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Sample records for perinatal dietary choline

  1. Dietary Reference Values for choline

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    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  2. Neuroprotective Actions of Dietary Choline

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    Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient for humans. It is a precursor of membrane phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine (PC, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and via betaine, the methyl group donor S-adenosylmethionine. High choline intake during gestation and early postnatal development in rat and mouse models improves cognitive function in adulthood, prevents age-related memory decline, and protects the brain from the neuropathological changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and neurological damage associated with epilepsy, fetal alcohol syndrome, and inherited conditions such as Down and Rett syndromes. These effects of choline are correlated with modifications in histone and DNA methylation in brain, and with alterations in the expression of genes that encode proteins important for learning and memory processing, suggesting a possible epigenomic mechanism of action. Dietary choline intake in the adult may also influence cognitive function via an effect on PC containing eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids; polyunsaturated species of PC whose levels are reduced in brains from AD patients, and is associated with higher memory performance, and resistance to cognitive decline.

  3. The nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics of the dietary requirement for choline.

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    Corbin, Karen D; Zeisel, Steven H

    2012-01-01

    Advances in nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics have been instrumental in demonstrating that nutrient requirements vary among individuals. This is exemplified by studies of the nutrient choline, in which gender, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, estrogen status, and gut microbiome composition have been shown to influence its optimal intake level. Choline is an essential nutrient with a wide range of biological functions, and current studies are aimed at refining our understanding of its requirements and, importantly, on defining the molecular mechanisms that mediate its effects in instances of suboptimal dietary intake. This chapter introduces the reader to challenges in developing individual nutrition recommendations, the biological function of choline, current and future research paradigms to fully understand the consequences of inadequate choline nutrition, and some forward thinking about the potential for individualized nutrition recommendations to become a tangible application for improved health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of dietary protein and excess methionine on choline needs for young bobwhite quail

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    Serafin, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with young Bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) to investigate the effect of differing dietary protein levels and nondetrimental amounts of excess methionine on choline needs. Growth and feed consumption of quail fed an adequate (27.3%) protein purified diet supplemented with 2000 mg/kg of choline were unaffected by increasing the level of excess methionine to 1.75%; however, greater amounts (2.0%, 2.25%) of excess methionine depressed growth (P less than .01), reduced feed consumption (P less than .01), and decreased feed utilization (P less than .05). Quail fed a purified diet containing 13.85% protein and 515 mg/kg of choline grew poorly. Growth was unaffected by additional choline in this diet. Growth was suboptimal among quail fed purified diets containing adequate or high (41.55%) levels of protein in which choline was limiting; however, a high level of protein did not in itself affect performance. Growth was improved by supplemental choline in these diets. Growth of quail fed purified diets with up to 1.35% excess methionine which were limiting (531 mg/kg) in choline was less than that of groups fed 2000 mg/kg of added dietary choline (P less than .01); however, excess methionine did not significantly influence growth of quail fed choline-deficient diets. These experiments indicate that neither high dietary protein nor excess methionine, fed at non-growth-depressing levels, increases dietary choline needs for young Bobwhite quail.

  5. Dietary restriction of choline reduces hippocampal acetylcholine release in rats: in vivo microdialysis study.

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    Nakamura, A; Suzuki, Y; Umegaki, H; Ikari, H; Tajima, T; Endo, H; Iguchi, A

    2001-12-01

    We fed rats with a diet deficient in choline for 12 weeks and studied how dietary choline deficiency affected their behavior and their ability to release acetylcholine in discrete regions of rat brain using step-through passive avoidance task and in vivo microdialysis. In comparison with the control, rats fed the choline-deficient diet showed poorer retention of nociceptive memory in the passive avoidance task. Average choline level in cerebrospinal fluid in the choline-deficient group was significantly less (33.1%) than that of control rats. In vivo microdialysis showed no difference in the pattern of acetylcholine release enhanced by intraperitoneal administration of scopolamine hydrochloride (2 mg/kg) in the striatum between the two groups, whereas in the hippocampus, the maximum and subsequent increase of acetylcholine from the baseline by scopolamine injection was significantly lower in the choline-deficient group than in the control. From the results of our study, we speculate that long-term dietary restriction of choline can affect extra- and intracellular sources of substrates required for acetylcholine synthesis, and eventually limit the ability to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus. Reduced capacity to release acetylcholine in the hippocampus implies that the mechanism, maintaining acetylcholine synthesis on increased neuronal demand, may vary in discrete regions of the brain in response to dietary manipulation. The vulnerability of the mechanism in the hippocampus to dietary choline restriction is indicated by impaired mnemonic performance we observed.

  6. Higher Dietary Choline and Betaine Intakes Are Associated with Better Body Composition in the Adult Population of Newfoundland, Canada.

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    Xiang Gao

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient and betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor. Both are important to maintain health including adequate lipid metabolism. Supplementation of dietary choline and betaine increase muscle mass and reduce body fat in animals. However, little data is available regarding the role of dietary choline and betaine on body composition in humans.To investigate the association between dietary choline and betaine intakes with body composition in a large population based cross-sectional study.A total of 3214 subjects from the CODING (Complex Disease in Newfoundland population: Environment and Genetics study were assessed. Dietary choline and betaine intakes were computed from the Willett Food Frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry following a 12-hour fast. Major confounding factors including age, sex, total calorie intake and physical activity level were controlled in all analyses.Significantly inverse correlations were found between dietary choline and betaine intakes, with all obesity measurements: total percent body fat (%BF, percent trunk fat (%TF, percent android fat (%AF, percent gynoid fat (%GF and anthropometrics: weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio in both women and men (r range from -0.13 to -0.47 for choline and -0.09 to -0.26 for betaine, p<0.001 for all. Dietary choline intake had stronger association than betaine. Moreover, obese subjects had the lowest dietary choline and betaine intakes, with overweight subjects in the middle, and normal weight subjects consumed the highest dietary choline and betaine (p<0.001. Vice versa, when subjects were ranked according to dietary choline and betaine intakes, subjects with the highest intake of both had the lowest %TF, %AF, %GF, %BF and highest %LM among the groups in both sexes.Our findings indicate that high dietary choline and betaine intakes are significantly associated with favorable body

  7. Dietary Intake and Plasma Levels of Choline and Betaine in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

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    Joanna C. Hamlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism have been reported in many children with autism. Because inadequate choline and betaine can negatively affect folate metabolism and in turn downstream methylation and antioxidant capacity, we sought to determine whether dietary intake of choline and betaine in children with autism was adequate to meet nutritional needs based on national recommendations. Three-day food records were analyzed for 288 children with autism (ASDs who participated in the national Autism Intervention Research Network for Physical Health (AIR-P Study on Diet and Nutrition in children with autism. Plasma concentrations of choline and betaine were measured in a subgroup of 35 children with ASDs and 32 age-matched control children. The results indicated that 60–93% of children with ASDs were consuming less than the recommended Adequate Intake (AI for choline. Strong positive correlations were found between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of choline and betaine in autistic children as well as lower plasma concentrations compared to the control group. We conclude that choline and betaine intake is inadequate in a significant subgroup of children with ASDs and is reflected in lower plasma levels. Inadequate intake of choline and betaine may contribute to the metabolic abnormalities observed in many children with autism and warrants attention in nutritional counseling.

  8. Behavioural effects of chronic manipulations of dietary choline in senescent rats.

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    Fundaro, A; Paschero, A

    1990-01-01

    1. Senescent rats were maintained on choline-deficient and choline-enriched diets. The modifications in rat behaviour caused by the chronic manipulations of dietary choline were studied in two schedules of operant conditioning. 2. In the "periodic conditioning" test, the schedule of reinforcement, in a 100 min trial, was changed from a fixed ratio to a fixed interval schedule. In the "reversal" test the contingency for food delivery was switched four times from one lever to the other in a two lever Skinner box. 3. In the "periodic conditioning" test, the choline enriched group (430 mg/Kg/day) showed the same reduction of responses/reinforcement as controls, from the beginning to the end of trial; in the same group the time course reduction of responses/reinforcement became significant earlier than in the control group. The deficient-choline group in the last 40 min of "periodic conditioning" trial gave a reduction of responses/reinforcement greater than controls and one rat in the group did not learn the change of experimental schedule and extinguished its operant behaviour. 4. In the "reversal" test, the choline-enriched diet (320 mg/Kg/day) improved the reinforced responses in the IV reversal; one rat of the deficient-choline group could not learn the new operant schedule since the first reversal and continued to respond on the same lever during the whole of the test.

  9. Prospective study on dietary intakes of folate, betaine, and choline and cardiovascular disease risk in women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmeijer, G.W.; Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.; Bots, M.L.; van der Schouw, Y.T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between dietary intakes of folate, betaine and choline and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 16165 women aged 49-70 years without prior CVD. Subjects were breast cancer screening participants in

  10. Dietary folate and choline status differentially affect lipid metabolism and behavior-mediated neurotransmitters in young rats

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    The relationship between choline and folate metabolisms is an important issue due to the essential role of these nutrients in brain plasticity and cognitive functions. Present study was designed to investigate whether modification of the dietary folate-choline status in young rats would affect brain...

  11. Dietary choline levels modify the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

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    Idrus, Nirelia M; Breit, Kristen R; Thomas, Jennifer D

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor. In this study, we examined the influence of dietary choline deficiency on the severity of fetal alcohol effects. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive diets containing 40, 70, or 100% recommended choline levels. A group from each diet condition was exposed to ethanol (6.0g/kg/day) from gestational day 5 to 20 via intubation. Pair-fed and ad lib lab chow control groups were also included. Physical and behavioral development was measured in the offspring. Prenatal alcohol exposure delayed motor development, and 40% choline altered performance on the cliff avoidance task, independent of one another. However, the combination of low choline and prenatal alcohol produced the most severe impairments in development. Subjects exposed to ethanol and fed the 40% choline diet exhibited delayed eye openings, significantly fewer successes in hindlimb coordination, and were significantly overactive compared to all other groups. These data suggest that suboptimal intake of a single nutrient can exacerbate some of ethanol's teratogenic effects, a finding with important implications for the prevention of FASD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Genetic impairments in folate enzymes increase dependence on dietary choline for phosphatidylcholine production at the expense of betaine synthesis.

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    Ganz, Ariel B; Shields, Kelsey; Fomin, Vlad G; Lopez, Yusnier S; Mohan, Sanjay; Lovesky, Jessica; Chuang, Jasmine C; Ganti, Anita; Carrier, Bradley; Yan, Jian; Taeswuan, Siraphat; Cohen, Vanessa V; Swersky, Camille C; Stover, Julie A; Vitiello, Gerardo A; Malysheva, Olga V; Mudrak, Erika; Caudill, Marie A

    2016-10-01

    Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate-mediated pathways predict susceptibility to choline deficiency during severe choline deprivation, it is unknown if effects persist at recommended intakes. Thus, we used stable isotope liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methodology to examine the impact of candidate SNPs on choline metabolism in a long-term, randomized, controlled feeding trial among pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant (NP) women consuming 480 or 930 mg/d choline (22% as choline-d 9 , with d 9 indicating a deuterated trimethyl amine group) and meeting folate-intake recommendations. Variants impairing folate metabolism, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) rs1801133, methionine synthase (MTR) rs1805087 [wild-type (WT)], MTR reductase (MTRR) rs1801394, and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (MTHFD1) rs2236225, influenced choline dynamics, frequently through interactions with reproductive state and choline intake, with fewer genotypic alterations observed among pregnant women. Women with these variants partitioned more dietary choline toward phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis via the cytidine diphosphate (CDP)-choline pathway at the expense of betaine synthesis even when use of betaine as a methyl donor was increased. Choline intakes of 930 mg/d restored partitioning of dietary choline between betaine and CDP-PC among NP (MTHFR rs1801133 and MTR rs1805087 WT) and lactating (MTHFD1 rs2236225) women with risk genotypes. Overall, our findings indicate that loss-of-function variants in folate-metabolizing enzymes strain cellular PC production, possibly via impaired folate-dependent phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT)-PC synthesis, and suggest that women with these risk genotypes may benefit from choline intakes exceeding current recommendations.-Ganz, A. B., Shields, K., Fomin, V. G., Lopez, Y. S., Mohan, S., Lovesky, J., Chuang, J

  13. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Male Sprague Dawley Rats Is Not Attenuated by Dietary Choline Supplementation.

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    Bagley, Bradford D; Chang, Shu-Ching; Ehresman, David J; Eveland, Alan; Zitzow, Jeremiah D; Parker, George A; Peters, Jeffrey M; Wallace, Kendall B; Butenhoff, John L

    2017-12-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is an environmentally persistent chemical. Dietary 100 ppm PFOS fed to male mice and rats for 4 weeks caused hepatic steatosis through an unknown mechanism. Choline deficient diets can cause hepatic steatosis. A hepatic choline:PFOS ion complex was hypothesized to cause this effect in mice. This study tested whether dietary choline supplementation attenuates PFOS-induced hepatic steatosis in rats. Sprague Dawley rats (12/sex/group) were fed control, choline supplemented (CS), 100 ppm PFOS, or 100 ppm PFOS + CS diets for 3 weeks. Male rats fed both PFOS-containing diets had decreased serum cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) on days 9, 16, and/or 23 and increased hepatic free fatty acids and TG (ie, steatosis). Female rats fed both PFOS diets had decreased serum cholesterol on days 9 and 16 and decreased hepatic free fatty acid and TG at termination (ie, no steatosis). Liver PFOS concentrations were similar for both sexes. Liver choline concentrations were increased in male rats fed PFOS (±CS), but the increase was lower in the PFOS + CS group. Female liver choline concentrations were not altered by any diet. These findings demonstrate a clear sex-related difference in PFOS-induced hepatic steatosis in the rat. Additional evaluated mechanisms (ie, nuclear receptor activation, mRNA upregulation, and choline kinase activity inhibition) did not appear to be involved in the hepatic steatosis. Dietary PFOS (100 ppm) induced hepatic steatosis in male, but not female, rats that was not attenuated by choline supplementation. The mechanism of lipid accumulation and the sex-related differences warrant further investigation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Dietary choline supplementation in adult rats improves performance on a test of recognition memory.

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    Moreno, Hayarelis; Hall, Geoffrey; Gallo, Milagros; de Brugada, Isabel

    2018-04-22

    In two experiments adult rats (aged at least 6 months at the start of the procedure) received a diet enriched with added choline for a period of 10 weeks; control subjects were maintained on a standard diet during this time. All rats then underwent the spontaneous object recognition (SOR) procedure in which they were exposed to a pair of objects and then tested, after a retention interval, to a display with one object changed. Exploration of the changed object indicates retention and use of information acquired during the exposure phase. All subjects showed retention with a 24-h interval (Experiments 1 and 2) and when retested after a further 24 h (Experiment 1). But when tested for the first time after a 48-h interval (Experiment 2), control subjects showed no evidence of retention, exploring both objects equally, whereas those given the dietary supplement continued to show a preference for the changed object. This supports the conclusion that dietary choline supplementation can enhance performance on a task regarded as a test of declarative memory, and will do so even when the supplementations is given in adulthood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of dietary amino acids, carbohydrates, and choline on neurotransmitter synthesis

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    Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of a meal to increase or decrease brain neurotransmitter synthesis has been studied. It is concluded that brain serotonin synthesis is directly controlled by the proportions of carbohydrate to protein in meals and snacks that increase or decrease brain tryptophan levels, thereby changing the substrate saturation of tryptophan hydroxylase and the rate of serotonin synthesis. The ability of serotoninergic neurons to have their output coupled to dietary macronutrients enables them to function as sensors of peripheral metabolism, and to subserve an important role in the control of appetite. The robust and selective responses of catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurons to supplemental tyrosine and choline suggest that these compounds may become useful as a new type of drug for treating deseases or conditions in which adequate quantities of the transmitter would otherwise be unavailable.

  16. Four-week dietary supplementation with 10- and/or 15-fold basal choline caused decreased body weight in Sprague Dawley rats.

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    Bagley, Bradford D; Chang, Shu-Ching; Ehresman, David J; Eveland, Alan; Parker, George A; Peters, Jeffrey M; Butenhoff, John L

    2017-10-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient utilized for phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis and lipoprotein packaging and secretion. Recently, choline supplementation has been used by athletes and the public for weight loss. However, the potential toxicological impact of choline dietary supplementation requires further investigation. This study examined the effects of choline dietary supplementation in Sprague Dawley rats for 4 weeks. Rats were fed diets containing basal choline levels (control) or 5-, 10-, or 15-fold (5×, 10×, or 15×) basal diet concentration. In groups fed choline-supplemented diets, there were no toxicologically relevant findings in clinical observations, food intake, clinical chemistry, liver weights, or liver histopathology. However, decreased mean body weights (8.5-10.2%) and body weight gains (24-31%) were noted for the 10× choline-supplemented (females only) and 15× choline-supplemented (both sexes) groups relative to the control groups from day 3 onward. These body weight effects were not related to a persistent reduction in average food intake. Serum cholesterol was increased in the 15× choline-supplemented male rats relative to the controls, an expected effect of choline supplementation; however, there were no changes in the serum cholesterol of female rats. Serum choline concentrations were increased in female rats relative to the male rats across all treatment groups. The maximum tolerated dose for male and female rats were the 15× and 10× choline supplements, respectively, based on decreased mean body weight and body weight gains. This study supported the conclusions of a clinical trial that showed a high choline diet can decrease body weight in humans.

  17. Endocrine disrupting effects in rats perinatally exposed to a dietary relevant mixture of phytoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Mandrup, Karen; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold

    2013-01-01

    Dietary phytoestrogens may prevent certain human diseases, but endocrine activity has been reported in animal studies. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed perinatally to a 1-, 10- or 100-fold “high human dietary intake” mixture of 12 phytoestrogens consisting of mainly the lignan secoisolarici resinol...... genes in testis and prostate were unaffected. Decreased serum estradiol was seen in genistein-exposed dams. This study indicated adverse effects at high intake levels in rats, but does not provide evidence for risk of phytoestrogen-mediated endocrine disruption at normal human dietary consumption levels...

  18. Dietary choline during periadolescence attenuates cognitive damage caused by neonatal maternal separation in male rats.

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    Moreno Gudiño, Hayarelis; Carías Picón, Diamela; de Brugada Sauras, Isabel

    2017-07-01

    Choline (Ch) is an essential nutrient that acts as a cognitive facilitator when administered during perinatal periods, and it has been recognised as a 'pharmacological' agent that can ease cognitive dysfunctions provoked by exposure to damaging stimuli during early developmental stages. The aim of the present work is to determine whether providing a diet rich in Ch would reduce the severity of the memory deficit provoked by a neonatal stress episode in male adult rats. The effect of Ch on memory was measured using memory tasks such as object and place recognition. Ontogenetic manipulations were conducted during two sensitive developmental periods. During the first post-natal (PN) 14 days, only the male rat pups were selected and half of them were separated from the mother, group maternal separation (MS). Subsequently, during periadolescence (PN 21-60), the rats were exposed to a deficient (DEF = 0 g/kg Ch chloride), sufficient (CON = 1.1 g/kg Ch chloride), or supplemented (SUP = 5 g/kg Ch chloride) diets for this nutrient. The results indicated that for group MS, only rats fed with the SUP diet were able to recognise the familiar object and place that had been experienced 24 hours before, unlike groups DEF and CON. In addition, whereas rats in the non-separated group (No-MS) recognised the object independently of the diet, only rats that received a DEF diet failed to recognise the place, showing that a Ch deficit affects spatial memory tasks. These results show that Ch supplementation during periadolescence can attenuate the memory deficit provoked by extended neonatal stress.

  19. Dietary arachidonic acid in perinatal nutrition: a commentary.

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    Lauritzen, Lotte; Fewtrell, Mary; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is supplied together with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formulas, but we have limited knowledge about the effects of supplementation with either of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on growth and developmental outcomes. AA is present in similar levels in breast milk throughout the world, whereas the level of DHA is highly diet dependent. Autopsy studies show similar diet-dependent variation in brain DHA, whereas AA is little affected by intake. Early intake of DHA has been shown to affect visual development, but the effect of LCPUFA on neurodevelopment remains to be established. Few studies have found any functional difference between infants supplemented with DHA alone compared to DHA+AA, but some studies show neurodevelopmental advantages in breast-fed infants of mothers supplemented with n-3 LCPUFA alone. It also remains to be established whether the AA/DHA balance could affect allergic and inflammatory outcomes later in life. Disentangling effects of genetic variability and dietary intake on AA and DHA-status and on functional outcomes may be an important step in the process of determining whether AA-intake is of any physiological or clinical importance. However, based on the current evidence we hypothesize that dietary AA plays a minor role on growth and development relative to the impact of dietary DHA.

  20. Are dietary choline and betaine intakes determinants of total homocysteine concentration?

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    Elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and a decline in cognitive function. Intakes of choline and betaine, as methyl donors, may affect homocysteine concentrations. The objective was to examine whether choline and betaine intakes, assess...

  1. A 24-hour dietary recall for assessing the intake pattern of choline among Bangladeshi pregnant women at their third trimester of pregnancy

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    Shatabdi Goon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maternal choline intake during the third trimester of human pregnancy can modify systemic and local epigenetic marks in fetal-derived tissues, promoting better pregnancy outcomes, increased immunity, as well as improved mental and physical work capacity with proper memory and cognitive development. 103 pregnant women presenting to the antenatal care of Azimpur Maternity Hospital of Dhaka, Bangladesh in their third trimester of pregnancy were randomly selected for this cross sectional study exploring dietary intake patterns of choline. A dietary recall form was administered to estimate frequency and amount of food consumption of foods for the previous 24 hours. Most women reported diets that delivered less than the recommended choline intake (mean ± SD; 189.5 ± 98.2 providing only 42.72% of total RDA value. The results of this study may indicate that dietary choline among pregnant, Bangladeshi women may not be adequate to meet the needs of both, the mother and fetus. Further studies are warranted to determine clinical implications. Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  2. Effect of dietary γ-aminobutyric acid on the nerve growth factor and the choline acetyltransferase in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of ovariectomized female rats.

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    Tujioka, Kazuyo; Thanapreedawat, Panicha; Yamada, Takashi; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Horie, Kenji; Kim, Mujo; Tsutsui, Kazumi; Hayase, Kazutoshi

    2014-01-01

    The brain protein synthesis and the plasma concentration of growth hormone (GH) is sensitive to the dietary γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in ovariectomized female rats; however, the role of dietary GABA on biomarkers including nerve growth factor (NGF) and choline acetyltransferase for the function of cholinergic neurons remains unknown in ovariectomized female rats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the dietary GABA affects the concentration and mRNA level of NGF, and the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the brains of ovariectomized female rats. Experiments were done on two groups of 24-wk-old ovariectomized female rats given 0 or 0.5% GABA added to a 20% casein diet. The concentrations of NGF and activities of choline acetyltransferase in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and mRNA level of NGF in the hippocampus increased significantly with the 20% casein+0.5% GABA compared with the 20% casein diet alone. In the hippocampus, the mRNA level of NGF significantly correlated with the NGF concentration (r=0.714, pGABA to ovariectomized female rats is likely to control the mRNA level and concentration of NGF and cause an increase in the activity of choline acetyltransferase in the brains.

  3. Choline: Clinical Nutrigenetic/Nutrigenomic Approaches for Identification of Functions and Dietary Requirements

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    Zeisel, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrigenetics/nutrigenomics (the study of the bidirectional interactions between genes and diet) is a rapidly developing field that is changing research and practice in human nutrition. Though eventually nutrition clinicians may be able to provide personalized nutrition recommendations, in the immediate future they are most likely to use this knowledge to improve dietary recommendations for populations. Currently, estimated average requirements are used to set dietary reference intakes because scientists cannot adequately identify subsets of the population that differ in requirement for a nutrient. Recommended intake levels must exceed the actual required intake for most of the population in order to assure that individuals with the highest requirement ingest adequate amounts of the nutrient. As a result, dietary reference intake levels often are set so high that diet guidelines suggest almost unattainable intakes of some foods. Once it is possible to identify common subgroups that differ in nutrient requirements using nutrigenetic/nutrigenomic profiling, targeted interventions and recommendations can be refined. In addition, when a large variance exists in response to a nutrient, statistical analyses often argue for a null effect. If responders could be differentiated from nonre-sponders based on nutrigenetic/nutrigenomic profiling, this statistical noise could be eliminated and the sensitivity of nutrition research greatly increased. PMID:20436254

  4. Dietary Oleate Has Beneficial Effects on Every Step of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Progression in a Methionine- and Choline-Deficient Diet-Fed Animal Model

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    Ji Young Lee

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is increasingly recognized as a major cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. The underlying mechanisms of disease progression remain poorly understood, and primary therapy of NAFLD is not yet established. We investigated the effects of dietary oleate on the development and progression of NAFLD in a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD diet-fed animal model.MethodsA total of 30 C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into three groups (n=10 in each group and fed various experimental diets for four weeks: chow, MCD diet, or OMCD (MCD diet with oleate, 0.5 mg/g/day. Liver samples were examined for steatohepatitis and fibrosis parameters and associated genes.ResultsAdditional dietary oleate dramatically reduced MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Hepatic carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein was overexpressed in MCD diet-fed mice, and dietary oleate prevented this overexpression (P<0.001. Dietary oleate partially prevented MCD diet-induced serum level increases in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (P<0.001, respectively. The mRNA expressions of hepatic monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, tumor necrosis factor-α and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in MCD diet-fed mice, and this overexpression of inflammatory molecules was prevented by dietary oleate (P<0.001. Hepatic pericellular fibrosis was observed in MCD diet-fed mice, and dietary oleate prevented this fibrosis. Altogether, dietary oleate prevented MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis.ConclusionDietary oleate has beneficial effects in every step of NAFLD development and progression and could be a nutritional option for NAFLD prevention and treatment.

  5. A method comparison of a food frequency questionnaire to measure folate, choline, betaine, vitamin C and carotenoids with 24-h dietary recalls in women of reproductive age.

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    Coathup, V; Wheeler, S; Smith, L

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a method comparison of a modified food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), designed to estimate usual dietary intake of selected micronutrients and antioxidants including folate, choline, betaine, vitamin C and carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein, lycopene and β-cryptoxanthin) with 24-h dietary recalls (24-HR) in women of reproductive age. Sixty-four British women of reproductive age (18-40 years) were recruited in Oxford, UK and provided complete dietary data for analysis. We compared micronutrient estimates from the FFQ against estimates derived from three multiple-pass, 24-HR interviews, by evaluating Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Median intakes of most nutrients were higher when measured by FFQ compared with 24-HR. Strong correlation coefficients were observed for folate (r=0.80) and choline (r=0.68), whereas moderate correlation coefficients were observed for vitamin C (0.50) and lycopene (0.43). Weak correlation coefficients were observed for betaine (0.39) and other carotenoids (r=0.26-0.38). Bland-Altman plots indicated that there was a large amount of variability in the FFQ estimates of nutrient intakes compared to those using 24-HR, particularly for carotenoids. The findings indicate that this FFQ estimated higher mean intakes for most nutrients. Pearson's correlation coefficients were comparable with previous research; however, the Bland-Altman plots suggest a high variability in mean nutrient estimates between the FFQ and 24-h. We recommend further investigation of the validity of this FFQ before use.

  6. Genetic Variation in Choline-Metabolizing Enzymes Alters Choline Metabolism in Young Women Consuming Choline Intakes Meeting Current Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel B. Ganz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in choline metabolizing genes are associated with disease risk and greater susceptibility to organ dysfunction under conditions of dietary choline restriction. However, the underlying metabolic signatures of these variants are not well characterized and it is unknown whether genotypic differences persist at recommended choline intakes. Thus, we sought to determine if common genetic risk factors alter choline dynamics in pregnant, lactating, and non-pregnant women consuming choline intakes meeting and exceeding current recommendations. Women (n = 75 consumed 480 or 930 mg choline/day (22% as a metabolic tracer, choline-d9 for 10–12 weeks in a controlled feeding study. Genotyping was performed for eight variant SNPs and genetic differences in metabolic flux and partitioning of plasma choline metabolites were evaluated using stable isotope methodology. CHKA rs10791957, CHDH rs9001, CHDH rs12676, PEMT rs4646343, PEMT rs7946, FMO3 rs2266782, SLC44A1 rs7873937, and SLC44A1 rs3199966 altered the use of choline as a methyl donor; CHDH rs9001 and BHMT rs3733890 altered the partitioning of dietary choline between betaine and phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the cytidine diphosphate (CDP-choline pathway; and CHKA rs10791957, CHDH rs12676, PEMT rs4646343, PEMT rs7946 and SLC44A1 rs7873937 altered the distribution of dietary choline between the CDP-choline and phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT denovo pathway. Such metabolic differences may contribute to disease pathogenesis and prognosis over the long-term.

  7. Dietary choline and phospholipid supplementation enhanced docosahexaenoic acid enrichment in egg yolk of laying hens fed a 2% Schizochytrium powder-added diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Zhang, H J; Wang, X C; Wu, S G; Wang, J; Xu, L; Qi, G H

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary phospholipid supplementation on laying hen performance, egg quality, and the fatty acid profile of egg yolks from hens fed a 2% Schizochytrium powder diet. Three-hundred-sixty 28-wk-old Hy-line W-36 laying hens were randomly allocated to one of the 5 dietary treatments, each treatment with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. All diets included 2% Schizochytrium powder (docosahexaenoic acid [DHA], 137.09 mg/g). The control group was not supplemented with any additional phospholipids, whereas the other 4 experimental diets were supplemented with 1,000 mg/kg choline (CHO), 1,000 mg/kg monoethanolamine (MEA), 1,000 mg/kg lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), or 500 mg/kg LPC + 500 mg/kg MEA (LPC + MEA). The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.15 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (crude protein, 16.60%). The feeding trial lasted 28 days. Laying hen performance and egg quality were not affected (P > 0.05) by the diets used. The monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) level was reduced in the LPC group at d 28 (P egg yolks in the LPC group had a trend to increase in comparison to the control (P = 0.07). The CHO and LPC groups had higher omega-3 (n-3) PUFA and DHA levels and lower n-6/n-3 ratios than the other groups at d 28 (P egg yolk reached a plateau after the laying hens consumed the experimental diets for 14 days, and higher yolk DHA contents were observed in the CHO and LPC groups as compared with the other groups at d 14. It was concluded that dietary choline supplementation for more than 14 d enhanced egg yolk enrichment with n-3 PUFA and DHA when laying hen diets were supplemented with 2% Schizochytrium powder. All the diets had no adverse effect on hen performance, egg quality, or egg components under the experimental condition. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. The effect of dietary supplementation with rumen-protected methionine alone or in combination with rumen-protected choline and betaine on sheep milk and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, E; Mavrommatis, A; Kalogeropoulos, T; Chatzikonstantinou, M; Koutsouli, P; Sotirakoglou, K; Labrou, N; Zervas, G

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary inclusion of rumen-protected methionine alone or in combination with rumen-protected choline and betaine on: (i) milk yield, chemical composition and fatty acids (FA) profile and (ii) blood plasma glutathione transferase (GST) activity of periparturient ewes. Furthermore, the oxidative stress indicators for measuring total antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity [ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays] were also determined in plasma and milk of ewes. Thus, 45 ewes were divided into three equal groups. Each animal of the control group fed daily with a basal diet. The same diet was offered also in each animal of the other two groups. However, the concentrate fed to M group was supplemented with 2.5 g/kg rumen-protected methionine, while the concentrate fed to MCB group with 5 g/kg of a commercial product which contained a combination of methionine, choline and betaine, all three in rumen-protected form. The results showed that the M diet, compared with the control, increased significantly the ewe's milk fat and the total solids content. Likewise, a tendency for higher milk fat and total solids content in ewes fed the MCB diet was also observed. Both M and MCB diets had not noticeable impact on ewes milk FA profile. Significantly higher FRAP values in the blood plasma of ewes fed the MCB and in the milk of ewes fed with the M diet compared with the control were found. Additionally, significantly higher GST activity in the blood plasma of ewes fed the M diet, compared with the control, was observed. Moreover, a significant increase (by 20%) and a tendency for increase (by 16.72%) in the growth rate of lambs nursing ewes fed with M and MCB diets, respectively, compared to controls, were found. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. A brief history of choline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisel, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    In 1850, Theodore Gobley, working in Paris, described a substance “lecithine”, which he named after the Greek “lekithos” for egg yolk. Adolph Strecker noted in 1862 that when lecithin from bile was heated, it generated a new nitrogenous chemical that he named “choline”. Three years later, Oscar Liebreich identified a new substance, “neurine”, in the brain. After a period of confusion, neurine and choline were found to be the same molecule, and the name choline was adapted. Lecithin was eventually characterized chemically as being phosphatidylcholine. In 1954, Eugene Kennedy described the cytidine 5-dihphosphocholine pathway by which choline is incorporated into phosphatidylcholine. A second route, the phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase pathway, was identified by Jon Bremer and David Greenberg in 1960. The role of choline as part of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine was established by Otto Loewi and Henry Dale. Working in the 1930s at the University of Toronto, Charles Best showed that choline prevented fatty liver in dogs and rats. The importance of choline as an essential nutrient for human health was determined in the 1990s through controlled feeding studies in humans. Recently, an understanding of the role of genetic variation in setting the dietary requirement for choline in people is being unraveled. PMID:23183298

  10. Dietary sodium and potassium intake were associated with hypertension, kidney damage and adverse perinatal outcome in pregnant women with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Zehra Vural; Akkaş, Elif; Türkmen, Gülenay Gençosmanoğlu; Kara, Özgür; Yücel, Aykan; Uygur, Dilek

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that dietary salt and potassium intake may be related with blood pressure, kidney damage and perinatal outcome in pregnants with preeclampsia (PE). In total, 200 women (50 control women with healthy pregnancy, 150 women with PE) were recruited for the study. Daily salt and potassium intake was estimated based on calculation of 24-hour urinary sodium U[Na+] and potassium U[K+] excretion. U[Na+]/[K+] was calculated by dividing U[Na+] by U[K+]. At the end of the measurements, the pregnant women with PE (n=150) were divided into tertiles according to U[Na+]/[K+]: low Na/K group (n=50, mean U[Na+]/[K+]: 1,04±0,32), medium Na/K group (n=50, mean U[Na+]/[K+]: 2,49± 0,54), high Na/K group (n=50, mean U[Na+]/[K+]: 6,62±3,41). The mean SBP and DBP levels were significantly lower in low Na/K group compared with medium or high Na/K groups (p=0.024, p=0.0002; respectively). Serum creatinine was significantly lower in low Na/K group than high Na/K group (p=0.025). Frequency of severe preeclampsia is lower in low Na/K group than medium or high Na/K groups (p=0.002, p=0.0001; respectively). Birth weight and gestational age at birth were higher in low Na/K group compared with high Na/K group (p=0.045, p=0.0002; respectively). After adjusting for covariates, SBP and DBP and creatinine levels were independently associated with 24 hours urinary [Na+]/[K+] Conclusion: These findings suggest that pregnant with PE with high dietary salt and low potassium intake may have greater maternal and neonatal morbidity risk than pregnant with PE under low dietary salt and high potassium intake.

  11. GCN2 in the Brain Programs PPARγ2 and Triglyceride Storage in the Liver during Perinatal Development in Response to Maternal Dietary Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Hu, Jingjie; McGrath, Barbara C.; Cavener, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    The liver plays a central role in regulating lipid metabolism and facilitates efficient lipid utilization and storage. We discovered that a modest increase in maternal dietary fat in mice programs triglyceride storage in the liver of their developing offspring. The activation of this programming is not apparent, however, until several months later at the adult stage. We found that the perinatal programming of adult hepatic triglyceride storage was controlled by the eIF2α kinase GCN2 (EIF2AK4) in the brain of the offspring, which stimulates epigenetic modification of the Pparγ2 gene in the neonatal liver. Genetic ablation of Gcn2 in the offspring exhibited reduced hepatic triglyceride storage and repressed expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (Pparγ2) and two lipid droplet protein genes, Fsp27 and Cidea. Brain-specific, but not liver-specific, Gcn2 KO mice exhibit these same defects demonstrating that GCN2 in the developing brain programs hepatic triglyceride storage. GCN2 and nutrition-dependent programming of Pparγ2 is correlated with trimethylation of lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me3) in the Pparγ2 promoter region during neonatal development. In addition to regulating hepatic triglyceride in response to modest changes in dietary fat, Gcn2 deficiency profoundly impacts the severity of the obese-diabetic phenotype of the leptin receptor mutant (db/db) mouse, by reducing hepatic steatosis and obesity but exacerbating the diabetic phenotype. We suggest that GCN2-dependent perinatal programming of hepatic triglyceride storage is an adaptation to couple early nutrition to anticipated needs for hepatic triglyceride storage in adults. However, increasing the hepatic triglyceride set point during perinatal development may predispose individuals to hepatosteatosis, while reducing circulating fatty acid levels that promote insulin resistance. PMID:24130751

  12. Spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity are differentially sensitive to the availability of choline in adulthood as a function of choline supply in utero

    OpenAIRE

    Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J.E.; Glenn, Melissa J.; Mellott, Tiffany J.; Blusztajn, Jan K.; Meck, Warren H.; Williams, Christina L.

    2008-01-01

    Altered dietary choline availability early in life leads to persistent changes in spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in adulthood. Developmental programming by early choline nutrition may determine the range of adult choline intake that is optimal for the types of neural plasticity involved in cognitive function. To test this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a choline chloride deficient (DEF), sufficient (CON), or supplemented (SUP) diet during embryonic days 12-17 and then re...

  13. 21 CFR 172.370 - Iron-choline citrate complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.370 Iron-choline citrate complex. Iron-choline...

  14. Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choline magnesium trisalicylate is used to relieve the pain, tenderness, inflammation (swelling), and stiffness caused by arthritis and painful ... used to relieve pain and lower fever. Choline magnesium trisalicylate is in a class of nonsteroidal anti- ...

  15. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippelt, Dominique; van der Kint, Sander; van Herk, Kevin; Naber, M.

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory

  16. Choline requirements of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Z G; Tang, J; Hou, S S; Guo, Y M; Huang, W; Xie, M

    2014-12-01

    A dose-response experiment with 8 dietary choline levels (302, 496, 778, 990, 1,182, 1,414, 1,625, and 1,832 mg/kg) was conducted with male White Pekin ducks to estimate the choline requirement from hatch to 21 d of age. Three hundred eighty-four 1-d-old male White Pekin ducks were randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments, each containing 6 replicate pens with 8 birds per pen. At 21 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain from each pen were calculated for feeding period, and 2 ducks selected randomly from each pen were euthanized and the liver was collected to determine total lipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids. In our study, perosis, poor growth, and high liver fat were all observed in choline-deficient ducks and incidence of perosis was zero when dietary choline was 1,182 mg/kg. As dietary choline increased, the weight gain and feed intake increased linearly or quadratically (P < 0.05). On the other hand, as dietary choline increased, the total lipid and triglyceride in liver decreased linearly and liver phospholipid increased linearly (P < 0.05), and the lipotropic activity of choline may be associated with increasing phospholipid at a high dietary choline level. According to broken-line regression, the choline requirements for weight gain and feed intake were 810 and 823 mg/kg, respectively, but higher requirement should be considered to prevent perosis and excess liver lipid deposition completely. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity are differentially sensitive to the availability of choline in adulthood as a function of choline supply in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J E; Glenn, Melissa J; Mellott, Tiffany J; Blusztajn, Jan K; Meck, Warren H; Williams, Christina L

    2008-10-27

    Altered dietary choline availability early in life leads to persistent changes in spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in adulthood. Developmental programming by early choline nutrition may determine the range of adult choline intake that is optimal for the types of neural plasticity involved in cognitive function. To test this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a choline chloride deficient (DEF), sufficient (CON), or supplemented (SUP) diet during embryonic days 12-17 and then returned to a control diet (1.1 g choline chloride/kg). At 70 days of age, we found that DEF and SUP rats required fewer choices to locate 8 baited arms of a 12-arm radial maze than CON rats. When switched to a choline-deficient diet (0 g/kg), SUP rats showed impaired performance while CON and DEF rats were unaffected. In contrast, when switched to a choline-supplemented diet (5.0 g/kg), DEF rats' performance was significantly impaired while CON and SUP rats were less affected. These changes in performance were reversible when the rats were switched back to a control diet. In a second experiment, DEF, CON, and SUP rats were either maintained on a control diet, or the choline-supplemented diet. After 12 weeks, DEF rats were significantly impaired by choline supplementation on a matching-to-place water-maze task, which was also accompanied by a decrease in dentate cell proliferation in DEF rats only. IGF-1 levels were elevated by both prenatal and adult choline supplementation. Taken together, these findings suggest that the in utero availability of an essential nutrient, choline, causes differential behavioral and neuroplastic sensitivity to the adult choline supply.

  18. Choline and betaine intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min-Shan; Fang, Yu-Jing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Zhong, Xiao; Zheng, Mei-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association of choline and betaine intake with colorectal cancer risk, although they might play an important role in colorectal cancer development because of their role as methyl donors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between consumption of choline and betaine and colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population. A case-control study was conducted between July 2010 and December 2013 in Guangzhou, China. Eight hundred and ninety consecutively recruited colorectal cancer cases were frequency matched to 890 controls by age (5-year interval) and sex. Dietary information was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The logistic regression model was used to estimate multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Total choline intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors. The multivariate-adjusted OR was 0.54 (95%CI = 0.37-0.80, Ptrend colorectal cancer risk was associated with higher intakes of choline from phosphatidylcholine, glycerophosphocholine and sphingomyelin but not for free choline and phosphocholine. The inverse association of total choline intake with colorectal cancer risk was observed in both men and women, colon and rectal cancer. These inverse associations were not modified by folate intake. These results indicate that high intake of total choline is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer.

  19. Choline and betaine intake and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese population: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Shan Lu

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the association of choline and betaine intake with colorectal cancer risk, although they might play an important role in colorectal cancer development because of their role as methyl donors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between consumption of choline and betaine and colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.A case-control study was conducted between July 2010 and December 2013 in Guangzhou, China. Eight hundred and ninety consecutively recruited colorectal cancer cases were frequency matched to 890 controls by age (5-year interval and sex. Dietary information was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The logistic regression model was used to estimate multivariate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Total choline intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for various lifestyle and dietary factors. The multivariate-adjusted OR was 0.54 (95%CI = 0.37-0.80, Ptrend <0.01 comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. No significant associations were observed for betaine or total choline+betaine intakes. For choline-containing compounds, lower colorectal cancer risk was associated with higher intakes of choline from phosphatidylcholine, glycerophosphocholine and sphingomyelin but not for free choline and phosphocholine. The inverse association of total choline intake with colorectal cancer risk was observed in both men and women, colon and rectal cancer. These inverse associations were not modified by folate intake.These results indicate that high intake of total choline is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer.

  20. Effect of choline on antioxidant defenses and gene expressions of Nrf2 signaling molecule in the spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Chen, Gang-Fu; Jiang, Jun; Li, Shu-Hong; Feng, Lin; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-06-01

    The present work evaluates the effects of various levels of dietary choline on antioxidant defenses and gene expressions of Nrf2 signaling molecule in spleen and head kidney of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Fish were fed with six different experimental diets containing graded levels of choline at 165 (choline-deficient control), 310, 607, 896, 1167 and 1820 mg kg(-1) diet for 65 days. At the end of the feeding trail, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded over 17 days. Dietary choline significantly decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in spleen and head kidney. However, anti-superoxide anion and anti-hydroxyl radical activities in spleen and head kidney also decreased. Interestingly, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in spleen, GPx activity in head kidney, and glutathione contents in spleen and head kidney were decreased with increase of dietary choline levels up to a certain point, whereas, activities of SOD, GST and GR in head kidney showed no significantly differences among groups. Similarly, expression levels of CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, GPx1a, GPx1b and GR gene in spleen and head kidney were significantly lower in group with choline level of 607 mg kg(-1) diet than those in the choline-deficient group. The relative gene expressions of Nrf2 in head kidney and Keap1a in spleen and head kidney were decreased with increasing of dietary choline up to a certain point. However, the relative gene expression of Nrf2 in spleen were not significantly affected by dietary choline. In conclusion, dietary choline decreased the oxidant damage and regulated the antioxidant system in immune organs of juvenile Jian carp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Editor's Highlight: Perfluorooctane Sulfonate-Choline Ion Pair Formation: A Potential Mechanism Modulating Hepatic Steatosis and Oxidative Stress in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limin; Krishnan, Prasad; Ehresman, David J; Smith, Philip B; Dutta, Mainak; Bagley, Bradford D; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John L; Patterson, Andrew D; Peters, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)-induced steatosis remain unclear. The hypothesis that PFOS causes steatosis and other hepatic effects by forming an ion pair with choline was examined. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a control diet or a marginal methionine/choline-deficient (mMCD) diet, with and without 0.003, 0.006, or 0.012% potassium PFOS. Dietary PFOS caused a dose-dependent decrease in body weight, and increases in the relative liver weight, hepatic triglyceride concentration and serum markers of liver toxicity and oxidative stress. Some of these effects were exacerbated in mice fed the mMCD diet supplemented with 0.012% PFOS compared with those fed the control diet supplemented with 0.012% PFOS. Surprisingly, serum PFOS concentrations were higher while liver PFOS concentrations were lower in mMCD-fed mice compared with corresponding control-fed mice. To determine if supplemental dietary choline could prevent PFOS-induced hepatic effects, C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet, or a choline supplemental diet (1.2%) with or without 0.003% PFOS. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that PFOS caused alterations in hepatic lipid metabolism in the PFOS-fed mice compared with controls, and supplemental dietary choline prevented these PFOS-induced changes. Interestingly, dietary choline supplementation also prevented PFOS-induced oxidative damage. These studies are the first to suggest that PFOS may cause hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress by effectively reducing the choline required for hepatic VLDL production and export by forming an ion pair with choline, and suggest that choline supplementation may prevent and/or treat PFOS-induced hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Dietary interventions designed to protect the perinatal brain from hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy--Creatine prophylaxis and the need for multi-organ protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Stacey J; Dickinson, Hayley; McKenzie, Matthew; Walker, David W

    2016-05-01

    Birth asphyxia or hypoxia arises from impaired placental gas exchange during labor and remains one of the leading causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a condition that can strike in pregnancies that have been uneventful until these final moments, and leads to fundamental loss of cellular energy reserves in the newborn. The cascade of metabolic changes that occurs in the brain at birth as a result of hypoxia can lead to significant damage that evolves over several hours and days, the severity of which can be ameliorated with therapeutic cerebral hypothermia. However, this treatment is only applied to a subset of newborns that meet strict inclusion criteria and is usually administered only in facilities with a high level of medical surveillance. Hence, a number of neuropharmacological interventions have been suggested as adjunct therapies to improve the efficacy of hypothermia, which alone improves survival of the post-hypoxic infant but does not altogether prevent adverse neurological outcomes. In this review we discuss the prospect of using creatine as a dietary supplement during pregnancy and nutritional intervention that can significantly decrease the risk of brain damage in the event of severe oxygen deprivation at birth. Because brain damage can also arise secondarily to compromise of other fetal organs (e.g., heart, diaphragm, kidney), and that compromise of mitochondrial function under hypoxic conditions may be a common mechanism leading to damage of these tissues, we present data suggesting that dietary creatine supplementation during pregnancy may be an effective prophylaxis that can protect the fetus from the multi-organ consequences of severe hypoxia at birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. No Acute Effects of Choline Bitartrate Food Supplements on Memory in Healthy, Young, Human Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippelt, D P; van der Kint, S; van Herk, K; Naber, M

    2016-01-01

    Choline is a dietary component and precursor of acetylcholine, a crucial neurotransmitter for memory-related brain functions. In two double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over experiments, we investigated whether the food supplement choline bitartrate improved declarative memory and working memory in healthy, young students one to two hours after supplementation. In experiment 1, 28 participants performed a visuospatial working memory task. In experiment 2, 26 participants performed a declarative picture memorization task. In experiment 3, 40 participants performed a verbal working memory task in addition to the visuospatial working memory and declarative picture task. All tasks were conducted approximately 60 minutes after the ingestion of 2.0-2.5g of either choline bitartrate or placebo. We found that choline did not significantly enhance memory performance during any of the tasks. The null hypothesis that choline does not improve memory performance as compared to placebo was strongly supported by Bayesian statistics. These results are in contrast with animal studies suggesting that choline supplementation boosts memory performance and learning. We conclude that choline likely has no acute effects on cholinergic memory functions in healthy human participants.

  4. Evaluation of the choline status in mink fed different levels and sources of choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Clausen, T.N.

    2012-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient but the daily need for choline in mink has never been determined. Two experiments were performed to evalutate the choline status in mink kits and full-grown mink fed different levels of choline. In the first experiment mink kits were fed a synthetic diet with chol...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5252 Choline chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.

  7. Prenatal choline deficiency does not enhance hippocampal vulnerability after kainic acid-induced seizures in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J E; Tognoni, Christina M; Mellott, Tiffany J; Glenn, Melissa J; Blusztajn, Jan K; Williams, Christina L

    2011-09-21

    Choline is a vital nutrient needed during early development for both humans and rodents. Severe dietary choline deficiency during pregnancy leads to birth defects, while more limited deficiency during mid- to late pregnancy causes deficits in hippocampal plasticity in adult rodent offspring that are accompanied by cognitive deficits only when task demands are high. Because prenatal choline supplementation confers neuroprotection of the adult hippocampus against a variety of neural insults and aids memory, we hypothesized that prenatal choline deficiency may enhance vulnerability to neural injury. To examine this, adult offspring of rat dams either fed a control diet (CON) or one deficient in choline (DEF) during embryonic days 12-17 were given multiple injections (i.p.) of saline (control) or kainic acid to induce seizures and were euthanized 16 days later. Perhaps somewhat surprisingly, DEF rats were not more susceptible to seizure induction and showed similar levels of seizure-induced hippocampal histopathology, GAD expression loss, upregulated hippocampal GFAP and growth factor expression, and increased dentate cell and neuronal proliferation as that seen in CON rats. Although prenatal choline deficiency compromises adult hippocampal plasticity in the intact brain, it does not appear to exacerbate the neuropathological response to seizures in the adult hippocampus at least shortly after excitotoxic injury. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Usual Choline Intakes Are Associated with Egg and Protein Food Consumption in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C. Wallace

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient with critical roles in several biological processes including neuronal development, cell signaling, nerve impulse transmission, and lipid transport and metabolism. The National Cancer Institute method was used to assess usual intakes of choline from foods according to data for participants enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2014 datasets and pregnant women in the 2005–2014 datasets. Suboptimal intakes of choline are present across many gender and life-stage subpopulations, as well as pregnant women in the U.S. Only 8.03 ± 0.56% of adults and 8.51 ± 2.89% pregnant women meet the AI for choline. Children 2–3 years were the most likely to meet their gender and life-stage specific AI, followed by children 4–8 years. Adults 19+ years who consume eggs were more likely to meet their gender and life-stage AI as compared to non-consumers (57.3 ± 1.45% and 2.43 ± 0.28%. Consumers of eggs had almost double the usual intake of choline as compared to non-consumers (525 ± 5.17 mg/d and 294 ± 1.98; p < 0.0001. Protein food (meat, poultry and seafood consumption also increased usual choline intakes compared to non-consumers (345 ± 2.21 mg/day and 235 ± 8.81; p < 0.0001 to a lesser degree, but did not result in substantial increases in the percent of individuals meeting the AI. No subpopulation exceeded the UL for choline. This research illustrates that it is extremely difficult to achieve the AI for choline without consuming eggs or taking a dietary supplement.

  9. Dietary arachidonic acid in perinatal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Lotte; Fewtrell, Mary; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is supplied together with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in infant formulas, but we have limited knowledge about the effects of supplementation with either of these long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) on growth and developmental outcomes. AA is present in similar lev...

  10. Relationship Between Organophosphate Toxicity and Choline Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-06

    Results from studies on the actions of the organophosphates on the central nervus system have suggested that these compounds, through an action on...Grganophosphates alter the disposition and metabolism of choline and choline-containing compounds in the nervous system , the relationshi ý of these changes to...mechanisms regulating the metabolism of choline, as well as the specific interactions of the organophospha:es with biochemical systems , may differ

  11. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-26

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  12. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... chloride. (a) Product. Choline chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as...

  13. Choline Theft-An Inside Job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Ortiz, Marina; Claus, Sandrine Paule

    2017-09-13

    Choline is a crucial methyl donor necessary for epigenetic regulation. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Romano et al. (2017) demonstrate that choline-utilizing gut bacteria compete with their host for this essential resource, calling for a systematic consideration of gut microbial composition for personalized diet recommendations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Factors influencing erythrocyte choline concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B L; Jenden, D J; Tang, C; Read, S

    1989-01-01

    Choline concentrations in human erythrocytes increase after freezing and thawing, during incubation in Krebs-phosphate for 30 min or on storage at 0 degrees C for 3-24 hr. The increase is prevented by protein precipitation by 10% perchloric acid, 10% zinc hydroxide, 10% sodium tungstate or boiling in water. It is not prevented by EDTA (10 mM) and is increased by oleate (5 mM). We suggest that the increase is due to the action of phospholipase D on erythrocyte phospholipids.

  15. Long-term improvements in sensory inhibition with gestational choline supplementation linked to α7 nicotinic receptors through studies in Chrna7 null mutation mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Karen E; Choo, Kevin S; Stitzel, Jerry A; Marks, Michael J; Adams, Catherine E

    2014-03-13

    Perinatal choline supplementation has produced several benefits in rodent models, from improved learning and memory to protection from the behavioral effects of fetal alcohol exposure. We have shown that supplemented choline through gestation and lactation produces long-term improvement in deficient sensory inhibition in DBA/2 mice which models a similar deficit in schizophrenia patients. The present study extends that research by feeding normal or supplemented choline diets to DBA/2 mice carrying the null mutation for the α7 nicotinic receptor gene (Chrna7). DBA/2 mice heterozygotic for Chrna7 were bred together. Dams were placed on supplemented (5 gm/kg diet) or normal (1.1 gm/kg diet) choline at mating and remained on the specific diet until offspring weaning. Thereafter, offspring were fed standard rodent chow. Adult offspring were assessed for sensory inhibition. Brains were obtained to ascertain hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor levels. Choline-supplemented mice heterozygotic or null-mutant for Chrna7 failed to show improvement in sensory inhibition. Only wildtype choline-supplemented mice showed improvement with the effect solely through a decrease in test amplitude. This supports the hypothesis that gestational-choline supplementation is acting through the α7 nicotinic receptor to improve sensory inhibition. Although there was a significant gene-dose-related change in hippocampal α7 receptor numbers, binding studies did not reveal any choline-dose-related change in binding in any hippocampal region, the interaction being driven by a significant genotype main effect (wildtype>heterozygote>null mutant). These data parallel a human study wherein the offspring of pregnant women receiving choline supplementation during gestation, showed better sensory inhibition than offspring of women on placebo. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The prognostic value of multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy determined metabolite levels in white and grey matter brain tissue for adverse outcome in term newborns following perinatal asphyxia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doormaal, Pieter Jan; Meiners, Linda C.; ter Horst, Hendrik J.; Veere, van der Christa; Sijens, Paul E.

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy can identify brain metabolic changes in perinatal asphyxia by providing ratios of metabolites, such as choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and lactate (Lact) [Cho/Cr, Lact/NAA, etc.]. The purpose of this study was to quantify the separate white and

  17. Effect of rumen-protected choline on performance, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerols of periparturient dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.; Baal, van J.; Goselink, R.M.A.; Bakker, J.A.; Veth, M.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a dietary supplement of rumen-protected choline on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, blood metabolites, and hepatic triacylglycerol were evaluated in periparturient dairy cows. Thirty-eight multiparous cows were blocked into 19 pairs and then randomly allocated to either one

  18. The effect of cytidine-diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) on brain lipid changes during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Medio, G.E.; Trovarelli, G.; Piccinin, G.L.; Porcellati, G.

    1984-01-01

    Lipid synthesis has been tested in vivo in different brain areas of 12-month-old male rats. Cortex, striatum, brainstem, and subcortex of brain have been examined. The cerebellum was discarded. Mixtures of (2- 3 H)glycerol and (Me- 14 C)choline were injected into the lateral ventricle of the brain as lipid precursors, and their incorporation into total lipid, water-soluble intermediates and choline-containing phospholipids was examined 1 hr after isotope injection. In another series of experiments cytidine-5'-diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) was injected intraventricularly to the aged rats 10 min before sacrifice with a simultaneous injection, and radioactivity assays were performed as above. Distribution of radioactivity content of CDP-choline among brain areas 10 min after its administration showed a noticeable enrichment of the nucleotide and water-soluble-related compounds in the examined areas, but to a lesser degree in the cerebral cortex. The incorporation of labelled glycerol, which is severely depressed in aged rats in all four areas [Gaiti et al, 1982, 1983], was increased only in the cortex, and apparently decreased in the other areas. This last result is probably due to a dilution effect brought about by the administered cold CDP-choline upon the ( 14 C)-containing water-soluble metabolites. As a consequence, the ( 3 H)/( 14 C) ratio in total lipid and in isolated phosphatidylcholine and choline plasmalogen increased after CDP-choline treatment

  19. Perinatal tuberculosis: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Lúcia S. de Souza

    Full Text Available Despite the high prevalence of tuberculosis in adults and children, the congenital and perinatal forms of tuberculosis are rare. In Brazil, there has been only one published case of congenital tuberculosis and two cases of the perinatal form of this disease. We report a case of perinatal tuberculosis presenting with pneumonia. Alcohol-acid-resistant bacilli were found in the gastric lavage. Diagnosis of this disease presentation requires a high index of suspicion.

  20. The efflux of choline from nerve cells: mediation by ionic gradients and functional exchange of choline from glia to neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, D.; Ferret, B.; Massarelli, R.; Mykita, S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between ions and the efflux of choline, and suggests the possibility of a balance effect for choline fluxes which is produced and maintained by ioinic gradients. It is also suggested that glial cells may actively exchange choline with neurons during nerve actively exchange choline with neurons during nerve activity, and that they may function as a choline reservoir for neuronal needs. The study shows that neurons and glial cells spontaneously discharge choline into the incubation medium. The exiting choline is essentially of free origin, as can be seen in an illustration provided. Neurons and glial cells had been prelabelled with ( 14 C) choline overnight, and labelled for 15 min with tritium-choline. The higher amount of tritium-choline exiting the cells indicates that it is the freshly labelled choline which is preferentially released. The remaining of ( 14 C) - choline exiting the cells corresponds to the free choline of phospholipid origin which amounts to about one third of the total free choline content

  1. Studies on the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid and choline requirements of young Embden geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, and choline requirements of young Embden geese fed purified diets. Goslings fed diets deficient in either riboflavin, pantothenic acid, nicotinic acid, or choline grew poorly. Feeding a pantothenic acid-deficient diet resulted in 100% mortality. Goslings fed diets containing 530 mg/kg of choline or less developed perosis. Under the conditions of these experiments it was found that: 1) goslings require no more than 3.84 mg/kg of riboflavin and 31.2 mg/kg of nicotinic acid in the diet for rapid growth and normal development, 2) the pantothenic acid requirement of goslings is no more than 12.6 mg/kg of diet, and 3) a dietary choline level of 1530 mg/kg is adequate for both the prevention of perosis and rapid growth of goslings. The levels of vitamins found to support normal growth and development of goslings appear to be similar to requirements of other species that have been examined.

  2. Localised proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain after perinatal hypoxia: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateil, J.F.; Quesson, B.; Thiaudiere, E.; Delalande, C.; Canioni, P.; Brun, M.; Diard, F.; Sarlangue, J.; Billeaud, C.

    1999-01-01

    Objectives. Perinatal hypoxic ischaemic injury is a significant cause of neurodevelopmental impairment. The aim of this study was to evaluate localised proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) after birth asphyxia. Materials and methods. Thirty newborn infants suspected of having perinatal asphyxia (Apgar score 1 H-MRS was recorded in a single voxel, localised in white matter, using a STEAM sequence. Results. Image quality was good in 25 of 30 babies. 1 H-MRS was performed in 19 of 30 subjects, with adequate quality in 16. Choline, creatine/phosphocreatine and N-acetylaspartate peaks and peak-area ratios were analysed. Lactate was detected in four infants. The N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was lower in infants with an impaired neurological outcome, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions. This study suggests that 1 H-MRS may be useful for assessing cerebral metabolism in the neonate. A raised lactate level and decreased N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio may be predictive of a poor outcome. However, in our experience this method is limited by the difficulty in performing the examination during the first hours after birth in critically ill babies, the problems related to use of a monovoxel sequence, the dispersion of the ratios and the lack of determination of the absolute concentration of the metabolites. (orig.)

  3. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  4. Role of choline deficiency in the Fatty liver phenotype of mice fed a low protein, very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schugar, Rebecca C; Huang, Xiaojing; Moll, Ashley R; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Crawford, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Though widely employed for clinical intervention in obesity, metabolic syndrome, seizure disorders and other neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms through which low carbohydrate ketogenic diets exert their ameliorative effects still remain to be elucidated. Rodent models have been used to identify the metabolic and physiologic alterations provoked by ketogenic diets. A commonly used rodent ketogenic diet (Bio-Serv F3666) that is very high in fat (~94% kcal), very low in carbohydrate (~1% kcal), low in protein (~5% kcal), and choline restricted (~300 mg/kg) provokes robust ketosis and weight loss in mice, but through unknown mechanisms, also causes significant hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and cellular injury. To understand the independent and synergistic roles of protein restriction and choline deficiency on the pleiotropic effects of rodent ketogenic diets, we studied four custom diets that differ only in protein (5% kcal vs. 10% kcal) and choline contents (300 mg/kg vs. 5 g/kg). C57BL/6J mice maintained on the two 5% kcal protein diets induced the most significant ketoses, which was only partially diminished by choline replacement. Choline restriction in the setting of 10% kcal protein also caused moderate ketosis and hepatic fat accumulation, which were again attenuated when choline was replete. Key effects of the 5% kcal protein diet - weight loss, hepatic fat accumulation, and mitochondrial ultrastructural disarray and bioenergetic dysfunction - were mitigated by choline repletion. These studies indicate that synergistic effects of protein restriction and choline deficiency influence integrated metabolism and hepatic pathology in mice when nutritional fat content is very high, and support the consideration of dietary choline content in ketogenic diet studies in rodents to limit hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation.

  5. Role of choline deficiency in the Fatty liver phenotype of mice fed a low protein, very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Schugar

    Full Text Available Though widely employed for clinical intervention in obesity, metabolic syndrome, seizure disorders and other neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms through which low carbohydrate ketogenic diets exert their ameliorative effects still remain to be elucidated. Rodent models have been used to identify the metabolic and physiologic alterations provoked by ketogenic diets. A commonly used rodent ketogenic diet (Bio-Serv F3666 that is very high in fat (~94% kcal, very low in carbohydrate (~1% kcal, low in protein (~5% kcal, and choline restricted (~300 mg/kg provokes robust ketosis and weight loss in mice, but through unknown mechanisms, also causes significant hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and cellular injury. To understand the independent and synergistic roles of protein restriction and choline deficiency on the pleiotropic effects of rodent ketogenic diets, we studied four custom diets that differ only in protein (5% kcal vs. 10% kcal and choline contents (300 mg/kg vs. 5 g/kg. C57BL/6J mice maintained on the two 5% kcal protein diets induced the most significant ketoses, which was only partially diminished by choline replacement. Choline restriction in the setting of 10% kcal protein also caused moderate ketosis and hepatic fat accumulation, which were again attenuated when choline was replete. Key effects of the 5% kcal protein diet - weight loss, hepatic fat accumulation, and mitochondrial ultrastructural disarray and bioenergetic dysfunction - were mitigated by choline repletion. These studies indicate that synergistic effects of protein restriction and choline deficiency influence integrated metabolism and hepatic pathology in mice when nutritional fat content is very high, and support the consideration of dietary choline content in ketogenic diet studies in rodents to limit hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation.

  6. Perinatal exposure to a diet high in saturated fat, refined sugar and cholesterol affects behaviour, growth, and feed intake in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J.J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal

  7. Choline or methionine reverses impaired secretion of VLDL by hepatocytes from choline-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Z.; Vance, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Male rats fed a choline-deficient (CD) diet for three days accumulated triacylglycerol (TG) in the liver. Hepatocytes from these rats were cultured and maintained in a medium + choline. The rate of secretion of TG was reduced by 50% in the CD cells. Correspondingly, [ 3 H]oleate and [ 3 H]glycerol were incorporated at a 2-fold higher rate into TG secreted by choline-supplemented cells compared to CD cells. Isolation of lipoprotein fractions by ultracentrifugation showed that the reduced secretion of TG by CD hepatocytes was mainly due to an impaired secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). Incorporation of [ 3 H]leucine into secreted apoB/sub H/, apoB/sub L/ and apoE was markedly reduced in CD cells compared to choline-supplemented cells. Secretion of high density lipoprotein was not reduced in the CD hepatocytes. Normal secretion of VLDL was resumed upon addition of methionine to the CD cells

  8. Effect of Vegan Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Carnitine- and Choline-Derived Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Production and Vascular Inflammation in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, L.P.; Kootte, R.S.; Levin, E.; Prodan, A.; Fuentes, S.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Wang, Z; Levison, B.S.; Cleophas, M.C.P.; Kemper, E.M.; Dallinga-Thie, G.M.; Groen, A.K.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Netea, M.G.; Stroes, E.S.; Vos, W.M. de; Hazen, S.L.; Nieuwdorp, M.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbiota have been found to be linked to cardiovascular disease via conversion of the dietary compounds choline and carnitine to the atherogenic metabolite TMAO (trimethylamine-N-oxide). Specifically, a vegan diet was associated with decreased plasma TMAO levels and nearly

  9. Effect of vegan fecal microbiota transplantation on carnitine- and choline-derived trimethylamine-N-oxide production and vascular inflammation in patients with metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Loek P.; Kootte, Ruud S.; Levin, Evgeni; Prodan, Andrei; Fuentes, Susana; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S.; Cleophas, Maartje C.P.; Kemper, E.M.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Groen, Albert K.; Joosten, Leo A.B.; Netea, Mihai G.; Stroes, Erik S.G.; Vos, de Willem M.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2018-01-01

    Background--Intestinal microbiota have been found to be linked to cardiovascular disease via conversion of the dietary compounds choline and carnitine to the atherogenic metabolite TMAO (trimethylamine-N-oxide). Specifically, a vegan diet was associated with decreased plasma TMAO levels and nearly

  10. Choline-PET/CT for imaging prostate cancer; Cholin-PET/CT zur Bildgebung des Prostatakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Bernd Joachim [Klinik- und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Treiber, U.; Schwarzenboeck, S.; Souvatzoglou, M. [Klinik fuer Urologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives are increasingly being used for imaging of prostate cancer. The value of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer has been examined in many studies and demonstrates an increasing importance. Primary prostate cancer can be detected with moderate sensitivity using PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives - the differentiation between benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis or high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is not always possible. At the present time [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT is not recommended in the primary setting but may be utilized in clinically suspected prostate cancer with repeatedly negative prostate biopsies, in preparation of a focused re-biopsy. Promising results have been obtained for the use of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in patients with biochemical recurrence. The detection rate of choline PET and PET/CT for local, regional, and distant recurrence in patients with a biochemical recurrence shows a linear correlation with PSA values at the time of imaging and reaches about 75% in patients with PSA > 3 ng/mL. At PSA values below 1 ng/mL, the recurrence can be diagnosed with choline PET/CT in approximately 1/3 of the patients. PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]choline derivates can be helpful for choosing a therapeutic strategy in the sense of an individualized treatment: since an early diagnosis of recurrence is crucial to the choice of optimal treatment. The localization of the site of recurrence - local recurrence, lymph node metastasis or systemic dissemination - has important influence on the therapy regimen. (orig.)

  11. Choline and Choline Metabolite Patterns and Associations in Blood and Milk during Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artegoitia, Virginia M.; Middleton, Jesse L.; Harte, Federico M.; Campagna, Shawn R.; de Veth, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L). In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L), which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively), with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R 2 = 0.78). Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk. PMID:25157578

  12. Choline and choline metabolite patterns and associations in blood and milk during lactation in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia M Artegoitia

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products are an important source of choline, a nutrient essential for human health. Infant formula derived from bovine milk contains a number of metabolic forms of choline, all contribute to the growth and development of the newborn. At present, little is known about the factors that influence the concentrations of choline metabolites in milk. The objectives of this study were to characterize and then evaluate associations for choline and its metabolites in blood and milk through the first 37 weeks of lactation in the dairy cow. Milk and blood samples from twelve Holstein cows were collected in early, mid and late lactation and analyzed for acetylcholine, free choline, betaine, glycerophosphocholine, lysophosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphocholine and sphingomyelin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified using stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Total choline concentration in plasma, which was almost entirely phosphatidylcholine, increased 10-times from early to late lactation (1305 to 13,535 µmol/L. In milk, phosphocholine was the main metabolite in early lactation (492 µmol/L, which is a similar concentration to that found in human milk, however, phosphocholine concentration decreased exponentially through lactation to 43 µmol/L in late lactation. In contrast, phosphatidylcholine was the main metabolite in mid and late lactation (188 µmol/L and 659 µmol/L, respectively, with the increase through lactation positively correlated with phosphatidylcholine in plasma (R2 = 0.78. Unlike previously reported with human milk we found no correlation between plasma free choline concentration and milk choline metabolites. The changes in pattern of phosphocholine and phosphatidylcholine in milk through lactation observed in the bovine suggests that it is possible to manufacture infant formula that more closely matches these metabolites profile in human milk.

  13. Perinatal grief in Latino parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Claudia; Kavanaugh, Karen; Klima, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research exists that describes the meaning of perinatal loss to some parents, but the experience of loss from the perspective of Latino parents is not clearly understood. Additionally, current perinatal bereavement practices used often to facilitate memory making for parents (such as viewing or holding the baby, taking photographs, or collecting mementos) are based on research done primarily with non-Latino families. Are these common practices appropriate for this population? Because there is a paucity of research on this topic, this article describes what has been written over the past 30 years on the topic of grief and perinatal loss in Latino culture.

  14. Perinatal postmortem radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppaenen, U.

    1986-01-01

    During 1980-1982 a postmortem radiologic investigation was carried out on 514 perinatally dead infants from 22 hospitals in Finland. Pathologic radiologic findings were seen in 30% of the material. Ninety-nine cases had congenital defects, while the rest showed other skeletal or soft tissue abnormalities. Of those with congenital defects, there were 6 osteochondrodysplasias, 16 chromosomal malformation syndromes, 13 autosomal recessive inherited malformation syndromes and 18 multiple malformation syndromes of unknown aetiology. There were also 18 cases with malformation sequences and 10 single malformations with abnormal radiologic findings. Congenital defects due to disruptions were detected in 12 cases and defects due to deformations in 7. The present article includes a review of the radiologic findings in 514 cases, with special reference to the skeletal findings. (orig./MG)

  15. A comparison of choline:urea and choline:oxalic acid deep eutectic solvents at 338 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Mark; Moura, Leila M.; Turner, Adam H.; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata; Callear, Samantha K.; McCune, Jade A.; Scherman, Oren A.; Holbrey, John D.

    2018-05-01

    1:2 choline chloride:urea and 1:1 choline chloride:oxalic acid deep eutectic solvents are compared at 338 K using liquid-phase neutron diffraction with H/D isotopic substitution to obtain differential neutron scattering cross sections and fitting of models to the experimental data using Empirical Potential Structure Refinement. In comparison to the previously reported study of choline chloride:urea at 303 K, we observed significant weakening and lengthening of choline-OH⋯Cl- and choline-OH⋯hydrogen-bond acceptor correlations.

  16. Repeatability of Maternal Report on Prenatal, Perinatal and Early Postnatal Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Diana; Suling, Marc; Reisch, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the repeatability of maternal self-reported prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal factors within the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study. Design: Data are from the baseline survey of the longitudin...

  17. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined.

  18. New approaches to the synthesis of diclofenac choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Dąbrowska-Maś

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The process described herein proceeds to obtaining diclofenac choline from choline bicarbonate and diclofenac acid in mild conditions, using non-toxic solvent, with the same impurity profile deriving from diclofenac particle as for diclofenac sodium EP. The substance is also substantially free from impurities deriving from choline and free from inorganic by-products, what means that the quality may be accepted for use as an active substance in medicine.

  19. Formulation and utilization of choline based samples for dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowen, Sean; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2013-01-01

    their performance to more traditional sample formulations. Choline yields stable samples with exceptional polarization performance while simultaneously offering the capability to easily remove the choline after dissolution, perform experiments with the hyperpolarized choline, or anything in between....

  20. Improving perinatal outcome: towards individualized care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazemier, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Unfortunately not all pregnancies and deliveries take place without complications. Complications during pregnancy or delivery can lead to maternal morbidity and poor perinatal outcomes such as perinatal mortality or (severe) neonatal morbidity. First assessment in antenatal care is to distinguish

  1. Socioeconomic differences in perinatal health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    been used to examine the influence of socioeconomic factors on perinatal health. Conclusion: Danish register data is an invaluable source of information on socioeconomic differences in perinatal health. Danish registers continue to provide excellent opportunities for research and surveillance...

  2. Contents of lecithin and choline in crude drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, K; Kikuoka, M; Nishi, H; Kokusenya, Y; Miyamoto, T; Matsuo, M; Sato, T

    1994-01-01

    The determination of lecithin and choline in crude drugs was established by a combination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detector (ECD) and enzyme reaction. Lecithin in crude drugs extracted with a mixture of chloroform-methanol (2:1) at room temperature was hydrolyzed by phospholipase D. The hydrolyzate was injected to HPLC, and choline was separated from impurities by reverse phase column. The choline was converted to betaine and hydrogen peroxide by passing through column packed with immobilized choline oxidase. This hydrogen peroxide was detected by ECD. The peak area of hydrogen peroxide derived from lecithin was proportional to the concentration of lecithin from 0.10 to 1.52 microgram/ml. Choline in crude drugs was extracted with ethanol under reflux and determined under the same HPLC conditions as lecithin. The peak area of hydrogen peroxide derived from choline was proportional to the concentration of choline from 0.01 to 0.45 microgram/ml. The contents of lecithin and choline in 31 kinds of crude drugs were determined by these established methods. The results showed that Cervi Parvum Cornu, Kokurozin, Foenigraeci Semen and Psoraleae Semen contained more lecithin than other crude drugs, while Angelicae Radix, Foenigraeci Semen, Psoraleae Semen, and especially Hippocampus were found to contain more choline than other crude drugs.

  3. [Perinatal sources of stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorska-Jasiulewicz, Magdalena Maria; Witkowska-Zimny, Małgorzata

    2015-03-08

    Recently, stem cell biology has become an interesting topic. Several varieties of human stem cells have been isolated and identified in vivo and in vitro. Successful application of hematopoietic stem cells in hematology has led to the search for other sources of stem cells and expanding the scale of their application. Perinatal stem cells are a versatile cell population, and they are interesting for both scientific and practical objectives. Stem cells from perinatal tissue may be particularly useful in the clinic for autologous transplantation for fetuses and newborns, and after banking in later stages of life, as well as for in utero transplantation in the case of genetic disorders. In this review paper we focus on the extraction and therapeutic potential of stem cells derived from perinatal tissues such as the placenta, the amnion, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood and Wharton's jelly.

  4. Perinatal sources of stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Maria Piskorska-Jasiulewicz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, stem cell biology has become an interesting topic. Several varieties of human stem cells have been isolated and identified in vivo and in vitro. Successful application of hematopoietic stem cells in hematology has led to the search for other sources of stem cells and expanding the scale of their application. Perinatal stem cells are a versatile cell population, and they are interesting for both scientific and practical objectives. Stem cells from perinatal tissue may be particularly useful in the clinic for autologous transplantation for fetuses and newborns, and after banking in later stages of life, as well as for in utero transplantation in the case of genetic disorders. In this review paper we focus on the extraction and therapeutic potential of stem cells derived from perinatal tissues such as the placenta, the amnion, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord blood and Wharton’s jelly.

  5. Choline transport via choline transporter-like protein 1 in conditionally immortalized rat syncytiotrophoblast cell lines TR-TBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N-Y; Choi, H-M; Kang, Y-S

    2009-04-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for phospholipids and acetylcholine biosynthesis in normal development of fetus. In the present study, we investigated the functional characteristics of choline transport system and inhibitory effect of cationic drugs on choline transport in rat conditionally immortalized syncytiotrophoblast cell line (TR-TBT). Choline transport was weakly Na(+) dependent and significantly influenced by extracellular pH and by membrane depolarization. The transport process of choline is saturable with Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m)) of 68microM and 130microM in TR-TBT 18d-1 and TR-TBT 18d-2 respectively. Choline uptake in the cells was inhibited by unlabeled choline and hemicholinium-3 as well as various organic cations including guanidine, amiloride and acetylcholine. However, the prototypical organic cation tetraethylammonium and cimetidine showed very little inhibitory effect of choline uptake in TR-TBT cells. RT-PCR revealed that choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) and organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) are expressed in TR-TBT cells. The transport properties of choline in TR-TBT cells were similar or identical to that of CTL1 but not OCT2. CTL1 was also detected in human placenta. In addition, several cationic drugs such as diphenhydramine and verapamil competitively inhibited choline uptake in TR-TBT 18d-1 with K(i) of 115microM and 55microM, respectively. Our results suggest that choline transport system, which has intermediate affinity and weakly Na(+) dependent, in TR-TBT seems to occur through a CTL1 and this system may have relevance with the uptake of pharmacologically important organic cation drugs.

  6. In Utero Exposure to Dietary Methyl Nutrients and Breast Cancer Risk in Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Lipotropes (methionine, choline, folate , and vitamin B12) are dietary methyl donors and...Lipotropes are methyl group (CH3) containing essential nutrients (methionine, choline, folate , and vitamin B12) and are important methyl donors...is highly dependent on methyl donors and cofactors (11, 17). The coenzymes necessary for DNA methylation reactions include folate , vitamin B12, and

  7. Localised proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain after perinatal hypoxia: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chateil, J.F. [Service de Radiologie A, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)]|[Unite de Radiopediatrie, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Quesson, B.; Thiaudiere, E.; Delalande, C.; Canioni, P. [Resonance Magnetique des Systemes Biologiques, CNRS, Bordeaux (France); Brun, M.; Diard, F. [Service de Radiologie A, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Sarlangue, J.; Billeaud, C. [Service de Neonatalogie, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)

    1999-03-01

    Objectives. Perinatal hypoxic ischaemic injury is a significant cause of neurodevelopmental impairment. The aim of this study was to evaluate localised proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) after birth asphyxia. Materials and methods. Thirty newborn infants suspected of having perinatal asphyxia (Apgar score < 3) were studied. The mean gestational age was 37 weeks, mean age at the MR examination was 18 days and mean weight was 2.9 kg. A 1.5-T unit was used for imaging and spectroscopy. None of the babies had mechanically assisted ventilation. No sedation was used. Axial T1-weighted and T2-weighted images were obtained. {sup 1}H-MRS was recorded in a single voxel, localised in white matter, using a STEAM sequence. Results. Image quality was good in 25 of 30 babies. {sup 1}H-MRS was performed in 19 of 30 subjects, with adequate quality in 16. Choline, creatine/phosphocreatine and N-acetylaspartate peaks and peak-area ratios were analysed. Lactate was detected in four infants. The N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was lower in infants with an impaired neurological outcome, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions. This study suggests that {sup 1}H-MRS may be useful for assessing cerebral metabolism in the neonate. A raised lactate level and decreased N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio may be predictive of a poor outcome. However, in our experience this method is limited by the difficulty in performing the examination during the first hours after birth in critically ill babies, the problems related to use of a monovoxel sequence, the dispersion of the ratios and the lack of determination of the absolute concentration of the metabolites. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 20 refs.

  8. Plasma immune protein analysis in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides: Evidence for altered expressions of immune factors associated with a choline-supplemented diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, Ya-Li; Chiu, Kuo-Hsun; Huynh, Truong-Giang; Liu, Ping-Chung; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2017-06-01

    kidneys and spleen of fish in the choline group. Our results suggest that dietary administration of choline can protect grouper against bacterial infections through activating the complement system, thereby inducing antiprotease activity and natural antibodies that play important roles in the innate immune system of fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. MRI of perinatal brain injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Mary; Allsop, Joanna [Imperial College, Robert Steiner MR Unit, Perinatal Imaging, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Martinez Biarge, Miriam [La Paz University Hospital, Dept of Neonatology, Madrid (Spain); Counsell, Serena [Imperial College, Robert Steiner MR Unit, Neonatal Medicine, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Cowan, Frances [Imperial College, Dept of Paediatrics, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    MRI is invaluable in assessing the neonatal brain following suspected perinatal injury. Good quality imaging requires adaptations to both the hardware and the sequences used for adults or older children. The perinatal and postnatal details often predict the pattern of lesions sustained and should be available to aid interpretation of the imaging findings. Perinatal lesions, the pattern of which can predict neurodevelopmental outcome, are at their most obvious on conventional imaging between 1 and 2 weeks from birth. Very early imaging during the first week may be useful to make management decisions in ventilated neonates but brain abnormalities may still be subtle using conventional sequences. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is very useful for the early identification of ischaemic tissue in the neonatal brain but may underestimate the final extent of injury, particularly basal ganglia and thalamic lesions. MR imaging is an excellent predictor of outcome following perinatal brain injury and can therefore be used as a biomarker in interventional trials designed to reduce injury and improve neurodevelopmental outcome. (orig.)

  10. MRI of perinatal brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, Mary; Allsop, Joanna; Martinez Biarge, Miriam; Counsell, Serena; Cowan, Frances

    2010-01-01

    MRI is invaluable in assessing the neonatal brain following suspected perinatal injury. Good quality imaging requires adaptations to both the hardware and the sequences used for adults or older children. The perinatal and postnatal details often predict the pattern of lesions sustained and should be available to aid interpretation of the imaging findings. Perinatal lesions, the pattern of which can predict neurodevelopmental outcome, are at their most obvious on conventional imaging between 1 and 2 weeks from birth. Very early imaging during the first week may be useful to make management decisions in ventilated neonates but brain abnormalities may still be subtle using conventional sequences. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is very useful for the early identification of ischaemic tissue in the neonatal brain but may underestimate the final extent of injury, particularly basal ganglia and thalamic lesions. MR imaging is an excellent predictor of outcome following perinatal brain injury and can therefore be used as a biomarker in interventional trials designed to reduce injury and improve neurodevelopmental outcome. (orig.)

  11. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO PERINATAL MORTALITY : OPTIMIZING OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the various causes of perinatal deaths and adopt strategies to improve perinatal outcome at a referral teaching hospital in North Kerala. METHODS: A prospective observational study conducted at Institute of Maternal and Child Health, Government Medical College, Kozhikode. All perinatal deaths during the period January 2013 to December 2014 were analysed and from this factors responsible for perinatal deaths were identified. RESULTS: Out of total 30,042 deliveries , there were 966 perinatal deaths during the study period. 566 were still births and 400 early neonatal deaths. The perinatal mortality rate was 31.1 per 1000 live births. Perinatal asphyxia was the major cause of perinatal mortality. The important factors contributing to perinatal asphyxia were prematurity (39%, abruptio placenta (19% and MSAF ( 12%. Among the antenatal factors, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy leading to iatrogenic elective preterm delivery were the most important. CONCLUSION: Perinatal asphyxia due to prematurity and low birth weight emerged as the most important cause of perinatal mortality in this study and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the most important antenatal complication leading to prematurity

  12. Choline Intake, Plasma Riboflavin, and the Phosphatidylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase G5465A Genotype Predict Plasma Homocysteine in Folate-Deplete Mexican-American Men with the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase 677TT Genotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caudill, M.A.; Dellschaft, N.; Solis, C.; Hinkis, S.; Ivanov, A.A.; Nash-Barboza, S.; Randall, K.E.; Jackson, B.; Solomita, G.N.; Vermeylen, F.

    2009-01-01

    We previously showed that provision of the folate recommended dietary allowance and either 300, 550, 1100, or 2200 mg/d choline for 12 wk resulted in diminished folate status and a tripling of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) in men with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677TT

  13. CDP-choline modulates matrix metalloproteinases in rat sciatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Elif Basaran; Bekar, Ahmet; Turkyilmaz, Mesut; Gumus, Abdullah; Kafa, Ilker Mustafa; Cansev, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    CDP-choline (cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine) improves functional recovery, promotes nerve regeneration, and decreases perineural scarring in rat peripheral nerve injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of action of CDP-choline with regard to matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in the rat-transected sciatic nerve injury model. Male Wistar rats were randomized into Sham, Saline, and CDP-choline groups. Rats in Sham group received Sham surgery, whereas rats in Saline and CDP-choline groups underwent right sciatic nerve transection followed by immediate primary saturation and injected intraperitoneally with 0.9% NaCl (1 mL/kg) and CDP-choline (600 μg/kg), respectively. Sciatic nerve samples were obtained 1, 3, and 7 d after the surgery and analyzed for levels and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-3, and axonal regeneration. CDP-choline treatment decreased the levels and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, whereas increasing levels of TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 significantly on the third and seventh day after injury compared to Saline group. In addition, CDP-choline administration resulted in new axon formation and formation and advancement of myelination on newly formed islets (compartments) of axonal regrowth. Our data show, for the first time, that CDP-choline modulates MMP activity and promotes the expression of TIMPs to stimulate axonal regeneration. These data help to explain one mechanism by which CDP-choline provides neuroprotection in peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of betaine supplementation and choline deficiency on folate deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Yi-qun; Morita, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Kimio

    2012-01-01

    The effect of betaine status on folate deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia was investigated to determine whether folate deficiency impairs homocysteine removal not only by the methionine synthase (MS) pathway but also by the betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT) pathway. For this purpose, we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with betaine at a high level (1%) in rats fed a folate-deprived 10% casein diet (10C) and 20% casein diet (20C). We also investigated the effect of choline deprivation on folate deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats fed 20C. Supplementation of folate-deprived 10C and 20C with 1% betaine significantly suppressed folate deprivation-induced hyperhomocysteinemia, but the extent of suppression was partial or limited, especially in rats fed 10C, the suppression of plasma homocysteine increment being 48.5% in rats fed 10C and 69.7% in rats fed 20C. Although betaine supplementation greatly increased hepatic betaine concentration and BHMT activity, these increases did not fully explain why the effect of betaine supplementation was partial or limited. Folate deprivation markedly increased the hepatic concentration of N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), a known inhibitor of BHMT, and there was a significant positive correlation between hepatic DMG concentration and plasma homocysteine concentration, suggesting that folate deficiency increases hepatic DMG concentration and thereby depresses BHMT reaction, leading to interference with the effect of betaine supplementation. Choline deprivation did not increase plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed 20C, but it markedly enhanced plasma homocysteine concentration when rats were fed folate-deprived 20C. This indicates that choline deprivation reinforced folate deprivation-induced hyperhomocysteinemia. Increased hepatic DMG concentration was also associated with such an effect. These results support the concept that folate deficiency impairs homocysteine metabolism not only

  15. Mortalidad perinatal y duelo materno

    OpenAIRE

    Laverde Rubio, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Se investigaron desde el punto de vista médico-psicológico dos grupos de madres cuyos hijos murieran durante el periodo perinatal (entre 28 semanas de gestación y 28 días de nacido). EI primer grupo de estudio lo configuraban 20 pacientes que reaccionaron con un duelo prolongado ante la perdida de su hijo. EI segundo grupo esta conformado por 20 pacientes (grupo de comparación) que elaboraron la perdida de su hijo mediante un duelo no complicado. La hipótesis general que obtento este trabajo ...

  16. Value of the perinatal autopsy : Critique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, SJ; Erwich, JJHM; Khong, TY

    2002-01-01

    In consenting to a perinatal autopsy, the primary motive of parents may be to find the exact cause of death. A critical review on the value of perinatal autopsies was performed to see whether parents could be counseled regarding their main motive. A literature search was performed in MEDLINE,

  17. Perinatal safety: from concept to nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndon, Audrey; Kennedy, Holly Powell

    2010-01-01

    Communication and teamwork problems are leading causes of documented preventable adverse outcomes in perinatal care. An essential component of perinatal safety is the organizational culture in which clinicians work. Clinicians' individual and collective authority to question the plan of care and take action to change the direction of a clinical situation in the patient's best interest can be viewed as their "agency for safety." However, collective agency for safety and commitment to support nurses in their role of advocacy is missing in many perinatal care settings. This article draws from Organizational Accident Theory, High Reliability Theory, and Symbolic Interactionism to describe the nurse's role in maintaining safety during labor and birth in acute care settings and suggests actions for supporting the perinatal nurse at individual, group, and systems levels to achieve maximum safety in perinatal care.

  18. Perinatal Safety: From Concept to Nursing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Holly Powell

    2010-01-01

    Communication and teamwork problems are leading causes of documented preventable adverse outcomes in perinatal care. An essential component of perinatal safety is the organizational culture in which clinicians work. Clinicians’ individual and collective authority to question the plan of care and take action to change the direction of a clinical situation in the patient’s best interest can be viewed as their “agency for safety.” However, collective agency for safety and commitment to support nurses in their advocacy role is missing in many perinatal care settings. This paper draws from Organizational Accident Theory, High Reliability Theory, and Symbolic Interactionism to describe the nurse’s role in maintaining safety during labor and birth in acute care settings, and suggests actions for supporting the perinatal nurse at individual, group, and systems levels to achieve maximum safety in perinatal care. PMID:20147827

  19. RBC-choline: changes by lithium and relation to prophylactic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, M.; Haag, H.; Eisenried, F.; Greil, W.

    1984-01-01

    Red blod cell (RBC)- and plasma-choline levels were measured in patients on lithium (n=96), antidepressants (n=32) and neuroleptics (n=51) and in 25 healthy drug-free controls. Lithium patients exhibited highly increased RBC- and slightly increased plasma-choline levels compared with controls (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively); the choline ratio (RBC-/plasma-choline) was elevated almost to the same extent as RBC-choline (P<0.001). With antidepressants RBC-choline and choline ratios were slightly reduced (P<0.05), whereas neuroleptics showed no effect on choline levels. 79% of lithium patients were responders (reduction in hospitalizations with lithium) 21% were non-responders (no reduction or increase in hospitalizations). Choline ratio exhibited a significant relation to prophylactic lithium response, but lithium ratio did not. The percentage of non-responders was significantly higher in patients with a choline ratio exceeding 100 than in patients with a choline ratio below this cut-off (P<0.01). Thus, the increase of RBC-choline and choline ratios appears to be an effect specific for lithium and might be related to the outcome of lithium prophylaxis. (author)

  20. Phosphorylation of the Yeast Choline Kinase by Protein Kinase C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mal-Gi; Kurnov, Vladlen; Kersting, Michael C.; Sreenivas, Avula; Carman, George M.

    2005-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae CKI1-encoded choline kinase catalyzes the committed step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway. The enzyme is phosphorylated on multiple serine residues, and some of this phosphorylation is mediated by protein kinase A. In this work, we examined the hypothesis that choline kinase is also phosphorylated by protein kinase C. Using choline kinase as a substrate, protein kinase C activity was dose- and time-dependent, and dependent on the concentrations of choline kinase (Km = 27 μg/ml) and ATP (Km = 15 μM). This phosphorylation, which occurred on a serine residue, was accompanied by a 1.6-fold stimulation of choline kinase activity. The synthetic peptide SRSSS25QRRHS (Vmax/Km = 17.5 mM-1 μmol min-1 mg-1) that contains the protein kinase C motif for Ser25 was a substrate for protein kinase C. A Ser25 to Ala (S25A) mutation in choline kinase resulted in a 60% decrease in protein kinase C phosphorylation of the enzyme. Phosphopeptide mapping analysis of the S25A mutant enzyme confirmed that Ser25 was a protein kinase C target site. In vivo, the S25A mutation correlated with a decrease (55%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis via the Kennedy pathway whereas an S25D phosphorylation site mimic correlated with an increase (44%) in phosphatidylcholine synthesis. Whereas the S25A (protein kinase C site) mutation did not affect the phosphorylation of choline kinase by protein kinase A, the S30A (protein kinase A site) mutation caused a 46% reduction in enzyme phosphorylation by protein kinase C. A choline kinase synthetic peptide (SQRRHS30LTRQ) containing Ser30 was a substrate (Vmax/Km = 3.0 mM−1 μmol min−1 mg−1) for protein kinase C. Comparison of phosphopeptide maps of the wild type and S30A mutant choline kinase enzymes phosphorylated by protein kinase C confirmed that Ser30 was also a target site for protein kinase C. PMID:15919656

  1. Trends in perinatal health after assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Gissler, M.; Skjaerven, R.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTIONS Has the perinatal outcome of children conceived after assisted reproductive technology (ART) improved over time? SUMMARY ANSWER The perinatal outcomes in children born after ART have improved over the last 20 years, mainly due to the reduction of multiple births. WHAT IS KNOWN...... with ART outcome and health data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING AND METHODS We analysed the perinatal outcome of 62 379 ART singletons and 29 758 ART twins, born from 1988 to 2007 in four Nordic countries. The ART singletons were compared with a control group of 362 215...

  2. Biocompatible choline based ionic salts: Solubility in short-chain alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Joana M.; Paninho, Ana B.; Môlho, Marta F.; Nunes, Ana V.M.; Rocha, Angelo; Lourenço, Nuno M.T.; Najdanovic-Visak, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Biocompatible ionic liquids based on choline esters were synthesized in this work. • Solubility of choline and choline esters based ionic salt in alcohols were measured. • Activity coefficients were calculated. • Experimental data were correlated by means of the semi-empirical Grant equation. -- Abstract: In this work, we report data on solubility of choline chloride and choline acetate in short-chain linear alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol and 1-butanol) at various temperatures. Furthermore, we synthesize two choline derivatives: hydrogen choline chloride glutarate ([CholGlut][Cl]) and hydrogen choline chloride succinate ([CholSucc][Cl]). Their characterization and solubility in short-chain alcohols as a function of temperature are also included. Activity coefficients were calculated and their comparisons with ideal solutions were discussed. The experimental data were correlated successfully by means of the semi-empirical Grant equation

  3. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG) [de

  4. [Chorionicity and adverse perinatal outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabel; Laureano, Carla; Branco, Miguel; Nordeste, Ana; Fonseca, Margarida; Pinheiro, Adelaide; Silva, Maria Isabel; Almeida, Maria Céu

    2005-01-01

    Considering the highest rate of morbidity and mortality in diamniotic monochorionic twins, the authors evaluated and compared the adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome in twin pregnancies according to chorionicity. A retrospective study was conducted in all twin deliveries that occurred in the Obstetric Unit of Maternidade Bissaya-Barreto, for a period of tree years (from the 1st of January 1999 until the 31st of December 2001). From de 140 diamniotic twin pregnancies studied, we considered two groups according to the chorionicity: monochorionic and dichorionic. We compared multiple parameters as, epidemiologic data, adverse obstetric outcome, gestacional delivery age, type of delivery and the morbidity, the mortality and the follow-up of the newborn. The statistic tests used were the X2 and the t student. From the 140 twin pregnancies included in the study, 66% (92 cases) presented dichorionic placentation and 34% (48 cases) were monochorionic. In the group of monochorionic pregnancies, we observed highly difference related to pathology of amniotic fluid (14.5% vs 2.2%), discordant fetal growth (41.6% vs 22.8%) and rate of preterm delivery (66.6% vs 32.6%). Related to the newborn we verified that they had a lower average birth weight (1988g vs 2295g), a highly rate of weight discordancy (23% vs 15.3%), intraventricular haemorrhage (2.2% vs 0%) and IUGR (6.6% vs 1.6%), statistically significant in the monochorionic group. Also the perinatal mortality rate was significantly higher in the monochorionic pregnancies (93.7 per thousand vs 21.7 per thousand). The high rate of morbidity and mortality related to the monochorionic twin pregnancies, implies the need of a correct identification of the type of chorionicity and also a high standard of prenatal surveillance in prenatal specialised health centers.

  5. Nutrition in pregnancy: the argument for including a source of choline

    OpenAIRE

    Zeisel, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    Steven H Zeisel Nutrition Research Institute at Kannapolis, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Kannapolis, NC, USA Abstract: Women, during pregnancy and lactation, should eat foods that contain adequate amounts of choline. A mother delivers large amounts of choline across the placenta to the fetus, and after birth she delivers large amounts of choline in milk to the infant; this greatly increases the demand on the choline stores of the mother. Adequate inta...

  6. X-ray diffraction study of choline chloride's β form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrouleas, V.; Lemmon, R.M.; Christensen, A.

    1978-01-01

    The organic salt choline chloride exists in two crystalline polymorphs. One (the α form) is extraordinarily sensitive to ionizing radiation, the other (the β form) is not. The present report describes an x-ray diffraction study of the β form. The structure has been found to be highly disordered face centered cubic. A reasonable least-square refinement of the intensity data has been achieved in the centrosymmetric space group Fm3 or Fm3m by use of a molecular model with restrained bond lengths. The results show that in the β form the electronic density due to the choline cation is closely spaced around the N, so that hydrogen bonding to the chloride is unlikely. Comparison with infrared and NMR data indicates that the disordering is dynamic and can be ascribed to rotations of the choline ion around crystallographic symmetry axes. Possible connections of these results with the radiation stability of the β form are discussed

  7. Perinatal brain damage : The term infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagberg, Henrik; David Edwards, A.; Groenendaal, Floris

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal brain injury at term is common and often manifests with neonatal encephalopathy including seizures. The most common aetiologies are hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy, intracranial haemorrhage and neonatal stroke. Besides clinical and biochemical assessment the diagnostic evaluation rely

  8. Improving perinatal outcome: towards individualized care

    OpenAIRE

    Kazemier, B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Unfortunately not all pregnancies and deliveries take place without complications. Complications during pregnancy or delivery can lead to maternal morbidity and poor perinatal outcomes such as perinatal mortality or (severe) neonatal morbidity. First assessment in antenatal care is to distinguish women who require standard care from those requiring special attention. At the moment, we can make some global risk assessments, but are not able to give a women a risk assessment that is adapted for...

  9. Genetic and perinatal effects of abused substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brande, M.C.; Zimmerman, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.

  10. Neonatal intracranial hemorrhages (perinatal onset)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Sadahiko; Ogata, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Toyoshiro; Nakao, Satoshi; Mizue, Hidenari; Kobayashi, Yutaka.

    1982-01-01

    1. We have reviewed 34 cases of neonatal intracranial hemorrhages (perinatal onset, 23 mature and 11 premature infants) experienced in 10-year period from 1971 to 1980, with special reference to gestational age, birth weight, type of delivery, presence or absence of asphyxia, symptoms and cause of death. 2. Regarding 9 autopsied cases and 7 cases diagnosed by CT-scan, 10 mature infants composed of 3 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 2 intraventricular hemorrhages, 2 subdural hematomas, 2 intracerebral and 1 subependymal hemorrhage; 6 premature infants consisted of 4 subependymal hemorrhages with ventricular rupture and 2 subarachnoid hemorrhages. Most of them presented with respiratory distress, vomiting and convulsive seizures which developed within 5 days after birth. 3. Poor outcome including death amounted 49% of mature and 63% of premature infants. Along with degree of intracranial hematoma, prematurity and pulmonary complication were felt to be important prognostic factors. 4. Introduction of CT-scan led to prompt diagnosis and treatment, thus lowering mortality rate of neonatal intracranial hemorrhages. (author)

  11. Congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Soo Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is currently the most common agent of congenital infection and the leading infectious cause of brain damage and hearing loss in children. Symptomatic congenital CMV infections usually result from maternal primary infection during early pregnancy. One half of symptomatic infants have cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID, which is characterized by involvement of multiple organs, in particular, the reticuloendothelial and central nervous system (CNS. Moreover, such involvement may or may not include ocular and auditory damage. Approximately 90% of infants with congenital infection are asymptomatic at birth. Preterm infants with perinatal CMV infection can have symptomatic diseases such as pneumonia, hepatitis, and thrombocytopenia. Microcephaly and abnormal neuroradiologic imaging are associated with a poor prognosis. Hearing loss may occur in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infants with congenital infection and may progress through childhood. Congenital infection is defined by the isolation of CMV from infants within the first 3 weeks of life. Ganciclovir therapy can be considered for infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection involving the CNS. Pregnant women of seronegative state should be counseled on the importance of good hand washing and other control measures to prevent CMV infection. Heat treatment of infected breast milk at 72?#608;for 5 seconds can eliminate CMV completely.

  12. Choline transport in the isolated rabbit corneal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the present study, isolated epithelial sheets were obtained by performing two sequential anterior keratectomies, three weeks apart, on rabbit corneas. Light microscopy of the isolated sheets revealed a multilayered epithelium with an intact basal cell layer without contamination from other cell types. The accumulation of [ 3 H]choline into the epithelial sheets was studied at substrate concentrations varying from 1 to 100 μMoles with and without the addition of specific metabolic and stereochemical inhibitors. Accumulation of [ 3 H]choline into these sheets was saturable. Kinetic analysis, performed by estimation from double-reciprocal plots, revealed a single component system with a K m of 24.9 μM. The metabolic inhibitors potassium cyanide and ouabain showed no effect on the uptake of [ 3 H]choline; however, the stereochemical inhibitor hemicholinium-3 significantly reduced the accumulation of radiolabel at both high and low substrate concentrations. The results suggest a non-energy dependent yet a highly specific transport system for the accumulation of choline into the rabbit epithelium

  13. Transport and phosphorylation of choline in higher plant cells. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bligny, R.; Foray, M.F.; Roby, C.; Douce, R.

    1989-03-25

    When sycamore cells were suspended in basal medium containing choline, the latter was taken up by the cells very rapidly. A facilitated diffusion system appertained at low concentrations of choline and exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. At higher choline concentrations simple diffusion appeared to be the principal mode of uptake. Addition of choline to the perfusate of compressed sycamore cells monitored by /sup 31/P NMR spectroscopy resulted in a dramatic accumulation of P-choline in the cytoplasmic compartment containing choline kinase and not in the vacuole. The total accumulation of P-choline over a 10-h period exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics. During this period, in the absence of Pi in the perfusion medium there was a marked depletion of glucose-6-P, and the cytoplasmic Pi resonance disappeared almost completely. When a threshold of cytoplasmic Pi was attained, the phosphorylation of choline was sustained by the continuous release of Pi from the vacuole although at a much lower rate. However, when 100 microM inorganic phosphate was present in the perfusion medium, externally added Pi was preferentially used to sustain P-choline synthesis. It is clear, therefore, that cytosolic choline kinase associated with a carrier-mediated transport system for choline uptake appeared as effective systems for continuously trapping cytoplasmic Pi including vacuolar Pi entering the cytoplasm.

  14. Importance of Choline as Essential Nutrient and Its Role in Prevention of Various Toxicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somava Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Choline is a water-soluble essential nutrient included as a member of the vitamin B12 group owing to its structural similarities with that of the other members of the group. Its roles and functions, however, extend much wider than that of the vitamins with which it is grouped. Choline is vital for maintenance of various key metabolic processes which play a role in the prevention or progression of various health impairments. The occurrence of diseases like neural tube defect (NTD and Alzheimer’s is prevented by the metabolic role of choline. It is also indispensable for mitigation of various forms of toxic contamination. While adequate level of choline in the body is essential, an excess of choline can result in various forms of disorder. To maintain the optimal level of choline in the body can be a challenge. The vital roles played by choline together with the range of contradictions and problems that choline presents make choline an interesting area of study. This paper attempts to summarize and review some recent publications on choline that have opened up new prospect in understanding the multiple role played by choline and in throwing light on the role played by this wonder essential nutrient in mitigating various forms of toxic contamination.

  15. Dietary cholesterol, heart disease risk and cognitive dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Donald J

    2014-05-01

    In the 1960s, the thesis that dietary cholesterol contributes to blood cholesterol and heart disease risk was a rational conclusion based on the available science at that time. Fifty years later the research evidence no longer supports this hypothesis yet changing the dietary recommendation to limit dietary cholesterol has been a slow and at times contentious process. The preponderance of the clinical and epidemiological data accumulated since the original dietary cholesterol restrictions were formulated indicate that: (1) dietary cholesterol has a small effect on the plasma cholesterol levels with an increase in the cholesterol content of the LDL particle and an increase in HDL cholesterol, with little effect on the LDL:HDL ratio, a significant indicator of heart disease risk, and (2) the lack of a significant relationship between cholesterol intake and heart disease incidence reported from numerous epidemiological surveys. Over the last decade, many countries and health promotion groups have modified their dietary recommendations to reflect the current evidence and to address a now recognised negative consequence of ineffective dietary cholesterol restrictions (such as inadequate choline intake). In contrast, health promotion groups in some countries appear to suffer from cognitive dissonance and continue to promote an outdated and potentially hazardous dietary recommendation based on an invalidated hypothesis. This review evaluates the evidence for and against dietary cholesterol restrictions and the potential consequences of such restrictions.

  16. Neonatal encephalopathic cerebral injury in South India assessed by perinatal magnetic resonance biomarkers and early childhood neurodevelopmental outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Lally

    Full Text Available Although brain injury after neonatal encephalopathy has been characterised well in high-income countries, little is known about such injury in low- and middle-income countries. Such injury accounts for an estimated 1 million neonatal deaths per year. We used magnetic resonance (MR biomarkers to characterise perinatal brain injury, and examined early childhood outcomes in South India.We recruited consecutive term or near term infants with evidence of perinatal asphyxia and a Thompson encephalopathy score ≥6 within 6 h of birth, over 6 months. We performed conventional MR imaging, diffusion tensor MR imaging and thalamic proton MR spectroscopy within 3 weeks of birth. We computed group-wise differences in white matter fractional anisotropy (FA using tract based spatial statistics. We allocated Sarnat encephalopathy stage aged 3 days, and evaluated neurodevelopmental outcomes aged 3½ years using Bayley III.Of the 54 neonates recruited, Sarnat staging was mild in 30 (56%; moderate in 15 (28% and severe in 6 (11%, with no encephalopathy in 3 (6%. Six infants died. Of the 48 survivors, 44 had images available for analysis. In these infants, imaging indicated perinatal rather than established antenatal origins to injury. Abnormalities were frequently observed in white matter (n = 40, 91% and cortex (n = 31, 70% while only 12 (27% had abnormal basal ganglia/thalami. Reduced white matter FA was associated with Sarnat stage, deep grey nuclear injury, and MR spectroscopy N-acetylaspartate/choline, but not early Thompson scores. Outcome data were obtained in 44 infants (81% with 38 (79% survivors examined aged 3½ years; of these, 16 (42% had adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes.No infants had evidence for established brain lesions, suggesting potentially treatable perinatal origins. White matter injury was more common than deep brain nuclei injury. Our results support the need for rigorous evaluation of the efficacy of rescue hypothermic

  17. Dysregulated choline metabolism in T-cell lymphoma: role of choline kinase-α and therapeutic targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, J; Bian, J; Wang, L; Zhou, J-Y; Wang, Y; Zhao, Y; Wu, L-L; Hu, J-J; Li, B; Chen, S-J; Yan, C; Zhao, W-L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells have distinct metabolomic profile. Metabolic enzymes regulate key oncogenic signaling pathways and have an essential role on tumor progression. Here, serum metabolomic analysis was performed in 45 patients with T-cell lymphoma (TCL) and 50 healthy volunteers. The results showed that dysregulation of choline metabolism occurred in TCL and was related to tumor cell overexpression of choline kinase-α (Chokα). In T-lymphoma cells, pharmacological and molecular silencing of Chokα significantly decreased Ras-GTP activity, AKT and ERK phosphorylation and MYC oncoprotein expression, leading to restoration of choline metabolites and induction of tumor cell apoptosis/necropotosis. In a T-lymphoma xenograft murine model, Chokα inhibitor CK37 remarkably retarded tumor growth, suppressed Ras-AKT/ERK signaling, increased lysophosphatidylcholine levels and induced in situ cell apoptosis/necropotosis. Collectively, as a regulatory gene of aberrant choline metabolism, Chokα possessed oncogenic activity and could be a potential therapeutic target in TCL, as well as other hematological malignancies with interrupted Ras signaling pathways

  18. Perinatal mortality and socio-spatial inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Francisca Martins

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the social inequalities in the distribution of perinatal mortality in Belo Horizonte. MATERIAL AND METHODS: the perinatal deaths of residents in Belo Horizonte in the period 2003 to 2007 were studied on the basis of the Information Systems on Mortality and Newborns. The space analysis and the Health Vulnerability Index were used to identify existing inequalities in the sanitary districts regarding coverage and risk, determined by the Odds Ratio and a value p<0.05. The multivariate analysis was used to describe a model for perinatal mortality. RESULTS: there was a proved variation in the numbers of perinatal mortality per one thousand total births in the sanitary districts (12.5 to 19.4, coverage areas (5.3 to 49.4 and areas of risk (13.2 to 20.7. The mortality rate diminished as the maternal schooling increased. The death rates deriving from asphyxia/hypoxia and non-specified fetal death grew with the increase of risk in the area. CONCLUSION: it was verified that the perinatal deaths are distributed in a differentiated form in relation to the space and the social vulnerabilities. The confrontation of this complex problem requires the establishment of intersecting partnerships.

  19. Perinatal Practices & Traditions Among Asian Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Deepika

    2016-01-01

    As the population in the United States grows more diverse, nurses caring for childbearing women must be aware of the many cultural traditions and customs unique to their patients. This knowledge and insight supports women and their families with the appropriate care, information, and resources. A supportive relationship builds trust, offers guidance, and allows for the new family to integrate information from nurses and other healthcare providers with the practice of certain perinatal cultural traditions. The Asian Indian culture is rich in tradition, specifically during the perinatal period. To support the cultural beliefs and practices of Asian Indian women during this time, nurses need to be aware of and consider multiple factors. Many women are navigating the new role of motherhood while making sense of and incorporating important cultural rituals. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of perinatal cultural practices and traditions specific to the Asian Indian culture that perinatal nurses may observe in the clinical setting. Cultural traditions and practices specific to the pregnancy and postpartum period are described together with symbolism and implications for nursing practice. It is important to note that information regarding perinatal customs is provided in an effort to promote culturally sensitive nursing care and may not pertain to all Asian Indian women living in the United States.

  20. A modified choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet reduces morbidity and retains a liver progenitor cell response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passman, Adam M; Strauss, Robyn P; McSpadden, Sarah B; Finch-Edmondson, Megan L; Woo, Ken H; Diepeveen, Luke A; London, Roslyn; Callus, Bernard A; Yeoh, George C

    2015-12-01

    The choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) dietary model induces chronic liver damage, and stimulates liver progenitor cell (LPC)-mediated repair. Long-term CDE administration leads to hepatocellular carcinoma in rodents and lineage-tracing studies show that LPCs differentiate into functional hepatocytes in this model. The CDE diet was first modified for mice by our laboratory by separately administering choline-deficient chow and ethionine in the drinking water (CD+E diet). Although this CD+E diet is widely used, concerns with variability in weight loss, morbidity, mortality and LPC response have been raised by researchers who have adopted this model. We propose that these inconsistencies are due to differential consumption of chow and ethionine in the drinking water, and that incorporating ethionine in the choline-deficient chow, and altering the strength, will achieve better outcomes. Therefore, C57Bl/6 mice, 5 and 6 weeks of age, were fed an all-inclusive CDE diet of various strengths (67% to 100%) for 3 weeks. The LPC response was quantitated and cell lines were derived. We found that animal survival, LPC response and liver damage are correlated with CDE diet strength. The 67% and 75% CDE diet administered to mice older than 5 weeks and greater than 18 g provides a consistent and acceptable level of animal welfare and induces a substantial LPC response, permitting their isolation and establishment of cell lines. This study shows that an all-inclusive CDE diet for mice reproducibly induces an LPC response conducive to in vivo studies and isolation, whilst minimizing morbidity and mortality. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. A modified choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet reduces morbidity and retains a liver progenitor cell response in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M. Passman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE dietary model induces chronic liver damage, and stimulates liver progenitor cell (LPC-mediated repair. Long-term CDE administration leads to hepatocellular carcinoma in rodents and lineage-tracing studies show that LPCs differentiate into functional hepatocytes in this model. The CDE diet was first modified for mice by our laboratory by separately administering choline-deficient chow and ethionine in the drinking water (CD+E diet. Although this CD+E diet is widely used, concerns with variability in weight loss, morbidity, mortality and LPC response have been raised by researchers who have adopted this model. We propose that these inconsistencies are due to differential consumption of chow and ethionine in the drinking water, and that incorporating ethionine in the choline-deficient chow, and altering the strength, will achieve better outcomes. Therefore, C57Bl/6 mice, 5 and 6 weeks of age, were fed an all-inclusive CDE diet of various strengths (67% to 100% for 3 weeks. The LPC response was quantitated and cell lines were derived. We found that animal survival, LPC response and liver damage are correlated with CDE diet strength. The 67% and 75% CDE diet administered to mice older than 5 weeks and greater than 18 g provides a consistent and acceptable level of animal welfare and induces a substantial LPC response, permitting their isolation and establishment of cell lines. This study shows that an all-inclusive CDE diet for mice reproducibly induces an LPC response conducive to in vivo studies and isolation, whilst minimizing morbidity and mortality.

  2. Perinatal death audits in a peri-urban hospital in Kampala, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The perinatal mortality of 70 deaths per 1,000 total births in Uganda is unacceptably high. Perinatal death audits are important for improvement of perinatal care and reduction of perinatal morality. We integrated perinatal death audits in routine care, and describe its effect on perinatal mortality rate at Nsambya ...

  3. Mortalidad perinatal y duelo materno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Laverde Rubio

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Two groups of women whose children died during the perinatal period (28 weeks of gestation to 28 days after birth were studied from the medical-psychological point of view. The first group was formed by 20 patients who reacted to the loss of the child with a prolonged process of grief. The second group was formed by 20 patients (comparison group who elaborated the loss by means of an uncomplicated grief process. The general hypothesis that guided this investigation is the following: the link established between the mother and her real Child, in case the latter should die, makes elaboration of grief easier: on the other hand the insufficient link or lack of it with the real child increases the relation of the mother and her imaginary child, increases the relation with her imaginary child so that if that child dies the narcissistic-type internal, mother-baby relationship tends to complicate the mourning by distorting it and making it last longer. "Real child" refers to the child as an external object and "imaginary child" is the experienced representation of the child or internal object. This general hypothesis was sub-divided into five simple hypothesis, for operative aims. These variables are: visual contact, tactile contact between mother and child. Information about the baby's condition, mother's active participation in searching for a name for the child and her attendance to funerary rites. Results confirmed the basic hypothesis, on establishing that the indicating or facilitating variables of the link showed a significant difference from the statistical point of view between the two groups. Some practical suggestions are made for the personnel of maternity and perinatology services so as to propitiate and facilitate contact between the mother and her child, which at its turn activates the establishment of an emotional link and the elaboration of mourning of the loss of the baby in case he/she should perish.

  4. Methadone and perinatal outcomes: a prospective cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-08-01

      Methadone use in pregnancy has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). This study aimed to examine perinatal outcomes and NAS in relation to (i) concomitant drug use and (ii) methadone dose.

  5. Perinatal mortality in the Cape Province, 1989 - 1991

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-05-05

    May 5, 1995 ... ... of deliveries, the low- birth-weight rate and the perinatal mortality rate at ... mortality rates were in the northern and eastern Cape. Conclusion. The perinatal ..... World Health Organisation. World Health Statistics Annual. Vol.

  6. Responding to the challenge of adolescent perinatal depression ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Evidence shows that a critical gap exists in the management of perinatal ... intervention program for adolescent perinatal depression, and determine the factors required ... Affairs Canada, IDRC, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

  7. Perinatal Health Statistics as the Basis for Perinatal Quality Assessment in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, Urelija; Filipović-Grčić, Boris; Đelmiš, Josip; Glivetić, Tatjana; Juras, Josip; Mustapić, Željka; Grizelj, Ruža

    2015-01-01

    Context. Perinatal mortality indicators are considered the most important measures of perinatal outcome. The indicators reliability depends on births and deaths reporting and recording. Many publications focus on perinatal deaths underreporting and misclassification, disabling proper international comparisons. Objective. Description of perinatal health care quality assessment key indicators in Croatia. Methods. Retrospective review of reports from all maternities from 2001 to 2014. Results. According to reporting criteria for birth weight ≥500 g, perinatal mortality (PNM) was reduced by 31%, fetal mortality (FM) by 32%, and early neonatal mortality (ENM) by 29%. According to reporting criteria for ≥1000 g, PNM was reduced by 43%, FM by 36%, and ENM by 54%. PNM in ≥22 weeks' (wks) gestational age (GA) was reduced by 28%, FM by 30%, and ENM by 26%. The proportion of FM at 32–36 wks GA and at term was the highest between all GA subgroups, as opposed to ENM with the highest proportion in 22–27 wks GA. Through the period, the maternal mortality ratio varied from 2.4 to 14.3/100,000 live births. The process indicators have been increased in number by more than half since 2001, the caesarean deliveries from 11.9% in 2001 to 19.6% in 2014. Conclusions. The comprehensive perinatal health monitoring represents the basis for the perinatal quality assessment. PMID:26693484

  8. Perinatal Health Statistics as the Basis for Perinatal Quality Assessment in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urelija Rodin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Perinatal mortality indicators are considered the most important measures of perinatal outcome. The indicators reliability depends on births and deaths reporting and recording. Many publications focus on perinatal deaths underreporting and misclassification, disabling proper international comparisons. Objective. Description of perinatal health care quality assessment key indicators in Croatia. Methods. Retrospective review of reports from all maternities from 2001 to 2014. Results. According to reporting criteria for birth weight ≥500 g, perinatal mortality (PNM was reduced by 31%, fetal mortality (FM by 32%, and early neonatal mortality (ENM by 29%. According to reporting criteria for ≥1000 g, PNM was reduced by 43%, FM by 36%, and ENM by 54%. PNM in ≥22 weeks’ (wks gestational age (GA was reduced by 28%, FM by 30%, and ENM by 26%. The proportion of FM at 32–36 wks GA and at term was the highest between all GA subgroups, as opposed to ENM with the highest proportion in 22–27 wks GA. Through the period, the maternal mortality ratio varied from 2.4 to 14.3/100,000 live births. The process indicators have been increased in number by more than half since 2001, the caesarean deliveries from 11.9% in 2001 to 19.6% in 2014. Conclusions. The comprehensive perinatal health monitoring represents the basis for the perinatal quality assessment.

  9. Perinatal Chicken Pox (Varicella Zoster Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Annagur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is due to infection with the varicella zoster virus (VZV, a human alphaherpervirus found worldwide. Classically, the cinical disease is a febrile illness with a pruritic vesicular rash. Maternal chickenpox between 5 days before delivery to 2 days after delivery (perinatal varicella can cause severe and even fatal illness in the newborn. A 7-day old girl baby presented on day 4 of postnatal with the complaints of widespread vesicular rash and non-suckling. Mother of the baby also had a similar eruption four day prior to delivery, which was clinically characteristic of varicella. Considering history and clinical presentation, a diagnosis of perinatal chickenpox was considered and the baby was treated with acyclovir which she responded and recovered. Herein, the clinical feasures and treatment of chickenpox infection in the perinatal period have been emphasized with this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 311-314

  10. [Perinatal mortality in foreign workers (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfling, H J; Jonas, R; Brusis, E; Lochmüller, H; Selbmann, H K; Holzmann, K; Zander, J

    1975-03-01

    From 1970 to 1972, there were 216 perinatal deaths among 5595 newborns at the I. Frauenklinik der Universität München. 54 of these deaths were children of foreign workers (so-called "Gastarbeiter"). The data have been processed on punch cards and analysed by a computer. The differences noted underwent significance testing by the CHI-Quadrat test. Only statistical significant results are published. The perinatal mortality in the above period shows no difference between foreign and German ward patients. There is, however, a significant lower perinatal mortality in private patients. We feel that this difference is due to a significant lower rate of prematures in the private patient group. The cocial status as well as higher interest and motivation in health resulting in better prenatal care are discussed as causal reasons for this fact.

  11. [Tobacco control policies and perinatal health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelen, M J; Sheikh, A; Kok, M; Hajenius, P; Zimmermann, L J; Kramer, B W; Hukkelhoven, C W; Reiss, I K; Mol, B W; Been, J V

    2017-01-01

    Study the association between the introduction of tobacco control policies in the Netherlands and changes in perinatal outcomes. National quasi-experimental study. We used Netherlands Perinatal Registry data (now called Perined) for the period 2000-2011. We studied whether the introduction of smoke-free legislation in workplaces plus a tobacco tax increase and mass media campaign in January 2004, and extension of the smoke-free law to the hospitality industry accompanied by another tax increase and media campaign in July 2008, was associated with changes in perinatal outcomes. We studied all singleton births (gestational age: 24+0 to 42+6 weeks). Our primary outcome measures were: perinatal mortality, preterm birth and being small-for-gestational-age (SGA). Interrupted time series logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate changes in these outcomes occurred after the introduction of the aforementioned tobacco control policies (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02189265). Among 2,069,695 singleton births, 13,027 (0.6%) perinatal deaths, 116,043 (5.6%) preterm live-births and 187,966 (9.1%) SGA live-births were observed. The policies introduced in January 2004 were not associated with significant changes in any of the primary outcome measures. A -4.4% (95% CI: -6.4 to -2.4; p hospitality industry, a further tax increase and another media campaign. This translates to an estimated over 500 cases of SGA being averted per year. A reduction in SGA births, but not preterm birth or perinatal mortality, was observed in the Netherlands after extension of the smoke-free workplace law to include bars and restaurants, in conjunction with a tax increase and media campaign in 2008.

  12. Perinatal mortality and associated risk factors: a case control study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality is reported to be five times higher in developing than in developed nations. Little is known about the commonly associated risk factors for perinatal mortality in Southern Nations National Regional State of Ethiopia. METHODS: A case control study for perinatal mortality was conducted in ...

  13. Verbal autopsy in establishing cause of perinatal death | Iriya | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Perinatal mortality is a sensitive indicator of health status of a community and is also highly amenable to intervention. The causes of perinatal deaths in developing countries are often difficult to establish. Verbal autopsy has been used in several countries for children and adults, but seldom for perinatal cause.

  14. Perinatal Mortality Among Twins In Lagos University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Perinatal mortality rate is reported to be higher in twins than in singletons. More than two decades ago, Abudu and Agarin reported a twinning rate of 21.1/1000 maternities and perinatal mortality rate of 142.6/1000 among twins in Lagos. Objective: To determine the current perinatal mortality rate and risk factors ...

  15. Perinatal Mortality Trends in Ethiopia | Berhan | Ethiopian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Although the magnitude of perinatal mortality in Ethiopia was among the highest in Sub Saharan Africa, there was no systematic review done to assess the trend and causes of perinatal death. The objective of this review was to assess the trend of perinatal mortality rate (PMR) and the causes attributed to ...

  16. Low cerebral blood flow in hypotensive perinatal distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Friis-Hansen, B

    1977-01-01

    was used for the cerebral blood flow measurements. The study confirmed that perinatal distress may be associated with low arterial blood pressure, and it was shown that cerebral blood flow is very low, 20 ml/100 g/min or less, in hypotensive perinatal distress. It is concluded that cerebral ischaemia plays...... a crucial role in the development of perinatal hypoxic brain injury....

  17. Multimodal elucidation of choline metabolism in a murine glioma model using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and 11C-choline positron emission tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehrl, H.F.; Schwab, J.; Hasenbach, K.; Reischl, G.; Tabatabai, G.; Quintanilla-Martinez, L.; Jiru, F.; Chughtai, K; Kiss, A.; Cay, F.; Bukala, D.; Heeren, R.M.A.; Pichler, B.J.; Sauter, A.W.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolites, transporters, and enzymes involved in choline metabolism are regarded as biomarkers for disease progression in a variety of cancers, but their in vivo detection is not ideal. Both magnetic resonance spectroscopy [MRS using chemical shift imaging (CSI) total choline (tCho)] and

  18. Cerium(terbium, erbium)chloride-choline chloride aqueous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajfutdinova, R.K.; Zhuravlev, E.F.; Bikbaeva, G.G.; Domrachev, V.N.; Vanskova, G.I.

    1985-01-01

    To clarify the effect of rare earth nature on mutual solubility of rare earth salts and amines the solubility of solid phases in the systems, consisting of choline chloride, water and cerium, terbium, erbium chlorides, has been studied. It is established, that solubility isotherms of all the systems, testify to the formation of new solid phases of the composition: Ce(Tb, Er)xCl 3 x2C 5 H 14 ONClx3H 2 O. Individuality of new solid phases is proved by DTA method, the composition is confirmed by chemical analysis and data of PMR spectra, for choline chloride and its complexes with rare earth chlorides of the given composition PMR and IR spectra are studied

  19. Molecular Effects of Doxorubicin on Choline Metabolism in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglin Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal choline phospholipid metabolism is a hallmark of cancer. The magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS detected total choline (tCho signal can serve as an early noninvasive imaging biomarker of chemotherapy response in breast cancer. We have quantified the individual components of the tCho signal, glycerophosphocholine (GPC, phosphocholine (PC and free choline (Cho, before and after treatment with the commonly used chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin in weakly metastatic human MCF7 and triple-negative human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. While the tCho concentration did not change following doxorubicin treatment, GPC significantly increased and PC decreased. Of the two phosphatidylcholine-specific PLD enzymes, only PLD1, but not PLD2, mRNA was down-regulated by doxorubicin treatment. For the two reported genes encoding GPC phosphodiesterase, the mRNA of GDPD6, but not GDPD5, decreased following doxorubicin treatment. mRNA levels of choline kinase α (ChKα, which converts Cho to PC, were reduced following doxorubicin treatment. PLD1 and ChKα protein levels decreased following doxorubicin treatment in a concentration dependent manner. Treatment with the PLD1 specific inhibitor VU0155069 sensitized MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. Low concentrations of 100 nM of doxorubicin increased MDA-MB-231 cell migration. GDPD6, but not PLD1 or ChKα, silencing by siRNA abolished doxorubicin-induced breast cancer cell migration. Doxorubicin induced GPC increase and PC decrease are caused by reductions in PLD1, GDPD6, and ChKα mRNA and protein expression. We have shown that silencing or inhibiting these genes/proteins can promote drug effectiveness and reduce adverse drug effects. Our findings emphasize the importance of detecting PC and GPC individually.

  20. Gold nanoparticle–choline complexes can block nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chur Chin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chur Chin1, In Kyeom Kim2, Dong Yoon Lim3, Ki Suk Kim4, Hyang Ae Lee4, Eun Joo Kim41Department of Pediatrics, Fatima Hospital, Daegu, Korea; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea; 3Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea; 4Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon, KoreaAbstract: We identified a novel class of direct ion-channel blockers of ligand-gated ion channels called the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. Negatively charged gold nanoparticles (1.4 nm block ion pores by binding to the sulfur group of the cysteine loop of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, and currents evoked by acetylcholine (Ach can break these bonds. The current evoked by ACh in nAChRs was blocked directly in ion pores by the gold nanoparticle–choline complex. In adrenal-gland perfusion studies, the complex also blocked nAChRs by diminishing catecholamine release by about 75%. An in vivo study showed muscle relaxation in rats after injection of the complex. These results will foster the application of gold nanoparticles as a direct ion-channel blocker. Keywords: negatively charged gold nanoparticle, choline, gold–sulfur bond, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, direct ion-channel blocker

  1. [Studies on flomoxef in the perinatal period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, N; Fukunaga, K; Kunii, K; Kobayashi, I

    1991-06-01

    Pharmacokinetic, bacteriological and clinical studies on flomoxef (FMOX) in the perinatal period were carried out with the following summary of the results. Antibacterial effects of FMOX on the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, MIC 400 micrograms/ml), methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA, MIC 0.78 microgram/ml), Escherichia coli (MIC 3.13 micrograms/ml and MIC 0.20 microgram/ml) in amniotic fluid were determined and it was found that the activity of FMOX was enhanced in the amniotic fluid. FMOX rapidly penetrated into tissues and sera of pregnant women upon intravenous injection and its maternal serum concentrations reached their peak levels shortly after administration. Placental penetration of FMOX to the fetus was good and, after single intravenous injection of 1 g, the concentrations of FMOX in the umbilical cord serum and amniotic fluid exceeded MICs against major causative organisms of perinatal infections. These results indicate that single intravenous injection of FMOX 1 g twice a day is effective for the treatment and prophylaxis of perinatal infections. Injection of FMOX for the treatment of 14 cases of puerperal infections showed excellent clinical effectiveness with 100% clinical effect and 81.8% bacteriological response. No side-effect was observed in any case. All of these results suggested clinical usefulness of FMOX in the perinatal period.

  2. Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes among Eclamptic Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , pulmonary oedema (10.5%), maternal stroke (8.8%), HELLP syndrome (50.9%), and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy (3.5%). Perinatal deaths were caused by prematurity (42.9%) and birth asphyxia (57.1%). Forty-eight babies had ...

  3. Teenage Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcomes: Experience from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Teenage pregnancy is known as a risk factor for preterm birth, low birth weight and perinatal deaths, thus considered public health problem. In South Africa, most teenage pregnancy is found within the context of unstable relationship and unplanned or unwanted pregnancies. A high rate of teenage pregnancy is ...

  4. Relationship between maternal hemoglobin and perinatal outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiar, U.J.; Khan, Y.; Nisar, R.

    2007-01-01

    To Study the Relationship between Maternal Hemoglobin and Perinatal outcome in a cohort of 860 pregnant women and to highlight the importance of antenatal care regarding maternal health and fetal outcome. All Singleton pregnancies delivering at Pakistan Railway Hospital Rawalpindi from January 2004 to December 2005 that fulfilled the required criteria were included. Out of the 860 patients, 402 were anemic (<11gm/dl) and 458 were non anemic. Perinatal outcome included preterm delivery, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal death, low apgr scores and intrauterine fetal deaths. Risk of preterm and Low birth weight among anemic women was 3.4 and 1.8 times more than non anaemic women. The neonates of anemic woman also had 1.7 times increased risk of having low apgr scores at 1 min. Among anemic women there was 2.2 times greater risk of intrauterine fetal death than the non-anemic women. Regular antenatal care from first trimester has a vital role in assessing and managing maternal anemia timely and it directly affects the perinatal outcome. The patients with anemia have also higher risk of having low birth weight, preterm births and intra uterine fetal death. (author)

  5. Perinatal Outcomes after Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setenay Arzu Yilmaz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize perinatal outcomes and the congenital anomaly risk of IVF pregnancies and also examine the risks of different technologies including ICSI, blastocyst culture, and cryopreservation on this topic. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 575-586

  6. Ethical issues in perinatal mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Anna R; Shivakumar, Geetha; Lee, Simon Craddock; Inrig, Stephen J; Sadler, John Z

    2009-11-01

    To review the background of current ethical standards for the conduct of perinatal mental health research and describe the ethical challenges in this research domain. Current literature reflects a growing sentiment in the scientific community that having no information regarding the impact of psychiatric treatment on the mother and developing fetus/infant poses dangers that may exceed the risks involved in research. However, without sufficient consensus across the scientific community, both regulatory bodies and perinatal researchers find themselves without a framework for decision making that satisfactorily limits the risks and facilitates the benefits of participation of pregnant and lactating women in clinical research. Psychiatric research in perinatal mental health is critically important as it enables clinicians and patients to participate in informed decision-making concerning treatment for psychiatric disorders. Specific areas of concern include fetal safety, maternal risk, the therapeutic misconception, commercial interests, forensic/legal issues, the informed consent process, and study design. Developing guidelines that address ethical challenges and include the views and concerns of multiple stakeholders could improve the access of perinatal women to the benefits of participation in mental health research in addition to providing evidence-based mental healthcare for this subpopulation.

  7. MTHFR deficiency or reduced intake of folate or choline in pregnant mice results in impaired short-term memory and increased apoptosis in the hippocampus of wild-type offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadavji, N M; Deng, L; Malysheva, O; Caudill, M A; Rozen, R

    2015-08-06

    Genetic or nutritional disturbances in one-carbon metabolism, with associated hyperhomocysteinemia, can result in complex disorders including pregnancy complications and neuropsychiatric diseases. In earlier work, we showed that mice with a complete deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a critical enzyme in folate and homocysteine metabolism, had cognitive impairment with disturbances in choline metabolism. Maternal demands for folate and choline are increased during pregnancy and deficiencies of these nutrients result in several negative outcomes including increased resorption and delayed development. The goal of this study was to investigate the behavioral and neurobiological impact of a maternal genetic deficiency in MTHFR or maternal nutritional deficiency of folate or choline during pregnancy on 3-week-old Mthfr(+/+) offspring. Mthfr(+/+) and Mthfr(+/-) females were placed on control diets (CD); and Mthfr(+/+) females were placed on folate-deficient diets (FD) or choline-deficient diets (ChDD) throughout pregnancy and lactation until their offspring were 3weeks of age. Short-term memory was assessed in offspring, and hippocampal tissue was evaluated for morphological changes, apoptosis, proliferation and choline metabolism. Maternal MTHFR deficiency resulted in short-term memory impairment in offspring. These dams had elevated levels of plasma homocysteine when compared with wild-type dams. There were no differences in plasma homocysteine in offspring. Increased apoptosis and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus of offspring from Mthfr(+/-) mothers. In the maternal FD and ChDD study, offspring also showed short-term memory impairment with increased apoptosis in the hippocampus; increased neurogenesis was observed in ChDD offspring. Choline acetyltransferase protein was increased in the offspring hippocampus of both dietary groups and betaine was decreased in the hippocampus of FD offspring. Our results reveal short-term memory

  8. Choline concentrations are lower in postnatal plasma of preterm infants than in cord plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Wolfgang; Raith, Marco; Kunze, Rebecca; Koch, Vera; Heni, Martin; Maas, Christoph; Abele, Harald; Poets, Christian F; Franz, Axel R

    2015-08-01

    Choline is essential to human development, particularly of the brain in the form of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and acetylcholine, for bile and lipoprotein formation, and as a methyl group donator. Choline is actively transported into the fetus, and maternal supply correlates with cognitive outcome. Interruption of placental supply may therefore impair choline homeostasis in preterm infants. Determination of postnatal plasma concentrations of choline and its derivatives betaine and dimethylglycine (DMG) in preterm infants compared to cord and maternal blood matched for postmenstrual age (PMA). We collected plasma of very low-birth-weight infants undergoing neonatal intensive care (n = 162), cord plasma of term and preterm infants (n = 176, 24-42-week PMA), serum of parturients (n = 36), and plasma of healthy premenopausal women (n = 40). Target metabolites were analyzed with tandem mass spectrometry and reported as median (25th/75th percentiles). Cord plasma choline concentration was 41.4 (31.8-51.2) µmol/L and inversely correlated with PMA. In term but not in preterm infants, cord plasma choline was lower in girls than in boys. Prenatal glucocorticoid treatment did not affect choline levels in cord plasma, whereas betaine was decreased and DMG increased. In parturients and non-pregnant women, choline concentrations were 14.1 (10.3-16.9) and 8.8 (5.7-11.2) µmol/L, respectively, whereas betaine was lowest in parturients. After delivery, preterm infant plasma choline decreased to 20.8 (16.0-27.6) µmol/L within 48 h. Betaine and DMG correlated with plasma choline in all groups. In preterm infants, plasma choline decreases to 50 % of cord plasma concentrations, reflecting choline undernourishment and postnatal metabolic adaptation, and potentially contributing to impaired outcome.

  9. Choline-mediated modulation of hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Viktoria; Both, Martin; Draguhn, Andreas; Egorov, Alexei V

    2014-06-01

    The cholinergic system is critically involved in the modulation of cognitive functions, including learning and memory. Acetylcholine acts through muscarinic (mAChRs) and nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), which are both abundantly expressed in the hippocampus. Previous evidence indicates that choline, the precursor and degradation product of Acetylcholine, can itself activate nAChRs and thereby affects intrinsic and synaptic neuronal functions. Here, we asked whether the cellular actions of choline directly affect hippocampal network activity. Using mouse hippocampal slices we found that choline efficiently suppresses spontaneously occurring sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-R) and can induce gamma oscillations. In addition, choline reduces synaptic transmission between hippocampal subfields CA3 and CA1. Surprisingly, these effects are mediated by activation of both mAChRs and α7-containing nAChRs. Most nicotinic effects became only apparent after local, fast application of choline, indicating rapid desensitization kinetics of nAChRs. Effects were still present following block of choline uptake and are, therefore, likely because of direct actions of choline at the respective receptors. Together, choline turns out to be a potent regulator of patterned network activity within the hippocampus. These actions may be of importance for understanding state transitions in normal and pathologically altered neuronal networks. In this study we asked whether choline, the precursor and degradation product of acetylcholine, directly affects hippocampal network activity. Using mouse hippocampal slices we found that choline efficiently suppresses spontaneously occurring sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-R). In addition, choline reduces synaptic transmission between hippocampal subfields. These effects are mediated by direct activation of muscarinic as well as nicotinic cholinergic pathways. Together, choline turns out to be a potent regulator of patterned activity within hippocampal

  10. [Can implementation of intensified perinatal survey be effective in improving the quality of perinatal care?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troszyński, Michał

    2010-01-01

    Intensive scientific research and rapid technical progress have influenced the rapid fall in term newborn mortality. At the same time new problems have arisen such as saving the lives of infants with low and very low birth weight. Solving these problems needs reorganization of perinatal care, better equipment, especially in reference units and in outpatient clinics, as well as more intensive staff training. to obtain information whether implementation of intensified perinatal survey of fetus and newborn mortality can improve the quality of perinatal care in Poland. Implementation of the survey based on Central Statistics Office (GUS) data, Ministry of Health MZ-29 section X Document and the author's own studies. In the year 2008 newborn with birth weight less than 2500 g, constituted 6,06% liveborn infants, newborn weighing from 1000 to 2499 g - 5%, those with weight from 500 to 999 g - 0.51% of all live born infants. These figures differ according to voivodeship. The intensive survey concerning birth weight and perinatal mortality indeces in voivodeshipPoland, as well as in individual voivodeships, showed differences between data from the Central Statistics Office and data from the Ministry of Health MZ-29 document. This may be due to different methods of registrating newborn deaths eg. newborns transfered in the first weekoflife from the maternity ward to intensive care neonatal ward or to other specialistic departaments. Another reason for the difference may be discharge of the newborn data according to the place of birth or the mother's place of permanent domicile registration. This causes disturbances in flow of infomation resulting in ineffective analysis of perinatal mortality and of perinatal care evaluation. In the ongoing analysis it was found that in Poland stillbirths occur twice as often as perinatal deaths (4.3 per thousands) stillbirths and 2.15 per thousands perinatal deaths), with significant differences between voivodeships. This makes it

  11. Rumen-protected choline: A significance effect on dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, G; Sathiyabarathi, M; Robert, M Arokia; Tamilmani, T

    2016-08-01

    Choline is a vitamin-like substance it has multi-function in animal production, reproduction, and health. The transition period is most crucial stage in lactation cycle of dairy cows due to its association with negative hormonal and energy balances. Unfortunately, unprotected choline easily degrades in the rumen; therefore, choline added to the diet in a rumen-protected form. The use of rumen-protected choline (RPC) is a preventive measurement for the fatty liver syndrome and ketosis; may improve milk production as well as milk composition and reproduction parameters. This review summarizes the effectiveness of RPC on animal production, health, and reproduction.

  12. Phospholipid biosynthesis in Candida albicans: Regulation by the precursors inositol and choline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klig, L.S.; Friedli, L.; Schmid, E.

    1990-01-01

    Phospholipid metabolism in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was examined. The phospholipid biosynthetic pathways of C. albicans were elucidated and were shown to be similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, marked differences were seen between these two fungi in the regulation of the pathways in response to exogenously provided precursors inositol and choline. In S. cerevisiae, the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine via methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine appears to be regulated in response to inositol and choline; provision of choline alone does not repress the activity of this pathway. The same pathway in C. albicans responds to the exogenous provision of choline. Possible explanations for the observed differences in regulation are discussed

  13. Anaerobic choline metabolism in microcompartments promotes growth and swarming of Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Eleanor; Fu, Tiantian; Brown, Ian R; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Purdy, Kevin J; Frank, Stefanie; Chen, Yin

    2016-09-01

    Gammaproteobacteria are important gut microbes but only persist at low levels in the healthy gut. The ecology of Gammaproteobacteria in the gut environment is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that choline is an important growth substrate for representatives of Gammaproteobacteria. Using Proteus mirabilis as a model, we investigate the role of choline metabolism and demonstrate that the cutC gene, encoding a choline-trimethylamine lyase, is essential for choline degradation to trimethylamine by targeted mutagenesis of cutC and subsequent complementation experiments. Proteus mirabilis can rapidly utilize choline to enhance growth rate and cell yield in broth culture. Importantly, choline also enhances swarming-associated colony expansion of P. mirabilis under anaerobic conditions on a solid surface. Comparative transcriptomics demonstrated that choline not only induces choline-trimethylamine lyase but also genes encoding shell proteins for the formation of bacterial microcompartments. Subsequent analyses by transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of such novel microcompartments in cells cultivated in liquid broth and hyper-flagellated swarmer cells from solid medium. Together, our study reveals choline metabolism as an adaptation strategy for P. mirabilis and contributes to better understand the ecology of this bacterium in health and disease. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. {sup 18}F-Choline, {sup 11}C-choline and {sup 11}C-acetate PET/CT: comparative analysis for imaging prostate cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogsitter, Claudia; Zoephel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Joerg [Carl Gustav Carus Medical School, University of Dresden, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Prostate cancer (PCA) is the second most common tumour in men worldwide. Whereas prostate specific antigen (PSA) is an established biochemical marker, the optimal imaging method for all clinical scenarios has not yet been found. With the rising number of PET centres there is an increasing availability and use of {sup 18}F-/{sup 11}C-choline or {sup 11}C-acetate for staging of PCA. However, to date no final conclusion has been reached as to whether acetate or choline tracers should be preferred. In this review we provide an overview of the performance of choline and acetate PET for staging the primary and recurrent disease and lymph nodes in PCA, based on the literature of the last 10 years. Although predominantly choline has been used rather than acetate, both tracers performed in a similar manner in published studies. Choline as well as acetate have insufficient diagnostic accuracy for the staging of the primary tumour, due to a minimum detectable tumour size of 5 mm and inability to differentiate PCA from benign prostate hyperplasia, chronic prostatitis and high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Regarding lymph node staging, choline tracers have demonstrated a high specificity. Unfortunately, the sensitivity is only moderate. For staging recurrent disease, sensitivity depends on the level of serum PSA (PSA should be >2 ng/ml). This applies to both choline and acetate. However, despite these limitations, a significant number of patients with recurrent disease can benefit from PET imaging by a change in treatment planning. (orig.)

  15. Perinatal nutrition interventions and post-partum depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Jacqueline F; Best, Karen; Makrides, Maria

    2017-12-15

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most prevalent mood disorder associated with childbirth. No single cause of PPD has been identified, however the increased risk of nutritional deficiencies incurred through the high nutritional requirements of pregnancy may play a role in the pathology of depressive symptoms. Three nutritional interventions have drawn particular interest as possible non-invasive and cost-effective prevention and/or treatment strategies for PPD; omega-3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), vitamin D and overall diet. We searched for meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials (RCT's) of nutritional interventions during the perinatal period with PPD as an outcome, and checked for any trials published subsequently to the meta-analyses. Fish oil: Eleven RCT's of prenatal fish oil supplementation RCT's show null and positive effects on PPD symptoms. Vitamin D: no relevant RCT's were identified, however seven observational studies of maternal vitamin D levels with PPD outcomes showed inconsistent associations. Diet: Two Australian RCT's with dietary advice interventions in pregnancy had a positive and null result on PPD. With the exception of fish oil, few RCT's with nutritional interventions during pregnancy assess PPD. Further research is needed to determine whether nutritional intervention strategies during pregnancy can protect against symptoms of PPD. Given the prevalence of PPD and ease of administering PPD measures, we recommend future prenatal nutritional RCT's include PPD as an outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Perinatal upregulation of intestinal transport of carnitine (C) in newborn pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B.U.K.; Murray, R.D.; Heitlinger, L.A.; McClung, H.J.; Hughes, A.M.; O'Dorisio, T.M.; Sloan, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Since C facilitates the perinatal transition from carbohydrate to lipid-derived energy, the authors examined the contribution of intestinal transport of dietary C to this process by determining [C]'s in sow's milk, pig jejunum and liver, and C flux across the jejunum (J m-s ) as a function of postnatal age. The authors measured portal venous glucagon [G] and insulin [l] as potential regulatory signals and attempted to alter intestinal transport of C by infusing G. Pigs at days 1-7 (NB-newborn), 14-16 (SU-suckling) and 33-35 (WN-weanling) were studied. [C]'s in sow milk, piglet jejunum, and liver were determined. Fluxes were measured in an Ussing chamber and in an in situ recirculating jejunal perfusion. The effect of an IV infusion of G on [ 3 H]C absorption was evaluated in a single animal; an adjacent jejunal segment received saline. Sow's milk and liver [C]'s, and jejunal C transport were highest following birth and declined towards weaning. Plasma [G] and the G:I ratio demonstrated a parallel temporal pattern. The G-stimulated jejunal segment removed 53% of the C and the non-stimulated control segment, 8%. It was concluded that during the perinatal metabolic transition, enhanced intestinal nutrient assimilation promotes the transfer of dietary C to the liver where it could facilitate fatty acid oxidation. This pattern of upregulated intestinal transport immediately after birth may be mediated by pancreatic G and I secretion

  17. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  18. Cultural processes in psychotherapy for perinatal loss: Breaking the cultural taboo against perinatal grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Rayna D; Zilcha-Mano, Sigal

    2018-03-01

    This paper argues that there is a cultural taboo against the public recognition and expression of perinatal grief that hinders parents' ability to mourn and their psychological adjustment following a loss. It is proposed that this cultural taboo is recreated within the therapy relationship, as feelings of grief over a perinatal loss are minimized or avoided by the therapist and parent or patient. Importantly, it is suggested that if these cultural dynamics are recognized within the therapy relationship, then psychotherapy has the immense opportunity to break the taboo by validating the parent's loss as real and helping the parent to mourn within an empathic and affect-regulating relationship. Specifically, it is suggested that therapists break the cultural taboo against perinatal grief and help parents to mourn through: acknowledging and not pathologizing perinatal grief reactions, considering intrapsychic and cultural factors that impact a parent's response to loss, exploring cultural reenactments within the therapy relationship, empathizing with the parent's experience of loss and of having to grieve within a society that does not recognize perinatal loss, coregulating the parent's feelings of grief and loss, and helping patients to create personally meaningful mourning rituals. Lastly, the impact of within and between cultural differences and therapist attitudes on the therapy process is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Perinatal Yellow Fever: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Lilian Martins Oliveira; Romanelli, Roberta Maia Castro; de Carvalho, Andréa Lucchesi; Teixeira, Daniela Caldas; de Carvalho, Luis Fernando Andrade; Cury, Verônica Ferreira; Filho, Marcelo Pereira Lima; Perígolo, Graciele; Heringer, Tiago Pires

    2018-04-09

    An outbreak of yellow fever in Brazil made it possible to assess different presentations of disease such as perinatal transmission. A pregnant woman was admitted to hospital with yellow fever symptoms. She was submitted to cesarean section and died due to fulminant hepatitis. On the 6th day the newborn developed liver failure and died 13 days later. Yellow fever PCR was positive for both.

  20. Diabetes and perinatal mortality in twin pregnancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Cheng Luo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes in pregnancy has been associated with a paradoxically reduced risk of neonatal death in twin pregnancies. Risk "shift" may be a concern in that the reduction in neonatal deaths may be due to an increase in fetal deaths (stillbirths. This study aimed to clarify the impact of diabetes on the risk of perinatal death (neonatal death plus stillbirth in twin pregnancies. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of twin births using the largest available dataset on twin births (the U.S. matched multiple birth data 1995-2000; 19,676 neonates from diabetic pregnancies, 541,481 from non-diabetic pregnancies. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to estimate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHR of perinatal death accounting for twin cluster-level dependence. RESULTS: Comparing diabetic versus non-diabetic twin pregnancies, overall perinatal mortality rate was counterintuitively lower [2.1% versus 3.3%, aHR 0.70 (95% confidence intervals 0.63-0.78]. Individually, both stillbirth and neonatal mortality rates were lower in diabetic pregnancies, but we identified significant differences by gestational age and birth weight. Diabetes was associated with a survival benefit in pregnancies completed before 32 weeks [aHR 0.55 (0.48-0.63] or with birth weight =2500 g [aHR 2.20 (1.55-3.13]. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes in pregnancy appears to be "protective" against perinatal death in twin pregnancies ending in very preterm or very low birth weight births. Prospective studies are required to clarify whether these patterns of risk are real, or they are artifacts of unmeasured confounders. Additional data correlating these outcomes with the types of diabetes in pregnancy are also needed to distinguish the effects of pre-gestational vs. gestational diabetes.

  1. Choline evokes fluid secretion by perfused rat mandibular gland without desensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murakami, M; Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    M and evoked secretory responses comparable with those of acetylcholine (0.05-1.0 microM) administered at similar Na concentrations. Continuous infusion of choline, in contrast to acetylcholine, did not lead to a fall off in the secretory response (desensitization or tachyphylaxis) until the choline...

  2. Umbilical choline and related methylamines betaine and dimethylglycine in relation to birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, M.; Heijer, M. den; Semmekrot, B.A.; Sporken, J.M.J.; Ueland, P.M.; Blom, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality for the newborn and risk of chronic disease in adulthood. Choline plays an essential role in the integrity of cell membranes, methylation reactions, and memory development. We examined whether choline, betaine,

  3. Obstetric and perinatal outcome of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwal, A

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents are at higher risk during childbirth than women between 20 to 25 years. Adolescent childbearing initiates a syndrome of failure: failure to complete one's education; failure in limiting family size; failure to establish a vocation and become independent. This study was done to find out the obstetric and perinatal outcome of teenage pregnancy along with factors contributing to teenage pregnancy. A prospective, cross sectional study was carried out in College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital (CMSTH), Bharatpur during the period for two years from September 2008 to August 2010. Pregnant girls ≤19 years admitted to labour ward were taken for the study. Cases planned for abortion and MTP were also taken. One hundred cases of pregnant teenagers were admitted in CMSTH during a period of two years. Incidence was 6.85%. In our study, most of the teenagers were unbooked, from low socioeconomic status and with no or inadequate education. They had little knowledge about contraception and less number of teenagers used temporary means of contraception. Because of our social custom of early marriage, most of the teenage mothers were married. All these factors were correlated with teenage pregnancy in present study. This study failed to show any statistically significant difference in the incidence of anaemia, LBW babies, preterm delivery, hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, mode of delivery in different ages of teenage mothers. However, there was significant difference in the incidence of perinatal death in different ages of teenage mothers indicating that perinatal deaths were more in younger teenagers.

  4. BLOOD BIOMARKERS FOR EVALUATION OF PERINATAL ENCEPHALOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Marshall Graham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research in identification of brain injury after trauma shows many possible blood biomarkers that may help identify the fetus and neonate with encephalopathy. Traumatic brain injury shares many common features with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Trauma has a hypoxic component, and one of the 1st physiologic consequences of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury is apnea. Trauma and hypoxia-ischemia initiate an excitotoxic cascade and free radical injury followed by the inflammatory cascade, producing injury in neurons, glial cells and white matter. Increased excitatory amino acids, lipid peroxidation products and alteration in microRNAs and inflammatory markers are common to both traumatic brain injury and perinatal encephalopathy. The blood-brain barrier is disrupted in both leading to egress of substances normally only found in the central nervous system. Brain exosomes may represent ideal biomarker containers, as RNA and protein transported within the vesicles are protected from enzymatic degradation. Evaluation of fetal or neonatal brain derived exosomes that cross the blood-brain barrier and circulate peripherally has been referred to as the liquid brain biopsy. A multiplex of serum biomarkers could improve upon the current imprecise methods of identifying fetal and neonatal brain injury such as fetal heart rate abnormalities, meconium, cord gases at delivery, and Apgar scores. Quantitative biomarker measurements of perinatal brain injury and recovery could lead to operative delivery only in the presence of significant fetal risk, triage to appropriate therapy after birth and measure the effectiveness of treatment.

  5. Action plan to reduce perinatal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakoo, O N; Kumar, R

    1990-01-01

    The government of India has set a goal of reducing perinatal mortality from its current rate of 48/1000 to 30-35/1000 by the year 2000. Perinatal deaths result from maternal malnutrition, inadequate prenatal care, complications of delivery, and infections in the postpartum period. Since reductions in perinatal mortality require attention to social, economic, and behavioral factors, as well as improvements in the health care delivery system, a comprehensive strategy is required. Social measures, such as raising the age at marriage to 18 years for females, improving the nutritional status of adolescent girls, reducing the strenuousness of work during pregnancy, improving female literacy, raising women's status in the society and thus in the family, and poverty alleviation programs, would all help eliminate the extent of complications of pregnancy. Measures required to enhance infant survival include improved prenatal care, prenatal tetanus toxoid immunization, use of sterile disposable cord care kits, the provision of mucus extractors and resuscitation materials to birth attendants, the creation of neonatal care units in health facilities, and more efficient referral of high-risk newborns and mothers. Since 90% of births in rural India take place at home priority must be given to training traditional birth attendants in the identification of high risk factors during pregnancy, delivery, and the newborn period.

  6. Conductivity and electrochemical stability of concentrated aqueous choline chloride solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, E. P.; Kudryakova, N. O.

    2017-10-01

    The conductivity and electrochemical stability of choline chloride (ChCl) solutions with water contents ranging from 20 to 39 wt % are studied. Exposing ChCl to moist ambient air yields a highly concentrated aqueous solution that, as an electrolyte, exhibits the properties and variations in conductivity with temperature and concentration characteristic of other similar systems. Its electrochemical stability window, determined by cyclic voltammetry, is comparable to that of ChCl-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs). Products of the electrolysis of ChCl‒H2O mixtures seem to be less toxic than those of Reline, Ethaline, and Maline.

  7. Carbon Nanotubes/Gold Nanoparticles Composite Film for the Construction of a Novel Amperometric Choline Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyan Wu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a facile method to fabricate a novel choline biosensor based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs. Chitosan, a natural biocompatible polymer, was used to solubilize MWCNTs for constructing the aqueous Chit-MWCNTs solution. Then Chit-MWCNTs were first dropped on the surface of a cleaned platinum electrode. Finally, a thiolated silica sol containing AuNPs and choline oxidase (ChOx was immobilized on the surface of the Chit-MWCNTs-modified electrode. The MWCNTs/AuNPs/Pt electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity for choline. The resulting choline biosensor showed high sensitivity of choline (3.56 μA/mM, and wide linear range from 0.05 to 0.8 mM with the detection limit of 15 μM. In addition, good reproducibility and stability were obtained.

  8. Magnitude of income-related disparities in adverse perinatal outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Shankardass, Ketan; O’Campo, Patricia; Dodds, Linda; Fahey, John; Joseph, KS; Morinis, Julia; Allen, Victoria M

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess and compare multiple measurements of socioeconomic position (SEP) in order to determine the relationship with adverse perinatal outcomes across various contexts. Methods A birth registry, the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database, was confidentially linked to income tax and related information for the year in which delivery occurred. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine odds ratios between multiple indicators of SEP and multiple adverse perinatal outcomes in 11...

  9. Choline Alleviates Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Duodenal Motility Disorder in Infant Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Wu, Yang; Guo, Yonggao; Tang, Qingya; Lu, Ting; Cai, Wei; Huang, Haiyan

    2016-09-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) has been found to influence duodenal motility in animals. Choline is an essential nutrient, and its deficiency is related to PN-associated organ diseases. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the role of choline supplementation in an infant rat model of PN-associated duodenal motility disorder. Three-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed chow and water (controls), PN solution (PN), or PN plus intravenous choline (600 mg/kg) (PN + choline). Rats underwent jugular vein cannulation for infusion of PN solution or 0.9% saline (controls) for 7 days. Duodenal oxidative stress status, concentrations of plasma choline, phosphocholine, and betaine and serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were assayed. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of c-Kit proto-oncogene protein (c-Kit) and membrane-bound stem cell factor (mSCF) together with the electrophysiological features of slow waves in the duodenum were also evaluated. Rats on PN showed increased reactive oxygen species; decreased total antioxidant capacity in the duodenum; reduced plasma choline, phosphocholine, and betaine; and enhanced serum TNF-α concentrations, which were reversed by choline intervention. In addition, PN reduced mRNA and protein expression of mSCF and c-Kit, which were inversed under choline administration. Moreover, choline attenuated depolarized resting membrane potential and declined the frequency and amplitude of slow waves in duodenal smooth muscles of infant rats induced by PN, respectively. The addition of choline to PN may alleviate the progression of duodenal motor disorder through protecting smooth muscle cells from injury, promoting mSCF/c-Kit signaling, and attenuating impairment of interstitial cells of Cajal in the duodenum during PN feeding. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  10. Role of choline PET/CT in guiding target volume delineation for irradiation of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzenboeck, S.M.; Kurth, J. [University Medical Centre Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany); Gocke, C.; Kuhnt, T.; Hildebrandt, G. [University Medical Centre Rostock, Department of Radiotherapy, Rostock (Germany); Krause, B.J. [University Medical Centre Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rostock (Germany); Universitaet Rostock, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Universitaetsmedizin Rostock, Rostock (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Choline PET/CT has shown limitations for the detection of primary prostate cancer and nodal metastatic disease, mainly due to limited sensitivity and specificity. Conversely in the restaging of prostate cancer recurrence, choline PET/CT is a promising imaging modality for the detection of local regional and nodal recurrence with an impact on therapy management. This review highlights current literature on choline PET/CT for radiation treatment planning in primary and recurrent prostate cancer. Due to limited sensitivity and specificity in differentiating between benign and malignant prostatic tissues in primary prostate cancer, there is little enthusiasm for target volume delineation based on choline PET/CT. Irradiation planning for the treatment of single lymph node metastases on the basis of choline PET/CT is controversial due to its limited lesion-based sensitivity in primary nodal staging. In high-risk prostate cancer, choline PET/CT might diagnose lymph node metastases, which potentially can be included in the conventional irradiation field. Prior to radiation treatment of recurrent prostate cancer, choline PET/CT may prove useful for patient stratification by excluding distant disease which would require systemic therapy. In patients with local recurrence, choline PET/CT can be used to delineate local sites of recurrence within the prostatic resection bed allowing a boost to PET-positive sites. In patients with lymph node metastases outside the prostatic fossa and regional metastatic lymph nodes, choline PET/CT might influence radiation treatment planning by enabling extension of the target volume to lymphatic drainage sites with or without a boost to PET-positive lymph nodes. Further clinical randomized trials are required to assess treatment outcomes following choline-based biological radiation treatment planning in comparison with conventional radiation treatment planning. (orig.)

  11. Feeding a diet devoid of choline to lactating rodents restricts growth and lymphocyte development in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E D; Goruk, S; Richard, C; Dellschaft, N S; Curtis, J M; Jacobs, R L; Field, C J

    2016-09-01

    The nutrient choline is necessary for membrane synthesis and methyl donation, with increased requirements during lactation. The majority of immune development occurs postnatally, but the importance of choline supply for immune development during this critical period is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of maternal supply of choline during suckling on immune function in their offspring among rodents. At parturition, Sprague-Dawley dams were randomised to either a choline-devoid (ChD; n 7) or choline-sufficient (ChS, 1 g/kg choline; n 10) diet with their offspring euthanised at 3 weeks of age. In a second experiment, offspring were weaned to a ChS diet until 10 weeks of age (ChD-ChS, n 5 and ChS-ChS, n 9). Splenocytes were isolated, and parameters of immune function were measured. The ChD offspring received less choline in breast milk and had lower final body and organ weight compared with ChS offspring (P<0·05), but this effect disappeared by week 10 with choline supplementation from weaning. ChD offspring had a higher proportion of T cells expressing activation markers (CD71 or CD28) and a lower proportion of total B cells (CD45RA+) and responded less to T cell stimulation (lower stimulation index and less IFN-γ production) ex vivo (P<0·05). ChD-ChS offspring had a lower proportion of total and activated CD4+ T cells, and produced less IL-6 after mitogen stimulation compared with cells from ChS-ChS (P<0·05). Our study suggests that choline is required in the suckling diet to facilitate immune development, and choline deprivation during this critical period has lasting effects on T cell function later in life.

  12. Potentially avoidable perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Borch-Christensen, H; Larsen, S

    1996-01-01

    to some extent could reflect differences in the quality of care, indicated by the numbers of perinatal deaths in categories of potentially avoidable deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records of 97% of all perinatal deaths in 1991 in the two countries were analyzed. A new classification focusing......BACKGROUND: Since 1950 the perinatal mortality has been significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. In 1991 the rate in Denmark was 8.0/1000 deliveries compared to 6.5/1000 in Sweden. An international audit was designed to investigate whether the perinatal death rates in the two countries...

  13. Antenatal Deworming and Materno-Perinatal Outcomes in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubong Bassey Akpan

    2018-05-01

    CONCLUSION: Presumptive deworming during the antenatal period can significantly reduce the incidence of peripartum anaemia. However, more studies may be needed to prove any positive perinatal outcome.

  14. Potentially avoidable perinatal deaths in Denmark and Sweden 1991

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Borch-Christensen, H; Larsen, S

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1950 the perinatal mortality has been significantly higher in Denmark than in Sweden. In 1991 the rate in Denmark was 8.0/1000 deliveries compared to 6.5/1000 in Sweden. An international audit was designed to investigate whether the perinatal death rates in the two countries...... to some extent could reflect differences in the quality of care, indicated by the numbers of perinatal deaths in categories of potentially avoidable deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records of 97% of all perinatal deaths in 1991 in the two countries were analyzed. A new classification focusing...

  15. Substandard factors in perinatal care in The Netherlands : a regional audit of perinatal deaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch, JH; Vredevoogd, CB; Borkent-Polet, M; van Eyck, J; Fetter, WPF; Lagro-Janssen, TLM; Rosink, IH; Treffers, PE; Amelink, M; Richardus, JH; Verloove-Vanhorick, P; Mackenbach, JP

    Background. To determine: 1) whether substandard factors were present in cases of perinatal death, and to what extent another course of action might have resulted in a better outcome, and 2) whether there were differences in the frequency of substandard factors by level of care, particularly between

  16. Prenatal choline supplementation mitigates behavioral alterations associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jennifer D; Idrus, Nirelia M; Monk, Bradley R; Dominguez, Hector D

    2010-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can alter physical and behavioral development, leading to a range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Despite warning labels, pregnant women continue to drink alcohol, creating a need to identify effective interventions to reduce the severity of alcohol's teratogenic effects. Choline is an essential nutrient that influences brain and behavioral development. Recent studies indicate that choline supplementation can reduce the teratogenic effects of developmental alcohol exposure. The present study examined whether choline supplementation during prenatal ethanol treatment could mitigate the adverse effects of ethanol on behavioral development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intubated with 6 g/kg/day ethanol in a binge-like manner from gestational days 5-20; pair-fed and ad libitum chow controls were included. During treatment, subjects from each group were intubated with either 250 mg/kg/day choline chloride or vehicle. Spontaneous alternation, parallel bar motor coordination, Morris water maze, and spatial working memory were assessed in male and female offspring. Subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol exhibited delayed development of spontaneous alternation behavior and deficits on the working memory version of the Morris water maze during adulthood, effects that were mitigated with prenatal choline supplementation. Neither alcohol nor choline influenced performance on the motor coordination task. These data indicate that choline supplementation during prenatal alcohol exposure may reduce the severity of fetal alcohol effects, particularly on alterations in tasks that require behavioral flexibility. These findings have important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Intestinal absorption of cytidine diphosphate choline and its changes in the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashima, Keisuke; Takamatsu, Masatoshi; Okuda, Kunio

    1975-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline), its structural changes in the digestive tract, and hepatic uptake have been investigated in rats using 14 C-labeled ( 14 CH 3 attached to N of choline) and 3 H-labeled (at C 5 of pyrimidine) compounds. The results indicate that: 1) CDP-choline is relatively stable in the stomach, but is quickly degraded into cytidine and choline in the intestine; 2) The hepatic uptakes of 14 C and 3 H reach the maximum in two to three hours after oral administration; 3) Whereas the amount of 14 C remaining in the gut is inversely related to the hepatic uptake, no similar correlation is seen with 3 H-labeled CDP-choline, and 4) Extrahepatic uptake of 14 C and 3 H is very small. The possibility of phosphorylation in the mucosa of choline and cytidine has been discussed, based on the differences in relative amount of radioactivity in individual broken-down products in the intestinal lumen and mucosa. (auth.)

  18. Comparison of the computational NMR chemical shifts of choline with the experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcorn, C; Cuperlovic-Culf, M; Ghandi, K

    2012-01-01

    One of the main biological markers of the presence of cancer in living patients is an over-expression of total choline (tCho), which is the sum of free choline and its derivatives. 1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, or H-MRS, enables the quantification of tCho via its proton spectra, and thus has the potential to be a diagnostic tool for the presence of cancer and an accurate early indicator of the response of cancer to treatment. However, it remains difficult to quantify individual choline derivatives, since they share a large structural similarity ((CH 3 ) 3 -N + -CH 2 -CH 2 -O-), of which the strongest signal detectable by MRS is that of the choline h ead group : the three methyl groups bonded to the nitrogen. This work used ACENet, a high performance computing system, to attempt to model the NMR parameters of choline derivatives, with the focus of this report being free choline. Optimized structures were determined using Density Functional Theory and the B3LYP electron correlation functional. The Polarizable Continuum Model was used to evaluate solvent effects. The Gauge-Invariant Atomic Orbital method was found to be the superior method for calculating the NMR parameters of cholines.

  19. Synthesis of acetylcholine from choline derived from phosphatidylcholine in a human neuronal cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blusztajn, J.K.; Liscovitch, M.; Richardson, U.I.

    1987-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons are unique among cells since they alone utilize choline not only as a component of major membrane phospholipids, such as phosphatidylcholine (Ptd-Cho), but also as a precursor of their neurotransmitter acetylcholine (AcCho). It has been hypothesized that choline-phospholipids might serve as a storage pool of choline for AcCho synthesis. The selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons in certain neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer disease, motor neuron disorders) might result from the abnormally accelerated liberation of choline (to be used a precursor of AcCho) from membrane phospholipids, resulting in altered membrane composition and function and compromised neuronal viability. However, the proposed metabolic link between membrane turnover and AcCho synthesis has been difficult to demonstrate because of the heterogeneity of the preparations used. Here the authors used a population of purely cholinergic cells (human neuroblastomas, LA-N-2), incubated in the presence of [methyl- 3 H]methionine to selectively label PtdCho synthesized by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine, the only pathway of de novo choline synthesis. Three peaks of radioactive material that cochromatographed with authentic AcCho, choline, and phosphocholine were observed when the water-soluble metabolites of the [ 3 H]PtdCho were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results demonstrate that AcCho can be synthesized from choline derived from the degradation of endogenous PtdCho formed de novo by methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine

  20. Perinatal Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Assessment and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misri, Shaila; Abizadeh, Jasmin; Sanders, Shawn; Swift, Elena

    2015-09-01

    Perinatal generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has a high prevalence of 8.5%-10.5% during pregnancy and 4.4%-10.8% postpartum. Despite its attendant dysfunction in the patient, this potentially debilitating mental health condition is often underdiagnosed. This overview will provide guidance for clinicians in making timely diagnosis and managing symptoms appropriately. A significant barrier to the diagnosis of GAD in the perinatal population is difficulty in distinguishing normal versus pathological worry. Because a perinatal-specific screening tool for GAD is nonexistent, early identification, diagnosis and treatment is often compromised. The resultant maternal dysfunction can potentially impact mother-infant bonding and influence neurodevelopmental outcomes in the children. Comorbid occurrence of GAD and major depressive disorder changes the illness course and its treatment outcome. Psychoeducation is a key component in overcoming denial/stigma and facilitating successful intervention. Treatment strategies are contingent upon illness severity. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), relaxation, and mindfulness therapy are indicated for mild GAD. Moderate/severe illness requires pharmacotherapy and CBT, individually or in combination. No psychotropic medications are approved by the FDA or Health Canada in pregnancy or the postpartum; off-label pharmacological treatment is instituted only if the benefit of therapy outweighs its risk. SSRIs/SNRIs are the first-line treatment for anxiety disorders due to data supporting their efficacy and overall favorable side effect profile. Benzodiazepines are an option for short-term treatment. While research on atypical antipsychotics is evolving, some can be considered for severe manifestations where the response to antidepressants or benzodiazepines has been insufficient. A case example will illustrate the onset, clinical course, and treatment strategies of GAD through pregnancy and the postpartum.

  1. Lessons learned from perinatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, Retha R

    2004-09-01

    The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) is well documented to be a perinatal carcinogen in both humans and experimental animals. Exposure to DES during critical periods of differentiation permanently alters the programming of estrogen target tissues resulting in benign and malignant abnormalities in the reproductive tract later in life. Using the perinatal DES-exposed rodent model, cellular and molecular mechanisms have been identified that play a role in these carcinogenic effects. Although DES is a potent estrogenic chemical, effects of low doses of the compound are being used to predict health risks of weaker environmental estrogens. Therefore, it is of particular interest that developmental exposure to very low doses of DES has been found to adversely affect fertility and to increase tumor incidence in murine reproductive tract tissues. These adverse effects are seen at environmentally relevant estrogen dose levels. New studies from our lab verify that DES effects are not unique; when numerous environmental chemicals with weak estrogenic activity are tested in the experimental neonatal mouse model, developmental exposure results in an increased incidence of benign and malignant tumors including uterine leiomyomas and adenocarcinomas that are similar to those shown following DES exposure. Finally, growing evidence in experimental animals suggests that some adverse effects can be passed on to subsequent generations, although the mechanisms involved in these trans-generational events remain unknown. Although the complete spectrum of risks to DES-exposed humans are uncertain at this time, the scientific community continues to learn more about cellular and molecular mechanisms by which perinatal carcinogenesis occurs. These advances in knowledge of both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms will be significant in ultimately predicting risks to other environmental estrogens and understanding more about the role of estrogens in normal and abnormal development.

  2. Lessons learned from perinatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbold, Retha R.

    2004-01-01

    The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) is well documented to be a perinatal carcinogen in both humans and experimental animals. Exposure to DES during critical periods of differentiation permanently alters the programming of estrogen target tissues resulting in benign and malignant abnormalities in the reproductive tract later in life. Using the perinatal DES-exposed rodent model, cellular and molecular mechanisms have been identified that play a role in these carcinogenic effects. Although DES is a potent estrogenic chemical, effects of low doses of the compound are being used to predict health risks of weaker environmental estrogens. Therefore, it is of particular interest that developmental exposure to very low doses of DES has been found to adversely affect fertility and to increase tumor incidence in murine reproductive tract tissues. These adverse effects are seen at environmentally relevant estrogen dose levels. New studies from our lab verify that DES effects are not unique; when numerous environmental chemicals with weak estrogenic activity are tested in the experimental neonatal mouse model, developmental exposure results in an increased incidence of benign and malignant tumors including uterine leiomyomas and adenocarcinomas that are similar to those shown following DES exposure. Finally, growing evidence in experimental animals suggests that some adverse effects can be passed on to subsequent generations, although the mechanisms involved in these trans-generational events remain unknown. Although the complete spectrum of risks to DES-exposed humans are uncertain at this time, the scientific community continues to learn more about cellular and molecular mechanisms by which perinatal carcinogenesis occurs. These advances in knowledge of both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms will be significant in ultimately predicting risks to other environmental estrogens and understanding more about the role of estrogens in normal and abnormal development

  3. Vitamin B-12 and Perinatal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Julia L; Layden, Alexander J; Stover, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin B-12 deficiency (importance of adequate vitamin B-12 status periconceptionally and during pregnancy cannot be overemphasized, given its fundamental role in neural myelination, brain development, and growth. Infants born to vitamin B-12-deficient women may be at increased risk of neural tube closure defects, and maternal vitamin B-12 insufficiency (pregnancy complications, few prospective studies and, to our knowledge, only 1 randomized trial have examined the effects of vitamin B-12 supplementation during pregnancy. The role of vitamin B-12 in the etiology of adverse perinatal outcomes needs to be elucidated to inform public health interventions. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Perinatal support to protect maternal mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, Anthony; Stokes, Jayne

    Family Action is a charity that helps more than 45,000 vulnerable families and children across England a year by offering emotional, practical and financial support. A pilot of a perinatal support project in Southwark, London was found to reduce mental health problems in vulnerable women and is now being extended. Such schemes complement the work of health visitors and other health professionals. Commissioners need to be aware of the long-term impact of such low-cost interventions in the early years.

  5. Undiagnosed xiphopagus twins: a perinatal malady

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri Dorairajan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Conjoined twins are a very rare entity. It is associated with poor survival rate in the presence of vital organ sharing. The entity can be diagnosed as early as the first trimester. A conjoined twin diagnosed late in labor is a malady with high perinatal mortality and maternal morbidity. We present one such case of xiphopagus twins. The management of a case diagnosed late in labor can be very challenging. Such obstetric challenges can be avoided by a meticulous early scan with a high index of suspicion, especially in the absence of separating membrane while scanning multiple pregnancies.

  6. Perinatal transmission of human papilomavirus DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafini Eduardo P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose was to study the perinatal transmission of human papillomavirus DNA (HPV-DNA in 63 mother-newborn pairs, besides looking at the epidemiological factors involved in the viral DNA transmission. The following sampling methods were used: (1 in the pregnant woman, when was recruited, in cervix and clinical lesions of the vagina, vulva and perineal region; (2 in the newborn, (a buccal, axillary and inguinal regions; (b nasopharyngeal aspirate, and (c cord blood; (3 in the children, buccal was repeated in the 4th week and 6th and 12th month of life. HPV-DNA was identified using two methodologies: multiplex PCR (PGMY09 and MY11 primers and nested-PCR (genotypes 6/11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 42, 52 and 58. Perinatal transmission was considered when concordance was found in type-specific HPV between mother/newborn or mother/child. HPV-DNA genital was detected in 49 pregnant women submitted to delivery. Eleven newborns (22.4%, n = 11/49 were HPV-DNA positive. In 8 cases (16.3%, n = 8/49 there was type specific HPV concordance between mother/newborn samples. At the end of the first month of life three children (6.1%, n = 3/49 became HPV-DNA positive, while two remained positive from birth. In 3 cases (100%, n = 3/3 there was type specific HPV concordance between mother/newborn samples. In the 6th month, a child (2%, n = 1/49 had become HPV-DNA positive between the 1st and 6th month of life, and there was type specific HPV concordance of mother/newborn samples. All the HPV-DNA positive children (22.4%, n = 11/49 at birth and at the end first month of life (6.1%, n = 3/49 became HPV-DNA negative at the age of 6 months. The HPV-DNA positive child (2%, n = 1/49 from 1st to the 6th month of life became HPV-DNA negative between the 6th and 12th month of life and one child had anogenital warts. In the twelfth month all (100%, n = 49/49 the children studied were HPV-DNA negative. A positive and significant correlation was observed between perinatal

  7. Interaction between cytotoxic effects of γ-radiation and folate deficiency in relation to choline reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Vipen; Devasagayam, Thomas Paul Asir

    2009-01-01

    The search for non-toxic radio-protective drugs has yielded many potential agents but most of these compounds have certain amount of toxicity. Recent studies have indicated that bio-molecules such as folate and choline might be of radio-protective value as they are, within broad dose ranges, non-toxic to humans and experimental animals. The objective of the present study was to investigate choline dependent adaptive response to potential synergistic cytotoxic effect of folate deficiency and γ-radiation. Male Swiss mice maintained on folate sufficient diet (FSD) and folate free diet (FFD) based on AIN-93 M formula, were subjected to 1-4 Gy total body γ-irradiation. To investigate liver DNA damage, apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) were quantified. A significant increase in liver DNA AP sites with concomitant depletion of liver choline reserves was observed when γ-radiation was combined with folate deficiency. Further work in this direction suggested that cytotoxic interaction between folate deficiency and gamma radiation might induce utilization of choline and choline containing moieties by modifying levels of key regulatory enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and choline oxidase (ChoOx). Another major finding of these studies is that significant liver damage at higher doses of radiation (3-4 Gy), might release considerable amounts of choline reserves to serum. In conclusion, a plausible interpretation of the present studies is that folate deprivation and γ-radiation interact to mobilize additional choline reserves of hepatic tissue, for redistribution to other organs, which could not be utilized by folate deficiency alone. Present results clearly indicated a distinct choline pool in liver and kidney tissues that could be utilized by folate deficient animals only under radiation stress conditions

  8. Impact of perinatal asphyxia on the GABAergic and locomotor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Berg, W D J; Kwaijtaal, M; de Louw, A J A; Lissone, N P A; Schmitz, C; Faull, R L M; Blokland, A; Blanco, C E; Steinbusch, H W M

    2003-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia can cause neuronal loss and depletion of neurotransmitters within the striatum. The striatum plays an important role in motor control, sensorimotor integration and learning. In the present study we investigated whether perinatal asphyxia leads to motor deficits related to striatal damage, and in particular to the loss of GABAergic neurons. Perinatal asphyxia was induced in time-pregnant Wistar rats on the day of delivery by placing the uterus horns, containing the pups, in a 37 degrees C water bath for 20 min. Three motor performance tasks (open field, grip test and walking pattern) were performed at 3 and 6 weeks of age. Antibodies against calbindin and parvalbumin were used to stain GABAergic striatal projection neurons and interneurons, respectively. The motor tests revealed subtle effects of perinatal asphyxia, i.e. small decrease in motor activity. Analysis of the walking pattern revealed an increase in stride width at 6 weeks of age after perinatal asphyxia. Furthermore, a substantial loss of calbindin-immunoreactive (-22%) and parvalbumin-immunoreactive (-43%) cells was found in the striatum following perinatal asphyxia at two months of age. GABA(A) receptor autoradiography revealed no changes in GABA binding activity within the striatum, globus pallidus or substantia nigra. We conclude that perinatal asphyxia resulted in a loss of GABAergic projection neurons and interneurons in the striatum without alteration of GABA(A) receptor affinity. Despite a considerable loss of striatal neurons, only minor deficits in motor performance were found after perinatal asphyxia.

  9. Maternal and fetal determinants of perinatal transmission of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All effort should be geared toward identifying those positive and minimized or modify risks factors through behavior change, prompt initiation of treatment and prophylaxis for those found positive with a view to reduce the incidence of perinatal transmission. Key Words: perinatal transmission, HIV, maternal, fetal determinants, ...

  10. Perinatal outcomes in 375 children born after oocyte donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchau, Sara S; Loft, Anne; Larsen, Elisabeth C

    2013-01-01

    To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC).......To describe perinatal outcomes in children born after oocyte donation (OD) compared with in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and spontaneous conception (SC)....

  11. Staffing Needs for Quality Perinatal Care in Tanzania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    and the required nursing staff for perinatal care in 16 health institutions in Dar es ... attitudes, lack of morale, absenteeism, ... countries in Africa, Asia and Europe. ... midwives working in the perinatal care ... method. 10 . Registered nurses were those who according to the National ... would spend doing other related official.

  12. The value of incorporating avoidable factors into perinatal audits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess whether incorporating a system of identifying, classifying and grading avoidable factors into a perinatal audit can be useful in identifying problem areas. Design. Descriptive study. Setting. Black urban population, Pretoria, South Africa. Subjects. All perinatal deaths of infants weighing more than 1 000 g ...

  13. Risk factors and prognostic models for perinatal asphyxia at term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, S.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis will focus on the risk factors and prognostic models for adverse perinatal outcome at term, with a special focus on perinatal asphyxia and obstetric interventions during labor to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes. For the majority of the studies in this thesis we were allowed to use data

  14. Does perinatal asphyxia contribute to neurological dysfunction in preterm infants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, Patricia A. M.; Bakker, Saskia C. M.; Jonker, Arnold J. H.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Background: Children born preterm are known to be at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. The role of perinatal asphyxia in this increased risk is still a matter of debate. Aim: To analyze the contribution of perinatal asphyxia in a population of preterm infants admitted to a secondary paediatric

  15. Total perinatally related losses at Tygerberg Hospital – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the leading causes of perinatal deaths and to evaluate any changes, with the inclusion of placental histology. Method. At perinatal mortality meetings, primary and final causes of death were assigned for the period 1 July 2006 - 30 June 2007. All singleton babies born to women residing in the ...

  16. Experience in using ceretone (choline alfoscerate in brain concussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N G Voropay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nootropics are used to treat patients who have sustained concussion of the brain and complain of reductions in memory and working capacity, as well as emotional disorders. The efficacy of ceretone® (choline alfoscerate was studied in 76 patients (45 men and 31 women whose age was 21-56 years who had sustained brain concussion and had complaints of headache, easy fatigability, nocturnal sleep disorders, daytime sleepiness, anxiety, and bad mood. Thirty-nine patients received intravenous ceretone® in a dose of 1000 mg/day for 10 days; the other 37 patients formed a control group. A one-year follow-up indicated that ceretone® had a positive effect on health, autonomic, and emotional status and working capacity.

  17. Choline acetyltransferase-containing neurons in the human parietal neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Benagiano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of immunocytochemical studies have indicated the presence of cholinergic neurons in the cerebral cortex of various species of mammals. Whether such cholinergic neurons in the human cerebral cortex are exclusively of subcortical origin is still debated. In this immunocytochemical study, the existence of cortical cholinergic neurons was investigated on surgical samples of human parietal association neocortex using a highly specific monoclonal antibody against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT, the acetylcholine biosynthesising enzyme. ChAT immunoreactivity was detected in a subpopulation of neurons located in layers II and III. These were small or medium-sized pyramidal neurons which showed cytoplasmic immunoreactivity in the perikarya and processes, often in close association to blood microvessels. This study, providing demonstration of ChAT neurons in the human parietal neocortex, strongly supports the existence of intrinsic cholinergic innervation of the human neocortex. It is likely that these neurons contribute to the cholinergic innervation of the intracortical microvessels.

  18. The implementation of unit-based perinatal mortality audit in perinatal cooperation units in the northern region of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diem, M.T.; Timmer, A.; Bergman, K.A.; Bouman, K.; van Egmond, N.; Stant, D.A.; Ulkeman, L.H.M.; Veen, W.B.; Erwich, J.J.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Perinatal (mortality) audit can be considered to be a way to improve the careprocess for all pregnant women and their newborns by creating an opportunity to learn from unwanted events in the care process. In unit-based perinatal audit, the caregivers involved in cases that result in

  19. Perinatal risk factors and social withdrawal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedeney, Antoine; Marchand-Martin, Laetitia; Cote, Sylvana J; Larroque, Béatrice

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to assess prevalence of social withdrawal behaviour in infants aged 12 months included in the French Perinatal Risk Factor Study Eden; (2) To study the correlation between relational withdrawal and several perinatal and parental factors assessed in the EDEN study. A longitudinal study using the ADBB scale was conducted within the Eden Cohort in the year 2008. 1,586 infants were included in the study. Fourteen percent of the children who had an ADBB assessment had a score at 5 and over on the ADBB, a scale designed to assess social withdrawal behaviour at age 0-24 months. Social withdrawal at 12 months was associated with low birth weight, low gestational age and with intra uterine growth retardation. Social withdrawal was independently associated with several maternal and paternal risk factors. The level of social withdrawal behaviour increased with a score of maternal difficulties. This study on a large longitudinally followed volunteer sample demonstrate a clear association of social withdrawal behaviour at age one with low birth weight and preterm birth, possibly mediated by parental vulnerabilities. Social withdrawal behaviour seems to be an important alarm signal to detect early on particularly in premature and small for date babies. © Springer-Verlag 2012

  20. Perinatal mortality in Indonesia: an unfinished agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riawati Jahja

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal mortality is a profound issue in maternal and child health due to its close relation with the maternal condition. There exist Millennium Development Goals (MDGs which are to be achieved by 2015. These are coupled with a continuing need for comprehensively monitoring and identifying factors associated with perinatal mortality, which is a primary concern for developing countries inclusive of Indonesia. Previous and on-going health programs could have brought about strategic interventions but as different attributes can emerge due to epidemiological transition, and given the fact that associated factors may remain persistent, forward thinking strategies in public health are forever in need of renewal.     Results from our research show that educational variables, poor awareness towards proper antenatal care visits and weak services at the front-line of healthcare delivery (community outreach worsen the condition of childbearing women, raising the question of biological risk factors in line with socio-economic variables.

  1. Choline-based biodegradable ionic liquid catalyst for Mannich-type

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Choline-based biodegradable ionic liquid catalyst for Mannich-type reaction ... Abstract. A three-component Mannich-type reaction of aromatic aldehydes, ketones, and amines was catalyzed by a novel ... Journal of Chemical Sciences | News.

  2. Bronsted acid-functionalized choline chloride-butane sultone for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M P PADMA PRIYA

    2018-03-21

    Mar 21, 2018 ... Choline chloride and 1,4-butane sultone were combined to obtain a sulphonic acid-functionalized ..... Knifton J F and Sanderson J R 1990 Method for produc- ... alkenes via the Knoevenagel condensation Tetrahedron. Lett.

  3. Loss of P53 Function in Colon Cancer Cells Results in Increased Phosphocholine and Total Choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Mori

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the p53 gene are the most frequently observed genetic lesions in human cancers. Human cancers that contain a p53 mutation are more aggressive, more apt to metastasize, and more often fatal. p53 controls numerous downstream targets that can influence various outcomes such as apoptosis, growth arrest, and DNA repair. Based on previous observations using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, we have identified choline phospholipid metabolite intensities typical of increased malignancy. Here we have used 1H MRS to characterize the choline phospholipid metabolite levels of p53+/+ and p53−/– cells, and demonstrated that loss of p53 function results in increased phosphocholine and total choline. These data suggest that the increased malignancy of cancer cells resulting from loss of p53 may be mediated, in part, through the choline phospholipid pathway.

  4. Lewis acidic (choline chloride.3ZnCl2) ionic liquid: A green and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Choline chloride; zinc chloride; ionic liquid; one-pot; triarylmethane. 1. Introduction ... applications such as zinc electroplating11 and batter- ies.12 It has also been used as ... as indicated by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), the catalyst was ...

  5. Lecithin: a by-product of biodiesel production and a source of choline for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of soy lecithins (L, a by-product of the biodiesel production process, and choline chloride microencapsulated with hydrogenated vegetable oils (C on dry matter intake, milk yield,  milk quality traits, milk choline and haematological profile of dairy cows. A total of 12 mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to cross-over design (2 diets x 2 periods. Diets were isoenergetic, isofibrous and isonitrogenous and had the same content of choline. Dry matter intake was not affected by the diet, but L led to lower milk choline (P

  6. Choline metabolism as a basis for the selective vulnerability of cholinergic neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The unique propensity of cholinergic neurons to use choline for two purposes--ACh and membrane phosphatidylcholine synthesis--may contribute to their selective vulnerability in Alzheimer's disease and other cholinergic neurodegenerative disorders. When physiologically active, the neurons use free choline taken from the 'reservoir' in membrane phosphatidylcholine to synthesize ACh; this can lead to an actual decrease in the quantity of membrane per cell. Alzheimer's disease (but not Down's syndrome, or other neurodegenerative disorders) is associated with characteristic neurochemical lesions involving choline and ethanolamine: brain levels of these compounds are diminished, while those of glycerophosphocholine and glycerophosphoethanolamine (breakdown products of their respective membrane phosphatides) are increased, both in cholinergic and noncholinergic brain regions. Perhaps this metabolic disturbance and the tendency of cholinergic neurons to 'export' choline--in the form of ACh--underlie the selective vulnerability of the neurons. Resulting changes in membrane composition could abnormally expose intramembraneous proteins such as amyloid precursor protein to proteases.

  7. Serial plasma choline measurements after cardiac arrest in patients undergoing mild therapeutic hypothermia: a prospective observational pilot trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Storm

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Choline is related to phospholipid metabolism and is a marker for global ischaemia with a small reference range in healthy volunteers. The aim of our study was to characterize the early kinetics of plasma free choline in patients after cardiac arrest. Additionally, we investigated the potential of plasma free choline to predict neurological outcome. METHODS: Twenty patients admitted to our medical intensive care unit were included in this prospective, observational trial. All patients were enrolled between May 2010 and May 2011. They received post cardiac arrest treatment including mild therapeutic hypothermia which was initiated with a combination of cold fluid and a feedback surface cooling device according to current guidelines. Sixteen blood samples per patient were analysed for plasma free choline levels within the first week after resuscitation. Choline was detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Most patients showed elevated choline levels on admission (median 14.8 µmol/L; interquartile range; IQR 9.9-20.1 which subsequently decreased. 48 hours after cardiac arrest choline levels in all patients reached subnormal levels at a median of 4.0 µmol/L (IQR 3-4.9; p = 0.001. Subsequently, choline levels normalized within seven days. There was no significant difference in choline levels when groups were analyzed in relation to neurological outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate a choline deficiency in the early postresucitation phase. This could potentially result in impaired cell membrane recovery. The detailed characterization of the early choline time course may aid in planning of choline supplementation trials. In a limited number of patients, choline was not promising as a biomarker for outcome prediction.

  8. Chronic choline supplementation improves cognitive and motor performance via modulating oxidative and neurochemical status in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Saiqa; Haider, Saida; Ahmad, Saara; Madiha, Syeda; Parveen, Tahira

    2017-08-01

    Choline, an essential nutrient, accounts for multiple functions in the body and brain. While its beneficial effects on healthy adults are not clear, choline supplementation is important during pregnancy for brain development, in elderly patients for support of cognitive performance and in patients with neurological disorders to reduce memory deficits. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate whether choline administration in healthy adult rats beneficially impacts cognitive and locomotor performance, and associated oxidative and neurochemical outcomes. Two groups, control and choline, received tap water and choline bitartrate, respectively at the dose equivalent to adequate intake for five weeks. Food intake and body weight were monitored daily. Behavioral analysis comprising assessment of cognitive performance (by novel object recognition, passive avoidance and Morris Water Maze test) and locomotor performance (by Open field, Kondziela's inverted screen and beam walking test) were performed. Following testing, rats were decapitated and brain samples were collected for estimation of acetylcholine, redox profile and monoamine measurements. The results showed that chronic choline administration significantly improves cognitive and locomotor performance accompanied by a reduction in oxidative stress, enhanced cholinergic neurotransmission and monoamine levels in the brain of healthy adult rats. Hence, chronic choline intake was found to improve behavioral, oxidative and neurochemical outcomes in the normal population, so it can be suggested that choline tablets can be used as a safe and effective supplement for improving the neurological health of normal individuals and that they might also be beneficial in preventing cognitive and motor disorders later in life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Perinatal market penetration rate. A tool to evaluate regional perinatal programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, W F; McGill, L

    1987-01-01

    Very small babies born in tertiary centers fare better than outborn babies referred for tertiary care after birth. Viewing the 1001-1500 gm regional cohort of fetuses as a potential "market" for center delivery, and measuring a center's penetration into this market, quantitates how well a center draws to itself these small, high-risk fetuses for delivery. An Illinois center's annual penetration rate into its regional market for the years 1973-1983 is presented and significant increases are found. The penetration rates of nine Illinois perinatal centers are calculated and wide discrepancies are found. Defining a high-risk regional cohort as a market stresses a perinatal center's obligation to its region. The penetration rate into a defined market measures how well a center fulfills this obligation.

  10. Detecting the severity of perinatal anxiety with the Perinatal Anxiety Screening Scale (PASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Susanne; Byrne, Shannon L; Dedman, Kellie; Hagan, Rosemary; Coo, Soledad; Oxnam, Elizabeth; Doherty, Dorota; Cunningham, Nadia; Page, Andrew C

    2015-11-01

    The Perinatal Anxiety Screening Scale (PASS; Somerville et al., 2014) reliably identifies perinatal women at risk of problematic anxiety when a clinical cut-off score of 26 is used. This study aimed to identify a severity continuum of anxiety symptoms with the PASS to enhance screening, treatment and research for perinatal anxiety. Antenatal and postnatal women (n=410) recruited from the antenatal clinics and mental health services at an obstetric hospital completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), the Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI), and the PASS. The women referred to mental health services were assessed to determine anxiety diagnoses via a diagnostic interview conducted by an experienced mental health professional from the Department of Psychological Medicine - King Edward Memorial Hospital. Three normative groups for the PASS, namely minimal anxiety, mild-moderate anxiety, and severe anxiety, were identified based on the severity of anxiety indicated on the standardised scales and anxiety diagnoses. Two cut-off points for the normative groups were calculated using the Jacobson-Truax method (Jacobson and Truax, 1991) resulting in three severity ranges: 'minimal anxiety'; 'mild-moderate anxiety'; and 'severe anxiety'. The most frequent diagnoses in the study sample were adjustment disorder, mixed anxiety and depression, generalised anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. This may limit the generalisability of the severity range results to other anxiety diagnoses including obsessive compulsive disorder and specific phobia. Severity ranges for the PASS add value to having a clinically validated cut-off score in the detection and monitoring of problematic perinatal anxiety. The PASS can now be used to identify risk of an anxiety disorder and the severity ranges can indicate developing risk for early referrals for further assessments

  11. Género, salud materna y la paradoja perinatal

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Grilo DINIZ

    2010-01-01

    En los últimos 20 años mejoraron prácticamente todos los indicadores de salud materna en el Brasil, así como hubo un amplio acceso a los servicios de salud. Gender, maternal health and the perinatal paradox1 Gênero, saúde materna e o paradoxo perinatal Género, salud materna y la paradoja perinatal REFLEXÕES SOBRE HUMANIZAÇÃO E A REALIDADE DOS SERVIÇOS REFLECTIONS ON HUMANIZATION AND THE REALITY OF HEALTH SERVICES REFLEXIONES SOBRE LA HUMANIZACIÓN Y LA REALIDAD DE LO...

  12. Information Architecture for Perinatal Registration in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, William T F; Arns-Schiere, Anne Marieke

    In the Netherlands, the perinatal registry has undergone significant changes in the past decades. The purpose of this article is to describe the current health care information architecture for the national perinatal registry, including how the national data set is arranged and how electronic messages are used to submit data. We provide implications for women's health care providers based on the creation and implementation of the Dutch perinatal registry system. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mortality in mothers after perinatal loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Wu, C; Schendel, D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether mothers who lost a child from stillbirth or in the first week of life have an increased overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. DESIGN: A population based follow-up study. SETTING: Data from Danish national registers. POPULATION: All mothers in Denmark were...... included in the cohort at time of their first delivery from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2008 and followed until 31 December 2009 or death, whichever came first. METHODS: The association between perinatal loss and total and cause-specific mortality in mothers was estimated with hazard ratios (HR) and 95......% confidence intervals (95% CI) calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Overall mortality and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, 838 331 mothers in the cohort gave birth to one or more children and 7690 mothers (0.92%) experienced...

  14. Current trends in Irish perinatal mortality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahony, R

    2010-06-01

    This was a retrospective review of normally formed perinatal deaths among 176,620 births at the National Maternity Hospital (1984-2007). Prelabor stillbirths were categorised by presumed cause of death including unexplained, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), placental abruption, red cell alloimmunisation (RCA) and deaths related to prematurity. Peripartum deaths included intrapartum and first week neonatal deaths. The post-mortem rate, initially almost 100%, fell to 60%. Data were analysed using the Mantel-Haenszel chi square test for trends. In the study period there was a significant reduction in the PNM, largely because of a fall in death related to prematurity, term peripartum death, death at 42 weeks or greater, placental abruption, death related to IUGR and RCA (P < 0.01). Overall the unexplained still birth rate was unchanged throughout the study period (p = 0.8) despite a highly significant (p < 0.001) increase in obstetric intervention particularly induction of labor and caesarean section.

  15. Preventing Workplace Injuries Among Perinatal Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Laura; Hurst, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of perinatal nursing put nurses at risk for injuries, including frequent repetitive bending, lifting of clients, and exposure to potentially large amounts of body fluids such as blood and amniotic fluid. Violence is also a potential risk with stressful family situations that may arise around childbirth. Workplace injuries put a health care facility at risk for staff turnover, decreases in the number of skilled nurses, client dissatisfaction, workers' compensation payouts, and employee lawsuits. Through the use of safety equipment, improved safety and violence training programs, "no manual lift" policies, reinforcement of personal protective equipment usage, and diligent staff training to improve awareness, these risks can be minimized. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  16. [Application of Epigenetics in Perinatal Nursing Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hsueh-Fen; Kao, Chien-Huei; Gau, Meei-Ling

    2017-04-01

    Epigenetics is a field of biomedicine that expanded tremendously during the 1980s. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression independent of underlying DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) sequence, which not only affect this generation but will be passed to subsequent generations. Although conception is the critical moment for making decisions regarding gene mapping and fetal health, studies have shown that perinatal nursing care practices also affect the genetic remodeling processes and the subsequent health of the mother and her offspring. To optimize maternal-infant and the offspring health, it is important to ensure that the new mother get adequate nutrition, reduce stress levels, adopt gentle birth practices, facilitate exclusive breastfeeding, and avoid contacting toxic substances.

  17. Brain pertechnetate SPECT in perinatal asphyxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sfakianakis, G.; Curless, R.; Goldberg, R.; Clarke, L.; Saw, C.; Sfakianakis, E.; Bloom, F.; Bauer, C.; Serafini, A.

    1984-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography of the brain was performed in 6 patients with perinatal asphyxis aged 8-26 days. A single-head (LFOV) commercial SPECT system (Picker) was used and data were acquired 2-3 hr after an IV injection of 1-2 mCi Tc-99m-pertechnetate (360/sup 0/ rotation, 60 views, 64 x 64 matrix, 50K cts/view). Reconstruction in three planes was performed using MDS software (Hanning medium resolution filter, with or without attenuation correction using Sorenson's technique). For each clinical study, a ring type phantom source was used to identify the level of reconstruction noise in the tomographic planes. Abnormalities were found in all patients studied, 3 central (moderate intensity), 2 peripheral (1 severe, 1 moderate) and 1 diffuse (mild intensity). Despite use of oral perchlorate (50 mg) in one patient the choroid plexus was visible. Since attenuation correction tended to amplify noise, the clinical studies were interpreted both with and without this correction. All 3 patients with central lesions were found abnormal on early (1-4 mo) neurologic follow-up examination, whereas the others were normal. No correlation was found between SPECT and 24 hr blood levels of CPK, ammonia, base excess, or the Apgar scores. Ct scans were reported abnormal (3 diffuse, 1 peripheral, 1 central and 1 questionable). Planar scintigrams obtained immediately after SPECT were normal (2), questionable (2) and abnormal (2). Follow-up SPECT brain scintigrams in two of the patients showed partial resolution. SPECT of the brain appears promising in perinatal asphyxia but long-term correlation with patient development is necessary.

  18. Uptake of [N-Me-3H]-choline by synaptosomes from the central nervous system of Locusta migratoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The accumulation of 3H-choline by isolated synaptosomes from the central nervous system of locust was studied at concentrations varying from 0.05 to 40 microM. Kinetic analysis of the saturable process revealed a high-affinity and a low-affinity system. The high-affinity uptake was competitively inhibited by hemicholinium-3 and was absolutely dependent on external sodium. Elevated potassium concentrations inhibited choline uptake. The choline uptake by insect synaptosomes was found to be remarkably resistant to a variety of metabolic inhibitors. The reduced choline uptake under depolarizing conditions (high potassium concentration or veratridine) in the absence of calcium implies that electrochemical gradients are important for high-affinity choline uptake. Depolarization of preloaded synaptosomes under appropriate conditions resulted in a significant release of newly accumulated choline radioactivity

  19. The prognostic value of multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy determined metabolite levels in white and grey matter brain tissue for adverse outcome in term newborns following perinatal asphyxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doormaal, Pieter Jan van [University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Groningen (Netherlands); Meander Medical Center Amersfoort, Department of Radiology, PO Box 1502, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Meiners, Linda C.; Sijens, Paul E. [University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Horst, Hendrik J. ter; Veere, Christa N. van der [University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2012-04-15

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy can identify brain metabolic changes in perinatal asphyxia by providing ratios of metabolites, such as choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and lactate (Lact) [Cho/Cr, Lact/NAA, etc.]. The purpose of this study was to quantify the separate white and grey matter metabolites in a slab cranial to the ventricles and relate these to the outcome. A standard 2D-chemical shift imaging protocol was used for measuring a transverse volume of interest located cranial to the ventricles allowing for direct comparison of the metabolites in white and grey matter brain tissue in 24 term asphyxiated newborns aged 3 to 16 days. Cho, NAA and Lact showed significant differences between four subgroups of asphyxiated infants with more and less favourable outcomes. High levels of Cho and Lact in the grey matter differentiated non-survivors from survivors (P = 0.003 and P = 0.017, respectively). In perinatal asphyxia the levels of Cho, NAA and Lact in both white and grey matter brain tissue are affected. The levels of Cho and Lact measured in the grey matter are the most indicative of survival. It is therefore advised to include grey matter brain tissue in the region of interest examined by multivoxel MR spectroscopy. (orig.)

  20. The prognostic value of multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy determined metabolite levels in white and grey matter brain tissue for adverse outcome in term newborns following perinatal asphyxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doormaal, Pieter Jan van; Meiners, Linda C.; Sijens, Paul E.; Horst, Hendrik J. ter; Veere, Christa N. van der

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy can identify brain metabolic changes in perinatal asphyxia by providing ratios of metabolites, such as choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and lactate (Lact) [Cho/Cr, Lact/NAA, etc.]. The purpose of this study was to quantify the separate white and grey matter metabolites in a slab cranial to the ventricles and relate these to the outcome. A standard 2D-chemical shift imaging protocol was used for measuring a transverse volume of interest located cranial to the ventricles allowing for direct comparison of the metabolites in white and grey matter brain tissue in 24 term asphyxiated newborns aged 3 to 16 days. Cho, NAA and Lact showed significant differences between four subgroups of asphyxiated infants with more and less favourable outcomes. High levels of Cho and Lact in the grey matter differentiated non-survivors from survivors (P = 0.003 and P = 0.017, respectively). In perinatal asphyxia the levels of Cho, NAA and Lact in both white and grey matter brain tissue are affected. The levels of Cho and Lact measured in the grey matter are the most indicative of survival. It is therefore advised to include grey matter brain tissue in the region of interest examined by multivoxel MR spectroscopy. (orig.)

  1. Choline kinase-alpha by regulating cell aggressiveness and drug sensitivity is a potential druggable target for ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Granata, A; Nicoletti, R; Tinaglia, V; De Cecco, L; Pisanu, M E; Ricci, A; Podo, F; Canevari, S; Iorio, E; Bagnoli, M; Mezzanzanica, D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aberrant choline metabolism has been proposed as a novel cancer hallmark. We recently showed that epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) possesses an altered MRS-choline profile, characterised by increased phosphocholine (PCho) content to which mainly contribute over-expression and activation of choline kinase-alpha (ChoK-alpha). Methods: To assess its biological relevance, ChoK-alpha expression was downmodulated by transient RNA interference in EOC in vitro models. Gene expression profi...

  2. [Perinatal clomiphene citrate treatment changes sexual orientations of male mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng-Qin; Zhang, Heng-Rui

    2013-10-01

    Perinatal period and adolescence are critical for brain development, which is the biological basis of an individual's sexual orientation and sexual behavior. In this study, animals were divided into two groups and their sexual orientations were observed: one group experienced drug treatments during the perinatal period, and the other group was castrated at puberty. The results showed that estradiol treatment had no effect on mature male offspring's sexual orientations, but 9 days and 14 days of clomiphene citrate treatment significantly increased the chance of homosexuality and effeminized behavior. In addition, the sexual orientation of mature normal male offspring, which were castrated when they were 21 days old,was not significant different from the control animals. These findings suggest that the inhibition of perinatal estrogen activities could suppress individual male-typical responses, enhance female-typical responses and induce homosexual orientations. Moreover, the masculinizing effects of estrogen were more obvious during perinatal period than adolescence.

  3. Perinatal asphyxia in a specialist hospital in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    Accepted: 7th December 2012. West BA. Department of Paediatrics,. University of Port Harcourt ... oping countries with perinatal asphyxia and birth inju- ries together ... age, sex, birth weight, gestational age of recruited ba- bies, parity, booking ...

  4. Perinatal outcomes in pregnant women presenting with preterm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perinatal outcomes in pregnant women presenting with preterm premature rupture of membranes at a ... Journal Home > Vol 23, No 2 (2017) > ... in sepsis rates, the need for ventilation and the duration of hospital stay between the two groups.

  5. Cognitive outcome in childhood after unilateral perinatal brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buuren, L.M.; van der Aa, N.E.; Dekker, H.C.; Vermeulen, R.J.; van Nieuwenhuizen, O.; van Schooneveld, M.M.J.; de Vries, L.S.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess cognitive outcome in children with periventricular haemorrhagic infarction (PVHI) or perinatal arterial ischaemic stroke (PAIS) and relate these findings to early developmental outcome and neonatal magnetic resonance imaging findings. Method: A

  6. The impact of the Perinatal Education Programme on cognitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of cognitive knowledge by means of multiple-choice ... midwives use the Perinatal Education Programme in an outreach ... used the Afrikaans translation of the Programme, because .... improvements in patient care practices.

  7. Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease presenting as hydrops fetalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenHamida, Emira; Ayadi, Imene; Ouertani, Ines; Chammem, Maroua; Bezzine, Ahlem; BenTmime, Riadh; Attia, Leila; Mrad, Ridha; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease is very rare and is considered a variant of type 2 Gaucher disease that occurs in the neonatal period. The most distinct features of perinatal-lethal Gaucher disease are non-immune hydrops fetalis. Less common signs of the disease are hepatosplenomegaly, ichthyosis and arthrogryposis. We report a case of Gaucher's disease (type 2) diagnosed in a newborn who presented with Hydrops Fetalis.

  8. Building Perinatal Case Manager Capacity Using Quality Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Improving breastfeeding rates among Black women is a potential strategy to address disparities in health outcomes that disproportionately impact Black women and children. This quality improvement (QI) initiative aimed to improve perinatal case manager knowledge and self-efficacy to promote breastfeeding among Black, low-income women who use services through Boston Healthy Start Initiative. QI methodology was used to develop and test a two-part strategy for perinatal case managers to promote a...

  9. Stimulation of Functional Vision in Children with Perinatal Brain Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Alimović, Sonja; Mejaški-Bošnjak, Vlatka

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is one of the most common causes of bilateral visual loss, which frequently occurs due to perinatal brain injury. Vision in early life has great impact on acquisition of basic comprehensions which are fundamental for further development. Therefore, early detection of visual problems and early intervention is necessary. The aim of the present study is to determine specific visual functioning of children with perinatal brain damage and the influence of visual st...

  10. Management of renal dysfunction following term perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweetman, Deirdre U

    2013-03-01

    Acute kidney injury frequently develops following the term perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia. Quantifying the degree of acute kidney injury is difficult, however, as the methods currently in use are suboptimal. Acute kidney injury management is largely supportive with little evidence basis for many interventions. This review discusses management strategies and novel biomarkers that may improve diagnosis and management of renal injury following perinatal hypoxia-ischaemia.

  11. Tei index in neonatal respiratory distress and perinatal asphyxia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Anwer Attia Khattab

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular compromise is a common complication of neonatal respiratory distress and perinatal asphyxia. Tei index is a Doppler-derived index for the assessment of overall left ventricular function that combines systolic and diastolic time intervals. Aim: Assess the role of MPI versus cardiac troponin I as early indicator of hypoxic cardiac damage in neonates with respiratory distress or perinatal asphyxia. The present work was conducted on forty neonates, 15 with neonatal respiratory dist...

  12. Detection of choline transporter-like 1 protein CTL1 in neuroblastoma × glioma cells and in the CNS, and its role in choline uptake

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machová, Eva; O´Regan, S.; Newcombe, J.; Meunier, F. M.; Prentice, J.; Dove, R.; Lisá, Věra; Doležal, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 4 (2009), s. 1297-1309 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : CTL1 * choline * cell growth Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.999, year: 2009

  13. Choline transporter mutations in severe congenital myasthenic syndrome disrupt transporter localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haicui; Salter, Claire G; Refai, Osama; Hardy, Holly; Barwick, Katy E S; Akpulat, Ugur; Kvarnung, Malin; Chioza, Barry A; Harlalka, Gaurav; Taylan, Fulya; Sejersen, Thomas; Wright, Jane; Zimmerman, Holly H; Karakaya, Mert; Stüve, Burkhardt; Weis, Joachim; Schara, Ulrike; Russell, Mark A; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Chilton, John; Blakely, Randy D; Baple, Emma L; Cirak, Sebahattin; Crosby, Andrew H

    2017-11-01

    The presynaptic, high-affinity choline transporter is a critical determinant of signalling by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at both central and peripheral cholinergic synapses, including the neuromuscular junction. Here we describe an autosomal recessive presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome presenting with a broad clinical phenotype due to homozygous choline transporter missense mutations. The clinical phenotype ranges from the classical presentation of a congenital myasthenic syndrome in one patient (p.Pro210Leu), to severe neurodevelopmental delay with brain atrophy (p.Ser94Arg) and extend the clinical outcomes to a more severe spectrum with infantile lethality (p.Val112Glu). Cells transfected with mutant transporter construct revealed a virtually complete loss of transport activity that was paralleled by a reduction in transporter cell surface expression. Consistent with these findings, studies to determine the impact of gene mutations on the trafficking of the Caenorhabditis elegans choline transporter orthologue revealed deficits in transporter export to axons and nerve terminals. These findings contrast with our previous findings in autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuropathy of a dominant-negative frameshift mutation at the C-terminus of choline transporter that was associated with significantly reduced, but not completely abrogated choline transporter function. Together our findings define divergent neuropathological outcomes arising from different classes of choline transporter mutation with distinct disease processes and modes of inheritance. These findings underscore the essential role played by the choline transporter in sustaining acetylcholine neurotransmission at both central and neuromuscular synapses, with important implications for treatment and drug selection. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. A current landscape of provincial perinatal data collection in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Kiran A; Magee, Laura A; Dale, Sheryll; Claydon, Jennifer; Morris, Tara J; von Dadelszen, Peter; Liston, Robert M; Ansermino, J Mark

    2009-03-01

    The Canadian Perinatal Network (CPN) was launched in 2005 as a national perinatal database project designed to identify best practices in maternity care. The inaugural project of CPN is focused on interventions that optimize maternal and perinatal outcomes in women with threatened preterm birth at 22+0 to 28+6 weeks' gestation. To examine existing data collection by perinatal health programs (PHPs) to inform decisions about shared data collection and CPN database construction. We reviewed the database manuals and websites of all Canadian PHPs and compiled a list of data fields and their definitions. We compared these fields and definitions with those of CPN and the Canadian Minimal Dataset, proposed as a common dataset by the Canadian Perinatal Programs Coalition of Canadian PHPs. PHPs collect information on 2/3 of deliveries in Canada. PHPs consistently collect information on maternal demographics (including both maternal and neonatal personal identifiers), past obstetrical history, maternal lifestyle, aspects of labour and delivery, and basic neonatal outcomes. However, most PHPs collect insufficient data to enable identification of obstetric (and neonatal) practices associated with improved maternal and perinatal outcomes. In addition, there is between-PHP variability in defining many data fields. Construction of a separate CPN database was needed although harmonization of data field definitions with those of the proposed Canadian Minimal Dataset was done to plan for future shared data collection. This convergence should be the goal of researchers and clinicians alike as we construct a common language for electronic health records.

  15. Perinatal pathology: practice suggestions for limited-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Drucilla J

    2013-06-01

    The practice of perinatal pathology in much of the world suffers, as do all subspecialties of anatomic pathology, from inadequate resources (equipment, consumables, and both professional and technical personnel), from lack of education (not only of the pathologist but also of the clinicians responsible for sending the specimens, and the technicians processing the specimens), and from lack of appropriate government sector support. Perinatal pathology has significant public health-related utility and should be championing its service by providing maternal and fetal/infant mortality and morbidity data to governmental health ministries. It is with this pathologic data that informed decisions can be made on health-related courses of action and allocation of resources. These perinatal pathology data are needed to develop appropriate public health initiatives, specifically toward achieving the Millennium Developmental Goals as the best way to effectively decrease infant and maternal deaths and to determine causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. The following overview will focus on the utility of perinatal pathology specifically as related to its public health function and will suggest methods to improve its service in resource-poor settings. This article is offered not as a critique of the current practice that most pathologists find themselves working in globally, but to provide suggestions for improving perinatal pathology services, which could be implemented with the limited available resources and manpower most pathology departments currently have. In addition, we offer suggestions for graded improvements ("ramping up") over time.

  16. Evaluating the quality of perinatal anxiety information available online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Paige L; Reynolds, Kristin A; Walker, John R; Furer, Patricia; Pryor, Teaghan A M

    2018-06-22

    The Internet is an easily accessible source of information for women experiencing anxiety in pregnancy and/or postpartum to use when seeking health information. However, the Internet has several drawbacks, including inaccurate content that may be perceived as being accurate, non-biased, and evidence-based. Prior research indicates that anxiety and postpartum mental health websites have poor quality in terms of describing treatment options. There is a lack of research and knowledge in the area of perinatal anxiety, and an absence of research evaluating perinatal anxiety websites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of information regarding perinatal anxiety available on the Internet. Websites concerning perinatal anxiety were selected using the Google search engine. Each website was evaluated based on quality of health information, website usability, and readability. The 20 websites included in this study had low to moderate quality scores based on the DISCERN tool. There were no associations found between website order and website quality, or between website readability and website quality. Many websites had high PEMAT scores for the understandability section, which included content, style, and layout of information; however, most did not use visual aids to enhance comprehension. Most websites had low actionability scores, suggesting that information may not be useful in describing what actions may be taken to manage perinatal anxiety. This study highlights the need for high-quality websites concerning perinatal anxiety that are easy to navigate and provide the public with evidence-based information.

  17. Magnitude of income-related disparities in adverse perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia; Dodds, Linda; Fahey, John; Joseph, Ks; Morinis, Julia; Allen, Victoria M

    2014-03-04

    To assess and compare multiple measurements of socioeconomic position (SEP) in order to determine the relationship with adverse perinatal outcomes across various contexts. A birth registry, the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database, was confidentially linked to income tax and related information for the year in which delivery occurred. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine odds ratios between multiple indicators of SEP and multiple adverse perinatal outcomes in 117734 singleton births between 1988 and 2003. Models for after tax family income were also adjusted for neighborhood deprivation to gauge the relative magnitude of effects related to SEP at both levels. Effects of SEP were stratified by single- versus multiple-parent family composition, and by urban versus rural location of residence. The risk of small for gestational age and spontaneous preterm birth was higher across all the indicators of lower SEP, while risk for large for gestational age was lower across indicators of lower SEP. Higher risk of postneonatal death was demonstrated for several measures of lower SEP. Higher material deprivation in the neighborhood of residence was associated with increased risk for perinatal death, small for gestational age birth, and iatrogenic and spontaneous preterm birth. Family composition and urbanicity were shown to modify the association between income and some perinatal outcomes. This study highlights the importance of understanding the definitions of SEP and the mechanisms that lead to the association between income and poor perinatal outcomes, and broadening the types of SEP measures used in some cases.

  18. Evaluation of the PET component of simultaneous [18F]choline PET/MRI in prostate cancer: comparison with [18F]choline PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetter, Axel; Lipponer, Christine; Nensa, Felix; Altenbernd, Jens-Christian; Schlosser, Thomas; Lauenstein, Thomas; Heusch, Philipp; Ruebben, Herbert; Bockisch, Andreas; Poeppel, Thorsten; Nagarajah, James

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the positron emission tomography (PET) component of [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI and compare it with the PET component of [ 18 F]choline PET/CT in patients with histologically proven prostate cancer and suspected recurrent prostate cancer. Thirty-six patients were examined with simultaneous [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI following combined [ 18 F]choline PET/CT. Fifty-eight PET-positive lesions in PET/CT and PET/MRI were evaluated by measuring the maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV max and SUV mean ) using volume of interest (VOI) analysis. A scoring system was applied to determine the quality of the PET images of both PET/CT and PET/MRI. Agreement between PET/CT and PET/MRI regarding SUV max and SUV mean was tested using Pearson's product-moment correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. All PET-positive lesions that were visible on PET/CT were also detectable on PET/MRI. The quality of the PET images was comparable in both groups. Median SUV max and SUV mean of all lesions were significantly lower in PET/MRI than in PET/CT (5.2 vs 6.1, p max of PET/CT and PET/MRI (R = 0.86, p mean of PET/CT and PET/MRI (R = 0.81, p max of PET/CT vs PET/MRI and -1.12 to +2.23 between SUV mean of PET/CT vs PET/MRI. PET image quality of PET/MRI was comparable to that of PET/CT. A highly significant correlation between SUV max and SUV mean was found. Both SUV max and SUV mean were significantly lower in [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI than in [ 18 F]choline PET/CT. Differences of SUV max and SUV mean might be caused by different techniques of attenuation correction. Furthermore, differences in biodistribution and biokinetics of [ 18 F]choline between the subsequent examinations and in the respective organ systems have to be taken into account. (orig.)

  19. The implementation of unit-based perinatal mortality audit in perinatal cooperation units in the northern region of the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Diem Mariet Th

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal (mortality audit can be considered to be a way to improve the careprocess for all pregnant women and their newborns by creating an opportunity to learn from unwanted events in the care process. In unit-based perinatal audit, the caregivers involved in cases that result in mortality are usually part of the audit group. This makes such an audit a delicate matter. Methods The purpose of this study was to implement unit-based perinatal mortality audit in all 15 perinatal cooperation units in the northern region of the Netherlands between September 2007 and March 2010. These units consist of hospital-based and independent community-based perinatal caregivers. The implementation strategy encompassed an information plan, an organization plan, and a training plan. The main outcomes are the number of participating perinatal cooperation units at the end of the project, the identified substandard factors (SSF, the actions to improve care, and the opinions of the participants. Results The perinatal mortality audit was implemented in all 15 perinatal cooperation units. 677 different caregivers analyzed 112 cases of perinatal mortality and identified 163 substandard factors. In 31% of cases the guidelines were not followed and in 23% care was not according to normal practice. In 28% of cases, the documentation was not in order, while in 13% of cases the communication between caregivers was insufficient. 442 actions to improve care were reported for ‘external cooperation’ (15%, ‘internal cooperation’ (17%, ‘practice organization’ (26%, ‘training and education’ (10%, and ‘medical performance’ (27%. Valued aspects of the audit meetings were: the multidisciplinary character (13%, the collective and non-judgmental search for substandard factors (21%, the perception of safety (13%, the motivation to reflect on one’s own professional performance (5%, and the inherent postgraduate education (10%. Conclusion

  20. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  1. The Perinatal Mental Health and Wellness Project: Improving perinatal mental health outcomes by working together across sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Herde, Emily Louise

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports on the Perinatal Mental Health and Wellness Project which aimed to develop and evaluate a collaborative model for mental health promotion, illness prevention and early intervention in the perinatal period. The project took on a place-based action research approach, developing and trialling the model with expectant parents (n=537) engaged with Redcliffe Hospital Maternity Services in the Metro North Hospital and Health Service in Queensland, Australia, from 2015 – 2017.In Au...

  2. Influence of paternal age on perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Emily G; DeFranco, Emily A

    2017-11-01

    There is an increasing trend to delay childbearing to advanced parental age. Increased risks of advanced maternal age and assisted reproductive technologies are widely accepted. There are limited data regarding advanced paternal age. To adequately counsel patients on risk, more research regarding advanced paternal age is necessary. We sought to determine the influence of paternal age on perinatal outcomes, and to assess whether this influence differs between pregnancies achieved spontaneously and those achieved with assisted reproductive technology. A population-based retrospective cohort study of all live births in Ohio from 2006 through 2012 was completed. Data were evaluated to determine if advanced paternal age is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in pregnancies. The analysis was stratified by status of utilization of assisted reproductive technology. Generalized linear regression models assessed the association of paternal age on pregnancy complications in assisted reproductive technology and spontaneously conceived pregnancies, after adjusting for maternal age, race, multifetal gestation, and Medicaid status, using Stata software (Stata, Release 12; StataCorp, College Station, TX). Paternal age was documented in 82.2% of 1,034,552 live births in Ohio during the 7-year study period. Paternal age ranged from 12-87 years, with a median of 30 (interquartile range, 26-35) years. Maternal age ranged from 11-62 years, with a median of 27 (interquartile range, 22-31) years. The use of assisted reproductive technology in live births increased as paternal age increased: 0.1% 60 years, P risk factors, increased paternal age was not associated with a significant increase in the rate of preeclampsia, preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, congenital anomaly, genetic disorder, or neonatal intensive care unit admission. The influence of paternal age on pregnancy outcomes was similar in pregnancies achieved with and without assisted reproductive

  3. MATERNAL AND PERINATAL OUTCOME IN ABRUPTIO PLACENTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha Janakiram

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Antepartum Haemorrhage (APH is the leading cause of vaginal bleeding. It is also the important cause of maternal morbidity as well as perinatal morbidity. APH is defined as bleeding per vagina occurring after 28 weeks of gestation and before the birth of the baby. Among APH, abruptio placenta and placenta previa are the leading cause that endanger the life of the mother and a great risk to high unfavourable perinatal outcome. Placental abruption is the bleeding from the premature separation of the normally implanted placenta after 20 weeks of gestations and prior to the birth of the foetus/foetuses. It is the major contribution of obstetric haemorrhage and complicates 0.8 to 1% of pregnancies worldwide. Placental abruption is the premature separation of implanted placenta before the delivery of foetus/foetuses. The aim of the study is to analyse the risk factors associated with abruption and hence methods can be formulated to prevent maternal mortality and morbidity. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study is a retrospective study and was done in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology from July to December, 2016, for a period of 6 months in the year 2016 at Government K.A.P.V. Medical College, Trichy, South India. RESULTS The total number of abruption placenta cases reported during the study period- June 2016 to November 2016 were 40. The total number of livebirth during same period was 5,348. The stillbirth rate was 42.5% and neonatal death rate was 22.5%. Clinical information were collected, maternal age, parity, gestational age at parity, prior history of abruption, clinical presentation like pain, bleeding, type of abruption like concealed or revealed amount of retroplacental clots and its size and degree of abruption associated with hypertensive disorders, mode of delivery, abruption-delivery interval, maternal complications, requirement of blood transfusions and immediate neonatal outcome. The results of studies were

  4. ProvenCare perinatal: a model for delivering evidence/ guideline-based care for perinatal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Scott A; Laam, Leslie A; Wary, Andrea A; Mateer, Harry O; Cassagnol, Hans P; McKinley, Karen E; Nolan, Ruth A

    2011-05-01

    Geisinger Health System (GHS) has applied its ProvenCare model to demonstrate that a large integrated health care delivery system, enabled by an electronic health record (EHR), could reengineer a complicated clinical process, reduce unwarranted variation, and provide evidence-based care for patients with a specified clinical condition. In 2007 GHS began to apply the model to a more complicated, longer-term condition of "wellness"--perinatal care. ADAPTING PROVENCARE TO PERINATAL CARE: The ProvenCare Perinatal initiative was more complex than the five previous ProvenCare endeavors in terms of breadth, scope, and duration. Each of the 22 sites created a process flow map to depict the current, real-time process at each location. The local practice site providers-physicians and mid-level practitioners-reached consensus on 103 unique best practice measures (BPMs), which would be tracked for every patient. These maps were then used to create a single standardized pathway that included the BPMs but also preserved some unique care offerings that reflected the needs of the local context. A nine-phase methodology, expanded from the previous six-phase model, was implemented on schedule. Pre- to postimplementation improvement occurred for all seven BPMs or BPM bundles that were considered the most clinically relevant, with five statistically significant. In addition, the rate of primary cesarean sections decreased by 32%, and birth trauma remained unchanged as the number of vaginal births increased. Preliminary experience suggests that integrating evidence/guideline-based best practices into work flows in inpatient and outpatient settings can achieve improvements in daily patient care processes and outcomes.

  5. Collaborative survey of perinatal loss in planned and unplanned home births. Northern Region Perinatal Mortality Survey Coordinating Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-23

    To document the outcome of planned and unplanned births outside hospital. Confidential review of every pregnancy ending in stillbirth or neonatal death in which plans had been made for home delivery, irrespective of where delivery eventually occurred. The review was part of a sustained collaborative survey of all perinatal deaths. Northern Regional Health Authority area. All 558,691 registered births to women normally resident in the former Northern Regional Health Authority area during 1981-94. Perinatal death. The estimated perinatal mortality during 1981-94 among women booked for a home birth was 14 deaths in 2888 births. This was less than half that among all women in the region. Only three of the 14 women delivered outside hospital. Independent review suggested that two of the 14 deaths might have been averted by different management. Both births occurred in hospital, and in only one was management before admission of the mother judged inappropriate. Perinatal loss to the 64 women who booked for hospital delivery but delivered outside and to the 67 women who delivered outside hospital without ever making arrangements to receive professional care during labour accounted for the high perinatal mortality (134 deaths in 3466 deliveries) among all births outside hospital. The perinatal hazard associated with planned home birth in the few women who exercised this option (unplanned delivery outside hospital.

  6. Postnatal choline supplementation selectively attenuates hippocampal microRNA alterations associated with developmental alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaraman, Sridevi; Idrus, Nirelia M; Miranda, Rajesh C; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in a range of physical, neuropathological, and behavioral alterations, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We have shown that supplementation with the nutrient choline reduces the severity of developmental alcohol-associated deficits in hippocampal-dependent behaviors and normalizes some aspects of hippocampal cholinergic development and DNA methylation patterns. Alcohol's developmental effects may also be mediated, in part, by altering microRNAs (miRNAs) that serve as negative regulators of gene translation. To determine whether choline supplementation alters ethanol's long-lasting effects on miRNAs, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 5.25 g/kg/day ethanol from postnatal days (PD) 4-9 via intubation; controls received sham intubations. Subjects were treated with choline chloride (100 mg/kg/day) or saline vehicle subcutaneously (s.c.) from PD 4-21. On PD 22, subjects were sacrificed, and RNA was isolated from the hippocampus. MiRNA expression was assessed with TaqMan Human MicroRNA Panel Low-Density Arrays. Ethanol significantly increased miRNA expression variance, an effect that was attenuated with choline supplementation. Cluster analysis of stably expressed miRNAs that exceeded an ANOVA p < 0.05 criterion indicated that for both male and female offspring, control and ethanol-exposed groups were most dissimilar from each other, with choline-supplemented groups in between. MiRNAs that expressed an average 2-fold change due to ethanol exposure were further analyzed to identify which ethanol-sensitive miRNAs were protected by choline supplementation. We found that at a false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted criterion of p < 0.05, miR-200c was induced by ethanol exposure and that choline prevented this effect. Collectively, our data show that choline supplementation can normalize disturbances in miRNA expression following developmental alcohol exposure and can protect specific miRNAs from induction by

  7. Effect of choline chloride supplementation on milk production and milk composition of Etawah grade goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of choline chloride supplementation through forced drinking combined with concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil on milk production and milk composition of Etawah Grade goats was evaluated. Choline chloride is an essential component in ruminant diets as it is required for fat metabolism. Method The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three types of treatments and eight replications. The trial had two successive experimental periods; the first, during the eight weeks of late pregnancy, and the second, during the first 12 weeks of lactation. Twenty-four Etawah Grade does in the second gestation period were divided into three treatment groups. Commercial choline chloride 60 % in corncobs-based powder was used as a source of choline chloride. The treatments were no supplementation (control and supplemented with either 4 g or 8 g/2days of choline chloride. Choline chloride was given to the animals through a forced drinking technique, after dissolving it in 60 ml drinking water. The initial body weight of does was 38.81 ± 3.66 kg. The does were penned individually, and were given fresh chopped King Grass ad libitum and 700 g/day of concentrate diets containing Ca-fish oil, starting eight weeks prior to expecting kidding and continuing for 12 weeks of parturition. Results All nutrient intakes were not significantly different (p > 0.05 among the treatments during the late pregnancy and the lactation periods. Supplementation did not affect (p > 0.05 the average daily gains and feed conversion ratio during pregnancy but gave effects (p < 0.05 on the average daily gains, feed conversion ratio and income over feed cost during lactation. The highest average daily milk yields and 4 % fat corrected milk yields were found in goats supplemented with 4 g/2days of choline chloride and increased by 17.00 % and 24.67 %, respectively, compared to the control. Moreover, milk

  8. Structure of choline oxidase in complex with the reaction product glycine betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Francesca; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Weber, Irene T; Gadda, Giovanni

    2014-02-01

    Choline oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis, which is involved in the biosynthesis of glycine betaine from choline, has been extensively characterized in its mechanistic and structural properties. Despite the knowledge gained on the enzyme, the details of substrate access to the active site are not fully understood. The `loop-and-lid' mechanism described for the glucose-methanol-choline enzyme superfamily has not been confirmed for choline oxidase. Instead, a hydrophobic cluster on the solvent-accessible surface of the enzyme has been proposed by molecular dynamics to control substrate access to the active site. Here, the crystal structure of the enzyme was solved in complex with glycine betaine at pH 6.0 at 1.95 Å resolution, allowing a structural description of the ligand-enzyme interactions in the active site. This structure is the first of choline oxidase in complex with a physiologically relevant ligand. The protein structures with and without ligand are virtually identical, with the exception of a loop at the dimer interface, which assumes two distinct conformations. The different conformations of loop 250-255 define different accessibilities of the proposed active-site entrance delimited by the hydrophobic cluster on the other subunit of the dimer, suggesting a role in regulating substrate access to the active site.

  9. Enhancing the biodegradation of oil in sandy sediments with choline: A naturally methylated nitrogen compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Behzad; Horel, Agota; Anders, Jennifer S.; Mirjafari, Arsalan; Beazley, Melanie J.; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how additions of choline, a naturally occurring methylated nitrogen-containing compound, accelerated hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments contaminated with moderately weathered crude oil (4000 mg kg −1 sediment). Addition of lauroylcholine chloride (LCC) and tricholine citrate (TCC) to oil contaminated sediments resulted in 1.6 times higher hydrocarbon degradation rates compared to treatments without added choline derivatives. However, the degradation rate constant for the oil contaminated sediments amended with LCC was similar to that in contaminated sediments amended with inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and glucose. Additions of LLC and TCC to sediments containing extensively weathered oil also resulted in enhanced mineralization rates. Cultivation-free 16S rRNA analysis revealed the presence of an extant microbial community with clones closely related to known hydrocarbon degraders from the Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla. The results demonstrate that the addition of minimal amounts of organic compounds to oil contaminated sediments enhances the degradation of hydrocarbons. -- Highlights: •Aerobic degradation of weathered crude oil in sandy sediments was determined. •The effect of input of choline on degradation rates was determined. •16S rRNA clone library analyses were used to examine the microbial phylogeny. •The bacterial community was consisted of clones related to hydrocarbon degraders. •Hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments was accelerated by addition of choline. -- Choline, a naturally occurring methylated nitrogen-containing compound, accelerated hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments by an extant microbial community

  10. Does perinatal omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency increase appetite signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathai, Michael L; Soueid, Mona; Chen, Nora; Jayasooriya, Anura P; Sinclair, Andrew J; Wlodek, Mary E; Weisinger, Harrison S; Weisinger, Richard S

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the effect of maternal dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deficiency and repletion on food appetite signaling. Sprague-Dawley rat dams were maintained on diets either supplemented with (CON) or deficient in (DEF) omega-3 PUFA. All offspring were raised on the maternal diet until weaning. After weaning, two groups remained on the respective maternal diet (CON and DEF groups), whereas a third group, born of dams fed the DEF diet, were switched to the CON diet (REC). Experiments on food intake began when the male rats reached 16 weeks of age. Food intake was stimulated either by a period of food restriction, by blocking glucose utilization (by 2-deoxyglucose injection), or by blocking beta-oxidation of fatty acids (by beta-mercaptoacetate injection). DEF animals consumed more than CON animals in response to all stimuli, with the greatest difference (1.9-fold) demonstrated following administration of 2-deoxyglucose. REC animals also consumed more than CON animals in response to food restriction and 2-deoxyglucose but not to beta-mercaptoacetate. These findings indicate that supply of omega-3 PUFA, particularly during the perinatal period, plays a role in the normal development of mechanisms controlling food intake, especially glucoprivic (i.e. reduced glucose availability) appetite signaling. Dietary repletion of omega-3 PUFA from 3 weeks of age restored intake responses to fatty acid metabolite signaling but did not reverse those in response to food restriction or glucoprivic stimuli.

  11. Ethical issues of perinatal human gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J C; Richter, G

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines some key ethical issues raised by trials of human gene therapy in the perinatal period--i.e., in infants, young children, and the human fetus. It describes five resources in ethics for researchers' considerations prior to such trials: (1) the history of ethical debate about gene therapy, (2) a literature on the relevance of major ethical principles for clinical research, (3) a body of widely accepted norms and practices, (4) knowledge of paradigm cases, and (5) researchers' own professional integrity. The paper also examines ethical concerns that must be met prior to any trial: benefits to and safety of subjects, informed assent of children and informed parental permission, informed consent of pregnant women in fetal gene therapy, protection of privacy, and concerns about fairness in the selection of subjects. The paper criticizes the position that cases of fetal gene therapy should be restricted only to those where the pregnant woman has explicitly refused abortion. Additional topics include concerns about genetic enhancement and germ-line gene therapy.

  12. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  13. Perinatal long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supply Are there long term consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demmelmair Hans

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, are essential components of biological membranes or act as precursors for eicosanoid formation, in case of the 20 carbon atom fatty acids, arachidonic acid (AA, dihomo-c-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. During pregnancy LC-PUFA are enriched in the fetal circulation relative to maternal plasma. The corresponding placental processes have not been fully elucidated so far, but there are good indications that the LC-PUFA enrichment during the materno-fetal transfer is mediated by differences in the incorporation into lipid classes within the placenta between fatty acids and that specific fatty acid binding and transfer proteins are of major importance. In vitro a plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein could be identified, which preferentially binds DHA and AA compared to linoleic and oleic acids; in addition the m-RNA expression of fatty acid transfer protein 4 (FATP-4 in placental tissue was found to correlate significantly with the DHA percentage in cord blood phospholipids. After birth the percentage of LC-PUFA in infantile blood rapidly declines to levels depending on the dietary LC-PUFA supply, although preterm and full-term babies can convert linoleic and _-linolenic acids into AA and DHA, respectively. Breast milk provides preformed LC-PUFA, and breastfed infants have higher LC-PUFA levels in plasma and tissue than infants fed formulas without LC-PUFA. The high percentage of DHA in brain and other nervous tissue and the fact that the perinatal period is a period of fast brain growth suggests the importance of placental DHA transfer and dietary DHA content for optimal infantile development. Most but not all randomized, double blind, controlled clinical trials in preterm and in healthy full term infants demonstrated benefits of formulas supplemented with DHA and AA for the neurological development compared to formulas without LC-PUFA. Furthermore

  14. Paradoxical centrally increased diffusivity in perinatal arterial ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stence, Nicholas V.; Mirsky, David M.; Deoni, Sean C.L. [University of Colorado Anschutz School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Armstrong-Wells, Jennifer [University of Colorado Anschutz School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (Neurology) and OB/GYN, Aurora, CO (United States); University of Colorado Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Restricted diffusion on acute MRI is the diagnostic standard for perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. In a subset of children with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke, primarily those with large infarct volumes, we noted a core of centrally increased diffusivity with a periphery of restricted diffusion. Given the paradoxical diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) appearance observed in some children with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke, we sought to determine its significance and hypothesized that: (1) centrally increased diffusivity is associated with larger infarcts in perinatal arterial ischemic stroke and (2) this tissue is irreversibly injured (infarcted). We reviewed all perinatal arterial ischemic stroke cases in a prospective cohort study from Aug. 1, 2000, to Jan. 1, 2012. Infarct volumes were measured by drawing regions of interest around the periphery of the area of restricted diffusion on DWI. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare means between groups. Of 25 eligible cases, centrally increased diffusivity was seen in 4 (16%). Cases with centrally increased diffusivity had larger average infarct volumes (mean 117,182 mm{sup 3} vs. 36,995 mm{sup 3}; P = 0.008), higher average apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the infarct core (1,679 x 10{sup -6} mm{sup 2}/s vs. 611 x 10{sup -6} mm{sup 2}/s, P < 0.0001), and higher ADC ratio (1.2 vs. 0.5, P < 0.0001). At last clinical follow-up, children with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke and centrally increased diffusivity were more often treated for ongoing seizures (75% vs. 0%; P < 0.001) than those without. Centrally increased diffusivity was associated with larger stroke volume and the involved tissue was confirmed to be infarcted on follow-up imaging. Radiologists should be aware of this unusual appearance of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke in order to avoid underestimating infarct volume or making an incorrect early diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Paradoxical centrally increased diffusivity in perinatal arterial ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stence, Nicholas V.; Mirsky, David M.; Deoni, Sean C.L.; Armstrong-Wells, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Restricted diffusion on acute MRI is the diagnostic standard for perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. In a subset of children with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke, primarily those with large infarct volumes, we noted a core of centrally increased diffusivity with a periphery of restricted diffusion. Given the paradoxical diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) appearance observed in some children with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke, we sought to determine its significance and hypothesized that: (1) centrally increased diffusivity is associated with larger infarcts in perinatal arterial ischemic stroke and (2) this tissue is irreversibly injured (infarcted). We reviewed all perinatal arterial ischemic stroke cases in a prospective cohort study from Aug. 1, 2000, to Jan. 1, 2012. Infarct volumes were measured by drawing regions of interest around the periphery of the area of restricted diffusion on DWI. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare means between groups. Of 25 eligible cases, centrally increased diffusivity was seen in 4 (16%). Cases with centrally increased diffusivity had larger average infarct volumes (mean 117,182 mm 3 vs. 36,995 mm 3 ; P = 0.008), higher average apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the infarct core (1,679 x 10 -6 mm 2 /s vs. 611 x 10 -6 mm 2 /s, P < 0.0001), and higher ADC ratio (1.2 vs. 0.5, P < 0.0001). At last clinical follow-up, children with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke and centrally increased diffusivity were more often treated for ongoing seizures (75% vs. 0%; P < 0.001) than those without. Centrally increased diffusivity was associated with larger stroke volume and the involved tissue was confirmed to be infarcted on follow-up imaging. Radiologists should be aware of this unusual appearance of perinatal arterial ischemic stroke in order to avoid underestimating infarct volume or making an incorrect early diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. Anxiety measures validated in perinatal populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meades, Rose; Ayers, Susan

    2011-09-01

    Research and screening of anxiety in the perinatal period is hampered by a lack of psychometric data on self-report anxiety measures used in perinatal populations. This paper aimed to review self-report measures that have been validated with perinatal women. A systematic search was carried out of four electronic databases. Additional papers were obtained through searching identified articles. Thirty studies were identified that reported validation of an anxiety measure with perinatal women. Most commonly validated self-report measures were the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS). Of the 30 studies included, 11 used a clinical interview to provide criterion validity. Remaining studies reported one or more other forms of validity (factorial, discriminant, concurrent and predictive) or reliability. The STAI shows criterion, discriminant and predictive validity and may be most useful for research purposes as a specific measure of anxiety. The Kessler 10 (K-10) may be the best short screening measure due to its ability to differentiate anxiety disorders. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21 (DASS-21) measures multiple types of distress, shows appropriate content, and remains to be validated against clinical interview in perinatal populations. Nineteen studies did not report sensitivity or specificity data. The early stages of research into perinatal anxiety, the multitude of measures in use, and methodological differences restrict comparison of measures across studies. There is a need for further validation of self-report measures of anxiety in the perinatal period to enable accurate screening and detection of anxiety symptoms and disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and factors influencing perinatal mortality in rural mysore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddalingappa, Hugara; Murthy M R, Nrayana; Kulkarni, Praveen; N C, Ashok

    2013-12-01

    With decreasing Infant Mortality Rate, Perinatal Mortality is gaining importance as it takes into consideration most of the factors influencing child birth and its survival, mortality during this period is a better indicator of quality of Maternal and Child Health services. To estimate the Prevalence of perinatal mortality and its associated risk factors. Cross sectional community based study was carried out in rural field practice area catering 26,700 population. All births during 2010 among permanent residents of this area were included. House to house survey was conducted to collect details regarding Antenatal, intra-natal and post-natal history by interviewing mother using a pre-tested questionnaire. Hospital records were also referred when available. Nine perinatal deaths had occurred out of 314 births in a span of one year with a perinatal, early neonatal mortality rates of 28.93, 19.29 per 1000 live births respectively and still birth rate of 9.55 per 100 total births. Higher Perinatal Mortality Rate(PNMR) was observed in mothers who got married before 18 years, conceived during teenage, having anaemia, delivered at home, normal vaginal deliveries and having suffered by intra-partal and placental complications. Male babies, babies fed with prelacteal feeds, born out of intra-uterine complications, having low birth weight, had delayed first cry, premature births and twin births showed higher risk for mortality. The prevalence of perinatal mortality in the present study was 28.93 per 1000 live births. Even though this was well below the national and state values indicating improved quality of Maternal and Child Health care, it also gives way for relooking into strategies for further bringing down the perinatal deaths.

  18. Improvement of perinatal outcome in diabetic pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, A; Szabo, I

    2001-01-01

    Obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in newborns of diabetic pregnant women depend on metabolic control and fetal surveillance during pregnancy. The effects of fetal surveillance on perinatal mortality and morbidity was analyzed in diabetic pregnant women with appropriate glucose control in our regional center for diabetes and pregnancy. 480 deliveries complicated by frank or gestational diabetes occurred in our Department in the period of 1988-1999. Perinatal mortality and morbidity, prevalence of premature deliveries, methods of fetal surveillance, options for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) profilaxis, cesarean section rate, timing of delivery and its indications and occurrence of malformations have been analyzed. It was found that malformation rate and perinatal mortality may be reduced to even lower level than that of in healthy pregnant women by appropriate glucose control and by using the latest methods of intrauterine fetal surveillance including cardiotocography (non stress test and oxytocin challenge test), doppler fetal artery velocimetry and fetal pulse oximetry. Timing of delivery was needed in 35% of the cases with IDDM and 15% of gestational diabetes due to chronic placental insufficiency. If labour induction was needed before the 38 weeks, amniocentesis was performed to test fetal lung maturity. Direct fetal glucocorticoid administration was used to enhance fetal lung maturation in 14 cases. C-section rate was slightly higher than that of in non diabetic pregnant women. Our perinatal morbidity data (macrosomia, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, injuries, infections) are comparable with the data from the literature. Although perinatal mortality with the help of thorough fetal surveillance is even better in diabetic pregnant women than in non diabetic patients, future eye should be focused on factors affecting perinatal morbidity, because it is still higher than in newborns of healthy mothers.

  19. Perinatal supplementation of 4-phenylbutyrate and glutamine attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress and improves colonic epithelial barrier function in rats born with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Désir-Vigné, Axel; Haure-Mirande, Vianney; de Coppet, Pierre; Darmaun, Dominique; Le Dréan, Gwenola; Segain, Jean-Pierre

    2018-05-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can affect the structure and function of the intestinal barrier and increase digestive disease risk in adulthood. Using the rat model of maternal dietary protein restriction (8% vs. 20%), we found that the colon of IUGR offspring displayed decreased mRNA expression of epithelial barrier proteins MUC2 and occludin during development. This was associated with increased mRNA expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker XBP1s and increased colonic permeability measured in Ussing chambers. We hypothesized that ER stress contributes to colonic barrier alterations and that perinatal supplementation of dams with ER stress modulators, phenylbutyrate and glutamine (PG) could prevent these defects in IUGR offspring. We first demonstrated that ER stress induction by tunicamycin or thapsigargin increased the permeability of rat colonic tissues mounted in Ussing chamber and that PG treatment prevented this effect. Therefore, we supplemented the diet of control and IUGR dams with PG during gestation and lactation. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and histological analysis of colons from 120-day-old offspring revealed that perinatal PG treatment partially prevented the increased expression of ER stress markers but reversed the reduction of crypt depth and goblet cell number in IUGR rats. In dextran sodium sulfate-induced injury and recovery experiments, the colon of IUGR rats without perinatal PG treatment showed higher XBP1s mRNA levels and histological scores of inflammation than IUGR rats with perinatal PG treatment. In conclusion, these data suggest that perinatal supplementation with PG could alleviate ER stress and prevent epithelial barrier dysfunction in IUGR offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Choline chloride based ionic liquid analogues as tool for the fabrication of agar films with improved mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present paper, we test the suitability of Choline-Cl/urea (DES-U) and Choline-Cl/glycerol (DES-G) eutectic mixtures at 1:2 molar ratios for the production of agar biodegradable films. A three-step process is proposed: pre-solubilization of polymer in DES followed by compression-molding and s...

  1. Effects of CDP-choline on neurologic deficits and cerebral glucose metabolism in a rat model of cerebral ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakihana, M.; Fukuda, N.; Suno, M.; Nagaoka, A.

    1988-02-01

    The effects of cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) on neurologic deficits and cerebral glucose metabolism were studied in a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced by occluding both common carotid arteries for 20 or 30 minutes 24 hours after the vertebral arteries were permanently occluded by electrocautery. CDP-choline was administered intraperitoneally twice daily for 4 days after reestablishing carotid blood flow. CDP-choline at two dosages (50 and 250 mg/kg) shortened the time required for recovery of spontaneous motor activity in a dose-related manner; recovery time was measured early after reperfusion. Neurologic signs were observed for 10 days. High-dose CDP-choline improved neurologic signs in the rats within 20-30 minutes of ischemia. When cerebral glucose metabolism was assessed on Day 4, increases in the levels of glucose and pyruvate were accompanied by decreases in the synthesis of labeled acetylcholine from uniformly labeled (/sup 14/C)glucose measured in the cerebral cortex of rats with 30 minutes of ischemia. High-dose CDP-choline also attenuated changes in these variables. CDP-(1,2-/sup 14/C)choline injected intravenously 10 minutes after reperfusion was used for membrane lipid biosynthesis. These results indicate that CDP-choline has beneficial effects on brain dysfunction induced by cerebral ischemia, which may be due in part to the restorative effects of CDP-choline on disturbed cerebral glucose metabolism, probably by stimulating phospholipid biosynthesis.

  2. Effects of CDP-choline on neurologic deficits and cerebral glucose metabolism in a rat model of cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakihana, M.; Fukuda, N.; Suno, M.; Nagaoka, A.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) on neurologic deficits and cerebral glucose metabolism were studied in a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia. Cerebral ischemia was induced by occluding both common carotid arteries for 20 or 30 minutes 24 hours after the vertebral arteries were permanently occluded by electrocautery. CDP-choline was administered intraperitoneally twice daily for 4 days after reestablishing carotid blood flow. CDP-choline at two dosages (50 and 250 mg/kg) shortened the time required for recovery of spontaneous motor activity in a dose-related manner; recovery time was measured early after reperfusion. Neurologic signs were observed for 10 days. High-dose CDP-choline improved neurologic signs in the rats within 20-30 minutes of ischemia. When cerebral glucose metabolism was assessed on Day 4, increases in the levels of glucose and pyruvate were accompanied by decreases in the synthesis of labeled acetylcholine from uniformly labeled [ 14 C]glucose measured in the cerebral cortex of rats with 30 minutes of ischemia. High-dose CDP-choline also attenuated changes in these variables. CDP-[1,2- 14 C]choline injected intravenously 10 minutes after reperfusion was used for membrane lipid biosynthesis. These results indicate that CDP-choline has beneficial effects on brain dysfunction induced by cerebral ischemia, which may be due in part to the restorative effects of CDP-choline on disturbed cerebral glucose metabolism, probably by stimulating phospholipid biosynthesis

  3. A Facile, Choline Chloride/Urea Catalyzed Solid Phase Synthesis of Coumarins via Knoevenagel Condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosanagara N. Harishkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid in solid phase on the Knoevenagel condensation is demonstrated. The active methylene compounds such as meldrum’s acid, diethylmalonate, ethyl cyanoacetate, dimethylmalonate, were efficiently condensed with various salicylaldehydes in presence of choline chloride/urea ionic liquid without using any solvents or additional catalyst. The reaction is remarkably facile because of the air and water stability of the catalyst, and needs no special precautions. The reactions were completed within 1hr with excellent yields (95%. The products formed were sufficiently pure, and can be easily recovered. The use of ionic liquid choline chloride/urea in solid phase offered several significant advantages such as low cost, greater selectivity and easy isolation of products.

  4. Selective retrograde labeling of cholinergic neurons with [3H]choline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnoli, P.; Beaudet, A.; Stella, M.; Cuenod, M.

    1981-01-01

    Evidence is presented which is consistent with a specific retrograde labeling of cholinergic neurons following [ 3 H]choline application in their zone of termination. [ 3 H]Choline injection in the rat hippocampus leads to perikaryal retrograde labeling in the ipsilateral medial septal nuclease and nucleus of the diagonal band, thus delineating an established cholinergic pathway, while only diffuse presumably anterograde labeling was observed in the lateral septum, the entorhinal cortex, and the opposite hippocampus. After [ 3 H]choline injection in the pigeon visual Wulst, only the ipsilateral thalamic relay, of all inputs, showed similar perikaryal retrograde labeling, an observation supporting the suggestion that at least some thalamo-Wulst neurons are cholinergic

  5. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates to Furanic Derivatives in the Presence of Choline Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Jérôme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of furanic derivatives (5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, furfural… from carbohydrates is of high interest for a wide range of applications. These reactions are carried out in the presence of various solvents, and among them choline chloride can be used. It is a salt that can form a low melting mixture with a carbohydrate (fructose, glucose… or a deep eutectic mixture with carboxylic acid. A review of the studies performed in the conversion of carbohydrates to furanic derivatives in the presence of choline chloride is presented here with the advantages and drawbacks of this solvent. Choline chloride can enhance the selectivity to HMF by stabilizing effect and allows the conversion of highly concentrated feed. However, the extraction of the products from these solvents still needs improvement.

  6. Synthesis and study of thiocarbonate derivatives of choline as potential inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, N A; Talesa, V; Giovannini, E; Rosi, G; Norton, S J

    1997-09-12

    Fourteen alkyl and aryl thiocarbonate derivatives of choline were synthesized and studied as potential inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Twelve of the compounds inhibited AChEs derived from calf forebrain, human red blood cells, and octopus brain ranging from low to moderately high inhibition potency. The concentration of each inhibitory compound giving 50% inhibition of enzyme activity (IC50 values, which ranged from 1 x 10(-2) to 8 x 10(-7) M) was determined and is reported; inhibitor constants (Ki values) for the most inhibitory compounds, (1-pentylthiocarbonyl)choline chloride and (1-heptylthiocarbonyl)choline chloride, were calculated from kinetic data and are also reported. The inhibitors are competitive with substrate, and they are not hydrolyzed by the AChE activities. Certain of these new compounds may provide direction for the development of new drugs that have anticholinesterase activity and may be used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Review on Carbon Dioxide Absorption by Choline Chloride/Urea Deep Eutectic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima J. Isaifan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past few years, deep eutectic solvents (DESs were developed sharing similar characteristics to ionic liquids but with more advantageous features related to preparation cost, environmental impact, and efficiency for gas separation processes. Amongst many combinations of DES solvents that have been prepared, reline (choline chloride as the hydrogen bond acceptor mixed with urea as the hydrogen bond donor was the first DES synthesized and is still the one with the lowest melting point. Choline chloride/urea DES has proven to be a promising solvent as an efficient medium for carbon dioxide capture when compared with amine alone or ionic liquids under the same conditions. This review sheds light on the preparation method, physical and chemical characteristics, and the CO2 absorption capacity of choline chloride/urea DES under different temperatures and pressures reported up to date.

  8. Choline and its metabolites are differently associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, cardiovascular history and MRI documented cerebrovascular disease in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: There is a potential role of choline in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease through its involvement in lipid and one-carbon metabolism. Objective: We evaluated the associations of plasma choline and choline-related compounds with cardiometabolic risk factors, history of cardiovas...

  9. An electrochemiluminescence-based fibre optic biosensor for choline flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafack, V C; Marquette, C A; Leca, B; Blum, L J

    2000-01-01

    A fibre optic biosensor based on luminol electrochemiluminescence (ECL) integrated in a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was developed for the detection of choline. The electrochemiluminescence of luminol was generated by a glassy carbon electrode polarised at +425 mV vs. a platinum pseudo-reference electrode. Choline oxidase (Chx) was immobilised either covalently on polyamide (ABC type) or on UltraBind preactivated membranes, or by physical entrapment in a photo-cross-linkable poly(vinyl alcohol) polymer (PVA-SbQ) alone or after absorption on a weak anion exchanger, DEAE (diethylaminoethyl) Sepharose. The optimisation of the reaction conditions and physicochemical parameters influencing the FIA biosensor response demonstrated that the choline biosensor exhibited the best performances in a 30 mM veronal buffer containing 30 mM KCl and 1.5 mM MgCl2, at pH 9. The use of a 0.5 ml min-1 flow rate enabled the measurement of choline by the membrane-based ECL biosensors in 8 or 5 min, with ABC or UltraBind membranes, respectively, whereas the measurement required only 3 min with the DEAE-PVA system. For comparison, the detection of choline was performed with Chx immobilised using the four different supports. The best performances were obtained with the DEAE-PVA-Chx sensing layer, which allowed a detection limit of 10 pmol, whereas with the ABC, the UltraBind and the PVA systems, the detection limits were 300 pmol, 75 pmol and 220 pmol, respectively. The DEAE-based system also exhibited a good operational stability since 160 repeated measurements of 3 nmol of choline could be performed with an RSD of 4.5% whereas the stability under the best conditions was 45 assays with the other supports.

  10. Role of carbon-11 choline PET/CT in the management of uterine carcinoma. Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofue, Keitaro; Sawada, Morio; Arai, Yasuaki; Tateishi, Ukihide; Inoue, Tomio; Maeda, Tetsuo; Sugimura, Kazuro; Terauchi, Takashi; Kano, Daisuke

    2009-01-01

    The present study was conducted to clarify the role of carbon-11 choline ( 11 C-choline) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the management of uterine carcinoma. Twenty-two patients who underwent 11 C-choline PET/CT and pelvic MRI were evaluated retrospectively. The images were reviewed by a board-certified radiologist and a nuclear medicine specialist who were unaware of any clinical information, and a consensus was reached. Diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT was evaluated for staging. The reference standard consisted of histological examination (n=17) and follow-up conventional CT (n=5). In five patients with cervical carcinoma, 11 C-choline PET/CT was performed before and after treatment that consisted of cisplatin infusion and subsequent radiotherapy. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was compared with unidimensional and volumetric measurements that were made on magnetic resonance images (MRI) before and after treatment. Based on PET/CT interpretations, the reviewers correctly classified tumor (T) stage in 8 patients (47%), nodes (N) stage in 21 patients (96%), metastasis (M) stage in 20 patients (91%), and tumor, nodes and metastasis (TNM) stage in 15 patients (88%). Tumor size, volume, and SUV decreased after treatment in five patients with cervical carcinoma. Using the Pearson correlation test, a significant correlation was found between the reduction rate of SUV and reduction rate of tumor volume. 11 C-choline PET/CT is an accurate means for the management of patients with uterine carcinoma. The combination of 11 C-choline PET/CT and MRI increases the accuracy of staging in patients with uterine carcinoma. (author)

  11. Prostate cancer: concordance between "1"8F-choline PET and CT in biochemical relapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herández Pinzón, J.; Ferrarotti, C.; Ferrari, L.; Larrañaga, N.; Gallo, J.C.; Mena, D.; Bastianello, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To establish the concordance between 18-fluor choline positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) for re-staging patients with biochemical relapse of prostate cancer according to the TNM system. Materials and methods: The medical records of the Molecular Imaging Section were retrospectively reviewed. The TNM classification was established by us for each method, and the Kappa concordance statistic was used to classify the results according to the Landis and Koch proposal. Results: The PET-choline reported 19 (59.4%) patients N0 and 13 (40.6%) N1, while CT reported 28 (87.5%) N0 and 4 (12.5%) N1. In metastasis classification PET-choline established M0 in 17 (53.1%) patients, M1a in 1 (3.1%), M1b in 5 (15.6%), M1c in 1 (3.1%), M1a + M1b in 7 (21.9%), and M1b + M1c in 1 (3.1%). On the other hand, CT was M0 in 23 (71.9%) patients, M1a in 2 (6.25%), M1a + M1b in 2 (6.25%), and M1b + M1c in 5 (15.6%). The correlation between PET-choline and CT in the TNM lymph node and metastasis classifications was 71.88%, with a Kappa of 0.3455 (standard error 0.1336; P=.0049) and 62.5% with Kappa 0.3725 (standard error 0.0847; P=.0001), respectively. Discussion: Several studies have shown a high diagnostic accuracy of PET-choline detecting the spread of the disease compared to conventional methods. Conclusion: There is poor concordance for metastatic and lymph node classifications according to the TNM system between choline-PET and CT. (authors) [es

  12. Kinesthetic deficits after perinatal stroke: robotic measurement in hemiparetic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczynski, Andrea M; Semrau, Jennifer A; Kirton, Adam; Dukelow, Sean P

    2017-02-15

    While sensory dysfunction is common in children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (CP) secondary to perinatal stroke, it is an understudied contributor to disability with limited objective measurement tools. Robotic technology offers the potential to objectively measure complex sensorimotor function but has been understudied in perinatal stroke. The present study aimed to quantify kinesthetic deficits in hemiparetic children with perinatal stroke and determine their association with clinical function. Case-control study. Participants were 6-19 years of age. Stroke participants had MRI confirmed unilateral perinatal arterial ischemic stroke or periventricular venous infarction, and symptomatic hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Participants completed a robotic assessment of upper extremity kinesthesia using a robotic exoskeleton (KINARM). Four kinesthetic parameters (response latency, initial direction error, peak speed ratio, and path length ratio) and their variabilities were measured with and without vision. Robotic outcomes were compared across stroke groups and controls and to clinical measures of sensorimotor function. Forty-three stroke participants (23 arterial, 20 venous, median age 12 years, 42% female) were compared to 106 healthy controls. Stroke cases displayed significantly impaired kinesthesia that remained when vision was restored. Kinesthesia was more impaired in arterial versus venous lesions and correlated with clinical measures. Robotic assessment of kinesthesia is feasible in children with perinatal stroke. Kinesthetic impairment is common and associated with stroke type. Failure to correct with vision suggests sensory network dysfunction.

  13. Midwifery care: a perinatal mental health case scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnes, Joanne; Hall, Pauline

    2013-12-01

    The establishment of the National Perinatal Depression Initiative (NPDI, 2008-2013) has brought a focus across Australia for the need to identify women at risk of perinatal mental health disorders, suggesting that routine screening by relevant health professionals may aid earlier detection, better care and improved outcomes. Midwives are frequently the primary point of contact in the perinatal period and thus ideally placed to identify, interpret and manage complex situations, including screening for perinatal mental health disorders. This paper offers strategies that could be implemented into daily midwifery practice in order to achieve the goals consistent with the National Perinatal Depression Initiative. A case study (Jen) and discussion, guided by recommendations from the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Competency standards and beyondblue Clinical Practice Guidelines, are used to demonstrate how midwifery care can be provided. In accordance with her legal obligations, the midwife should act within her scope of practice to undertake a series of psychosocial and medical assessments in order to best determine how midwifery care and support can be of benefit to Jen, her infant and her family. Suggestions described include administration of validated screening questionnaires, clinical interview, physical assessment, discussion with partner, awareness of the mother-infant interactions and questioning around baby's sleep and feeding. Based on evaluation of the information gained from a bio-psycho-social assessment, suggestions are made as to the midwifery care options that could be applied. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of quinolinic acid in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis on cortical high-affinity choline uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalf, R.H.; Boegman, R.J.; Quirion, R.; Riopelle, R.J.; Ludwin, S.K.

    1987-08-01

    A transient 45% increase in cortical high-affinity choline uptake (HACU) was observed after an injection of quinolinic acid (QUIN) into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (nbM) of the rat. This was followed by a steady decline in choline uptake, which resulted in a 46% decrease by day 7. Specific (/sup 3/H)hemicholinium-3 binding to coronal brain sections showed a similar pattern following injections of QUIN into the nbM. The increase in cortical HACU elicited by QUIN appeared to be dose dependent.

  15. A mechanism for suppression of the CDP-choline pathway during apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Craig C.; Aitchison, Adam J.; Gehrig, Karsten; Ridgway, Neale D.

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of the CDP-choline pathway during apoptosis restricts the availability of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) for assembly of membranes and synthesis of signaling factors. The N-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS) in CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT)α is removed during apoptosis but the caspase(s) involved and the contribution to suppression of the CDP-choline pathway is unresolved. In this study we utilized siRNA silencing of caspases in HEK293 cells and caspase 3-defi...

  16. Perinatal ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supply modifies brain zinc homeostasis during adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasooriya, Anura P.; Ackland, M. Leigh; Mathai, Michael L.; Sinclair, Andrew J.; Weisinger, Harrison S.; Weisinger, Richard S.; Halver, John E.; Kitajka, Klára; Puskás, László G.

    2005-01-01

    Dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) influences the expression of a number of genes in the brain. Zinc transporter (ZnT) 3 has been identified as a putative transporter of zinc into synaptic vesicles of neurons and is found in brain areas such as hippocampus and cortex. Neuronal zinc is involved in the formation of amyloid plaques, a major characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. The present study evaluated the influence of dietary ω-3 PUFA on the expression of the ZnT3 gene in the brains of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were raised and/or maintained on a control (CON) diet that contained ω-3 PUFA or a diet deficient (DEF) in ω-3 PUFA. ZnT3 gene expression was analyzed by using real-time PCR, free zinc in brain tissue was determined by zinquin staining, and total zinc concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Compared with CON-raised animals, DEF-raised animals had increased expression of ZnT3 in the brain that was associated with an increased level of free zinc in the hippocampus. In addition, compared with CON-raised animals, DEF-raised animals had decreased plasma zinc level. No difference in cerebrospinal fluid zinc level was observed. The results suggest that overexpression of ZnT3 due to a perinatal ω-3 PUFA deficiency caused abnormal zinc metabolism in the brain. Conceivably, the influence of dietary ω-3 PUFA on brain zinc metabolism could explain the observation made in population studies that the consumption of fish is associated with a reduced risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:15883362

  17. Perinatal omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supply modifies brain zinc homeostasis during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasooriya, Anura P; Ackland, M Leigh; Mathai, Michael L; Sinclair, Andrew J; Weisinger, Harrison S; Weisinger, Richard S; Halver, John E; Kitajka, Klára; Puskás, László G

    2005-05-17

    Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) influences the expression of a number of genes in the brain. Zinc transporter (ZnT) 3 has been identified as a putative transporter of zinc into synaptic vesicles of neurons and is found in brain areas such as hippocampus and cortex. Neuronal zinc is involved in the formation of amyloid plaques, a major characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. The present study evaluated the influence of dietary omega-3 PUFA on the expression of the ZnT3 gene in the brains of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were raised and/or maintained on a control (CON) diet that contained omega-3 PUFA or a diet deficient (DEF) in omega-3 PUFA. ZnT3 gene expression was analyzed by using real-time PCR, free zinc in brain tissue was determined by zinquin staining, and total zinc concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Compared with CON-raised animals, DEF-raised animals had increased expression of ZnT3 in the brain that was associated with an increased level of free zinc in the hippocampus. In addition, compared with CON-raised animals, DEF-raised animals had decreased plasma zinc level. No difference in cerebrospinal fluid zinc level was observed. The results suggest that overexpression of ZnT3 due to a perinatal omega-3 PUFA deficiency caused abnormal zinc metabolism in the brain. Conceivably, the influence of dietary omega-3 PUFA on brain zinc metabolism could explain the observation made in population studies that the consumption of fish is associated with a reduced risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Obstetric and perinatal outcome of multiple pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, G.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the obstetric and perinatal outcome in multiple pregnancies at a teaching hospital. The analysis included data on all women between 20 and 35 years of age with 24 completed weeks gestation having multiple pregnancies during the study period after applying the exclusion criteria. The data retrieved from the hospital-based maternal health medical records included demographic details, complications of pregnancy, and maternal and neonatal outcomes. The data was expressed as frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation. Normal distribution of continuous variables was determined by Shapiro Wilk test. The differences in the mean birth weight of the first and second twin were compared by student's t-test considering a p-value less than 0.05 as statistically significant. There were a total of 161 multiple pregnancies with the overall incidence of 37.1 per 1,000 births (3.2%) during the study period. One hundred and twenty two cases had the inclusion criteria applicable. There were 9 triplets among these of whom seven were received as intrauterine death and the other two were lost to follow-up. The four leading maternal adverse outcomes were anemia (74.6%), preterm delivery (31%), pregnancy - induced hypertension (30%) and preterm premature rupture of membranes (26.2%). Median gestational age at delivery was 37 weeks. Most common route of delivery was caesarean section (53.3%). Most common neonatal complication was low birth weight. Prematurity was the most common cause of neonatal death. Multiple pregnancy have high maternal and neonatal complications, especially preterm delivery that increases risk of significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. (author)

  19. Perinatal Outcomes in Advanced Age Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Yılmaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of advanced maternal age on pregnancy outcomes Methods: A retrospective analysis of 951 birth registry records of Zeynep Kamil Hospital, were analyzed between Janu­ary 2003 and December 2007. Study group was made up of women ≥40 years old and control group was made up of women younger than 40 years. Results: Mean maternal age was 41.48 years in the study group and 26.41 years in the control group. Mean gesta­tional age at the time of delivery is 37.73 weeks in study group and 38.10 weeks in the control group. There was no statistical difference in terms of preterm delivery, multiple pregnancy, fetal anomaly, IUGR, superimpose preeclampsia oligohidramnios, presentation anomaly and placenta previa rates between the study and control groups. Incidence of preeclampsia (p=0.041, Chronic hypertension (p=0.001, GDM (p= 0.003,is found to be higher in study group. Cesar­ean birth rate is higher (p<0.05 and hospitalization time is longer in study group (p=0.001. 1st minute and 5th minute APGAR scores of the study group (6.99±2, 8.27±2 was lower than the 1st minute and 5th Minutes APGAR scores of the control group (7.38±1.6, 8.58±1.7. Neonatal intensive care unit administration rate is seen also higher in study group (p<0.01. Conclusion: Advanced maternal age was related to increased pregnancy complications and poor perinatal outcome. Preeclampsia, GDM, chronic hypertension is seen more common in advanced age pregnancies. Neonatal intensive care administration is higher and APGAR scores are lower; cesarean delivery was performed more common, and hospitaliza­tion time was longer in advanced age pregnancies. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (2: 157-162

  20. Perinatal development and adult blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashton

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence supports the concept of fetal programming in cardiovascular disease in man, which asserts that an insult experienced in utero exerts a long-term influence on cardiovascular function, leading to disease in adulthood. However, this hypothesis is not universally accepted, hence animal models may be of value in determining potential physiological mechanisms which could explain how fetal undernutrition results in cardiovascular disease in later life. This review describes two major animal models of cardiovascular programming, the in utero protein-restricted rat and the cross-fostered spontaneously hypertensive rat. In the former model, moderate maternal protein restriction during pregnancy induces an increase in offspring blood pressure of 20-30 mmHg. This hypertensive effect is mediated, in part, by fetal exposure to excess maternal glucocorticoids as a result of a deficiency in placental 11-ß hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. Furthermore, nephrogenesis is impaired in this model which, coupled with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system, could also contribute to the greater blood pressure displayed by these animals. The second model discussed is the cross-fostered spontaneously hypertensive rat. Spontaneously hypertensive rats develop severe hypertension without external intervention; however, their adult blood pressure may be lowered by 20-30 mmHg by cross-fostering pups to a normotensive dam within the first two weeks of lactation. The mechanisms responsible for this antihypertensive effect are less clear, but may also involve altered renal function and down-regulation of the renin-angiotensin system. These two models clearly show that adult blood pressure is influenced by exposure to one of a number of stimuli during critical stages of perinatal development.

  1. Partial HELLP Syndrome: maternal and perinatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelcio Francisco Abbade

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: HELLP syndrome is a severe complication of pregnancy characterized by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count. Some pregnant women develop just one or two of the characteristics of this syndrome, which is termed Partial HELLP Syndrome (PHS. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the repercussions on maternal and perinatal outcomes among women that developed PHS and to compare these women with those whose gestational hypertension or preeclampsia did not show alterations for HELLP syndrome in laboratory tests. DESIGN: Observational, retrospective and analytical study. SETTING: Maternity Department of Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. SAMPLE: Pregnant or post-delivery women who had a blood pressure elevation that was first detected after mid-pregnancy, with or without proteinuria, between January 1990 and December 1995. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Analysis was made of maternal age, race, parity, hypertension classification, gestational age at the PHS diagnosis, alterations in laboratory tests for HELLP syndrome, time elapsed to discharge from hospital, maternal complications, mode of delivery, incidence of preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, stillborn and neonatal death. RESULTS: Three hundred and eighteen women were selected; forty-one women (12.9% had PHS and 277 of them (87.1% did not develop any of the alterations of the HELLP syndrome diagnosis. Preeclampsia was a more frequent type of hypertension in the PHS group than in the hypertension group. None of the women with isolated chronic hypertension developed PHS. The rate of cesarean delivery, eclampsia, and preterm delivery was significantly greater in the PHS group than in the hypertension group. CONCLUSION: We observed that aggressive procedures had been adopted for patients with PHS. These resulted in immediate interruption of pregnancy, with elevated cesarean

  2. Stillbirth: The other half of perinatal mortality

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, JFA

    2012-01-01

    Stillbirth is fetal death after 20 weeks gestation1. There are a number of definitions and classifications. WHO defines a stillbirth as a baby BW ≥500g, ≥22 weeks gestation who died before or during birth. However for international comparisons it recommends that reporting be restricted to those with BW>1000g and gestation ≥28 weeks. In Ireland stillbirths must be registered, the definition being BW≥500g or having reached a gestational age ≥ 24 weeks. Stillbirth affects 1 in 160 pregnancies2 and numerically it equals the number of infant deaths in the first year of life. At the beginning of the third trimester of pregnancy the baby weighs 1 Kg and the risk of stillbirth is 1- 2%. The possibility of a stillbirth increases with maturity throughout the third trimester and is 3 times greater at 40 weeks than at earlier gestational ages3. This is relevant for the 5-10% of pregnancies that continue ≥42 weeks. If managed expectantly one in 400 post-term pregnancies will end in a stillbirth. Since 2003 the stillbirth rate has remained static in the US at 3.0 stillbirths per 1000 births. Prior to 2003 the stillbirth rate had declined 1.4% annually while the infant mortality rate fell twice as fast at 2.8%. Globally there are 2.6 million stillbirths annually. In Ireland the stillbirth rate is 3.3 per 1000 births which equates to 230 deaths per year. Despite its frequent occurrence stillbirth has been a relatively neglected component of perinatal medicine. Because a definitive cause cannot be identified in many cases, counselling is very difficult. This lack of scientific causation data has resulted in professional fatalism towards the stillbirth problem.

  3. Strategies to Reduce Perinatal Health Inequalities : The Healthy Pregnancy 4 All study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Vos (Amber)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Promotion of healthy pregnancies has gained high priority in the Netherlands because of the relatively unfavorable perinatal outcomes compared to surrounding countries which was confirmed by two consecutive European reports on perinatal health. Additionally, large

  4. Socioeconomic status affects the prevalence, but not the perinatal outcomes, of in vitro fertilization pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räisänen, Sari; Randell, Kaisa; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre

    2013-01-01

    Does maternal socioeconomic status (SES) confound or modify the association between IVF and perinatal outcome among singleton births?......Does maternal socioeconomic status (SES) confound or modify the association between IVF and perinatal outcome among singleton births?...

  5. Low cerebral blood flow in hypotensive perinatal distress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou, H.C.; Lassen, N.A.; Friis-Hansen, B.

    1977-01-01

    Hypoxic brain injury is the most important neurological problem in the neonatal period and accounts for more neurological deficits in children than any other lesion. The neurological deficits are notably mental retardation, epilepsy and cerebral palsy. The pathogenesis has hitherto been poorly understood. Arterial hypoxia has been taken as the obvious mechanism but this does not fully explain the patho-anatomical findings. In the present investigation we have examined the arterial blood pressure and the cerebral blood flow in eight infants a few hours after birth. The 133Xe clearance technique was used for the cerebral blood flow measurements. The study confirmed that perinatal distress may be associated with low arterial blood pressure, and it was shown that cerebral blood flow is very low, 20 ml/100 g/min or less, in hypotensive perinatal distress. It is concluded that cerebral ischaemia plays a crucial role in the development of perinatal hypoxic brain injury. (author)

  6. Nursing diagnosis of grieving: content validity in perinatal loss situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloma-Castro, Olga; Romero-Sánchez, José Manuel; Paramio-Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Pastor-Montero, Sonia María; Castro-Yuste, Cristina; Frandsen, Anna J; Albar-Marín, María Jesús; Bas-Sarmiento, Pilar; Moreno-Corral, Luis Javier

    2014-06-01

    To validate the content of the NANDA-I nursing diagnosis of grieving in situations of perinatal loss. Using the Fehring's model, 208 Spanish experts were asked to assess the adequacy of the defining characteristics and other manifestations identified in the literature for cases of perinatal loss. The content validity index was 0.867. Twelve of the 18 defining characteristics were validated, seven as major and five as minor. From the manifestations proposed, "empty inside" was considered as major. The nursing diagnosis of grieving fits in content to the cases of perinatal loss according to experts. The results have provided evidence to support the use of the diagnosis in care plans for said clinical situation. © 2013 NANDA International.

  7. Perinatal depression and screening among Aboriginal Australians in the Kimberley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Jayne; Munns, Ailsa; Marriott, Rhonda; Marley, Julia V

    2016-02-01

    Adhoc culturally questionable perinatal mental-health screening among Aboriginal women in the Kimberley. Mental-health issues, substance abuse and suicide attempts are high among young Aboriginal women in Australia. There is no evidence that the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is effective or culturally safe. Screening practices are complicated by limited understanding of the complex cultural interface between Western and Aboriginal beliefs and notions about health and mental-health. What is the current context of perinatal mental-health screening practices among Aboriginal women in the Kimberley and what might be considered a culturally safe approach? A review of the literature and exploration of current screening practices preceded community participatory action research (CPAR) of perinatal mental-health screening. More than 100 Kimberley women and 72 health practitioners contributed to this joint strategic body of work. Recommendations for practice include one single culturally appropriate Kimberley version of the EPDS.

  8. Characteristics that perinatal nurse managers desire in new nurse hires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Emily; Hensel, Desiree

    2012-04-01

    Nursing leaders have proposed that nurses must have the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies to work in complex health care systems. Using the QSEN framework, this study explored what characteristics perinatal nurse managers desired most in new nurses. This study used a survey design and a convenience sample of perinatal nurse managers working in Indiana hospitals (N = 46). Managers were more likely to hire nurses with experience, positive references, and excellent attendance. Of the QSEN competencies, managers looked most for teamwork and collaboration, followed by safety and patient-centered care. In addition to the traditional qualities desired in new nurses, the QSEN competencies are gaining importance among perinatal managers. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Perinatal Programming of Asthma: The Role of Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan B. Azad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal programming, a dominant theory for the origins of cardiovascular disease, proposes that environmental stimuli influence developmental pathways during critical periods of prenatal and postnatal development, inducing permanent changes in metabolism. In this paper, we present evidence for the perinatal programming of asthma via the intestinal microbiome. While epigenetic mechanisms continue to provide new explanations for the programming hypothesis of asthma development, it is increasingly apparent that the intestinal microbiota plays an independent and potentially interactive role. Commensal gut bacteria are essential to immune system development, and exposures disrupting the infant gut microbiota have been linked to asthma. This paper summarizes the recent findings that implicate caesarean delivery, breastfeeding, perinatal stress, probiotics, and antibiotics as modifiers of infant gut microbiota in the development of asthma.

  10. Peer supporters' experiences on an Australian perinatal mental health helpline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Laura J; McLachlan, Helen L; Shafiei, Touran; Small, Rhonda; Forster, Della A

    2018-01-16

    Perinatal mental health is an important public health issue, and peer support is a potentially important strategy for emotional well-being in the perinatal period. PANDA Perinatal Anxiety & Depression Australia provides support to individuals impacted by perinatal mental health issues via the National Perinatal Anxiety & Depression Helpline. Callers receive peer support from volunteers and counselling from paid professional staff. The views and experiences of PANDA peer support volunteers have not previously been studied. We conducted two focus groups and an online survey to explore the experiences of women providing volunteer peer support on the Helpline. Data collection took place in October and November 2013. Two social theories were used in framing and addressing the study aims and in interpreting our findings: the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis, and the Helper Therapy Principle. All PANDA volunteers were invited to participate (n = 40). Eight volunteers attended a focus group, and 11 survey responses were received. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data. All survey respondents 'strongly agreed' that they felt positive about being part of PANDA. Thematic analysis of data from focus groups and open-ended survey responses identified the following themes: motivated to help others, supported to support callers, helping to make a difference and emotional impacts for volunteers. Respondents described a strong desire to support others experiencing emotional distress as a motivator to volunteer. Although perinatal peer support services are designed to benefit those who receive support, this study suggests volunteers may also experience personal benefits from the role. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Perinatal outcomes of pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljivančanin Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recent epidemiological studies showed significantly higher incidence of perinatal complications in newborns and women after the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART. Multiple pregnancies are more frequent after the use of ART. Singleton pregnancies following ART are more prone to preterm birth, low and very low birth weight (LBW and VLBW, small for gestational age (SGA and perinatal mortality. Objective. The aim of this study was to summarize the results of relevant articles and to evaluate whether the mode of conception is the determining factor for different pregnancy outcomes after assisted and natural conceptions. Methods. Eleven studies were included in this review. The following outcomes were observed: preterm and very preterm birth, SGA, LBW, VLBW, perinatal mortality, admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, and Apgar score (As ≤7 at fifth minute. Qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment were performed. Results. For singletons, odds ratios were 1.794 (95% confidence interval 1.660-1.939 for preterm birth, 1.649 (1.301-2.089 for LBW, 1.265 (1.048-1.527 for SGA. Admission to NICU, As≤7 at fifth minute and perinatal mortality showed significantly different frequency after assisted conception. Summary of results for twin gestations showed no significant difference between ART and spontaneous conception for preterm birth (32-36 weeks, very preterm birth (<32 weeks, LBW and VLBW. Conclusion. Analyzed studies showed that infants from ART have significantly worse perinatal outcome compared with natural conception. More observational studies should be conducted in order to establish the exact mechanism leading to more frequent perinatal morbidity and mortality after the use of ART.

  12. Characterization and detection of a widely distributed gene cluster that predicts anaerobic choline utilization by human gut bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-del Campo, Ana; Bodea, Smaranda; Hamer, Hilary A; Marks, Jonathan A; Haiser, Henry J; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Balskus, Emily P

    2015-04-14

    Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the human gut microbiota's effects on health and disease has been complicated by difficulties in linking metabolic functions associated with the gut community as a whole to individual microorganisms and activities. Anaerobic microbial choline metabolism, a disease-associated metabolic pathway, exemplifies this challenge, as the specific human gut microorganisms responsible for this transformation have not yet been clearly identified. In this study, we established the link between a bacterial gene cluster, the choline utilization (cut) cluster, and anaerobic choline metabolism in human gut isolates by combining transcriptional, biochemical, bioinformatic, and cultivation-based approaches. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis and in vitro biochemical characterization of two cut gene products linked the entire cluster to growth on choline and supported a model for this pathway. Analyses of sequenced bacterial genomes revealed that the cut cluster is present in many human gut bacteria, is predictive of choline utilization in sequenced isolates, and is widely but discontinuously distributed across multiple bacterial phyla. Given that bacterial phylogeny is a poor marker for choline utilization, we were prompted to develop a degenerate PCR-based method for detecting the key functional gene choline TMA-lyase (cutC) in genomic and metagenomic DNA. Using this tool, we found that new choline-metabolizing gut isolates universally possessed cutC. We also demonstrated that this gene is widespread in stool metagenomic data sets. Overall, this work represents a crucial step toward understanding anaerobic choline metabolism in the human gut microbiota and underscores the importance of examining this microbial community from a function-oriented perspective. Anaerobic choline utilization is a bacterial metabolic activity that occurs in the human gut and is linked to multiple diseases. While bacterial genes responsible for

  13. Neuroradiological findings in perinatally HIV-infected children. Neuroradiologische Befunde bei perinatal HIV-infizierten Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spreer, J [Radiologische Abt., Universitaetsklinik Koeln (Germany); Enenkel-Stoodt, S [Abt. fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie 2, Universitaetsklinik Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Funk, M [Abt. fuer Paediatrische Haematologie und Onkologie, Universitaetsklinik Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fiedler, A [Abt. fuer Paediatrische Neurologie, Universitaetsklinik Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Simone, A de [Neuroradiologische Abt., Universitaetsklinik Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hacker, H [Neuroradiologische Abt., Universitaetsklinik Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1994-08-01

    The neuroradiological studies (CT, MRI, angiography) in 21 children with perinatal HIV infection were reviewed retrospectively. No patient showed an intracranial mass lesion; after intravenous contrast medium application there was no case with disturbed blood-brain barrier. Common non-specific findings were atrophy and delayed myelination. In 7 cases atrophy was combined with multifocal nearly symmetric white matter lesions, which characteristically spared the U-fibres. Further findings included an intramedullary ring-shaped structure in the cervical cord, an AIDS-associated vasculopathy and symmetric calcifications in the basal ganglia. The spectrum of neuroradiological findings in paediatric AIDS patients differs from that in adults. Knowledge of these age-specific findings is important because the number of HIV-infected children is rising. (orig.)

  14. Perinatal outcomes among Asian-white interracial couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Michael J; Caughey, Aaron B; Lyell, Deirdre J; Druzin, Maurice L; El-Sayed, Yasser Y

    2008-10-01

    To investigate whether perinatal outcomes among interracial Asian-white couples are different than among Asian-Asian and white-white couples. This was a retrospective study of Asian, white, and Asian-white couples delivered at the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital from 2000-2005. Asian-white couples were subdivided into white-mother/Asian-father or Asian-mother/white-father. Perinatal outcomes included gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, birth weight >4000 g and interracial Asian-white couples.

  15. Asfixia perinatal y proteína S100B

    OpenAIRE

    Barrero Montoya, Ivan Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    La asfixia perinatal es la principal causa de muerte en la primera semana de vida la nivel mundial, los niños que sufren esta complicación y sobreviven pueden presentar trastornos neurológicos de diferente nivel de compromiso que inciden en su desarrollo personal y social. Las cifras de muerte por este problema de salud han disminuido de manera importante, sin embargo en el reporte de la Organización Mundial de Salud (OPS) del 2010, la asfixia perinatal es causa del 29% de muertes infantiles ...

  16. Effect of Vegan Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Carnitine- and Choline-Derived Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Production and Vascular Inflammation in Patients With Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Loek P; Kootte, Ruud S; Levin, Evgeni; Prodan, Andrei; Fuentes, Susana; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Wang, Zeneng; Levison, Bruce S; Cleophas, Maartje C P; Kemper, E Marleen; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Groen, Albert K; Joosten, Leo A B; Netea, Mihai G; Stroes, Erik S G; de Vos, Willem M; Hazen, Stanley L; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2018-03-26

    Intestinal microbiota have been found to be linked to cardiovascular disease via conversion of the dietary compounds choline and carnitine to the atherogenic metabolite TMAO (trimethylamine-N-oxide). Specifically, a vegan diet was associated with decreased plasma TMAO levels and nearly absent TMAO production on carnitine challenge. We performed a double-blind randomized controlled pilot study in which 20 male metabolic syndrome patients were randomized to single lean vegan-donor or autologous fecal microbiota transplantation. At baseline and 2 weeks thereafter, we determined the ability to produce TMAO from d 6 -choline and d 3 -carnitine (eg, labeled and unlabeled TMAO in plasma and 24-hour urine after oral ingestion of 250 mg of both isotope-labeled precursor nutrients), and fecal samples were collected for analysis of microbiota composition. 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans of the abdominal aorta, as well as ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production assays, were performed. At baseline, fecal microbiota composition differed significantly between vegans and metabolic syndrome patients. With vegan-donor fecal microbiota transplantation, intestinal microbiota composition in metabolic syndrome patients, as monitored by global fecal microbial community structure, changed toward a vegan profile in some of the patients; however, no functional effects from vegan-donor fecal microbiota transplantation were seen on TMAO production, abdominal aortic 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, or ex vivo cytokine production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Single lean vegan-donor fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome patients resulted in detectable changes in intestinal microbiota composition but failed to elicit changes in TMAO production capacity or parameters related to vascular inflammation. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl. Unique identifier: NTR 4338. © 2018 The Authors. Published on

  17. Supplementation with rumen-protected methionine or choline during the transition period influences whole-blood immune response in periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailati-Riboni, M; Zhou, Z; Jacometo, C B; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E; Luchini, D N; Loor, J J

    2017-05-01

    immunomodulatory action of methionine and choline in dairy cows. As such, the effects observed could have implications for ration formulation and dietary strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of CDP-choline on the biosynthesis of phospholipids in brain regions during hypoxic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberghina, M.; Viola, M.; Serra, I.; Mistretta, A.; Giuffrida, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Acute administration of CDP-choline (i.p. 100 mg/Kg b.w.), 10 min before the intraventricular injection of labeled precursors, [2-3H] glycerol and [1-14C]-palmitate, was able to correct the impairment caused by hypoxic treatment of lipid metabolism in some brain regions, ie, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, and brainstem. After CDP-choline treatment, an increase of the specific radioactivity of total lipids and of phospholipids was observed in mitochondria purified from the three above-mentioned brain regions of the hypoxic animals, while no effect on the other subcellular fractions was found. CDP-Choline had a stimulating effect particularly on the incorporation of both precursors into mitochondrial PC, PE, and polyglycerophosphatides isolated form the three brain regions examined. The results obtained show that the action of CDP-choline in restoring lipid metabolism was more pronounced in brain mitochondria, which, among subcellular fractions, were the most affected by the hypoxic treatment

  19. Comparable stability of Hoogsteen and Watson-Crick base pairs in ionic liquid choline dihydrogen phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi-Karimata, Hisae; Nakano, Miki; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2014-01-08

    The instability of Hoogsteen base pairs relative to Watson-Crick base pairs has limited biological applications of triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Hydrated ionic liquids (ILs) provide favourable environments for a wide range of chemical reactions and are known to impact the stabilities of Watson-Crick base pairs. We found that DNA triplex formation was significantly stabilized in hydrated choline dihydrogen phosphate as compared with an aqueous buffer at neutral pH. Interestingly, the stability of Hoogsteen base pairs was found to be comparable with that of Watson-Crick base pairs in the hydrated IL. Molecular dynamics simulations of a DNA triplex in the presence of choline ions revealed that the DNA triplex was stabilized because of the binding of choline ion around the third strand in the grooves. Our finding will facilitate the development of new DNA materials. Our data also indicate that triplex formation may be stabilized inside cells where choline ions and their derivatives are abundant in vivo.

  20. Comparable Stability of Hoogsteen and Watson–Crick Base Pairs in Ionic Liquid Choline Dihydrogen Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi-Karimata, Hisae; Nakano, Miki; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    The instability of Hoogsteen base pairs relative to Watson–Crick base pairs has limited biological applications of triplex-forming oligonucleotides. Hydrated ionic liquids (ILs) provide favourable environments for a wide range of chemical reactions and are known to impact the stabilities of Watson–Crick base pairs. We found that DNA triplex formation was significantly stabilized in hydrated choline dihydrogen phosphate as compared with an aqueous buffer at neutral pH. Interestingly, the stability of Hoogsteen base pairs was found to be comparable with that of Watson–Crick base pairs in the hydrated IL. Molecular dynamics simulations of a DNA triplex in the presence of choline ions revealed that the DNA triplex was stabilized because of the binding of choline ion around the third strand in the grooves. Our finding will facilitate the development of new DNA materials. Our data also indicate that triplex formation may be stabilized inside cells where choline ions and their derivatives are abundant in vivo. PMID:24399194

  1. Maternal Choline Supplementation: A Potential Prenatal Treatment for Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strupp, Barbara J; Powers, Brian E; Velazquez, Ramon; Ash, Jessica A; Kelley, Christy M; Alldred, Melissa J; Strawderman, Myla; Caudill, Marie A; Mufson, Elliott J; Ginsberg, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    Although Down syndrome (DS) can be diagnosed prenatally, currently there are no effective treatments to lessen the intellectual disability (ID) which is a hallmark of this disorder. Furthermore, starting as early as the third decade of life, DS individuals exhibit the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with subsequent dementia, adding substantial emotional and financial burden to their families and society at large. A potential therapeutic strategy emerging from the study of trisomic mouse models of DS is to supplement the maternal diet with additional choline during pregnancy and lactation. Studies demonstrate that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) markedly improves spatial cognition and attentional function, as well as normalizes adult hippocampal neurogenesis and offers protection to basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. These effects on neurogenesis and BFCNs correlate significantly with spatial cognition, suggesting functional relationships. In this review, we highlight some of these provocative findings, which suggest that supplementing the maternal diet with additional choline may serve as an effective and safe prenatal strategy for improving cognitive, affective, and neural functioning in DS. In light of growing evidence that all pregnancies would benefit from increased maternal choline intake, this type of recommendation could be given to all pregnant women, thereby providing a very early intervention for individuals with DS, and include babies born to mothers unaware that they are carrying a fetus with DS.

  2. Studies on the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young bobwhite quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid and choline requirements of young Bobwhite quail. Quail fed purified diets deficient in either riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid or choline grew poorly and high mortality occurred by 5 weeks of age. Under the conditions of these experiments, it was found that: (1) young quail require approximately 3.8 mg. riboflavin/kg. diet for satisfactory growth and survival; (2) no more than 31 mg. niacin/kg. diet are required for normal growth and survival of young quail; (3) the requirement for pantothenic acid is higher than has previously been reported, quail in these studies requiring 12.6 mg. pantothenic acid/kg. feed for growth and survival; and (4) the requirement for choline for reducing mortality is approximately 1000 mg./kg., while the amount necessary for normal growth of young quail is no greater than 1500 mg./kg. when the diet contains ample amounts of methionine. Quail fed a niacin-deficient diet developed stiff, shortened feathers and an erythema about the head; those receiving a riboflavin-deficient ration developed enlarged hocks and bowed legs, as did quail fed diets low or devoid of choline. Aside from slow growth, poor feathering was the only other indication that a deficient diet was being fed when quail were placed on a basal ration without pantothenic acid for five weeks.

  3. Effect of herbal choline and rumen-protected methionine on lamb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth A Mendoza B MD

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... oral doses of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) (0 and 1.5 g/day) and ... and stimulating glucose and cholesterol synthesis. .... The in vitro gas production indicates that half of herbal choline is fermented at 18 hours (Table 2),.

  4. Inhibition of high affinity choline uptake by N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asermely, K.E.; O'Neill, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The peripheral actions of N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol (N-Al-3-OHQ) on high affinity choline uptake (HAChU) on rat phrenic nerve diaphragm are described. Endplate regions (EPA) identified by the Koelle histochemical techniques for acetylcholinesterase, were dissected from adult rat hemidiaphragms and placed in cold Krebs solution (pH-7.35). All measurements of HAChU were at 37 0 C in buffers containing tritium choline (5 μM 0.124 μC/mmole) at intervals of 1, 2, 4, 8, 15 and 30 min. Tissues were washed 3x, digested in 1N NaOH and counted for tritium in Chaikoff's solution. All data are expressed as pmole Ch/g wet weight. Comparison between EPA and non-EPA tissue demonstrate HAChU and slow choline diffusion, respectively. Steady state is observed in 15 min. N-Al-3-OHQ produces 15% inhibition at 5 x 10 -5 M compared with 50% inhibition on brain synaptosomes. At 5 x 10 -4 M N-Al-3-OHQ, 30% inhibition is observed. Attempts to deplete ACh by pre-stimulation with high K + -ion (25 mM) were unsuccessful; tissue 3 H-choline uptake appeared to oscillate over a 30 min period

  5. Inhibition of high affinity choline uptake by N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asermely, K.E.; O' Neill, J.J.

    1986-03-01

    The peripheral actions of N-allyl-3-quinuclidinol (N-Al-3-OHQ) on high affinity choline uptake (HAChU) on rat phrenic nerve diaphragm are described. Endplate regions (EPA) identified by the Koelle histochemical techniques for acetylcholinesterase, were dissected from adult rat hemidiaphragms and placed in cold Krebs solution (pH-7.35). All measurements of HAChU were at 37/sup 0/C in buffers containing tritium choline (5 ..mu..M 0.124 ..mu..C/mmole) at intervals of 1, 2, 4, 8, 15 and 30 min. Tissues were washed 3x, digested in 1N NaOH and counted for tritium in Chaikoff's solution. All data are expressed as pmole Ch/g wet weight. Comparison between EPA and non-EPA tissue demonstrate HAChU and slow choline diffusion, respectively. Steady state is observed in 15 min. N-Al-3-OHQ produces 15% inhibition at 5 x 10/sup -5/ M compared with 50% inhibition on brain synaptosomes. At 5 x 10/sup -4/ M N-Al-3-OHQ, 30% inhibition is observed. Attempts to deplete ACh by pre-stimulation with high K/sup +/-ion (25 mM) were unsuccessful; tissue /sup 3/H-choline uptake appeared to oscillate over a 30 min period.

  6. Choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents as additives for optimizing chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guizhen; Zhu, Tao; Lei, Yingjie

    2015-01-01

    A series of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were prepared using glycerol and choline chloride (ChCl), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) was used to analyze the spectra of glycerol, choline chloride and DESs based on glycerol and choline chloride. Then DESs were used as the additives of mobile phase to optimize chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A 17-run Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to evaluate effect of DESs as additives by analyzing the maximum theoretical plate number. Three factors, reaction temperature (60 .deg. C, 80 .deg. C, 100 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and choline chloride (2 : 1, 3 : 1, 4 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additives (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, v/v), were investigated in BBD. The optimum experiment condition was that of reaction temperature (80 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and ChCl (3 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additive (0.10%, v/v). The mean chromatographic theoretical plate number of the caffeic acid this condition was 1567.5, and DESs as additives shorten the retention time and modify the chromatogram shape, proving DESs as additives for effective theoretical plate number and column efficiency in HPLC.

  7. Choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents as additives for optimizing chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guizhen; Zhu, Tao; Lei, Yingjie [Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China)

    2015-10-15

    A series of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were prepared using glycerol and choline chloride (ChCl), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) was used to analyze the spectra of glycerol, choline chloride and DESs based on glycerol and choline chloride. Then DESs were used as the additives of mobile phase to optimize chromatographic behavior of caffeic acid in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A 17-run Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to evaluate effect of DESs as additives by analyzing the maximum theoretical plate number. Three factors, reaction temperature (60 .deg. C, 80 .deg. C, 100 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and choline chloride (2 : 1, 3 : 1, 4 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additives (0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, v/v), were investigated in BBD. The optimum experiment condition was that of reaction temperature (80 .deg. C), molar ratio of glycerol and ChCl (3 : 1, n/n), and volume percent of additive (0.10%, v/v). The mean chromatographic theoretical plate number of the caffeic acid this condition was 1567.5, and DESs as additives shorten the retention time and modify the chromatogram shape, proving DESs as additives for effective theoretical plate number and column efficiency in HPLC.

  8. 75 FR 760 - Choline chloride; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... affected. The North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes have been provided to assist... body functions including the maintenance of osmotic pressure, acid-base balance, muscular activity, and... nervous system and memory. Choline is necessary to promote proper development in the fetus and infant and...

  9. Effect of addition of Proline, ionic liquid [Choline][Pro] on CO2 separation properties of poly(amidoamine) dendrimer / poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, S. H.; Kai, T.; Chowdhury, F. A.; Taniguchi, I.; Kazama, S.

    2018-01-01

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers were incorporated into cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGDMA) matrix to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) separation performance at elevated pressures. In our previous studies, PAMAM/PEGDMA hybrid membranes showed high CO2 separation properties from CO2/H2 mixed gases. In this study, proline, choline and ionic liquid [Choline][Pro] compounds were selected as rate promoters that were used to prepare PAMAM/PEGDMA hybrid membranes. The effect of addition of proline, choline, IL [Choline][Pro] on separation performance of PAMAM/PEGDMA) hybrid membranes for CO2/H2 separation was investigated. Amino acid proline, choline, and IL [Choline][Pro] were used to promote CO2 and amine reaction. With the addition of [Choline][Pro] into PAMAM/PEG membrane, CO2 permeance of PAMAM/PEG hybrid membranes are increased up to 46% without any change of selectivity of membrane for CO2.

  10. Choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and MEK expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianhai; Zhang, Yufang; Liang, Chen; Wang, Nasui; Zheng, Heping; Wang, Jundong

    2016-11-01

    Fluoride is known to cause male reproductive toxicity, and the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms is an ongoing research focus in reproductive toxicology and epidemiology. Choline, an essential nutrient, has been extensively studied for its benefits in nervous system yet was rarely discussed for its prospective effect in male reproductive system. This study aims to explore the potential protective role of choline against NaF-induced male reproductive toxicity via MAPK pathway. The male mice were administrated by 150mg/L NaF in drinking water, 5.75g/kg choline in diet, and their combination respectively from maternal gestation to postnatal 15weeks. The results showed that fluoride exposure reduced body weight growth, lowered sperm count and survival percentages, altered testicular histology, down-regulated the mRNA expressions of NGF, Ras, Raf, and MEK genes in testes, as well as significantly decreased the expressions of both NGF and phosphor-MEK proteins in testes. Examination of data from choline-treated mice revealed that choline supplementation ameliorated these fluoride-induced changes. Taken together, our findings suggest that choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and phosphor-MEK expression. The suitable dosage and supplementation periods of choline await further exploration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Galvanostatic bottom-up filling of TSV-like trenches: Choline-based leveler containing two quaternary ammoniums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Jun; Seo, Youngran; Kim, Hoe Chul; Lee, Yoonjae; Choe, Seunghoe; Kim, Young Gyu; Cho, Sung Ki; Kim, Jae Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The choline-based leveler having two quaternary ammoniums was synthesized. • The adsorption of this leveler with suppressor and accelerator was examined. • Galvanostatic Cu bottom-up filling was achieved with three-additive system. • The mechanism of gap-filling was elucidated based on the additive adsorption. - Abstract: Through Silicon Via (TSV) technology is essential to accomplish 3-dimensional packaging of electronics. Hence, more reliable and faster TSV filling by Cu electrodeposition is required. Our approach to improve Cu gap-filling in TSV is based on the development of new organic additives for feature filling. Here, we introduce our achievements from the synthesis of choline-based leveler to the feature filling using a synthesized leveler. The choline-based leveler, which includes two quaternary ammoniums at both ends of the molecule, is synthesized from glutaric acid. The characteristics of the choline-based additive are examined by the electrochemical analyses, and it is confirmed that the choline-based leveler shows a convection dependent adsorption behavior, which is essential for leveling. The interactions between the polymeric suppressor, accelerator, and the choline-based leveler are also investigated by changing the convection condition. Using the combination of suppressor, accelerator, and the choline-based leveler, the extreme bottom-up filling of Cu at trenches with dimensions similar to TSV are fulfilled. The mechanism of Cu gap-filling is demonstrated based on the results of electrochemical analyses and feature filling

  12. Effect of dimethylaminoethanol, an inhibitor of betaine production, on the disposition of choline in the rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, J.; Acara, M.

    1990-01-01

    The choline metabolite betaine has been shown to be an important organic osmoregulatory solute in the kidney. The isolated perfused rat kidney and kidney slice incubations were used to investigate the effect of 2-dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE), a choline oxidase inhibitor, on the renal excretion and metabolism of choline. In the isolated perfused kidney, [ 14 C]choline, at an initial perfusate concentration of 300 microM, was effectively removed from the perfusate over 25 min, with nearly all the 14 C in the perfusate accounted for by betaine during the remainder of the 90-min perfusion. DMAE at concentrations of 3.0 or 5.0 mM significantly decreased the rate of removal of [ 14 C]choline from the perfusate and the rate of addition of [ 14 C]betaine to the perfusate, yet [14C]betaine remained the only metabolite of choline in perfusate and urine. In kidney tissue slice experiments, conversion of [ 14 C]choline to [ 14 C]betaine was found in cortical, outer medullary and inner medullary regions of rat kidney. DMAE at 5.0 mM significantly inhibited [ 14 C]betaine production in each of the three regions studied. These data show that DMAE is an effective inhibitor of betaine production by the kidney and, as such, may be an important agent for the study of osmoregulation by the kidney

  13. Measurement of concentrations of whole blood levels of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine and their relations to plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Hussain Mohamad; Kirsch, Susanne H; Geisel, Juergen; Obeid, Rima

    2014-04-15

    We aimed at developing a method for the measurement of choline and its metabolites in whole blood (WB). After an extraction step, quantification of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) was performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Plasma and WB metabolites were evaluated in a group of 61 elderly people. The calibration curves were linear (r(2)>0.997) for all compounds. The inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation for all analytes were 90% and the relative matrix effect were ≤4.0%. The median concentrations of choline, betaine, and DMG were 11.3, 27.8, and 5.9μmol/L in plasma and 66.6, 165, and 13.7μmol/L in WB, respectively. There were positive correlations between WB and plasma markers; for choline (r=0.42), betaine (r=0.61), and DMG (r=0.56) (all p≤0.001). The concentrations of betaine in WB and plasma were significantly higher in men than in women. The concentrations of WB choline and DMG did not differ significantly according to sex. In conclusion, we have established a reliable method for measuring choline metabolites in WB. The concentrations of WB choline, betaine, and DMG seem to reflect intracellular concentrations of these metabolites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Prenatal choline supplementation attenuates MK-801-induced deficits in memory, motor function, and hippocampal plasticity in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Chelsea A; Brown, Alexandra L; Yu, Waylin; Chun, Yoona; Glenn, Melissa J

    2017-10-11

    Choline is essential to the development and function of the central nervous system and supplemental choline during development is neuroprotective against a variety of insults, including neurotoxins like dizocilpine (MK-801). MK-801 is an NMDA receptor antagonist that is frequently used in rodent models of psychological disorders, particularly schizophrenia. At low doses, it causes cognitive impairments, and at higher doses it induces motor deficits, anhedonia, and neuronal degeneration. The primary goals of the present study were to investigate whether prenatal choline supplementation protects against the cognitive impairments, motor deficits, and neuropathologies that are precipitated by MK-801 administration in adulthood. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard or supplemented choline diet prenatally. Using the novelty preference test of object recognition, we found that only prenatal standard-fed rats displayed memory consolidation deficits induced by low-dose MK-801 administered immediately following study of sample objects; all other groups, including prenatal choline supplemented rats given MK-801, showed intact memory. Following high-dose MK-801, prenatal choline supplementation significantly alleviated rats' motor response to MK-801, particularly ataxia. Using doublecortin and Ki67 to mark neurogenesis and cell division, respectively, in the hippocampus, we found that prenatal choline supplementation, in the face of MK-801 toxicity, protected against reduced hippocampal plasticity. Taken together, the current findings suggest that prenatal choline supplementation protects against a variety of behavioral and neural pathologies induced by the neurotoxin, MK-801. This research contributes to the growing body of evidence supporting the robust neuroprotective capacity of choline. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolism of choline in brain of the aged CBF-1 mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Kindel, G.; Karczmar, A.G.; Rosenberg, A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to quantify the changes that occur in the cholinergic central nervous system with aging, we have compared acetylcholine (Ach) formation in brain cortex slice preparations from 2-year-old aged CBF-1 mouse brains and compared the findings with those in 2-4-month-old young adult mouse brain slices. Incorporation of exogenous radioactively labelled choline (31 nM [ 3 H] choline) into acetyl choline in incubated brain slices was linear with time for 90 min. Percentage of total choline label distributed into Ach remained constant from 5 min after starting the incubation to 90 min. In contrast, distribution of label into intracellular free choline (Ch) and phosphorylcholine (Pch) changed continuously over this period suggesting that the Ch pool for Ach synthesis in brain cortex is different from that for Pch synthesis. Incorporation of radioactivity into Ach was not influenced by administration of 10 microM eserine, showing that the increment of radioactivity in Ach reflects rate of Ach formation, independently from degradation by acetylcholine esterases. Under our experimental conditions, slices from cortices of aged 24-month-old mouse brain showed a significantly greater (27%) incorporation of radioactivity into intracellular Ach than those from young, 2-4-month-old, brain cortices. Inhibitors of Ach release, 1 mM ATP or GABA, had no effect. Since concentration of radioactive precursor in the incubation medium was very low (31 nM), the Ch pool for Ach synthesis in slices was labelled without measurably changing the size of the endogenous pool. These data suggest a compensatory acceleration of Ach synthesis or else a smaller precursor pool specific for Ach synthesis into which labelled Ch migrated in aged brain

  16. Genetic signatures in choline and 1-carbon metabolism are associated with the severity of hepatic steatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Karen D.; Abdelmalek, Manal F.; Spencer, Melanie D.; da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Galanko, Joseph A.; Sha, Wei; Suzuki, Ayako; Guy, Cynthia D.; Cardona, Diana M.; Torquati, Alfonso; Diehl, Anna Mae; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    Choline metabolism is important for very low-density lipoprotein secretion, making this nutritional pathway an important contributor to hepatic lipid balance. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the cumulative effects of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across genes of choline/1-carbon metabolism and functionally related pathways increase susceptibility to developing hepatic steatosis. In biopsy-characterized cases of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and controls, we assessed 260 SNPs across 21 genes in choline/1-carbon metabolism. When SNPs were examined individually, using logistic regression, we only identified a single SNP (PNPLA3 rs738409) that was significantly associated with severity of hepatic steatosis after adjusting for confounders and multiple comparisons (P=0.02). However, when groupings of SNPs in similar metabolic pathways were defined using unsupervised hierarchical clustering, we identified groups of subjects with shared SNP signatures that were significantly correlated with steatosis burden (P=0.0002). The lowest and highest steatosis clusters could also be differentiated by ethnicity. However, unique SNP patterns defined steatosis burden irrespective of ethnicity. Our results suggest that analysis of SNP patterns in genes of choline/1-carbon metabolism may be useful for prediction of severity of steatosis in specific subsets of people, and the metabolic inefficiencies caused by these SNPs should be examined further.—Corbin, K. D., Abdelmalek, M. F., Spencer, M. D., da Costa, K.-A., Galanko, J. A., Sha, W., Suzuki, A., Guy, C. D., Cardona, D. M., Torquati, A., Diehl, A. M., Zeisel, S. H. Genetic signatures in choline and 1-carbon metabolism are associated with the severity of hepatic steatosis. PMID:23292069

  17. Preventing perinatal HIV transmission - nowisthe time to act!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    been met with denial, procrastination and bungling. From a public health point of view this has been a disaster. Will we again miss the chance to act decisively when it comes to perinatal transmission? For African scientists to try to politicise criticism of placebo trials as intervention from the. West is wrong. Rather, they must ...

  18. Perinatal outcomes in pregnant women presenting with preterm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no statistical significance in sepsis rates, the need for ventilation and the ... complicated by PPROM between HIV-negative and HIV-positive women on ART except ... School of Clinical Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa ... of preterm deliveries, low birth weights and perinatal deaths as.

  19. Systematic analysis of research underfunding in maternal and perinatal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, N M; Atun, R

    2009-02-01

    Little published evidence supports the widely held contention that research in pregnancy is underfunded compared with other disease areas. To assess absolute and relative government and charitable funding for maternal and perinatal research in the UK and internationally. SEARCH STRATEGY, SELECTION CRITERIA, DATA COLLECTION, AND ANALYSIS: Major research funding bodies and alliances were identified from an Internet search and discussions with opinion leaders/senior investigators. Websites and annual reports were reviewed for details of strategy, research spend, grants awarded, and allocation to maternal and/or perinatal disease using generic and disease-specific search terms. Within the imprecision in the data sets, global philanthropy concentrated on service provision rather than research. Although research expenditure has been deemed as appropriate for 'reproductive health' disease burden in the UK, there are no data on the equity of maternal/perinatal research spend against disease burden, which globally may justify a manyfold increase. This systematic review of research expenditure and priorities from national and international funding bodies suggests relative underinvestment in maternal/perinatal health. Contributing factors include the low political priority given to women's health, the challenging nature of clinical research in pregnancy, and research capacity dearth as a consequence of chronic underinvestment.

  20. Using perinatal morbidity scoring tools as a primary study outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Bodnar, Lisa M; Platt, Robert W

    2017-11-01

    Perinatal morbidity scores are tools that score or weight different adverse events according to their relative severity. Perinatal morbidity scores are appealing for maternal-infant health researchers because they provide a way to capture a broad range of adverse events to mother and newborn while recognising that some events are considered more serious than others. However, they have proved difficult to implement as a primary outcome in applied research studies because of challenges in testing if the scores are significantly different between two or more study groups. We outline these challenges and describe a solution, based on Poisson regression, that allows differences in perinatal morbidity scores to be formally evaluated. The approach is illustrated using an existing maternal-neonatal scoring tool, the Adverse Outcome Index, to evaluate the safety of labour and delivery before and after the closure of obstetrical services in small rural communities. Applying the proposed Poisson regression to the case study showed a protective risk ratio for adverse outcome following closures as compared with the original analysis, where no difference was found. This approach opens the door for considerably broader use of perinatal morbidity scoring tools as a primary outcome in applied population and clinical maternal-infant health research studies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Perinatal stroke and the risk of developing childhood epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, Meredith R.; Garg, Bhuwan P.; Carvalho, Karen S.; Johnson, Cynthia S.; Williams, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence of epilepsy after 6 months-of-age in children with perinatal stroke and examine whether perinatal data predict epilepsy onset and resolution. Study design A retrospective review of 64 children with perinatal stroke. In children with at least 6 months of follow-up data, Kaplan-Meier curves, univariate log-rank tests, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine predictors of time to development of seizures, and time to resolution of seizures in children with epilepsy. The association of risk factors with the presence of epilepsy at any time after 6 months-of-age was examined using Fisher’s exact test. Results Forty-one of the 61 children with at least 6 months of follow-up data (67%) had epilepsy between 6 months-of-age and last follow-up, but in 13 of 41 seizures eventually resolved and anticonvulsants were discontinued. Infarct on prenatal ultrasound (p=0.0065) and family history of epilepsy (p=0.0093) were significantly associated with time to development of seizures after 6 months-of-age in the univariate analysis. No assessed variables were associated with time to resolution of epilepsy or with the presence of epilepsy after 6 months-of-age. Conclusions Childhood epilepsy is frequent after perinatal stroke. Evidence of infarction on prenatal ultrasound and a family history of epilepsy predict earlier onset of active seizures. PMID:17889079

  2. The perinatal autopsy : Pertinent issues in multicultural Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, Sanne J.; Erwich, Jan Jaap H. M.; Khong, T. Yee

    Western Europe is in a demographic transition with increasing multicultural societies. Health professionals have to understand the background, religious and cultural aspects of parents to counsel them regarding an autopsy in the event of a perinatal loss. Autopsy rates have declined over the past

  3. Risk Factors For Perinatal Mortality In Arua Regional Referral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    baby born after 28 weeks of gestation either as a still birth or born alive but died within 7 days post delivery. A control was any baby born after 28 weeks of gestation and survived the first seven days of life. Control mothers were followed at home after one week to check if any perinatal death occurred. Logistic regression ...

  4. Trends in Perinatal Care and Implications for Frontline Nurse Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Jeannette T; Adams, Ellise D; Amis, Debby

    2016-01-01

    The perinatal trends presented in this article are based on recent topics from conferences, journals, the media, as well as from input from perinatal nurses. Trends in patient care are influenced by evidence known for decades, new research, emerging and innovative concepts in healthcare, patient and family preferences, and the media. Trends discussed in this article are rethinking the due date, birth outside the hospital setting, obstetric hospitalists as birth attendants, nitrous oxide for pain in childbirth, hydrotherapy and waterbirth in the hospital setting, delayed cord clamping, disrupters of an optimal infant microbiome, skin-to-skin care during cesarean surgery, and breast-sleeping and the breast-feeding dyad. In addition, the authors developed implications for perinatal nurses related to each trend. The goal is to stimulate reflection on evidence that supports or does not support current practice and to stimulate future research by discussing some of the current trends that may influence the care that perinatal nurses provide during the birthing year.

  5. Determinants of Perinatal Mortality in Twins at Ibadan | Olayemi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Twinning being a very important high-risk condition in our environment requires detailed study. There are several studies reviewing factors in twin perinatal mortality in our environment but there is a need to ascertain the relative contributions of each of these factors. Objectives: To assess the relative contributions of ...

  6. Perinatal mortality in a rural community | Ewah | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the peri-natal mortality rate (PMR), still birth rate (SBR) and early neonatal death rate (ENDR) in Igueben Local Government Area (LGA) of Edo State. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Igueben LGA is a rural governmental unit in mid-western Nigeria. Subjects: All women of ...

  7. Comparison of perinatal and obstetrics outcomes among early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Adolescent pregnancies are known to be associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes. The objectives were to calculate the incidences of the obstetric and perinatal complications at the time of delivery of early adolescent and late adolescent mothers and then compare the same with adult pregnant ...

  8. Perinatal systemic gene delivery using adeno-associated viral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvinder eKarda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative monogenic diseases can also affect a broad range of tissues and organs throughout the body. An effective treatment would require a systemic approach. The intravenous administration of novel therapies is ideal but is hampered by the inability of such drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier and precludes efficacy in the central nervous system. A number of these early lethal intractable diseases also present devastating irreversible pathology at birth or soon after. Therefore, any therapy would ideally be administered during the perinatal period to prevent, stop or ameliorate disease progression. The concept of perinatal gene therapy has moved a step further towards being a feasible approach to treating such disorders. This has primarily been driven by the recent discoveries that particular serotypes of adeno-associated virus (AAV gene delivery vectors have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier following intravenous administration. Furthermore, this has been safely demonstrated in perinatal mice and non-human primates. This review focuses on the progress made in using AAV to achieve systemic transduction and what this means for developing perinatal gene therapy for early lethal neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Compensatory cerebral motor control following presumed perinatal ischemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, Anouk; Potgieser, Adriaan R E; Brouwer, Oebele F; de Jong, Bauke M

    Case: A fifteen year-old left-handed girl presented with right-sided focal motor seizures. Neuroimaging showed a large left hemisphere lesion compatible with a middle cerebral artery stroke of presumed perinatal origin. She was not previously diagnosed with a motor deficit, although neurological

  10. Prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors associated with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Hadjkacem

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The present survey confirms the high prevalence of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors in children with ASD and suggests the intervention of some of these factors (acute fetal distress and difficult labor, among others, as determinant variables for the genesis of ASD.

  11. Perinatal characteristics, older siblings, and risk of ankylosing spondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, Ulf; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena; Askling, Johan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of circumstances and exposures early in life on the risk of developing ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine whether perinatal characteristics predict development of AS. METHODS: AS cases (n = 1960; 59 % men) were defined...

  12. Ethics in Perinatal Medicine | Adinma | Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The current trend in perinatal medicine addresses the challenge posed to newborn survival by newborn prematurity and other morbidities requiring neonatal newborn intensive care. These ethical concerns span through the spectrum of education, clinical practice and research, domicile in obstetrics and ...

  13. Mothers' perinatal and infant mental health knowledge in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This paper examines maternal knowledge regarding perinatal and infant mental health amongst mothers in Alexandra township, Johannesburg. ... the denial of negative maternal affect post-birth to elevated levels of post-natal depression found amongst South African mothers parenting in adverse circumstances.

  14. Effect of the maternal care manual from the perinatal education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To assess changes in the quality of antenatal and intrapartum care rendered by midwives following intervention with the Maternal Care Manual from the Perinatal Education Programme (PEP). Design. A prospective controlled study. Setting. A study town and two control towns in the Eastern Cape. Subjects.

  15. Mental health trajectories and related factors among perinatal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Chao; Hung, Chich-Hsiu

    2015-06-01

    To investigate Taiwanese women's mental health trajectories from the third trimester of pregnancy to four weeks postpartum and the correlations of these trajectories with perceived social support and demographic characteristics. Previous studies have reported differences between prenatal and postpartum mental health status. A repeated design study was conducted in a medical hospital in Southern Taiwan. One-hundred and ninety-four Taiwanese women completed the Chinese Health Questionnaire and Social Support Scale at the 36th prenatal week and first and fourth week postpartum. Three linear mental health trajectories for perinatal women were identified. Consistently poor perinatal mental health was reported by 16·0% of the participants. Less social support was associated with lower prenatal mental health scores. Younger age was a risk factor for consistently poor perinatal health. Vaginal delivery was associated with improved mental health after childbirth. Mental health was worse in the third trimester of pregnancy than postpartum. Less social support was associated with lower prenatal mental health scores, and this association was similarly distributed between women with consistently poor and improved mental health after birth. Health care providers should assess women's mental health status and provide timely interventions during the perinatal period. Social support should be provided for pregnant women, especially younger women or those with lower perceived social support. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Maternal and perinatal mortality figures in 249 South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the PMR for the black population is considerably hi9her than for the other ethnic groups. That said, perinatal mortality levels in South African blacks still compare favourably with figures from other African cQuntries.12. In conclusion, the MMRs and PMRs found in our survey of. 249 South African hospitals - though not truly.

  17. The potential for preventing the delivery and perinatal mortality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the potentiaJ for preventing the delivery and perinatal mortality of low-birth-weight (LBW) babies in a black urban population. Design. Cross-sectionaJ descriptive study. Setting. All women delivering babies weighing less than 2 500 g at Kalafong Hospital in a 6-month period (December 1991 - May ...

  18. Perinatal Asphyxia: A Review from a Metabolomics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fattuoni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia is defined as an oxygen deprivation that occurs around the time of birth, and may be caused by several perinatal events. This medical condition affects some four million neonates worldwide per year, causing the death of one million subjects. In most cases, infants successfully recover from hypoxia episodes; however, some patients may develop HIE, leading to permanent neurological conditions or impairment of different organs and systems. Given its multifactor dependency, the timing, severity and outcome of this disease, mainly assessed through Sarnat staging, are of difficult evaluation. Moreover, although the latest newborn resuscitation guideline suggests the use of a 21% oxygen concentration or room air, such an approach is still under debate. Therefore, the pathological mechanism is still not clear and a golden standard treatment has yet to be defined. In this context, metabolomics, a new discipline that has described important perinatal issues over the last years, proved to be a useful tool for the monitoring, the assessment, and the identification of potential biomarkers associated with asphyxia events. This review covers metabolomics research on perinatal asphyxia condition, examining in detail the studies reported both on animal and human models.

  19. Prenatal and Perinatal Risk Factors for Autism in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Lv, Cong-Chao; Tian, Jiang; Miao, Ru-Juan; Xi, Wei; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Qi, Lihong

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study using 190 Han children with and without autism to investigate prenatal and perinatal risk factors for autism in China. Cases were recruited through public special education schools and controls from regular public schools in the same region (Tianjin), with frequency matching on sex and birth year. Unadjusted…

  20. Trichomonas infection in pregnancy does it affect perinatal outcome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trichomonas infection in pregnancy does it affect perinatal outcome? S.M. Ross, A. van Middelkoop. Abstract. Antenatal patients free of Trichomonas vaginalis vaginal infection were compared with infected patients, half of whom were treated and half left untreated. The treated group was given. benzoyl metronidazole 50 ml ...

  1. Perinatal asphyxia in a specialist hospital in Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For outborn babies with no Apgar score recording, a history of poor cry from birth with either poor colour, respiratory distress, floppiness or loss of primitive reflexes were used. Results: One hundred and fifty seven of 630 babies admitted had perinatal asphyxia giving a prevalence of 29.4%. Mean gestational age of affected ...

  2. Psychosocial impact of perinatal loss among Muslim women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutan Rosnah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women of reproductive age are vulnerable to psychosocial problems, but these have remained largely unexplored in Muslim women in developing countries. The aim of this study was to explore and describe psychosocial impact and social support following perinatal loss among Muslim women. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in a specialist centre among Muslim mothers who had experienced perinatal loss. Purposive sampling to achieve maximum variation among Muslims in relation to age, parity and previous perinatal death was used. Data was collected by focus group discussion and in-depth unstructured interview until the saturation point met. Sixteen mothers who had recent perinatal loss of wanted pregnancy, had received antenatal follow up from public or private health clinics, and had delivery in our centre participated for the study. All of them had experienced psychological difficulties including feelings of confusion, emptiness and anxiety over facing another pregnancy. Results Two out of sixteen showed anger and one felt guilt. They reported experiencing a lack of communication and privacy in the hospital during the period of grief. Family members and friends play an important role in providing support. The majority agreed that the decision makers were husbands and families instead of themselves. The respondents felt that repetitive reminder of whatever happened was a test from God improved their sense of self-worth. They appreciated this reminder especially when it came from husband, family or friends closed to them. Conclusion Muslim mothers who had experienced perinatal loss showed some level of adverse psychosocial impact which affected their feelings. Husbands and family members were the main decision makers for Muslim women. Health care providers should provide psychosocial support during antenatal, delivery and postnatal care. On-going support involving husband should be available where needed.

  3. Prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors associated with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjkacem, Imen; Ayadi, Héla; Turki, Mariem; Yaich, Sourour; Khemekhem, Khaoula; Walha, Adel; Cherif, Leila; Moalla, Yousr; Ghribi, Farhat

    To identify prenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by comparing them to their siblings without autistic disorders. The present study is cross sectional and comparative. It was conducted over a period of three months (July-September 2014). It included 101 children: 50 ASD's children diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria and 51 unaffected siblings. The severity of ASD was assessed by the CARS. Our study revealed a higher prevalence of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors in children with ASD in comparison with unaffected siblings. It showed also a significant association between perinatal and postnatal factors and ASD (respectively p=0.03 and p=0.042). In this group, perinatal factors were mainly as type of suffering acute fetal (26% of cases), long duration of delivery and prematurity (18% of cases for each factor), while postnatal factors were represented principally by respiratory infections (24%). As for parental factors, no correlation was found between advanced age of parents at the moment of the conception and ASD. Likewise, no correlation was observed between the severity of ASD and different factors. After logistic regression, the risk factors retained for autism in the final model were: male gender, prenatal urinary tract infection, acute fetal distress, difficult labor and respiratory infection. The present survey confirms the high prevalence of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors in children with ASD and suggests the intervention of some of these factors (acute fetal distress and difficult labor, among others), as determinant variables for the genesis of ASD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. The evaluation of perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated with thrombophilias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Taner Kafadar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In our study we included pregnant patients diagnosed with thrombophilia and evaluated their follow up by thromboprophylaxy for perinatal outcomes. (pregnancy loss, preclampsia,small for gestational age, preterm labour, venous thrombosis. In addition to our study group we aimed to evaluate a control group with negative thrombophilia screen results and hypothesized similar perinatal outcomes in comparison with the study group. Materials-Methods: Pregnant subjects that applied to Çukurova University Hospital, between June 2010 - February 2012 were recruited in the study. Patients with a positive thrombophilia screen for primary and secondary recurrent pregnancy loss were initiated a thromboprophylaxia protocol in the first trimester and their demographic backgrounds and past obstetric histories were also recorded. In addition to this, the type of thrombophilia and number of thrombophilia defects were also noted and the route of birth and perinatal outcomes were evaluated prospectively. The control group included patients who had a history of recurrent unexplained miscarriages, with a negative thrombophilia screen. Differences between both groups were statistically significant at a p value <0.05. Results: 60 patients diagnosed thrombophilia were included in the study group, while 50 patients with unexplained recurrent miscarriage composed the control group. When the perinatal outcomes were compared; pregnancy loss, development of preeclampsia/eclampsia (p=0.257, small for gestational age birth rate (p=0.619, preterm birth rate (p=0.232 and the incidence of venous thrombosis (p=0.246 did not differ significantly. The cesarean section rate in the study group was 55% and 18% in the study group (p=0.000 and it was statistically significant between both groups. Discussion: Our study discovered similar findings and perinatal outcomes in patients with and without thrombophilia. The only significant difference between both groups was the difference in

  5. Eating disorders and trauma history in women with perinatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Zerwas, Stephanie; Leserman, Jane; Holle, Ann Von; Regis, Taylor; Bulik, Cynthia

    2011-06-01

    Although the prevalence of perinatal depression (depression occurring during pregnancy and postpartum) is 10%, little is known about psychiatric comorbidity in these women. We examined the prevalence of comorbid eating disorders (ED) and trauma history in women with perinatal depression. A research questionnaire was administered to 158 consecutive patients seen in a perinatal psychiatry clinic during pregnancy (n=99) or postpartum (n=59). Measures included Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) IV-based questions for lifetime eating psychopathology and assessments of comorbid psychiatric illness including the State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and Trauma Inventory. In this cohort, 37.1% reported a putative lifetime ED history; 10.1% reported anorexia nervosa (AN), 10.1% reported bulimia nervosa (BN), 10.1% reported ED not otherwise specified-purging subtype (EDNOS-P), and 7.0% reported binge eating disorder (BED). Women with BN reported more severe depression (EPDS score, 19.1, standard deviation [SD 4.3], p=0.02; PHQ-severity 14.5, SD 7.4, p=0.02) than the referent group of women with perinatal depression and no ED history (EPDS 13.3, SD=6.1; PHQ 9.0, SD=6.2). Women with AN were more likely to report sexual trauma history than the referent group (62.5% vs. 29.3%, pdepression and histories of physical and sexual trauma. Screening for histories of eating psychopathology is important in women with perinatal depression.

  6. Prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors associated with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Hadjkacem

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify prenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD by comparing them to their siblings without autistic disorders. Method: The present study is cross sectional and comparative. It was conducted over a period of three months (July-September 2014. It included 101 children: 50 ASD's children diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria and 51 unaffected siblings. The severity of ASD was assessed by the CARS. Results: Our study revealed a higher prevalence of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors in children with ASD in comparison with unaffected siblings. It showed also a significant association between perinatal and postnatal factors and ASD (respectively p = 0.03 and p = 0.042. In this group, perinatal factors were mainly as type of suffering acute fetal (26% of cases, long duration of delivery and prematurity (18% of cases for each factor, while postnatal factors were represented principally by respiratory infections (24%. As for parental factors, no correlation was found between advanced age of parents at the moment of the conception and ASD. Likewise, no correlation was observed between the severity of ASD and different factors. After logistic regression, the risk factors retained for autism in the final model were: male gender, prenatal urinary tract infection, acute fetal distress, difficult labor and respiratory infection. Conclusions: The present survey confirms the high prevalence of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors in children with ASD and suggests the intervention of some of these factors (acute fetal distress and difficult labor, among others, as determinant variables for the genesis of ASD.

  7. US and territory telemedicine policies: identifying gaps in perinatal care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroh, Ekwutosi M.; Kroelinger, Charlan D.; Smith, Alexander M.; Goodman, David A.; Barfield, Wanda D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Perinatal regionalization is a system of maternal and neonatal risk-appropriate health care delivery in which resources are ideally allocated for mothers and newborns during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and postpartum, in order to deliver appropriate care. Typically, perinatal risk-appropriate care is provided in-person, but with the advancement of technologies, the opportunity to provide care remotely has emerged. Telemedicine provides distance-based care to patients by consultation, diagnosis, and treatment in rural or remote US jurisdictions (states and territories). OBJECTIVE We sought to summarize the telemedicine policies of states and territories and assess if maternal and neonatal risk-appropriate care is specified. STUDY DESIGN We conducted a 2014 systematic World Wide Web–based review of publicly available rules, statutes, regulations, laws, planning documents, and program descriptions among US jurisdictions (N=59) on telemedicine care. Policies including language on the topics of consultation, diagnosis, or treatment, and those specific to maternal and neonatal risk-appropriate care were categorized for analysis. RESULTS Overall, 36 jurisdictions (32 states; 3 territories; and District of Columbia) (61%) had telemedicine policies with language referencing consultation, diagnosis, or treatment; 29 (49%) referenced consultation, 30 (51%) referenced diagnosis, and 35 (59%) referenced treatment. In all, 26 jurisdictions (22 states; 3 territories; and District of Columbia) (44%), referenced all topics. Only 3 jurisdictions (3 states; 0 territories) (5%), had policy language specifically addressing perinatal care. CONCLUSION The majority of states have published telemedicine policies, but few specify policy language for perinatal risk-appropriate care. By ensuring that language specific to the perinatal population is included in telemedicine policies, access to maternal and neonatal care can be increased in rural, remote, and resource

  8. Executive Functioning in Children and Adolescents With Perinatal HIV Infection and Perinatal HIV Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Sharon L; Chernoff, Miriam C; Malee, Kathleen M; Sirois, Patricia A; Woods, Steven P; Williams, Paige L; Yildirim, Cenk; Delis, Dean; Kammerer, Betsy

    2016-12-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are critical for management of life activities, but few studies have evaluated EFs in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV), who are at risk for problems in academics, behavior, and medication adherence. We compared EFs in youth with PHIV and in perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (PHEU) youth. Four Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) subtests were administered to 173 youth with PHIV and 85 PHEU youth, aged 9 to Executive Functioning Study. Youth with PHIV, with or without history of a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Class C (AIDS-defining) condition (PHIV/C [n = 45] and PHIV/non-C [n = 128], respectively), were compared with each other and with PHEU youth. Among youth with PHIV, associations with measures of current and past disease severity were evaluated using adjusted linear regression models. The PHIV/C group (mean age, 15.5 years), compared with the PHIV/non-C and PHEU groups (mean ages, 14.5 and 12.9 years, respectively), were significantly slower on the Inhibition and Color Naming/Reading Combined conditions of the Color-Word Interference subtest and made more errors on Inhibition; differences between the PHIV/C and PHEU groups persisted in adjusted models. No differences in adjusted means for fluency or problem-solving were found. The PHIV/non-C and PHEU groups did not differ on any measure. Associations of specific EF measures with HIV RNA viral load, CD4-positive T-lymphocyte percentage, and age at greatest disease severity were observed. Youth with PHIV and previous AIDS-defining conditions performed more poorly on some EF measures. Relationships of EF development with the degree and timing of disease severity require further study. Implications for long-term outcomes and interventions are important avenues for follow-up. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  9. Perinatal Depression Algorithm: A Home Visitor Step-by-Step Guide for Advanced Management of Perinatal Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszewski, Audrey; Wichman, Christina L.; Doering, Jennifer J.; Maletta, Kristyn; Hammel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood professionals do many things to support young families. This is true now more than ever, as researchers continue to discover the long-term benefits of early, healthy, nurturing relationships. This article provides an overview of the development of an advanced practice perinatal depression algorithm created as a step-by-step guide…

  10. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  11. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  12. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  13. Radiosynthesis and pre-clinical evaluation of [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Graham [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Zhao Yongjun [MDx Discovery (part of GE Healthcare) at Hammersmith Imanet, Ltd., Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Leyton, Julius [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Shan Bo [MDx Discovery (part of GE Healthcare) at Hammersmith Imanet, Ltd., Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Nguyen, Quang-de; Perumal, Meg [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Turton, David [GE-Imanet, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London, W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Arstad, Erik; Luthra, Sajinder K.; Robins, Edward G. [MDx Discovery (part of GE Healthcare) at Hammersmith Imanet, Ltd., Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom); Aboagye, Eric O., E-mail: eric.aboagye@imperial.ac.u [Comprehensive Cancer Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Introduction: Choline radiotracers are widely used for clinical PET diagnosis in oncology. [{sup 11}C]Choline finds particular utility in the imaging of brain and prostate tumor metabolic status, where 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ('FDG') shows high background uptake. More recently we have extended the clinical utility of [{sup 11}C]choline to breast cancer where radiotracer uptake correlates with tumor aggressiveness (grade). In the present study, a new choline analog, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline, was synthesized and evaluated as a potential PET imaging probe. Methods: [{sup 18}F]Fluorocholine, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1-{sup 2}H{sub 2}]choline and [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline were synthesized by alkylation of the relevant precursor with [{sup 18}F]fluorobromomethane or [{sup 18}F]fluoromethyl tosylate. Radiosynthesis of [{sup 18}F]fluoromethyl tosylate required extensive modification of the existing method. [{sup 18}F]Fluorocholine and [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline were then subjected to in vitro oxidative stability analysis in a chemical oxidation model using potassium permanganate and an enzymatic model using choline oxidase. The two radiotracers, together with the corresponding di-deuterated compound, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1-{sup 2}H{sub 2}]choline, were then evaluated in vivo in a time-course biodistribution study in HCT-116 tumor-bearing mice. Results: Alkylation with [{sup 18}F]fluoromethyl tosylate proved to be the most reliable radiosynthetic route. Stability models indicate that [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline possesses increased chemical and enzymatic (choline oxidase) oxidative stability relative to [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine. The distribution of the three radiotracers, [{sup 18}F]fluorocholine, [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1-{sup 2}H{sub 2}]choline and [{sup 18}F]fluoro-[1,2-{sup 2}H{sub 4}]choline, showed a similar uptake profile in most organs. Crucially, tumor uptake of [{sup 18}F

  14. Tissue methionine cycle activity and homocysteine metabolism in female rats: impact of dietary methionine and folate plus choline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, F.A.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Calder, A.G.; O'Kennedy, N.; Holtrop, G.; Rees, W.D.; Lobley, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Impaired transfer of methyl groups via the methionine cycle leads to plasma hyperhomocysteinemia. The tissue sources of plasma homocysteine in vivo have not been quantified nor whether hyperhomocysteinemia is due to increased entry or decreased removal. These issues were addressed in female rats

  15. Crystal structure of CbpF, a bifunctional choline-binding protein and autolysis regulator from Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Rafael; González, Ana; Stelter, Meike; Pérez-Dorado, Inmaculada; Kahn, Richard; Morales, María; Moscoso, Miriam; Campuzano, Susana; Campillo, Nuria E; Mobashery, Shahriar; García, José L; García, Pedro; Hermoso, Juan A

    2009-03-01

    Phosphorylcholine, a crucial component of the pneumococcal cell wall, is essential in bacterial physiology and in human pathogenesis because it binds to serum components of the immune system and acts as a docking station for the family of surface choline-binding proteins. The three-dimensional structure of choline-binding protein F (CbpF), one of the most abundant proteins in the pneumococcal cell wall, has been solved in complex with choline. CbpF shows a new modular structure composed both of consensus and non-consensus choline-binding repeats, distributed along its length, which markedly alter its shape, charge distribution and binding ability, and organizing the protein into two well-defined modules. The carboxy-terminal module is involved in cell wall binding and the amino-terminal module is crucial for inhibition of the autolytic LytC muramidase, providing a regulatory function for pneumococcal autolysis.

  16. Choline PET based dose-painting in prostate cancer - Modelling of dose effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyazi, Maximilian; Bartenstein, Peter; Belka, Claus; Ganswindt, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Several randomized trials have documented the value of radiation dose escalation in patients with prostate cancer, especially in patients with intermediate risk profile. Up to now dose escalation is usually applied to the whole prostate. IMRT and related techniques currently allow for dose escalation in sub-volumes of the organ. However, the sensitivity of the imaging modality and the fact that small islands of cancer are often dispersed within the whole organ may limit these approaches with regard to a clear clinical benefit. In order to assess potential effects of a dose escalation in certain sub-volumes based on choline PET imaging a mathematical dose-response model was developed. Based on different assumptions for α/β, γ50, sensitivity and specificity of choline PET, the influence of the whole prostate and simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) dose on tumor control probability (TCP) was calculated. Based on the given heterogeneity of all potential variables certain representative permutations of the parameters were chosen and, subsequently, the influence on TCP was assessed. Using schedules with 74 Gy within the whole prostate and a SIB dose of 90 Gy the TCP increase ranged from 23.1% (high detection rate of choline PET, low whole prostate dose, high γ50/ASTRO definition for tumor control) to 1.4% TCP gain (low sensitivity of PET, high whole prostate dose, CN + 2 definition for tumor control) or even 0% in selected cases. The corresponding initial TCP values without integrated boost ranged from 67.3% to 100%. According to a large data set of intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients the resulting TCP gains ranged from 22.2% to 10.1% (ASTRO definition) or from 13.2% to 6.0% (CN + 2 definition). Although a simplified mathematical model was employed, the presented model allows for an estimation in how far given schedules are relevant for clinical practice. However, the benefit of a SIB based on choline PET seems less than intuitively expected. Only under the

  17. Perinatal, sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of increased total and visceral fat mass levels in schoolchildren in Greece: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonis, George; Kaliora, Adriana C; Karatzi, Kalliopi; Michaletos, Aggelos; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Karachaliou, Alexandra K; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Manios, Yannis

    2017-03-01

    To identify possibly independent associations of perinatal, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors with childhood total and visceral body fat. A representative sample of 2655 schoolchildren (9-13 years) participated in the Healthy Growth Study, a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Seventy-seven primary schools in four large regions in Greece. A sample of 1228 children having full data on total and visceral fat mass levels, as well as on anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, physical examination, socio-economic and perinatal indices, was examined. Maternal (OR=3·03 and 1·77) and paternal obesity (OR=1·62 and 1·78), maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR=1·72 and 1·93) and rapid infant weight gain (OR=1·42 and 1·96) were significantly and positively associated with children's increased total and visceral fat mass levels, respectively. Children's television watching for >2 h/d (OR=1·40) and maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR=2·46) were associated with children's increased total and visceral fat mass level, respectively. Furthermore, increased children's physical activity (OR=0·66 and 0·47) were significantly and negatively associated with children's total and visceral fat mass levels, respectively. Lastly, both father's age >46 years (OR=0·57) and higher maternal educational level (OR=0·45) were associated with children's increased total visceral fat mass level. Parental sociodemographic characteristics, perinatal indices and pre-adolescent lifestyle behaviours were associated with children's abnormal levels of total and visceral fat mass. Any future programme for childhood prevention either from the perinatal age or at late childhood should take these indices into consideration.

  18. Long-term effects on biotransformation of labelled choline in different parts of the rat brain induced by single choline injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, A.; Wahlstroem, G.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term effects of single choline (Ch) injections on the uptake and metabolism of a tracer dose of /sup 3/H-Ch were studied in male rats. Choline was administered as a threshold infusion to obtain convulsions 10 and 4 weeks before sacrific (group 1). At a single threshold infusion of choline 4 weeks before sacrifice no convulsions were induced in 50% of the animals in a second group (group 2-) whereas convulsions were induced in the remainder of the animals in this group (group 2+). Group 3 contained control animals. One min. after administration of a tracer dose of /sup 3/H-Ch the animals were sacrificed and examined for /sup 3/H-total activity, /sup 3/H-Ch, /sup 3/H-acetylcholine (/sup 3/H-ACh) and /sup 3/H-phosphorylcholine (/sup 3/-H-PhCh). These activities were determined in three parts of the brain (cortex, striatum, midbrain + medulla oblongata). In the cortex a significant negative correlation between brain weight and /sup 3/H-ACh synthesis was seen in group 1. A comparison between group 2+ and group 2- indicated that induced convulsions were not critical for this effect. In the striatum there was a significant reduction in the total uptake of radioactivity in group 1 and group 2- when values were compared to the control group. Furthermore a significant positive correlation was detected between the concentration of radiolabel and /sup 3/H-ACh synthesis and a negative relationship with the level of /sup 3/H-Ch. In the midbrain preparation the synthesis of /sup 3/H-ACh was reduced in group 1 where a significant negative correlation was found between the average threshold dose of choline and both /sup 3/H-Ach and /sup 3/H-PhCh synthesis. Thus the Ch threshold doses given several weeks before testing seem to have long term effects on the uptake and utilization of a tracer dose of /sup 3/H-Ch in the cortex and striatum.

  19. Choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and MEK expression in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianhai; Zhang, Yufang; Liang, Chen; Wang, Nasui; Zheng, Heping; Wang, Jundong

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride is known to cause male reproductive toxicity, and the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms is an ongoing research focus in reproductive toxicology and epidemiology. Choline, an essential nutrient, has been extensively studied for its benefits in nervous system yet was rarely discussed for its prospective effect in male reproductive system. This study aims to explore the potential protective role of choline against NaF-induced male reproductive toxicity via MAPK pathway. The male mice were administrated by 150 mg/L NaF in drinking water, 5.75 g/kg choline in diet, and their combination respectively from maternal gestation to postnatal 15 weeks. The results showed that fluoride exposure reduced body weight growth, lowered sperm count and survival percentages, altered testicular histology, down-regulated the mRNA expressions of NGF, Ras, Raf, and MEK genes in testes, as well as significantly decreased the expressions of both NGF and phosphor-MEK proteins in testes. Examination of data from choline-treated mice revealed that choline supplementation ameliorated these fluoride-induced changes. Taken together, our findings suggest that choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and phosphor-MEK expression. The suitable dosage and supplementation periods of choline await further exploration. - Highlights: • Fluoride exposure altered the growth and development, sperm count and sperm survival percentages, testicular histology • Fluoride exposure decreased NGF, Ras, and Mek mRNA and NGF and p-MEK protein expressions in testis of mice. • Choline supplementation diminishes fluoride-induced testicular toxicity.

  20. Choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and MEK expression in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jianhai [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China); Zhang, Yufang [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China); Veterinary Station in Chen Villages of Lin Country, Linxian, Shanxi 033200 (China); Liang, Chen [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China); Wang, Nasui [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China); Zheng, Heping [Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Wang, Jundong, E-mail: wangjd53@outlook.com [Shanxi Key Laboratory of Ecological Animal Science and Environmental Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Fluoride is known to cause male reproductive toxicity, and the elucidation of its underlying mechanisms is an ongoing research focus in reproductive toxicology and epidemiology. Choline, an essential nutrient, has been extensively studied for its benefits in nervous system yet was rarely discussed for its prospective effect in male reproductive system. This study aims to explore the potential protective role of choline against NaF-induced male reproductive toxicity via MAPK pathway. The male mice were administrated by 150 mg/L NaF in drinking water, 5.75 g/kg choline in diet, and their combination respectively from maternal gestation to postnatal 15 weeks. The results showed that fluoride exposure reduced body weight growth, lowered sperm count and survival percentages, altered testicular histology, down-regulated the mRNA expressions of NGF, Ras, Raf, and MEK genes in testes, as well as significantly decreased the expressions of both NGF and phosphor-MEK proteins in testes. Examination of data from choline-treated mice revealed that choline supplementation ameliorated these fluoride-induced changes. Taken together, our findings suggest that choline supplementation alleviates fluoride-induced testicular toxicity by restoring the NGF and phosphor-MEK expression. The suitable dosage and supplementation periods of choline await further exploration. - Highlights: • Fluoride exposure altered the growth and development, sperm count and sperm survival percentages, testicular histology • Fluoride exposure decreased NGF, Ras, and Mek mRNA and NGF and p-MEK protein expressions in testis of mice. • Choline supplementation diminishes fluoride-induced testicular toxicity.

  1. Verbal and visual memory improve after choline supplementation in long-term total parenteral nutrition: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, A L; Sohel, M; Brown, M; Jenden, D J; Ahn, C; Roch, M; Brawley, T L

    2001-01-01

    Previous investigations have demonstrated that choline deficiency, manifested in low plasma-free choline concentration and hepatic injury, may develop in patients who require long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Preliminary studies have suggested lecithin or choline supplementation might lead to improved visual memory in the elderly and reverse abnormal neuropsychological development in children. We sought to determine if choline-supplemented TPN would lead to improvement in neuropsychological test scores in a group of adult, choline-deficient outpatients receiving TPN. Eleven subjects (8 males, 3 females) who received nightly TPN for more than 80% of their nutritional needs for at least 12 weeks before entry in the study were enrolled. Exclusion criteria included active drug abuse, mental retardation, cerebral vascular accident, head trauma, hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, (prothrombin time [PT] >2x control), or acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Patients were randomly assigned to receive their usual TPN regimen (n = 6, aged 34.0 +/- 12.6 years) over a 12-hour nightly infusion or their usual TPN regimen plus choline chloride (2 g) (n = 5, aged 37.3 +/- 7.3 years). The following neuropsychological tests were administered at baseline and after 24 weeks of choline supplementation (or placebo): Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R, intellectual functioning), Weschler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R, two subtests, verbal and visual memory), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (visuospatial functioning and perceptual organization), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (verbal fluency), Grooved Pegboard (manual dexterity and motor speed), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT, rote verbal learning ability), and Trail Making Parts A & B (visual scanning, psychomotor speed and set shifting). Scores were reported in terms of standard scores including z scores and percentile ranks. Mean absolute changes in raw scores were compared between groups

  2. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal Dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both resistance and endurance-trained athletes have a higher dietary protein requirement of between 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight (BW)/day, with an upper limit of 2 g protein/kg BW/day. To increase the rate of protein synthesis during the recovery period, immediate ingestion of protein postexercise is recommended ...

  3. Choline and/or folic acid deficiency is associated with genomic damage and cell death in human lymphocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Ni, Juan; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Weijiang; Fenech, Michael; Wang, Xu

    2012-04-01

    Choline and folate are interrelated methyl donors. Previous studies showed that folate prevents genomic damage in human lymphocytes in vitro; however, the association between choline and human genomic stability is uncertain. To explore the genotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and cytostatic effects and possible interactions of choline and/or folate deficiency on the human genome, lymphocytes from 6 volunteers were cultured in 18 combinations of choline (CC) and folic acid (FA) media for 9 days. The genotoxicity was evaluated by micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds in the binucleated cell; the cytotoxicity indices included apoptosis and necrosis, and the cytostatic effects were indicated by nuclear division index (NDI). Across all choline concentrations, the frequencies of all biomarkers except NDI were diminished when FA concentration was more than or equal to 120 nmol/L. The frequencies of micronuclei, buds, and necrosis were significantly higher at lower levels of CC (0-6 μmol/L) compared with higher concentrations of CC (12-21.5 μmol/L) while maintaining the same FA concentration. We concluded that both choline and folate significantly impact genomic stability and cell death, although effects of folate were 2.5- to 6.2-fold greater, depending on the biomarker and dose. A combination of 12 μmol/L CC and 120 nmol/L FA appears to be optimal for genomic integrity in vitro.

  4. Effect of choline supplementation on rapid weight loss and biochemical variables among female taekwondo and judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawy, Gehan; Abdelrahman, Osama; Hamza, Amr

    2014-03-27

    Taekwondo and judo competitions are divided into weight categories. Many athletes reduce their body mass a few days before competition in order to obtain a competitive advantage over lighter opponents. To achieve fast body mass reduction, athletes use a number of nutritional strategies, including choline supplementation. The goal of this study was to identify the effects of choline supplementation on body mass reduction and leptin levels among female taekwondo and judo athletes. Twenty-two female athletes (15 taekwondo and 7 judo athletes) were selected from different weight categories and divided into two groups, according to weight. The players in the experimental group took choline tablets for one week before a competition. The results revealed significant differences between pre- and post-competition measurements of leptin, free plasma choline, urine choline and urine malondialdehyde levels; body mass was also reduced in the post-competition measurements. In conclusion, choline supplementation could rapidly reduce body mass without any side effects on biochemical levels or static strength.

  5. Uptake of 3H-choline and synthesis of 3H-acetylcholine by human penile corpus cavernosum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, R.; Saenz de Tejada, I.; Azadzoi, K.; Goldstein, I.; Krane, R.J.; Wotiz, H.H.; Cohen, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The neuroeffectors which relax penile smooth muscle and lead to erection are unknown; physiological studies of human corpus cavernosum, in vitro, have suggested a significant role of cholinergic neurotransmission. To further characterize the importance of cholinergic nerves, biopsies of human corpus cavernosum were obtained at the time of penile prosthesis implantation. Tissues were incubated in 3 H-choline (10 -5 M, 80 Ci/mmol) in oxygenated physiological salt solution at 37 0 C, pH 7.4 for 1 hour. Radiolabelled compounds were extracted with perchloric acid (0.4 M) and acetylcholine and choline were separated by HPLC; 14 C-acetylcholine was used as internal standard. 3 H-choline was accumulated by the tissues (20 +/- 1.9 fmol/mg), and 3 H-acetylcholine was synthesized (4.0 +/- 1.1 fmol/mg). In control experiments, heating of the tissue blocked synthesis of 3 H-acetylcholine. Inhibition of high affinity choline transport by hemicholinium-3 (10 -5 M) diminished tissue accumulation of 3 H-choline and significantly reduced the synthesis of 3 H-acetylcholine (0.5 +/ 0.2 fmol/mg, p < 0.05). These results provide direct evidence of neuronal accumulation of choline and enzymatic conversion to acetylcholine in human corpus cavernosum. Taken together with the physiological studies, it can be concluded that cholinergic neurotransmission in human corpus cavernosum plays a role in penile erection

  6. Usefulness of Choline-PET for the detection of residual hemangiopericytoma in the skull base: comparison with FDG-PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Shin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choline is a new PET tracer that is useful for the detection of malignant tumor. Choline is a precursor of the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine, a major phospholipid in the cell membrane of eukaryotic cells. Malignant tumors have an elevated level of phosphatidylcholine in cell membrane. Thus, choline is a marker of tumor malignancy. Method The patient was a 51-year-old man with repeated recurrent hemangiopericytoma in the skull base. We performed Choline-PET in this patient after various treatments and compared findings with those of FDG-PET. Results Choline accumulated in this tumor, but FDG did not accumulate. We diagnosed this tumor as residual hemangiopericytoma and performed the resection of the residual tumor. FDG-PET is not appropriate for skull base tumor detection because uptake in the brain is very strong. Conclusion We emphasize the usefulness of Choline-PET for the detection of residual hemangiopericytoma in the skull base after various treatments, compared with FDG-PET.

  7. Introduction of a qualitative perinatal audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Angela N

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perinatal death is a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Regular perinatal audit may identify suboptimal care related to perinatal deaths and thus appropriate measures for its reduction. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative perinatal audit of intrapartum and early neonatal deaths and propose means of reducing the perinatal mortality rate (PMR. Methods From 1st August, 2007 to 31st December, 2007 we conducted an audit of perinatal deaths (n = 133 with birth weight 1500 g or more at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH. The audit was done by three obstetricians, two external and one internal auditors. Each auditor independently evaluated the cases narratives. Suboptimal factors were identified in the antepartum, intrapartum and early neonatal period and classified into three levels of delay (community, infrastructure and health care. The contribution of each suboptimal factor to adverse perinatal outcome was identified and the case graded according to possible avoidability. Degree of agreement between auditors was assessed by the kappa coefficient. Results The PMR was 92 per 1000 total births. Suboptimal factors were identified in 80% of audited cases and half of suboptimal factors were found to be the likely cause of adverse perinatal outcome and were preventable. Poor foetal heart monitoring during labour was indirectly associated with over 40% of perinatal death. There was a poor to fair agreement between external and internal auditors. Conclusion There are significant areas of care that need improvement. Poor monitoring during labour was a major cause of avoidable perinatal mortality. This type of audit was a good starting point for quality assurance at MNH. Regular perinatal audits to identify avoidable causes of perinatal deaths with feed back to the staff may be a useful strategy to reduce perinatal mortality.

  8. The analysis of perinatal morbidity and mortality in conditions of perinatal center and the ways of its decrease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нана Мерабівна Пасієшвілі

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. The analysis of perinatal morbidity and mortality in the condition of one perinatal center of Ukraine and optimization of the possible ways of its decrease.Methods of research. There was analyze the work of Kharkiv regional center in 2011–2015 years taking into account the rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality and factors that have influence on it. There were studied the next parameters: the number of newborns, its apportionment on the weight category, survival, general morbidity, mortality structure of the full-term and premature children. Statistical processing of the received results was carried out using Statistica 6.0 program.Results of research. The frequency of normal delivery in perinatal center is in average 58,9 %. The rates of neonatal mortality decreased– 4,11 ‰ (in 2011 year – 8,23 ‰ and early neonatal one – 3,34 ‰ (in 2011 year – 6,44 ‰. The survival of newborns with extremely low body weight (500- 999 g in first 0-168 hours was 62,50 %; with body weight 1000 – 1499 g – 82,35 %; with body weight at delivery 1500-2499 g was 98,17 %, survival of newborns with body weight > 2500 g in the first 0-6 days was 99,75 % .The morbidity structure of full-term children still almost unchangeable during the last 5 years: asphyxia, congenital defects of development, arrest of foetus growth, cerebral ischemia, intrauterine infection, birth trauma. The morbidity structure of premature ones: respiratory disorder syndrome, intrauterine infection; asphyxia, congenital defects of development, arrest of foetus growth.Among the mortality causes the main ones were congenial defects of development (prevailed in full-term children and intrauterine infection (on the first place in premature children. The perinatal mortality rate in 2015 year was 18,22 %о, in 2011year – 26,65 %о . The maternal foetus infection is the very frequent cause of stillbirth and pre-term birth and as the result the birth of small

  9. Antenatal dietary patterns and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and early post-partum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Rachel; Hill, Briony; Jacka, Felice N; O'Neil, Adrienne; Skouteris, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Perinatal depression is a debilitating disorder experienced during pregnancy and/or the first year post-partum. Recently, maternal dietary intake during pregnancy has emerged as a possible area of intervention for the prevention of mental disorders in women and their offspring. However, the relationship between antenatal diet quality and perinatal depressive symptoms remains poorly understood. The current study explored the predictive role of antenatal diet quality for antenatal and post-natal depressive symptoms. Pregnant women (n = 167) were recruited between February 2010 and December 2011. Women completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at time 1 [T1, mean weeks gestation = 16.70, standard deviation (SD) = 0.91], time 2 (T2, mean weeks gestation = 32.89, SD = 0.89) and time 3 (T3, mean weeks post-partum = 13.51, SD = 1.97) and a food frequency questionnaire at T1 and T2. Diet quality was determined by extracting dietary patterns via principal components analysis. Two dietary patterns were identified: 'healthy' (including fruit, vegetables, fish and whole grains) and 'unhealthy' (including sweets, refined grains, high-energy drinks and fast foods). Associations between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms were investigated by path analyses. While both 'healthy' and 'unhealthy' path models showed good fit, only one significant association consistent with study hypotheses was found, an 'unhealthy' diet was associated with increased depressive symptoms at 32 weeks gestation. Given that this association was cross-sectional, it was not possible to make any firm conclusions about the predictive nature of either dietary patterns or depressive symptoms. Dietary intervention studies or larger prospective studies are therefore recommended. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Acetylcholine and choline contents of rat skeletal muscle determined by a radioenzymatic microassay: effects of drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consolo, S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a specific, radioenzymatic microassay for measuring picomole quantities of ACh in skeletal muscle. The levels of ACh as well ascholine in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL), soleus and gastrocnemiusmuscles of the rat are reported after focussed microwave irradiation to the hind limb to prevent post-mortem changes in ACh and choline contents. Particular attention was directed to the effect of some drugs potently affecting neuromuscular transmission at the end plate. Preparation of tissue samples, extraction and electrophoresis are described. A 26 ul portion of a second incubation mixture of tritium-acetylcoenzyme A and 14 ul of a partially purified choline acetyltransferase solution were added. A flow sheet giving an overview of he analytical steps involved in the method are shown

  11. Choline uptake in the hippocampus: inhibition of septal-hippocampal cholinergenic neurons by intraventricular barbiturates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The author attempts to determine where in the brain pentobarbital acts to cause the inhibition of high-affinity, sodium-dependent choline uptake, and what behavioral consequences result from this particular effect of barbituates. The experiments were done in male Wistar rats which had received an injection of Nivea cream injected directly to the acannula. In the experiments the drug solution injected into the lateral ventricle was also spiked with ( 14 C) - phenobarbital at a final specific activity of 5 dpm/nmole so that a more precise estimate of the spread of drug solution could be made. When a phenobarbital-Fast green Dye mixture was injected bilaterally into the lateral ventricles, the dye was found to have spread through the entire ventricular system when the rat was killed 10-20 min later. Choline uptake in the hippocampus was inhibited and the inhibition was apparently greater of 20 min rather than 10 min were allowed to elapse after the injection

  12. DNA methylation potential: dietary intake and blood concentrations of one-carbon metabolites and cofactors in rural African women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Moore, Sophie E; Cole, Darren; da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Cox, Sharon E; Dyer, Roger A; Fulford, Anthony JC; Innis, Sheila M; Waterland, Robert A; Zeisel, Steven H; Prentice, Andrew M; Hennig, Branwen J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Animal models show that periconceptional supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B-12, choline, and betaine can induce differences in offspring phenotype mediated by epigenetic changes in DNA. In humans, altered DNA methylation patterns have been observed in offspring whose mothers were exposed to famine or who conceived in the Gambian rainy season. Objective: The objective was to understand the seasonality of DNA methylation patterns in rural Gambian women. We studied natural variations in dietary intake of nutrients involved in methyl-donor pathways and their effect on the respective metabolic biomarkers. Design: In 30 women of reproductive age (18–45 y), we monitored diets monthly for 1 y by using 48-h weighed records to measure intakes of choline, betaine, folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamins B-6 and B-12. Blood biomarkers of these nutrients, S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), homocysteine, cysteine, and dimethylglycine were also assessed monthly. Results: Dietary intakes of riboflavin, folate, choline, and betaine varied significantly by season; the most dramatic variation was seen for betaine. All metabolic biomarkers showed significant seasonality, and vitamin B-6 and folate had the highest fluctuations. Correlations between dietary intakes and blood biomarkers were found for riboflavin, vitamin B-6, active vitamin B-12 (holotranscobalamin), and betaine. We observed a seasonal switch between the betaine and folate pathways and a probable limiting role of riboflavin in these processes and a higher SAM/SAH ratio during the rainy season. Conclusions: Naturally occurring seasonal variations in food-consumption patterns have a profound effect on methyl-donor biomarker status. The direction of these changes was consistent with previously reported differences in methylation of metastable epialleles. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01811641. PMID:23576045

  13. Choline and Working Memory Training Improve Cognitive Deficits Caused by Prenatal Exposure to Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaylyn Waddell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with deficits in executive function such as working memory, reversal learning and attentional set shifting in humans and animals. These behaviors are dependent on normal structure and function in cholinergic brain regions. Supplementation with choline can improve many behaviors in rodent models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and also improves working memory function in normal rats. We tested the hypothesis that supplementation with choline in the postnatal period will improve working memory during adolescence in normal and ethanol-exposed animals, and that working memory engagement during adolescence will transfer to other cognitive domains and have lasting effects on executive function in adulthood. Male and female offspring of rats fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet (ET; 3% v/v or control dams given a non-ethanol liquid diet (CT were injected with choline (Cho; 100 mg/kg or saline (Sal once per day from postnatal day (P 16–P30. Animals were trained/tested on a working memory test in adolescence and then underwent attentional set shifting and reversal learning in young adulthood. In adolescence, ET rats required more training to reach criterion than CT-Sal. Choline improved working memory performance for both CT and ET animals. In young adulthood, ET animals also performed poorly on the set shifting and reversal tasks. Deficits were more robust in ET male rats than female ET rats, but Cho improved performance in both sexes. ET male rats given a combination of Cho and working memory training in adolescence required significantly fewer trials to achieve criterion than any other ET group, suggesting that early interventions can cause a persistent improvement.

  14. [Perinatal mortality in dogs. Clinical, bacteriological and pathological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, M; Remmers, C

    1990-08-01

    1. In intensively operated dog breeding kennels bacterial infections are very significant in perinatal mortality. 2. Staph. aureus, Streptococci (type G) and also beta-haemolytic E. coli were transmitted intra-uterine or by the infected genital tract to the puppies. In many cases they are the cause of septicaemic death of the puppies. 3. A second important cause of infection is subclinical mastitis of the bitch, leading to septicaemic death of newborn puppies. 4. Prophylactic hygienic measures make possible a prognosis concerning the risk of perinatal death. This includes examinations of the dog and the bitch ante coitum, bacteriological examination of the genital tract of the bitch, and a bacteriological examination of the milk before the date of birth. 5. Prophylactic hygienic measures in combination with antibiotic treatment of the bitch or the puppies could reduce the losses of puppies to less than 10%.

  15. Perinatal mortality--a suitable index of health worldwide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, A

    1986-11-22

    As a result of cultural factors, perinatal mortality may not be the most appropriate measure of health. Comparisons of the health of different countries should not be based on only 1 criterion unless general attitudes are the same. In developed countries, where abortion is widely available, unwanted pregnancies are handled before delivery. In some developing countries in Africa, however, population control may take the form of allowing a newborn to die of starvation, for example. Given this cultural difference, Third World countries rank lowest in perinatal health. It is suggested that mortality and morbidity should be calculated decade by decade before an index is derived. A 20-year old from a developing country, where there is no drug problem and attempted suicide is rare, might receive a higher health rating than his counterpart in developed countries.

  16. Perinatal outcome of pregnancies complicated by threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; Premi, H K; Gupta, T V; Thakur, S; Gupta, K B; Randhawa, I

    1994-11-01

    One hundred and two cases of viable pregnancies with threatened abortion were studied in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology, Kamla Nehru Hospital, IG Medical College, Shimla between November 1987 and February 1989 and their perinatal outcome was evaluated. The pregnancies continued beyond 28 weeks in 61.7% of the cases. The incidence of prematurity was 19.0%. The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) babies was 23.8%. Apgar score was less than 7 in 22.3%. The incidence of neonatal complications was 25.3%. There was no perinatal mortality. In a control group of 50 cases, the incidence of prematurity and LBW was 8% and 4% respectively. Apgar score less than 7 was noted in 4% and neonatal complications were observed only in 4% of newborns.

  17. Mobile phone intervention reduces perinatal mortality in zanzibar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Stine; Rasch, Vibeke; Hemed, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mobile phones are increasingly used in health systems in developing countries and innovative technical solutions have great potential to overcome barriers of access to reproductive and child health care. However, despite widespread support for the use of mobile health technologies......, evidence for its role in health care is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the association between a mobile phone intervention and perinatal mortality in a resource-limited setting. METHODS: This study was a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, controlled trial with primary health care facilities...... care facilities in six districts were randomized to either mobile phone intervention or standard care. The intervention consisted of a mobile phone text message and voucher component. Secondary outcome measures included stillbirth, perinatal mortality, and death of a child within 42 days after birth...

  18. Prenatal diagnosis and perinatal management of congenital hydrocephalus using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Hiromi; Koresawa, Mitsuhiko; Kubo, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    We studied congenital hydrocephalus in 14 patients who were diagnosed prenatally. As a result, we obtained the following insights concerning the prenatal diagnosis by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and perinatal management of congenital hydrocephalus. Accurate diagnosis of congenital hydrocephalus was impossible prenatally by two-dimensional ultrasonography or computed tomography alone in some patients. MRI was useful for accurate prenatal diagnosis. Problem of MRI in prenatal diagnosis included deterioration of the image by fetal movements and safety concern over the fetus. The cause of hydrocephalus, complicated anomaly, cerebral cortical thickness, and gestational age must be considered in the perinatal management of congenital hydrocephalus. There appeared to be a chance of recovery to a certain extent from thinning of cerebral cortex by decompression in a patient in whom dilation of cerebral ventricles progressed rapidly. (author)

  19. Perinatal Depression and Patterns of Attachment: A Critical Risk Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Meuti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aims to verify if the presence and severity of perinatal depression are related to any particular pattern of attachment. Methods. The study started with a screening of a sample of 453 women in their third trimester of pregnancy, who were administered a survey data form, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS and the Experience in Close Relationship (ECR. A clinical group of subjects with perinatal depression (PND, 89 subjects was selected and compared with a control group (C, regarding psychopathological variables and attachment patterns. Results. The ECR showed a prevalence of “Fearful-Avoidant” attachment style in PND group (29.2% versus 1.1%, p<0.001; additionally, the EPDS average score increases with the increasing of ECR dimensions (Avoidance and Anxiety. Conclusion. The severity of depression increases proportionally to attachment disorganization; therefore, we consider attachment as both an important risk factor as well as a focus for early psychotherapeutic intervention.

  20. Perinatal and Early Childhood Environmental Factors Influencing Allergic Asthma Immunopathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Kanchongkittiphon, Watcharoot; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the past several decades. While hereditary factors are highly important, the rapid rise outstrips the pace of genomic variation. Great emphasis has been placed on potential modifiable early life exposures leading to childhood asthma. Methods We reviewed the recent medical literature for important studies discussing the role of the perinatal and early childhood exposures and the inception of childhood asthma. Results and Discussion Early life exposure to allergens (House dust mite (HDM), furred pets, cockroach, rodent and mold)air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and particulate matter (PM)) and viral respiratory tract infections (Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (hRV)) have been implicated in the development of asthma in high risk children. Conversely, exposure to microbial diversity in the perinatal period may diminish the development of atopy and asthma symptoms. PMID:24952205

  1. Suicide During Perinatal Period: Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Clinical Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Orsolini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal period may pose a great challenge for the clinical management and treatment of psychiatric disorders in women. In fact, several mental illnesses can arise during pregnancy and/or following childbirth. Suicide and infanticide have been considered relatively rare events during the perinatal period. However, in some mental disorders (i.e. postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, postpartum psychosis, etc. have been reported a higher risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt or suicide. Therefore, a complete screening of mothers’ mental health should also take into account thoughts of suicide and thoughts about harming infants as well. Clinicians should carefully monitor and early identify related clinical manifestations, potential risk factors and alarm symptoms related to suicide. The present paper aims at providing a focused review about epidemiological data, risk and protective factors and an overview about the main clinical correlates associated with the suicidal behaviour during the pregnancy and postpartum period.

  2. Obstetric interventions and perinatal asphyxia in growth retarded term infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhoff-Roos, J; Lindmark, G

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The monitoring of fetal growth during pregnancy is usually justified because of the increased perinatal risk of these babies. METHODS: In 1552 infants from the Scandinavian Small for Gestational Age Study the need for obstetric interventions, risk of fetal asphyxia and immediate...... neonatal outcome at term have been studied in relation to different types of fetal growth retardation, including sub-groups with low ponderal index or low amount of subcutaneous fat. RESULTS: The need for obstetric intervention indicated by suspected fetal asphyxia before or during labor was increased 3......-fold (6-8%) for growth retarded infants both in SGA infants in general and infants with asymmetric body proportions. The immediate perinatal outcome, however, was favorable with Apgar below 8 at 5 min in only 2% irrespective of the type of growth retardation, in spite of the fact that less than 25...

  3. Perinatal exposure to music protects spatial memory against callosal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagdei, Anca; Balteş, Felicia Rodica; Avram, Julia; Miu, Andrei C

    2010-02-01

    Several studies have indicated that the exposure of rodents to music modulates brain development and neuroplasticity, by mechanisms that involve facilitated hippocampal neurogenesis, neurotrophin synthesis and glutamatergic signaling. This study focused on the potential protection that the perinatal exposure to music, between postnatal days 2 and 32, could offer against functional deficits induced by neonatal callosotomy in rats. The spontaneous alternation and marble-burying behaviors were longitudinally measured in callosotomized and control rats that had been exposed to music or not. The results indicated that the neonatal callosotomy-induced spontaneous alternation deficits that became apparent only after postnatal day 45, about the time when the rat corpus callosum reaches its maximal levels of myelination. The perinatal exposure to music efficiently protected the spontaneous alternation performance against the deficits induced by callosotomy. The present findings may offer important insights into music-induced neuroplasticity, relevant to brain development and neurorehabilitation. Copyright 2009 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 11C-Choline PET/pathology image coregistration in primary localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosu, Anca-Ligia; Prokic, Vesna; Weirich, Gregor; Wendl, Christina; Geinitz, Hans; Molls, Michael; Kirste, Simon; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Schwaiger, Markus; Gschwend, Juergen E.; Treiber, Uwe; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Krause, Bernd Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for the comparison of pathology specimens after prostatectomy (post-S) with PET images obtained before surgery (pre-S). This method was used to evaluate the merit of 11 C-choline PET/CT for delineation of gross tumour volume (GTV) in prostate cancer (PC). In 28 PC patients, 11 C-choline PET/CT was performed before surgery. PET/CT data were coregistered with the pathology specimens. GTV on PET images (GTV-PET) was outlined automatically and corrected manually. Tumour volume in the prostate (TVP) was delineated manually on the pathology specimens. Based on the coregistered PET/pathology images, the following parameters were assessed: SUVmax and SUVmean in the tumoral and nontumoral prostate (NP), GTV-PET (millilitres) and TVP (millilitres). PET/pathology image coregistration was satisfactory. Mean SUVmax in the TVP was lower than in the NP: 5.0 and 5.5, respectively (p = 0.093). Considering the entire prostate, SUVmax was located in the TVP in two patients, in the TVP and NP in 12 patients and exclusively in NP in 14 patients. Partial overlap the TVP and GTV-PET was seen in 71 % of patients, and complete overlap in 4 %. PET/pathology image coregistration can be used for evaluation of different imaging modalities. 11 C-Choline PET failed to distinguish tumour from nontumour tissue. (orig.)

  5. Choline Modulation of the Aβ P1-40 Channel Reconstituted into a Model Lipid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Meleleo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs, implicated in memory and learning, in subjects affected by Alzheimer's disease result altered. Stimulation of α7-nAChRs inhibits amyloid plaques and increases ACh release. β-amyloid peptide (AβP forms ion channels in the cell and model phospholipid membranes that are retained responsible in Alzheimer disease. We tested if choline, precursor of ACh, could affect the AβP1-40 channels in oxidized cholesterol (OxCh and in palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC:Ch lipid bilayers. Choline concentrations of 5 × 10−11 M–1.5 × 10−8 M added to the cis- or trans-side of membrane quickly increased AβP1-40 ion channel frequency (events/min and ion conductance in OxCh membranes, but not in POPC:Ch membranes. Circular Dichroism (CD spectroscopy shows that after 24 and 48 hours of incubation with AβP1-40, choline stabilizes the random coil conformation of the peptide, making it less prone to fibrillate. These actions seem to be specific in that ACh is ineffective either in solution or on AβP1-40 channel incorporated into PLMs.

  6. The use of choline in association with the Bangerter filters for the treatment of amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelio Sabetti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effects of choline combined with Bangerter filter in the treatment of amblyopia. All amblyopic subjects used a Bangerter filter on the corrective spectacle lens (1d over the left eye, 1d over the right eye. Choline was then administered orally to 39 patients once daily, five days per week for the entire study period. Subjects treated with the Bangerter filter showed a mean visual acuity of 0.27 logMAR; at 12mo of treatment, the mean visual acuity reached 0.09 logMAR. Patients treated with the Bangerter filter and citicoline showed a mean visual acuity of 0.35 logMAR; at 12mo of treatment, the mean visual acuity reached 0.01 logMAR. No significant changes in the angle of deviation were observed in both groups. Subjects in both forms of amblyopia therapies demonstrated an increase in visual acuity. However, these effects were markedly enhanced when coupled with the administration of choline. Findings suggest that the effects are particularly relevant in the more severe amblyopic cases.

  7. Choline-Deficient-Diet-Induced Fatty Liver Is a Metastasis-Resistant Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Miki; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Kosuke; Matsumoto, Takuro; Aoki, Hitomi; Kunisada, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Saji, Shigetoyo; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-07-01

    Fatty liver disease is increasing in the developed and developing world. Liver metastasis from malignant lymphoma in the fatty liver is poorly understood. In a previous report, we developed color-coded imaging of the tumor microenvironment (TME) of the murine EL4-RFP malignant lymphoma during metastasis, including the lung. In the present report, we investigated the potential and microenvironment of the fatty liver induced by a choline-deficient diet as a metastatic site in this mouse lymphoma model. C57BL/6-GFP transgenic mice were fed with a choline-deficient diet in order to establish a fatty liver model. EL4-RFP cells were injected in the spleen of normal mice and fatty-liver mice. Metastases in mice with fatty liver or normal liver were imaged with the Olympus SZX7 microscope and the Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope. Metastases of EL4-RFP were observed in the liver, ascites and bone marrow. Primary tumors were imaged in the spleen at the injection site. The fewest metastases were observed in the fatty liver. In addition, the fewest cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) were observed in the fatty liver. The relative metastatic resistance of the fatty liver may be due to the reduced number of CAFs in the fatty livers. The mechanism of the effect of the choline-deficient diet is discussed. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy and its relation to perinatal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Anjana Verma; Smita Baheti; Medhavi Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is one of the cause for adverse perinatal outcome. Pregnant women are at high risk for UTIs. Women exposed to antepartum urinary tract infection had increased incidence of delivering infants with low birth weights, premature infants, preterm infants with low birth weights, than those who were not exposed. Women exposed to antepartum urinary tract infection were also more likely to experience premature labor, hypertension or preeclampsia and anemia. Meth...

  9. Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Selfefficacy and Perinatal Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Gerçek; Hakan Şen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to give knowledge about effects on perinatal outcomes of self-efficacy in management of gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a significant health concern due to the potentially adverse outcomes for the mother and the fetus/infant. Close monitoring and treatment of GDM are important to the long-term health of a pregnant woman and her baby. More over, maternal metabolic control during pregnancy may positively impact women’s...

  10. [Perinatal complications in patients with chronic renal insufficiency on hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rodríguez, Juan Gustavo; del Angel-García, Guadalupe

    2010-09-01

    Pregnant patients with chronic renal insufficiency treated with hemodialysis experience adverse perinatal results. To compare perinatal complications of patients with chronic renal insufficiency undergoing hemodialysis who become pregnant vs. the complications of women with chronic renal insufficiency not undergoing dialysis but who then require dialysis during gestation. Transversal and retrospective study that included three patients with chronic renal insufficiency on chronic hemodialysis who became pregnant (group A) and three patients with chronic renal insufficiency without hemodialysis at the time of conception but who required dialysis during gestation (group B). Perinatal results were compared. Statistical analysis was performed with measures of central tendency and dispersion and Student t-test. Group A had 25 sessions vs. group B with 29 hemodialysis sessions (p = 0.88). Maternal complications were anemia 100% (six cases), Cesarean delivery 83.3% (group A 2 cases vs. group B 2 cases), preeclampsia 50% (group A 2 cases vs. group B 1 case), uncontrolled hypertension 50% (group A 2 cases vs. group B 1 case), preterm delivery 50% (group A 2 cases vs. group B 1 case), transfusion 33.3% (group A 2 cases), polyhydramnios 33.3% (group A 1 case vs. group B 1 case) and abortion 16.6% (group A 1 case). Fetal complications included fetal loss 16.6% (group A 1 case), neonatal mortality 33.3% (group A 1 cases vs. group B 1 case), prematurity 50% (group A2 cases vs. group B 1 case), fetal distress 50% (group A 1 case vs. group B 2 cases), respiratory failure 33.3% (group A 2 cases) and fetal growth restriction 16.6% (group A 1 case). Frequency of perinatal complications is elevated in both groups.

  11. Faith, Trust and the Perinatal Healthcare Maze in Urban India

    OpenAIRE

    S. Raman

    2014-01-01

    How women access and utilise health services through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy needs to be understood if we are to improve the delivery of and access to appropriate healthcare. Drawing on ethnographic observations of clinic encounters and in-depth interviews with women in Bangalore, South India, this paper reports on the complexities of negotiating healthcare throughout the perinatal continuum in urban India. Key themes identified include faith and trust in health services, confusion ...

  12. Perinatal asphyxia: CNS development and deficits with delayed onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eHerrera-Marschitz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia constitutes a prototype of obstetric complications occurring when pulmonary oxygenation is delayed or interrupted. The primary insult relates to the duration of the period lacking oxygenation, leading to death if not re-established. Re-oxygenation leads to a secondary insult, related to a cascade of biochemical events required for restoring proper function. Perinatal asphyxia interferes with neonatal development, resulting in long-term deficits associated to mental and neurological diseases with delayed clinical onset, by mechanisms not yet clarified.In the experimental scenario, the effects observed long after perinatal asphyxia have been explained by over expression of sentinel proteins, such as poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1, competing for NAD+ during re-oxygenation, leading to the idea that sentinel protein inhibition constitutes a suitable therapeutic strategy. Asphyxia induces transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory factors, in tandem with PARP-1 overactivation, and pharmacologically induced PARP-1 inhibition also down-regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide has been proposed as a suitable PARP-1 inhibitor. Its effect has been studied in an experimental model of global hypoxia in rats. In that model, the insult is induced by immersing rat foetuses into a water bath for various periods of time. Following asphyxia, the pups are delivered, treated, and nursed by surrogate dams, pending further experiments. Nicotinamide rapidly distributes into the brain following systemic administration, reaching steady state concentrations sufficient to inhibit PARP-1 activity for several hours, preventing several of the long-term consequences of perinatal asphyxia, supporting the idea that it constitutes a lead for exploring compounds with similar or better pharmacological profiles.

  13. Severe myocardial injury and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation following perinatal asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Benson Ham

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn and is associated with myocardial injury in a significant proportion of cases. Biomarkers, echocardiography, and rhythm disturbances are sensitive indicators of myocardial ischemia and may predict mortality. We present a case of severe myocardial dysfunction immediately after delivery managed with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO and discuss the role of cardiac biomarkers, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and ECMO in the asphyxiated newborn.

  14. Pregnancy, obstetric, and perinatal health outcomes in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linna, Milla S; Raevuori, Anu; Haukka, Jari; Suvisaari, Jaana M; Suokas, Jaana T; Gissler, Mika

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess pregnancy, obstetric, and perinatal health outcomes and complications in women with lifetime eating disorders. Female patients (n = 2257) who were treated at the Eating Disorder Clinic of Helsinki University Central Hospital from 1995-2010 were compared with unexposed women from the population (n = 9028). Register-based information on pregnancy, obstetric, and perinatal health outcomes and complications were acquired for all singleton births during the follow-up period among women with broad anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 302 births), broad bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 724), binge eating disorder (BED; n = 52), and unexposed women (n = 6319). Women with AN and BN gave birth to babies with lower birthweight compared with unexposed women, but the opposite was observed in women with BED. Maternal AN was related to anemia, slow fetal growth, premature contractions, short duration of the first stage of labor, very premature birth, small for gestational age, low birthweight, and perinatal death. Increased odds of premature contractions, resuscitation of the neonate, and very low Apgar score at 1 minute were observed in mothers with BN. BED was associated positively with maternal hypertension, long duration of the first and second stage of labor, and birth of large-for-gestational-age infants. Eating disorders appear to be associated with several adverse perinatal outcomes, particularly in offspring. We recommend close monitoring of pregnant women with either a past or current eating disorder. Attention should be paid to children who are born to these mothers. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Tei index in neonatal respiratory distress and perinatal asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Anwer Attia Khattab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular compromise is a common complication of neonatal respiratory distress and perinatal asphyxia. Tei index is a Doppler-derived index for the assessment of overall left ventricular function that combines systolic and diastolic time intervals. Aim: Assess the role of MPI versus cardiac troponin I as early indicator of hypoxic cardiac damage in neonates with respiratory distress or perinatal asphyxia. The present work was conducted on forty neonates, 15 with neonatal respiratory distress (group I, 15 with perinatal asphyxia (group II, and 10 apparently healthy neonates as a control (group III. All have: Detailed history-thorough clinical examination-Plain X-ray-ECG-Two dimensional, M-mode and Doppler echocardiographic examination with the measurement of both myocardial performance index (MPI of the right and left ventricle-Serum cardiac troponin I. Results: There was statistically significant increase in serum cardiac troponin I in groups I and II than group III. Left and right ventricular myocardial performance index (MPI were increased in group I and II than the control group. No correlation between Tei index and each of postnatal age, apgar score at 5-min, heart rate, serum cardiac troponin I, ejection fraction and fractional shortening, but there was direct relationship between MPI and LVEDD and inverse relationship between MPI and each of EF% and FS%. But there was significant correlation between L.V. MPI and gestational age. Conclusion: Tei index was higher in neonates with respiratory distress and neonates with perinatal asphyxia than in normal neonates despite normal or even increased ejection fraction which indicates that these patients may have subclinical ventricular dysfunction which should be followed up carefully.

  16. The Effect of Childbirth Self-Efficacy on Perinatal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilden, Ellen L.; Caughey, Aaron B.; Lee, Christopher S.; Emeis, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To synthesize and critique the quantitative literature on measuring childbirth self-efficacy and the effect of childbirth self-efficacy on perinatal outcomes. Data Sources Eligible studies were identified through searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Study Selection Published research using a tool explicitly intended to measure childbirth self-efficacy and also examining outcomes within the perinatal period were included. All manuscripts were in English and published in peer-reviewed journals. Data Extraction First author, country, year of publication, reference and definition of childbirth self-efficacy, measurement of childbirth self-efficacy, sample recruitment and retention, sample characteristics, study design, interventions (with experimental and quasi-experimental studies), and perinatal outcomes were extracted and summarized. Data Synthesis Of 619 publications, 23 studies published between 1983 and 2015 met inclusion criteria and were critiqued and synthesized in this review. Conclusions There is overall consistency in how childbirth self-efficacy is defined and measured among studies, facilitating comparison and synthesis. Our findings suggest that increased childbirth self-efficacy is associated with a wide variety of improved perinatal outcomes. Moreover, there is evidence that childbirth self-efficacy is a psychosocial factor that can be modified through various efficacy-enhancing interventions. Future researchers will be able to build knowledge in this area through: (a) utilization of experimental and quasi-experimental design; (b) recruitment and retention of more diverse samples; (c) explicit reporting of definitions of terms (e.g. ‘high risk’); (d) investigation of interventions that increase childbirth self-efficacy during pregnancy; and, (e) investigation regarding how childbirth self-efficacy enhancing interventions might lead to decreased active labor pain and suffering. Exploratory research should

  17. Distinct Difference in Absorption Pattern in Pigs of Betaine Provided as a Supplement or Present Naturally in Cereal Dietary Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    high-fiber breads differing in amount and source of dietary fiber (two experiments, n = 6 pigs each). Plasma betaine peaked after 30 min when betaine was fed as a supplement, whereas it peaked after 120–180 min when high-fiber breads were fed. Plasma betaine showed no diet × time interaction after...... feeding with high-fiber breads, indicating that the absorption kinetic did not differ between fiber sources. The net absorption of choline was not affected by the experimental diets. In conclusion, betaine in cereal sources has to be liberated from the matrix prior to absorption, causing delayed...

  18. Parental decision making around perinatal autopsy: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Sarah; Gallagher, Stephen; Lutomski, Jennifer E; O'Donoghue, Keelin

    2015-12-01

    Decades of decline in uptake rates of perinatal autopsies has limited investigation into the causes and risk factors for stillbirth. This study aimed to qualitatively explore perinatal autopsy decision-making processes in parents who experienced antepartum and intrapartum stillbirths. A qualitative semi-structured interview format was utilized. The line of questioning centred on how parents came to decide on consenting or declining to have a perinatal autopsy undertaken. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was employed as the analytic strategy. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 10 parents who either consented or declined autopsy from a large tertiary maternity hospital in Cork Ireland, where there were 30 stillbirths in 2011. Findings revealed four superordinate themes influencing parents' decision-making which varied with type of stillbirth experienced. Those parents who experienced antepartum stillbirths were more likely to consent; thus, knowing that the child was stillborn prior to delivery rather than on the day of delivery was associated with consent. In fact, these parents had more time for meaning-making; those consenting wanted to rule out self-blame and were fearful about future pregnancies. Parents who declined autopsy wanted to protect their infant from further harm. Interestingly, parents' knowledge and understanding of the autopsy itself were acquired primarily from public discourse. Parents' decision-making regarding autopsy is profoundly affected by their emotional response to stillbirth; clinicians and other health professionals may play a key role, especially if they can address parental concerns regarding the invasiveness of the autopsy procedure. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Neuroimmunological Disturbance Features in Premature Infants with Perinatal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nailya J. Rahimova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases in newborns are commonly intrauterine infections which affect greatly on the morbidity and mortality rates in neonates.Background: The purpose of this study was to analyse the neurological status, taking into account the neuroimmunological indicators (neuron-specific enolase (NSE, interleukin-1β (IL1β, Interleukin-6 (IL6 in the serum of neonates with perinatal infections.Metods: We conducted a complex clinical, laboratory, and instrumental examination of 433 infants with perinatal infections with a gestation period of 27–37 weeks. Determination of the level of NSE, IL1β, IL6 was performed with the standard method of the immune-enzyme analysis.Results. Hypoxic ischemic, hemorrhagic, infectious lesion of the central nervous system (CNS were more common in newborns with mixed infection and sepsis. High levels of NSE, IL6, IL1β in the serum of the examined newborns reflect a combined, deeper character of the CNS damage.Conclusion: Significant diagnostic value of neuroimmunological indicators in the blood serum of newborns with perinatal infections makes it possible to use them as a markers for assessing the severity of the CNS lesions.

  20. Perinatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women Users of Illegal Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tenilson Amaral; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Santos, Tatiana Fiorelli Dos; Aquino, Márcia Maria Auxiliadora de; Mariani Neto, Corintio

    2016-04-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who use illicit drugs. Methods A retrospective observational study of patients who, at the time of delivery, were sent to or who spontaneously sought a public maternity hospital in the eastern area of São Paulo city. We compared the perinatal outcomes of two distinct groups of pregnant women - illicit drugs users and non-users - that gave birth in the same period and analyzed the obstetric and neonatal variables. We used Student's t-test to calculate the averages among the groups, and the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical data from each group. Results We analyzed 166 women (83 users and 83 non-users) in both groups with a mean of age of 26 years. Ninety-five percent of the drug users would use crack or pure cocaine alone or associated with other psychoactive substances during pregnancy. Approximately half of the users group made no prenatal visit, compared with 2.4% in the non-users group (p illicit drugs. Conclusions The use of illicit drugs, mainly crack cocaine, represents an important perinatal risk. Any medical intervention in this population should combine adherence to prenatal care with strategies for reducing maternal exposure to illicit drugs. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  1. Perinatal taurine exposure affects adult arterial pressure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Wyss, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant free amino acid found in mammalian cells that contributes to many physiologic functions from that of a simple cell osmolyte to a programmer of adult health and disease. Taurine’s contribution extends from conception throughout life, but its most critical exposure period is during perinatal life. In adults, taurine supplementation prevents or alleviates cardiovascular disease and related complications. In contrast, low taurine consumption coincides with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity and type II diabetes. This review focuses on the effects that altered perinatal taurine exposure has on long-term mechanisms that control adult arterial blood pressure and could thereby contribute to arterial hypertension through its ability to program these cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms very early in life. The modifications of these mechanisms can last a lifetime and transfer to the next generation, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms underlie the changes. The ability of perinatal taurine exposure to influence arterial pressure control mechanisms and hypertension in adult life appears to involve the regulation of growth and development, the central and autonomic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin system, glucose-insulin interaction and changes to heart, blood vessels and kidney function. PMID:23070226

  2. Infertility and Perinatal Loss: When the Bough Breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byatt, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Infertility and perinatal loss are common, and associated with lower quality of life, marital discord, complicated grief, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Young women, who lack social supports, have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss or a history of trauma and / or preexisting psychiatric illness are at a higher risk of experiencing psychiatric illnesses or symptoms after a perinatal loss or during infertility. It is especially important to detect, assess, and treat depression, anxiety, or other psychiatric symptoms because infertility or perinatal loss may be caused or perpetuated by such symptoms. Screening, psychoeducation, provision of resources and referrals, and an opportunity to discuss their loss and plan for future pregnancies can facilitate addressing mental health concerns that arise. Women at risk of or who are currently experiencing psychiatric symptoms should receive a comprehensive treatment plan that includes the following: (1) proactive clinical monitoring, (2) evidence-based approaches to psychotherapy, and (3) discussion of risks, benefits, and alternatives of medication treatment during preconception and pregnancy. PMID:26847216

  3. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax-deductible donation. Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  4. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  5. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  6. The City MISS: development of a scale to measure stigma of perinatal mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, D.; Ayers, S.; Drey, N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to develop and validate a scale to measure perceived stigma for perinatal mental illness in women. \\ud \\ud Background: Stigma is one of the most frequently cited barriers to seeking treatment and many women with perinatal mental illness fail to get the treatment they need. However, there is no psychometric scale that measures how women may experience the unique aspects of perinatal mental illness stigma.\\ud \\ud Method: A draft scale of 30 items was developed from a...

  7. Use of Online Forums for Perinatal Mental Illness, Stigma, and Disclosure: An Exploratory Model

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Donna; Drey, Nicholas; Ayers, Susan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal mental illness is a global health concern; however, many women with the illness do not get the treatment they need to recover. Interventions that reduce the stigma around perinatal mental illness have the potential to enable women to disclose their symptoms to health care providers and consequently access treatment. There are many online forums for perinatal mental illness and thousands of women use them. Preliminary research suggests that online forums may promote help-...

  8. Perinatal characteristics and breast cancer risk in daughters: a Scandinavian population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Troisi, R.; Grotmol, T.; Jacobsen, J.; Tretli, S.; Toft-Sørensen, H.; Gissler, M.; Kaaja, R.; Potischman, N.; Ekbom, A.; N. Hoover, R.; Stephansson, O.

    2013-01-01

    The in utero origins of breast cancer are an increasing focus of research. However, the long time period between exposure and disease diagnosis, and the lack of standardized perinatal data collection makes this research challenging. We assessed perinatal factors, as proxies for in utero exposures, and breast cancer risk using pooled, population-based birth and cancer registry data. Birth registries provided information on perinatal exposures. Cases were females born in Norway, Sweden or Denma...

  9. Collaborative survey of perinatal loss in planned and unplanned home births. Northern Region Perinatal Mortality Survey Coordinating Group.

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document the outcome of planned and unplanned births outside hospital. DESIGN: Confidential review of every pregnancy ending in stillbirth or neonatal death in which plans had been made for home delivery, irrespective of where delivery eventually occurred. The review was part of a sustained collaborative survey of all perinatal deaths. SETTING: Northern Regional Health Authority area. SUBJECTS: All 558,691 registered births to women normally resident in the former Northern Regio...

  10. Over-expressing the soluble gp130-Fc does not ameliorate methionine and choline deficient diet-induced non alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene L Kammoun

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is a liver disease with the potential to lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of NASH, with the so-called IL-6 'trans-signaling' cascade being responsible for the pro-inflammatory actions of this cytokine. We aimed to block IL-6 'trans-signaling', using a transgenic mouse that overexpresses human soluble glycoprotein130 (sgp130Fc Tg mice fed a commonly used dietary model of inducing NASH (methionine and choline deficient-diet; MCD diet and hypothesized that markers of NASH would be ameliorated in such mice. Sgp130Fc Tg and littermate control mice were fed a MCD or control diet for 4 weeks. The MCD diet induced many hallmarks of NASH including hepatomegaly, steatosis, and liver inflammation. However, in contrast with other mouse models and, indeed, human NASH, the MCD diet model did not increase the mRNA or protein expression of IL-6. Not surprisingly, therefore, markers of MCD diet-induced NASH were unaffected by sgp130Fc transgenic expression. While the MCD diet model induces many pathophysiological markers of NASH, it does not induce increased IL-6 expression in the liver, a key hallmark of human NASH. We, therefore, caution the use of the MCD diet as a viable mouse model of NASH.

  11. Perinatal risks of planned home births in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Brent, Robert L; Arabin, Birgit; Levene, Malcolm I; Chervenak, Frank A

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the perinatal risks of midwife-attended planned home births in the United States from 2010 through 2012 and compared them with recommendations from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) for planned home births. Data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics birth certificate data files from 2010 through 2012 were utilized to analyze the frequency of certain perinatal risk factors that were associated with planned midwife-attended home births in the United States and compare them with deliveries performed in the hospital by certified nurse midwives. Home birth deliveries attended by others were excluded; only planned home births attended by midwives were included. Hospital deliveries attended by certified nurse midwives served as the reference. Perinatal risk factors were those established by ACOG and AAP. Midwife-attended planned home births in the United States had the following risk factors: breech presentation, 0.74% (odds ratio [OR], 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.87-3.56); prior cesarean delivery, 4.4% (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 2.0-2.17); twins, 0.64% (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.84-2.31); and gestational age 41 weeks or longer, 28.19% (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.68-1.74). All 4 perinatal risk factors were significantly higher among midwife-attended planned home births when compared with certified nurse midwives-attended hospital births, and 3 of 4 perinatal risk factors were significantly higher in planned home births attended by non-American Midwifery Certification Board (AMCB)-certified midwives (other midwives) when compared with home births attended by certified nurse midwives. Among midwife-attended planned home births, 65.7% of midwives did not meet the ACOG and AAP recommendations for certification by the American Midwifery Certification Board. At least 30% of midwife-attended planned home births are not low risk and not within

  12. Birth weight discordance and perinatal mortality among triplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egić Amira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The incidence of multiple births has increased in the last decade. Perinatal mortality in triplets is significantly greater than in twin and singleton births. OBJECTIVE. The objective of this study was to describe the extent of birth weight discordance among triplets and to identify its association with an increased risk of perinatal mortality. METHOD A retrospective analysis of triplet births, for the period 1993-2003, was conducted at the Gynaecological-Obstetric Clinic "Narodni Front" in Belgrade. Birth weight discordance was defined as the difference in birth weight between the largest and the smallest triplet's weight of more than 20%. RESULTS. The rate of triplets has increased by almost 75% between the first (7.7% and the last (29.6% 5-year period of the last decade. Triplets are becoming more common because of the frequent use of assisted reproductive technology as a treatment for infertility. In the period 1993-2003, there were a total of 40 triplet live births (24 weeks and greater with incidence of 0.06%. There was no clear association between maternal age, parity, method of conception, birth gestational age, and disorders complicating pregnancy with birth discordance more than 20%. Regarding birth weight groups, statistical significance occurred only in the <999 grams group for discordant and in the 2000-2499 grams group for concordant triplets. Overall, the perinatal mortality rate in the group was 10.8%, the foetal mortality rate was 1.7% (2/120, and the neonatal (0-28 days mortality rate was 9.1% (11/120. An odds ratio of 95% confidence interval shows 3 times greater risk for adverse perinatal outcome in the discordant group. However, the difference was not significant. CONCLUSION. Increasing birth weight discordance may increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Triplet pregnancies, being high risk, require intensive antenatal care in order to prevent preterm delivery and ultrasound in order to diagnose foetal

  13. Globalization and perinatal medicine--how do we respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurjak, Asim; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Stanojevic, Milan

    2010-04-01

    Globalization is both inevitable and usually desirable and contains advantageous and disadvantageous issues. It is a source of both hope and of apprehension and is an accelerating process in flow of information, technology, goods and services, and production means. Globalization has a complex influence on perinatal health. The bonds that link perinatologists together transcend geographic, political, religious, and lingual differences, resulting in a globalization that optimizes perinatal care. In this review, we will discuss some of the global problems facing modern perinatologists. Close to 1.5 billion people in the world, live in extreme poverty, a situation which is particularly stark in the developing world, where 80% of them live. Poor people have little or no access to qualified health services and education, and do not participate in the decisions critical to their day-to-day lives. Poverty cannot be defined solely in terms of lack of income. A person, a family, even a nation is not deemed poor only because of low economic resources. Little or no access to health services, lack of access to safe water and adequate nutrition, illiteracy or low educational level, and a distorted perception of rights and needs are also essential components of poverty. Expression of poverty in perinatal health care in developing countries are high maternal death and morbidity rates, huge perinatal and childhood losses, and high birth rates. There are good reasons to define it as a global tragedy in our time. Although the mankind has come quite far because the development of civilization and more advances in the health care were made during the past 100 years than in all previous human history, some inhabitants of our planet are not able to experience it. According to some data, every 3 s a newborn dies, and every minute a pregnant woman dies in the globalized world. All together over 10 million deaths every year, which indicates that health security is not strong enough. It is

  14. Immunity peculiarities of neonates in case of perinatal pathology

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    О. S. Godovanets

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The immune system as one of the regulating systems of the body determined peculiarities of child adaptation after birth stipulating physiology of adaptation or perinatal pathology formation. Objective: to study peculiarities of immunological indices in case of neonates’ perinatal pathology to detect their role in pathogenesis and formation of diseases severity. Materials and methods. The group of term infants with clinical signs of perinatal pathology (173 individuals was examined. They were divided into two groups: group A included those with diagnosed severe forms of diseases (121 individuals, and group B included 52 infants with general moderate severity of perinatal pathology. The group of comparison included 82 newborns without substantial adaptive deviations after birth. IL1 and IL6 levels were examined by means of immunofluorescence method “Clonospectr” using the reagents produced by “ProCon”. Absolute and relative amount of СD2+-associated Т and NK-lymphocytes, СD14+-associated monocytes, СD15+-associated neutrophils, СD19+-associated В-lymphocytes and СD54+-associated ІСАМ-1 cells were determined by means of immunofluorescence method “Status” using the set of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies produced by “Sorbent”. The data obtained were statistically processed with the application of applied programs package used for medical-biological studies “Statgraphics Centurion XVI.I” [2011] on the personal computer Pentium MMX CPU. Results. The results obtained were indicative of considerable changes in the immune system indices in newborns under conditions of birth stress and hypoxia. It has been found that a term newborn has a special different from that of adults biologically mediated state of immune system, that can determine both the development of physiological adaptation and under certain circumstances excessive reactions of systemic inflammation, autoimmune processes and destruction of tissues. One

  15. Iodine and Pregnancy—A Qualitative Study Focusing on Dietary Guidance and Information

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    Maria Bouga

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodine is essential for thyroid hormones synthesis and normal neurodevelopment; however, ~60% of pregnant women do not meet the WHO (World Health Organization recommended intake. Using a qualitative design, we explored the perceptions, awareness, and experiences of pregnancy nutrition, focusing on iodine. Women in the perinatal period (n = 48 were interviewed and filled in a food frequency questionnaire for iodine. Almost all participants achieved the recommended 150 μg/day intake for non-pregnant adults (99%, but only 81% met the increased demands of pregnancy (250 μg/day. Most were unaware of the importance, sources of iodine, and recommendations for iodine intake. Attitudes toward dairy products consumption were positive (e.g., helps with heartburn; easy to increase. Increased fish consumption was considered less achievable, with barriers around taste, smell, heartburn, and morning sickness. Community midwives were the main recognised provider of dietary advice. The dietary advice received focused most often on multivitamin supplements rather than food sources. Analysis highlighted a clear theme of commitment to change behaviour, motivated by pregnancy, with a desired focus on user-friendly documentation and continued involvement of the health services. The study highlights the importance of redirecting advice on dietary requirements in pregnancy and offers practical suggestions from women in the perinatal period as the main stakeholder group.

  16. Value of {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT in patients with suspected prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scher, Bernhard; Albinger, Wolfram; Tiling, Reinhold; Gildehaus, Franz-Josef; Dresel, Stefan [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Seitz, Michael [University of Munich, Department of Urology, Munich (Germany); Scherr, Michael; Becker, Hans-Christoph [University of Munich, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Souvatzogluou, Michael; Wester, Hans-Juergen [Technical University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    The value and limitations of {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT for the detection of prostate cancer remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT in a large group of patients with suspected prostate cancer. Fifty-eight patients with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer underwent {sup 11}C-choline PET (25/58, Siemens ECAT Exact HR+) or PET/CT (33/58, Philips Gemini) scanning. On average, 500 MBq of {sup 11}C-choline was administered intravenously. Studies were interpreted by raters blinded to clinical information and other diagnostic procedures. Qualitative image analysis as well as semiquantitative SUV measurement was carried out. The reference standard was histopathological examination of resection specimens or biopsy. Prevalence of prostate cancer in this selected patient population was 63.8% (37/58). {sup 11}C-choline PET and PET/CT showed a sensitivity of 86.5% (32/37) and a specificity of 61.9% (13/21) in the detection of the primary malignancy. With regard to metastatic spread, PET showed a per-patient sensitivity of 81.8% (9/11) and produced no false positive findings. Based on our findings, differentiation between benign prostatic changes, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostatitis, and prostate cancer is feasible in the majority of cases when image interpretation is primarily based on qualitative characteristics. SUV{sub max} may serve as guidance. False positive findings may occur due to an overlap of {sup 11}C-choline uptake between benign and malignant processes. By providing functional information regarding both the primary malignancy and its metastases, {sup 11}C-choline PET may prove to be a useful method for staging prostate cancer. (orig.)

  17. Choline status and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 5 years of age in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, J J; McSorley, Emeir M; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Kobrosly, Roni W; Bonham, Maxine P; Mulhern, Maria S; McAfee, Alison J; Davidson, Philip W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Henderson, Juliette; Watson, Gene E; Thurston, Sally W; Wallace, Julie M W; Ueland, Per M; Myers, Gary J

    2013-07-28

    Choline is an essential nutrient that is found in many food sources and plays a critical role in the development of the central nervous system. Animal studies have shown that choline status pre- and postnatally can have long-lasting effects on attention and memory; however, effects in human subjects have not been well studied. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between plasma concentrations of free choline and its related metabolites in children and their neurodevelopment in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study, an ongoing longitudinal study assessing the development of children born to mothers with high fish consumption during pregnancy. Plasma concentrations of free choline, betaine, dimethylglycine (DMG), methionine and homocysteine and specific measures of neurodevelopment were measured in 210 children aged 5 years. The children's plasma free choline concentration (9·17 (sd 2·09) μmol/l) was moderately, but significantly, correlated with betaine (r 0·24; P= 0·0006), DMG (r 0·15; P= 0·03), methionine (r 0·24; P= 0·0005) and homocysteine (r 0·19; P= 0·006) concentrations. Adjusted multiple linear regression revealed that betaine concentrations were positively associated with Preschool Language Scale – total language scores (β = 0·066; P= 0·04), but no other associations were evident. We found no indication that free choline concentration or its metabolites, within the normal physiological range, are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children at 5 years of age. As there is considerable animal evidence suggesting that choline status during development is associated with cognitive outcome, the issue deserves further study in other cohorts.

  18. Ocular lesions and experimental choline deficiency Lesiones oculares y deficiencia experimental de colina

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    Georgina P. Ossani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown ocular haemorrhages in choline-deficient rats. The aim of this paper is to study further the relationship between ocular and renal lesions and biochemical alterations in rats fed a choline-deficient diet. Fifty one weanling male Wistar rats, were divided into two groups. Thirty one of them were fed a choline-deficient diet and the rest was fed a choline-supplemented diet ad libitum. Animals from both groups were killed between the fifth and the eighth day. Urea, creatinine and homocysteine concentrations in blood were determined. Eyes were used for light microscopy study; high resolution light microscopy and the study of the retina as "rétine a plat". Kidneys were studied by light microscopy. Choline-supplemented rats did not show ocular or renal lesion. Choline-deficient rats that showed renal lesions, tubular or cortical necrosis, did not always have ocular changes. There were no ocular changes in the only choline-deficient rat without renal lesion. The ocular changes consisted mainly in haemorrhage in both cameras and ciliary and vitreous bodies. Correlations between ocular and renal lesion (r=0.72, pEstudios previos han demostrado hemorragia ocular en ratas deficientes en colina. El objetivo de este trabajo es profundizar en la relación entre las alteraciones oculares, renales y bioquímicas en ratas deficientes en colina. Cincuenta y una ratas Wistar macho recién destetadas fueron divididas en dos grupos: treinta y una fueron alimentadas con una dieta colino deficiente y el resto con colina suplementada ad-libitum. Los animales de ambos grupos fueron sacrificados entre el quinto y el octavo día. Se midió la concentración de urea, creatinina y homocisteína en sangre. Los ojos fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz, microscopía óptica de alta resolución y para el estudio de la retina como retina plana. Los riñones fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz. Las ratas suplementadas con colina no

  19. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  20. Choline Catabolism in Burkholderia thailandensis Is Regulated by Multiple Glutamine Amidotransferase 1-Containing AraC Family Transcriptional Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Adam M; Wargo, Matthew J

    2016-09-15

    Burkholderia thailandensis is a soil-dwelling bacterium that shares many metabolic pathways with the ecologically similar, but evolutionarily distant, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Among the diverse nutrients it can utilize is choline, metabolizable to the osmoprotectant glycine betaine and subsequently catabolized as a source of carbon and nitrogen, similar to P. aeruginosa Orthologs of genes in the choline catabolic pathway in these two bacteria showed distinct differences in gene arrangement as well as an additional orthologous transcriptional regulator in B. thailandensis In this study, we showed that multiple glutamine amidotransferase 1 (GATase 1)-containing AraC family transcription regulators (GATRs) are involved in regulation of the B. thailandensis choline catabolic pathway (gbdR1, gbdR2, and souR). Using genetic analyses and sequencing the transcriptome in the presence and absence of choline, we identified the likely regulons of gbdR1 (BTH_II1869) and gbdR2 (BTH_II0968). We also identified a functional ortholog for P. aeruginosa souR, a GATR that regulates the metabolism of sarcosine to glycine. GbdR1 is absolutely required for expression of the choline catabolic locus, similar to P. aeruginosa GbdR, while GbdR2 is important to increase expression of the catabolic locus. Additionally, the B. thailandensis SouR ortholog (BTH_II0994) is required for catabolism of choline and its metabolites as carbon sources, whereas in P. aeruginosa, SouR function can by bypassed by GbdR. The strategy employed by B. thailandensis represents a distinct regulatory solution to control choline catabolism and thus provides both an evolutionary counterpoint and an experimental system to analyze the acquisition and regulation of this pathway during environmental growth and infection. Many proteobacteria that occupy similar environmental niches have horizontally acquired orthologous genes for metabolism of compounds useful in their shared environment. The arrangement and differential

  1. Structural studies on choline-carboxylate bio-ionic liquids by x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, Luana; Ramondo, Fabio; Caminiti, Ruggero; Campetella, Marco; Di Luca, Andrea; Gontrani, Lorenzo

    2015-09-21

    We report a X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics study on three choline-based bio-ionic liquids, choline formate, [Ch] [For], choline propanoate, [Ch][Pro], and choline butanoate, [Ch][But]. For the first time, this class of ionic liquids has been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Experimental and theoretical structure factors have been compared for each term of the series. Local structural organization has been obtained from ab initio calculations through static models of isolated ion pairs and dynamic simulations of small portions of liquids through twelve, ten, and nine ion pairs for [Ch][For], [Ch][Pro], and [Ch][But], respectively. All the theoretical models indicate that cations and anions are connected by strong hydrogen bonding and form stable ion pairs in the liquid that are reminiscent of the static ab initio ion pairs. Different structural aspects may affect the radial distribution function, like the local structure of ion pairs and the conformation of choline. When small portions of liquids have been simulated by dynamic quantum chemical methods, some key structural features of the X-ray radial distribution function were well reproduced whereas the classical force fields here applied did not entirely reproduce all the observed structural features.

  2. Choline acetyltransferase expression during periods of behavioral activity and across natural sleep-wake states in the basal forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, M A; McCarley, R W; Shiromani, P J

    1999-01-01

    The present study examined whether the expression of the messenger RNA encoding the protein responsible for acetylcholine synthesis is associated with sleep-wakefulness. Choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels were analysed using a semi-quantitative assay in which reverse transcription was coupled to complementary DNA amplification using the polymerase chain reaction. To examine the relationship between steady-state messenger RNA and behavioral activity, rats were killed during the day (4.00 p.m.) or night (4.00 a.m.), and tissue from the vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal bands of Broca was analysed. Choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels were higher during the day than during the night. The second study examined more closely the association between choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels and individual bouts of wakefulness, slow-wave sleep or rapid eye movement sleep. Choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels were low during wakefulness, intermediate in slow-wave sleep and high during rapid eye movement sleep. In contrast, protein activity, measured at a projection site of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain, was higher during wakefulness than during sleep. These findings suggest that choline acetyltransferase protein and messenger RNA levels exhibit an inverse relationship during sleep and wakefulness. The increased messenger RNA expression during sleep is consistent with a restorative function of sleep.

  3. Structural studies on choline-carboxylate bio-ionic liquids by x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzi, Luana; Ramondo, Fabio, E-mail: fabio.ramondo@univaq.it [Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio, L’Aquila I-67100 (Italy); Caminiti, Ruggero; Campetella, Marco; Di Luca, Andrea; Gontrani, Lorenzo, E-mail: lorenzo.gontrani@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2015-09-21

    We report a X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics study on three choline-based bio-ionic liquids, choline formate, [Ch] [For], choline propanoate, [Ch][Pro], and choline butanoate, [Ch][But]. For the first time, this class of ionic liquids has been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Experimental and theoretical structure factors have been compared for each term of the series. Local structural organization has been obtained from ab initio calculations through static models of isolated ion pairs and dynamic simulations of small portions of liquids through twelve, ten, and nine ion pairs for [Ch][For], [Ch][Pro], and [Ch][But], respectively. All the theoretical models indicate that cations and anions are connected by strong hydrogen bonding and form stable ion pairs in the liquid that are reminiscent of the static ab initio ion pairs. Different structural aspects may affect the radial distribution function, like the local structure of ion pairs and the conformation of choline. When small portions of liquids have been simulated by dynamic quantum chemical methods, some key structural features of the X-ray radial distribution function were well reproduced whereas the classical force fields here applied did not entirely reproduce all the observed structural features.

  4. Structural studies on choline-carboxylate bio-ionic liquids by x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, Luana; Ramondo, Fabio; Caminiti, Ruggero; Campetella, Marco; Di Luca, Andrea; Gontrani, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    We report a X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics study on three choline-based bio-ionic liquids, choline formate, [Ch] [For], choline propanoate, [Ch][Pro], and choline butanoate, [Ch][But]. For the first time, this class of ionic liquids has been investigated by X-ray diffraction. Experimental and theoretical structure factors have been compared for each term of the series. Local structural organization has been obtained from ab initio calculations through static models of isolated ion pairs and dynamic simulations of small portions of liquids through twelve, ten, and nine ion pairs for [Ch][For], [Ch][Pro], and [Ch][But], respectively. All the theoretical models indicate that cations and anions are connected by strong hydrogen bonding and form stable ion pairs in the liquid that are reminiscent of the static ab initio ion pairs. Different structural aspects may affect the radial distribution function, like the local structure of ion pairs and the conformation of choline. When small portions of liquids have been simulated by dynamic quantum chemical methods, some key structural features of the X-ray radial distribution function were well reproduced whereas the classical force fields here applied did not entirely reproduce all the observed structural features

  5. Contribution of Dietary Supplements to Nutritional Adequacy by Socioeconomic Subgroups in Adults of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Blumberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many Americans have inadequate intakes of several nutrients, and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 identified vitamins A, C, D, and E, in addition to calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, choline, and fiber as “underconsumed nutrients”. Based on nationally representative data on 10,698 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES, 2009–2012, assessments were made of socioeconomic differences, based on the Poverty Income Ratio (PIR, in terms of the association of dietary supplement use on nutrient intake and nutrient inadequacies. Compared to food alone, the use of any dietary supplement plus food was associated with significantly (p < 0.01 higher intakes of 15–16 of 19 nutrients examined in all socioeconomic groups; and significantly reduced rates of inadequacy for 10/17 nutrients in the subgroup PIR > 1.85 (not poor, but only 4–5/17 nutrients (calcium and vitamins A, C, D, E for the poor and nearly poor subgroups (PIR < 1.35 and PIR 1.35 to ≤1.85, respectively. An increased prevalence of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL was seen for 3–9/13 nutrients, but all were less than 5% in the PIR subgroups. In conclusion, dietary supplement use was associated with an increased micronutrient intake, decreased inadequacies, and a slight increase in the prevalence of intakes above the UL, with greater benefits seen in the PIR > 1.85 subgroup.

  6. Considering Maternal Dietary Modulators for Epigenetic Regulation and Programming of the Fetal Epigenome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abalo Chango

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal life is characterized by a tremendous plasticity and ability to respond to various environmental and lifestyle factors, including maternal nutrition. Identification of the role of dietary factors that can modulate and reshape the cellular epigenome during development, including methyl group donors (e.g., folate, choline and bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenols is of great importance; however, there is insufficient knowledge of a particular effect of each type of modulator and/or their combination on fetal life. To enhance the quality and safety of food products for proper fetal health and disease prevention in later life, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of dietary epigenetic modulators during the critical prenatal period is necessary. This review focuses on the influence of maternal dietary components on DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNAs, and summarizes current knowledge of the effect and importance of dietary components on epigenetic mechanisms that control the proper expression of genetic information. Evidence reveals that some components in the maternal diet can directly or indirectly affect epigenetic mechanisms. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of how early-life nutritional environment affects the epigenome during development is of great importance for the successful prevention of adult chronic diseases through optimal maternal nutrition.

  7. Considering maternal dietary modulators for epigenetic regulation and programming of the fetal epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chango, Abalo; Pogribny, Igor P

    2015-04-14

    Fetal life is characterized by a tremendous plasticity and ability to respond to various environmental and lifestyle factors, including maternal nutrition. Identification of the role of dietary factors that can modulate and reshape the cellular epigenome during development, including methyl group donors (e.g., folate, choline) and bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenols) is of great importance; however, there is insufficient knowledge of a particular effect of each type of modulator and/or their combination on fetal life. To enhance the quality and safety of food products for proper fetal health and disease prevention in later life, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of dietary epigenetic modulators during the critical prenatal period is necessary. This review focuses on the influence of maternal dietary components on DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNAs, and summarizes current knowledge of the effect and importance of dietary components on epigenetic mechanisms that control the proper expression of genetic information. Evidence reveals that some components in the maternal diet can directly or indirectly affect epigenetic mechanisms. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of how early-life nutritional environment affects the epigenome during development is of great importance for the successful prevention of adult chronic diseases through optimal maternal nutrition.

  8. Prospective head-to-head comparison of 11C-choline-PET/MR and 11C-choline-PET/CT for restaging of biochemical recurrent prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiber, Matthias; Rauscher, Isabel; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Schwaiger, Markus; Maurer, Tobias; Holzapfel, Konstantin; Beer, Ambros J.

    2017-01-01

    Whole-body integrated 11 C-choline PET/MR might provide advantages compared to 11 C-choline PET/CT for restaging of prostate cancer (PC) due to the high soft-tissue contrast and the use of multiparametric MRI, especially for detection of local recurrence and bone metastases. Ninety-four patients with recurrent PC underwent a single-injection/dual-imaging protocol with contrast-enhanced PET/CT followed by fully diagnostic PET/MR. Imaging datasets were read separately by two reader teams (team 1 and 2) assessing the presence of local recurrence, lymph node and bone metastases in predefined regions using a five-point scale. Detection rates were calculated. The diagnostic performance of PET/CT vs. PET/MR was compared using ROC analysis. Inter-observer and inter-modality variability, radiation exposure, and mean imaging time were evaluated. Clinical follow-up, imaging, and/or histopathology served as standard of reference (SOR). Seventy-five patients qualified for the final image analysis. A total of 188 regions were regarded as positive: local recurrence in 37 patients, 87 regions with lymph node metastases, and 64 regions with bone metastases. Mean detection rate between both readers teams for PET/MR was 84.7% compared to 77.3% for PET/CT (p > 0.05). Local recurrence was identified significantly more often in PET/MR compared to PET/CT by team 1. Lymph node and bone metastases were identified significantly more often in PET/CT compared to PET/MR by both teams. However, this difference was not present in the subgroup of patients with PSA values ≤2 ng/ml. Inter-modality and inter-observer agreement (K > 0.6) was moderate to substantial for nearly all categories. Mean reduction of radiation exposure for PET/MR compared to PET/CT was 79.7% (range, 72.6-86.2%). Mean imaging time for PET/CT was substantially lower (18.4 ± 0.7 min) compared to PET/MR (50.4 ± 7.9 min). 11 C-choline PET/MR is a robust imaging modality for restaging biochemical recurrent PC and

  9. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  10. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  11. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  12. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  13. Stimulation of functional vision in children with perinatal brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimović, Sonja; Mejaski-Bosnjak, Vlatka

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is one of the most common causes of bilateral visual loss, which frequently occurs due to perinatal brain injury. Vision in early life has great impact on acquisition of basic comprehensions which are fundamental for further development. Therefore, early detection of visual problems and early intervention is necessary. The aim of the present study is to determine specific visual functioning of children with perinatal brain damage and the influence of visual stimulation on development of functional vision at early age of life. We initially assessed 30 children with perinatal brain damage up to 3 years of age, who were reffered to our pediatric low vision cabinet in "Little house" from child neurologists, ophthalmologists Type and degree of visual impairment was determined according to functional vision assessment of each child. On the bases of those assessments different kind of visual stimulations were carried out with children who have been identified to have a certain visual impairment. Through visual stimulation program some of the children were stimulated with light stimulus, some with different materials under the ultraviolet (UV) light, and some with bright color and high contrast materials. Children were also involved in program of early stimulation of overall sensory motor development. Goals and methods of therapy were determined individually, based on observation of child's possibilities and need. After one year of program, reassessment was done. Results for visual functions and functional vision were compared to evaluate the improvement of the vision development. These results have shown that there was significant improvement in functional vision, especially in visual attention and visual communication.

  14. Identifying perinatal risk factors for infant maltreatment: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallisey Elaine J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment and its consequences are a persistent problem throughout the world. Public health workers, human services officials, and others are interested in new and efficient ways to determine which geographic areas to target for intervention programs and resources. To improve assessment efforts, selected perinatal factors were examined, both individually and in various combinations, to determine if they are associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. State of Georgia birth records and abuse and neglect data were analyzed using an area-based, ecological approach with the census tract as a surrogate for the community. Cartographic visualization suggested some correlation exists between risk factors and child maltreatment, so bivariate and multivariate regression were performed. The presence of spatial autocorrelation precluded the use of traditional ordinary least squares regression, therefore a spatial regression model coupled with maximum likelihood estimation was employed. Results Results indicate that all individual factors or their combinations are significantly associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. The set of perinatal risk factors that best predicts infant maltreatment rates are: mother smoked during pregnancy, families with three or more siblings, maternal age less than 20 years, births to unmarried mothers, Medicaid beneficiaries, and inadequate prenatal care. Conclusion This model enables public health to take a proactive stance, to reasonably predict areas where poor outcomes are likely to occur, and to therefore more efficiently allocate resources. U.S. states that routinely collect the variables the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS defines for birth certificates can easily identify areas that are at high risk for infant maltreatment. The authors recommend that agencies charged with reducing child maltreatment target communities that demonstrate the perinatal risks

  15. PELAYANAN KESEHATAN PERINATAL DI DAERAH PEDESAAN UJUNG BERUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Alisjahbana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey on perinatal care in a rural area at Ujung Berung district, located 15—20 km outside Bandung, West Java was conducted. Three villages with a population of 40,787 were selected. Health services were provided by one health post and several family planning posts. In this study 1303 pregnant women were followed throughout the 28 weeks of pregnancy until the infant is 28 days of age. Among the 1303 pregnant women 5.7% had received tetanus toxoid immunization. Perinatal mortality rate (PMR was 43.6 per thousand and incidence of low birth weight was 14.3 percent. Only 12.8% pregnant women were using some kind of contraception before the last pregnancy. The PMR decreased in spite of the low percentage users. The main causes of death during perinatal period vece asphyxia neonatorum and infections. The incidence of tetanus neonatorum during neonatal period was 17 per thousand live births. An evaluation of health service activities showed 47.5% of these pregnant women had antenatal care. Care during delivery and early postnatal period was carried out by TBAs. No significant difference was found between the PMR of trained and untrained TBAs. Another aspect of health service activities is referral to the health centre or hospital. A total of 3.8 percent infants were referred because of neo­natal problems; among these, refusal was 12.5% due to the totalistic attitude of the parents in the village. The results showed that coverage of pregnant women and their infants by safe health care services is very low. This may be due to lack of facilities and health personnel, and probably also due to the confidence of village people for traditional health care providers. Thus, education and training as well as supervision of traditional health care providers and their integration into the formal health care structure is of extreme importance.  

  16. Tackling perinatal loss, a participatory action research approach: research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Montero, Sonia María; Romero-Sánchez, José Manuel; Paramio-Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Hueso-Montoro, César; Paloma-Castro, Olga; Lillo-Crespo, Manuel; Castro-Yuste, Cristina; Toledano-Losa, Ana Cristina; Carnicer-Fuentes, Concepción; Ortegón-Gallego, José Alejo; Frandsen, Anna J

    2012-11-01

      The aim of this study was to promote changes to improve the care provided to parents who have experienced a perinatal loss through participatory action research.   The birth of a child is a joyful event for most families, however, unfortunately some pregnancies end in loss. Perinatal loss creates a heavy emotional impact not only on parents but also on health professionals, where in most cases there is an evident lack of skills, strategies and resources to cope with these kinds of situations.   Participatory action research is the methodology proposed to achieve the purpose of this study.   Participatory action research consists of five stages: outreach and awareness, induction, interaction, implementation and systematization. The working group will include professionals from the Mother and Child Unit for patients at a tertiary level public hospital in Spain. The duration of the study will be 3 years since the approval of the protocol in January 2011. The qualitative techniques used will include group dynamics such as the SWOT analysis the nominal group technique, focus groups and brainstorming, among others that will be recorded and transcribed, generating reports throughout the evolution of the group sessions and about the consensus reached. Content analysis will be conducted on the field diaries kept by the participants and researchers. This project has been funded by the Andalusian Regional Ministry of Health.   Participatory action research is a methodological strategy that allows changes in clinical practice to conduct a comprehensive transformative action in the care process for perinatal loss. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Prognostic value of correlation analysis of perinatal anamnesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sofronov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective research: is to establish the prognostic value of the analysis of correlative relationships of qualitative indicators of the perinatal history. Correlative groups of interactions of the investigated qualitative indicators in the antenatal, intranatal and postnatal periods are constructed. It was shown that in antenatal history for newborns 22–37 weeks. gestation (group 1 the most important parameters are the «gestational age», «chronic respiratory diseases in the mother,» «premature birth in an anamnesis,» and «exacerbation of chronic infections during pregnancy»; for newborns 38–41 weeks. gestation (2nd group – «cervical erosion», «ovarian cyst», «fibromyoma» and «colpitis ». In the intranatal history for children of the 1st group, the most important parameters are «anhydrous period» and «prolonged labor»; for children of the second group – only «prolonged labor». In the postnatal history for the first group, the two most important parameters are the «gestational age» and the «zonal elevation of the brain echogenicity,» and for the 2 nd group only the parameter «degree of asphyxia» is as important. The obtained results confirm the main known interrelationships of parameters of the perinatal history. At the same time, nontrivial connections between the parameters of the perinatal history: «allergic diseases in the mother» – «threatened miscarriage » – «ovarian cyst»; «chronic respiratory diseases in the mother» – «allergic diseases of the mother» – «diseases of the digestive system in the father.»

  18. Pyelonephritis in Pregnancy: Clinical and Laboratorial Aspects and Perinatal Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Djulie Anne de Lemos; Rossini, Mariane de Mello; Trapani Júnior, Alberto

    2017-12-01

    Objective  To identify the prevalence of pyelonephritis during pregnancy and to analyze the clinical and laboratorial aspects, perinatal results and complications. Methods  A transversal study of 203 pregnant women who had pyelonephritis during pregnancy and whose labor took place between 2010 and 2016 at a hospital in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The analysis was based on medical records as well as on the hospital's database. Clinical and laboratory conditions, antibiotics, bacterial resistance, perinatal outcomes and complications were all taken into account. The data was compared using the Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-square test. Results  A prevalence of 1.97% with pyelonephritis was evidenced, with most patients having it during the second trimester of gestation. The bacteria most commonly found in the urine cultures was Escherichia coli , in 76.6% of cases, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.7%). Ceftriaxone had the lowest bacterial resistance (only 3.5% of the cases). On the other hand, ampicillin and cephalothin presented higher bacterial resistance, 52% and 36.2%, respectively. The risk of very premature delivery was more than 50% higher in patients with pyelonephritis. Conclusion  Ampicillin and first-generation cephalosporins are associated with a higher bacterial resistance while ceftriaxone proved to have a high efficacy for the treatment of pyelonephritis due to low bacterial resistance. Patients with pyelonephritis showed a higher risk for very premature delivery (< 32 weeks). In this casuistry, there were no others significant differences in the overall perinatal outcomes when compared with the routine service series. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  19. Value of bimodal (18)F-choline-PET/MRI and trimodal (18)F-choline-PET/MRI/TRUS for the assessment of prostate cancer recurrence after radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparo, Francesco; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Romagnoli, Andrea; Piccazzo, Riccardo; Monticone, Michela; Cevasco, Luca; Campodonico, Fabio; Conzi, Giuseppe Maria; Carmignani, Giorgio; Rollandi, Gian Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Between 27% and 53% of all patients who undergo radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiation therapy (RT) as the first-line treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) develop a biochemical recurrence. Imaging plays a pivotal role in restaging by helping to distinguish between local relapse and metastatic disease (i.e., lymph-node and skeletal metastases). At present, the most promising tools for assessing PCa patients with biochemical recurrence are multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with radio-labeled choline derivatives. The main advantage of mpMRI is its high diagnostic accuracy in detecting local recurrence, while choline-PET/CT is able to identify lymph-node metastases when they are not suspicious on morphological imaging. The most recent advances in the field of fusion imaging have shown that multimodal co-registration, synchronized navigation, and combined interpretation are more valuable than the individual; separate assessment offered by different diagnostic techniques. The objective of the present essay was to describe the value of bimodal choline-PET/mpMRI fusion imaging and trimodal choline-PET/mpMRI/transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) in the assessment of PCa recurrence after RP and RT. Bimodal choline-PET/mpMRI fusion imaging allows morphological, functional, and metabolic information to be combined, thereby overcoming the limitations of each separate imaging modality. In addition, trimodal real-time choline-PET/mpMRI/TRUS fusion imaging may be useful for the planning and real-time guidance of biopsy procedures in order to obtain histological confirmation of the local recurrence.

  20. Perinatal alcohol exposure enhances nocistatin levels in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekes, Kornélia; Hantos, Mónika; Gyenge, Melinda; Csaba, Gyorgy

    2007-06-01

    In earlier experiments perinatal hormonal imprinting by alcohol decreased the hormone content of immune cells for life. In the present study, both a single day (15% on the third postnatal day) and a long-term treatment schedule of alcohol exposure (3% for 21 days) of dams during lactation significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced endogenous levels of nocistatin in the blood plasma as well as in the cerebrospinal fluid of the offspring, measured in 3-month-old rats. Our data suggest that alcohol consumption during lactation can cause a life-long influence on nocistatin levels in the offspring and most likely modify nocistatin-related functions such as pain tolerance.

  1. Mortalidad perinatal en el Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Diaz Ledesma

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer la tasa de mortalidad perinatal en el Hospital Nacional Edgardo Rebagliati Martins y sus características. Materiales y Métodos: El estudio comprendió la revisión de todas las historias clínicas de gestantes portadoras de óbito fetal (mayor de 28 semanas de gestación o mayor de 1000gramos, de recién nacidos que fallecieron dentro de los primeros 7 días de vida y de sus madres durante el año 2000. Resultados: La tasa de mortalidad perinatal fue de 10.5 por mil nacidos vivos. La edad promedio materna fue de 31.6 años, + 5.9 y un rango entre 14 y 44 años. El 30.1% de partos correspondió a nulíparas, el 61.6% a multíparas y el 8.3% a gran multíparas. El promedio de visitas al control prenatal fue de 4.8 + 2.7. El 53.4% de las madres tuvo algún antecedente relacionado a mala historia obstétrica, siendo los más frecuentes historia de aborto previo (27.4%, cesárea anterior (13.7% y pre eclampsia (12.3%. Las causas asociadas a mortalidad perinatal fueron madres con pre eclampsia severa (38.4% y hemorragia en el tercer trimestre (15.1% y fetos con malformaciones congénitas severas (27.4%. La vía de parto fue abdominal en 68.5% y vaginal en 31.5%. Se tuvo 83.6% de gestaciones únicas y 16.4% de gestaciones múltiples. El peso de los productos fue 1985.2 + 945.8 gramos. El 61.6% de muertes perinatales correspondieron a prematuros. Conclusiones:La tasa de mortalidad neonatal en el HNERM durante el año 2000 fue de 10.5 por mil nacidos vivos y los factores relacionados a mortalidad perinatal fueron pre-eclampsia severa, malformaciones congénitas severas y hemorragias del tercer trimestre. ( Rev Med Hered 2003; 14: 117-121.

  2. The future of pediatric and perinatal postmortem imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorincour, Guillaume; Sarda-Quarello, Laure; Laurent, Pierre-Eloi; Brough, Alison; Rutty, Guy N.

    2015-01-01

    The field and applications of postmortem imaging are exponentially growing. Its potential to identify the cause of death in trauma and ballistic cases is now properly documented, as well as its use in drug mule identification. In pediatric and perinatal practice, large significant series are less available, except for MRI and central nervous system analysis where scientific evidence is now robust. In this review, after a short historical review and analysis of current problems and challenges, we will try to depict the way we see the future of this subspecialty of postmortem cross-sectional imaging, including all specific situations: terminations of pregnancy, intrauterine death, sudden unexpected infant death and identification issues. (orig.)

  3. The future of pediatric and perinatal postmortem imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorincour, Guillaume [Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Marseille - Aix-Marseille University, Pediatric and Prenatal Imaging Department, La Timone Children Hospital, Marseille, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); CERIMED, Aix-Marseille University, Experimental and Interventional Imaging Laboratory, Marseille (France); Sarda-Quarello, Laure [La Timone Hospital, Department of Fetopathology, Marseille (France); Laurent, Pierre-Eloi [CERIMED, Aix-Marseille University, Experimental and Interventional Imaging Laboratory, Marseille (France); Brough, Alison; Rutty, Guy N. [University of Leicester, East Midlands Forensic Pathology Unit, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    The field and applications of postmortem imaging are exponentially growing. Its potential to identify the cause of death in trauma and ballistic cases is now properly documented, as well as its use in drug mule identification. In pediatric and perinatal practice, large significant series are less available, except for MRI and central nervous system analysis where scientific evidence is now robust. In this review, after a short historical review and analysis of current problems and challenges, we will try to depict the way we see the future of this subspecialty of postmortem cross-sectional imaging, including all specific situations: terminations of pregnancy, intrauterine death, sudden unexpected infant death and identification issues. (orig.)

  4. Multiple endocrine disrupting effects in rats perinatally exposed to butylparaben

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Svingen, Terje

    2016-01-01

    ) expression was reduced in prepubertal, but not adult animals exposed to butylparaben. In adult testes, Nr5a1 expression was reduced at all doses, indicating persistent disruption of steroidogenesis. Prostate histology was altered at prepuberty and adult prostate weights were reduced in the high dose group......Parabens comprise a group of preservatives commonly added to cosmetics, lotions and other consumer products. Butylparaben has estrogenic and anti-androgenic properties and is known to reduce sperm counts in rats following perinatal exposure. Whether butylparaben exposure can affect other endocrine...

  5. Breastfeeding and risk of schizophrenia in the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Reinisch, J M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study whether early weaning from breastfeeding may be associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. METHOD: The current sample comprises 6841 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort of whom 1671 (24%) had been breastfed for 2 weeks or less (early weaning...... odds ratio 1.73 with 95% CI: 1.13-2.67). CONCLUSION: No or breastfeeding was associated with elevated risk of schizophrenia. The hypothesis of some protective effect of breastfeeding against the risk of later schizophrenia is supported by our data....

  6. Role of Perinatal Inflammation in Neonatal Arterial Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Giraud

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the review of the literature, perinatal inflammation often induced by infection is the only consistent independent risk factor of neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS. Preclinical studies show that acute inflammatory processes take place in placenta, cerebral arterial wall of NAIS-susceptible arteries and neonatal brain. A top research priority in NAIS is to further characterize the nature and spatiotemporal features of the inflammatory processes involved in multiple levels of the pathophysiology of NAIS, to adequately design randomized control trials using targeted anti-inflammatory vasculo- and neuroprotective agents.

  7. [Perinatal HIV transmission prophylaxis in the Liege region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Y; Hoyoux, C; Dresse, M F

    1998-08-01

    In Liège, since February 1994, Protocole ACTG 076 has been followed for prevention of perinatal transmission of VIH. The pregnant women are treated by AZT during pregnancy and delivery. The newborn is also treated during 6 weeks. Following this treatment strategy, vertical transmission rate of VIH has dropped from 25.6% to 8.7%. The PCR is particulary promising for the early detection of infection in newborn, but definitive conclusion about infective status of the newborn can't be done during the first week of life. The potential role of intrapartum transmission is now under evaluation in the hope to establish the safest mode of delivery.

  8. Perinatal stroke in Saudi children: clinical features and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salih, Mustafa A.; Al-Jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Anal Y.; Al-Nasser, Mohammad N.; Abdel-Gader, Abdel-Galil M.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.

    2006-01-01

    To describe the clinical features and presentations of perinatal stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the risk factors. Patients with perinatal stroke were identified from within a cohort of 104 Saudi children who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Neuroimaging for suspected cases of stroke consisted of cranial CT, MRI, or both. During the study period, 23 (22%) of 104 children (aged one months to 12 years) were diagnosed to have had perinatal stroke. The male: female ratio was 1.6:1. Ten (67%) of the 15 children who had unilateral ischemic involvement had their lesion in the left hemisphere. The presentation of the ischemic result was within 24-72 hours of life in 13 (57%) patients, and in 6 children (26%), motor impairment was recognized at or after the age of 4 months. Nine children (39%) had seizures at presentation. Pregnancy, labor, and delivery risk factors were ascertained in 18 (78%) cases. The most common of these included emergency cesarean section in 5 cases, and instrumental delivery in other 5. Screening for prothrombotic risk factors detected abnormalities in 6 (26%) patients on at least one test carried out between 2 months and 9 years of age. Four children (17%) had low protein C, which was associated low protein S and raised anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) in one patient, and low antithrombin III in another. Low proteins S was detected in a 42-month-old boy. The abnormality in the sixth child was confined to raised ACA. The present study highlights the non-specific features by which stroke presents during the neonatal period. The data are in keeping with the potential role for inherited and acquired thrombophilia as being the underlying cause. However, the high prevalence of

  9. Studies of antimony telluride and copper telluride films electrodeposition from choline chloride containing ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catrangiu, Adriana-Simona; Sin, Ion [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Prioteasa, Paula [INCDIE ICPE-Advanced Research, Splaiul Unirii 313, Bucharest (Romania); Cotarta, Adina [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Cojocaru, Anca, E-mail: a_cojocaru@chim.upb.ro [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania); Anicai, Liana [Center of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest (Romania); Visan, Teodor [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, POLITEHNICA University of Bucharest, Calea Grivitei 132, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-07-29

    Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to investigate the deposition of antimony telluride or copper telluride from ionic liquid consisting in mixture of choline chloride with oxalic acid. In addition, the cathodic process during copper telluride formation was studied in the mixture of choline chloride with ethylene glycol. The results indicate that the Pt electrode is first covered with a Te layer, and then the more negative polarisation leads to the deposition of Sb{sub x}Te{sub y} or Cu{sub x}Te{sub y} semiconductor compounds. Thin films were deposited on copper and carbon steel at 60–70 °C and were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, energy X-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Their stoichiometry depends on the bath composition and applied potential. EDS and XRD patterns indicate the possible synthesis of stoichiometric Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} phase and Cu{sub 2}Te, Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 3}, and Cu{sub 2.8}Te{sub 2} phases, respectively, by controlling the ratio of ion concentrations in ionic liquid electrolytes and deposition potential. - Highlights: • Sb{sub x}Te{sub y} and Cu{sub x}Te{sub y} films electrodeposited from choline-chloride-based ionic liquids. • The stoichiometry of film depends on the bath composition and deposition potential. • Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2}Te, Cu{sub 5}Te{sub 3}, Cu{sub 2.8}Te{sub 2} phases were identified in X-ray diffraction patterns.

  10. Choline and methionine differentially alter methyl carbon metabolism in bovine neonatal hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Tawny L; White, Heather M

    2017-01-01

    Intersections in hepatic methyl group metabolism pathways highlights potential competition or compensation of methyl donors. The objective of this experiment was to examine the expression of genes related to methyl group transfer and lipid metabolism in response to increasing concentrations of choline chloride (CC) and DL-methionine (DLM) in primary neonatal hepatocytes that were or were not exposed to fatty acids (FA). Primary hepatocytes isolated from 4 neonatal Holstein calves were maintained as monolayer cultures for 24 h before treatment with CC (61, 128, 2028, and 4528 μmol/L) and DLM (16, 30, 100, 300 μmol/L), with or without a 1 mmol/L FA cocktail in a factorial arrangement. After 24 h of treatment, media was collected for quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and cell lysates were collected for quantification of gene expression. No interactions were detected between CC, DLM, or FA. Both CC and DLM decreased the expression of methionine adenosyltransferase 1A (MAT1A). Increasing CC did not alter betaine-homocysteine S-methyltranferase (BHMT) but did increase 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) expression. Increasing DLM decreased expression of BHMT and MTR, but did not affect MTHFR. Expression of both phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) were decreased by increasing CC and DLM, while carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) was unaffected by either. Treatment with FA decreased the expression of MAT1A, MTR, MTHFR and tended to decrease PEMT but did not affect BHMT and MTTP. Treatment with FA increased CPT1A expression. Increasing CC increased secretion of VLDL and decreased the accumulation of ROS in media. Within neonatal bovine hepatocytes, choline and methionine differentially regulate methyl carbon pathways and suggest that choline may play a critical role in

  11. Supplementation with a dietary multicomponent (Lafergin(®)) based on Ferric Sodium EDTA (Ferrazone(®)): results of an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignini, Pietro; Mangiafico, Lucia; Padula, Francesco; D'Emidio, Laura; Dugo, Nella; Aloisi, Alessia; Giorlandino, Claudio; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, iron deficiency anemia is recognized as a specific risk factor for both adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. We decided to test the hypothesis that the daily administration of Lafergin(®), a dietary multicomponent based on Ferrazone(®) (Ferric Sodium EDTA), Lactoferrin, Vitamin C and Vitamin B12, from first trimester of pregnancy until the end of gestation, may significantly reduce, in anemic women, the severity of anemia compared to controls who received ferrous sulfate or liposomal iron.

  12. Perinatal outcome in singletons after modified natural cycle IVF and standard IVF with ovarian stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelinck, Marie-Jose; Keizer, Marjan H.; Hoek, Annemieke; Simons, Arnold H. M.; Schelling, Karin; Middelburg, Karin; Heineman, Maas Jan

    Objective: Singletons born after IVF treatment are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcome, the cause of which is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of ovarian stimulation on perinatal outcome. Study design: In this single-centre retrospective study, perinatal

  13. Perinatal outcome in singletons after modified natural cycle IVF and standard IVF with ovarian stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelinck, Marie-José; Keizer, Marjan H.; Hoek, Annemieke; Simons, Arnold H. M.; Schelling, Karin; Middelburg, Karin; Heineman, Maas Jan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Singletons born after IVF treatment are at risk for adverse pregnancy outcome, the cause of which is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of ovarian stimulation on perinatal outcome. Study design: In this single-centre retrospective study, perinatal

  14. Suboptimal care and perinatal mortality in ten European regions: Methodology and evaluation of an international audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardus, J.H.; Graafmans, W.C.; Bergsjø, P.; Lloyd, D.J.; Bakketeig, L.S.; Bannon, E.M.; Borkent-Polet, M.; Davidson, L.L.; Defoort, P.; Esparteiro Leitão, A.; Langhoff-Roos, J.; Moral Garcia, A.; Papantoniou, N.E.; Wennergren, M.; Amelink-Verburg, M.P.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Background: A European concerted action (the EuroNatal study) investigated differences in perinatal mortality between countries of Europe. This report describes the methods used in the EuroNatal international audit and discusses the validity of the results. Methods: Perinatal deaths between 1993 and

  15. Neurometabolite Alterations Associated With Cognitive Performance in Perinatally HIV-Infected Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, Yvonne W.; Blokhuis, Charlotte; Cohen, Sophie; ter Stege, Jacqueline A.; Teunissen, Charlotte E.; Kuhle, Jens; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Scherpbier, Henriette J.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Reiss, Peter; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2016-01-01

    Despite treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), cognitive impairment is still observed in perinatally HIV-infected children. We aimed to evaluate potential underlying cerebral injury by comparing neurometabolite levels between perinatally HIV-infected children and healthy controls.

  16. Does a Belief in a "Just World" Affect Health Care Providers' Reactions to Perinatal Illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clyman, Ronald I.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A test was used to assess the degree to which pediatricians and nurses specializing in perinatal care believe in a just world in which good is rewarded and evil is punished. Results indicate that the cause of some perinatal problems are more likely to be attributed to parents by health providers with a greater belief in a just world. (JMD)

  17. Perinatal management and long-term cardiac outcome in fetal arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahurij, N.D.; Blom, N.A.; Lopriore, E.; Aziz, M.I.; Nagel, H.T.; Rozendaal, L.; Vandenbussche, F.P.H.A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: cardiac arrhythmias are commonly observed in the fetus, however, may have major consequences for fetal development and post natal life. AIMS: to evaluate the perinatal management and cardiac outcome of fetuses with tachy- or bradyarrhythmia. STUDY DESIGN: perinatal management, outcome

  18. Perinatal mortality: clinical value of postmortem magnetic resonance imaging compared with autopsy in routine obstetric practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderliesten, Marianne E.; Peringa, Jan; van der Hulst, Victor P. M.; Blaauwgeers, Hans L. G.; van Lith, Jan M. M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To compare postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with autopsy in perinatal deaths. To determine the acceptance and feasibility of postmortem perinatal MRI. Design Cohort study. Setting Large teaching hospital. Population Fetuses and neonates from 16 weeks gestational age until 28

  19. A nationwide population analysis of antenatal and perinatal complications among nurses and nonmedical working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Che Huang

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Our nationwide population-based study revealed increased risks of antenatal and perinatal complications among nurses compared with those among nonmedical working women. The large-scale observation of the increased antenatal and perinatal complications draws attention to the health issues faced by nursing personnel who represent one of the most important workforces in the healthcare system.

  20. MINOR NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION AFTER THE ONSET OF PUBERTY - ASSOCIATION WITH PERINATAL EVENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOORANILUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    In order to study the hypotheses that puberty is related to a decrease of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and that persisting MND is associated with perinatal factors, two groups (174 normal, 172 MND) of the Groningen Perinatal Project were followed from 12 to 14 years. At 14 years almost all

  1. Trends in perinatal health indices in the Amajuba District, KwaZulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trends in perinatal health indices in the Amajuba District, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 1990 - 2012. FS Bondi, TI Runsewe-Abiodun. Abstract. Background. In order to address the high perinatal mortality rate, South Africa (SA) commenced a number of interventions from 1995. These included the abolition of user fees, basic ...

  2. Perinatal Outcome in Patients With Pre-Eclampsia in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of pre-eclampsia and examine its influence on perinatal outcome among Nigerian women. Methods: Among 3780 deliveries over a two-and-half year period, 212 singleton infants were born after preeclamptic pregnancies. We compared the perinatal outcome with those of 636 control ...

  3. Prenatal and perinatal striatal injury: a hypothetical cause of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P.B.

    1999-01-01

    , in children who have suffered perinatal adverse events. Evidence is presented to demonstrate that the composition of metabolites in the striatum is altered, primarily in the form of an elevated level of lactate, in human neonates who have suffered various perinatal disorders, such as germinal matrix...

  4. Prenatal and perinatal risk factors and the clinical implications on autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yi-Ling; Chou, Miao-Chun; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Wu, Yu-Yu; Tsai, Wen-Che; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2018-06-01

    Prenatal and perinatal factors may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder. However, little is known about whether unaffected siblings of probands with autism spectrum disorder also share the phenomenon and whether the prenatal/perinatal factors are related to the clinical severity of autistic symptoms. We compared the frequency of prenatal and perinatal factors among 323 probands with autism spectrum disorder (mean age ± standard deviation, 10.7 ± 3.5 years; males, 91.0%), 257 unaffected siblings (11.7 ± 4.5; 42.8%), and 1504 typically developing controls (8.9 ± 1.6 years; 53.1%); and investigated their effects on the severity of autistic symptoms. We found that probands with autism spectrum disorder and their unaffected siblings had more prenatal/perinatal events than typically developing controls with higher numbers of prenatal/perinatal factors in probands than in unaffected siblings. The prenatal/perinatal events were associated with greater stereotyped behaviors, social-emotional problems, socio-communication deficits, and overall severity. We also found that six prenatal/perinatal factors (i.e. preeclampsia, polyhydramnios, oligoamnios, placenta previa, umbilical cord knot, and gestational diabetes) were associated with the severity of autistic symptoms, particularly stereotyped behaviors and socio-communication deficits. Our findings suggest that prenatal and perinatal factors may potentially moderate the clinical expression of autism spectrum disorder. The underlying mechanism warrants further research.

  5. Perinatal outcome of preterm cesarean section in a resource-limited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The relationship between perinatal outcome and anesthetic technique for preterm cesarean sections has not been explored in South Eastern, Nigeria. Objective: The objective of the following study is to evaluate perinatal outcome in preterm cesarean sections conducted under general anesthesia (GA) and ...

  6. Social inequality in fetal and perinatal mortality in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review the epidemiological literature from the past 27 years on social inequality in fetal and perinatal mortality in the Nordic countries in order to examine whether social inequalities in fetal and perinatal mortality exist, and whether there are differences between...

  7. Opioid receptor subtypes mediating the noise-induced decreases in high-affinity choline uptake in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, H; Carino, M A

    1992-07-01

    Acute (20 min) exposure to 100-dB white noise elicits a naltrexone-sensitive decrease in sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. In the present study, the subtypes of opioid receptors involved were investigated by pretreating rats with microinjection of specific opioid-receptor antagonists into the lateral cerebroventricle before noise exposure. We found that the noise-induced decrease in high-affinity choline uptake in the hippocampus was blocked by pretreatment with either mu-, delta-, or kappa-opioid-receptor antagonists, whereas the effect of noise on frontal cortical high-affinity choline uptake was blocked by a mu- and delta- but not by a kappa-antagonist. These data further confirm the role of endogenous opioids in mediating the effects of noise on central cholinergic activity and indicate that different neural mechanisms are involved in the effects of noise on the frontal cortical and hippocampal cholinergic systems.

  8. An Incidental Renal Oncocytoma: 18F-Choline PET/MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mallia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available PET/MRI is a new hybrid imaging modality and has the potential to become a powerful imaging tool. It is currently one of the most active areas of research in diagnostic imaging. The characterisation of an incidental renal lesion can be difficult. In particular, the differentiation of an oncocytoma from other solid renal lesions such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC represents a diagnostic challenge. We describe the detection of an incidental renal oncocytoma in a 79-year gentleman who underwent a re-staging 18F-Choline PET/MRI following a rise in PSA values (4.07, nadir 1.3.

  9. Therapy assessment in prostate cancer using choline and PSMA PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceci, Francesco; Castellucci, Paolo; Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, Nuclear Medicine Unit, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Herrmann, Ken [University Hospital Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); University of California Los Angeles, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hadaschik, Boris [University Hospital Essen, Department of Urology, Essen (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    While PET with non-FDG tracers (mainly choline and Ga-PSMA) has commonly been used for restaging in men with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer, as well as for primary staging, it is only recently that a few preliminary studies have addressed the possible use of PET for monitoring the response to systemic therapy of metastatic disease, especially innovative treatments such as abiraterone and enzalutamide. This article aims to evaluate the role of PET imaging with different non-FDG radiotracers for assessment of therapy in advanced prostate cancer patients. (orig.)

  10. Prostate cancer: a comparative study of {sup 11}C-choline PET and MR imaging combined with proton MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Takako; Lee, Jin; Takahashi, Nobukazu; Oka, Takashi; Shizukuishi, Kazuya; Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama (Japan); Uemura, Hiroji; Kubota, Yoshinobu [Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Kanagawa (Japan); Sasaki, Takeshi [Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Kanagawa (Japan); Endou, Hisashi [Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Prostate cancer is difficult to visualise in its early stages using current imaging technology. The present study aimed to clarify the utility of {sup 11}C-choline PET for localising and evaluating cancer lesions in patients with prostate cancer by conducting a prospective comparison with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging combined with proton MR spectroscopy. PET and MR imaging combined with proton MR spectroscopy were performed in 20 patients with prostate cancer. Correlations among the metabolite ratio of choline + creatine to citrate (Cho+Cr/Ci) on MR spectroscopy, serum PSA and maximum standardised uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of {sup 11}C-choline were assessed. The location of the primary lesion was assessed by the site of SUV{sub max} and the laterality of the highest Cho+Cr/Ci ratio and confirmed by examination of surgical pathology specimens (n=16). PET exhibited a diagnostic sensitivity of 100% (20/20) for primary lesions, while the sensitivities of MR imaging and MR spectroscopy were 60% (12/20) and 65% (13/20), respectively. Weak linear correlations were observed between SUV{sub max} and serum PSA (r=0.52, p<0.05), and between SUV{sub max} and Cho+Cr/Ci ratio (r=0.49, p<0.05). Regarding the localisation of main primary lesions, PET results agreed with pathological findings in 13 patients (81%) ({kappa}=0.59), while MR spectroscopy results were in accordance with pathological findings in eight patients (50%) ({kappa}=0.11). This preliminary study suggests that {sup 11}C-choline PET may provide more accurate information regarding the localisation of main primary prostate cancer lesions than MR imaging/MR spectroscopy. A further clinical study of {sup 11}C-choline PET in a large number of patients suspected of prostate cancer will be necessary to determine the clinical utility of {sup 11}C-choline PET in patients who clinically require biopsy. (orig.)

  11. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  12. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the diet. The intake of the postnatal HFS diet drastically

  13. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Clouard

    Full Text Available The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age, piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age, all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age, response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT. During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06, but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05 than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05, and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10. Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by

  14. An efficient and green method for regio- and chemo-selective Friedel–Crafts acylations using a deep eutectic mixture ([CholineCl][ZnCl2]3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Tran Phuong; Nguyen, Hai Truong; Hansen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    [CholineCl][ZnCl2]3, a deep eutectic solvent between choline chloride and ZnCl2, has been used as a dual function catalyst and green solvent for the Friedel–Crafts acylation of aromatic compounds instead of using the moisture-sensitive Lewis acids and volatile organic solvents. The reactions...... are performed with high yields under microwave irradiation with short reaction times for the synthesis of ketones. Interestingly, indole derivatives are regioselectively acylated in the 3-position under mild conditions with high yields without NH protection. Three new ketone products are synthesized. [Choline......Cl][ZnCl2]3 is easily synthesized from choline chloride and zinc chloride at a low cost, with easy purification and environmentally benign compounds. [CholineCl][ZnCl2]3 can be reused up to five times without loss of catalytic activity, making it ideal in industrial processes....

  15. La mortalidad perinatal según 2 fuentes de información Perinatal mortality according to 2 information sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Freitas Ramírez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la diferencia en muertes perinatales (MP ocurridas en Cataluña y su evolución según 2 fuentes de información sanitaria. Métodos: Los datos proceden de la estadística de mortalidad (Departament de Salut e Institut d'Estadística de Catalunya y del Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos de Altas Hospitalarias (CMBDAH del Servei Català de la Salut del período 2000-2003. Se describen las frecuencias totales de MP según si cumplen o no criterio legal de declaración. Resultados: La estadística de mortalidad registró un 27,2% menos de MP, un 44,77% menos de muertes fetales y un 13,5% más de muertes neonatales precoces que el CMBDAH. Estos porcentajes son menores considerando sólo los casos con criterios legales de declaración. Conclusión: Las diferencias de casos entre ambas fuentes están relacionadas con características del recién nacido: bajo peso al nacer, prematuridad y lugar en que se produjo. Los datos hospitalarios podrían mejorar la estadística de mortalidad perinatal.Objective: To evaluate differences in the number of cases of perinatal mortality in Catalonia (Spain recorded in 2 health information systems, as well as trends in this phenomenon. Methods: Data were obtained from the mortality statistics (Health Department and the Catalan Institute of Statistics and the minimum data set (MDS for hospital discharges of the Catalan Health Service from 2000-2003. The frequencies are given for the cases reported and for cases following the legal criteria for reporting. Results: The mortality statistics registered 27.2% fewer perinatal deaths, 44.77% fewer fetal deaths and 13.5% more early neonatal deaths than the MDS. These percentages were lower when only the cases following the legal criteria for reporting were considered. Conclusion: The differences between the two sources were related to low birth weight, prematurity, and the place of occurrence. Use of hospital data might improve the quality of perinatal

  16. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  17. Perinatal radiation-induced renal damage in the beagle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaenke, R.S.; Angleton, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The developing perinatal kidney is particularly sensitive to radiation. The pathogenesis of the radiation-induced lesion is related to the destruction of outer cortical developing nephrons and direct radiation injury with secondary hemodynamic alterations in remnant nephrons. In this study, which is part of a life span investigation of the effects of whole-body gamma radiation during prenatal and early postnatal life, dogs were given 0, 0.16, 0.83, or 1.25 Gy irradiation at either 55 days postcoitus or 2 days postpartum and were examined morphometrically and histopathologically at 70 days of age. Although irradiated dogs showed no reduction in the total number of nephrons per kidney, there was a significant increase in the total number and relative percentage of immature, dysplastic glomeruli. In addition, deeper cortical glomeruli of irradiated kidneys exhibited mesangial sclerosis similar to that associated with progressive renal failure in our previous studies. These findings are in accord with those reported at doses of 2.24 to 3.57 Gy and demonstrate that the perinatal kidney is affected by radiation doses much lower than previously demonstrated

  18. [Clinical studies on flomoxef in the perinatal period infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimura, T; Morisaki, N; Funayama, T

    1991-06-01

    We conducted clinical efficacy and safety tests of flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S) in the perinatal infections and obtained the following results. 1. A total of 25 patients was treated: 16 patients with intrauterine infections, 2 patients with pelvioperitonitis, 4 patients with urinary tract infections and 3 patients with other infections. FMOX was injected at a daily dose of 2-4 g for 3-15 days (6-60 g for total dose) by intravenous drip infusion, intravenous injection or their combination. 2. The clinical efficacy rate was 96.0% of 25 patients: excellent in 4 cases (16.0%), good in 20 cases (80.0%) and poor in 1 case (4.0%). Bacteriological effects obtained were: eradicated in 14/16 cases (87.5%) replaced in 3 cases. 3. There were no subjective or objective side effects, nor were any abnormal laboratory test values attributable to the drug. From these findings, we consider that FMOX treatment appears to obtain good clinical and bacteriological responses and in safe in perinatal period infections.

  19. PERINATAL TUBERCULOSIS WITH MILLIARY PATTERN IN INFANT AGED 28 DAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Savitri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal  tuberculosis  (TB was a very  rare  case.  Its  clinical manifestations  could mimic bacterialinfection. The clinical course was often fulminant and characterized by dissemination and meningitis.Its mortality was very high, could achieve 100% in untreated patient. We reported a case of infant aged28  days  admitted with  breathlessness,  fever,  and  poor  feeding.  Physical  examination  showedbreathlessness, pale, lethargy, and hepatomegaly. Chest radiograph showed a feature of milliary patternwith fine tubercles in both lung, supported with positive result on gastric aspirates for acid fast bacilli3 days respectively. Gastric aspirate culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed positive result.Patient then diagnosed with perinatal TB with milliary pattern. This condition was accompanied withsevere sepsis and meningitis. Four TB regimens (isoniazid, rifampisin, pirazinamide, and ethambutol,corticosteroid, antibiotics were given. The patient was eventually died after receiving TB therapy for 13days. [MEDICINA 2014;45:208-212].

  20. Effect of revised IOM weight gain guidelines on perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Donna R; Wall, Terry C; Guild, Camelia; Caughey, Aaron B

    2011-03-01

    We sought to examine perinatal outcomes in women with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) comparing those whose weight gain met 2009 IOM guidelines to women meeting 1990 IOM guidelines. This is a retrospective cohort study utilizing birth records linked to hospital discharge data for all term, singleton infants born to overweight, Missouri residents (2000-2006) with a BMI of 25 kg/m(2). We excluded congenital anomalies, mothers with diabetes, hypertension, or previous cesarean delivery. Fourteen thousand nine hundred fifty-five women gained 25-35 lbs (1990 guidelines); 1.6% delivered low birth weight (LBW) infants and 1.1% delivered macrosomic infants. Eight thousand three hundred fifty women gained 15-25 lbs (2009 guidelines); 3.4% delivered LBW infants and 0.6% delivered macrosomic infants. Women who gained 15-25 lbs were 1.99 (95% CI 1.67, 2.38) times more likely to have a LBW infant and 0.59 (95% CI 0.40, 0.76) times less likely to deliver a macrosomic infant. Limiting weight gain in women with a BMI of 25 kg/m(2), per the 2009 guidelines, increases the risk of LBW deliveries and decreases the risk of macrosomia but does not reduce associated adverse perinatal outcomes. Further studies should explore the optimal weight gain to reduce these outcomes.

  1. Maternal perinatal diet induces developmental programming of bone architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, M J; Grasemann, C; Cloutier, A M; Louis, L; Alm, C; Palmert, M R; Bouxsein, M L

    2013-04-01

    Maternal high-fat (HF) diet can alter offspring metabolism via perinatal developmental programming. This study tests the hypothesis that maternal HF diet also induces perinatal programming of offspring bone mass and strength. We compared skeletal acquisition in pups from C57Bl/6J mice fed HF or normal diet from preconception through lactation. Three-week-old male and female pups from HF (HF-N) and normal mothers (N-N) were weaned onto normal diet. Outcomes at 14 and 26 weeks of age included body mass, body composition, whole-body bone mineral content (WBBMC) via peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, femoral cortical and trabecular architecture via microcomputed tomography, and glucose tolerance. Female HF-N had normal body mass and glucose tolerance, with lower body fat (%) but higher serum leptin at 14 weeks vs. N-N (Pbone volume fraction was 20% higher at 14 weeks in female HF-N vs. N-N (Pbone area was 6% higher at 14 weeks vs. N-N (Pbone, supporting the hypothesis that maternal diet alters postnatal skeletal homeostasis.

  2. Midwives' perceptions and experiences of engaging fathers in perinatal services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rominov, Holly; Giallo, Rebecca; Pilkington, Pamela D; Whelan, Thomas A

    2017-08-01

    The active engagement of fathers in maternity care is associated with long-term benefits for the father, their partner, and their child. Midwives are ideally placed to engage fathers, but few studies have explored midwives' experiences of working with men. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe midwives' perceptions and experiences of engaging fathers in perinatal services. A multi-method approach was utilised. Registered midwives (N=106) providing perinatal services to families in Australia participated in an online survey. Of these, 13 also participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Descriptive analyses summarised the online survey data. The interview data were coded using semantic thematic analysis. Survey results indicated that midwives unanimously agreed that engaging fathers is part of their role and acknowledged the importance of receiving education to develop knowledge and skills about fathers. Analysis of the telephone interviews led to the identification of a range of strategies, facilitators and barriers to engaging fathers in midwifery services. Some of these were related to characteristics of midwives, factors related specifically to fathers, and several external factors relating to organisational policies. Findings from this study could inform maternity health care policies, as well the development of resources, education and ongoing professional training for midwives to promote father-inclusive practice. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent advances of genomic testing in perinatal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, David G; Yatsenko, Svetlana A; Surti, Urvashi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2015-02-01

    Rapid progress in genomic medicine in recent years has made it possible to diagnose subtle genetic abnormalities in a clinical setting on routine basis. This has allowed for detailed genotype-phenotype correlations and the identification of the genetic basis of many congenital anomalies. In addition to the availability of chromosomal microarray analysis, exome and whole-genome sequencing on pre- and postnatal samples of cell-free DNA has revolutionized the field of prenatal diagnosis. Incorporation of these technologies in perinatal pathology is bound to play a major role in coming years. In this communication, we briefly present the current experience with use of classical chromosome analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and microarray testing, development of whole-genome analysis by next-generation sequencing technology, offer a detailed review of the history and current status of non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free DNA, and discuss the advents of these new genomic technologies in perinatal medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gestational, perinatal and family findings of patients with Patau syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fabiano M. Rosa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe gestational, perinatal and family findings of patients with Patau syndrome (PS. METHODS: The study enrolled patients with PS consecutively evaluated during 38 years in a Clinical Genetics Service of a pediatric referral hospital in Southern Brazil. The clinical data and the results of cytogenetic analysis were collected from the medical records. For statistical analysis, the two-tailed Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test with Yates' correction were used, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: The sample was composed of 27 patients, 63% were male, with a median age of nine days at the first evaluation. Full trisomy of chromosome 13 was the main cytogenetic finding (74%. Only six patients were submitted to obstetric ultrasound and none had prenatal diagnosis of PS. The patients' demographic characteristics, compared to born alive infants in the same Brazilian state showed a higher frequency of: mothers with 35 years old or more (37.5%; multiparous mothers (92.6%; vaginal delivery (77%; preterm birth (34.6%; birth weight <2500g (33.3%, and Apgar scores <7 in the 1st (75% and in the 5th minute (42.9%. About half of them (53% died during the first month of life. CONCLUSIONS: The understanding of the PS patients' gestational, perinatal and family findings has important implications, especially on the decision about the actions to be taken in relation to the management of these patients.

  5. The Impact of Teenage Pregnancy on Maternal and Perinatal Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitra Ramachandra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the impact of teenage pregnancy on maternal and perinatal outcome. This is a randomized prospective clinical study carried out in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology department, BGS Global Medical College, over a period of one year from January 2015 to December 2015. In study group (Group A included a total of 200 primigravid teenage mothers(age <20 years and the control group included 200 primigavid adult mothers (20- 30years of age . The maternal status, labour progress, delivery characteristics and neonatal outcomes were reviewed and analysed. Proportion of mothers in the study group who delivered vaginally was 61.5% compared to 80.5% in the control group. Instrumental delivery rate, emergency LSCS and elective LSCS rates were higher in the study group (teenage pregnancy compared to the control group. (9.5% Vs 5%, 17% Vs 9.5%, 12% Vs 5% respectively. Anaemia, Premature Rupture of Membranes, Oligohydraminos, Post partum Haemorrhage was found to be higher among teenage mothers when compared to adult mothers. PIH, polyhydraminos were found to be higher in control group than in the study group. In regard to adverse perinatal outcomes, higher risks of intra uterine growth restriction, preterm births, stillbirths, low APGAR scores, NICU admission were higher were higher in the study group compared to the control group. In this study, we found that women with teenage pregnancies were at increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes in regard to maternal, foetal and neonatal complications as compared with adult control mothers.

  6. Bone health in children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Siberry, George K

    2013-01-01

    The long-term impact on bone health of lifelong HIV infection and prolonged ART in growing and developing children is not yet known. Measures of bone health in youth must be interpreted in the context of expected developmental and physiologic changes in bone mass, size, density and strength that occur from fetal through adult life. Low bone mineral density (BMD) appears to be common in perinatally HIV-infected youth, especially outside of high-income settings, but data are limited and interpretation complicated by the need for better pediatric norms. The potential negative effects of tenofovir on BMD and bone mass accrual are of particular concern as this drug may be used more widely in younger children. Emphasizing good nutrition, calcium and vitamin D sufficiency, weight-bearing exercise and avoidance of alcohol and smoking are effective and available approaches to maintain and improve bone health in all settings. More data are needed to inform therapies and monitoring for HIV-infected youth with proven bone fragility. While very limited data suggest lack of marked increase in fracture risk for youth with perinatal HIV infection, the looming concern for these children is that they may fail to attain their expected peak bone mass in early adulthood which could increase their risk for fractures and osteoporosis later in adulthood. PMID:23782476

  7. Children and young people with perinatal HIV in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Jesper; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens

    2016-01-01

    undertook an online survey of HIV cohort studies participating in the EuroCoord Network of Excellence to ascertain the number of perinatally HIV-infected (pHIV) patients included, to compare it with those published by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the World Health......Accurate ascertainment of the number of children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is important to plan paediatric and adolescent health services. In Europe, the first generation of perinatally HIV-infected survivors are transferring to adult care and their health needs are unknown. We...... Organization (WHO) and to assess the ability of countries to follow up pHIV patients after transfer to adult care. At the end of 2013, 16 countries in EuroCoord reported 8,229 pHIV patients in follow-up in cohorts, compared with 5,160 cumulative diagnoses reported by the ECDC in the same area. Follow-up of pHIV...

  8. Perinatal transport: problems in neonatal intensive care capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, A B; Bottomley, L; Chatfield, S; Wood, C

    2004-05-01

    To assess the quantity and nature of transfers within the Yorkshire perinatal service, with the aim of identifying suitable outcome measures for the assessment of future service improvements. Collection of data on perinatal transfers from all neonatal and maternity units located in the Yorkshire region of the United Kingdom from May to November 2000. Expectant mothers (in utero transfers) and neonates (ex utero transfers). None Quantification of in utero and ex utero transfers; the reasons for and resources required to support transfers; the nature of each transfer (acute, specialist, non-acute, into or out of region). In the period studied, there were 800 transfers (337 in utero; 463 ex utero); 306 transfers were "acute" (80% of transfers in utero), 214 because of specialist need, and 280 "non-acute". Some 37% of capacity transfers occurred from the two level 3 units in the region. Of 254 transfers out of the 14 neonatal units for intensive care, 44 (17.3%) were transferred to hospitals outside the normal neonatal commissioning boundaries. The study highlights a continuing apparent lack of capacity within the neonatal service in the Yorkshire region, resulting in considerable numbers of neonatal and maternal transfers.

  9. Diagnostic value of perinatal autopsies: analysis of 486 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neşe, Nalan; Bülbül, Yeşim

    2018-02-23

    Autopsy is a beneficial procedure to determine the cause of death and the frequency of anomalies in perinatal losses. Even in the event of an autopsy not providing any additional information, completion of the procedure confirming the clinical diagnoses gives reassurance to both clinicians and parents. Here we present a 15-year archival study based on findings of perinatal autopsies. Four hundred and eighty-six cases from our archive were reviewed and according to the findings they were divided into three subcategories; (1) miscarriages (MCF); (2) fetuses terminated (FTA) for vital anomalies detected by prenatal ultrasonography; (3) premature or term newborns died within first month of life (neonates: NN). Autopsies were documented and classified according to week/age of cases, anomalies and causes of abortion or death. Two hundred and twenty-six of 486 cases (46.5%) were in MCF group while 227 (46.7%) and 33 (6.8%) were of them in FTA and NN groups, respectively. In FTA group, the most frequent anomaly detected was neural tube defects. In NN group, prematurity related complications were the most common cause of death. The autopsy process was found valuable in 39.7% of all cases. We suggest that autopsy procedure is diagnostically valuable even in situations when there is USG findings that are confirming FTAs or there is no important major fetal or placental anomaly detected in MCFs.

  10. Methadone and perinatal outcomes: a retrospective cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cleary, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among methadone maintenance treatment, perinatal outcomes, and neonatal abstinence syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of 61,030 singleton births at a large maternity hospital from 2000-2007. RESULTS: There were 618 (1%) women on methadone at delivery. Methadone-exposed women were more likely to be younger, to book late for antenatal care, and to be smokers. Methadone exposure was associated with an increased risk of very preterm birth <32 weeks of gestation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.40-4.34), being small for gestational age <10th percentile (aOR, 3.27; 95% CI, 2.49-4.28), admission to the neonatal unit (aOR, 9.14; 95% CI, 7.21-11.57), and diagnosis of a major congenital anomaly (aOR, 1.94; 95% CI, 1.10-3.43). There was a dose-response relationship between methadone and neonatal abstinence syndrome. CONCLUSION: Methadone exposure is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, even when known adverse sociodemographic factors have been accounted for. Methadone dose at delivery is 1 of the determinants of neonatal abstinence syndrome.

  11. An outcome evaluation of a perinatal education programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfeous Rundare

    2012-07-01

    Research purpose: The Perinatal Education Programme (PEP has been introduced in the Western Cape in South Africa, and the main aim of this evaluation was to provide information regarding the effectiveness of perinatal training in a single maternity hospital in this province. Motivation for the study: There are a few evaluation studies of the PEP in different South African contexts. These evaluations have shown that the programme was effective in improving the knowledge of midwives. The current evaluation was motivated by the need for more research on the programme’s effectiveness. Research design, approach and method: A quasi-experimental design was used to determine knowledge and skills acquisition of midwives. The sample consisted of 42 midwives. Programme records and questionnaire results were used as data. Main findings: This evaluation showed that the PEP is an effective programme endorsed by participants and supervisors alike. Practical/managerial implications: This specific hospital added group facilitation to the self-study mode of the programme. This mode of study produced additional increases in knowledge, skills and group work. Contributions/value-add: The evaluation has provided sound evidence for programme managers to increase programme coverage and continue the good work already evident from the results.

  12. Prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors associated with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Hadjkacem

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify prenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD by comparing them to their siblings without autistic disorders. Method: The present study is cross sectional and comparative. It was conducted over a period of three months (July–September 2014. It included 101 children: 50 ASD's children diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria and 51 unaffected siblings. The severity of ASD was assessed by the CARS. Results: Our study revealed a higher prevalence of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors in children with ASD in comparison with unaffected siblings. It showed also a significant association between perinatal and postnatal factors and ASD (respectively p = 0.03 and p = 0.042. In this group, perinatal factors were mainly as type of suffering acute fetal (26% of cases, long duration of delivery and prematurity (18% of cases for each factor, while postnatal factors were represented principally by respiratory infections (24%. As for parental factors, no correlation was found between advanced age of parents at the moment of the conception and ASD. Likewise, no correlation was observed between the severity of ASD and different factors. After logistic regression, the risk factors retained for autism in the final model were: male gender, prenatal urinary tract infection, acute fetal distress, difficult labor and respiratory infection. Conclusions: The present survey confirms the high prevalence of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors in children with ASD and suggests the intervention of some of these factors (acute fetal distress and difficult labor, among others, as determinant variables for the genesis of ASD. Resumo: Objetivo: Identificar fatores de risco pré-natal, perinatal e pós-natal em crianças com transtorno do espectro do autismo (TEA ao compará-las a irmãos sem transtornos de autismo. Método: Este estudo é transversal e comparativo. Ele foi conduzido em um per

  13. A systematic review of perinatal depression interventions for adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Kate; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Perry, Deborah F

    2014-12-01

    Poor, adolescent, racial/ethnic minority women are at great risk for developing perinatal depression. However, little research has been conducted evaluating interventions for this population. We conducted a systematic review of preventive and treatment interventions for perinatal depression tested with adolescents, with a focus on low income, minority populations. Nine research-based articles (including one that reported on two studies) were reviewed systematically, and quality ratings were assigned based on a validated measure assessing randomization, double-blinding, and reporting of participant withdrawals. Two treatment studies were identified, both of which were successful in reducing depression. Eight prevention studies were located, of which four were more efficacious than control conditions in preventing depression. Studies sampled mostly minority, low socioeconomic status adolescents. No consistent characteristics across efficacious interventions could be identified. This review underscores the need for researchers to further investigate and build an evidence base. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuity and change in mothers' narratives of perinatal hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Anthony; VandeVusse, Leona

    2011-01-01

    (1) To broadly explore the experiences of women who chose to continue pregnancies affected by lethal fetal diagnoses and (2) to develop knowledge useful to nurses and other healthcare professionals who provide perinatal hospice (PH) care. Qualitative descriptive study using narrative analysis. Fifteen women who learned during their pregnancies of a lethal fetal diagnosis and chose to continue the affected pregnancies. Participants' stories of their PH experiences were recorded in face-to-face interviews. A qualitative approach using narrative analysis was used to identify themes and develop suggestions for care. The element of time was prevalent in mothers' stories. Some aspects of mothers' experiences continued, particularly feelings of love and connection to their babies. Mothers also reported evolving changes in their thoughts and feelings. Personal changes such as increased compassion, faith, and strength were frequently mentioned. Mothers described transient phases of highs and lows. Drawing personal meanings or life lessons was the main way mothers connected their experiences to their present lives. Mothers' descriptions of their experiences can enhance nurses' understanding of perinatal loss. Established care practices, such as birth planning and creating mementoes, were supported. Nurses can help mothers experiencing loss by elucidating and reflecting their personal meanings.

  15. The detection rate of [11C]Choline-PET/CT depends on the serum PSA-value in patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, B.J.; Souvatzoglou, M.; Tuncel, M.; Herrmann, K.; Buck, A.K.; Praus, C.; Schwaiger, M.; Schuster, T.; Geinitz, H.; Treiber, U.

    2008-01-01

    An increase of the serum PSA-level is a sensitive in vitro marker for recurrent prostate cancer. However, it remains difficult to differentiate between local, regional or distant recurrent disease. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the detection rate of [ 11 C]Choline-PET/CT and the serum PSA-level in patients with a biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer with the view towards localisation of recurrent disease. Sixty-three patients (mean age, 68.8 ± 6.9; range, 45-83 years) with biochemical recurrence after primary therapy for prostate cancer were included in the analysis. Mean PSA-levels were 5.9 ± 9.7 ng/ml (range, 0.2-39 ng/ml; median, 2.15). Of the 63 patients, 17 were under anti-androgen therapy at the time of [ 11 C]Choline PET/CT. Patients underwent a [ 11 C]Choline-PET/CT study after injection of 656 ± 119 MBq [ 11 C]Choline on a Sensation 16 Biograph PET/CT scanner. Of the 63 patients, 35 (56%) showed a pathological [ 11 C]Choline uptake. The detection rate of [ 11 C]Choline-PET/CT showed a relationship with the serum PSA-level: The detection rate was 36% for a PSA-value 11 C]Choline-PET/CT (p = 0.374). As an important result our study shows that even for PSA-values 11 C]Choline-PET/CT is 36%. Furthermore, the detection rate of [ 11 C]Choline-PET/CT shows a positive relationship with serum PSA-levels in patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after primary therapy. Therefore, in these patients, [ 11 C]Choline PET/CT allows not only to diagnose but also to localise recurrent disease with implications on disease management (localised vs systemic therapy). (orig.)

  16. Overexpression, purification and crystallization of a choline-binding protein CbpI from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, Neil G.; Riboldi-Tunicliffe, Alan; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Isaacs, Neil W.

    2006-01-01

    The choline-binding protein CbpI from S. pneumoniae has been purified and crystallized and diffraction data have been collected to 3.5 Å resolution. The choline-binding protein CbpI from Streptococcus pneumoniae is a 23.4 kDa protein with no known function. The protein has been successfully purified initially using Ni–NTA chromatography and to homogeneity using Q-Sepharose ion-exchange resin as an affinity column. CbpI was crystallized using PEG 3350 as a precipitant and X-ray crystallographic analysis showed that the crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 83.31, c = 80.29 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The crystal contains two molecules in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 55.7% (V M = 2.77 Å 3 Da −1 ) and shows a diffraction limit of 3.5 Å

  17. Electrochemical synthesis of nanosized TiO2 nanopowder involving choline chloride based ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anicai, Liana; Petica, Aurora; Patroi, Delia; Marinescu, Virgil; Prioteasa, Paula; Costovici, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 nanopowder electrochemically prepared using choline chloride based ionic liquids. • The new proposed method allowed high anodic synthesis efficiencies of minimum 92%. • High surface area of the electrochemically synthesized titania nanopowders. • Enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The paper presents some experimental results regarding the electrochemical synthesis of TiO 2 nanopowders through anodic dissolution of Ti metal in choline chloride based eutectic mixtures (DES). A detailed characterization of the obtained titania has been performed, using various techniques, including XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, SEM associated with EDX analysis, BET and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra. The anodic behavior of Ti electrode in DES has been also investigated. The photoreactivity of the synthesized materials was evaluated for the degradation of Orange II dye under UV (λ = 365 nm) and visible light irradiation. An anodic synthesis efficiency of minimum 92% has been determined. The as-synthesized TiO 2 showed amorphous structure and a calcination post-treatment at temperatures between 400 and 600 °C yielded anatase. The anodically obtained nanocrystalline oxides have crystallite sizes of 8–18 nm, a high surface area and enhanced photocatalytic effect

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of Sc in eriochrome cyanine R(chrome azurol S) - phosphatidyl choline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.; Chen, X.; Hu, Z.

    1987-01-01

    Eriochrome cyanine R(chrome azurol S) is used as a color reagent to determine Sc in the presence of phosphatidyl choline, eta = 3.7 * 10 4 (4.5 * 10 4 ). This method has been connected to extraction separation to determine Sc in the presence of rare earth elements, and good results have been obtained. Phosphatidyl choline(PC) is a biochemical reagent, which can be used as a surfactant. It has been reported that chrome azurol S(CAS) can be used to determine Be in the presence of PC but it has not been reported that eriochrome cyanine R(ECR) and CAS can been used to determine Sc in the presence of PC. This paper has put forward a method by which Sc can be determined. ECR (CAS) has been used as a color reagent and PC as a surfactant. Conditional experiments have been made and this method has been connected to extraction separation. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) extracts Sc from rare earth elements to make a determination and good results have been obtained

  19. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Casini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT, now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes.

  20. Immunolocalization of choline acetyltransferase of common type in the central brain mass of Octopus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, A; Vaccaro, R; D'Este, L; Sakaue, Y; Bellier, J P; Kimura, H; Renda, T G

    2012-07-19

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified in the vertebrate frog, is widely distributed among the animal kingdom. The presence of a large amount of acetylcholine in the nervous system of cephalopods is well known from several biochemical and physiological studies. However, little is known about the precise distribution of cholinergic structures due to a lack of a suitable histochemical technique for detecting acetylcholine. The most reliable method to visualize the cholinergic neurons is the immunohistochemical localization of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, the synthetic enzyme of acetylcholine. Following our previous study on the distribution patterns of cholinergic neurons in the Octopus vulgaris visual system, using a novel antibody that recognizes choline acetyltransferase of the common type (cChAT), now we extend our investigation on the octopus central brain mass. When applied on sections of octopus central ganglia, immunoreactivity for cChAT was detected in cell bodies of all central brain mass lobes with the notable exception of the subfrontal and subvertical lobes. Positive varicosed nerves fibers where observed in the neuropil of all central brain mass lobes.