviation of oropharyngeal symptoms and likely differs from flavor with respect to the weighting of each sensory contributor, as well as to its subjective location. Finally, we provide a comprehensive model of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie freshness perception. This model paves the way for further empirical research on particular instances of flavor, and will enable advances in the field of food and

  7. 90Sr level in fresh and powder milk in some areas of Albania caused by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qafmolla, L.

    1995-01-01

    Chernobyl accident caused a rather high level of territory contamination, especially in the east and north-east area of Albania. That's why for the radioprotection scope of population, during and after the accident a great number of environmental samples are measured. An important type of samples were those of the fresh and powder milk. Except the 131 I and 137 Cs radioactivity concentration measurements, 90 Sr level in milk determination was performed. The tracing method by stable strontium was used for the chemical separation ratio determination. The 90 Sr activity concentration in milk was evaluated by 90 Y in equilibrium activity measurement. The dynamics of the 90 Sr in milk for a period of some months, just after the accident and some daily measurements carried-out during the 'hot' period are given in this paper (author). tab. 2, refs. 6

  8. {sup 90}Sr level in fresh and powder milk in some areas of Albania caused by the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafmolla, L [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tirana (Albania)

    1996-12-31

    Chernobyl accident caused a rather high level of territory contamination, especially in the east and north-east area of Albania. That`s why for the radioprotection scope of population, during and after the accident a great number of environmental samples are measured. An important type of samples were those of the fresh and powder milk. Except the {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs radioactivity concentration measurements, {sup 90}Sr level in milk determination was performed. The tracing method by stable strontium was used for the chemical separation ratio determination. The {sup 90}Sr activity concentration in milk was evaluated by {sup 90}Y in equilibrium activity measurement. The dynamics of the {sup 90}Sr in milk for a period of some months, just after the accident and some daily measurements carried-out during the `hot` period are given in this paper (author). tab. 2, refs. 6.

  9. Periodically modulated dark states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2018-04-01

    Phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (PEIT) may be interpreted by the Autler-Townes Splitting (ATS), where the coupled states are split by the coupling laser field, or by the quantum destructive interference (QDI), where the atomic phases caused by the coupling laser and the probe laser field cancel. We propose modulated experiments to explore the PEIT in an alternative way by periodically modulating the coupling and the probe fields in a Λ-type three-level system initially in a dark state. Our analytical and numerical results rule out the ATS interpretation and show that the QDI interpretation is more appropriate for the modulated experiments. Interestingly, dark state persists in the double-modulation situation where control and probe fields never occur simultaneously, which is significant difference from the traditional dark state condition. The proposed experiments are readily implemented in atomic gases, artificial atoms in superconducting quantum devices, or three-level meta-atoms in meta-materials.

  10. Roles of a novel Crp/Fnr family transcription factor Lmo0753 in soil survival, biofilm production and surface attachment to fresh produce of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle K Salazar

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of an infectious disease, listeriosis. L. monocytogenes is ubiquitous in nature and has the ability to persist in food processing environments for extended periods of time by forming biofilms and resisting industrial sanitization. Human listeriosis outbreaks are commonly linked to contaminated dairy products, ready-to-eat meats, and in recent years, fresh produce such as lettuce and cantaloupes. We identified a putative Crp/Fnr family transcription factor Lmo0753 that is highly specific to human-associated genetic lineages of L. monocytogenes. Lmo0753 possesses two conserved functional domains similar to the major virulence regulator PrfA in L. monocytogenes. To determine if Lmo0753 is involved in environmental persistence-related mechanisms, we compared lmo0753 deletion mutants with respective wild type and complementation mutants of two fully sequenced L. monocytogenes genetic lineage II strains 10403S and EGDe for the relative ability of growth under different nutrient availability and temperatures, soil survival, biofilm productivity and attachment to select fresh produce surfaces including romaine lettuce leaves and cantaloupe rinds. Our results collectively suggested that Lmo0753 plays an important role in L. monocytogenes biofilm production and attachment to fresh produce, which may contribute to the environmental persistence and recent emergence of this pathogen in human listeriosis outbreaks linked to fresh produce.

  11. Prompt burst energetics experiments: fresh oxide/sodium series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reil, K.O.; Young, M.F.

    1978-08-01

    A series of in-pile experiments has been performed to provide information on thermal energy to work conversion under prompt burst excursion (PBE) conditions. These consisted of single pin tests using fresh uranium oxide or uranium carbide fuel in a capsule geometry, with either stagnant sodium or helium in the coolant channel. The experiments were irradiated with single or double pulses in the Annular Core Pulse Reactor (ACPR) to provide energy depositions up to 2900 J/g. This report covers the seven single and five double pulse UO 2 sodium-in tests. Experimental data includes pressure and linear motion transducer histories, measured work-energy conversion efficiencies, and post-irradiation examination. Analysis includes derived work-energy conversion efficiencies (up to 0.54%), pin failure modeling, hydrodynamic analysis of pressure pulse propagation in the channel, and piston stopping effects. Initial pressure events in the single pulse experiments appear to be dominated by fuel vapor pressure. Definite fuel-coolant interactions were observed in several experiments, including some that were coincident with stopping of the linear motion transducer piston, suggesting a possible triggering effect by the deceleration pressure

  12. From fresh heterologous oocyte donation to autologous oocyte banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, D

    2012-01-01

    Today, oocyte donation has become well established, giving rise to thousands of children born worldwide annually. The introduction of oocyte cryopreservation through vitrification allows the introduction of egg banking, improving the efficiency and comfort of oocyte donation. Moreover, the vitrification technique can now enable autologous donation of oocytes to prevent future infertility. We evaluated fresh heterologous oocyte donation in terms of obstetrical and perinatal outcome as well as of the reproductive outcome of past donors. We then evaluated the efficiency of a closed vitrification device and its clinical applications within ART. Thirdly, we evaluated the opinion of women with regard to preventive egg freezing and the efficiency of a human oocyte in relation to age. Oocyte donation is associated with an increased risk of first trimester bleeding and pregnancy induced hypertension. Donating oocytes does not seem to increase the likelihood for a later need of fertility treatment. The chance of an oocyte to result in live birth (utilization rate) in women women would consider safeguarding their reproductive potential through egg freezing or are at least open to the idea. The introduction of efficient oocyte cryopreservation has revolutionized oocyte donation through the establishment of eggbank donation. The technique also enables women to perform autologous donation after preventive oocyte storage in order to circumvent their biological clock.

  13. Waste tyre rubberized concrete: properties at fresh and hardened state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, M A; Leuzzi, F

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the properties of various concrete mixtures at fresh and hardened state, obtained by a partial substitution of coarse and fine aggregate with different volume percentages of waste tyres rubber particles, having the same dimensions of the replaced aggregate. Workability, unit weight, compressive and flexural strength and post-cracking behaviour were evaluated and a comparison of the results for the different rubcrete mixtures were proposed in order to define the better mix proportions in terms of mechanical properties of the rubberized concrete. Results showed in this paper were also compared to data reported in literature. Moreover, a preliminary geometrical, physical and mechanical characterization on scrap tyre rubber shreds was made. The rubberized concrete mixtures showed lower unit weight compared to plain concrete and good workability. The results of compressive and flexural tests indicated a larger reduction of mechanical properties of rubcrete when replacing coarse aggregate rather than fine aggregate. On the other hand, the post-cracking behaviour of rubberized concrete was positively affected by the substitution of coarse aggregate with rubber shreds, showing a good energy absorption and ductility indexes in the range observed for fibrous concrete, as suggested by standard (ASTM C1018-97, 1997). 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration in freshly isolated sheep lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William D; Wang, Lu; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y

    2017-02-01

    Taking a big breath is known to reverse bronchoconstriction induced by bronchochallenge in healthy subjects; this bronchodilatory effect of deep inspiration (DI) is diminished in asthmatics. The mechanism underlying the DI effect is not clear. Observations from experiments using isolated airway smooth muscle (ASM) preparations and airway segments suggest that straining of ASM due to DI could lead to bronchodilation, possibly due to strain-induced reduction in ASM contractility. However, factors external to the lung cannot be excluded as potential causes for the DI effect. Neural reflex initiated by stretch receptors in the lung are known to inhibit the broncho-motor tone and enhance vasodilatation; the former directly reduces airway resistance, and the latter facilitates removal of contractile agonists through the bronchial circulation. If the DI effect is solely mediated by factors extrinsic to the lung, the DI effect would be absent in isolated, nonperfused lungs. Here we examined the DI effect in freshly isolated, nonperfused sheep lungs. We found that imposition of DI on isolated lungs resulted in significant bronchodilation, that this DI effect was present only after the lungs were challenged with a contractile agonist (acetylcholine or histamine), and that the effect was independent of the difference in lung volume observed pre- and post-DI. We conclude that a significant portion of the bronchodilatory DI effect stems from factors internal to the lung related to the activation of ASM. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Application of tidal energy for purification in fresh water lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rho-Taek Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to preserve the quality of fresh water in the artificial lake after the reclamation of an intertidal flat at the mouth of a river, we suggest two novel methods of water purification by using tidal potential energy and an enclosed permeable embankment called an utsuro (Akai et al., 1990 in the reclaimed region. One method uses an inflatable bag on the seabed within an utsuro, while the other uses a moored floating barge out of a dyke. Each case employs a subsea pipe to allow flow between the inside and outside of the utsuro. The change in water level in the utsuro, which is pushed through the pipe by the potential energy outside, caused circulation in the artificial lake. In this paper, we analyzed the inflatable bag and floating barge motion as well as the pipe flow characteristics and drafts as given by a harmonic sea level, and compared the theoretical value with an experimental value with a simple small model basin. The numerical calculation based on theory showed good agreement with experimental values.

  16. Improving Scotland's health: time for a fresh approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, D H

    2012-05-01

    Scotland's health remains the worst in the UK. There are several probable reasons for this. Of those that are amenable to change, health improvement policy has been excessively preoccupied with targeting individuals perceived to be 'at risk' rather than adopting a whole population perspective. Environmental as opposed to behavioural approaches to health improvement have been relatively neglected. To meet the challenge of Scotland's poor health more effectively in the future, new strategic thinking is necessary. Three initial steps are required: recognize that current approaches are inadequate and that fresh ideas are needed; identify the principles that should underlie future strategy development; translate these principles into achievable operational objectives. Five principles of a revitalized strategy to improve the health of Scotland in the future are proposed. These are start early and sustain effort; create a healthy and safe environment; reduce geographical as well as social inequalities in health; adopt an evidence-based approach to public health interventions; use epidemiology to assess need, plan interventions and monitor progress. These principles may then be translated into achievable operational policy and practice objectives.

  17. Impact of ionisation on the conservation of fresh stuffed pasta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Dhaou, Thouraya

    2012-01-01

    Fresh stuffed pasta are highly appreciated by consumers due to their specific taste and flavor. However, they are perishable foodstuffs having a short shelf life. The aim of this work was to extend their shelf life using three doses of ionizing gamma 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Studing the impact of this treatment on the microbiological (FAMT, E-coli, Staphylococcus coagulase, Sallmonelle, yeasts and molds), physicochemical (pH, water content and water activity), sensory (color) and cooking qualities (swelling, cooking loss and spalling) of the product showed the effectiveness of its doses toward the spoilage and pathogenic flora. However, organoleptic and cooking qualities were significantly affected by the doses 3 and 5 kGy. Only the dose 1 kGy could improve the microbiological quality without influencing the organoleptic and culinary qualities of the product. The shelf life prediction according to ASLT (Accelerated Shelf Life Testing) method of different samples confirmed the effectiveness of the dose 1 kGy which gave the highest shelf life value (62 days). As the shelf life of un-ionized product is 45 days, the 1 kGy dose has allowed extending the shelf life of 17 days.

  18. Antioxidant properties of natural substances in irradiated fresh poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrour, A.; Lacroix, M.; Nketsa-Tabiri, J.; Calderon, N.; Gagnon, M.

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if a combined treatment (marinating in natural plant extracts or vacuum) with irradiation could have a synergistic effect, in order to prevent the lipid oxidation resulting in the development of undesirable flavours. The fresh chicken legs were irradiated at 0,3 and 5 kGy. The fatty acids composition of lipids was identified using gas liquid chromatography. The effect of irradiation treatment combined with a pre-treatment on the fatty acids composition was followed. The day after irradiation, ten panallists were asked to evaluate, using the instruction scaling, the overall appearance, the odor, the flavor and the overall acceptability of the samples. The major fatty acids identified in lipids were oleic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid and stearic acid. Pre-treatments have a significant effect on linoleic acid (C18:2) and higher fatty acids. The unsaturated fatty acids derived from phospholipids appeared to be more affected by the irradiation dose: however, marinating have better protection on C18:2 derived from phospholipids. The results of sensory evaluation have shown a significant better odor and flavor for the irradiated chicken at 5 kGy than the control. No significant difference have been found between the marinated chicken, the chicken irradiated under vacuum and the control

  19. Acceptance and storage of fresh cheese made with essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelmir Grassi Presente

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the acceptance and conservation of Minas fresh cheese with essential oils added of oregano and ginger in its formulation. The quality of the milk used as raw material was evaluated for pH, acidity, alizarol, total solids, density, and total microbial load. The cheeses produced were characterized as pH, acidity, moisture, lipids, proteins and ashes. The cheeses were also evaluated by sensorial affective tests using hedonic and attitude scales, in order to determine the acceptance and purchase intention by judges. The count of total aerobic mesophilic microorganisms was used to estimate the shelf-life of cheeses. The milk used as raw material is presented within the quality standards required by legislation. The cheeses made with essential oils showed pH and acidity around 6.9 and 0.87%, respectively, 57.6% moisture, 31.3% lipids, 11.4% protein and 0.9% ash. The cheese added essential oil of oregano and the control cheese were those given by the judges the best values for acceptance (7.5 and 7.6, respectively and purchase intention (4.2 and 4.4 respectively. Regarding the estimated shelf-life, the cheeses added essential oil of oregano and ginger had lower overall microbial load values compared to the control (no oil and mixed (two oils addition, presented counts values with up 106 UFC/g only from the 28th day of storage.

  20. Practical aspects of sea and fresh-water algae utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyanishkene, V.B.; Zlobin, V.S.; Zheleznyakova, O.V.

    1988-01-01

    Regularities of sea and fresh-water microalgae cultivation, revealed during the operation of industrial plants, are presented in detail. The study of the Platymonas viridis cultivation mechanisms has shown the possibility of active intervention into the cycle of intense reproduction of the biomass. Among physical factors of the medium, which influence the reproduction of the industrial strain of Platymonas viridis, the effect of the red light, ultraviolet radiation, ultrahigh frequency fields and gamma radiation upon the cell division of these microalgae has been investigated. It has been shown that the effect of gamma radiation on the cell division of Platymonas viridis, other bacteria and protozoans is inhibiting. In the experiments using the radionuclides strontium-90 and cerium-144 as indicators of metabolism the dependence of the radionuclide accumulation factor on the quantity of stable lead as well as the effect of the temperature on the accumulation process have been studied. The coefficients of 90 Sr and 144 Ce accumulation by Nitellopsis obtusa cell compartments depending on stable lead and temperature are presented. 200 refs.; 21 figs.; 54 tabs

  1. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Palou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes containing ammoniacal compounds, or the proliferation of resistant pathogenic fungal strains. There is, therefore, an increasing need to find non-polluting alternatives to be used as part of integrated disease management (IDM programs for preservation of fresh citrus fruit. Among them, the development of novel natural edible films and coatings with antimicrobial properties is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Chitosan and other edible coatings formulated by adding antifungal agents to composite emulsions based on polysaccharides or proteins and lipids are reviewed in this article. The most important antifungal ingredients are selected for their ability to control major citrus postharvest diseases like green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, and include low-toxicity or natural chemicals such as food additives, generally recognized as safe (GRAS compounds, plant extracts, or essential oils, and biological control agents such as some antagonistic strains of yeasts or bacteria.

  2. Tensile and compressive properties of fresh human carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maher, Eoghan

    2009-12-11

    Accurate characterisation of the mechanical properties of human atherosclerotic plaque is important for our understanding of the role of vascular mechanics in the development and treatment of atherosclerosis. The majority of previous studies investigating the mechanical properties of human plaque are based on tests of plaque tissue removed following autopsy. This study aims to characterise the mechanical behaviour of fresh human carotid plaques removed during endarterectomy and tested within 2h. A total of 50 radial compressive and 17 circumferential tensile uniaxial tests were performed on samples taken from 14 carotid plaques. The clinical classification of each plaque, as determined by duplex ultrasound is also reported. Plaques were classified as calcified, mixed or echolucent. Experimental data indicated that plaques were highly inhomogeneous; with variations seen in the mechanical properties of plaque obtained from individual donors and between donors. The mean behaviour of samples for each classification indicated that calcified plaques had the stiffest response, while echolucent plaques were the least stiff. Results also indicated that there may be a difference in behaviour of samples taken from different anatomical locations (common, internal and external carotid), however the large variability indicates that more testing is needed to reach significant conclusions. This work represents a step towards a better understanding of the in vivo mechanical behaviour of human atherosclerotic plaque.

  3. Profile and effects of consumer involvement in fresh meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Vackier, Isabelle

    2004-05-01

    This study investigates the profile and effects of consumer involvement in fresh meat as a product category based on cross-sectional data collected in Belgium. Analyses confirm that involvement in meat is a multidimensional construct including four facets: pleasure value, symbolic value, risk importance and risk probability. Four involvement-based meat consumer segments are identified: straightforward, cautious, indifferent, and concerned. Socio-demographic differences between the segments relate to gender, age and presence of children. The segments differ in terms of extensiveness of the decision-making process, impact and trust in information sources, levels of concern, price consciousness, claimed meat consumption, consumption intention, and preferred place of purchase. The two segments with a strong perception of meat risks constitute two-thirds of the market. They can be typified as cautious meat lovers versus concerned meat consumers. Efforts aiming at consumer reassurance through quality improvement, traceability, labelling or communication may gain effectiveness when targeted specifically to these two segments. Whereas straightforward meat lovers focus mainly on taste as the decisive criterion, indifferent consumers are strongly price oriented.

  4. Birefringence in heat-mechanical modified freshly moulded polyester fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velev, V; Dimov, T; Popov, A; Denev, Y; Hristov, H; Angelov, T; Markova, K; Zagortcheva, M; Arhangelova, N; Uzunov, N, E-mail: v.velev@shu-bg.ne

    2010-11-01

    The article submits new experimental data concerning to the role of combined thermo-mechanical treatments on the structural development of freshly moulded uncrystallized but crystallizable poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibers. The object of the present work is PET as a thermoplastic polymer with a large practical application. The report is devoted to the influence of the heat-mechanical modification temperature on the structure rearrangement in uniaxially orientated amorphous PET. The heat-mechanical modification of the investigated yarns and the optical measurements were realized by specialized gears constructed and built in the author's laboratories. The fibers heat-mechanical modification includes samples annealing at constant temperature above their glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) without strain stress. The yarn annealing has been followed from well defined uniaxially strain-loading with values from 0 MPa up to 30 MPa during two minutes. The optical measurements were carried out by an optical system using a polarization microscope and a CCD camera. The obtained experimental data has been analyzed by Mocha-1.2 (Jandel Scientific) software. There are established dependences between the heat-mechanical modification mode and the structural rearrangements running in the studied PET samples.

  5. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Rai Aneja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices.

  6. Study of dielectric properties of adulterated milk concentration and freshness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitendra Murthy, V.; Sai Kiranmai, N.; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2017-08-01

    The knowledge of dielectric properties may hold a potential to develop a new technique for quality evaluation of milk. The dielectric properties of water diluted cow’s milk with milk concentration from 70 percent to 100 percent stored during 36hour storage at 22°C and 144 hour at 5°C were measured at room temperature for frequencies ranging from 10 to 4500 MHz and at low, high & at microwave frequencies using X band bench and open-ended coaxial-line probe technology, along with electrical conductivity. The raw milk had the lowest dielectric constant (ɛ‧) when the frequency was higher than about 20M.Hz, and had the highest loss (ɛ″) or decepation factor tan (δ) at each frequency. The penetration depth (dp) increased with decreasing frequency, water content and storage time, which was large enough to detect dielectric properties changes in milk samples and provide large scale RF pasteurization processes. The loss factor can be an indicator in predicting milk concentration and freshness.

  7. Transfer factor for 137Cs in fresh water aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varughese, K.G.; Ramkumar, S.; John, Jaison T.; Rajan, M.P.; Gurg, R.P.

    2002-01-01

    137 Cs is one of the most abundant radionuclides produced in nuclear fission and due to its long radiological half-life and chemical similarity to potassium it has greater biological significance. Radioactive waste materials generated at nuclear facilities are generally disposed within the plant premises under its administrative control for effective radiation protection practices. However trace quantities of radionuclides are released into the environment through liquid and gaseous releases under the guidelines of regulatory agencies. The concentration of these radioactive elements in the environment is not detectable under normal circumstances due to the large dispersion and dilutions available in the environment. But these radionuclides can get accumulated in environmental matrices like silt, weed etc. and indicate the presence of radioactivity in the environment. This paper presents the results of a face-controlled studies conducted at Environmental Survey Laboratories at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) and Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) to estimate distribution of low-level radioactivity in the fresh water system. An attempt has been made to derive the Transfer Factor for 137 Cs in fish, weed, and silt and to evaluate the concentration of 137 Cs in water samples, which is otherwise not detectable under normal procedure of measurement. (author)

  8. Flow conditions of fresh mortar and concrete in different pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, Stefan; Haugan, Lars; Hammer, Tor Arne; Kalogiannidis, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    The variation in fresh concrete flow rate over the pipe cross section was investigated on differently coloured and highly flowable concrete mixes flowing through pipes of different materials (rubber, steel, acryl). First, uncoloured (gray) concrete was poured through the pipe and the pipe blocked. Similar but coloured (black) concrete was then poured into the pipe filled with gray concrete, flowing after the gray concrete for a while before being blocked and hardened. The advance of the colouring along the pipe wall (showing boundary flow rate) was observed on the moulded concrete surface appearing after removing the pipe from the hardened concrete. The shapes of the interfaces between uncoloured and coloured concrete (showing variation of flow rate over the pipe cross section) were observed on sawn surfaces of concrete half cylinders cut along the length axes of the concrete-filled pipe. Flow profiles over the pipe cross section were clearly seen with maximum flow rates near the centre of the pipe and low flow rate at the pipe wall (typically rubber pipe with reference concrete without silica fume and/or stabilizers). More plug-shaped profiles, with long slip layers and less variation of flow rate over the cross section, were also seen (typically in smooth acrylic pipes). Flow rate, amount of concrete sticking to the wall after flow and SEM-images of pipe surface roughness were observed, illustrating the problem of testing full scale pumping.

  9. Fresh frozen bone in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Fabrizio Rodella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to review the use of fresh frozen bone (FFB in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We performed a review of the articles published in the literature between 1976 and May 2014 analyzing three medical databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase and using specific search terms. Literature analysis on FFB applications in oral and maxillofacial surgery revealed 47 articles between 1976 and May 2014. There are 46 clinical articles and one review. Clinical articles are represented by 22 case reports and case series and 24 retrospective studies. Classifying the scientific production by year of publication, it is evident that especially during the last 6 years there was an increase of FFB graft use in oral and maxillofacial approaches. The literature analysis on FFB's use shows that its application in oral and maxillofacial surgery began slowly in 1992 with Perrott and since 2006 it had a real development. The recent significant increase emphasizes the importance of FFB for bone regeneration in oral and maxillofacial surgery. This review found consistent evidence of FFB's use increase in oral and maxillofacial surgery suggesting a valid instrument for bone regeneration. To date, risks connected to the infections' transmission and to the immunogenic potential are extremely low and could be considered practically absent. So, this is an important alternative in the preimplant reconstructive surgery.

  10. 78 FR 36168 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ...- Market Economy Unit regarding ``Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Deadline...'s Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011 AGENCY... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC...

  11. Modelling quality of fresh-cut tomato based on stage of maturity and storage conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.

    2005-01-01

    Fresh-cut or minimally processed vegetables are those which have been trimmed and/or peeled and/or cut into 100% usable product and still maintain freshness. Contrary to other processing methods (freezing, canning and drying for example) the minimal processing operations reduce the shelf life in

  12. Climatic impacts of fresh water hosing under Last Glacial Maximum conditions: a multi-model study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kageyama, M.; Merkel, U.; Otto-Bliesner, B.; Prange, M.; Abe-Ouchi, A.; Lohmann, G.; Ohgaito, R.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Singarayer, J

    2013-01-01

    Fresh water hosing simulations, in which a fresh water flux is imposed in the North Atlantic to force fluctuations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, have been routinely performed, first to study the climatic signature of different states of this circulation, then, under present or

  13. Modelling RGB colour aspects and translucency of fresh-cut tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2006-01-01

    Translucency is one of the major problems in fresh-cut fruit. This phenomenon seriously limits the use of fruit by the fresh-cut industries. Techniques for measuring translucency in this kind of product are not readily available. As a consequence, the processes that are important in the development

  14. The effect of drying on the nutritional composition of fresh and dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to identify some nutritional properties of Moringa Oeifera leaf and to compare the nutritional qualities of fresh and dried leaves of Moringa Oleifera.Two samples each of fresh and dried Moringa Oeifera leaves were used for the experiment and the mean values in their nutritional qualities compared.

  15. 78 FR 41259 - Importation of Fresh Citrus Fruit From Uruguay, Including Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... therefore opposed importation of fresh citrus fruit from Uruguay until its effectiveness could be validated...'' imports. The commenter stated that this argument is invalid due to the year-round marketing of citrus... metric tons, which is less than 3 percent of U.S. production. Uruguay's total fresh orange and lemon...

  16. Fluorescence hyperspectral imaging technique for the foreign substance detection on fresh-cut lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondestructive methods based on fluorescence hyperspectral imaging (HSI) techniques were developed in order to detect worms on fresh-cut lettuce. The optimal wavebands for detecting worms on fresh-cut lettuce were investigated using the one-way ANOVA analysis and correlation analysis. The worm detec...

  17. Accuracy, reliability, and timing of visual evaluations of decay in fresh-cut lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visual assessments are used for evaluating the quality of food products, such as fresh-cut lettuce packaged in bags with modified atmosphere. We have compared the accuracy and the reliability of visual evaluations of decay on fresh-cut lettuce performed with experienced and inexperienced raters. In ...

  18. The Effects Of Fresh And Thermoxidized Palm Oil Diets On Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of fresh and thermoxidized palm oil diets on some haematalogical indices in the rat were investigated in albino rats (Wistar strain). The animals were divided into three groups namely, the first group fed on thermoxidized palm oil (TPO) diet, a second group fed on fresh palm oil (FPO) diet and a third fed on normal ...

  19. The USDA Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program: A Case Study of Implementation and Consumption in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamelske, Eric M.; Bica, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The US Department of Agriculture created its Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program (FFVP) to address poor nutrition and rising obesity among children. The FFVP allocates funding for selected elementary schools with at least 50% free/reduced price school meal enrollments to provide free fresh fruit and vegetable snacks to students.…

  20. Some mineral profiles of fresh and bottled palm wine – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some mineral profiles of fresh palm wine and those of seven brands of bottled palm wine were analysed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and the values were compared. Three of the bottled samples contained toxic levels of either Pb or Cd or both. Neither metal was detected in fresh palm wine. Zn, Cr and Ni were 2 to ...

  1. Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain: advantages and disadvantages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.; Boxstael, Van S.; Kirezieva, K.; Luning, P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract : Food safety standards in the fresh produce supply chain are discussed in view of the outcomes of a European Union Directorates General (EU DG) Research project FP7 Veg-i-Trade ‘Impact of climate change and international trade on the safety of fresh produce’. Various standards are outlined

  2. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION IMPORTED PRODUCTS § 327.21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions...

  3. Consumer preferences for fresh citrus: Impacts of demographic and behavioral characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    From 2000 to 2006, per capita consumption of fresh citrus fruit increased by 11.0%, but the relative shares of types of citrus consumed changed. Per capita consumption of the historically dominant citrus fruit, fresh oranges, experienced a continuous decline from 12.4 pounds to 7.4 pounds from 1990 ...

  4. Effect of essential oils against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on fresh herbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer awareness of fresh herbs and demand has increased in recent years due to health benefits and distinct aroma in prepared food. There are specific markets for local growers, especially for organically grown herbs. Fresh herbs have been implicated in illnesses associated with Salmonella, E. co...

  5. A Liquid Desiccant Cycle for Dehumidification and Fresh Water Supply in Controlled Environment Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Lefers, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    of food import miles and capitalizing upon the demand for fresh, tasty, and nutritious food. However, the growing of food, both indoors and outdoors, consumes huge quantities of water - as much as 70-80% of global fresh water supplies. The utilization

  6. Effects of Chitosan-Essential Oil Coatings on Safety and Quality of Fresh Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitosan coating plus different essential oils was developed and applied to fresh blueberries, in order to find environmentally friendly and healthy treatments to preserve fresh fruit quality and safety during postharvest storage. Studies were first performed in vitro where wild-type Escherichia col...

  7. Does a frozen embryo transfer ameliorate the effect of elevated progesterone seen in fresh transfer cycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Mae Wu; Patounakis, George; Connell, Matt T; Devine, Kate; DeCherney, Alan H; Levy, Michael J; Hill, Micah J

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effect of progesterone (P) on the day of trigger in fresh assisted reproduction technology (ART) transfer cycles versus its effect on subsequent frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Large private ART practice. Fresh autologous and FET cycles from 2011-2013. None. Live birth. A paired analysis of patients who underwent both a fresh transfer and subsequent FET cycle and an unpaired analysis of data from all fresh transfer cycles and all FET cycles were performed. We analyzed 1,216 paired and 4,124 unpaired cycles, and P was negatively associated with birth in fresh but not FET cycles in all analyses. Interaction testing of P and cycle type indicated P had a different association with birth in fresh versus FET cycles. When P was ≥ 2 ng/mL at the time of trigger, live birth was more likely in FET versus fresh cycles in the paired analysis (47% vs. 10%), in the unpaired analysis (51% vs. 14%), and in unpaired, good blastocyst only transfer subgroup (51% vs. 29%). Live birth was similar in FET cycles, with P ≥ 2 ng/mL versus P cycles, with P ≥ 2 ng/mL versus P cycle were negatively associated with live birth in the fresh transfer cycles but not in subsequent FET cycles. Freezing embryos and performing a subsequent FET cycle ameliorates the effect of elevated P on live-birth rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. CRYOPRESERVATION OF FRESHLY ISOLATED SYNAPTOSOMES PREPARED FROM THE CEREBRAL-CORTEX OF RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GLEITZ, J; BEILE, A; WILFFERT, B; TEGTMEIER, F

    In the present study, we established a cryopreservation method for freshly isolated synaptosomes prepared from the cerebral cortex of rats. Freshly prepared synaptosomes were either shock-frozen or frozen under temperature-controlled conditions using a programmable temperature controller. Each group

  9. Pre-Harvest light intensity affects shelf-Life of fresh-cut lettuce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkowska, I.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    The industry of fresh-cut produce is continuously growing due to increasing demand for fresh, healthy and convenient foods. However, processing of vegetables accelerates quality deterioration due to structural, physiological and biochemical changes. Therefore, the value of the produce to the

  10. Fresh and Commercially Pasteurized Orange Juice: An Analysis of the Metabolism of Flavonoid Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange juice is a rich source of flavonoids, mainly the flavanones hesperidin and narirutin, associated with health benefits in humans. The objective of this study was to analyze the uptake of flavonoids in humans after the consumption of two types of orange juice, fresh squeezed (fresh juice, FJ) a...

  11. The lycopene content in pulp ad peel of five fresh tomato varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovic, K.; Panjkota-Krbavcic, I.; Krpan, M.; Bicanic, D.D.; Vahcic, N.

    2010-01-01

    The lycopene content in pulp and peel of five fresh tomato cultivars, most common on Croatian market, was determined by spectrophotometry and the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Peels from the raw tomatoes contained more lycopene (expressed on a fresh basis) than the pulps: the ratio

  12. 76 FR 5626 - Notice and Opportunity for Hearing: SinoFresh Healthcare, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63776; File No. 0-49764] Notice and Opportunity for Hearing: SinoFresh Healthcare, Inc. January 26, 2011 Notice is hereby given that on November 1, 2010, SinoFresh Healthcare, Inc. (Applicant) filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission a Form...

  13. Fresh muscle fiber fragments on a scaffold in rats-a new concept in urogynecology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boennelycke, Marie; Christensen, Lise; Nielsen, Lene F

    2011-01-01

    To investigate if a synthetic, biodegradable scaffold with either autologous in vitro cultured muscle-derived cells or autologous fresh muscle fiber fragments could be used for tissue repair.......To investigate if a synthetic, biodegradable scaffold with either autologous in vitro cultured muscle-derived cells or autologous fresh muscle fiber fragments could be used for tissue repair....

  14. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  15. Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Hart, Jeffrey D.; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both

  16. Study on Handing Process and Quality Degradation of Oil Palm Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Sharif, Zainon Binti; Taib, Norhasnina Binti Mohd; Yusof, Mohd Sallehuddin Bin; Rahim, Mohammad Zulafif Bin; Tobi, Abdul Latif Bin Mohd; Othman, Mohd Syafiq Bin

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine the relationship between quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) and handling processes. The study employs exploratory and descriptive design, with quantitative approach and purposive sampling using self-administrated questionnaires, were obtained from 30 smallholder respondents from the Southern Region, Peninsular Malaysia. The study reveals that there was a convincing relationship between quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) and handling processes. The main handling process factors influencing quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB) were harvesting activity and handling at the plantation area. As a result, it can be deduced that the handling process factors variable explains 82.80% of the variance that reflects the quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB). The overall findings reveal that the handling process factors do play a significant role in the quality of oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFB).

  17. Fresh market to supermarket: nutrition transition insights from Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Bronwyn Alison; Dixon, Jane; Banwell, Cathy

    2010-06-01

    A preliminary investigation into different eating patterns among Thai consumers who shop at fresh markets as opposed to supermarkets in Chiang Mai. A short questionnaire adopted from a previous study was administered to the forty-four participants, who comprised supermarket users, fresh market users and people who consistently shopped at both supermarkets and fresh markets. Participants were recruited within four fresh markets and two food courts attached to supermarkets in Chiang Mai. Chiang Mai residents who agreed to participate in the study. Equal numbers were regular fresh market and supermarket users. Initial results suggest an association between shopping at supermarkets and attributing bread with culinary value. Supermarkets may be potentially significant players in the 'nutrition transition', providing Thais more convenient shopping at some cost to their healthy food choices.

  18. Quality changes and nutrient retention in fresh-cut versus whole fruits during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, María I; Aguayo, Encarna; Kader, Adel A

    2006-06-14

    The influences of processing and storage on the quality indices and nutritional content of fresh-cut fruits were evaluated in comparison to whole fruits stored for the same duration but prepared on the day of sampling. Fresh-cut pineapples, mangoes, cantaloupes, watermelons, strawberries, and kiwifruits and whole fruits were stored for up to 9 days in air at 5 degrees C. The postcutting life based on visual appearance was shorter than 6 days for fresh-cut kiwifruit and shorter than 9 days for fresh-cut pineapple, cantaloupe, and strawberry. On the other hand, fresh-cut watermelon and mango pieces were still marketable after 9 days at 5 degrees C. Losses in vitamin C after 6 days at 5 degrees C were spoil before any significant nutrient loss occurs.

  19. Effects of PLA Film Incorporated with ZnO Nanoparticle on the Quality Attributes of Fresh-Cut Apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhui; Li, Lin; Cao, Yun; Lan, Tianqing; Chen, Haiyan; Qin, Yuyue

    2017-07-31

    A novel nanopackaging film was synthesized by incorporating ZnO nanoparticles into a poly-lactic acid (PLA) matrix, and its effect on the quality of fresh-cut apple during the period of preservation was investigated at 4 ± 1 °C for 14 days. Six wt % cinnamaldehyde was added into the nano-blend film. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed a rougher cross-section of the nano-blend films and an X-ray diffraction (XRD) was carried out to determine the structure of the ZnO nanoparticles. Compared to the pure PLA film, the nano-blend film had a higher water vapor permeability (WVP) and lower oxygen permeability. With the increase of the nanoparticles (NPs) in the PLA, the elongation at break (ε) and elastic modulus (EM) increased, while tensile strength (TS) decreased. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) presented a relatively good thermostability. Most importantly, the physical and biochemical properties of the fresh-cut apple were also measured, such as weight loss, firmness, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), total phenolic content, browning index (BI), sensory quality, and microbiological level. The results indicated that nano-blend packaging films had the highest weight loss at the end of storage compared to the pure PLA film; however, nanopackaging provided a better retention of firmness, total phenolic countent, color, and sensory quality. It also had a remarkable inhibition on the growth of microorganisms. Therefore, Nano-ZnO active packaging could be used to improve the shelf-life of fresh-cut produce.

  20. Effects of Hydrological Parameters on Palm Oil Fresh Fruit Bunch Yield)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nda, M.; Adnan, M. S.; Suhadak, M. A.; Zakaria, M. S.; Lopa, R. T.

    2018-04-01

    Climate change effects and variability have been studied by many researchers in diverse geophysical fields. Malaysia produces large volume of palm oil, the effects of climate change on hydrological parameters (rainfall and precipitation) could have adverse effects on palm oil fresh fruit bunch (FFB) production with implications at both local and international market. It is important to understand the effects of climate change on crop yield to adopt new cultivation techniques and guaranteeing food security globally. Based on this background, the paper’s objective is to investigate the effects of rainfall and temperature pattern on crop yield (FFB) within five years period (2013 - 2017) at Batu Pahat District. The Man - Kendall rank technique (trend test) and statistical analyses (correlation and regression) were applied to the dataset used for the study. The results reveal that there are variabilities in rainfall and temperature from one month to the other and the statistical analysis reveals that the hydrological parameters have an insignificant effect on crop yield.

  1. Coagulation parameters as a guide for fresh frozen plasma transfusion practice: A tertiary hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Haslindawani W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The appropriate use of blood and blood products means the transfusion of safe blood products only to treat a condition leading to significant morbidity or mortality, which cannot be prevented or managed effectively by other means. The safety and effectiveness of transfusion depend on the appropriate clinical use of blood and blood products. This study was conducted to review the practice of fresh frozen plasma usage (FFP for transfusion, based on the coagulation profile, requested by various departments in the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM. Methodology: A retrospective review of blood bank records and coagulation profile results of the patients given FFP from October to December 2006, in Hospital USM was undertaken. The criteria set by the College of American Pathologists in 1994, were used as the guidelines. Results: One thousand six hundred and ninety-eight units of FFP were used during this study period. Only 806 (47.47% FFP units were deemed appropriate. 20.38% were based on studies without any coagulation tests prior to transfusion and 21.13% were transfused for mild prolongation of coagulation test results. About 6.41% requested FFP in the setting of normal coagulation results. Conclusion: Our results showed that a significant proportion of the FFP transfusion was not guided by the coagulation profile. We recommend that a continuous education on FFP transfusion may help to guide the appropriate request for FFP.

  2. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett

    2004-09-29

    Produced water is a major waste generated at the oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source of new fresh water to meet the growing demands of the state after treatment and purification. Treatment of brine generated in oil fields or produced water with an ultrafiltration membranes were the subject of this thesis. The characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for oil and suspended solids removal of produced water, coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brine were studied on lab size membrane testing equipment and a field size testing unit to test whether a viable membrane system could be used to treat produced water. Oil and suspended solids were evaluated using turbidity and oil in water measurements taken periodically. The research considered the effect of pressure and flow rate on membrane performance of produced water treatment of three commercially available membranes for oily water. The study also analyzed the flux through the membrane and any effect it had on membrane performance. The research showed that an ultrafiltration membrane provided turbidity removal of over 99% and oil removal of 78% for the produced water samples. The results indicated that the ultrafiltration membranes would be asset as one of the first steps in purifying the water. Further results on selected RO membranes showed that salt rejection of greater than 97% could be achieved with satisfactory flux and at reasonable operating cost.

  3. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  4. Fresh Kills leachate treatment and minimization study: Volume 2, Modeling, monitoring and evaluation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillos, J.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    1993-09-01

    The New York City Department of Sanitation is developing a comprehensive landfill leachate management plan for the Fresh Kills landfill, located on the western shore of Staten Island, New York. The 3000-acre facility, owned and operated by the City of New York, has been developed into four distinct mounds that correspond to areas designated as Sections 1/9, 2/8, 3/4 and 6/7. In developing a comprehensive leachate management plan, the estimating leachate flow rates is important in designing appropriate treatment alternatives to reduce the offsite migration that pollutes both surface water and groundwater resources.Estimating the leachate flow rates from Sections 1/9 and 6/7 was given priority using an available model, hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance (HELP), and a new model, flow investigation for landfill leachate (FILL). The field-scale analysis for leachate flow included data collection of the leachate mound-level from piezometers and monitoring wells installed on-site, for six months period. From the leachate mound-head contours and flow-gradients, Leachate flow rates were computed using Darcy`s Law.

  5. Digital image analysis of radial shrinkage of fresh spruce (Picea abies L.) wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Christian; Konnerth, Johannes; Rosner, Sabine

    2011-03-21

    Contact-free digital image analysis was performed of the radial shrinkage of fresh, fully saturated small spruce wood beams. An experimental test set-up was developed to ensure constant distance from the charge-coupled device camera to the sample surface as well as constant climate and light conditions during the whole experiment. Dimensional changes were observed immediately after the drying process began. An unexpected distinct effect could be observed which could not be explained by drying surface layers only. After a fast initial radial shrinkage a slowing down of the dimensional changes occurred at high mean moisture contents. A complete interruption of any dimensional changes followed. Finally, a recovery from shrinkage was even observed. It is assumed that strong negative pressure occurred in the fully saturated capillaries owing to dehydration which led to additional dimensional changes. As a consequence, the break of the water column and aeration in these capillaries finally resulted in a recovery period in the shrinkage rate due to the pressure release. After this effect, the dehydration was characterized by a phase of fast and almost linear shrinkage due to drying surface layers. Finally, the shrinkage slowed down to zero when reaching equilibrium moisture content.

  6. Considerations on Cattle Stock and Cow Fresh Milk Production in the EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha Popescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the evolution of cattle stock and cow milk production in order to point out the main trends and differences between the EU-27 member states in the period 2004-2008. The data collected from FAO Stat, 2010 have been processed calculating the fixed basis index, average annual rhythm index and also the share of each EU state in cow milk production at the EU and world level.The main trends in the EU concerning cow milk sector are the continuous decrease in cattle stock, the increase of cow milk yield under the conditions of keeping a constant milk production and also milk production per capita. In 2008, the EU-27 was raising 90,478 thou cattle, and produced 149,388 thou tons cow fresh milk. The EU -27 is placed on the 5th position for number of cattle and on the 1st position for cow milk production, producing 25.8 % of world production. The largest milk producers in the EU-27 are Germany, France, United Kingdom, Poland, Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Ireland, Romania and Denmark, whose contribution to the EU productions is 82.82 %.

  7. Morphometry and Morphology of Fresh Craters on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R. L.; Wood, C. A.; Neish, C.; Lucas, A.; Hayes, A. G.; Cassini Radar Team

    2011-12-01

    Cassini RADAR imagery obtained on Titan flyby T77 revealed a 40-km diameter fresh impact crater at 11.6° N 44.6° W. This is only the 8th crater identified with high confidence (Wood et al., 2010, Icarus 206, 334), and the 3rd (after Sinlap D=79 km and Ksa D=30 km) for which the depth can be estimated by comparing the foreshortening of the near and far walls. This "autostereo" technique yields an estimated depth of 680 m. The T77 image forms a stereo pair with the T17 discovery image of Ksa from which we estimate the depth of Ksa at 750-800 m, in close agreement with SARTopo data. The depth of Sinlap is 760 m based on SARTopo. Depth-diameter ratios for these craters thus range from 0.01 to 0.025 and the depths are comparable to but 200-400 m shallower than fresh craters of the same size on Ganymede (Bray et al., 2008, Met. Planet Sci. 43, 1979). The depth differences could be explained by initial crater morphometry, by relaxation in a different thermal environment, or (perhaps most plausibly given the bland floors of even the freshest Titan craters) to sedimentary infill. In contrast, the 18x36 km elliptical depression at Sotra Facula is much deeper than Ganymede craters of similar size (d=1500 m from stereo), supporting the conclusion that it is not an impact crater. All three craters exhibit a relatively radar-bright annulus around the outer edge of the floor, possibly as the result of mass wasting of blocky materials from the crater walls. The central part of each crater is darker. The central darker floor of the new crater is symmetrical and featureless, whereas Ksa has a bright central ring 7 km in diameter. Stereo spot heights indicate the ring is 350±100 m above the outer floor. This height is in close agreement with the scaling for Ganymede crater central peaks from Bray et al. (2008). The darker floor area of Sinlap is substantially asymmetrical with a small bright central spot whose elevation is unknown. The new crater has continuous, radar

  8. Repeated administration of fresh garlic increases memory retention in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Saida; Naz, Nosheen; Khaliq, Saima; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Darakhshan J

    2008-12-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is regarded as both a food and a medicinal herb. Increasing attention has focused on the biological functions and health benefits of garlic as a potentially major dietary component. Chronic garlic administration has been shown to enhance memory function. Evidence also shows that garlic administration in rats affects brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) levels. 5-HT, a neurotransmitter involved in a number of physiological functions, is also known to enhance cognitive performance. The present study was designed to investigate the probable neurochemical mechanism responsible for the enhancement of memory following garlic administration. Sixteen adult locally bred male albino Wistar rats were divided into control (n = 8) and test (n = 8) groups. The test group was orally administered 250 mg/kg fresh garlic homogenate (FGH), while control animals received an equal amount of water daily for 21 days. Estimation of plasma free and total tryptophan (TRP) and whole brain TRP, 5-HT, and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. For assessment of memory, a step-through passive avoidance paradigm (electric shock avoidance) was used. The results showed that the levels of plasma free TRP significantly increased (P < .01) and plasma total TRP significantly decreased (P < .01) in garlic-treated rats. Brain TRP, 5-HT, and 5-HIAA levels were also significantly increased following garlic administration. A significant improvement in memory function was exhibited by garlic-treated rats in the passive avoidance test. Increased brain 5-HT levels were associated with improved cognitive performance. The present results, therefore, demonstrate that the memory-enhancing effect of garlic may be associated with increased brain 5-HT metabolism in rats. The results further support the use of garlic as a food supplement for the enhancement of memory.

  9. Evaluating oil palm fresh fruit bunch processing in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyaoha, Kelechi E; Sakrabani, Ruben; Patchigolla, Kumar; Mouazen, Abdul M

    2018-03-01

    Three routes of oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) processing in Nigeria namely, industrial, small-scale and traditional were compared by means of determining fruit losses associated with each route. The fruits that are not recovered after each process were hand-picked and quantified in terms of crude palm oil (CPO), palm kernel (PK), mesocarp fibre (MF) and palm kernel shell (PKS). The energy value of empty fruit bunch (EFB), MF and PKS were used to determine the value of energy lost for each route. Additionally, the environmental implications of disposal of EFB were estimated, and socio-economics of the industrial and small-scale routes were related. The analysis showed that 29, 18, 75 and 27 kg of CPO, PK, MF and PKS were lost for every 1000 kg of FFB processed with the industrial route, whereas 5.6, 3.2, 1.4 and 5.1 g were lost with the small-scale route, respectively. Approximately 89 kWh and 31 kWh more energy were lost from MF and PKS with the industrial route than the other two routes, respectively. An equivalent of 6670 tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent of methane and nitrogen oxide was released due to the disposal of 29,000 tonnes of EFB from one palm oil mill. The monetary value of lost CPO per 1000 kg of FFB processed in the industrial route is more than the labour cost of processing 1000 kg of FFB in the small-scale route. The advantages of the industrial route are high throughput in terms of FFB processed per hour and high quality of CPO; however, high fruit loss is associated with it and therefore, the poorly threshed EFB is recommended to be fed into the small-scale route.

  10. Determination of trace metals in natural fresh waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, K.; Borg, H.; Korhonen, M.

    1989-06-01

    The determination method still most widely used is atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace. The natural levels of several elements are however too low to be accurately determined without any preconcentration. Besides, in sea water, the high salt content causes matric effects, which require time consuming separation steps as solvent extraction or ion exchange. The report describes two procedures for preconcentration of fresh water samples, freeze-drying and replicate injections in the furnace, respectively. The procedures are designed to be used on a routine basis. All water samples are collected in polypropylene bottles which are soaked before use in HCl 1+1, rinsed and allowed to stand until use filled with 0.1 M HNO 3 . The samples are preserved by addition of conc. HNO 3 (2 ml/l, sub boiling distilled). In the freeze-drying procedure, the samples are weighed and frozen in the pre-weighed polypropylene sampling bottles and evaporated to about one tenth of the original volume in the vaccum chamber of a freeze dryer. The samples are then weighed again for determination of the concentration factor and alayzed by graphite furnace AAS. When using the other procedure, the water samples are directly injected into the frunace for several times (2-8) before atomization and measurement of the absorption signal. The drying and ashing step is allowed to proceed after every injection. Comparisons of the two procedures have shown good agreement. The advantage of the replicate injection technique is primarily that the concentration factor is more esily controlled and repeated than by the freeze drying procedure. Further, the latter procedure sometimes suffers from precipitates being formed during the evaporation,especially in humic waters rich in iron. (12 figs., 7 tabs., 14 refs.)

  11. Consumer Acceptability of Fresh-Market Muscadine Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kelly; Sims, Charles; Odabasi, Asli; Bartoshuk, Linda; Conner, Patrick; Gray, Dennis

    2016-10-14

    The objective of this research was to investigate the acceptability of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia) genotypes (cultivars and selections) and to correlate overall liking to other quality measurements to determine the main drivers of liking. Twenty-two genotypes grown at the Univ. of Georgia-Tifton Campus were evaluated. Four retail commercial grape genotypes (Vitis vinifera and "Concord") were also evaluated for comparison. Panelists familiar with muscadine grapes used the hedonic general labeled magnitude scale (HgLMS, -100 = strongest disliking of any kind ever experienced, +100 = strongest liking of any kind ever experienced) to rate overall liking and the liking of appearance, flavor, pulp texture, and skin texture. Puncture testing was done to assess grape berry texture, and compositional attributes soluble solids and pH were also measured. The sensory results indicated that the grapes were variable with overall liking scores from 12.2 to 39.6. The factors highly correlated with overall liking scores were muscadine flavor, pulp and skin liking, while a significant negative correlation was found between skin liking and skin texture and mechanical texture measures. The muscadine grapes with the highest overall liking scores were Ga. 5-1-34 and Ga. 2-8-21. Principal component analysis confirmed that grapes with a thinner skin and a higher pH tended to group around overall liking and flavor points. These results indicate that even among panelists familiar with muscadine grapes, skin thickness is a negative characteristic. Breeding for thinner skins may be a positive step in muscadines gaining a more widespread appeal in the fresh fruit market. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Taste and aroma of fresh and stored mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietel, Zipora; Plotto, Anne; Fallik, Elazar; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Porat, Ron

    2011-01-15

    During the last decade there has been a continuous rise in consumption of fresh easy-to-peel mandarins. However, mandarins are much more perishable than other citrus fruit, mainly due to rapid deterioration in sensory acceptability after harvest. In the current review we discuss the biochemical components involved in forming the unique flavor of mandarins, and how postharvest storage operations influence taste and aroma and consequently consumer sensory acceptability. What we perceive as mandarin flavor is actually the combination of basic taste, aroma and mouth-feel. The taste of mandarins is principally governed by the levels of sugars and acids in the juice sacs and the relative ratios among them, whereas the aroma of mandarins is derived from a mixture of different aroma volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, terpenes/hydrocarbons and esters. During postharvest storage and marketing there is a gradual decrease in mandarin sensory acceptability, which has been attributed to decreases in acidity and typical mandarin flavor, paralleling an accumulation of off-flavor. Biochemical analysis of volatile and non-volatile constituents in mandarin juice demonstrated that these changes in sensory acceptability were concomitant with decreases in acidity and content of terpenes and aldehydes, which provide green, piney and citrus aroma on the one hand, and increases in ethanol fermentation metabolism products and esters on the other, which are likely to cause 'overripe' and off-flavors. Overall, we demonstrate the vast importance of the genetic background, maturity stage at harvest, commercial postharvest operation treatments, including curing, degreening and waxing, and storage duration on mandarin sensory quality. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Purification of papain from fresh latex of Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Monti

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we wish to report a method of crystallizing papain from fresh papaya latex which gave higher yields than previously reported. This method does not involve the use of sulphydryl reagents. The papain thus obtained is practically pure and shows a single band when submitted to electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel, and is identical to the papain obtained by other methods. In routine enzymatic assays, specific activity was measured using Z-gly-pNP and BAEE as substrates. Papain crystallized by this method, without the use of high concentrations of salts or thiol-containing substances such as cysteine and dithiothreitol, is obtained in the form of a complex with natural inhibitors existent in latex which can be removed by dialysis.No presente trabalho apresenta-se um método de cristalização da papaína oriunda do látex fresco de mamão, o qual apresenta uma alta produtividade em relação aos métodos previamente descritos. A metodologia aqui descrita não envolve o uso de reagentes sulfidrílicos, a papaína foi obtida de forma praticamente pura, apresentando uma simples banda quando submetida a eletroforese, e com propriedades idênticas àquelas obtidas por outros métodos. A atividade específica foi determinada utilizando Z-gly-pNP e BAEE como substrato. A papaína obtida por essa metodologia, sem uso de substâncias tais como cisteína e ditiotreitol, apresenta-se na forma de um complexo com inibidores naturais, os quais podem ser removidos por diálise.

  14. Fresh and Frozen Tissue-Engineered Three-Dimensional Bone–Ligament–Bone Constructs for Sheep Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair Following a 2-Year Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasudevan Mahalingam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available njuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL often require surgical reconstruction utilizing tendon grafts to restore knee function and stability. Some current graft options for ACL repair are associated with poor long-term outcomes. Our laboratory has fabricated tissue-engineered bone–ligament–bone (BLB constructs that demonstrate native ligament regeneration and advancement toward native ACL mechanical properties in a sheep ACL reconstruction model. Prior work has shown that freezing BLBs as a method of preservation resulted in similar outcomes compared with fresh BLBs after 6-month implantation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy of fresh and frozen BLBs. We hypothesized that both fresh and frozen BLBs would show continued regeneration of structural and functional properties toward those of native ACL after a 2-year implantation. Following removal of the native ACL, fresh (n = 2 and frozen (n = 2 BLBs were implanted arthroscopically. After 2 years of recovery, sheep were euthanized and both the experimental and contralateral hindlimbs were removed and radiographs were performed. Explanted knees were initially evaluated for joint laxity and were then further dissected for uniaxial tensile testing of the isolated ACL or BLB. Following mechanical testing, explanted contralateral ACL (C-ACL and BLBs were harvested for histology. Two years post-ACL reconstruction, fresh and frozen BLBs exhibited similar morphological and biomechanical properties as well as more advanced regeneration compared with our 6-month recovery study. These data indicate that an additional 1.5-year regeneration period allows the BLB to continue ligament regeneration in vivo. In addition, freezing the BLBs is a viable option for the preservation of the graft after fabrication.

  15. Testing periodically integrated autoregressive models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPeriodically integrated time series require a periodic differencing filter to remove the stochastic trend. A non-periodic integrated time series needs the first-difference filter for similar reasons. When the changing seasonal fluctuations for the non-periodic integrated series can be

  16. Survival of Salmonella during Drying of Fresh Ginger Root (Zingiber officinale) and Storage of Ground Ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Dana R; Sun, Lingxiang; Larkin, Emily L; Chirtel, Stuart J; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-11-01

    The survival of Salmonella on fresh ginger root (Zingiber officinale) during drying was examined using both a laboratory oven at 51 and 60°C with two different fan settings and a small commercially available food dehydrator. The survival of Salmonella in ground ginger stored at 25 and 37°C at 33% (low) and 97% (high) relative humidity (RH) was also examined. To inoculate ginger, a four-serovar cocktail of Salmonella was collected by harvesting agar lawn cells. For drying experiments, ginger slices (1 ± 0.5 mm thickness) were surface inoculated at a starting level of approximately 9 log CFU/g. Higher temperature (60°C) coupled with a slow fan speed (nonstringent condition) to promote a slower reduction in the water activity (aw) of the ginger resulted in a 3- to 4-log reduction in Salmonella populations in the first 4 to 6 h with an additional 2- to 3-log reduction by 24 h. Higher temperature with a higher fan speed (stringent condition) resulted in significantly less destruction of Salmonella throughout the 24-h period (P ginger. During storage at 97% RH, the maximum aw values were 0.85 at 25°C and 0.87 at 37°C; Salmonella was no longer detected after 25 and 5 days of storage, respectively, under these conditions. At 33% RH, the aw stabilized to approximately 0.35 at 25°C and 0.31 at 37°C. Salmonella levels remained relatively constant throughout the 365-day and 170-day storage periods for the respective temperatures. These results indicate a relationship between temperature and aw and the survival of Salmonella during both drying and storage of ginger.

  17. Early Impacts of a Healthy Food Distribution Program on the Availability and Price of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables in Small Retail Venues in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFosset, Amelia R; Gase, Lauren N; Webber, Eliza; Kuo, Tony

    2017-10-01

    Healthy food distribution programs that allow small retailers to purchase fresh fruits and vegetables at wholesale prices may increase the profitability of selling produce. While promising, little is known about how these programs affect the availability of fresh fruits and vegetables in underserved communities. This study examined the impacts of a healthy food distribution program in Los Angeles County over its first year of operation (August 2015-2016). Assessment methods included: (1) a brief survey examining the characteristics, purchasing habits, and attitudes of stores entering the program; (2) longitudinal tracking of sales data examining changes in the volume and variety of fruits and vegetables distributed through the program; and (3) the collection of comparison price data from wholesale market databases and local grocery stores. Seventeen stores participated in the program over the study period. One-fourth of survey respondents reported no recent experience selling produce. Analysis of sales data showed that, on average, the total volume of produce distributed through the program increased by six pounds per week over the study period (95% confidence limit: 4.50, 7.50); trends varied by store and produce type. Produce prices offered through the program approximated those at wholesale markets, and were lower than prices at full-service grocers. Results suggest that healthy food distribution programs may reduce certain supply-side barriers to offering fresh produce in small retail venues. While promising, more work is needed to understand the impacts of such programs on in-store environments and consumer behaviors.

  18. Implant-buccal plate distance as diagnostic parameter: a prospective cohort study on implant placement in fresh extraction sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Matteo; Testori, Tiziano; Galli, Fabio; Zuffetti, Francesco; Motroni, Alessandro; Weinstein, Roberto; Del Fabbro, Massimo

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate contour changes around immediate implants in fresh extraction sockets when different grafting procedures are performed, based on the distance between the external implant collar and the bony surface on the buccal plate (I-BP). A secondary aim is to assess the esthetic outcome via the implant esthetic score (IAS). This prospective cohort study was performed in three centers. Suitable patients to undergo implant placement in fresh extraction sockets were selected. Periodontal biotype, horizontal and vertical peri-implant bone defects, and dehiscences were assessed. Depending on I-BP, two types of grafting procedures were performed. In group A (I-BP sockets. No implant failed during the observation period. The mean follow-up was 25 months (range: 12 to 37 months). After 1 year of loading, group A showed a slight decrease in mean buccal volume, whereas group B had an increase in volume (P = 0.02). IAS was higher for group B than group A. When implants are placed immediately after tooth extraction, I-BP may represent a useful diagnostic parameter in choosing the most appropriate grafting procedure (IG versus IEG). In clinical cases in which the distance between implant surface and the buccal plate is <4 mm, the combination of internal and external grafting (IEG) is recommended to maintain the volume and the contour of the ridge and achieve a successful esthetic outcome.

  19. Exploring the effects of inclusion of dietary fresh Azolla on the performance of White Pekin broiler ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Parag; Mohanty, G P; Pradhan, C R; Mishra, S K; Beura, N C; Moharana, B

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the dietary advantages of inclusion of unconventional nutrient source, i.e., Azolla in the basal diet of White Pekin broilers. All ducklings were randomly distributed into three treatment groups with three replicates each and each replicate having 12 ducklings and were reared in deep litter system. Groups were subjected to three dietary treatments such as G1: Basal diet, G2: Basal diet + 5% fresh Azolla of basal diet, G3: Basal diet + 10% fresh Azolla of basal diet. During experimental period, parameters, such as bodyweight, bodyweight gain, feed consumption,feed conversion ratio(FCR), and economic of production,wererecorded. The result showed that body weights in every week, except the 5(th) week, did not differ significantly between groups. However, no significant difference was observed between the groups in any week in terms of absolute body weight gain and feed consumption. As regard to FCR, the 10% Azolla group (G3) showed the best feed efficiency followed by the 5% Azolla group (G2) and the control group (G1). On the basis of profit/bird or profit/kg live weight, each of the Azolla-fed group showed a higher economic efficiency than the control. From the experiment, it was concluded that Azollaat 5 or 10% level can be included in the diet to economize the White Pekin broiler farming, and it can be great impetus to poultry farming to include unconventional nutrient source as a dietary supplement.

  20. Fresh onion juice enhanced copulatory behavior in male rats with and without paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouh, Mohammed Z; Daradka, Haytham M; Al Barbarawi, Mohammed M; Mustafa, Ayman G

    2014-02-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is one of the most commonly cultivated species of the family Liliaceae, and has long been used in dietary and therapeutic applications. Treatment with fresh onion juice has been reported to promote testosterone production in male rats. Testosterone is the male sex hormone responsible for enhancing sexual libido and potency. This study aimed to investigate the effects of onion juice on copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats and in male rats with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction. Sexually experienced male rats were divided into seven groups: a control group, three onion juice-treated groups, a paroxetine-treated group, and two groups treated with paroxetine plus different doses of onion juice. At the end of the treatments, sexual behavior parameters and testosterone levels were measured and compared among the groups. Administration of onion juice significantly reduced mount frequency and latency and increased the copulatory efficacy of potent male rats. In addition, administration of onion juice attenuated the prolonged ejaculatory latency period induced by paroxetine and increased the percentage of ejaculating rats. Serum testosterone levels increased significantly by onion juice administration. However, a significant reduction in testosterone because of paroxetine therapy was observed. This reduction was restored to normal levels by administration of onion juice. This study conclusively demonstrates that fresh onion juice improves copulatory behavior in sexually potent male rats and in those with paroxetine-induced sexual dysfunction by increasing serum testosterone levels.

  1. Study on freshness quality and post-harvest loss of Hilsa (Tenualosa Ilisha during marketing in Mymensingh town, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Chandra Ray

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to know the freshness quality and associated post-harvest loss of hilsa, if any, transported to Mymensingh from the major landing centers through Cox’s Bazar-Chittagong (route A and Barguna-Chandpur (route B routes for a period of July to October 2012. The average environmental temperature of the wholesale and retail markets was 30.7 °C and 30.6 °C where the body temperature of hilsa was 4.5 °C (route A and 4.7 °C (route B, respectively. The Freshness quality of hilsa was assessed using sensory defects points (DPs that eventually gave rise to numerical values ‘1’ being the freshest and ‘5’ being the worst quality. The DPs of hilsa were found 2.0, which reveal that the fishes were in excellent conditions, i.e., there was no significant post-harvest loss even during retail sale. DPs on arrival and at wholesale in July, September and October were significantly different after auction and during retail sale (p<0.05, and in August differed significantly only during retail sale (p<0.05. It was observed that hilsa transported to Mymensingh from Barguna-Chandpur were better in quality than those transported from Cox’s Bazar-Chittagong. The reason behind this finding was not studied and this needs to be elucidated through further research.

  2. Alginate coating as carrier of oligofructose and inulin and to maintain the quality of fresh-cut apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössle, Christian; Brunton, Nigel; Gormley, Ronan T; Wouters, Rudy; Butler, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply an edible coating containing prebiotics such as oligofructose and inulin to fresh-cut apple wedges. An assessment of the quality, sensory, polyphenol, and volatile attributes of coated and uncoated fresh-cut apple wedges was also undertaken. Fructan analysis showed that all prebiotics remained stable over the 14-d storage period and an intake of 100 g of apple supplies 1 to 3 g of prebiotics. Browning index, firmness, acidity remained stable throughout the 14 d compared to the control while applying prebiotic coatings resulted in an increase in soluble solids. Sensory and visual assessment indicated acceptable quality of apple wedges coated with prebiotics. HPLC analysis showed that levels of polyphenolic compounds were more stable in coated apple wedges (without prebiotic inclusions) than in uncoated control apples. No difference was found between O(2) and CO(2) headspace concentration of coated and uncoated samples. Significant differences (P < 0.001) were found for headspace volatile production between the samples. Most coated samples showed lower volatile production in the headspace than uncoated samples.

  3. DETERMINATION OF MINERAL CONTAIN AND BACTERIA CONTAMINANT ON ORGANIC AND NONORGANIC FRESH VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsojo Harsojo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of mineral content and bacteria contaminant on fresh vegetable of long bean (Vegan ungulate Wall., white cabbage (Basic tolerance L., and lettuce (Lectuca sativa L. that cultivated by organic and nonorganic system have been done. The mineral content has been analyzed using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy method, while bacteria contaminant by total plate count number using Nutrient Agar, Mac Conkey Agar, Baird Parker medium, and Salmonella using selective medium. The results showed that there are some essential mineral such as Fe, Zn, Ca, Co, and nonessential mineral Cd. There is tendency that fresh vegetable that cultivated by organic system contained Fe, Zn, Ca, Co and Cd mineral less than nonorganic. The Zn mineral content in nonorganic of fresh vegetable were higher than the limit of threshold number from Health Department, Republic of Indonesia (2004, while Cd mineral in organic or nonorganic of fresh vegetable were greater then threshold number from Codex Alimentarius Commision. The measurement of bacteria contaminant on organic and nonorganic of fresh vegetables contained aerob, coli, and Staphylococcus bacteria in organic of fresh vegetables were less compared to nonorganic of fresh vegetables.   Keywords: mineral, bacteria aerob, coli, Staphylococcus, Salmonella, organic, and nonorganic vegetable, neutron activation

  4. Effect of intramuscular injection of butafosfan and cobalamin on the quality of Fresh and Cooled Stallion Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Cazales Penino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of butafosfan in combination with cobalamin modulates many cellular metabolic functions in several species. Its use enhances productive and reproductive performance and reduces stress responses in animals. Despite all these attributes, so far there have been no controlled studies to evaluate the effects of butafosfan and cobalamin on the quality of stallion semen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the action of butafosfan in combination with cobalamin on the quality of fresh and cooled stallion semen. Four healthy stallions were kept in the same place and under the same management conditions during the entire experiment. Stallions were randomly assigned to two treatment groups in a 2x2 crossover design. Group A stallions were treated with an intramuscular injection of butafosfan twice a week for 80 days, while group B did not receive any treatment. After that, both groups were not treated for another 80 days allowing a washout period for the treated group. Then, the groups were reversed, and group B was treated with butafosfan and group A acted as the control for another 80 days. Semen was collected twice a week, diluted in skim milk and evaluated for total sperm count, total and progressive sperm motility, membrane integrity (CFDA/PI staining and membrane functionality (HOS test at 0 and 24 hours after preservation at 5ºC. Data were analyzed by comparing the values obtained from the treated stallions between the 60th and 84th days of treatment and the values obtained from the same stallion during the control period. The ejaculates of the washout period and between days 1 and 63 of treatment were not considered. A total of 85 ejaculates were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Means were compared by the Tukey test at the 5% level of significance. No significant differences were observed in fresh and cooled semen regarding the total sperm count, total motility, progressive motility, membrane integrity and membrane functionality in the

  5. Characterization and Application of Autochthonous Starter Cultures for Fresh Cheese Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Leboš Pavunc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of commercial starter cultures in fresh cheese production from pasteurized milk results in the loss of typical characteristics of artisan fresh cheese due to the replacement of complex native microbiota with a defined starter culture. Hence, the aim of this research is to isolate and characterize dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB in artisan fresh cheese and to evaluate their capacity as autochthonous starter cultures for fresh cheese production. Fifteen most prevalent Gram-positive, catalase-negative and asporogenous bacterial strains were selected for a more detailed characterization. Eleven lactic acid bacterial strains were determined to be homofermentative cocci and four heterofermentative lactobacilli. Further phenotypic and genotypic analyses revealed that those were two different LAB strains with high acidifying and proteolytic activity, identified as Lactobacillus fermentum A8 and Enterococcus faecium A7. These two autochthonous strains, alone or in combination with commercial starter, were used to produce different types of fresh cheese, which were evaluated by a panel. Conventional culturing, isolation, identification and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE procedures, applied to the total fresh cheese DNA extracts, were employed to define and monitor the viability of the introduced LAB strains and their effect on the final product characteristics. Production of fresh cheese using a combination of commercial starter culture and selected autochthonous strains resulted in improved sensorial properties, which were more similar to the ones of spontaneously fermented fresh cheese than to those of cheese produced with only starter culture or selected strains. After 10 days of storage, that cheese retained the best sensorial properties in comparison with all other types of cheese. The presence of inoculated autochthonous and starter cultures and their identification was demonstrated by DGGE analysis. The obtained

  6. Effect of supplementation with fresh orange pulp (Citrus sinensis) on mortality, growth performance, slaughter traits and sensory characteristics in meat guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, C; Calvo, A

    2018-06-05

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) with fresh orange pulp (Citrus sinensis) in a diet fed to guinea pigs on their mortality, growth performance, slaughter traits and sensory characteristics during the fattening period. A total of 450 guinea pigs were housed in collective pens of ~10 animals. Animals were divided into three groups: Control group (CG), supplied with fresh alfalfa as forage and treatment groups (G15 and G30), in which 15 and 30% of alfalfa was replaced by orange pulp, respectively. No significant differences were found between CG and G15 for traits studied. However, G30 showed the lowest values for growth and carcass traits. No significant differences were found for sensory characteristics. In conclusion, a moderate inclusion of orange pulp could contribute to diminishing dependence of alfalfa on guinea pig meat production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Testing the Performance of Fresh Tomato Markets Following Import ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings reveal that price transmission and adjustments parameters, key indicators of market performance, declined following the actual liberalization of Ghana's agricultural markets. It appears that the underlying factors responsible for the performance of the tomato markets deteriorated over the period of the study.

  8. Experimental research on fresh mussel meat irradiated by high-dose electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Lin; Lu Ruifeng; Hu Huachao; Wang Chaoqi; Liu Yanna

    2011-01-01

    The sterilization storage of fresh mussel irradiated high-dose electron beam was studied. From the subjective assessment by the weighted average of the test and other determined parameters, it can be concluded that the flavor of fresh mussel meat sealed canned food irradiated by high-dose electron beam has not been significant affected, and various micro-organisms can be killed effectively, which means that the irradiated fresh mussel meat can be preserved for long-term at room temperature. Therefore the method might resolve the problems induced by traditional frozen preservation methods. (authors)

  9. A comprehensive approach to evaluate the freshness of strawberries and carrots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peneau, S.; Brockhoff, Per B.; Escher, F.

    2007-01-01

    of strawberries and carrots that varied in cultivar, as well as with time and conditions of storage. Product characteristics measured by descriptive sensory and physico-chemical analyses were related to consumer and expert panel (individual and consensus) ratings of freshness. Results showed that a large number...... of attributes contributed to the freshness of strawberries and carrots and that those were also indicators of the physiological ageing of these products. Our results suggest that consumer evaluation of fruit and vegetable freshness corresponds to an evaluation of this ageing process through the observation...

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on curcuminoids and volatile oils of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, R.; Mishra, B. B.; Khaleel, K. M.

    2011-11-01

    In our earlier study a radiation dose of 5 kGy was reported to be suitable for microbial decontamination and shelf life extension of fresh turmeric ( Curcuma longa), while maintaining its quality attributes. In continuation of that work, the effect of gamma radiation on curcuminoids and volatile oil constituents in fresh turmeric was studied. Fresh peeled turmeric rhizomes were gamma irradiated at doses of 1, 3 and 5 kGy. Curcuminoid content and volatile oils were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The curcuminoid content was slightly increased by gamma irradiation. No statistically significant changes were observed due to irradiation in majority of the volatile oil constituents.

  11. Periodic feedback stabilization for linear periodic evolution equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Gengsheng

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces a number of recent advances regarding periodic feedback stabilization for linear and time periodic evolution equations. First, it presents selected connections between linear quadratic optimal control theory and feedback stabilization theory for linear periodic evolution equations. Secondly, it identifies several criteria for the periodic feedback stabilization from the perspective of geometry, algebra and analyses respectively. Next, it describes several ways to design periodic feedback laws. Lastly, the book introduces readers to key methods for designing the control machines. Given its coverage and scope, it offers a helpful guide for graduate students and researchers in the areas of control theory and applied mathematics.

  12. 77 FR 777 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... antidumping duty order fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), pursuant to section 751(c... the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC pursuant to section...

  13. 78 FR 40428 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic from the People... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) meet the statutory and regulatory requirements... INFORMATION: Background The Department published the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC in...

  14. 76 FR 775 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... Department) issued the preliminary results of the new shipper review of fresh garlic from the People's... Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of New Shipper Reviews and...

  15. 76 FR 68128 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Partial Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... notice of initiation of an administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China... limit to issue the preliminary results by 100 days. See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China...

  16. 77 FR 17409 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... of the administrative review are currently due no later than April 5, 2012. \\1\\ See Fresh Garlic From... Part, the 2009-2010 Administrative Review, 76 FR 65172 (October 20, 2011). \\2\\ See Fresh Garlic From...

  17. 76 FR 10335 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China. See Initiation of Antidumping and... duty administrative review. See Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

  18. 75 FR 32362 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... Department of Commerce (Department) initiated new shipper reviews of fresh garlic from the People's Republic..., 2008 through October 31, 2009. See Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New...

  19. 78 FR 88 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) meets the statutory and regulatory requirements... The Department published the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC in the Federal...

  20. 75 FR 19364 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limits for Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic from the People... (Department) published the initiation of an administrative review of fresh garlic from the People's Republic... the preliminary results of this antidumping duty administrative review. See Fresh Garlic From the...

  1. 77 FR 38583 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC.... 2010) (Diamond Sawblades). \\6\\ See Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Final Results and...

  2. 78 FR 18316 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... reviews (NSRs) of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC) \\1... rescinding the NSRs of both Fuyi and Maycarrier. \\1\\ See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China...

  3. 76 FR 13983 - Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of China: Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic from the People... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... Greening. See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial Rescission of the...

  4. 75 FR 62500 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan... importation into the continental United States of fresh strawberries from Jordan. Based on this analysis, we... importation of fresh strawberries from Jordan. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public...

  5. Formation of trichloromethane in chlorinated water and fresh-cut produce and as a result of reacting with citric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorine (sodium hypochlorite) is commonly used by the fresh produce industry to sanitize wash water, fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. However, possible formation of harmful chlorine by-products is a concern. The objectives of this study were to compare chlorine and chlorine dioxide in t...

  6. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  7. [The Advances in the Contamination and Detection of Foodborne Pathogen Noroviruses in Fresh Produce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yajing; Liu, Xianjin

    2015-11-01

    This article reviewed the researches proceeding on the contamination and detection of the foodborne pathogen noroviruses (NoVs) in fresh produce, which involved the NoVs contaminations in fresh produce, the special attachment of NoVs in fresh produce, the NoVs outbreaks associated with fresh produce and the NoVs detection in fresh produce. There had been an increase in reported infectious disease risks associated with the consumptions of fresh produce for recent 30 years. Because the NoVs, as a primary cause of viral gastroenteritis thoughout the world, were highly contagious, had a low infectious dose, and were persistent in the environment. And also the methods for NoVs detection in food had significantly developed over the last 15 years. Currently NoVs were the most common pathogen accounting for 40% of outbreaks associated with fresh produce (i. e., fruits and vegetables). Data from outbreaks investigations verified fresh produce as the high risk food products for NoVs. The fresh produce were typically eaten raw with no thermal processing, can be contaminated at any step during production and processing from faecally polluted water and fertilizers, the poor hygiene practices by food handlers and the cross-contamination. The attachment of NoVs to the fresh produce was due to the physio-chemical factors of virus protein coat, the special attachment to different fresh produce, and the possibility for internalization of NoVs. It might provide answers to why those high risk foods were more frequently implicated (i. e., lettuce and raspberries). According to the data of foodborne NoVs outbreaks which were associated with fresh produce from EU countries and the USA, the outbreaks in EU countries were mainly associated with NoVs contaminated raspberries and lettuce, while in USA which were associated with NoVs contaminated lettuce. Unfortunately, there were no NoVs detection methods for fresh produce or the data of foodborne NoVs outbreaks which were associated with

  8. Quality control of fresh sweet corn in controlled freezing-point storage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... preservation technology in subzero non-frozen tempera- ture range to ... method for sweet corn which possessed high respiration rate and sugar ..... to extend the shelf life of fresh cod (Gadus morhua) loins. J. Food Sci.

  9. Breeding highbush blueberry cultivars adapted to machine harvest for the fresh market

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, world blueberry production has been split evenly between processing and fresh fruit markets. Machine harvest of highbush blueberry [northern highbush (NHB, Vaccinium corymbosum L.), southern highbush (SHB, Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids), and rabbiteye (RE, Vaccinium vi...

  10. Endurance Pump Tests With Fresh and Purified MIL-PRF-83282 Hydraulic Fluid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharma, Shashi

    1999-01-01

    .... Two endurance pump tests were conducted with F-16 aircraft hydraulic pumps, using both fresh and purified MIL-PRF-83282 hydraulic fluid, to determine if fluid purification had any adverse effect on pump life...

  11. Gamma Irradiation Effects On Thiamin And Riboflavin On Fresh Tuna (Thunnus thynnus) And Salmon (Onchorhynchus gorbuscha)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanhindarto, Rindy P.; Fox, J.B.; Lakritz, L.; Thayer, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    An experiment have been conducted on the effect of gamma irradiation on thiamine and riboflavin in fresh tuna and salmon. Samples were irradiated at (20 ± 0,5) oC by gamma rays with doses of 0; 2,5 and 5 kGy. The purpose of the present experiment was to study on changes of thiamine and riboflavin contents on extraction of fresh tuna and salmon after and before irradiation. The results showed that irradiation up to 2,5 kGy changed the thiamine and riboflavin contents on fresh tuna as well as their destruction which was significantly increasing caused by irradiated treatment with the dose of 5 kGy. The fresh salmon did not significantly change of the thiamine and riboflavin contents treated by irradiation up to 5 kGy

  12. Differentiation of fresh and frozen-thawed fish samples using Raman spectroscopy coupled with chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velioğlu, Hasan Murat; Temiz, Havva Tümay; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2015-04-01

    The potential of Raman spectroscopy was investigated in terms of its capability to discriminate the species of the fish samples and determine their freshness according to the number of freezing/thawing cycles they exposed. Species discrimination analysis was carried out on sixty-four fish samples from six different species, namely horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), red mullet (Mullus surmuletus), Bluefish (Pomatamus saltatrix), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and flying gurnard (Trigla lucerna). Afterwards, fish samples were exposed to different numbers of freezing/thawing cycles and separated into three batches, namely (i) fresh, (ii) once frozen-thawed (OF) and (iii) twice frozen-thawed (TF) samples, in order to perform the freshness analysis. Raman data collected were used as inputs for chemometric analysis, which enabled us to develop two main PCA models to successfully terminate the studies for both species discrimination and freshness determination analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Atmospheric moisture transport and fresh water flux over oceans derived from spacebased sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. T.; Tang, W.

    2001-01-01

    preliminary results will be shown to demonstrate the application of spacebased IMT and fresh water flux in ocean-atmosphere-land interaction studies, such as the hydrologica balance on Amazon rainfall and Indian monsoon.

  14. Are adequate methods available to detect protist parasites on fresh produce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human parasitic protists such as Cryptosporidium, Giardia and microsporidia contaminate a variety of fresh produce worldwide. Existing detection methods lack sensitivity and specificity for most foodborne parasites. Furthermore, detection has been problematic because these parasites adhere tenacious...

  15. Study on low pressure evaporation of fresh water generation system model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Han Shik; Wibowo, Supriyanto; Shin, Yong Han; Jeong, Hyo Min [Gyeongsang National University, Tongyeong (Korea, Republic of); Fajar, Berkah [University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2012-02-15

    A low pressure evaporation fresh water generation system is designed for converting brackish water or seawater into fresh water by distillation in low pressure and temperature. Distillation through evaporation of feed water and subsequent vapor condensation as evaporation produced fresh water were studied; tap water was employed as feed water. The system uses the ejector as a vacuum creator of the evaporator, which is one of the most important parts in the distillation process. Hence liquid can be evaporated at a lower temperature than at normal or atmospheric conditions. Various operating conditions, i.e. temperature of feed water and different orifice diameters, were applied in the experiment to investigate the characteristics of the system. It was found that these parameters have a significant effect on the performance of fresh water generation systems with low pressure evaporation.

  16. 75 FR 343 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... from Zhengzhou Huachao Industrial Co., Ltd. (Huachao) in accordance with 19 CFR 351.214(c) and 351.214... establishing the following: (1) the date on which it first shipped fresh garlic for export to the United States...

  17. Factors influencing the marketing of fresh fish in Ogun State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing the marketing of fresh fish in Ogun State, Nigeria. ... The market prices of Clarias spp. ranged between □250 □400/Kg and the farmers were mostly patronized by retailers. Fish farm ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  18. Antimüllerian hormone as a predictor of live birth following assisted reproduction: an analysis of 85,062 fresh and thawed cycles from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System database for 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Reshef; Seifer, David B; Wantman, Ethan; Baker, Valerie; Tal, Oded

    2018-02-01

    To determine if serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) is associated with and/or predictive of live birth assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes. Retrospective analysis of Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System database from 2012 to 2013. Not applicable. A total of 69,336 (81.8%) fresh and 15,458 (18.2%) frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles with AMH values. None. Live birth. A total of 85,062 out of 259,499 (32.7%) fresh and frozen-thawed autologous non-preimplantation genetic diagnosis cycles had AMH reported for cycles over this 2-year period. Of those, 70,565 cycles which had embryo transfers were included in the analysis. Serum AMH was significantly associated with live birth outcome per transfer in both fresh and FET cycles. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that AMH is an independent predictor of live birth in fresh transfer cycles and FET cycles when controlling for age, body mass index, race, day of transfer, and number of embryos transferred. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves demonstrated that the areas under the curve (AUC) for AMH as predictors of live birth in fresh cycles and thawed cycles were 0.631 and 0.540, respectively, suggesting that AMH alone is a weak independent predictor of live birth after ART. Similar ROC curves were obtained also when elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) cycles were analyzed separately in either fresh (AUC 0.655) or FET (AUC 0.533) cycles, although AMH was not found to be an independent predictor in eSET cycles. AMH is a poor independent predictor of live birth outcome in either fresh or frozen embryo transfer for both eSET and non-SET transfers. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)

  20. On-line monitoring of water amount in fresh concrete by radioactive-wave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemi, T.; Arai, M.; Enomoto, S.; Suzki, K.; Kumahara, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The committee on nondestructive inspection for steel reinforced concrete structures in the Federation of Construction Materials Industries, Japan has published a proposed standard for on-line monitoring of water amount in fresh concrete by the radioactive wave method. By applying a neutron technique, water amount in fresh concrete is estimated continuously from the energy consumption of neutron due to hydrogen. A standard is discussed along with results of verification tests. Thus, on-line monitoring for water amount is proposed